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Sample records for surgically induced cartilage

  1. In vivo quantification of intraarticular cytokines in knees during natural and surgically induced cartilage repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Mehlhorn, Alexander; Stoffel, Fabian;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AIMS: Cartilage defects are considered to be an initial event in the progress of osteoarthritis. Reliable data about in vivo regulation of cytokines in natural and surgically induced cartilage repair are still missing. METHODS: Knee lavage fluids of 47 patients were collected prospecti......BACKGROUND AIMS: Cartilage defects are considered to be an initial event in the progress of osteoarthritis. Reliable data about in vivo regulation of cytokines in natural and surgically induced cartilage repair are still missing. METHODS: Knee lavage fluids of 47 patients were collected...

  2. Melanocortin 1 receptor-signaling deficiency results in an articular cartilage phenotype and accelerates pathogenesis of surgically induced murine osteoarthritis.

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    Julia Lorenz

    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides exert pleiotropic effects via binding to melanocortin receptors (MCR. MCR-subtypes have been detected in cartilage and bone and mediate an increasing number of effects in diathrodial joints. This study aims to determine the role of MC1-receptors (MC1 in joint physiology and pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA using MC1-signaling deficient mice (Mc1re/e. OA was surgically induced in Mc1re/e and wild-type (WT mice by transection of the medial meniscotibial ligament. Histomorphometry of Safranin O stained articular cartilage was performed with non-operated controls (11 weeks and 6 months and 4/8 weeks past surgery. µCT-analysis for assessing epiphyseal bone architecture was performed as a longitudinal study at 4/8 weeks after OA-induction. Collagen II, ICAM-1 and MC1 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Mc1re/e mice display less Safranin O and collagen II stained articular cartilage area compared to WT prior to OA-induction without signs of spontaneous cartilage surface erosion. This MC1-signaling deficiency related cartilage phenotype persisted in 6 month animals. At 4/8 weeks after OA-induction cartilage erosions were increased in Mc1re/e knees paralleled by weaker collagen II staining. Prior to OA-induction, Mc1re/e mice do not differ from WT with respect to bone parameters. During OA, Mc1re/e mice developed more osteophytes and had higher epiphyseal bone density and mass. Trabecular thickness was increased while concomitantly trabecular separation was decreased in Mc1re/e mice. Numbers of ICAM-positive chondrocytes were equal in non-operated 11 weeks Mc1re/e and WT whereas number of positive chondrocytes decreased during OA-progression. Unchallenged Mc1re/e mice display smaller articular cartilage covered area without OA-related surface erosions indicating that MC1-signaling is critical for proper cartilage matrix integrity and formation. When challenged with OA, Mc1re/e mice develop a more

  3. Cartilage Regeneration by Chondrogenic Induced Adult Stem Cells in Osteoarthritic Sheep Model: e98770

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chinedu C Ude; Shamsul B Sulaiman; Ng Min-Hwei; Chen Hui-Cheng; Johan Ahmad; Norhamdan M Yahaya; Aminuddin B Saim; Ruszymah B H Idrus

    2014-01-01

    ...), multipotent adult cells with the potentials for cartilage regenerations were induced to chondrogenic lineage and used for cartilage regenerations in surgically induced osteoarthritis in sheep model...

  4. Effect of Age-Related Cartilage Turnover on Serum C-Telopeptide of Collagen Type II and Osteocalcin Levels in Growing Rabbits with and without Surgically Induced Osteoarthritis

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    Chung-Cheng Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of age-related cartilage turnover on the serum C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II and osteocalcin (OC levels in growing rabbits with and without surgically induced osteoarthritis. Twenty-four New Zealand male 3-month-old rabbits were randomized into three operated groups (n = 6 per group, with surgically induced osteroarthritis in the right knee; after blood sampling, the knees were harvested following euthanization at 2, 3, and 6 months after surgery and a control group (n = 6, blood samples were obtained monthly between 3 and 15 months. Histomorphologically, the medial femoral condyles, particularly the central parts, harbored the most severe osteoarthritic changes among the operated rabbits. The serum levels of CTX-II and OC decreased in the controls from 3 to 11 months and then remained stable. No significant differences in the serum CTX-II and OC levels between the osteoarthritic rabbits and controls were observed. The osteoarthritic-to-normal ratios (ONRs, the ratios of serum CTX-II or OC levels in osteoarthritic rabbits to those of the controls at same ages enabled an overall assessment of osteoarthritis and age-related cartilage turnover. Elevated CTX-II ONRs were observed in rabbits with mild to advanced osteoarthritis. However, the OC ONRs were unhelpful in assessing osteoarthritic growing rabbits.

  5. Surgical correction of joint deformities and hyaline cartilage regeneration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinokurov, Vyacheslav Alexandrovich; Norkin, Igor Alekseevich

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To determine a method of extra-articular osteochondral fragment formation for the improvement of surgical correction results of joint deformities and optimization of regenerative conditions for hyaline cartilage...

  6. Cartilage repair and joint preservation: medical and surgical treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, Henning; Grün, Ulrich Wolfgang; Knutsen, Gunnar

    2011-10-01

    Articular cartilage defects are most often caused by trauma and osteoarthritis and less commonly by metabolic disorders of the subchondral bone, such as osteonecrosis and osteochondritis dissecans. Such defects do not heal spontaneously in adults and can lead to secondary osteoarthritis. Medications are indicated for symptomatic relief. Slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis (SADOA), such as glucosamine and chondroitin, are thought to prevent cartilage degeneration. Reconstructive surgical treatment strategies aim to form a repair tissue or to unload compartments of the joint with articular cartilage damage. In this article, we selectively review the pertinent literature, focusing on original publications of the past 5 years and older standard texts. Particular attention is paid to guidelines and clinical studies with a high level of evidence, along with review articles, clinical trials, and book chapters. There have been only a few randomized trials of medical versus surgical treatments. Pharmacological therapies are now available that are intended to treat the cartilage defect per se, rather than the associated symptoms, yet none of them has yet been shown to slow or reverse the progression of cartilage destruction. Surgical débridement of cartilage does not prevent the progression of osteoarthritis and is thus not recommended as the sole treatment. Marrow-stimulating procedures and osteochondral grafts are indicated for small focal articular cartilage defects, while autologous chondrocyte implantationis mainly indicated for larger cartilage defects. These surgical reconstructive techniques play a lesser role in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Osteotomy near the knee joint is indicated for axial realignment when unilateral osteoarthritis of the knee causes axis deviation. Surgical reconstructive techniques can improve joint function and thereby postpone the need for replacement of the articular surface with an artificial joint.

  7. Induced superficial chondrocyte death reduces catabolic cartilage damage in murine posttraumatic osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minjie; Mani, Sriniwasan B; He, Yao; Hall, Amber M; Xu, Lin; Li, Yefu; Zurakowski, David; Jay, Gregory D; Warman, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    Joints that have degenerated as a result of aging or injury contain dead chondrocytes and damaged cartilage. Some studies have suggested that chondrocyte death precedes cartilage damage, but how the loss of chondrocytes affects cartilage integrity is not clear. In this study, we examined whether chondrocyte death undermines cartilage integrity in aging and injury using a rapid 3D confocal cartilage imaging technique coupled with standard histology. We induced autonomous expression of diphtheria toxin to kill articular surface chondrocytes in mice and determined that chondrocyte death did not lead to cartilage damage. Moreover, cartilage damage after surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus of the knee was increased in mice with intact chondrocytes compared with animals whose chondrocytes had been killed, suggesting that chondrocyte death does not drive cartilage damage in response to injury. These data imply that chondrocyte catabolism, not death, contributes to articular cartilage damage following injury. Therefore, therapies targeted at reducing the catabolic phenotype may protect against degenerative joint disease.

  8. Surgical correction of joint deformities and hyaline cartilage regeneration

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    Вячеслав Александрович Винокуров

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine a method of extra-articular osteochondral fragment formation for the improvement of surgical correction results of joint deformities and optimization of regenerative conditions for hyaline cartilage. Materials and Methods. The method of formation of an articular osteochondral fragment without penetration into the joint cavity was devised experimentally. More than 30 patients with joint deformities underwent the surgery. Results. During the experiments, we postulated that there may potentially be a complete recovery of joint defects because of hyaline cartilage regeneration. By destructing the osteochondral fragment and reforming it extra-articularally, joint defects were recovered in all patients. The results were evaluated as excellent and good in majority of the patients. Conclusion. These findings indicate a novel method in which the complete recovery of joint defects due to dysplastic genesis or osteochondral defects as a result of injuries can be obtained. The devised method can be used in future experiments for objectification and regenerative potential of hyaline cartilage (e.g., rate and volume of the reformed joints that regenerate, detection of cartilage elements, and the regeneration process.

  9. Cartilage regeneration by chondrogenic induced adult stem cells in osteoarthritic sheep model.

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    Chinedu C Ude

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In this study, Adipose stem cells (ADSC and bone marrow stem cells (BMSC, multipotent adult cells with the potentials for cartilage regenerations were induced to chondrogenic lineage and used for cartilage regenerations in surgically induced osteoarthritis in sheep model. METHODS: Osteoarthritis was induced at the right knee of sheep by complete resection of the anterior cruciate ligament and medial meniscus following a 3-weeks exercise regimen. Stem cells from experimental sheep were culture expanded and induced to chondrogenic lineage. Test sheep received a single dose of 2 × 10(7 autologous PKH26-labelled, chondrogenically induced ADSCs or BMSCs as 5 mls injection, while controls received 5 mls culture medium. RESULTS: The proliferation rate of ADSCs 34.4 ± 1.6 hr was significantly higher than that of the BMSCs 48.8 ± 5.3 hr (P = 0.008. Chondrogenic induced BMSCs had significantly higher expressions of chondrogenic specific genes (Collagen II, SOX9 and Aggrecan compared to chondrogenic ADSCs (P = 0.031, 0.010 and 0.013. Grossly, the treated knee joints showed regenerated de novo cartilages within 6 weeks post-treatment. On the International Cartilage Repair Society grade scores, chondrogenically induced ADSCs and BMSCs groups had significantly lower scores than controls (P = 0.0001 and 0.0001. Fluorescence of the tracking dye (PKH26 in the injected cells showed that they had populated the damaged area of cartilage. Histological staining revealed loosely packed matrixes of de novo cartilages and immunostaining demonstrated the presence of cartilage specific proteins, Collagen II and SOX9. CONCLUSION: Autologous chondrogenically induced ADSCs and BMSCs could be promising cell sources for cartilage regeneration in osteoarthritis.

  10. Estimation of eighth costal cartilage in surgical timing of microtia reconstruction.

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    Moon, Il Yung; Oh, Kap Sung; Lim, So Young; Pyon, Jai-Kyong; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Bang, Sa-Ik

    2015-01-01

    There is controversy over the optimal timing of microtia reconstruction. The eighth costal cartilage, which is used to shape the helix framework, can be one of the key factors determining surgical timing of microtia reconstruction. Nevertheless, it is difficult to predict the length of the eighth costal cartilage preoperatively. The aim of the present study was to suggest clinical predictors of the length of the eighth cartilage by assessing the correlation between the actual length of the eighth cartilage and preoperative measurements of the cartilage length using three-dimensional rib-cage computed tomography (3D rib-cage CT). A retrospective analysis was performed on a total of 97 patients who underwent preoperative 3D rib-cage CT and auricular reconstruction using a rib cartilage graft between January 2010 and February 2013. The length of the eighth costal cartilage on 3D rib-cage CT was measured preoperatively, and the length of the harvested eighth rib cartilage was measured intraoperatively. We analyzed the association between the preoperative and intraoperative measured length of the eighth rib, with patient age, height, weight, and body mass index. Preoperative measurement using 3D rib-cage CT showed a high correlation with actual cartilage length. Height and weight correlated more strongly with length than with age. This study describes the usefulness of 3D rib-cage CT for preoperative measurement of the length of the eighth costal cartilage. The measurement of the eighth rib cartilage on 3D rib-cage CT could be a useful aid for reconstructive surgeons in planning microtia reconstruction.

  11. Radiation-induced chrondrocalcinosis of the knee articular cartilage

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    Collis, C.H.; Dieppe, P.A.; Bullimore, J.A.

    1988-07-01

    A case of a middle-aged man with symptomatic, localised chondrocalcinosis of the knee following irradiation is described. Cartilage damage induced by radiotherapy should be added to the list of local factors which can predispose to chondrocalcinosis.

  12. Priority of surgical treatment techniques of full cartilage defects of knee joint

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    Андрій Вікторович Літовченко

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Surgical treatment of chondromalacia of knee joint cartilage is an actual problem of the modern orthopedics because the means of conservative therapy can be realized at an initial stage only and almost exhausted at the further ones. Imperfections of palliative surgical techniques are the short-term clinical effect and pathogenetic baselessness because surgical procedure is not directed on reparation of cartilaginous tissue. For today there are a lot of transplantation techniques that are used for biological renewal of articular surface with formation of hyaline or at least hyaline-like cartilage. The deep forage of cartilage defect bottom to the medullary canal is a perspective and priority technique.Methods. The results of treatment of 61 patients with chondromalacia of knee joint of 3-4 degree according to R. Outerbridge are the base of the work. 20 patients of every group underwent microfracturization of cartilage defect bottom and subchondral forage of defect zone. 21 patients underwent the deep forage of defect zone of knee joint according to an offered technique.Result. The results of treatment with microfracturization, subchondral forage and deep forage of defect zone indicate the more strong clinical effect especially in the last clinical group where good and satisfactory results ratios in the term of observation 18 and 24 month remain stable.Conclusions. Deep forage of cartilage defects zone is the most adequate reparative technique of the surgical treatment of local knee joint cartilage defects. Owing to this procedure the number of cells of reparative chondrogenesis predecessors is realized

  13. MRI findings in injured articular cartilage of the knee correlated with surgical findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-ming; PENG Wen-jia; WU Hua; Kacher Daniel; XIA Li-ming; AI Fei; LI Feng; XIONG Wei

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a strong need for quick noninvasive diagnostic technique that can give a valid estimate of the status of the cartilage reliably,discriminating intact cartilage from various grades of impaired cartilage.The goal of this study was to assess the incidence of knee cartilage injuries and compare the accuracy of two-dimension spin echo(2D SE)and fast spin echo(FSE)(conventional MRI),three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo(3D SPGR),three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady state acquisition(3D FIESTA)MR imaging sequences with surgical examination of the articular cartilage.Methods One hundred and thirty-eight knees with history of knee trauma received conventional MRI,3D SPGR and 3D FIESTA MRI examination before surgery,and surgical examination of articular cartilage was used as reference standard.A modified version of the Noyes classification system was applied for the evaluation of the lateral femoral condyle(LFC),medial femoral condyle(MFC),lateral tibial plateau(LTP),medial tibial plateau(MTP),trochlea and patella.The incidence and distributions of different injured grades at different articular surfaces of knee were assessed.A series of assessment indeces of 3D SPGR,3D FIESTA,and the combination of the conventional MRI and 3D SPGR imaging were calculated.Results The incidence of cartilage defects(grade 2 to 4)was 22%(183/828),according to surgical examination.Grade 3 and 4 lesions were absent at the medial tibial plateau.The rates of exact match between the grading results of different MRI procedures and surgical examination were 49% of 3D SPGR,61% of 3D FIESTA,and 82% of the combination of 3D SPGR and conventional MRI.Also,the combination of 3D SPGR and conventional MR imaging provided the highest sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,positive and negative predictive values,at 71%,97%,90%,90% and 90%,respectively.Conclusions For all the articular surfaces of the traumatic knees,about one fifth(22%)were cartilage defects.Both 3D SPGR and 3D

  14. Acetabular cartilage and labral damage observed during surgical hip dislocation for stable slipped capital femoral epiphysis.

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    Sink, Ernest L; Zaltz, Ira; Heare, Travis; Dayton, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Surgical hip dislocation allows the surgeon full visualization of the proximal femur and acetabulum. It also makes it possible to directly observe the pathologic relationship between the proximal femur and acetabular rim with hip motion. The purpose of this study is to classify acetabular cartilage and labral damage that is present at the time of surgical hip dislocation for the treatment of symptomatic stable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) hips. A retrospective study was performed at 2 North American centers on patients with a stable SCFE who had a surgical hip dislocation for chronic symptoms. The severity of SCFE (slip angle) was measured as mild (0-30 degrees), moderate (30-60 degrees), and severe (60-90 degrees). The degree of acetabular and labral damage was classified in each patient according to the Beck classification used for femoroacetabular impingement. Thirty-nine hips in 36 patients that underwent open surgical dislocation for diagnosis of stable SCFE were included. The breakdown of the radiographic severity of the SCFE was 8 mild, 20 moderate, and 11 severe. Labral injury was observed in 34 of 39 hips. Using the Beck classification for labral injury, there were 21 type 1 injuries, 9 type 2 injuries, and 4 type 3 injuries. Cartilage injury was present in 33 of 39 hips. Using Beck classification for cartilage damage, there were 6 grade 0, 5 grade 1, 10 grade 2, 4 grade 3, 10 grade 4, and 4 grade 5 injuries. The average depth of cartilage damage was 5 mm (range, 2-10 mm). In this study, significant chondromalacia and labral injury was observed in hips afflicted with SCFE. Surgical hip dislocation allowed direct confirmation of the impingement of the prominent metaphysis on the acetabular labrum and cartilage.

  15. Local Morphological Response of the Distal Femoral Articular–Epiphyseal Cartilage Complex of Young Foals to Surgical Stab Incision and Potential Relevance to Cartilage Injury and Repair in Children

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    Hendrickson, Eli H.S.; Ekman, Stina; Carlson, Cathy S.; Dolvik, Nils I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Describe the local morphological response of the articular–epiphyseal cartilage complex to surgical stab incision in the distal femur of foals, with emphasis on the relationship between growth cartilage injury, enchondral ossification, and repair. Design: Nine foals were induced into general anesthesia at the age of 13 to 15 days. Four full-thickness stab incision defects were created in the cartilage on the lateral aspect of the lateral trochlear ridge of the left distal femur. Follow-up examination was carried out from 1 to 49 days postoperatively, including examination of intact bones, sawed slabs, and histological sections. Results: Incision defects filled with cells displaying fibroblast-, chondrocyte-, and osteoblast-like characteristics, potentially validating the rationale behind the drilling of stable juvenile osteochondritis dissecans lesions in children. Incisions induced necrosis within the cartilage on the margins at all depths of the defects. Sharp dissection may therefore be contraindicated in cartilage repair in young individuals. Incisions caused a focal delay in enchondral ossification in 2 foals, apparently related to the orientation of the incision defect relative to the direction of ossification. Defects became progressively surrounded by subchondral bone, in which granulation tissue containing clasts and foci of osteoblast-like cells was observed. Continued enchondral ossification was therefore likely to result in healing of uncomplicated defects to morphologically normal bone. Conclusions: Epiphyseal growth cartilage injury had the potential to exert a negative effect on enchondral ossification. Enchondral ossification exerted a beneficial effect on repair. This relationship warrants consideration in future studies of cartilage injury and repair within the articular–epiphyseal cartilage complex of all species. PMID:26069670

  16. Changes in articular cartilage in experimentally induced patellar subluxation

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    Ryu, J.; Saito, S.; Yamamoto, K.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Patellar subluxation was experimentally induced in young rabbits and the resulting cartilaginous changes were observed over a prolonged period of time to determine histological changes in the subluxated patellar cartilage.
METHODS—The tibial tuberosity in 12 week old rabbits was laterally displaced and fixed to the tibia with wire to induce lateral patellar subluxation. Pathological changes in patellar cartilage were examined for 120 weeks after surgery using computed tomography and stereoscopic microscopy.
RESULTS—Eight weeks after surgery, changes in articular cartilage consisting of horizontal splitting of the matrix were observed in the intermediate zone and were presumed to have been caused by shearing stress applied to the patellar cartilage. The cartilaginous changes caused by patellar subluxation progressed very little over the 120 weeks. Very few rabbits presented with osteoarthritic changes in the patellofemoral joint, most probably because the stress resulting from the malalignment of the patellofemoral joint was mild enough to permit recovery.
CONCLUSION—The mild, non-progressive pathological changes, in particular, basal degeneration, induced in this experiment in patellar cartilage were quite similar to the changes in articular cartilage seen in human chondromalacia patellae.

 PMID:9462171

  17. Surgical Technique: Second-generation Bone Marrow Stimulation via Surgical Dislocation to Treat Hip Cartilage Lesions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leunig, Michael; Tibor, Lisa M; Naal, Florian D; Ganz, Reinhold; Steinwachs, Matthias R

    2012-01-01

    Compared to knees, hips have more bony constraint and soft tissue coverage. Thus, repair of focal cartilage defects in hips requires more invasive and technically complex surgeries than simple arthroscopy or arthrotomy...

  18. Significance of epiphyseal cartilage enhancement defects in pediatric osteomyelitis identified by MRI with surgical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, David P. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Martus, Jeffrey E.; Lovejoy, Steven A. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Division of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Nashville, TN (United States); Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Epiphyseal cartilage enhancement defects (ED) may occur in the setting of epiphyseal osteomyelitis (OM), and its significance is uncertain. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and clinical impact of epiphyseal cartilage ED in pediatric epiphyseal OM. The 13 children involved in this retrospective review were younger than 6 years of age and diagnosed with OM. They underwent contrast-enhanced MRI and surgical exploration yielding 14 study epiphyses. Seventeen age-matched children without evidence of infection who underwent contrast-enhanced MRI in the same period yielded 28 control epiphyses. Images were reviewed for focal/global ED, correlated with cartilage abscesses and compared with surgical reports. Study and control ED were respectively present in 10/14 (71.4% - 6 global, 4 focal) and 6/28 (21.4% - 0 global, 6 focal), P = 0.0017. An analysis of ED patterns between study and control patients showed significant difference for global (P = 0.0006), but no difference for focal ED (P = 0.71). For the six study epiphyses with global ED, epiphyseal abscesses were present in two (33.3%). For the four study epiphyses with focal ED, epiphyseal abscesses were present in two (50%). For the controls, no abnormalities were found on follow-up of epiphyses with focal ED. ED are seen normally but more commonly in children with OM. ED should not be confused with epiphyseal abscesses. (orig.)

  19. Cartilage repair: A review of stanmore experience in the treatment of osteochondral defects in the knee with various surgical techniques

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    Vijayan S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage damage in the young adult knee, if left untreated, it may proceed to degenerative osteoarthritis and is a serious cause of disability and loss of function. Surgical cartilage repair of an osteochondral defect can give the patient significant relief from symptoms and preserve the functional life of the joint. Several techniques including bone marrow stimulation, cartilage tissue based therapy, cartilage cell seeded therapies and osteotomies have been described in the literature with varying results. Established techniques rely mainly on the formation of fibro-cartilage, which has been shown to degenerate over time due to shear forces. The implantation of autologous cultured chondrocytes into an osteochondral defect, may replace damaged cartilage with hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage. This clinical review assesses current surgical techniques and makes recommendations on the most appropriate method of cartilage repair when managing symptomatic osteochondral defects of the knee. We also discuss the experience with the technique of autologous chondrocyte implantation at our institution over the past 11 years.

  20. Degenerated and healthy cartilage are equally vulnerable to blood-induced damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, N.W.D.; Roosendaal, G.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Groot, J. de; Theobald, M.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Joint bleeds have a direct adverse effect on joint cartilage, leading to joint deterioration and, ultimately, to disability. Objective: To examine the hypothesis that because degenerated cartilage has a limited repair capacity, it is more susceptible than healthy cartilage to blood-induc

  1. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage

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    Nevzat Selim Gokay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg, or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg. After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P=0.044 positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders.

  2. Chondroblastoma of the femoral head disrupting the articular cartilage. Description of a novel surgical technique.

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    Givissis, Panagiotis; Agathangelidis, Filon; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Christodoulou, Anastasios

    2012-06-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign tumour. Involvement of the femoral head may often lead to a delayed diagnosis. We present the case of a 15-year-old patient with right hip pain which was first attributed to adductor tendinitis. Following aggravation of the symptoms, thorough investigation including a CT-guided biopsy, revealed the diagnosis of chondroblastoma of the femoral head. Removal of the lesion based on the techniques described in literature was not possible, mainly because the articular cartilage was breached. A novel surgical technique was used in order to address the rare location and behaviour of the tumour. This technique offered the patient pain relief and return to his previous every day and sports activities. No recurrence was seen at two years follow-up.

  3. A preliminary study of the effects of glucosamine sulphate and chondroitin sulphate on surgically treated and untreated focal cartilage damage

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    T Kamarul

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Glucosamine Sulphate (GS and Chondroitin Sulphate (CS on the healing of damaged and repaired articular cartilage were investigated. This study was conducted using 18 New Zealand white rabbits as experimental models. Focal cartilage defects, surgically created in the medial femoral condyle, were either treated by means of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI or left untreated as controls. Rabbits were then divided into groups which received either GS+/-CS or no pharmacotherapy. Three rabbits from each group were sacrificed at 12 and 24 weeks post-surgery. Knees dissected from rabbits were then evaluated using gross quantification of repair tissue, glycosaminoglycan (GAG assays, immunoassays and histological assessments. It was observed that, in contrast to untreated sites, surfaces of the ACI-repaired sites appeared smooth and continuous with the surrounding native cartilage. Histological examination demonstrated a typical hyaline cartilage structure; with proteoglycans, type II collagen and GAGs being highly expressed in repair areas. The improved regeneration of these repair sites was also noted to be significant over time (6 months vs. 3 months and in GS and GS+CS groups compared to the untreated (without pharmacotherapy group. Combination of ACI and pharmacotherapy (with glucosamine sulphate alone/ or with chondroitin sulphate may prove beneficial for healing of damaged cartilage, particularly in relation to focal cartilage defects.

  4. [Severe cartilage loss caused by metallic anchors in surgical treatment of a Bankart lesion: report of three cases].

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    Bek, Doğan; Ege, Tolga; Erdem, Yusuf; Tunay, Servet

    2015-01-01

    Currently, arthroscopic modalities in the surgical treatment of shoulder instability using suture anchors are more popular than open surgery. However, there are some complications related to the metallic suture anchors used. One of the most common complications is cartilage loss due to shallow placement of the suture anchor. Herein, we report three cases with severe cartilage loss of the humeral head due to metallic proud anchors, including one of whom requiring total shoulder arthroplasty. In conclusion, it is essential to place the suture anchors in an appropriate position and deepness. In case of any doubt, they should be removed or in non-threaded anchors, they should be inserted fully inside the glenoid with an impactor and a hammer to avoid serious cartilage loss.

  5. Tönnis stage 0 and 1 acetabular rim cartilage injuries: Incidence, grade, location and associated pre-surgical factors.

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    Más Martínez, J; Sanz-Reig, J; Verdú Román, C M; Bustamante Suárez de Puga, D; Morales Santías, M; Martínez Giménez, E

    Articular cartilage lesions have a direct effect on the success of surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence rate, location, grade, and factors associated with acetabular rim articular cartilage lesions in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. A prospective study was conducted by analysing the intraoperative data of 152 hips in 122 patients treated with hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement from January 2011 to May 2016. The prevalence rate, location, and grade were calculated, as well as the pre-operative factors associated with acetabular rim articular cartilage lesions. The mean age of the patients was 38.6 years. The Tönnis grade was 0 in 103 hips, and 1 in 52 hips. Acetabular rim articular cartilage lesions were present in 109 (70.3%) hips. The location of the lesions was superior-anterior. Independent risk factors for the presence of acetabular rim articular cartilage lesions were an alpha-angle equal or greater than 55°, duration of symptoms equal or greater than 20 months, and Tegner activity scale level equal or greater than 6. Although patients were classified as Tönnis grade 0 and 1, and 3tesla MRI reported acetabular lesions in 1.3% of cases, there was a high frequency of acetabular rim cartilage lesions. Knowledge of the independent risk factors associated with acetabular rim articular cartilage lesions may assist the orthopaedic surgeon with the decision to perform hip arthroscopy. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Joint immobilization inhibits spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration induced by a novel double-network gel implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, Kazunobu; Kitamura, Nobuto; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Onodera, Shin; Kanaya, Fuminori; Gong, Jian-Ping; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2011-02-01

    We have recently discovered that spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in an osteochondral defect in the rabbit, when we implant a novel double-network (DN) gel plug at the bottom of the defect. To clarify whether joint immobilization inhibits the spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration, we conducted this study with 20 rabbits. At 4 or 12 weeks after surgery, the defect in the mobile knees was filled with a sufficient volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue rich in proteoglycan and type-2 collagen, while no cartilage tissues were observed in the defect in the immobilized knees. Type-2 collagen, Aggrecan, and SOX9 mRNAs were expressed only in the mobile knees at each period. This study demonstrated that joint immobilization significantly inhibits the spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration induced by the DN gel implantation. This fact suggested that the mechanical environment is one of the significant factors to induce this phenomenon.

  7. Interleukin 17 induces cartilage collagen breakdown: novel synergistic effects in combination with proinflammatory cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Koshy, P.; Henderson, N; Logan, C.; Life, P; Cawston, T; Rowan, A

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether interleukin 17 (IL17), derived specifically from T cells, can promote type II collagen release from cartilage. The ability of IL17 to synergise with other proinflammatory mediators to induce collagen release from cartilage, and what effect anti-inflammatory agents had on this process, was also assessed.

  8. Biostable scaffolds of polyacrylate polymers implanted in the articular cartilage induce hyaline-like cartilage regeneration in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Tello, María; Forriol, Francisco; Martín de Llano, José J; Antolinos-Turpin, Carmen; Gómez-Tejedor, José A; Gómez Ribelles, José L; Carda, Carmen

    2017-07-05

    To study the influence of scaffold properties on the organization of in vivo cartilage regeneration. Our hypothesis was that stress transmission to the cells seeded inside the pores of the scaffold or surrounding it, which is highly dependent on the scaffold properties, determines the differentiation of both mesenchymal cells and dedifferentiated autologous chondrocytes. 4 series of porous scaffolds made of different polyacrylate polymers, previously seeded with cultured rabbit chondrocytes or without cells, were implanted in cartilage defects in rabbits. Subchondral bone was injured during the surgery to allow blood to reach the implantation site and fill the scaffold pores. At 3 months after implantation, excellent tissue regeneration was obtained, with a well-organized layer of hyaline-like cartilage at the condylar surface in most cases of the hydrophobic or slightly hydrophilic series. The most hydrophilic material induced the poorest regeneration. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between preseeded and non-preseeded scaffolds. All of the materials used were biocompatible, biostable polymers, so, in contrast to some other studies, our results were not perturbed by possible effects attributable to material degradation products or to the loss of scaffold mechanical properties over time due to degradation. Cartilage regeneration depends mainly on the properties of the scaffold, such as stiffness and hydrophilicity, whereas little difference was observed between preseeded and non-preseeded scaffolds.

  9. Characterization of enzymatically induced degradation of articular cartilage using high frequency ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töyräs, J.; Rieppo, J.; Nieminen, M. T.; Helminen, H. J.; Jurvelin, J. S.

    1999-11-01

    Ultrasound may provide a quantitative technique for the characterization of cartilage changes typical of early osteoarthrosis. In this study, specific changes in bovine articular cartilage were induced using collagenase and chondroitinase ABC, enzymes that selectively degrade collagen fibril network and digest proteoglycans, respectively. Changes in cartilage structure and properties were quantified using high frequency ultrasound, microscopic analyses and mechanical indentation tests. The ultrasound reflection coefficient of the physiological saline-cartilage interface (R1) decreased significantly (-96.4%, p<0.01) in the collagenase digested cartilage compared to controls. Also a significantly lower ultrasound velocity (-6.2%, p<0.01) was revealed after collagenase digestion. After chondroitinase ABC digestion, a new acoustic interface at the depth of the enzyme penetration front was detected. Cartilage thickness, as determined with ultrasound, showed a high, linear correlation (R = 0.943, n = 60, average difference 0.073 mm (4.0%)) with the thickness measured by the needle-probe method. Both enzymes induced a significant decrease in the Young's modulus of cartilage (p<0.01). Our results indicate that high frequency ultrasound provides a sensitive technique for the analysis of cartilage structure and properties. Possibly ultrasound may be utilized in vivo as a quantitative probe during arthroscopy.

  10. Particulate cartilage under bioreactor-induced compression and shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ning; Grad, Sibylle; Stoddart, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Our aim was to explore the effect of varying in vitro culture conditions on general chondrogenesis of minced cartilage (MC) fragments. METHODS: Minced, fibrin-associated, bovine articular cartilage fragments were cultured in vitro within polyurethane scaffold rings. Constructs were...

  11. Elevation of cartilage AGEs does not accelerate initiation of canine experimental osteoarthritis upon mild surgical damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P.A.J.M.; Degroot, J.; Barten-Van Rijbroek, A.D.; Zuurmond, A.-M.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Mastbergen, S.C.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent disease, age being the main risk factor. The age-related accumulation of advanced-glycation-endproducts (AGEs) adversely affects the mechanical and biochemical properties of cartilage. The hypothesis that accumulation of cartilage AGEs in combination with surgica

  12. Good results five years after surgical management of anterior cruciate ligament tears, and meniscal and cartilage injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osti, Leonardo; Papalia, Rocco; Del Buono, Angelo; Amato, Cirino; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2010-10-01

    In athletes with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears combined with meniscal and cartilage injuries, the goals are to restore knee laxity and relieve symptoms, while long-term goals are the return to pre-injury sport activity and to prevent onset of degenerative changes. We compared the post-operative (minimum 5 years) clinical and radiological outcomes of 50 patients, similar for ACL rupture and meniscal tears, but different for the grade of cartilage lesion. The patient population was divided into two groups similar for ACL reconstruction and surgical meniscal management. Group 1 included 25 patients undergoing microfracture management of grade III-IV cartilage lesions, while Group 2 included 25 patients with grade I-II cartilage lesions, managed by radiofrequency. Comparing pre- and post-operative status, Lachman test, pivot shift values and KT 1000 side to side difference measurements improved significantly (0.05) at the intermediate and latest assessments. At both post-operative appointments, in both groups, the average Lysholm score and IKDC ranking rates improved significantly (lesions, microfractures give excellent short-term clinical and functional improvement but do not prevent the evolution of degenerative changes.

  13. Alternative surgical treatment of paralytic lagophthalmos using autogenic cartilage grafts and canthopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedhofer, Henri; Coltro, Pedro Soler; Vassiliadis, Aneta Hionia; Nigro, Marcelus Vinícius; Saito, Fábio Lopes; Moura, Tatiana; Faria, José Carlos; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2013-08-01

    This study aims to analyze the use of autogenic auricular cartilage grafts as weight for the upper eyelid in conjunction with lateral canthopexy for patients with mild paralytic lagophthalmos. This procedure was also accompanied by elevation of the lower eyelid using the cartilage graft for moderate cases. We conducted a retrospective study including case series of 30 patients with paralytic lagophthalmos from 1997 to 2010. For mild cases, cartilage from the auricular scapha was placed in pretarsal space of the upper eyelid and cartilage from the concha was inserted in preaponeurotic space and then sutured to the levator aponeurosis in conjunction with lateral canthopexy. For moderate cases, lower eyelid was also elevated by suturing cartilage graft to tarsum and resting it by the inferior orbital rim. All patients had some degree of keratopathy before the intervention. After treatment, they presented with evident clinical improvement, reduction of eye symptoms, and resolution of keratopathy. During the mean postoperative follow-up of 37.3 months, none of the patients presented with cartilage graft exposition, reabsorption, visibility, infection, or warping. Complete eye closure was achieved in 24 (80%) patients, whereas the remaining 6 (20%) patients had residual asymptomatic lagophthalmos. The intervention using autogenic auricular cartilage grafts explained in this study was only effective for the treatment of mild and moderate cases of paralytic lagophthalmos. This outpatient surgery is associated with low morbidity and achievement of functional and aesthetic improvement.

  14. Correlation between histological outcome and surgical cartilage repair technique in the knee: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartola, Alex C; Everhart, Joshua S; Magnussen, Robert A; Carey, James L; Brophy, Robert H; Schmitt, Laura C; Flanigan, David C

    2016-06-01

    Compare histological outcomes after microfracture (MF), autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), and osteochondral autograft transfer (OATS). Literature review using PubMed MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Cochrane Collaboration Library. Inclusion criteria limited to English language studies International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grading criteria for cartilage analysis after ACI (autologous chondrocyte implantation), MF (microfracture), or OATS (osteochondral autografting) repair techniques. Thirty-three studies investigating 1511 patients were identified. Thirty evaluated ACI or one of its subtypes, six evaluated MF, and seven evaluated OATS. There was no evidence of publication bias (Begg's p=0.48). No statistically significant correlation was found between percent change in clinical outcome and percent biopsies showing ICRS Excellent scores (R(2)=0.05, p=0.38). Percent change in clinical outcome and percent of biopsies showing only hyaline cartilage were significantly associated (R(2)=0.24, p=0.024). Mean lesion size and histological outcome were not correlated based either on percent ICRS Excellent (R(2)=0.03, p=0.50) or percent hyaline cartilage only (R(2)=0.01, p=0.67). Most common lesion location and histological outcome were not correlated based either on percent ICRS Excellent (R(2)=0.03, p=0.50) or percent hyaline cartilage only (R(2)=0.01, p=0.67). Microfracture has poorer histologic outcomes than other cartilage repair techniques. OATS repairs primarily are comprised of hyaline cartilage, followed closely by cell-based techniques, but no significant difference was found cartilage quality using ICRS grading criteria among OATS, ACI-C, MACI, and ACI-P. IV, meta-analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Targeted induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress induces cartilage pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Helen Rajpar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathologies caused by mutations in extracellular matrix proteins are generally considered to result from the synthesis of extracellular matrices that are defective. Mutations in type X collagen cause metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid (MCDS, a disorder characterised by dwarfism and an expanded growth plate hypertrophic zone. We generated a knock-in mouse model of an MCDS-causing mutation (COL10A1 p.Asn617Lys to investigate pathogenic mechanisms linking genotype and phenotype. Mice expressing the collagen X mutation had shortened limbs and an expanded hypertrophic zone. Chondrocytes in the hypertrophic zone exhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and a robust unfolded protein response (UPR due to intracellular retention of mutant protein. Hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation and osteoclast recruitment were significantly reduced indicating that the hypertrophic zone was expanded due to a decreased rate of VEGF-mediated vascular invasion of the growth plate. To test directly the role of ER stress and UPR in generating the MCDS phenotype, we produced transgenic mouse lines that used the collagen X promoter to drive expression of an ER stress-inducing protein (the cog mutant of thyroglobulin in hypertrophic chondrocytes. The hypertrophic chondrocytes in this mouse exhibited ER stress with a characteristic UPR response. In addition, the hypertrophic zone was expanded, gene expression patterns were disrupted, osteoclast recruitment to the vascular invasion front was reduced, and long bone growth decreased. Our data demonstrate that triggering ER stress per se in hypertrophic chondrocytes is sufficient to induce the essential features of the cartilage pathology associated with MCDS and confirm that ER stress is a central pathogenic factor in the disease mechanism. These findings support the contention that ER stress may play a direct role in the pathogenesis of many connective tissue disorders associated with the expression of mutant

  16. Directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells into chondrogenic lineages for articular cartilage treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Lach

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increases in the number of articular cartilage injuries caused by environmental factors or pathological conditions have led to a notable rise in the incidence of premature osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis, considered a disease of civilization, is the leading cause of disability. At present, standard methods for treating damaged articular cartilage, including autologous chondrocyte implantation or microfracture, are short-term solutions with important side effects. Emerging treatments include the use of induced pluripotent stem cells, a technique that could provide a new tool for treatment of joint damage. However, research in this area is still early, and no optimal protocol for transforming induced pluripotent stem cells into chondrocytes has yet been established. Developments in our understanding of cartilage developmental biology, together with the use of modern technologies in the field of tissue engineering, provide an opportunity to create a complete functional model of articular cartilage.

  17. Effects of Balsamodendron mukul Gum Resin Extract on Articular Cartilage in Papain-induced Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjhi, Jayanand; Gupta, Maneesh; Sinha, Anvesha; Rawat, Beena; Rai, Durg V

    2016-07-01

    Context • Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of the musculoskeleton, causing functional disability among older adults. Management of OA includes conventional pharmacological treatments consisting primarily of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen, physiotherapy, and surgical procedures. The medications are not ideal therapeutic agents; NSAIDs in particular can cause serious side effects. Objective • The study was conducted to investigate the effects of Balsamodendron mukul (BDM) gum resin extract on cartilage damage and microstructural changes in the subchondral bone of rats with papain-induced, osteoarthritic knee joints. Design • The authors designed a parallel randomized, controlled study to examine the effects of 3 concentrations of BDM on OA in a murine model. Setting • The present study was undertaken at the research laboratory, Faculty of Biological Engineering, Shobhit University (Modipuram, Meerut, India). Intervention • OA was induced by intra-articular injections of 0.2 mL of 4% papain solution and 0.1 mL of 0.03 M cysteine through the patellar ligament using a 26-gauge, 1.27-cm needle. The rats in the sham group received same volume of isotonic sodium chloride solution. The rats were divided into 6 groups : (1) control group-fresh rats, with ages and genders similar to those of the other groups but with no induction of OA and no treatments; (2) sham group-rats receiving a sham induction of OA using an intra-articular injection of saline of the same volume as the papain given to all OA rats but no treatments; (3) OA group-rats induced with OA but receiving no treatments; (4) OA + BDM (10%) group-rats induced with OA that received a 10% dose of BDM; (5) OA + BDM (20%) group-rats induced with OA that received a 20% dose of BDM; and (6) OA + BDM (40%) group-rats induced with OA that received a 40% dose of BDM. Rats in the treatment groups were fed their respective doses of BDM extract for 30 d

  18. Surgical Treatment of Laser Induced Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-05

    AD-A234 849 CONTRACT NO.: DAMD17-89-C-9026 TITLE: SURGICAL TREATMENT OF LASER INDUCED EYE INJURIES AUTHORS: Leonard M. Hjelmeland, Maurice B. Landers...62787A 62787A878 BA JDA318205 11. TITLE (Include Secirity Classification) (U) Surgical Treatment of Laser Induced Eye Injuries 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP RA 3; Lasers; Eye injury ; Surgery 09 03 06 04 19. ABSTRACT

  19. Cartilage repair: surgical techniques and tissue engineering using polysaccharide- and collagen-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galois, L; Freyria, A M; Grossin, L; Hubert, P; Mainard, D; Herbage, D; Stoltz, J F; Netter, P; Dellacherie, E; Payan, E

    2004-01-01

    Lesions of articular cartilage have a large variety of causes among which traumatic damage, osteoarthritis and osteochondritis dissecans are the most frequent. Replacement of articular defects in joints has assumed greater importance in recent years. This interest results in large part because cartilage defects cannot adequately heal themselves. Many techniques have been suggested over the last 30 years, but none allows the regeneration of the damaged cartilage, i.e. its replacement by a strictly identical tissue. In the first generation of techniques, relief of pain was the main concern, which could be provided by techniques in which cartilage was replaced by fibrocartilage. Disappointing results led investigators to focus on more appropriate bioregenerative approaches using transplantation of autologous cells into the lesion. Unfortunately, none of these approaches has provided a perfect final solution to the problem. The latest generation of techniques, currently in the developmental or preclinical stages, involve biomaterials for the repair of chondral or osteochondral lesions. Many of these scaffolds are designed to be seeded with chondrocytes or progenitor cells. Among natural and synthetic polymers, collagen- and polysaccharide-based biomaterials have been extensively used. For both these supports, studies have shown that chondrocytes maintain their phenotype when cultured in three dimensions. In both types of culture, a glycosaminoglycan-rich deposit is formed on the surface and in the inner region of the cultured cartilage, and type II collagen synthesis is also observed. Dynamic conditions can also improve the composition of such three-dimensional constructs. Many improvements are still required, however, in a number of key aspects that so far have received only scant attention. These aspects include: adhesion/integration of the graft with the adjacent native cartilage, cell-seeding with genetically-modified cell populations, biomaterials that can be

  20. Hyaline cartilage formation and tumorigenesis of implanted tissues derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Taku; Yano, Fumiko; Mori, Daisuke; Kawata, Manabu; Hoshi, Kazuto; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Masaki, Hideki; Otsu, Makoto; Eto, Koji; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Chung, Ung-il; Tanaka, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising cell source for cartilage regenerative medicine. Meanwhile, the risk of tumorigenesis should be considered in the clinical application of human iPSCs (hiPSCs). Here, we report in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of hiPSCs and maturation of the differentiated hiPSCs through transplantation into mouse knee joints. Three hiPSC clones showed efficient chondrogenic differentiation using an established protocol for human embryonic stem cells. The differentiated hiPSCs formed hyaline cartilage tissues at 8 weeks after transplantation into the articular cartilage of NOD/SCID mouse knee joints. Although tumors were not observed during the 8 weeks after transplantation, an immature teratoma had developed in one mouse at 16 weeks. In conclusion, hiPSCs are a potent cell source for regeneration of hyaline articular cartilage. However, the risk of tumorigenesis should be managed for clinical application in the future.

  1. The subchondral bone in articular cartilage repair: current problems in the surgical management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomoll, A.H.; Madry, H.; Knutsen, G.; van Dijk, N.; Seil, R.; Brittberg, M.; Kon, E.

    2010-01-01

    As the understanding of interactions between articular cartilage and subchondral bone continues to evolve, increased attention is being directed at treatment options for the entire osteochondral unit, rather than focusing on the articular surface only. It is becoming apparent that without support

  2. Cartilage integrity and proteoglycan turnover are comparable in canine experimentally induced and human joint degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Intema

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The value of experimental models of osteoarthritis (OA largely depends on the ability to translate observations to human OA. Surprisingly, direct comparison of characteristics of human and experimental OA is scarce. In the present study, cartilage integrity and matrix turnover in a canine model of joint degeneration were compared to human clinical OA. In 23 Beagle dogs, joint degeneration was induced in one knee, the contra-lateral knee served as a control. For comparison, human osteoarthritic and healthy knee cartilage were obtained at arthroplasty (n=14 and post-mortem (n=13. Cartilage was analyzed by histology and biochemistry. Values for cartilage integrity and proteoglycan (PG synthesis showed species specific differences; GAG content of healthy cartilage was 2-fold higher in canine cartilage and PG synthesis even 8-fold. However, the relative decrease in PG content between healthy and OA cartilage was similar for humans and canines (-17% vs. -15%, respectively, as was the histological damage (+7.0 vs. +6.1, respectively and the increase of PG synthesis (+100% vs. +70%, respectively. Remarkably, the percentage release of total and of newly formed PGs in human and canine controls was similar, as was the increase due to degeneration (+65% vs. +81% and +91% vs. +52%, respectively. Despite differences in control conditions, the observed changes in characteristics of cartilage integrity and matrix turnover are similar in a canine model of joint degeneration and human clinical OA. The canine Groove model shows that its characteristics reflect those of human OA which makes the model appropriate for studying human OA.

  3. Knockdown of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 enhances cartilage formation by induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Brian O; Thakore, Pratiksha I; O'Connor, Shannon K; Willard, Vincent P; Brunger, Jonathan M; Christoforou, Nicolas; Leong, Kam W; Gersbach, Charles A; Guilak, Farshid

    2015-04-01

    The limited regenerative capacity of articular cartilage contributes to progressive joint dysfunction associated with cartilage injury or osteoarthritis. Cartilage tissue engineering seeks to provide a biological substitute for repairing damaged or diseased cartilage, but requires a cell source with the capacity for extensive expansion without loss of chondrogenic potential. In this study, we hypothesized that decreased expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 would enhance the proliferative and chondrogenic potential of differentiated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Murine iPSCs were directed to differentiate toward the chondrogenic lineage with an established protocol and then engineered to express a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to reduce the expression of p21. Cells expressing the p21 shRNA demonstrated higher proliferative potential during monolayer expansion and increased synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in pellet cultures. Furthermore, these cells could be expanded ∼150-fold over three additional passages without a reduction in the subsequent production of GAGs, while control cells showed reduced potential for GAG synthesis with three additional passages. In pellets from extensively passaged cells, knockdown of p21 attenuated the sharp decrease in cell number that occurred in control cells, and immunohistochemical analysis showed that p21 knockdown limited the production of type I and type X collagen while maintaining synthesis of cartilage-specific type II collagen. These findings suggest that manipulating the cell cycle can augment the monolayer expansion and preserve the chondrogenic capacity of differentiated iPSCs, providing a strategy for enhancing iPSC-based cartilage tissue engineering.

  4. Quantitative versus semiquantitative MR imaging of cartilage in blood-induced arthritic ankles: preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Andrea S. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Zhang, Ningning [Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Lundin, Bjorn [Skaane University Hospital and Lund University, University Hospital of Lund, Center for Medical Imaging and Physiology, Lund (Sweden); Hilliard, Pamela [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Rehabilitation Services, Toronto, ON (Canada); Man, Carina; Weiss, Ruth; Detzler, Garry [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Blanchette, Victor [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Hematology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Moineddin, Rahim [Family and Community Medicine, Department of Public Health, Toronto, ON (Canada); Eckstein, Felix [Paracelsus Medical University, Institute of Anatomy and Musculoskeletal Research, Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ainring (Germany); Sussman, Marshall S. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); University Health Network, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Recent advances in hemophilia prophylaxis have raised the need for accurate noninvasive methods for assessment of early cartilage damage in maturing joints to guide initiation of prophylaxis. Such methods can either be semiquantitative or quantitative. Whereas semiquantitative scores are less time-consuming to be performed than quantitative methods, they are prone to subjective interpretation. To test the feasibility of a manual segmentation and a quantitative methodology for cross-sectional evaluation of articular cartilage status in growing ankles of children with blood-induced arthritis, as compared with a semiquantitative scoring system and clinical-radiographic constructs. Twelve boys, 11 with hemophilia (A, n = 9; B, n = 2) and 1 with von Willebrand disease (median age: 13; range: 6-17), underwent physical examination and MRI at 1.5 T. Two radiologists semiquantitatively scored the MRIs for cartilage pathology (surface erosions, cartilage loss) with blinding to clinical information. An experienced operator applied a validated quantitative 3-D MRI method to determine the percentage area of denuded bone (dAB) and the cartilage thickness (ThCtAB) in the joints' MRIs. Quantitative and semiquantitative MRI methods and clinical-radiographic constructs (Hemophilia Joint Health Score [HJHS], Pettersson radiograph scores) were compared. Moderate correlations were noted between erosions and dAB (r = 0.62, P = 0.03) in the talus but not in the distal tibia (P > 0.05). Whereas substantial to high correlations (r range: 0.70-0.94, P < 0.05) were observed between erosions, cartilage loss, HJHS and Pettersson scores both at the distal tibia and talus levels, moderate/borderline substantial (r range: 0.55-0.61, P < 0.05) correlations were noted between dAB/ThCtAB and clinical-radiographic constructs. Whereas the semiquantitative method of assessing cartilage status is closely associated with clinical-radiographic scores in cross-sectional studies of blood-induced

  5. From gristle to chondrocyte transplantation: treatment of cartilage injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses the progress in cartilage repair technology over the decades with an emphasis on cartilage regeneration with cell therapy. The most abundant cartilage is the hyaline cartilage that covers the surface of our joints and, due to avascularity, this tissue is unable to repair itself. The cartilage degeneration seen in osteoarthritis causes patient suffering and is a huge burden to society. The surgical approach to cartilage repair was non-existing until the 1950s when new surgical techniques emerged. The use of cultured cells for cell therapy started as experimental studies in the 1970s that developed over the years to a clinical application in 1994 with the introduction of the autologous chondrocyte transplantation technique (ACT). The technology is now spread worldwide and has been further refined by combining arthroscopic techniques with cells cultured on matrix (MACI technology). The non-regenerating hypothesis of cartilage has been revisited and we are now able to demonstrate cell divisions and presence of stem-cell niches in the joint. Furthermore, cartilage derived from human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells could be the base for new broader cell treatments for cartilage injuries and the future technology base for prevention and cure of osteoarthritis. PMID:26416680

  6. Kartogenin induces cartilage-like tissue formation in tendon-bone junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianying Zhang; James H-C Wang

    2014-01-01

    Tendon-bone junctions (TBJs) are frequently injured, especially in athletic settings. Healing of TBJ injuries is slow and is often repaired with scar tissue formation that compromises normal function. This study explored the feasibility of using kartogenin (KGN), a biocompound, to enhance the healing of injured TBJs. We first determined the effects of KGN on the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and patellar tendon stem/progenitor cells (PTSCs) in vitro. KGN enhanced cell proliferation in both cell types in a concentration-dependent manner and induced chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells, as demonstrated by high expression levels of chondrogenic markers aggrecan, collagen II and Sox-9. Besides, KGN induced the formation of cartilage-like tissues in cell cultures, as observed through the staining of abundant proteoglycans, collagen II and osteocalcin. When injected into intact rat patellar tendons in vivo, KGN induced cartilage-like tissue formation in the injected area. Similarly, when KGN was injected into experimentally injured rat Achilles TBJs, wound healing in the TBJs was enhanced, as evidenced by the formation of extensive cartilage-like tissues. These results suggest that KGN may be used as an effective cell-free clinical therapy to enhance the healing of injured TBJs.

  7. Leptin produced by joint white adipose tissue induces cartilage degradation via upregulation and activation of matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Wang; Litherland, Gary J; Elias, Martina S; Kitson, Gareth I; Cawston, Tim E; Rowan, Andrew D; Young, David A

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effect of leptin on cartilage destruction. Collagen release was assessed in bovine cartilage explant cultures, while collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activities in culture supernatants were determined by bioassay and gelatin zymography. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) was analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Signalling pathway activation was studied by immunoblotting. Leptin levels in cultured osteoarthritic joint infrapatellar fat pad or peri-enthesal deposit supernatants were measured by immunoassay. Leptin, either alone or in synergy with IL-1, significantly induced collagen release from bovine cartilage by upregulating collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activity. In chondrocytes, leptin induced MMP1 and MMP13 expression with a concomitant activation of STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, MAPK (JNK, Erk, p38), Akt and NF-κB signalling pathways. Selective inhibitor blockade of PI3K, p38, Erk and Akt pathways significantly reduced MMP1 and MMP13 expression in chondrocytes, and reduced cartilage collagen release induced by leptin or leptin plus IL-1. JNK inhibition had no effect on leptin-induced MMP13 expression or leptin plus IL-1-induced cartilage collagen release. Conditioned media from cultured white adipose tissue (WAT) from osteoarthritis knee joint fat pads contained leptin, induced cartilage collagen release and increased MMP1 and MMP13 expression in chondrocytes; the latter being partly blocked with an anti-leptin antibody. Leptin acts as a pro-inflammatory adipokine with a catabolic role on cartilage metabolism via the upregulation of proteolytic enzymes and acts synergistically with other pro-inflammatory stimuli. This suggests that the infrapatellar fat pad and other WAT in arthritic joints are local producers of leptin, which may contribute to the inflammatory and degenerative processes in cartilage catabolism, providing a mechanistic link between obesity and osteoarthritis.

  8. Berberine prevents nitric oxide-induced rat chondrocyte apoptosis and cartilage degeneration in a rat osteoarthritis model via AMPK and p38 MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Shi-Qing; Yu, Ling; He, Bin; Wu, Shi-Hao; Zhao, Qi; Xia, Shao-Qiang; Mei, Hong-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Chondrocyte apoptosis is an important mechanism involved in osteoarthritis (OA). Berberine (BBR), a plant alkaloid derived from Chinese medicine, is characterized by multiple pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. This study aimed to evaluate the chondroprotective effect and underlying mechanisms of BBR on sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-stimulated chondrocyte apoptosis and surgically-induced rat OA model. The in vitro results revealed that BBR suppressed SNP-stimulated chondrocyte apoptosis as well as cytoskeletal remodeling, down-regulated expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and caspase-3, and up-regulated Bcl-2/Bax ratio and Type II collagen (Col II) at protein levels, which were accompanied by increased adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and decreased phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic effect of BBR was blocked by AMPK inhibitor Compound C (CC) and adenosine-9-β-D-arabino-furanoside (Ara A), and enhanced by p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. In vivo experiment suggested that BBR ameliorated cartilage degeneration and exhibited an anti-apoptotic effect on articular cartilage in a rat OA model, as demonstrated by histological analyses, TUNEL assay and immunohistochemical analyses of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax expressions. These findings suggest that BBR suppresses SNP-stimulated chondrocyte apoptosis and ameliorates cartilage degeneration via activating AMPK signaling and suppressing p38 MAPK activity.

  9. Association between expression of the bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 7 in the repair of circumscribed cartilage lesions with clinical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Niemeyer, Philipp; Zwingmann, Jörn

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although there is much known about the role of BMPs in cartilage metabolism reliable data about the in vivo regulation in natural and surgically induced cartilage repair are still missing. METHODS: Lavage fluids of knee joints of 47 patients were collected during surgical therapy. 5...

  10. Electromechanical Assessment of Human Knee Articular Cartilage with Compression-Induced Streaming Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Christoph; Ricklefs, Marcel; Willbold, Elmar; Hurschler, Christof; Abedian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    To assess the electromechanical properties of human knee articular cartilage with compression-induced streaming potentials for reliability among users and correlation with macroscopic and histological evaluation tools and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content. Streaming potentials are induced in cartilage in response to loading when mobile positive ions in the interstitial fluid temporarily move away from negatively charged proteoglycans. Streaming potential integrals (SPIs) were measured with an indentation probe on femoral condyles of 10 human knee specimens according to a standardized location scheme. Interobserver reliability was measured using an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The learning curves of 3 observers were evaluated by regression analysis. At each SPI measurement location the degradation level of the tissue was determined by means of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) score, Mankin score, and sGAG content. The computed ICC was 0.77 (0.70-0.83) indicating good to excellent linear agreement of SPI values among the 3 users. A significant positive linear correlation of the learning index values was observed for 2 of the 3 users. Statistically significant negative correlations between SPI and both ICRS and Mankin scores were observed (r = 0.502, P < 0.001, and r = 0.255, P = 0.02, respectively). No correlation was observed between SPI and sGAG content (r = 0.004, P = 0.973). SPI values may be used as a quantitative means of cartilage evaluation with sufficient reliability among users. Due to the significant learning curve, adequate training should be absolved before routine use of the technique.

  11. Combined role of type IX collagen and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein in cartilage matrix assembly: Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein counteracts type IX collagen-induced limitation of cartilage collagen fibril growth in mouse chondrocyte cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blumbach, K.; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Y.M.; Groot, J. de; Paulsson, M.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van; Zaucke, F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Defects in the assembly and composition of cartilage extracellular matrix are likely to result in impaired matrix integrity and increased susceptibility to cartilage degeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the functional interaction of the collagen fibril-associated proteins

  12. Combined role of type IX collagen and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein in cartilage matrix assembly: Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein counteracts type IX collagen-induced limitation of cartilage collagen fibril growth in mouse chondrocyte cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blumbach, K.; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Y.M.; Groot, J. de; Paulsson, M.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van; Zaucke, F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Defects in the assembly and composition of cartilage extracellular matrix are likely to result in impaired matrix integrity and increased susceptibility to cartilage degeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the functional interaction of the collagen fibril-associated proteins

  13. Multiparametric MRI of Epiphyseal Cartilage Necrosis (Osteochondrosis with Histological Validation in a Goat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luning Wang

    Full Text Available To evaluate multiple MRI parameters in a surgical model of osteochondrosis (OC in goats.Focal ischemic lesions of two different sizes were induced in the epiphyseal cartilage of the medial femoral condyles of goats at 4 days of age by surgical transection of cartilage canal blood vessels. Goats were euthanized and specimens harvested 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 and 10 weeks post-op. Ex vivo MRI scans were conducted at 9.4 Tesla for mapping the T1, T2, T1ρ, adiabatic T1ρ and TRAFF relaxation times of articular cartilage, unaffected epiphyseal cartilage, and epiphyseal cartilage within the area of the induced lesion. After MRI scans, safranin O staining was conducted to validate areas of ischemic necrosis induced in the medial femoral condyles of six goats, and to allow comparison of MRI findings with the semi-quantitative proteoglycan assessment in corresponding safranin O-stained histological sections.All relaxation time constants differentiated normal epiphyseal cartilage from lesions of ischemic cartilage necrosis, and the histological staining results confirmed the proteoglycan (PG loss in the areas of ischemia. In the scanned specimens, all of the measured relaxation time constants were higher in the articular than in the normal epiphyseal cartilage, consistently allowing differentiation between these two tissues.Multiparametric MRI provided a sensitive approach to discriminate between necrotic and viable epiphyseal cartilage and between articular and epiphyseal cartilage, which may be useful for diagnosing and monitoring OC lesions and, potentially, for assessing effectiveness of treatment interventions.

  14. Flavonoid Compound Icariin Activates Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α in Chondrocytes and Promotes Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Wang

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage has poor capability for repair following trauma or degenerative pathology due to avascular property, low cell density and migratory ability. Discovery of novel therapeutic approaches for articular cartilage repair remains a significant clinical need. Hypoxia is a hallmark for cartilage development and pathology. Hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α has been identified as a key mediator for chondrocytes to response to fluctuations of oxygen availability during cartilage development or repair. This suggests that HIF-1α may serve as a target for modulating chondrocyte functions. In this study, using phenotypic cellular screen assays, we identify that Icariin, an active flavonoid component from Herba Epimedii, activates HIF-1α expression in chondrocytes. We performed systemic in vitro and in vivo analysis to determine the roles of Icariin in regulation of chondrogenesis. Our results show that Icariin significantly increases hypoxia responsive element luciferase reporter activity, which is accompanied by increased accumulation and nuclear translocation of HIF-1α in murine chondrocytes. The phenotype is associated with inhibiting PHD activity through interaction between Icariin and iron ions. The upregulation of HIF-1α mRNA levels in chondrocytes persists during chondrogenic differentiation for 7 and 14 days. Icariin (10-6 M increases the proliferation of chondrocytes or chondroprogenitors examined by MTT, BrdU incorporation or colony formation assays. Icariin enhances chondrogenic marker expression in a micromass culture including Sox9, collagen type 2 (Col2α1 and aggrecan as determined by real-time PCR and promotes extracellular matrix (ECM synthesis indicated by Alcian blue staining. ELISA assays show dramatically increased production of aggrecan and hydroxyproline in Icariin-treated cultures at day 14 of chondrogenic differentiation as compared with the controls. Meanwhile, the expression of chondrocyte catabolic

  15. Aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-3 expressions in the temporomandibular joint condylar cartilage after an experimentally induced osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Juan-hong; MA Xu-chen; LI Zhi-min; WU Deng-cheng

    2007-01-01

    Background Over 70% of the total tissue weight in the cartilage matrix consists of water,and the early-stage osteoarthritic cartilage is characterized by swelling.Water transport in the cartilage matrix and across the membranes of chondrocytes may be important in normal and pathological conditions of cartilage.The purpose of this study was to identify aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and aquaporin-3 (AQP3) expressions in the mandibular condylar cartilage after experimentally induced osteoarthritis(OA)in rats.Methods An experimental temporomandibular joint OA was induced by partial discectomy in rats.The pathological characteristics of the normal,early-stage,and late-stage osteoarthritic TMJ cartilages were verified by histological techniques.The AQP1 and AQP3 gene expressions in the normal and osteoarthritic cartilages were measured using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR analysis.The cartilage sections were incubated in primary polyclonal antibodies to AQP3;immunofluorescent microscopy was used to examine the AQP3 expression shown by its protein level.Results The mRNA expression levels of AQP1 and AQP3,analyzed using quantitative PCR,revealed that AQP3 mRNA was highly up-regulated in the OA cartilage,which was considered significant.There was no notable difference in the expression of AQP1 mRNA between OA and normal controls.With the progressing of the OA,the localization of the AQP3 protein was quite different from that of the normal cartilage.Cormpared to the normal cartilage,the expressions of AQP3 protein were observed mainly in the proliferative zone and the upper mid-zone chondrocytes at the early-stage of OA,and were observed to appear frequently throughout the mid-and deep zone during the late-stage of OA.Conclusions The high expression of AQP3 mRNA in the OA cartilage and the different localization of the AQP3 protein suggest that it may play a particular role in OA pathogenesis.Further study of AQP3 function may provide new insight into the

  16. Prolonged upright posture induces calcified hypertrophy in the cartilage end plate in rat lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qin; Liang, Qian-Qian; Wan, Chao; Hou, Wei; Li, Chen-Guang; Zhao, Yong-Jian; Lu, Sheng; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2011-11-15

    Both forelimbs of rats were amputated and these rats were kept in the custom-made cages to keep prolonged and repeated upright posture. Changes of bone were observed in the lumbar vertebrae at three different time points after the surgery. To investigate the effect of prolonged and repeated upright posture on the cartilage end plate of rat lumbar vertebrae. Previous studies show calcified hypertrophy is related to mechanical stress, but there are no clear evidences to indicate whether or not long-term and repeated assumption of the upright posture could result in calcified hypertrophy in cartilage end plate of rat lumbar spine. The forelimbs of 30 rats were amputated when they were 1 month old. These rats were kept in the custom-made cages and were forced to stand upright on their hind-limbs and tails to obtain water and food. Normal rats of the same ages kept in regular cages were used as control. The rats were killed at 5, 7, and 9 months after the surgery and lumbar vertebrae samples were harvested for micro-CT, histologic, and immunohistochemical studies. Total RNA isolated from these samples were used for real-time RT-PCR of type X collagen (Col10α1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Micro-CT showed increased inner part of cartilage end plate. Histologic revealed peripheral hypertrophy of disc after the surgery. Immunostaining and real-time RT-PCR showed increased protein and mRNA expression of type X collagen, VEGF, and TGF-β1. Prolonged upright posture induces cartilage end plate calcification and hypertrophy in rat lumbar spine.

  17. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for bone and cartilage differentiation - ex vivo study as a prospect for a laser surgery feedback mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehari, Fanuel; Rohde, Maximilian; Knipfer, Christian; Kanawade, Rajesh; Klämpfl, Florian; Adler, Werner; Stelzle, Florian; Schmidt, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Laser surgery enables for very accurate, fast and clean modeling of tissue. The specific and controlled cutting and ablation of tissue, however, remains a central challenge in the field of clinical laser applications. The lack of information on what kind of tissue is being ablated at the bottom of the cut may lead to iatrogenic damage of structures that were meant to be preserved. One such example is the shaping or removal of diseased cartilaginous and bone tissue in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Diseases of the TMJ can induce deformation and perforation of the cartilaginous discus articularis, as well as alterations to the cartilaginous surface of the condyle or even the bone itself. This may result in restrictions of movement and pain. The aim of a surgical intervention ranges from specific ablation and shaping of diseased cartilage, bone or synovial tissues to extensive removal of TMJ structures. One approach to differentiate between these tissues is to use Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The ultimate goal is a LIBS guided feedback control system for surgical laser systems that enables real-time tissue identification for tissue specific ablation. In the presented study, the authors focused on the LIBS based differentiation between cartilage tissue and cortical bone tissue using an ex-vivo pig model.

  18. The effects of physical activity on apoptosis and lubricin expression in articular cartilage in rats with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Loreto, Carla; Leonardi, Rosalia; Castorina, Sergio; Giunta, Salvatore; Carnazza, Maria Luisa; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Pichler, Karin; Weinberg, Annelie Martina

    2013-05-01

    Glucocorticoids are considered the most powerful anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating drugs. However, a number of side-effects are well documented in different diseases, including articular cartilage, where increases or decreases in the synthesis of hormone-dependent extracellular matrix components are seen. The objective of this study has been to test the effects of procedures or drugs affecting bone metabolism on articular cartilage in rats with prednisolone-induced osteoporosis and to evaluate the outcomes of physical activity with treadmill and vibration platform training on articular cartilage. The animals were divided into 5 groups, and bone and cartilage evaluations were performed using whole-body scans and histomorphometric analysis. Lubricin and caspase-3 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis and biochemical analysis. These results confirm the beneficial effect of physical activity on the articular cartilage. The effects of drug therapy with glucocorticoids decrease the expression of lubricin and increase the expression of caspase-3 in the rats, while after physical activity the values return to normal compared to the control group. Our findings suggest that it might be possible that mechanical stimulation in the articular cartilage could induce the expression of lubricin, which is capable of inhibiting caspase-3 activity, preventing chondrocyte death. We can assume that the physiologic balance between lubricin and caspase-3 could maintain the integrity of cartilage. Therefore, in certain diseases such as osteoporosis, mechanical stimulation could be a possible therapeutic treatment. With our results we can propose the hypothesis that physical activity could also be used as a therapeutic treatment for cartilage disease such as osteoarthritis.

  19. Transforming growth factor-beta1 inhibits tissue engineering cartilage absorption via inducing the generation of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chichi; Bi, Wei; Gong, Yiming; Ding, Xiaojun; Guo, Xuehua; Sun, Jian; Cui, Lei; Yu, Youcheng

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore the mechanisms of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 inhibiting the absorption of tissue engineering cartilage. We transfected TGF-β1 gene into bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and co-cultured with interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and CD4(+) CD25(-) T lymphocytes. We then characterized the morphological changes, apoptosis and characterization of chondrogenic-committed cells from TGF-β1(+) BMMSCs and explored their mechanisms. Results showed that BMMSCs apoptosis and tissue engineering cartilage absorption in the group with added IFN-γ and TNF-α were greater than in the control group. In contrast, there was little BMMSC apoptosis and absorption by tissue engineering cartilage in the group with added CD4(+) CD25(-) T lymphocytes; Foxp3(+) T cells and CD25(+) CD39(+) T cells were found. In contrast, no type II collagen or Foxp3(+) T cells or CD25(+) CD39(+) T cells was found in the TGF-β1(-) BMMSC group. The data suggest that IFN-γ and TNF-α induced BMMSCs apoptosis and absorption of tissue engineering cartilage, but the newborn regulatory T (Treg) cells inhibited the function of IFN-γ and TNF-α and protected BMMSCs and tissue engineering cartilage. TGF-β1not only played a cartilage inductive role, but also inhibited the absorption of tissue engineering cartilage. The pathway proposed in our study may simulate the actual reaction procedure after implantation of BMMSCs and tissue engineering cartilage in vivo. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Influence of Oblique Angle Forced Exercise in Surgically Destabilized Stifle Joints Is Synergistic with Bone, but Antagonistic with Cartilage in an Ovine Model of Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Rachel J; Mason, Holly M; Yeip, Gavin; Merchant, Samer S; Olsen, Aaron L; Stott, Rusty D; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Bressel, Eadric; Mason, Jeffrey B

    2017-01-01

    Large animal models of osteoarthritis are a necessary testing ground for FDA approval of human medicine applications. Sheep models have advantages over other available large animals, but development and progression of osteoarthritis in sheep is exceedingly slow, which handicaps progress in development of potential treatments. We combined oblique angle forced exercise to increase stress on the stifle, with surgical destabilization to hasten the development of osteoarthritis in ewes. Methods for early detection of clinical signs included radiography, urine, and serum biomarker assays and gait analysis and ex vivo we used microcomputed tomography and macroscopic joint analysis. Our model was able to produce clinically detectable signs of osteoarthritis in a relatively short period (14 weeks). Changes in bone were highly correlated between microcomputed tomography and radiographic analysis and changes in cartilage correlated well between urinary glycosaminoglycan levels and serum aggrecanase analyses. Exercise improved the negative effects of destabilization in bone but exacerbated the negative effects of destabilization in cartilage. These observations suggest that we may need to consider treatments for bone and cartilage separately. These results represent an improved large animal model of osteoarthritis with rapid onset of disease and superior detection of bone and soft tissue changes.

  1. Laser-induced cartilage damage: an ex-vivo model using confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz, Martin; Zueger, Benno J.; Monin, D.; Weiler, C.; Mainil-Varlet, P. M.; Weber, Heinz P.; Schaffner, Thomas

    1999-06-01

    Although there is an increasing popularity of lasers in orthopedic surgery, there is a growing concern about negative side effects of this therapy e.g. prolonged restitution time, radiation damage to adjacent cartilage or depth effects like bone necrosis. Despite case reports and experimental investigations over the last few years little is known about the extent of acute cartilage damage induced by different lasers types and energies. Histological examination offers only limited insights in cell viability and metabolism. Ho:YAG and Er:YAG lasers emitting at 2.1 micrometer and 2.94 micrometer, respectively, are ideally suited for tissue treatment because these wavelengths are strongly absorbed in water. The Purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of laser type and energy on chondrocyte viability in an ex vivo model. Free running Er:YAG (E equals 100 and 150 mJ) and Ho:YAG (E equals 500 and 800 mJ) lasers were used at different energy levels using a fixed pulse length of 400 microseconds. The energy was delivered at 8 Hz through optical fibers. Fresh bovine hyaline cartilage samples were mounted in a water bath at room temperature and the fiber was positioned at 30 degree and 180 degree angles relative to the tissue surface. After laser irradiation the samples were assessed by a life-dead cell viability test using a confocal microscope and by standard histology. Thermal damage was much deeper with Ho:YAG (up to 1800 micrometer) than with the Er:YAG laser (up to 70 micrometer). The cell viability test revealed a damage zone about twice the one determined by standard histology. Confocal microscopy is a powerful tool for assessing changes in tissue structure after laser treatment. In addition this technique allows to quantify these alterations without necessitating time consuming and expensive animal experiments.

  2. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein deficiency promotes early onset and the chronic development of collagen-induced arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Hui; Carlsen, Stefan; Nandakumar, Kutty;

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a homopentameric protein in cartilage. The development of arthritis, like collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), involves cartilage as a target tissue. We have investigated the development of CIA in COMP-deficient mice. METHODS: COMP......-deficient mice in the 129/Sv background were backcrossed for 10 generations against B10.Q mice, which are susceptible to chronic CIA. COMP-deficient and wild-type mice were tested for onset, incidence, and severity of arthritis in both the collagen and collagen antibody-induced arthritis models. Serum anti......-collagen II and anti-COMP antibodies as well as serum COMP levels in arthritic and wild-type mice were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: COMP-deficient mice showed a significant early onset and increase in the severity of CIA in the chronic phase, whereas collagen II-antibody titers were...

  3. Label-free characterization of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis model mice by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Yusuke; Akehi, Mayu; Kiyomatsu, Hiroshi; Miura, Hiromasa

    2017-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is very common joint disease in the aging population. Main symptom of OA is accompanied by degenerative changes of articular cartilage. Cartilage contains mostly type II collagen and proteoglycans, so it is difficult to access the quality and morphology of cartilage tissue in situ by conventional diagnostic tools (X-ray, MRI and echography) directly or indirectly. Raman spectroscopy is a label-free technique which enables to analyze molecular composition in degenerative cartilage. In this study, we generated an animal OA model surgically induced by knee joint instability, and the femurs were harvested at two weeks after the surgery. We performed Raman spectroscopic analysis for the articular cartilage of distal femurs in OA side and unaffected side in each mouse. In the result, there is no gross findings in the surface of the articular cartilage in OA. On the other hand, Raman spectral data of the articular cartilage showed drastic changes in comparison between OA and control side. The major finding of this study is that the relative intensity of phosphate band (960 cm-1) increases in the degenerative cartilage. This may be the result of exposure of subchondral bone due to thinning of the cartilage layer. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopic technique is sufficient to characterize articular cartilage in OA as a pilot study for Raman application in cartilage degeneration and regeneration using animal models and human subjects.

  4. PTH [1-34]-induced alterations predispose the mandibular condylar cartilage to mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, E H; O'Brien, M H; Gutierrez, T; Lima, A; Nanda, R; Yadav, S

    2017-06-01

    To study the effects of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH [1-34]) on the mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) and subchondral bone in adult female mice. Twenty-two, 20-week-old female mice were used for in vivo experiments. The experimental mice (n=11) received daily intraperitoneal injections of PTH [1-34] for 3 weeks, while control mice (n=11) received intraperitoneal injections of 0.9% saline solution. Mice were euthanized and then micro-computed tomography (micro-CT); histology and immunostaining were carried out to assess the response. Intermittent PTH [1-34] led to early MCC breakdown and surface irregularities. Micro-CT analyses indicated that PTH [1-34] treatment led to increased bone volume fraction, tissue density and trabecular thickness, while decreasing the trabecular spacing. Histological analyses showed decreased proteoglycan secretion, increased bone turnover (TRAP staining) and increased mineralization. Furthermore, PTH [1-34] treatment showed increased apoptosis of the cells. Our immunohistochemistry showed increased expression of pSMAD158 in the MCC and subchondral bone with PTH administration, whereas sclerostin (SOST) expression was decreased. Intermittent PTH [1-34] results in early mineralization of the MCC, which may result in cartilage degeneration. Our results identified a novel mechanism by which PTH [1-34] induces alteration in the microarchitecture of the MCC and the subchondral bone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Chemical changes demonstrated in cartilage by synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy in an antibody-induced murine model of rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxford, Allyson M.; Selva Nandakumar, Kutty; Holmdahl, Rikard; Tobin, Mark J.; McNaughton, Don; Rowley, Merrill J.

    2011-06-01

    Collagen antibody-induced arthritis develops in mice following passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to type II collagen (CII) and is attributed to effects of proinflammatory immune complexes, but transferred mAbs may react directly and damagingly with CII. To determine whether such mAbs cause cartilage damage in vivo in the absence of inflammation, mice lacking complement factor 5 that do not develop joint inflammation were injected intravenously with two arthritogenic mAbs to CII, M2139 and CIIC1. Paws were collected at day 3, decalcified, paraffin embedded, and 5-μm sections were examined using standard histology and synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). None of the mice injected with mAb showed visual or histological evidence of inflammation but there were histological changes in the articular cartilage including loss of proteoglycan and altered chondrocyte morphology. Findings using FTIRM at high lateral resolution revealed loss of collagen and the appearance of a new peak at 1635 cm-1 at the surface of the cartilage interpreted as cellular activation. Thus, we demonstrate the utility of synchrotron FTIRM for examining chemical changes in diseased cartilage at the microscopic level and establish that arthritogenic mAbs to CII do cause cartilage damage in vivo in the absence of inflammation.

  6. The Relationship of the Expression of Estrogen Receptor in Cartilage Cell and Osteoarthritis Induced by Bilateral Ovariectomy in Guinea Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Guofeng; LI Jianmin; LIU Xinyu; LIU Qiaohui; LIU Chunmei

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the estrogen receptor(ER) expression in cartilage cell in the development of osteoarthritis induced by bilateral ovariectomy in guinea pig and to find their relationship. 30two-month-old female guinea pigs were randomly divided into two groups (n= 15 each): sham operation (control)group and ovariectomized group (OVX); Scanning electorne microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were obtained to analysis the cartilage degeneration of the hind limb knee joint after 6 and 12 weeks of ovariectomy. Dextran-Coated Charcoal (DCC) was taken to quantitively detect the expression of ER. The serum levels of estrogen and gestone were deteeted by immune contest assay. The results showed that ER do exist in the cartilages of the guinea pigs, with higher expression in the control group than in OVX group at the same time point (P<0. 05). It was increased also at 12 th week after operation than that of preoperation. The blood serum levels of estrogen and gestone showed a similar tendency to the expression of ER. Joint cartilage degeneration detected by SEM and TEM could be found at 6 th week, but severe degenerative lesions at 12 th week in the OVX group compared with the control group (P<0.01). The data suggested that bilateral ovariectomy in guinea pig lead to severe osteoarthritis which mighgt be related to the lower serum level of estrogen and the downregulation of the expression of ER in the cartilage also.

  7. Effect of Water Content on Enthalpic Relaxations in Porcine Septal Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Y; Protsenko, D; Lavernia, E J; Wong, B J F

    2009-03-01

    Cartilage thermoforming is an emerging surgical technology which uses heat to accelerate stress relaxation in mechanically deformed tissue specimens. Heat induced shape change in cartilage is associated with complex thermo mechanical behavior of which the mechanisms are still a subject of debate. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to characterize the threshold temperatures and enthalpies in cartilage as a function of water content. The DSC identified two enthalpic events in porcine nasal septal cartilage, which depend on the water content. The change in the water content of cartilage impacts the interactions between matrix macromolecules and water molecules, which may be associated with a bound-free water transformation (reversible process) and a denaturation of cartilage (irreversible process).

  8. Incomplete restoration of immobilization induced softening of young beagle knee articular cartilage after 50-week remobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, J; Arokoski, J; Pirttimäki, J; Lyyra, T; Jurvelin, J; Tammi, M; Helminen, H J; Kiviranta, I

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the biomechanical and structural changes in canine knee cartilage after an initial 11-week immobilization and subsequent remobilization period of 50 weeks. Cartilage from the immobilized and remobilized knee was compared with the tissue from age-matched control animals. Compressive stiffness, in the form of instant shear modulus (ISM) and equilibrium shear modulus (ESM) of articular cartilage, was investigated using an in situ indentation creep technique. The local variations in cartilage of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration were measured with a microspectrophotometer after safranin O staining of histological sections. Using a computer-based quantitative polarized light microscopy method, collagen-related optical retardation, gamma, of cartilage zones were performed to investigate the collagen network of cartilage. Macroscopically, cartilage surfaces of the knee joint remained intact both after immobilization and remobilization periods. Immobilization caused significant softening of the lateral femoral and tibial cartilages, as expressed by ESM (up to 30%, p test points. The changes of ESM were positively correlated with the alterations in GAG content of the superficial and deep zones after immobilization and remobilization. This confirms the key role of protoglycans in the regulation of the equilibrium stiffness of articular cartilage. As a conclusion, immobilization of the joint of a young individual may cause long-term, if not permanent, alterations of cartilage biomechanical properties. This may predispose joint to degenerative changes later in life.

  9. Principles of cartilage repair

    CERN Document Server

    Erggelet, Christoph; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2008-01-01

    Cartilage defects affect patients of all age groups. Surgeons, teamdoctors, general practitioners and physiotherapists alike are expected to provide adequate care. Only individual treatment plans combining a well balanced choice of various options will be successful. Background knowledge, operative and non-operative therapies are described in concise chapters: Articular cartilage biology - Diagnostics - Surgical techniques - Symptomatic and alternative medications - Physiotherapy. Diagnostic findings and surgical procedures are generously illustrated by aquarelles and colour photographs. Recommendations for additional reading, description of important clinical scoring systems and a listing of analytic tools are added for further information.

  10. Human Suprapatellar Fat Pad-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce Chondrogenesis and Cartilage Repair in a Model of Severe Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Muñoz-Criado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage degeneration is associated with degenerative bone and joint processes in severe osteoarthritis (OA. Spontaneous cartilage regeneration is extremely limited. Often the treatment consists of a partial or complete joint implant. Adipose-derived stem cell (ASC transplantation has been shown to restore degenerated cartilage; however, regenerative differences of ASC would depend on the source of adipose tissue. The infra- and suprapatellar fat pads surrounding the knee offer a potential autologous source of ASC for patients after complete joint substitution. When infrapatellar- and suprapatellar-derived stromal vascular fractions (SVF were compared, a significantly higher CD105 (+ population was found in the suprapatellar fat. In addition, the suprapatellar SVF exhibited increased numbers of colony formation units and a higher population doubling in culture compared to the infrapatellar fraction. Both the suprapatellar- and infrapatellar-derived ASC were differentiated in vitro into mature adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. However, the suprapatellar-derived ASC showed higher osteogenic and chondrogenic efficiency. Suprapatellar-derived ASC transplantation in a severe OA mouse model significantly diminished the OA-associated knee inflammation and cartilage degenerative grade, significantly increasing the production of glycosaminoglycan and inducing endogenous chondrogenesis in comparison with the control group. Overall, suprapatellar-derived ASC offer a potential autologous regenerative treatment for patients with multiple degenerative OA.

  11. Spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in an osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle using a novel double-network hydrogel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yokota, Masashi; Yasuda, Kazunori; Kitamura, Nobuto; Arakaki, Kazunobu; Onodera, Shin; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Gong, Jian-Ping

    2011-01-01

    .... The purpose is to clarify whether the spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in a large osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle by means of implanting a novel double-network (DN...

  12. Engineering Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  13. INJURED ARTICULAR CARTILAGE REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Barlič

    2008-02-01

    Surveys show that the most frequently used surgical methods are mosaicplasty and bonemarrow stimulation with microfracturing. The efficacy of the autologous chondrocyte implantationmethod should be superior to microfracturing on a long run. Especially when(regeneration of the hyaline cartilage instead of fibrous tissue (fibrocartilage is concerned.However, it has not been scientifically proved yet

  14. Sulfasalazine attenuates ACL transection and medial menisectomy-induced cartilage destruction by inhibition of cystine/glutamate antiporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Yuan; Tsai, Ru-Yin; Liu, Chih-Chung; Wu, Jia-Lin; Wong, Chih-Shung

    2016-04-01

    We had previously demonstrated that excitatory amino acid glutamate plays a role in the progression and severity of knee osteoarthritis (OA), and early hyaluronic acid injection attenuates the OA progression by attenuation of knee joint glutamate level, which was also related to the cystine/glutamate antiporter system X (system XC-) expression. System XC- uptakes cystine into chondrocytes for glutathione (GSH) synthesis, but the role of system XC- in OA is rarely addressed. Sulfasalazine (SSZ) is a system XC- inhibitor; SSZ was applied intra-articularly to study the function of system XC- in the development of OA in rats subjected to anterior cruciate ligament transection and medial meniscectomy (ACLT + MMx). Moerover, the system XC- activator N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was also applied to verify the role of system XC-. The intra-articular injection of SSZ significantly attenuated knee swelling and cartilage destruction in the knees of ACLT + MMx rats and this effect was blocked by NAC. The results showed that inhibition of system XC- function can attenuate ACLT + MMx-induced cartilage destruction. In the present study, system XC- inhibitor SSZ was shown to reduce glutamate content in synovial fluid and GSH in chondrocytes. It was also showed SSZ could attenuate ACLT + MMx-induced cartilage destruction, and treatment of NAC reversed the protective effect of SSZ.

  15. Subchondral bone loss following orthodontically induced cartilage degradation in the mandibular condyles of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kai; Niu, Li-Na; Wang, Mei-Qing; Dai, Juan; Yu, Shi-Bin; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Jun

    2011-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease generally characterized by progressive cartilage degradation and subchondral bone changes. Subchondral bone changes have been proposed to initiate or accompany with cartilage degradation in OA. The purpose of this study was to characterize cartilage damage, subchondral bone remodeling, and the possible mechanism involved in these morphological changes in our reported rat model with OA-like lesions in the mandibular condyle. In experimental groups, the dental occlusion was orthodontically disturbed. By histological analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), micro-CT scanning and serum tests, changes in condylar cartilage and subchondral bone were analyzed at 8 and 12 weeks after treatment. The mRNA and protein levels of bone pro-resorptive and pro-formative factors by chondrocytes were investigated. Increased degraded cartilage areas and obvious cartilage calcification were observed in 8- and 12-week treated (EXP) groups compared to the age-matched controls. Subchondral bone loss, characterized as decreased bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), but increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), was observed in the 12-week but not the 8-week EXP group, respectively, versus their age-matched controls. The subchondral bone loss in the 12-week EXP group was accompanied with decreased new bone formation rate, but increased serum carboxy terminal telopeptides (CTXs), and increased osteoclast numbers and proportion of surface area in the subchondral bone regions. Increased mRNA and protein levels of M-CSF, VEGF, RUNX and RANKL/OPG ratio, but decreased OPG, were found in condylar cartilage in the 12-week EXP group versus its age-matched controls, and those of RANKL/OPG ratios were significantly higher in the 12-week EXP group than the 8-week EXP. In addition, increased mRNA levels of VEGF, RUNX and RANKL/OPG ratio, but decreased OPG, were also found in condylar

  16. Prenatal nicotine exposure induces poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and the intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Kai; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces skeletal growth retardation and dyslipidemia in offspring displaying intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Cholesterol accumulation resulting from cholesterol efflux dysfunction may reduce the quality of articular cartilage through fetal programming. This study evaluated the quality of articular cartilage of female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and explored the mechanisms using a rat IUGR model established by the administration of 2.0mg/kg/d of subcutaneous nicotine from gestational days 11-20. The results demonstrated an increased OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score and total cholesterol content, decreased serum corticosterone, and increased IGF1 and dyslipidemia with catch-up growth in PNE adult offspring. Cartilage matrix, IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway expression were reduced in PNE fetuses and adult offspring. Therefore, PNE induced poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet via a dual programming mechanism.

  17. Trekking poles reduce downhill walking-induced muscle and cartilage damage in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of the use of trekking poles on muscle and cartilage damage and fatigue during downhill walking in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included eight obese women who had a body fat percentage greater than 30. Subjects performed downhill walking without a trekking pole (NP) and with a trekking pole (TP) at 50% heart rate reserve for 30 minutes on a treadmill. The treadmill was set at a 15% downhill declination. Blood samples were collected to examine muscle damage (serum creatine kinase [CK] and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] levels), cartilage damage (serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein [COMP] levels), and fatigue (plasma lactate levels) at the pre-walking baseline (PWB), immediately after walking (IAW), and 2 hours post-walking (2HPW). [Results] The CK, LDH, COMP, and lactate levels were significantly increased IAW when compared with those at the PWB in both trials. In addition, in the NP trial, the CK, LDH, and COMP levels were significantly increased at 2HPW when compared with those at the PWB. [Conclusion] Downhill walking can cause muscle and cartilage damage, and our results suggest that the use of a trekking pole can reduce temporary muscle and cartilage damage after downhill walking.

  18. Deciphering chondrocyte behaviour in matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation to undergo accurate cartilage repair with hyaline matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoor, M; Maneix, L; Ollitrault, D; Legendre, F; Duval, E; Claus, S; Mallein-Gerin, F; Moslemi, S; Boumediene, K; Galera, P

    2012-06-01

    Since the emergence in the 1990s of the autologous chondrocytes transplantation (ACT) in the treatment of cartilage defects, the technique, corresponding initially to implantation of chondrocytes, previously isolated and amplified in vitro, under a periosteal membrane, has greatly evolved. Indeed, the first generations of ACT showed their limits, with in particular the dedifferentiation of chondrocytes during the monolayer culture, inducing the synthesis of fibroblastic collagens, notably type I collagen to the detriment of type II collagen. Beyond the clinical aspect with its encouraging results, new biological substitutes must be tested to obtain a hyaline neocartilage. Therefore, the use of differentiated chondrocytes phenotypically stabilized is essential for the success of ACT at medium and long-term. That is why researchers try now to develop more reliable culture techniques, using among others, new types of biomaterials and molecules known for their chondrogenic activity, giving rise to the 4th generation of ACT. Other sources of cells, being able to follow chondrogenesis program, are also studied. The success of the cartilage regenerative medicine is based on the phenotypic status of the chondrocyte and on one of its essential component of the cartilage, type II collagen, the expression of which should be supported without induction of type I collagen. The knowledge accumulated by the scientific community and the experience of the clinicians will certainly allow to relief this technological challenge, which influence besides, the validation of such biological substitutes by the sanitary authorities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Cartilage Protective and Chondrogenic Capacity of WIN-34B, a New Herbal Agent, in the Collagenase-Induced Osteoarthritis Rabbit Model and in Progenitor Cells from Subchondral Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Eun Huh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the cartilage repair capacity of WIN-34B in the collagenase-induced osteoarthritis rabbit model and in progenitor cells from subchondral bone. The cartilage protective effect of WIN-34B was measured by clinical and histological scores, cartilage area, and proteoglycan and collagen contents in the collagenase-induced osteoarthritis rabbit model. The efficacy of chondrogenic differentiation of WIN-34B was assessed by expression of CD105, CD73, type II collagen, and aggrecan in vivo and was analyzed by the surface markers of progenitor cells, the mRNA levels of chondrogenic marker genes, and the level of proteoglycan, GAG, and type II collagen in vitro. Oral administration of WIN-34B significantly increased cartilage area, and this was associated with the recovery of proteoglycan and collagen content. Moreover, WIN-34B at 200 mg/kg significantly increased the expression of CD105, CD73, type II collagen, and aggrecan compared to the vehicle group. WIN-34B markedly enhanced the chondrogenic differentiation of CD105 and type II collagen in the progenitor cells from subchondral bone. Also, we confirmed that treatment with WIN-34B strongly increased the number of SH-2(CD105 cells and expression type II collagen in subchondral progenitor cells. Moreover, WIN-34B significantly increased proteoglycan, as measured by alcian blue staining; the mRNA level of type II α1 collagen, cartilage link protein, and aggrecan; and the inhibition of cartilage matrix molecules, such as GAG and type II collagen, in IL-1β-treated progenitor cells. These findings suggest that WIN-34B could be a potential candidate for effective anti-osteoarthritic therapy with cartilage repair as well as cartilage protection via enhancement of chondrogenic differentiation in the collagenase-induced osteoarthritis rabbit model and progenitor cells from subchondral bone.

  20. Ex vivo model exhibits protective effects of sesamin against destruction of cartilage induced with a combination of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and oncostatin M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansai, Manatsanan; Boonmaleerat, Kanchanit; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Phitak, Thanyaluck; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-07-11

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease associated with chronic inflammatory arthritis. TNF-α and OSM are pro-inflammatory cytokines that play a key role in RA progression. Thus, reducing the effects of both cytokines is practical in order to relieve the progression of the disease. This current study is interested in sesamin, an active compound in sesame seeds. Sesamin has been shown to be a chondroprotective agent in osteoarthritis models. Here, we have evaluated a porcine cartilage explant as a cartilage degradation model related to RA induced by TNF-α and/or OSM in order to investigate the effects of sesamin on TNF-α and OSM in the cartilage degradation model. A porcine cartilage explant was induced with a combination of TNF-α and OSM (test group) or IL-1β and OSM (control group) followed by a co-treatment of sesamin over a long-term period (35 days). After which, the tested explants were analyzed for indications of both the remaining and the degradation aspects using glycosaminoglycan and collagen as an indicator. The combination of TNF-α and OSM promoted cartilage degradation more than either TNF-α or OSM alone and was comparable with the combination of IL-1β and OSM. Sesamin could be offering protection against cartilage degradation by reducing GAGs and collagen turnover in the generated model. Sesamin might be a promising agent as an alternative treatment for RA patients. Furthermore, the generated model revealed itself to be an impressive test model for the analysis of phytochemical substances against the cartilage degradation model for RA. The model could be used to test for the prevention of cartilage degradation in other biological agents induced with TNF-α and OSM as well.

  1. The influence of enrichment devices on development of osteoarthritis in a surgically induced murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarrey-Strati, Alba; Watson, Lyna; Blanchet, Tracey; Lu, Nelson; Glasson, Sonya S

    2008-09-01

    This study measured the influence of three different environmental enrichment devices (EEDs) on the severity of osteoarthritis (OA) in a surgically induced murine model. The development of OA requires joint movement after surgical instability induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus at 10 weeks of age. We evaluated the hypothesis that animals behavioral activity levels may influence the severity of the disease by investigating the effect of different EEDs on mouse activity and correlating this to OA severity. Thirty male 129S6/SvEvTac mice were housed in groups of five and provided with nesting material and one of three different EEDs: a heavy plastic tube (CPVC), Shepherd Shack (SS), or Tecniplast Mouse House (TMH). We videorecorded the cages throughout the study and constructed an ethogram. Eight weeks after surgery we euthanized the mice and performed a histologic examination of the knees to score the severity of OA based on the different housing systems, correlating the scores with behavioral activity levels for each cage. OA was higher in the mice with CPVC and TMH devices in their cages, whereas the mice with SS devices exhibited less cartilage damage; however, although we observed increased behavioral activity in mice with the CPVC tube and TMH and less in mice with the SS, the statistical results were not significant. The histological results of OA and the ethogram correlated to support our hypothesis that the type of EED plays an indirect role in the severity of the disease by modifying the activity levels of mice. In activity-dependent studies, the impact of an EED needs to be evaluated before change the environment.

  2. Progression of cartilage degradation, bone resorption and pain in rat temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis induced by injection of iodoacetate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Dong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA is an important subtype of temporomandibular disorders. A simple and reproducible animal model that mimics the histopathologic changes, both in the cartilage and subchondral bone, and clinical symptoms of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA would help in our understanding of its process and underlying mechanism. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA into the upper compartment of rat TMJ could induce OA-like lesions. METHODS: Female rats were injected with varied doses of MIA into the upper compartment and observed for up to 12 weeks. Histologic, radiographic, behavioral, and molecular changes in the TMJ were evaluated by light and electron microscopy, MicroCT scanning, head withdrawal threshold test, real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL assay. RESULTS: The intermediate zone of the disc loosened by 1 day post-MIA injection and thinned thereafter. Injection of an MIA dose of 0.5 mg or higher induced typical OA-like lesions in the TMJ within 4 weeks. Condylar destruction presented in a time-dependent manner, including chondrocyte apoptosis in the early stages, subsequent cartilage matrix disorganization and subchondral bone erosion, fibrosis, subchondral bone sclerosis, and osteophyte formation in the late stages. Nociceptive responses increased in the early stages, corresponding to severe synovitis. Furthermore, chondrocyte apoptosis and an imbalance between anabolism and catabolism of cartilage and subchondral bone might account for the condylar destruction. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-level data demonstrated a reliable and convenient rat model of TMJOA could be induced by MIA injection into the upper compartment. The model might facilitate TMJOA related researches.

  3. Progression of Cartilage Degradation, Bone Resorption and Pain in Rat Temporomandibular Joint Osteoarthritis Induced by Injection of Iodoacetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Dong; Kou, Xiao-Xing; He, Dan-Qing; Zeng, Min-Min; Meng, Zhen; Bi, Rui-Yun; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Jie-Ni; Gan, Ye-Hua; Zhou, Yan-Heng

    2012-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is an important subtype of temporomandibular disorders. A simple and reproducible animal model that mimics the histopathologic changes, both in the cartilage and subchondral bone, and clinical symptoms of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA) would help in our understanding of its process and underlying mechanism. Objective To explore whether injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the upper compartment of rat TMJ could induce OA-like lesions. Methods Female rats were injected with varied doses of MIA into the upper compartment and observed for up to 12 weeks. Histologic, radiographic, behavioral, and molecular changes in the TMJ were evaluated by light and electron microscopy, MicroCT scanning, head withdrawal threshold test, real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL assay. Results The intermediate zone of the disc loosened by 1 day post-MIA injection and thinned thereafter. Injection of an MIA dose of 0.5 mg or higher induced typical OA-like lesions in the TMJ within 4 weeks. Condylar destruction presented in a time-dependent manner, including chondrocyte apoptosis in the early stages, subsequent cartilage matrix disorganization and subchondral bone erosion, fibrosis, subchondral bone sclerosis, and osteophyte formation in the late stages. Nociceptive responses increased in the early stages, corresponding to severe synovitis. Furthermore, chondrocyte apoptosis and an imbalance between anabolism and catabolism of cartilage and subchondral bone might account for the condylar destruction. Conclusions Multi-level data demonstrated a reliable and convenient rat model of TMJOA could be induced by MIA injection into the upper compartment. The model might facilitate TMJOA related researches. PMID:22984604

  4. Preservation of the chondrocyte's pericellular matrix improves cell-induced cartilage formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, L.A.; Doulabi, B.Z.; Huang, C.L.; Helder, M.N.; Everts, V.; Bank, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    The extracellular matrix surrounding chondrocytes within a chondron is likely to affect the metabolic activity of these cells. In this study we investigated this by analyzing protein synthesis by intact chondrons obtained from different types of cartilage and compared this with chondrocytes. Chondro

  5. Preservation of the Chondrocyte's Pericellular Matrix Improves Cell-Induced Cartilage Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Lucienne A.; Doulabi, Behrouz Zandieh; Huang, ChunLing; Helder, Marco N.; Everts, Vincent; Bank, Ruud A.

    2010-01-01

    The extracellular matrix surrounding chondrocytes within a chondron is likely to affect the metabolic activity of these cells. In this study we investigated this by analyzing protein synthesis by intact chondrons obtained from different types of cartilage and compared this with chondrocytes. Chondro

  6. Berberine attenuates CCN2-induced IL-1β expression and prevents cartilage degradation in a rat model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan-Chi; Lee, Hsiang-Ping; Hung, Chun-Yin; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Li, Te-Mao; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2015-11-15

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; also known as CCN2) is an inflammatory mediator that is abundantly expressed in osteoarthritis (OA). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) plays a pivotal role in OA pathogenesis. Berberine exhibits an anti-inflammatory effect, but the mechanisms by which it modulates CCN2-induced IL-1β expression in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) remain unknown. We showed that CCN2-induced IL-1β expression is mediated by the activation of αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and subsequent activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), p38/JNK, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways. This IL-1β expression in OASFs is attenuated by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), inhibitors of ASK1, p38, or JNK, or treatment with berberine. Furthermore, berberine also reverses cartilage damage in an experimental model of collagenase-induced OA (CIOA). We observed that CCN2 increased IL-1β expression via αvβ3/αvβ5 integrins, ROS, and ASK1, p38/JNK, and NF-κB signaling pathways. Berberine was found to inhibit these signaling components in OASFs in vitro and prevent cartilage degradation in vivo. We suggest a novel therapeutic strategy of using berberine for managing OA.

  7. Postnatal expression in hyaline cartilage of constitutively active human collagenase-3 (MMP-13) induces osteoarthritis in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neuhold, L A; Killar, L; Zhao, W; Sung, M L; Warner, L; Kulik, J; Turner, J; Wu, W; Billinghurst, C; Meijers, T; Poole, A R; Babij, P; DeGennaro, L J

    2001-01-01

    ...). We have used tetracycline-regulated transcription in conjunction with a cartilage-specific promoter to target a constitutively active human MMP-13 to the hyaline cartilages and joints of transgenic mice...

  8. Abnormal Mechanical Loading Induces Cartilage Degeneration by Accelerating Meniscus Hypertrophy and Mineralization After ACL Injuries In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guoqing; Zhan, Hongsheng; Ding, Daofang; Wang, Shaowei; Wei, Xiaochun; Wei, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jianzhong; Bilgen, Bahar; Reginato, Anthony M; Fleming, Braden C; Deng, Jin; Wei, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Although patients with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury have a high risk of developing posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA), the role of meniscus hypertrophy and mineralization in PTOA after an ACL injury remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if menisci respond to abnormal loading and if an ACL injury results in meniscus hypertrophy and calcification. The hypotheses were that (1) abnormal mechanical loading after an ACL injury induces meniscus hypertrophy and mineralization, which correlates to articular cartilage damage in vivo, and (2) abnormal mechanical loading on bovine meniscus explants induces the overexpression of hypertrophic and mineralization markers in vitro. Controlled laboratory study. In vivo guinea pig study (hypothesis 1): Three-month-old male Hartley guinea pigs (n = 9) underwent ACL transection (ACLT) on the right knee; the left knee served as the control. Calcification in the menisci was evaluated by calcein labeling 1 and 5 days before knee harvesting at 5.5 months. Cartilage and meniscus damage and mineralization were quantified by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International score and meniscus grade, respectively. Indian hedgehog (Ihh), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), collagen type X (Col X), progressive ankylosis homolog (ANKH), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 (ENPP1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro bovine meniscus explant study (hypothesis 2): Bovine meniscus explants were subjected to 25% strain at 0.3 Hz for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Cell viability was determined using live/dead staining. The levels of mRNA expression and protein levels were measured using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot after 24, 48, and 72 hours in culture. The conditioned medium was collected for sulfated

  9. Presence and mechanism of knee articular cartilage degeneration after meniscal reconstruction in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tienen, TG; Heijkants, RGJC; de Groot, JH; Pennings, AJ; Poole, AR; Veth, RPH; Buma, P

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Partial meniscectomy is the golden standard for treating a bucket-handle tear in the meniscus of the knee, but it inevitably leads to articular cartilage degeneration. Surgical creation of an access channel between the lesion and the vascularized synovial lining is intended to induce ingr

  10. Presence and mechanism of knee articular cartilage degeneration after meniscal reconstruction in dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tienen, Tony van; Heijkants, R.G.J.C.; Groot, J.H. de; Pennings, A.J.; Poole, A.R.; Veth, R.P.H.; Buma, P.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Partial meniscectomy is the golden standard for treating a bucket-handle tear in the meniscus of the knee, but it inevitably leads to articular cartilage degeneration. Surgical creation of an access channel between the lesion and the vascularized synovial lining is intended to induce ingr

  11. Monitoring of the degradation in the rat's articular cartilage inducing osteoarthritis using common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D. H.; Park, S. H.; Kim, B. Y.; Lee, M. Y.; Baik, H. K.; Seo, J. H.; Kang, J. U.; Song, C. G.

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the utility and limitations of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for real-time, high-resolution structural analysis. We monitored the degradation of the rat's articular cartilage inducing osteoarthritis (OA) and the change of the rat's articular cartilage recovery by treatment medication, using our developed common-path Fourier-domain (CP-FD) OCT. Also, we have done a comparative analysis the rat's articular cartilage and OA grade. To observe the progression of OA, we induced OA by injecting the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the right knee joint. After the injection of MIA, we sacrificed the rats at intervals of 3 days and obtained OCT and histological images. OCT and histological images showed the OA progress of similar pattern. These results illustrated the potential for non-invasive diagnosis about the grade of OA using CP-FD OCT.

  12. Protection against LPS-induced cartilage inflammation and degradation provided by a biological extract of Mentha spicata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Wendy; Fletcher, Ronald S; Kott, Laima S; Hurtig, Mark B

    2010-05-11

    A variety of mint [Mentha spicata] has been bred which over-expresses Rosmarinic acid (RA) by approximately 20-fold. RA has demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in small rodents; thus it was hypothesized that this plant would demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. The objectives of this study were: a) to develop an in vitro extraction procedure which mimics digestion and hepatic metabolism, b) to compare anti-inflammatory properties of High-Rosmarinic-Acid Mentha spicata (HRAM) with wild-type control M. spicata (CM), and c) to quantify the relative contributions of RA and three of its hepatic metabolites [ferulic acid (FA), caffeic acid (CA), coumaric acid (CO)] to anti-inflammatory activity of HRAM. HRAM and CM were incubated in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, liver microsomes (from male rat) and NADPH. Concentrations of RA, CA, CO, and FA in simulated digest of HRAM (HRAMsim) and CM (CMsim) were determined (HPLC) and compared with concentrations in aqueous extracts of HRAM and CM. Cartilage explants (porcine) were cultured with LPS (0 or 3 microg/mL) and test article [HRAMsim (0, 8, 40, 80, 240, or 400 microg/mL), or CMsim (0, 1, 5 or 10 mg/mL), or RA (0.640 microg/mL), or CA (0.384 microg/mL), or CO (0.057 microg/mL) or FA (0.038 microg/mL)] for 96 h. Media samples were analyzed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin 1beta (IL-1), glycosaminoglycan (GAG), nitric oxide (NO) and cell viability (differential live-dead cell staining). RA concentration of HRAMsim and CMsim was 49.3 and 0.4 microg/mL, respectively. CA, FA and CO were identified in HRAMsim but not in aqueous extract of HRAM. HRAMsim (> or = 8 microg/mL) inhibited LPS-induced PGE2 and NO; HRAMsim (> or = 80 microg/mL) inhibited LPS-induced GAG release. RA inhibited LPS-induced GAG release. No anti-inflammatory or chondroprotective effects of RA metabolites on cartilage explants were identified. Our biological extraction procedure produces a

  13. Protection against LPS-induced cartilage inflammation and degradation provided by a biological extract of Mentha spicata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kott Laima S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of mint [Mentha spicata] has been bred which over-expresses Rosmarinic acid (RA by approximately 20-fold. RA has demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in small rodents; thus it was hypothesized that this plant would demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. The objectives of this study were: a to develop an in vitro extraction procedure which mimics digestion and hepatic metabolism, b to compare anti-inflammatory properties of High-Rosmarinic-Acid Mentha spicata (HRAM with wild-type control M. spicata (CM, and c to quantify the relative contributions of RA and three of its hepatic metabolites [ferulic acid (FA, caffeic acid (CA, coumaric acid (CO] to anti-inflammatory activity of HRAM. Methods HRAM and CM were incubated in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, liver microsomes (from male rat and NADPH. Concentrations of RA, CA, CO, and FA in simulated digest of HRAM (HRAMsim and CM (CMsim were determined (HPLC and compared with concentrations in aqueous extracts of HRAM and CM. Cartilage explants (porcine were cultured with LPS (0 or 3 μg/mL and test article [HRAMsim (0, 8, 40, 80, 240, or 400 μg/mL, or CMsim (0, 1, 5 or 10 mg/mL, or RA (0.640 μg/mL, or CA (0.384 μg/mL, or CO (0.057 μg/mL or FA (0.038 μg/mL] for 96 h. Media samples were analyzed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin 1β (IL-1, glycosaminoglycan (GAG, nitric oxide (NO and cell viability (differential live-dead cell staining. Results RA concentration of HRAMsim and CMsim was 49.3 and 0.4 μg/mL, respectively. CA, FA and CO were identified in HRAMsim but not in aqueous extract of HRAM. HRAMsim (≥ 8 μg/mL inhibited LPS-induced PGE2 and NO; HRAMsim (≥ 80 μg/mL inhibited LPS-induced GAG release. RA inhibited LPS-induced GAG release. No anti-inflammatory or chondroprotective effects of RA metabolites on cartilage explants were identified. Conclusions Our biological extraction procedure produces

  14. Osthole Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Catabolism in Rat Chondrocytes and Cartilage Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Du

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cartilage destruction is thought to be the major mediator of osteoarthritis. Recent studies suggest that inhibition of subchrondral bone loss by anti-osteoporosis (OP drug can protect cartilige erosion. Osthole, as a promising agent for treating osteoporosis, may show potential in treating osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Osthole affects the proliferation and catabolism of rat chondrocytes, and the degeneration of cartilage explants. Methods: Rat chondrocytes were treated with Osthole (0 μM, 6.25 μM, 12.5 μM, and 25 μM with or without IL1-β (10ng/ml for 24 hours. The expression levels of type II collagen and MMP13 were detected by western Blot. Marker genes for chondrocytes (A-can and Sox9, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, aggrecanases (ADAMTS5 and genes implicated in extracellular matrix catabolism were evaluated by qPCR. Cell proliferation was assessed by measuring proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA expression and fluorescence activated cell sorter. Wnt7b/β-catenin signaling was also investigated. Cartilage explants from two-week old SD rats were cultured with IL-1β, Osthole and Osthole plus IL-1β for four days and glycosaminoglycan (GAG synthesis was assessed with toluidine blue staining and Safranine O/Fast Green FCF staining, collagen type II expression was detected by immunofuorescence. Results: Osthole reduced expression of chondrocyte markers and increased expression of MMP13, ADAMTS5 and MMP9 in a dose-dependent manner. Catabolic gene expression levels were further improved by Osthole plus IL-1β. Osthole inhibited chondrocyte proliferation. GAG synthesis and type II collagen were decreased in both the IL-1β groups and the Osthole groups, and significantly reduced by Osthole plus IL-1β. Conclusions: Our data suggested that Osthole increases the catabolism of rat chondrocytes and cartilage explants, this effect might be mediated through inhibiting Wnt7b

  15. Laser-induced activation of regeneration processes in spine disc cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Emil N.; Vorobjeva, Natalia N.; Sviridov, Alexander P.; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Baskov, Andrey V.; Shekhter, Anatoliy B.; Baskov, Vladimir A.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.; Kuranov, Roman V.

    2000-05-01

    The effect of laser radiation on the regeneration processes in spine disk cartilage has been studied in-vivo. We used rabbits as a model and a Holmium (2.09 micrometer) and an Erbium fiber (1.56 micrometer) lasers for irradiation the discs which were preliminary opened to remove annulus fibrosus and the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. The irradiated zone has been examined using an optical coherent tomography in one month after the operation and conventional histological technique in two months after the laser operation. It has been shown that laser radiation promotes the growth of the new cartilaginous tissue of fibrous and hyaline types.

  16. Controlled release of C-type natriuretic peptide by microencapsulation dampens proinflammatory effects induced by IL-1β in cartilage explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Nick J; Pavlov, Anton M; D'Souza, Alveena; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Hobbs, Adrian J; Chowdhury, Tina T

    2015-02-09

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) exhibits potent anti-inflammatory effects in chondrocytes that have the potential to repair cartilage damage observed in osteoarthritis (OA). However, treatments for OA have been challenging due to poor targeting and delivery of therapeutics. The present study fabricated polyelectrolyte microcapsules loaded with CNP and examined whether the layer-by-layer (LbL) approach could have protective effects in cartilage explants treated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β). SEM showed uniform, 2 to 3 μm spherical microcapsules with morphological characteristic similar to templates loaded with or without CNP. The protein was localized around the external surface of the microcapsules with encapsulation efficiencies >82.9%. CNP release profiles were broadly similar following 9 days of culture. The presence of CNP microcapsules did not significantly affect cell viability (80%) with DNA values that remained stable throughout the culture conditions. Confocal imaging showed clustering of microcapsules in chondrocytes to natriuretic peptide receptor (Npr) 2 and 3. Treatment of cartilage explants with CNP microcapsules led to concentration-dependent inhibition of NO release in response to IL-1β and restoration of matrix synthesis. In summary, we demonstrate controlled delivery of CNP to dampen pro-inflammatory effects induced by IL-1β in cartilage explants. The LbL approach has the potential to promote cartilage repair in vivo.

  17. Effects of triptolide from Radix Tripterygium wilfordii (Leigongteng on cartilage cytokines and transcription factor NF-κB: a study on induced arthritis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Linhua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triptolide, an active compound of Radix Tripterygium wilfordii, is immunosuppressive, cartilage protective and anti-inflammatory both in human and animal studies of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, but its therapeutic mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of triptolide on cartilage cytokines in the CIA model. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were immunized with type II collagen and orally administered with triptolide. The arthritic scores and incidence changes of the rats were observed. The expression of TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2 and NF-κB in paw cartilage was studied with immunohistochemical staining. Results Triptolide, at both high and low doses, significantly lowered the arthritic scores, delayed the onset of arthritis and lowered the arthritis incidence. Triptolide treatment at both high and low doses lowered the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2 and NF-κB in paw cartilage in arthritic rats. Conclusion Triptolide lowers the arthritic scores, delays the onset of collagen induced arthritis and reduces the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κB and COX-2 in paw cartilage in arthritic rats.

  18. PTH [1-34] induced differentiation and mineralization of mandibular condylar cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Brien, Mara Heather; Dutra, Eliane Hermes; Lima, Alexandro; Nanda, Ravindra; Yadav, Sumit

    2017-06-12

    Intermittent Parathyroid Hormone (I-PTH) is the only FDA approved anabolic drug therapy available for the treatment of osteoporosis in males and postmenopausal females. The effects of I-PTH on the chondrogenic lineage of the mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) are not well understood. To investigate the role of I-PTH on the MCC and subchondral bone, we carried out our studies using 4 to 5 week old triple transgenic mice (Col1a1XCol2a1XCol10a1). The experimental group was injected with PTH (80 μg/kg) daily for 2 weeks, while control group was injected with saline. Our histology showed that the I-PTH treatment led to an increased number of cells expressing Col1a1, Col2a1 and Col10a1. Additionally, there was an increase in cellular proliferation, increased proteoglycan distribution, increased cartilage thickness, increased TRAP activity, and mineralization. Immunohistochemical staining showed increased expression of pSMAD158 and VEGF in the MCC and subchondral bone. Furthermore our microCT data showed that I-PTH treatment led to an increased bone volume fraction, tissue density and trabecular thickness, with a decrease in trabecular spacing. Morphometric measurements showed increased mandibular length and condyle head length following I-PTH treatment. In conclusion, our study suggests that I-PTH plays a critical role in cellular proliferation, proteoglycan distribution, and mineralization of the MCC.

  19. Inhibition of microRNA-449a prevents IL-1β-induced cartilage destruction via SIRT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K W; Lee, K-M; Yoon, D S; Park, K H; Choi, W J; Lee, J W; Kim, S-H

    2016-12-01

    SIRT1 has anti-inflammatory as well as protective effects in chondrocytes. The object of this study was to investigate whether microRNA-449a regulates expression of SIRT1, which inhibits expression of catabolic genes in IL-1β-induced cartilage destruction. MicroRNA-449a expression was determined in OA chondrocytes and IL-1β-induced chondrocytes by real-time PCR. MicroRNA-449a binding sites on the 3'-UTR of SIRT1 mRNA and binding site conservation were examined using microRNA target prediction tools. SIRT1-overexpressing or knockdown chondrocytes were transfected with microRNA-449a or anti-microRNA-449a mimic and stimulated by IL-1β. Expression of catabolic and anabolic genes was examined by real-time PCR and western blotting. Finally, positive effects of anti-microRNA-449a on expression of these genes were confirmed by western analysis of OA chondrocytes. Expression of microRNA-449a was increased in OA chondrocytes and IL-1β-induced chondrocytes. MMP-13 expression was enhanced, whereas type II collagen and SIRT1 expression were decreased in IL-1β-induced chondrocytes. SIRT1 overexpression resulted in decreased expression of catabolic genes such as MMPs and ADAMTSs in response to IL-1β, but these effects were moderated by microRNA-449a. Suppression of microRNA-449a by anti-microRNA-449a inhibited expression of catabolic genes despite IL-1β stimulation, but these effects were abolished in SIRT1 knockdown chondrocytes. Furthermore, expression of catabolic genes was decreased and expression of type II collagen as well as SIRT1 was restored by anti-microRNA-449a in OA chondrocytes as well as in IL-1β-induced chondrocytes. Silencing of microRNA-449a had a protective effect, inhibiting catabolic gene expression and restoring anabolic gene expression, by targeting SIRT1 in IL-1β-induced cartilage destruction. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Shark cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sarcoma, that is more common in people with HIV infection. Shark cartilage is also used for arthritis, psoriasis, ... Neovastat) by mouth seems to increase survival in patients with advanced kidney cancer (renal cell carcinoma). This product has FDA “Orphan Drug ...

  1. Attenuation of obesity-induced inflammation in mice orally administered with salmon cartilage proteoglycan, a prophylactic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Shouhei; Asano, Krisana; Nakane, Akio

    2017-03-11

    Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation of adipose tissue and causes development of type 2 diabetes. M1 macrophage population was increased in adipose tissue of obese mouse. M1 macrophages induce insulin resistance through the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Our previous studies demonstrated that salmon cartilage proteoglycan (PG) suppresses excess inflammation in various mouse inflammatory diseases. In this study, we examined the effect of PG on type 2 diabetes using high-fat-diet (HFD) induced obese mouse model. Oral PG administration enhanced the population of small adipocytes (area less than 1000 μm(2)) without body and tissue weight gain. In addition, PG administration suppressed mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and CXCL2 in adipose tissue. The proportion of M1 macrophages was decreased by PG administration. In addition, PG administration suppressed hyperglycemia after intraperitoneal glucose injection. Fasted serum insulin level was decreased in PG-administered mice. Moreover, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt was enhanced in the liver and gastrocnemius skeletal muscle of PG-administered mice. These data suggested that PG administration improves hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity in obese mice by modulation of M1 macrophages which secrete proinflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue and activation of Akt in liver and skeletal muscle.

  2. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells Engraft into Rabbit Articular Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are known to have the potential for articular cartilage regeneration, and are suggested for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA. Here, we investigated whether intra-articular injection of xenogeneic human adipose-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (haMPCs promoted articular cartilage repair in rabbit OA model and engrafted into rabbit articular cartilage. The haMPCs were cultured in vitro, and phenotypes and differentiation characteristics of cells were evaluated. OA was induced surgically by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT and medical meniscectomy of knee joints. At six weeks following surgery, hyaluronic acid (HA or haMPCs was injected into the knee joints, the contralateral knee served as normal control. All animals were sacrificed at the 16th week post-surgery. Assessments were carried out by macroscopic examination, hematoxylin/eosin (HE and Safranin-O/Fast green stainings and immunohistochemistry. The data showed that haMPC treatment promoted cartilage repair. Signals of human mitochondrial can be directly detected in haMPC treated cartilage. The haMPCs expressed human leukocyte antigen I (HLA-I but not HLA-II-DR in vivo. These results suggest that intra-articular injection of haMPCs promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in rabbit OA model, and support the notion that MPCs are transplantable between HLA-incompatible individuals.

  3. Nanoparticulate Mineralized Collagen Scaffolds and BMP-9 Induce a Long-Term Bone Cartilage Construct in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoyan; Weisgerber, Daniel W; Bischoff, David; Lewis, Michael S; Reid, Russell R; He, Tong-Chuan; Yamaguchi, Dean T; Miller, Timothy A; Harley, Brendan A C; Lee, Justine C

    2016-07-01

    Engineering the osteochondral junction requires fabrication of a microenvironment that supports both osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. Multiphasic scaffold strategies utilizing a combination of soluble factors and extracellular matrix components are ideally suited for such applications. In this work, the contribution of an osteogenic nanoparticulate mineralized glycosaminoglycan scaffold (MC-GAG) and a dually chondrogenic and osteogenic growth factor, BMP-9, in the differentiation of primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is evaluated. Although 2D cultures demonstrate alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization of hMSCs induced by BMP-9, MC-GAG scaffolds do not demonstrate significant differences in the collagen I expression, osteopontin expression, or mineralization. Instead, BMP-9 increases expression of collagen II, Sox9, aggrecan (ACAN), and cartilage oligomeric protein. However, the hypertrophic chondrocyte marker, collagen X, is not elevated with BMP-9 treatment. In addition, histologic analyses demonstrate that while BMP-9 does not increase mineralization, BMP-9 treatment results in an increase of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Thus, the combination of BMP-9 and MC-GAG stimulates chondrocytic and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs.

  4. Surgical repair of traumatically induced collapsing trachea in an ostrich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, S R; Taylor, T S; Johnson, J H; Heisterkamp, K B; Sanders, E A

    1995-08-15

    A region of tracheal collapse was identified by endoscopy after surgical repair of a traumatic injury to the neck in an ostrich. During periods of excitation, the ostrich would become dyspneic and collapse. A tracheal split-ring prosthesis was placed surgically to support the collapsing trachea. This technique, which is frequently used in dogs, is applicable for use in birds with collapsing trachea.

  5. Partial restoration of immobilization-induced softening of canine articular cartilage after remobilization of the knee (stifle) joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurvelin, J; Kiviranta, I; Säämänen, A M; Tammi, M; Helminen, H J

    1989-01-01

    The restoration of the biomechanical properties of articular cartilage was studied after 15 weeks of remobilization of the knee joint in beagles previously immobilized with a cast for 11 weeks. The shear moduli were determined with an indentation creep test immediately after load application and at equilibrium at six predefined test points of femoral, tibial, and patellar cartilages. Permeability of the cartilage was estimated from the creep measurements. The values were compared with nontreated, age-matched (55 weeks) controls and with cartilage collected immediately after immobilization. Remobilization reduced the high creep rates created by immobilization and shifted the depressed equilibrium shear moduli towards those of the controls. However, in the femoral condylar cartilage, the equilibrium shear modulus remained at lower level (p less than 0.05) and permeability at higher level (p less than 0.05) as compared with the controls. We conclude that articular cartilage, showing signs of atrophy after long-term immobilization, was capable of restoring its biomechanical properties during remobilization. This repair was not, however, completed in all parts of the knee joint by the end of the observation period.

  6. Elastic cartilage reconstruction by transplantation of cultured hyaline cartilage-derived chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, M; Takebe, T; Kobayashi, S; Kimura, S; Masutani, M; Lee, S; Jo, Y H; Lee, J I; Taniguchi, H

    2014-05-01

    Current surgical intervention of craniofacial defects caused by injuries or abnormalities uses reconstructive materials, such as autologous cartilage grafts. Transplantation of autologous tissues, however, places a significant invasiveness on patients, and many efforts have been made for establishing an alternative graft. Recently, we and others have shown the potential use of reconstructed elastic cartilage from ear-derived chondrocytes or progenitors with the unique elastic properties. Here, we examined the differentiation potential of canine joint cartilage-derived chondrocytes into elastic cartilage for expanding the cell sources, such as hyaline cartilage. Articular chondrocytes are isolated from canine joint, cultivated, and compared regarding characteristic differences with auricular chondrocytes, including proliferation rates, gene expression, extracellular matrix production, and cartilage reconstruction capability after transplantation. Canine articular chondrocytes proliferated less robustly than auricular chondrocytes, but there was no significant difference in the amount of sulfated glycosaminoglycan produced from redifferentiated chondrocytes. Furthermore, in vitro expanded and redifferentiated articular chondrocytes have been shown to reconstruct elastic cartilage on transplantation that has histologic characteristics distinct from hyaline cartilage. Taken together, cultured hyaline cartilage-derived chondrocytes are a possible cell source for elastic cartilage reconstruction. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hyaline cartilage cells outperform mandibular condylar cartilage cells in a TMJ fibrocartilage tissue engineering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Lazebnik, M; Detamore, M S

    2009-03-01

    To compare temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar cartilage cells in vitro to hyaline cartilage cells cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) environment for tissue engineering of mandibular condylar cartilage. Mandibular condylar cartilage and hyaline cartilage cells were harvested from pigs and cultured for 6 weeks in polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds. Both types of cells were treated with glucosamine sulfate (0.4 mM), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (100 ng/ml) and their combination. At weeks 0 and 6, cell number, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen content were determined, types I and II collagen were visualized by immunohistochemistry and GAGs were visualized by histology. Hyaline cartilage cells produced from half an order to a full order of magnitude more GAGs and collagen than mandibular condylar cartilage cells in 3D culture. IGF-I was a highly effective signal for biosynthesis with hyaline cartilage cells, while glucosamine sulfate decreased cell proliferation and biosynthesis with both types of cells. In vitro culture of TMJ condylar cartilage cells produced a fibrous tissue with predominantly type I collagen, while hyaline cartilage cells formed a fibrocartilage-like tissue with types I and II collagen. The combination of IGF and glucosamine had a synergistic effect on maintaining the phenotype of TMJ condylar cells to generate both types I and II collagen. Given the superior biosynthetic activity by hyaline cartilage cells and the practical surgical limitations of harvesting cells from the TMJ of a patient requiring TMJ reconstruction, cartilage cells from elsewhere in the body may be a potentially better alternative to cells harvested from the TMJ for TMJ tissue engineering. This finding may also apply to other fibrocartilages such as the intervertebral disc and knee meniscus in applications where a mature cartilage cell source is desired.

  8. Nondestructive fluorescence-based quantification of threose-induced collagen cross-linking in bovine articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Jussi; Kokkonen, Harri T.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Hauta-Kasari, Markku; Vahimaa, Pasi; Lammi, Mikko J.; Töyräs, Juha; Jurvelin, Jukka S.

    2012-09-01

    Extensive collagen cross-linking affects the mechanical competence of articular cartilage: it can make the cartilage stiffer and more brittle. The concentrations of the best known cross-links, pyridinoline and pentosidine, can be accurately determined by destructive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We explore a nondestructive evaluation of cross-linking by using the intrinsic fluorescence of the intact cartilage. Articular cartilage samples from bovine knee joints were incubated in threose solution for 40 and 100 h to increase the collagen cross-linking. Control samples without threose were also prepared. Excitation-emission matrices at wavelengths of 220 to 950 nm were acquired from the samples, and the pentosidine and pyridinoline cross-links and the collagen concentrations were determined using HPLC. After the threose treatment, pentosidine and lysyl pyridinole (LP) concentrations increased. The intrinsic fluorescence, excited below 350 nm, decreased and was related to pentosidine [r=-0.90, 240/325 nm (excitation/emission)] or LP (r=-0.85, 235/285 nm) concentrations. Due to overlapping, the changes in emission could not be linked specifically to the recorded cross-links. However, the fluorescence signal enabled a nondestructive optical estimate of changes in the pentosidine and LP cross-linking of intact articular cartilage.

  9. Hyaline cartilage degenerates after autologous osteochondral transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibesku, C O; Szuwart, T; Kleffner, T O; Schlegel, P M; Jahn, U R; Van Aken, H; Fuchs, S

    2004-11-01

    Autologous osteochondral grafting is a well-established clinical procedure to treat focal cartilage defects in patients, although basic research on this topic remains sparse. The aim of the current study was to evaluate (1) histological changes of transplanted hyaline cartilage of osteochondral grafts and (2) the tissue that connects the transplanted cartilage with the adjacent cartilage in a sheep model. Both knee joints of four sheep were opened surgically and osteochondral grafts were harvested and simultaneously transplanted to the contralateral femoral condyle. The animals were sacrificed after three months and the received knee joints were evaluated histologically. Histological evaluation showed a complete ingrowth of the osseous part of the osteochondral grafts. A healing or ingrowth at the level of the cartilage could not be observed. Histological evaluation of the transplanted grafts according to Mankin revealed significantly more and more severe signs of degeneration than the adjacent cartilage, such as cloning of chondrocytes and irregularities of the articular surface. We found no connecting tissue between the transplanted and the adjacent cartilage and histological signs of degeneration of the transplanted hyaline cartilage. In the light of these findings, long-term results of autologous osteochondral grafts in human beings have to be followed critically.

  10. Mechanical Compression of Articular Cartilage Induces Chondrocyte Proliferation and Inhibits Proteoglycan Synthesis by Activation of the Erk Pathway: Implications for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James A.; Eisner, Eric A.; DuRaine, Grayson; You, Zongbing; Reddi, A. Hari

    2013-01-01

    Articular cartilage is recalcitrant to endogenous repair and regeneration and thus a focus of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies. A pre-requisite for articular cartilage tissue engineering is an understanding of the signal transduction pathways involved in mechanical compression during trauma or disease. We sought to explore the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) pathway in chondrocyte proliferation and proteoglycan synthesis following acute mechanical compression. Bovine articular cartilage explants were cultured with and without the ERK 1/2 pathway inhibitor PD98059. Cartilage explants were statically loaded to 40% strain at a strain rate of 1−sec for 5 seconds. Control explants were cultured under similar conditions but were not loaded. There were four experimental groups: 1) no load without inhibitor 2) no load with the inhibitor PD98059, 3) loaded without the inhibitor, and 4) loaded with the inhibitor PD98059. Explants were cultured for varying durations, from 5 minutes to 5 days. Explants were then analyzed by biochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Mechanical compression induced phosphorylation of ERK 1/2, and this was attenuated with the ERK 1/2 pathway inhibitor PD98059 in a dose-dependent manner. Chondrocyte proliferation was increased by mechanical compression. This effect was blocked by the inhibitor of the ERK 1/2 pathway. Mechanical compression also led to a decrease in proteoglycan synthesis that was reversed with inhibitor PD98059. In conclusion, the ERK 1/2 pathway is involved in the proliferative and biosynthetic response of chondrocytes following acute static mechanical compression. PMID:19177463

  11. Sustained Release of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 via Coacervate improves Muscle Derived Stem Cell Mediated Cartilage Regeneration in MIA-induced Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Justin James; Rocha, Jorge Luis; Li, Hongshuai; Huard, Johnny; Wang, Yadong; Hogan, MaCalus Vinson

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals who participate in sports have an increased risk of osteoarthritis (OA), characterized by articular cartilage degeneration. Currently, there is no cure for OA with treatment aimed at symptom relief and improved function. Muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) have been shown to exhibit long-term proliferation, high self-renewal, and multipotent differentiation capabilities in vitro. Previously, we have demonstrated that murine MDSCs retrovirally transduced to express chondrogenic proteins (BMPs) differentiate into chondrocytes and enhance cartilage repair in vivo. Direct injection of therapeutic proteins can promote cartilage healing; however, they have relatively short half-lives requiring muitiple injections of high dosages. This presents a challenge in terms of maintaining adequate local BMP levels and could negatively affect both injured and normal structures and lead to side effects such as osteophyte formation. Gene therapy is a promising approach that addresses this problem; however, its utilization in clinical applications is much further down the road. In order to circumvent viral transduction of cells for cartilage regeneration, we developed a unique growth factor delivery platform comprised of native heparin and a synthetic polycation, poly(ethylene argininylaspartate diglyceride) (PEAD) incorporated with BMP2 (BMP2 coacervate). In this study, we show that sustained delivery of BMP2 via a BMP2 coacervate can induce the differentiation of MDSCs to a chondrocyte lineage for in vivo cartilage regeneration and healing in a Monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis model. Methods: mMDSCs were isolated from muscle biopsies via a modified pre-plated technique. The BMP2 coacervates were prepared as previously described. The release profiles of BMP2 coacervate were tested by ELISA. The chondrogenic effects that delivery of BMP2 had on MDSCs were evaluated by RT-PCR. The efficacy of MDSC with BMP2 coacervate were evaluated in vivo in a MIA-induced

  12. Differentiating normal hyaline cartilage from post-surgical repair tissue using fast gradient echo imaging in delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI (dGEMRIC) at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Pinker, Katja; Welsch, Goetz H. [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center-High field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Mamisch, Tallal C. [Inselspital Bern, Orthopedic Surgery Department, Bern (Switzerland); Domayer, Stephan [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center-High field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Orthopaedics, Vienna (Austria); Szomolanyi, Pavol [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center-High field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Bratislava (Slovakia); Marlovits, Stefan; Kutscha-Lissberg, Florian [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Traumatology, Center for Joints and Cartilage, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose was to evaluate the relative glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of repair tissue in patients after microfracturing (MFX) and matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) of the knee joint with a dGEMRIC technique based on a newly developed short 3D-GRE sequence with two flip angle excitation pulses. Twenty patients treated with MFX or MACT (ten in each group) were enrolled. For comparability, patients from each group were matched by age (MFX: 37.1 {+-} 16.3 years; MACT: 37.4 {+-} 8.2 years) and postoperative interval (MFX: 33.0 {+-} 17.3 months; MACT: 32.0 {+-} 17.2 months). The {delta} relaxation rate ({delta}R1) for repair tissue and normal hyaline cartilage and the relative {delta}R1 were calculated, and mean values were compared between both groups using an analysis of variance. The mean {delta}R1 for MFX was 1.07 {+-} 0.34 versus 0.32 {+-} 0.20 at the intact control site, and for MACT, 1.90 {+-} 0.49 compared to 0.87 {+-} 0.44, which resulted in a relative {delta}R1 of 3.39 for MFX and 2.18 for MACT. The difference between the cartilage repair groups was statistically significant. The new dGEMRIC technique based on dual flip angle excitation pulses showed higher GAG content in patients after MACT compared to MFX at the same postoperative interval and allowed reducing the data acquisition time to 4 min. (orig.)

  13. Optical methods for diagnostics and feedback control in laser-induced regeneration of spine disc and joint cartilages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Emil; Sviridov, Alexander; Omeltchenko, Alexander; Baum, Olga; Baskov, Andrey; Borchshenko, Igor; Golubev, Vladimir; Baskov, Vladimir

    2011-03-01

    In 1999 we have introduced a new approach for treatment of spine diseases based on the mechanical effect of nondestructive laser radiation on the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. Laser reconstruction of spine discs (LRD) involves puncture of the disc and non-destructive laser irradiation of the nucleus pulposus to activate reparative processes in the disc tissues. In vivo animal study has shown that LRD allows activate the growth of hyaline type cartilage in laser affected zone. The paper considers physical processes and mechanisms of laser regeneration, presents results of investigations aimed to optimize laser settings and to develop feedback control system for laser reparation in cartilages of spine and joints. The results of laser reconstruction of intervertebral discs for 510 patients have shown substantial relief of back pain for 90% of patients. Laser technology has been experimentally tested for reparation of traumatic and degenerative diseases in joint cartilage of 20 minipigs. It is shown that laser regeneration of cartilage allows feeling large (more than 5 mm) defects which usually never repair on one's own. Optical techniques have been used to promote safety and efficacy of the laser procedures.

  14. Transforming growth factor beta signaling is essential for the autonomous formation of cartilage-like tissue by expanded chondrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Tekari

    Full Text Available Cartilage is a tissue with limited self-healing potential. Hence, cartilage defects require surgical attention to prevent or postpone the development of osteoarthritis. For cell-based cartilage repair strategies, in particular autologous chondrocyte implantation, articular chondrocytes are isolated from cartilage and expanded in vitro to increase the number of cells required for therapy. During expansion, the cells lose the competence to autonomously form a cartilage-like tissue, that is in the absence of exogenously added chondrogenic growth factors, such as TGF-βs. We hypothesized that signaling elicited by autocrine and/or paracrine TGF-β is essential for the formation of cartilage-like tissue and that alterations within the TGF-β signaling pathway during expansion interfere with this process. Primary bovine articular chondrocytes were harvested and expanded in monolayer culture up to passage six and the formation of cartilage tissue was investigated in high density pellet cultures grown for three weeks. Chondrocytes expanded for up to three passages maintained the potential for autonomous cartilage-like tissue formation. After three passages, however, exogenous TGF-β1 was required to induce the formation of cartilage-like tissue. When TGF-β signaling was blocked by inhibiting the TGF-β receptor 1 kinase, the autonomous formation of cartilage-like tissue was abrogated. At the initiation of pellet culture, chondrocytes from passage three and later showed levels of transcripts coding for TGF-β receptors 1 and 2 and TGF-β2 to be three-, five- and five-fold decreased, respectively, as compared to primary chondrocytes. In conclusion, the autonomous formation of cartilage-like tissue by expanded chondrocytes is dependent on signaling induced by autocrine and/or paracrine TGF-β. We propose that a decrease in the expression of the chondrogenic growth factor TGF-β2 and of the TGF-β receptors in expanded chondrocytes accounts for a decrease

  15. Imaging of articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawan K Paunipagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tried to review the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in understanding microscopic and morphologic structure of the articular cartilage. The optimal protocols and available spin-echo sequences in present day practice are reviewed in context of common pathologies of articular cartilage. The future trends of articular cartilage imaging have been discussed with their appropriateness. In diarthrodial joints of the body, articular cartilage is functionally very important. It is frequently exposed to trauma, degeneration, and repetitive wear and tear. MRI has played a vital role in evaluation of articular cartilage. With the availability of advanced repair surgeries for cartilage lesions, there has been an increased demand for improved cartilage imaging techniques. Recent advances in imaging strategies for native and postoperative articular cartilage open up an entirely new approach in management of cartilage-related pathologies.

  16. Rapid attachment of adipose stromal cells on resorbable polymeric scaffolds facilitates the one-step surgical procedure for cartilage and bone tissue engineering purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Jurgens; R.J. Kroeze; R.A. Bank; M.J.P.F. Ritt; M.N. Helder

    2011-01-01

    The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue provides an abundant source of mesenchymal stem cells. For clinical application, it would be beneficial to establish treatments in which SVF is obtained, seeded onto a scaffold, and returned into the patient within a single surgical procedure. In

  17. Rapid Attachment of Adipose Stromal Cells on Resorbable Polymeric Scaffolds Facilitates the One-Step Surgical Procedure for Cartilage and Bone Tissue Engineering Purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurgens, Wouter J.; Kroeze, Robert Jan; Bank, Ruud A.; Ritt, Marco J. P. F.; Helder, Marco N.

    2011-01-01

    The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue provides an abundant source of mesenchymal stem cells. For clinical application, it would be beneficial to establish treatments in which SVF is obtained, seeded onto a scaffold, and returned into the patient within a single surgical procedure. In

  18. Spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in an osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle using a novel double-network hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Masashi; Yasuda, Kazunori; Kitamura, Nobuto; Arakaki, Kazunobu; Onodera, Shin; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Gong, Jian-Ping

    2011-02-22

    Functional repair of articular osteochondral defects remains a major challenge not only in the field of knee surgery but also in tissue regeneration medicine. The purpose is to clarify whether the spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in a large osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle by means of implanting a novel double-network (DN) gel at the bottom of the defect. Twenty-five mature rabbits were used in this study. In the bilateral knees of each animal, we created an osteochondral defect having a diameter of 2.4-mm in the medial condyle. Then, in 21 rabbits, we implanted a DN gel plug into a right knee defect so that a vacant space of 1.5-mm depth (in Group I), 2.5-mm depth (in Group II), or 3.5-mm depth (in Group III) was left. In the left knee, we did not apply any treatment to the defect to obtain the control data. All the rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks, and the gross and histological evaluations were performed. The remaining 4 rabbits underwent the same treatment as used in Group II, and real-time PCR analysis was performed at 4 weeks. The defect in Group II was filled with a sufficient volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue rich in proteoglycan and type-2 collagen. The Wayne's gross appearance and histology scores showed that Group II was significantly greater than Group I, III, and Control (p hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in vivo in an osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle by means of implanting the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect so that an approximately 2-mm deep vacant space was intentionally left in the defect. This fact has prompted us to propose an innovative strategy without cell culture to repair osteochondral lesions in the femoral condyle.

  19. Spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in an osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle using a novel double-network hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onodera Shin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional repair of articular osteochondral defects remains a major challenge not only in the field of knee surgery but also in tissue regeneration medicine. The purpose is to clarify whether the spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in a large osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle by means of implanting a novel double-network (DN gel at the bottom of the defect. Methods Twenty-five mature rabbits were used in this study. In the bilateral knees of each animal, we created an osteochondral defect having a diameter of 2.4-mm in the medial condyle. Then, in 21 rabbits, we implanted a DN gel plug into a right knee defect so that a vacant space of 1.5-mm depth (in Group I, 2.5-mm depth (in Group II, or 3.5-mm depth (in Group III was left. In the left knee, we did not apply any treatment to the defect to obtain the control data. All the rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks, and the gross and histological evaluations were performed. The remaining 4 rabbits underwent the same treatment as used in Group II, and real-time PCR analysis was performed at 4 weeks. Results The defect in Group II was filled with a sufficient volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue rich in proteoglycan and type-2 collagen. The Wayne's gross appearance and histology scores showed that Group II was significantly greater than Group I, III, and Control (p Conclusions This study demonstrated that spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration can be induced in vivo in an osteochondral defect created in the femoral condyle by means of implanting the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect so that an approximately 2-mm deep vacant space was intentionally left in the defect. This fact has prompted us to propose an innovative strategy without cell culture to repair osteochondral lesions in the femoral condyle.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of hip joint cartilage and labrum

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    Christoph Zilkens

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hip joint instability and impingement are the most common biomechanical risk factors that put the hip joint at risk to develop premature osteoarthritis. Several surgical procedures like periacetabular osteotomy for hip dysplasia or hip arthroscopy or safe surgical hip dislocation for femoroacetabular impingement aim at restoring the hip anatomy. However, the success of joint preserving surgical procedures is limited by the amount of pre-existing cartilage damage. Biochemically sensitive MRI techniques like delayed Gadolinium Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC might help to monitor the effect of surgical or non-surgical procedures in the effort to halt or even reverse joint damage.

  1. MULTIPLE OSSIFIED COSTAL CARTILAGES FOR 1ST RIB

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    Raghavendra D.R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Costal cartilages are flattened bars of hyaline cartilages. All ribs except the last two, join with the sternum through their respective costal cartilages directly or indirectly. During dissection for 1st MBBS students in the Department of Anatomy, JJMMC, Davangere, variation was found in a male cadaver aged 45 –50 years. Multiple ossified costal cartilages for 1st rib were present on left side. There were 3 costal cartilages connecting 1st rib to manubrium. There were two small intercostal spaces between them. The lower two small costal cartilages fused together to form a common segment which in turn fused with large upper costal cartilage. The large upper costal cartilage forms costochondral joint with 1st rib. All costal cartilages showed features of calcification. The present variation of multiple ossified costal cartilages are due to bifurcation of costal cartilage. It may cause musculoskeletal pain, intercostal nerve entrapment or vascular compression. Awareness of these anomalies are important for radiologists for diagnostic purpose and for surgeons for performing various clinical and surgical procedures.

  2. Cartilage Integration: Evaluation of the reasons for failure of integration during cartilage repair. A review

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    IM Khan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a challenging tissue to reconstruct or replace principally because of its avascular nature; large chondral lesions in the tissue do not spontaneously heal. Where lesions do penetrate the bony subchondral plate, formation of hematomas and the migration of mesenchymal stem cells provide an inferior and transient fibrocartilagenous replacement for hyaline cartilage. To circumvent the poor intrinsic reparative response of articular cartilage several surgical techniques based on tissue transplantation have emerged. One characteristic shared by intrinsic reparative processes and the new surgical therapies is an apparent lack of lateral integration of repair or graft tissue with the host cartilage that can lead to poor prognosis. Many factors have been cited as impeding cartilage:cartilage integration including; chondrocyte cell death, chondrocyte dedifferentiation, the nature of the collagenous and proteoglycan networks that constitute the extracellular matrix, the type of biomaterial scaffold employed in repair and the origin of the cells used to repopulate the defect or lesion. This review addresses the principal intrinsic and extrinsic factors that impede integration and describe how manipulation of these factors using a host of strategies can positively influence cartilage integration.

  3. Footprint-free human induced pluripotent stem cells from articular cartilage with redifferentiation capacity: a first step toward a clinical-grade cell source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreström, Cecilia; Simonsson, Stina; Enochson, Lars; Bigdeli, Narmin; Brantsing, Camilla; Ellerström, Catharina; Hyllner, Johan; Lindahl, Anders

    2014-04-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are potential cell sources for regenerative medicine; however, clinical applications of iPSCs are restricted because of undesired genomic modifications associated with most reprogramming protocols. We show, for the first time, that chondrocytes from autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) donors can be efficiently reprogrammed into iPSCs using a nonintegrating method based on mRNA delivery, resulting in footprint-free iPSCs (no genome-sequence modifications), devoid of viral factors or remaining reprogramming molecules. The search for universal allogeneic cell sources for the ACI regenerative treatment has been difficult because making chondrocytes with high matrix-forming capacity from pluripotent human embryonic stem cells has proven challenging and human mesenchymal stem cells have a predisposition to form hypertrophic cartilage and bone. We show that chondrocyte-derived iPSCs can be redifferentiated in vitro into cartilage matrix-producing cells better than fibroblast-derived iPSCs and on par with the donor chondrocytes, suggesting the existence of a differentiation bias toward the somatic cell origin and making chondrocyte-derived iPSCs a promising candidate universal cell source for ACI. Whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism array and karyotyping were used to verify the genomic integrity and stability of the established iPSC lines. Our results suggest that RNA-based technology eliminates the risk of genomic integrations or aberrations, an important step toward a clinical-grade cell source for regenerative medicine such as treatment of cartilage defects and osteoarthritis.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of hyaline cartilage regeneration in neocartilage graft implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C F; Ng, K K; Ng, S H; Cheung, Y C

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the regenerative potential of hyaline cartilage in a neocartilage graft implant with the aid of MR cartilage imaging using a rabbit model. Surgical osteochondral defects were created in the femoral condyles of 30 mature New Zealand rabbits. The findings of neocartilage in autologous cartilage grafts packed into osteochondral defects were compared with control group of no implant to the osteochondral defect. The outcome of the implantations was correlated with histologic and MR cartilage imaging findings over a 3-month interval. Neocartilage grafts packed into osteochondral defects showed regeneration of hyaline cartilage at the outer layer of the implant using MR cartilage imaging. Fibrosis of fibrocartilage developed at the outer layer of the autologous cartilage graft together with an inflammatory reaction within the osteochondral defect. This animal study provides evidence of the regenerative ability of hyaline cartilage in neocartilage transplants to repair articular cartilage.

  5. Similar hyaline-like cartilage repair of osteochondral defects in rabbits using isotropic and anisotropic collagen scaffolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E.L.W. de; Hannink, G.J.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Daamen, W.F.; Buma, P.

    2014-01-01

    Lesions in knee joint articular cartilage (AC) have limited repair capacity. Many clinically available treatments induce a fibrous-like cartilage repair instead of hyaline cartilage. To induce hyaline cartilage repair, we hypothesized that type I collagen scaffolds with fibers aligned perpendicular

  6. Limited integrative repair capacity of native cartilage autografts within cartilage defects in a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelse, Kolja; Riedel, Dominic; Pachowsky, Milena; Hennig, Friedrich F; Trattnig, Siegfried; Welsch, Götz H

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate integration and cellular outgrowth of native cartilage autografts transplanted into articular cartilage defects. Native cartilage autografts were applied into chondral defects in the femoral condyle of adult sheep. Within the defects, the calcified cartilage layer was either left intact or perforated to induce bone marrow stimulation. Empty defects served as controls. The joints were analyzed after 6 and 26 weeks by macroscopic and histological analysis using the ICRS II Score and Modified O'Driscoll Scores. Non-treated defects did not show any endogenous regenerative response and bone marrow stimulation induced fibrous repair tissue. Transplanted native cartilage grafts only insufficiently integrated with the defect borders. Cell death and loss of proteoglycans were present at the margins of the grafts at 6 weeks, which was only partially restored at 26 weeks. Significant cellular outgrowth from the grafts or defect borders could not be observed. Bonding of the grafts could be improved by additional bone marrow stimulation providing ingrowing cells that formed a fibrous interface predominantly composed of type I collagen. Transplanted native cartilage grafts remain as inert structures within cartilage defects and fail to induce integrative cartilage repair which rather demands additional cells provided by additional bone marrow stimulation. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Surgical treatment of radiation induced injuries of the intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, E.H.; Symmonds, R.E.

    1981-12-01

    In the patient who has received high dose irradiation of the pelvis and abdomen, all abdominopelvic operations should be avoided, unless it is absolutely essential. Persisting obstruction, hemorrhage, intestinal perforation with peritonitis and with abscess and fistula formation are valid indications for surgical intervention. Ninety-three patients have been operated upon for these complications after irradiation. Some anastomotic dehiscence occurred in ten patients. Six operative deaths occurred. Of the 93 patients, 65 were managed by means of complete resection of the involved segment of intestine, followed by restoration of intestinal continuity by means of an end-to-end anastomosis. This is the treatment of choice when the involved area can be safely resected. In the absence of actual intestinal necrosis and when segments of strictured small intestine are adherent deep in the pelvis, and intestinal bypass procedure may represent the treatment of choice. This was accomplished in 20 patients, two of whom eventually required a second operation for resection of the bypassed segment of intestine.

  8. Myogenin, MyoD, and myosin expression after pharmacologically and surgically induced hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Greaser, M. L.; Schultz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between myogenin or MyoD expression and hypertrophy of the rat soleus produced either by clenbuterol and 3,3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine (CT) treatment or by surgical overload was examined. Mature female rats were subjected to surgical overload of the right soleus with the left soleus serving as a control. Another group received the same surgical treatment but were administered CT. Soleus muscles were harvested 4 wk after surgical overload and weighed. Myosin heavy chain isoforms were separated by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis while myogenin and MyoD expression were evaluated by Northern analysis. CT and functional overload increased soleus muscle weight. CT treatment induced the appearance of the fast type IIX myosin heavy chain isoform, depressed myogenin expression, and induced MyoD expression. However, functional overload did not alter myogenin or MyoD expression in CT-treated or non-CT-treated rats. Thus pharmacologically and surgically induced hypertrophy have differing effects on myogenin and MyoD expression, because their levels were associated with changes in myosin heavy chain composition (especially type IIX) rather than changes in muscle mass.

  9. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) induces chondroprotection via increasing autophagy, anti-inflammatory markers, and decreasing apoptosis in human osteoarthritic cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Mayssam; Lajeunesse, Daniel; Hilal, George; El Atat, Oula; Haykal, Gaby; Serhal, Rim; Chalhoub, Antonio; Khalil, Charbel; Alaaeddine, Nada

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy constitutes a defense mechanism to overcome aging and apoptosis in osteoarthritic cartilage. Several cytokines and transcription factors are linked to autophagy and play an important role in the degradative cascade in osteoarthritis (OA). Cell therapy such as platelet rich plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic tool for many diseases including OA. However, its mechanism of action on improving cartilage repair remains to be determined. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on osteoarthritic chondrocytes and to elucidate the mechanism by which PRP contributes to cartilage regeneration. Osteoarthritic chondrocytes were co-cultured with an increasing concentration of PRP obtained from healthy donors. The effect of PRP on the proliferation of chondrocytes was performed using cell counting and WST8 proliferation assays. Autophagy, apoptosis and intracellular level of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were determined using flow cytometry analyses. Autophagy markers BECLIN and LC3II were also determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR and ELISA were used to measure the expression of ADAMDTS-5, MMP3, MMP13, TIMP-1-2-3, aggregan, Collagen type 2, TGF-β, Cox-2, Il-6, FOXO1, FOXO3, and HIF-1 in tissues and co-cultured media. PRP increased significantly the proliferation of chondrocytes, decreased apoptosis and increased autophagy and its markers along with its regulators FOXO1, FOXO3 and HIF-1 in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Furthermore, PRP caused a dose-dependent significant decrease in MMP3, MMP13, and ADAMTS-5, IL-6 and COX-2 while increasing TGF-β, aggregan, and collagen type 2, TIMPs and intracellular IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. These results suggest that PRP could be a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of OA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modified technique to increase nostril cross-sectional area after using rib and septal cartilage graft over alar nasal cartilages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulkan, Marcelo; Sá, Alvaro Julio de Andrade; Alonso, Nivaldo

    2012-10-01

    Describe a modified technique to increase nostril cross-sectional area using rib and septal cartilage graft over alar nasal cartilages. A modified surgical technique was used to obtain, carve and insert cartilage grafts over alar nasal cartilages. This study used standardized pictures and measured 90 cadaveric nostril cross-sectional area using Autocad(®); 30 were taken before any procedure and 60 were taken after grafts over lateral crura (30 using costal cartilage and 30 using septal cartilage). Statistical analysis were assessed using a model for repeated measures and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) for the variable "area". There's statistical evidence that rib cartilage graft is more effective than septal cartilage graft. The mean area after the insertion of septal cartilage graft is smaller than the mean area under rib graft treatment (no confidence interval for mean difference contains the zero value and all P-values are below the significance level of 5%). The technique presented is applicable to increase nostril cross section area in cadavers. This modified technique revealed to enhance more nostril cross section area with costal cartilage graft over lateral crura rather than by septal graft.

  11. Induction of tolerance with intranasal administration of human cartilage gp-39 in DBA/1 mice - Amelioration of clinical, histologic, and radiologic signs of type II collagen-induced arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, LAB; Coenen-de Roo, CJJ; Helsen, MMA; Lubberts, E; Boots, AMH; van den Berg, WB; Miltenburg, AMM

    2000-01-01

    Objective. Human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC gp-39) was recently identified as a candidate autoantigen in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, In the present studies, we investigated the capacity of HC gp-39 to interfere in clinical disease induced by an unrelated autoantigen, type II collage

  12. 运动性关节软骨损伤修复材料的选择及其生物力学特征%Selection and biomechanical features of repair materials for exercise-induced articular cartilage injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪博; 刘东兴; 任志杰; 尹树仁

    2011-01-01

    itself. Under physiological load, the articular cartilage often places in stress environments.According to its structure and characteristics of cartilage, it should have good biomechanical properties as an artificial cartilage replacement material.OBJECTIVE: To summarize the application progress of repair materials for the exercise-induced articular cartilage injury and biomechanical characteristics as an alternative biomaterial.METHODS: Using “articular cartilage, biomaterials, biomechanics” in Chinese and “tissue engineering, articular cartilage,scaffold material, biomechanics” in English as the key words, a computer-based retrieval of China Academic Journal Full-text database and PubMed database was performed from January 1993 to October 2010. Articles related to exercise-induced articular cartilage injury and repair, currently used biomaterials in the repair of articular cartilage injury and its biomechanical characteristics as an alternative biomaterial; duplicated research or Meta analysis was eliminated. Twenty articles mainly focus on the biomechanical characteristics of repair materials in the repair of exercise-induced articular cartilage defects.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Articular cartilage is an anisotropic, heterogeneous, viscoelastic and permeable material that is filled with liquid, it has unique mechanical properties. The biomechanics of injured articular cartilage are different from the original cartilage, and easy to degenerate. Mechanical properties of osteochondral transplantation are the best for recent period; acellular cartilage matrix and small intestine submucosa matrix have certain mechanical strength; the greatest drawback of ordinary polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel is insufficient mechanical properties; polyvinyl alcohol has good flexibility and high elastic property,and similar mechanical properties with human articular cartilage; n-HA slurry and polyamide 66 composite in a solvent, they are similar to natural bone in terms of chemical

  13. Cartilage tissue engineering: Role of mesenchymal stem cells along with growth factors & scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M B Gugjoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage injury poses a major challenge for both the patient and orthopaedician. Articular cartilage defects once formed do not regenerate spontaneously, rather replaced by fibrocartilage which is weaker in mechanical competence than the normal hyaline cartilage. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs along with different growth factors and scaffolds are currently incorporated in tissue engineering to overcome the deficiencies associated with currently available surgical methods and to facilitate cartilage healing. MSCs, being readily available with a potential to differentiate into chondrocytes which are enhanced by the application of different growth factors, are considered for effective repair of articular cartilage after injury. However, therapeutic application of MSCs and growth factors for cartilage repair remains in its infancy, with no comparative clinical study to that of the other surgical techniques. The present review covers the role of MSCs, growth factors and scaffolds for the repair of articular cartilage injury.

  14. Ultrasonography and Radiography Evaluation of the Cartilage Graft in Repair of Experimentally Induced Radial Bone Defect in Rabbit

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    Foad Sadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We would like to thank to the Faculty of Specialized Veterinary Sciences research council. Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University, Punak Tehran for approval and financial support to finish this project. Problems statement: The purpose of this research was to determine the biological effect of cartilage graft as a bone defect filler and osteogenetic stimulation to speed up bone healing too. Approach: Sixteen adult male New Zealand white rabbits having body weight ranged from 3.0-3.5 Kg. Under general anesthesia, a segmental full thickness bone defect of 10 mm in length was created in the middle of the right radial shaft in all rabbits. They were divided into two groups of 6 rabbits each. Group I was considered as control and the fractured site was fixed using finger bone plate with 4 screws, whereas the ear cartilage of 1×1 cm graft was used to fill the gap after fracture fixation in Group II. Rabbits in two groups were subdivided into 2 subgroups of 1 and 2 months duration with 4 rabbits in each. Radiography and two dimensional and color Doppler sonography were done before and after creating defects and on 15, 30 and 60 days to evaluate local reaction as far as new blood vessels network and callus formation are concerned. Results: On the radiographs during the whole process, bone repair in Group I was not as perfect as those in Group II samples and trace of internal callus filled the gap incompletely in 60 days in Group I, whereas in Group II internal callus almost was formed on 30 days and in addition intercortical callus was seen supporting to cover and filled the gap completely in this group. Sonographic findings confirmed the protrusion of newly formed blood vascular network in 30 days in Group I and from 15 days in Group II and remarkably increased till end of observation period. Conclusion: Cartilage graft is suitable alternative bone filler and radiography and sonography are reliable techniques to trace local reaction at

  15. Tamarind Seed (Tamarindus indica) Extract Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis via Regulating the Mediators of Cartilage/Bone Degeneration, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mahalingam S Sundaram; Mahadevappa Hemshekhar; Santhosh, Martin S.; Manoj Paul; Kabburahalli Sunitha; Ram M. Thushara; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K.; Shivanna Naveen; Sannaningaiah Devaraja; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.; Kempaiah Kemparaju; Girish, Kesturu S.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are employed in the treatment of human ailments from time immemorial. Several studies have validated the use of medicinal plant products in arthritis treatment. Arthritis is a joint disorder affecting subchondral bone and cartilage. Degradation of cartilage is principally mediated by enzymes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronidases (HAase), aggrecanases and exoglycosidases. These enzymes act upon collagen, hyaluronan and aggrecan of cartilage respectively, which ...

  16. Assessment of cartilage-dedicated sequences at ultra-high-field MRI: comparison of imaging performance and diagnostic confidence between 3.0 and 7.0 T with respect to osteoarthritis-induced changes at the knee joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Robert [University of California, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); University Hospitals - Campus Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Krug, Roland; Zuo, Jin; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kelley, Douglas A.C. [General Electrics Healthcare Technologies, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ma, C.B. [University of California, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The objectives of the study were to optimize three cartilage-dedicated sequences for in vivo knee imaging at 7.0 T ultra-high-field (UHF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to compare imaging performance and diagnostic confidence concerning osteoarthritis (OA)-induced changes at 7.0 and 3.0 T MRI. Optimized MRI sequences for cartilage imaging at 3.0 T were tailored for 7.0 T: an intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (IM-w FSE), a fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) and a T1-weighted 3D high-spatial-resolution volumetric fat-suppressed spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) sequence. Three healthy subjects and seven patients with mild OA were examined. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), diagnostic confidence in assessing cartilage abnormalities, and image quality were determined. Abnormalities were assessed with the whole organ magnetic resonance imaging score (WORMS). Focal cartilage lesions and bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) were also quantified. At 7.0 T, SNR was increased (p<0.05) for all sequences. For the IM-w FSE sequence, limitations with the specific absorption rate (SAR) required modifications of the scan parameters yielding an incomplete coverage of the knee joint, extensive artifacts, and a less effective fat saturation. CNR and image quality were increased (p<0.05) for SPGR and FIESTA and decreased for IM-w FSE. Diagnostic confidence for cartilage lesions was highest (p<0.05) for FIESTA at 7.0 T. Evaluation of BMEP was decreased (p < 0.05) at 7.0 T due to limited performance of IM-w FSE. Gradient echo-based pulse sequences like SPGR and FIESTA are well suited for imaging at UHF which may improve early detection of cartilage lesions. However, UHF IM-w FSE sequences are less feasible for clinical use. (orig.)

  17. Roles of inflammatory and anabolic cytokines in cartilage metabolism: signals and multiple effectors converge upon MMP-13 regulation in osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Goldring

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human cartilage is a complex tissue of matrix proteins that vary in amount and orientation from superficial to deep layers and from loaded to unloaded zones. A major challenge to efforts to repair cartilage by stem cell-based and other tissue engineering strategies is the inability of the resident chondrocytes to lay down new matrix with the same structural and resilient properties that it had upon its original formation. This is particularly true of the collagen network, which is susceptible to cleavage once proteoglycans are depleted. Thus, a thorough understanding of the similarities and particularly the marked differences in mechanisms of cartilage remodeling during development, osteoarthritis, and aging may lead to more effective strategies for preventing cartilage damage and promoting repair. To identify and characterize effectors or regulators of cartilage remodeling in these processes, we are using culture models of primary human and mouse chondrocytes and cell lines and mouse genetic models to manipulate gene expression programs leading to matrix remodeling and subsequent chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation, pivotal processes which both go astray in OA disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-13, the major type II collagen-degrading collagenase, is regulated by stress-, inflammation-, and differentiation-induced signals that not only contribute to irreversible joint damage (progression in OA, but importantly, also to the initiation/onset phase, wherein chondrocytes in articular cartilage leave their natural growth- and differentiation-arrested state. Our work points to common mediators of these processes in human OA cartilage and in early through late stages of OA in surgical and genetic mouse models.

  18. Cell factory-derived bioactive molecules with polymeric cryogel scaffold enhance the repair of subchondral cartilage defect in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankur; Bhat, Sumrita; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Gupta, Kailash C; Tägil, Magnus; Zheng, Ming Hao; Kumar, Ashok; Lidgren, Lars

    2017-06-01

    We have explored the potential of cell factory-derived bioactive molecules, isolated from conditioned media of primary goat chondrocytes, for the repair of subchondral cartilage defects. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirms the presence of transforming growth factor-β1 in an isolated protein fraction (12.56 ± 1.15 ng/mg protein fraction). These bioactive molecules were used alone or with chitosan-agarose-gelatin cryogel scaffolds, with and without chondrocytes, to check whether combined approaches further enhance cartilage repair. To evaluate this, an in vivo study was conducted on New Zealand rabbits in which a subchondral defect (4.5 mm wide × 4.5 mm deep) was surgically created. Starting after the operation, bioactive molecules were injected at the defect site at regular intervals of 14 days. Histopathological analysis showed that rabbits treated with bioactive molecules alone had cartilage regeneration after 4 weeks. However, rabbits treated with bioactive molecules along with scaffolds, with or without cells, showed cartilage formation after 3 weeks; 6 weeks after surgery, the cartilage regenerated in rabbits treated with either bioactive molecules alone or in combinations showed morphological similarities to native cartilage. No systemic cytotoxicity or inflammatory response was induced by any of the treatments. Further, ELISA was done to determine systemic toxicity, which showed no difference in concentration of tumour necrosis factor-α in blood serum, before or after surgery. In conclusion, intra-articular injection with bioactive molecules alone may be used for the repair of subchondral cartilage defects, and bioactive molecules along with chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds further enhance the repair. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Visualization of small lesions in rat cartilage by means of laboratory-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenzana, Massimo; Hagen, Charlotte K.; Das Neves Borges, Patricia; Endrizzi, Marco; Szafraniec, Magdalena B.; Ignatyev, Konstantin; Olivo, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    Being able to quantitatively assess articular cartilage in three-dimensions (3D) in small rodent animal models, with a simple laboratory set-up, would prove extremely important for the development of pre-clinical research focusing on cartilage pathologies such as osteoarthritis (OA). These models are becoming essential tools for the development of new drugs for OA, a disease affecting up to 1/3 of the population older than 50 years for which there is no cure except prosthetic surgery. However, due to limitations in imaging technology, high-throughput 3D structural imaging has not been achievable in small rodent models, thereby limiting their translational potential and their efficiency as research tools. We show that a simple laboratory system based on coded-aperture x-ray phase contrast imaging (CAXPCi) can correctly visualize the cartilage layer in slices of an excised rat tibia imaged both in air and in saline solution. Moreover, we show that small, surgically induced lesions are also correctly detected by the CAXPCi system, and we support this finding with histopathology examination. Following these successful proof-of-concept results in rat cartilage, we expect that an upgrade of the system to higher resolutions (currently underway) will enable extending the method to the imaging of mouse cartilage as well. From a technological standpoint, by showing the capability of the system to detect cartilage also in water, we demonstrate phase sensitivity comparable to other lab-based phase methods (e.g. grating interferometry). In conclusion, CAXPCi holds a strong potential for being adopted as a routine laboratory tool for non-destructive, high throughput assessment of 3D structural changes in murine articular cartilage, with a possible impact in the field similar to the revolution that conventional microCT brought into bone research.

  20. Tail regeneration in the plethodontid salamander, Plethodon cinereus: induced autotomy versus surgical amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, C E

    1977-02-01

    Regeneration of the tail in the plethodontid salamander, Plethodon cinereus, occurs following either surgical amputation or induced autotomy. Autotomy may occur along any one of the caudal myosepta which form natural cleavage planes. The distally attached myofibers break away from the myoseptum which then becomes part of the stump surface remaining intact during subsequent regeneration of the distal segments. Under these conditions, therefore, muscle fibers do not normally participate in tail regeneration. If, however, the myofibers of a caudal myotome are interrupted as in mid-segment amputation, the damaged fibers undergo hyaline degeneration and are largely replaced by connective tissue often as far proximally as the next myoseptum. Other tissues at the amputation surface are concurrently engaged in the epimorphic regeneration of the tail, including myogenesis, though at a slower initial rate than that following autotomy. Muscle cells, therefore, appear not to participate in epimorphic tail regeneration in Plethodon cinereus following either surgical amputation or induced autotomy.

  1. Age-Independent Cartilage Generation for Synovium-Based Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Ernst B; Lippuner, Kurt; Keel, Marius J B; Shintani, Nahoko

    2015-07-01

    The articular cartilage layer of synovial joints is commonly lesioned by trauma or by a degenerative joint disease. Attempts to repair the damage frequently involve the performance of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Healthy cartilage must be first removed from the joint, and then, on a separate occasion, following the isolation of the chondrocytes and their expansion in vitro, implanted within the lesion. The disadvantages of this therapeutic approach include the destruction of healthy cartilage-which may predispose the joint to osteoarthritic degeneration-the necessarily restricted availability of healthy tissue, the limited proliferative capacity of the donor cells-which declines with age-and the need for two surgical interventions. We postulated that it should be possible to induce synovial stem cells, which are characterized by high, age-independent, proliferative and chondrogenic differentiation capacities, to lay down cartilage within the outer juxtasynovial space after the transcutaneous implantation of a carrier bearing BMP-2 in a slow-release system. The chondrocytes could be isolated on-site and immediately used for ACI. To test this hypothesis, Chinchilla rabbits were used as an experimental model. A collagenous patch bearing BMP-2 in a slow-delivery vehicle was sutured to the inner face of the synovial membrane. The neoformed tissue was excised 5, 8, 11 and 14 days postimplantation for histological and histomorphometric analyses. Neoformed tissue was observed within the outer juxtasynovial space already on the 5th postimplantation day. It contained connective and adipose tissues, and a central nugget of growing cartilage. Between days 5 and 14, the absolute volume of cartilage increased, attaining a value of 12 mm(3) at the latter juncture. Bone was deposited in measurable quantities from the 11th day onwards, but owing to resorption, the net volume did not exceed 1.5 mm(3) (14th day). The findings confirm our hypothesis. The quantity of

  2. Evaluation of cardiovascular disease risk in women with surgically induced menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Nagihan; Engin-Üstün, Yaprak; Kiyak Çağlayan, Emel; Göçmen, Ayşe Yeşim; Polat, Muhammet Fevzi

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among women undergoing natural menopause or surgically induced menopause through the measurement of serum growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), ischemia modified albumin (IMA), total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein (CRP). The study included women with surgically induced menopause (n = 50) and women undergoing natural menopause (n = 50). The two study groups were matched according to age, body mass index, menopause duration. GDF-15, BNP, IMA, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride, fibrinogen, and CRP were measured. There was no significant difference in GDF-15, BNP, IMA, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride, fibrinogen, and CRP results between the two groups. We conclude that there is no increase in CVD risk among women aged 40-50 with surgically induced menopause relative to matched control subjects undergoing normal age-related menopause.

  3. Influence of the gel thickness on in vivo hyaline cartilage regeneration induced by double-network gel implanted at the bottom of a large osteochondral defect: Short-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuda Hidetoshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A double-network (DN gel, which is composed of poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and poly(N,N’-dimethyl acrylamide, can induce hyaline cartilage regeneration in vivo in a large osteochondral defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of the thickness of the implanted DN gel on the induction ability of hyaline cartilage regeneration. Methods Thirty-eight mature rabbits were used in this study. We created an osteochondral defect having a diameter of 4.3-mm in the patellofemoral joint. The knees were randomly divided into 4 groups (Group I: 0.5-mm thick gel, Group II: 1.0-mm thick gel, Group III: 5.0-mm thick gel, and Group IV: untreated control. Animals in each group were further divided into 3 sub-groups depending on the gel implant position (2.0-, 3.0-, or 4.0-mm depth from the articular surface in the defect. The regenerated tissues were evaluated with the Wayne’s gross and histological grading scales and real time PCR analysis of the cartilage marker genes at 4 weeks. Results According to the total Wayne’s score, when the depth of the final vacant space was set at 2.0 mm, the scores in Groups I, II, and III were significantly greater than that Group IV (p  Conclusions The 1.0-mm thick DN gel sheet had the same ability to induce hyaline cartilage regeneration as the 5.0-mm thick DN gel plug. However, the induction ability of the 0.5-mm thick sheet was significantly lower when compared with the 1.0-mm thick gel sheet. The 1.0-mm DN gel sheet is a promising device to establish a cell-free cartilage regeneration strategy that minimizes bone loss from the gel implantation.

  4. Evaluation of influence of proteoglycans on hydration of articular cartilage with the use of ultrasound

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    Yi-yi YANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To monitor the changes in hydration behaviour of articular cartilage induced by degradation of proteoglycans, and to explore the effect of proteoglycans on hydration behaviour of articular cartilage by using high-frequency ultrasound. Methods Twelve porcine patellae with smooth cartilage surface were prepared and equally divided into two groups: normal group without any enzyme treatment, and trypsin group they were treated with 0.25% trypsin for 8h to digest proteoglycan in the cartilage. The hydration behaviour of the cartilage tissue was scanned by high-frequency ultrasound system with a central frequency of 25MHz. Parameters including cartilage hydration strain and cartilage thickness were measured. The histopathological changes in the articular cartilage were observed under a light microscope. Results It took approximately 20min to reach equilibrium during the hydration process in the normal cartilages, while proteoglycan-degraded cartilage took only about 5min to achieve equilibrium. The equilibrium strain of normal cartilage was 3.5%±0.5%. The degradation of proteoglycans induced a significant decrease in equilibrium strain (1.8%±0.2%, P0.05. Conclusion Proteoglycans play an important role in hydration behaviour of articular cartilage. The degradation of proteoglycans could induce degeneration of cartilage structure and decrease in hydration behaviour after dehydration. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.03

  5. Effect of a Herbal-Leucine mix on the IL-1β-induced cartilage degradation and inflammatory gene expression in human chondrocytes

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    Haqqi Tariq M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional treatments for the articular diseases are often effective for symptom relief, but can also cause significant side effects and do not slow the progression of the disease. Several natural substances have been shown to be effective at relieving the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA, and preliminary evidence suggests that some of these compounds may exert a favorable influence on the course of the disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory/chondroprotective potential of a Herbal and amino acid mixture containing extract of the Uncaria tomentosa, Boswellia spp., Lepidium meyenii and L-Leucine on the IL-1β-induced production of nitric oxide (NO, glycosaminoglycan (GAG, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, aggrecan (ACAN and type II collagen (COL2A1 in human OA chondrocytes and OA cartilage explants. Methods Primary OA chondrocytes or OA cartilage explants were pretreated with Herbal-Leucine mixture (HLM, 1-10 μg/ml and then stimulated with IL-1β (5 ng/ml. Effect of HLM on IL-1β-induced gene expression of iNOS, MMP-9, MMP-13, ACAN and COL2A1 was verified by real time-PCR. Estimation of NO and GAG release in culture supernatant was done using commercially available kits. Results HLM tested in these in vitro studies was found to be an effective anti-inflammatory agent, as evidenced by strong inhibition of iNOS, MMP-9 and MMP-13 expression and NO production in IL-1β-stimulated OA chondrocytes (p Leucine mixture (HLM up-regulation of ACAN and COL2A1 expression in IL-1β-stimulated OA chondrocytes was also noted (p Conclusion Our data suggests that HLM could be chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory agent in arthritis, switching chondrocyte gene expression from catabolic direction towards anabolic and regenerative, and consequently this approach may be potentially useful as a new adjunct therapeutic/preventive agent for OA or injury recovery.

  6. Autologous chondrocyte implantation: superior biologic properties of hyaline cartilage repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Ian; Lavigne, Patrick; Valenzuela, Herminio; Oakes, Barry

    2007-02-01

    Information regarding the quality of autologous chondrocyte implantation repair is needed to determine whether the current autologous chondrocyte implantation surgical technology and the subsequent biologic repair processes are capable of reliably forming durable hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage in vivo. We report and analyze the properties and qualities of autologous chondrocyte implantation repairs. We evaluated 66 autologous chondrocyte implantation repairs in 57 patients, 55 of whom had histology, indentometry, and International Cartilage Repair Society repair scoring at reoperation for mechanical symptoms or pain. International Knee Documentation Committee scores were used to address clinical outcome. Maximum stiffness, normalized stiffness, and International Cartilage Repair Society repair scoring were higher for hyaline articular cartilage repairs compared with fibrocartilage, with no difference in clinical outcome. Reoperations revealed 32 macroscopically abnormal repairs (Group B) and 23 knees with normal-looking repairs in which symptoms leading to arthroscopy were accounted for by other joint disorders (Group A). In Group A, 65% of repairs were either hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage compared with 28% in Group B. Autologous chondrocyte repairs composed of fibrocartilage showed more morphologic abnormalities and became symptomatic earlier than hyaline or hyaline-like cartilage repairs. The hyaline articular cartilage repairs had biomechanical properties comparable to surrounding cartilage and superior to those associated with fibrocartilage repairs.

  7. The identification of CD163 expressing phagocytic chondrocytes in joint cartilage and its novel scavenger role in cartilage degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Jiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cartilage degradation is a typical characteristic of arthritis. This study examined whether there was a subset of phagocytic chondrocytes that expressed the specific macrophage marker, CD163, and investigated their role in cartilage degradation. METHODS: Cartilage from the knee and temporomandibular joints of Sprague-Dawley rats was harvested. Cartilage degradation was experimentally-induced in rat temporomandibular joints, using published biomechanical dental methods. The expression levels of CD163 and inflammatory factors within cartilage, and the ability of CD163(+ chondrocytes to conduct phagocytosis were investigated. Cartilage from the knees of patients with osteoarthritis and normal cartilage from knee amputations was also investigated. RESULTS: In the experimentally-induced degrading cartilage from temporomandibular joints, phagocytes were capable of engulfing neighboring apoptotic and necrotic cells, and the levels of CD163, TNF-α and MMPs were all increased (P0.05. CD163(+ chondrocytes were found in the cartilage mid-zone of temporomandibular joints and knee from healthy, three-week old rats. Furthermore, an increased number of CD163(+ chondrocytes with enhanced phagocytic activity were present in Col-II(+ chondrocytes isolated from the degraded cartilage of temporomandibular joints in the eight-week experimental group compared with their age-matched controls. Increased number with enhanced phagocytic activity of CD163(+ chondrocytes were also found in isolated Col-II(+ chondrocytes stimulated with TNF-α (P<0.05. Mid-zone distribution of CD163(+ cells accompanied with increased expression of CD163 and TNF-α were further confirmed in the isolated Col-II(+ chondrocytes from the knee cartilage of human patients with osteoarthritis, in contrast to the controls (both P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: An increased number of CD163(+ chondrocytes with enhanced phagocytic activity were discovered within degraded joint cartilage, indicating a

  8. The identification of CD163 expressing phagocytic chondrocytes in joint cartilage and its novel scavenger role in cartilage degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kai; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Mian; Wei, Yuying; Wu, Yaoping; Qiu, Zhong Ying; He, Jianjun; Cao, Yunxin; Hu, Jintao; Zhu, Han; Niu, Li-Na; Cao, Xu; Yang, Kun; Wang, Mei-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Cartilage degradation is a typical characteristic of arthritis. This study examined whether there was a subset of phagocytic chondrocytes that expressed the specific macrophage marker, CD163, and investigated their role in cartilage degradation. Cartilage from the knee and temporomandibular joints of Sprague-Dawley rats was harvested. Cartilage degradation was experimentally-induced in rat temporomandibular joints, using published biomechanical dental methods. The expression levels of CD163 and inflammatory factors within cartilage, and the ability of CD163(+) chondrocytes to conduct phagocytosis were investigated. Cartilage from the knees of patients with osteoarthritis and normal cartilage from knee amputations was also investigated. In the experimentally-induced degrading cartilage from temporomandibular joints, phagocytes were capable of engulfing neighboring apoptotic and necrotic cells, and the levels of CD163, TNF-α and MMPs were all increased (P0.05). CD163(+) chondrocytes were found in the cartilage mid-zone of temporomandibular joints and knee from healthy, three-week old rats. Furthermore, an increased number of CD163(+) chondrocytes with enhanced phagocytic activity were present in Col-II(+) chondrocytes isolated from the degraded cartilage of temporomandibular joints in the eight-week experimental group compared with their age-matched controls. Increased number with enhanced phagocytic activity of CD163(+) chondrocytes were also found in isolated Col-II(+) chondrocytes stimulated with TNF-α (PCD163(+) cells accompanied with increased expression of CD163 and TNF-α were further confirmed in the isolated Col-II(+) chondrocytes from the knee cartilage of human patients with osteoarthritis, in contrast to the controls (both PCD163(+) chondrocytes with enhanced phagocytic activity were discovered within degraded joint cartilage, indicating a role in eliminating degraded tissues. Targeting these cells provides a new strategy for the treatment of arthritis.

  9. Influence of the gel thickness on in vivo hyaline cartilage regeneration induced by double-network gel implanted at the bottom of a large osteochondral defect: short-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hidetoshi; Kitamura, Nobuto; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Arakaki, Kazunobu; Gong, Jian Ping; Kanaya, Fuminori; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2013-01-31

    A double-network (DN) gel, which is composed of poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) and poly(N,N'-dimethyl acrylamide), can induce hyaline cartilage regeneration in vivo in a large osteochondral defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of the thickness of the implanted DN gel on the induction ability of hyaline cartilage regeneration. Thirty-eight mature rabbits were used in this study. We created an osteochondral defect having a diameter of 4.3-mm in the patellofemoral joint. The knees were randomly divided into 4 groups (Group I: 0.5-mm thick gel, Group II: 1.0-mm thick gel, Group III: 5.0-mm thick gel, and Group IV: untreated control). Animals in each group were further divided into 3 sub-groups depending on the gel implant position (2.0-, 3.0-, or 4.0-mm depth from the articular surface) in the defect. The regenerated tissues were evaluated with the Wayne's gross and histological grading scales and real time PCR analysis of the cartilage marker genes at 4 weeks. According to the total Wayne's score, when the depth of the final vacant space was set at 2.0 mm, the scores in Groups I, II, and III were significantly greater than that Group IV (phyaline cartilage regeneration as the 5.0-mm thick DN gel plug. However, the induction ability of the 0.5-mm thick sheet was significantly lower when compared with the 1.0-mm thick gel sheet. The 1.0-mm DN gel sheet is a promising device to establish a cell-free cartilage regeneration strategy that minimizes bone loss from the gel implantation.

  10. Animal models of surgically manipulated flow velocities to study shear stress-induced atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Leah C; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Xing, Ruoyu; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Van der Heiden, Kim

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial tree that develops at predisposed sites, coinciding with locations that are exposed to low or oscillating shear stress. Manipulating flow velocity, and concomitantly shear stress, has proven adequate to promote endothelial activation and subsequent plaque formation in animals. In this article, we will give an overview of the animal models that have been designed to study the causal relationship between shear stress and atherosclerosis by surgically manipulating blood flow velocity profiles. These surgically manipulated models include arteriovenous fistulas, vascular grafts, arterial ligation, and perivascular devices. We review these models of manipulated blood flow velocity from an engineering and biological perspective, focusing on the shear stress profiles they induce and the vascular pathology that is observed.

  11. MRI of the cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, H.; Noebauer-Huhmann, I.-M.; Krestan, C.; Gahleitner, A.; Marlovits, S.; Trattnig, S. [Department of Osteology, Universitaetklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, AKH-Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Sulzbacher, I. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Pathologie Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2002-11-01

    With the introduction of fat-suppressed gradient-echo and fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences in clinical routine MR visualization of the hyaline articular cartilage is routinely possible in the larger joints. While 3D gradient-echo with fat suppression allows exact depiction of the thickness and surface of cartilage, FSE outlines the normal and abnormal internal structures of the hyaline cartilage; therefore, both sequences seem to be necessary in a standard MRI protocol for cartilage visualization. In diagnostically ambiguous cases, in which important therapeutic decisions are required, direct MR arthrography is the established imaging standard as an add-on procedure. Despite the social impact and prevalence, until recent years there was a paucity of knowledge about the pathogenesis of cartilage damage. With the introduction of high-resolution MRI with powerful surface coils and fat-suppression techniques, visualization of the articular cartilage is now routinely possible in many joints. After a short summary of the anatomy and physiology of the hyaline cartilage, the different MR imaging methods are discussed and recommended standards are suggested. (orig.)

  12. Induction of advanced glycation end products and alterations of the tensile properties of articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, A C; Temple, M.M.; Ng, D.M.; Verzijl, N; de Groot, J.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Sah, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether increasing advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in bovine articular cartilage to levels present in aged human cartilage modulates the tensile biomechanical properties of the tissue. Methods. Adult bovine articular cartilage samples were incubated in a buffer solution with ribose to induce the formation of AGEs or in a control solution. Portions of cartilage samples were assayed for biochemical indices of AGEs and tested to assess their tensile biomechanical p...

  13. Cytokines and cholinergic signals co-modulate surgical stress-induced changes in mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lichter, Irit; Beilin, Benzion; Ofek, Keren; Bessler, Hanna; Gruberger, Michal; Shavit, Yehuda; Seror, Dan; Grinevich, Galina; Posner, Eldad; Reichenberg, Abraham; Soreq, Hermona; Yirmiya, Raz

    2008-03-01

    Inflammatory cytokines and the cholinergic system have been implicated in the effects of stressors on mood and memory; however, the underlying mechanisms involved and the potential interrelationships between these pathways remain unclear. To address these questions, we administered neuropsychological tests to 33 generally healthy surgery patients who donated blood samples several days prior to undergoing moderate surgery (baseline), on the morning of the surgery (i.e., a psychological stressor), and one day after surgery. Eighteen control subjects were similarly tested. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and the stressor-inducible AChE-R variant were measured. An elevation in anxiety levels, an increase in depressed mood, and a decline in declarative memory were observed on the morning of the surgery, prior to any medical intervention, and were exacerbated one day after surgery. The surgical stressor-induced elevated IL-1 beta levels, which contributed to the increased depressed mood and to the post-surgery increase in AChE-R expression. The latter increase, which was also predicted by pre-surgery AChE-R and post-surgery mood disturbances, was associated with exacerbated memory impairments induced by surgery. In addition, elevated levels of AChE-R on the morning of the surgery predicted the post-surgery elevation in IL-6 levels, which was associated with amelioration of the memory impairments induced by surgery. Taken together, these findings suggest that exposure to a surgical stressor induces a reciprocal up-regulation of AChE-R and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are involved in regulating the surgery-induced mood and memory disturbances.

  14. Rhinoplasty: congenital deficiencies of the alar cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosins, Aaron M; Daniel, Rollin K; Sajjadian, Ali; Helms, Jill

    2013-08-01

    Congenital deficiencies of the alar cartilages are rare and often visible at birth but can occasionally present later. The authors review the anatomical development and discuss the incidence and treatment of congenital defects within the alar cartilages seen in rhinoplasty cases. The charts of 869 consecutive patients who underwent open rhinoplasty were retrospectively reviewed, and 8 cases of congenital defects of the alar cartilage within the middle crura were identified. Intraoperative photographs were taken of the alar deformities, and each patient underwent surgical correction. To simplify analysis, a classification of the defects was developed. A division was a cleft in the continuity of the alar cartilage with the 2 ends separate. A gap was a true absence of cartilage ranging from 1 to 4 mm, which can be accurately assessed in unilateral cases. A segmental loss was a defect greater than 4 mm. The 8 cases of deformity could be classified as 4 divisions, 3 gaps, and 1 segmental loss. None of the patients had a history of prior nasal trauma or nasal surgery. Six patients were women and 2 patients were men. In all cases, adequate projection and stability were achieved with a columellar strut. Asymmetry was minimized through concealer or tip grafts. There were no complications. Surgeons performing rhinoplasty surgery will encounter and should be prepared to deal with unexpected congenital defects of the alar cartilage. These defects within the middle crura will require stabilization with a columellar strut and, often, coverage with a concealer tip graft. We speculate that the cause of these defects is a disruption of the hedgehog signals that may arrest the condensation or block the differentiation of the underlying neural crest cells.

  15. Chondroinduction from Naturally Derived Cartilage Matrix: A Comparison Between Devitalized and Decellularized Cartilage Encapsulated in Hydrogel Pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Emily C; Barragan, Marilyn; Libeer, Tony B; Kieweg, Sarah L; Converse, Gabriel L; Hopkins, Richard A; Berkland, Cory J; Detamore, Michael S

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogel precursors are liquid solutions that are prone to leaking after surgical placement. This problem was overcome by incorporating either decellularized cartilage (DCC) or devitalized cartilage (DVC) microparticles into traditional photocrosslinkable hydrogel precursors in an effort to achieve a paste-like hydrogel precursor. DCC and DVC were selected specifically for their potential to induce chondrogenesis of stem cells, given that materials that are chondroinductive on their own without growth factors are a revolutionary goal in orthopedic medicine. We hypothesized that DVC, lacking the additional chemical processing steps in DCC to remove cell content, would lead to a more chondroinductive hydrogel with rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Hydrogels composed of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) and either DCC or DVC microparticles were tested with and without exposure to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 over a 6 week culture period, where swelling, mechanical analysis, and gene expression were observed. For collagen II, Sox-9, and aggrecan expression, MeHA precursors containing DVC consistently outperformed the DCC-containing groups, even when the DCC groups were exposed to TGF-β3. DVC consistently outperformed all TGF-β3-exposed groups in aggrecan and collagen II gene expression as well. In addition, when the same concentrations of MeHA with DCC or DVC microparticles were evaluated for yield stress, the yield stress with the DVC microparticles was 2.7 times greater. Furthermore, the only MeHA-containing group that exhibited shape retention was the group containing DVC microparticles. DVC appeared to be superior to DCC in both chondroinductivity and rheological performance of hydrogel precursors, and therefore DVC microparticles may hold translational potential for cartilage regeneration.

  16. SURGICALLY INDUCED ASTIGMATISM AFTER IMPLANTATION OF FOLDABLE AND NON - FOLDABLE LENSES IN CATARACT SURGERY BY PHACOEMULSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective comparative study included 300 matched patients of different grades of senile cataract. All of them willfully underwent phacoemulsification at the hands of a single experienced surgeon, performing with a single and individual technique {Woodcutter’s technique 1 }; half of them were implanted with a foldable intraocular lens and the other half with a non - foldable PMMA intraocular lens. All the patients undergoing phacoemulsification had an improvement in vision. There was no statistically significant difference in the surgically induced astigmatism after implanting foldable or non - foldable IOL

  17. A transduced living hyaline cartilage graft releasing transgenic stromal cell-derived factor-1 inducing endogenous stem cell homing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Leong, Wenyan; Su, Kai; Fang, Yu; Wang, Dong-An

    2013-05-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), also known as a homing factor, is a potent chemokine that activates and directs mobilization, migration, and retention of certain cell species via systemic circulation. The responding homing cells largely consist of activated stem cells, so that, in case of tissue lesions, such SDF-1-induced cell migration may execute recruitment of endogenous stem cells to perform autoreparation and compensatory regeneration in situ. In this study, a recombinant adenoviral vector carrying SDF-1 transgene was constructed and applied to transduce a novel scaffold-free living hyaline cartilage graft (SDF-t-LhCG). As an engineered transgenic living tissue, SDF-t-LhCG is capable of continuously producing and releasing SDF-1 in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro trials were examined with ELISA, while the in vivo trials were subsequently performed via a subcutaneous implantation of SDF-t-LhCG in a nude mouse model, followed by series of biochemical and biological analyses. The results indicate that transgenic SDF-1 enhanced the presence of this chemokine in mouse's circulation system; in consequence, SDF-1-induced activation and recruitment of endogenous stem cells were also augmented in both peripheral blood and SDF-t-LhCG implant per se. These results were obtained via flow cytometry analyses on mouse blood samples and implanted SDF-t-LhCG samples, indicating an upregulation of the CXCR4(+)(SDF-1 receptor) cell population, accompanied by upregulation of the CD34(+), CD44(+), and Sca-1(+) cell populations as well as a downregulation of the CD11b(+) cell population. With the supply of SDF-1-recruited endogenous stem cells, enhanced chondrogenesis was observed in SDF-t-LhCG implants in situ.

  18. Quantitative ultrasound imaging detects degenerative changes in articular cartilage surface and subchondral bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarakkala, Simo; Laasanen, Mikko S.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Töyräs, Juha

    2006-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that quantitative ultrasound imaging could sensitively diagnose degeneration of the articular surface and changes in the subchondral bone during the development of osteoarthrosis (OA). We have recently introduced a new parameter, ultrasound roughness index (URI), for the quantification of cartilage surface roughness, and successfully tested it with normal and experimentally degraded articular surfaces. In this in vitro study, the applicability of URI was tested in bovine cartilage samples with spontaneously developed tissue degeneration. Simultaneously, we studied the sensitivity of quantitative ultrasound imaging to detect degenerative changes in the cartilage-bone interface. For reference, histological degenerative grade of the cartilage samples was determined. Mechanical reference measurements were also conducted. Cartilage surface roughness (URI) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in histologically degenerated samples with inferior mechanical properties. Ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface was also significantly (p < 0.05) increased in degenerated samples. Furthermore, it was quantitatively confirmed that ultrasound attenuation in the overlying cartilage significantly affects the measured ultrasound reflection values from the cartilage-bone interface. To conclude, the combined ultrasound measurement of the cartilage surface roughness and ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface complement each other, and may together enable more sensitive and quantitative diagnosis of early OA or follow up after surgical cartilage repair.

  19. Quantitative ultrasound imaging detects degenerative changes in articular cartilage surface and subchondral bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarakkala, Simo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Etelae-Savo Hospital District, Mikkeli Central Hospital, Porrassalmenkatu 35-37, 50100 Mikkeli (Finland); Laasanen, Mikko S [Information Technology R and D Unit, Engineering Kuopio, Savonia Polytechnic, POB 1188, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Jurvelin, Jukka S [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Toeyraes, Juha [Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, POB 1777, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2006-10-21

    Previous studies have suggested that quantitative ultrasound imaging could sensitively diagnose degeneration of the articular surface and changes in the subchondral bone during the development of osteoarthrosis (OA). We have recently introduced a new parameter, ultrasound roughness index (URI), for the quantification of cartilage surface roughness, and successfully tested it with normal and experimentally degraded articular surfaces. In this in vitro study, the applicability of URI was tested in bovine cartilage samples with spontaneously developed tissue degeneration. Simultaneously, we studied the sensitivity of quantitative ultrasound imaging to detect degenerative changes in the cartilage-bone interface. For reference, histological degenerative grade of the cartilage samples was determined. Mechanical reference measurements were also conducted. Cartilage surface roughness (URI) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in histologically degenerated samples with inferior mechanical properties. Ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface was also significantly (p < 0.05) increased in degenerated samples. Furthermore, it was quantitatively confirmed that ultrasound attenuation in the overlying cartilage significantly affects the measured ultrasound reflection values from the cartilage-bone interface. To conclude, the combined ultrasound measurement of the cartilage surface roughness and ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface complement each other, and may together enable more sensitive and quantitative diagnosis of early OA or follow up after surgical cartilage repair.

  20. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberto; Castoldi, Filippo; Michielon, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory. PMID:26075244

  1. Cartilage repair: Generations of autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlovits, Stefan [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: stefan.marlovits@meduniwien.ac.at; Zeller, Philip [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Singer, Philipp [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Resinger, Christoph [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Vecsei, Vilmos [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-01-15

    Articular cartilage in adults has a limited capacity for self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts to treat cartilage defects have focused on delivering new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is an advanced cell-based orthobiologic technology used for the treatment of chondral defects of the knee that has been in clinical use since 1987 and has been performed on 12,000 patients internationally. With ACT, good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated post-traumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient, with the formation of hyaline or hyaline-like repair tissue. In the classic ACT technique, chondrocytes are isolated from small slices of cartilage harvested arthroscopically from a minor weight-bearing area of the injured knee. The extracellular matrix is removed by enzymatic digestion, and the cells are then expanded in monolayer culture. Once a sufficient number of cells has been obtained, the chondrocytes are implanted into the cartilage defect, using a periosteal patch over the defect as a method of cell containment. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. Further improvements in tissue engineering have contributed to the next generation of ACT techniques, where cells are combined with resorbable biomaterials, as in matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). These biomaterials secure the cells in the defect area and enhance their proliferation and differentiation.

  2. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marmotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory.

  3. Nonspecific otalgia: Indication for cartilage tympanoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Myringoplasty and tympanoplasty are commonly performed otologic surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of nonspecific otalgia on the successful autologous conchal cartilage and temporalis fascia graft take up in type-1 tympanoplasty. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 adult patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled for this study. Patients were placed in two groups (otalgia and nonotalgia group depending upon the history of otalgia. Patients in both groups were operated (type-1 tympanoplasty using randomly either temporalis fascia or conchal cartilage as the graft material. Follow-up of patients was done after 3 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3 months of surgery to check the status of graft take up. Result: Our study shows that patients in otalgia group in which autologous temporalis fascia was used as the graft material, the majority of patients had graft necrosis by 3 months after surgery (9.6% success only. Whereas patients of the same group in which autologous conchal cartilage was used as the graft material, successful graft take up was in 93.5% patients after 3 months of surgery. Our study shows that there was not much difference in using autologous temporalis fascia or autologous conchal cartilage on successful graft take up in nonotolgia group of patients, with success rate of 97.89% and 97.84%, respectively.

  4. Effect of highly purified capsaicin on articular cartilage and rotator cuff tendon healing: An in vivo rabbit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Nicole A; McNickle, Allison G; DeFranco, Michael J; Wang, FanChia; Shewman, Elizabeth F; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R; Chubinskaya, Susan; Kramer, Susan M; Wang, Vincent M

    2015-12-01

    Highly purified capsaicin has emerged as a promising injectable compound capable of providing sustained pain relief following a single localized treatment during orthopedic surgical procedures. To further assess its reliability for clinical use, the potential effect of highly purified capsaicin on articular cartilage metabolism as well as tendon structure and function warrants clarification. In the current study, rabbits received unilateral supraspinatus transection and repair with a single 1 ml injection of capsaicin (R+C), PEG-only placebo (R+P), or saline (R+S) into the glenohumeral joint (GHJ). An additional group received 1 ml capsaicin onto an intact rotator cuff (I+C). At 18 weeks post-op, cartilage proteoglycan (PG) synthesis and content as well as cell viability were similar (p>0.05) across treatment groups. Biomechanical testing revealed no differences (p>0.05) among tendon repair treatment groups. Similarly, histologic features of both cartilage and repaired tendons showed minimal differences across groups. Hence, in this rabbit model, a single injection of highly purified capsaicin into the GHJ does not induce a deleterious response with regard to cartilage matrix metabolism and cell viability, or rotator cuff healing. These data provide further evidence supporting the use of injectable, highly purified capsaicin as a safe alternative for management of postoperative pain following GHJ surgery.

  5. Human stem cells and articular cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Atsuyuki; Iwakura, Takashi; Reddi, A Hari

    2012-11-05

    The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES) cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.

  6. Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hari Reddi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.

  7. Zn deposition at the bone-cartilage interface in equine articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: D.A.Bradley@surrey.ac.uk; Moger, C.J.; Winlove, C.P. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-21

    In articular cartilage metalloproteinases, a family of enzymes whose function relies on the presence of divalent cations such as Zn and Ca plays a central role in the normal processes of growth and remodelling and in the degenerative and inflammatory processes of arthritis. Another important enzyme, alkaline phosphatase, involved in cartilage mineralisation also relies on metallic cofactors. The local concentration of divalent cations is therefore of considerable interest in cartilage pathophysiology and several authors have used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to map metal ion distributions in bone and cartilage. We report use of a bench-top XRF analytical microscope, providing spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m and applicable to histological sections, facilitating correlation of the distribution with structural features. The study seeks to establish the elemental distribution in normal tissue as a precursor to investigation of changes in disease. For six samples prepared from equine metacarpophalangeal joint, we observed increased concentration of Zn and Sr ions around the tidemark between normal and mineralised cartilage. This is believed to be an active site of remodelling but its composition has hitherto lacked detailed characterization. We also report preliminary results on two of the samples using Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). This confirms our previous observations using synchrotron-based XRF of enhanced deposition of Sr and Zn at the surface of the subchondral bone and in articular cartilage.

  8. Tamarind Seed (Tamarindus indica) Extract Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis via Regulating the Mediators of Cartilage/Bone Degeneration, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Mahalingam S; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Santhosh, Martin S; Paul, Manoj; Sunitha, Kabburahalli; Thushara, Ram M; NaveenKumar, Somanathapura K; Naveen, Shivanna; Devaraja, Sannaningaiah; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Girish, Kesturu S

    2015-06-10

    Medicinal plants are employed in the treatment of human ailments from time immemorial. Several studies have validated the use of medicinal plant products in arthritis treatment. Arthritis is a joint disorder affecting subchondral bone and cartilage. Degradation of cartilage is principally mediated by enzymes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronidases (HAase), aggrecanases and exoglycosidases. These enzymes act upon collagen, hyaluronan and aggrecan of cartilage respectively, which would in turn activate bone deteriorating enzymes like cathepsins and tartrate resistant acid phosphatases (TRAP). Besides, the incessant action of reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory mediators is reported to cause further damage by immunological activation. The present study demonstrated the anti-arthritic efficacy of tamarind seed extract (TSE). TSE exhibited cartilage and bone protecting nature by inhibiting the elevated activities of MMPs, HAase, exoglycosidases, cathepsins and TRAP. It also mitigated the augmented levels of inflammatory mediators like interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, IL-23 and cyclooxygenase-2. Further, TSE administration alleviated increased levels of ROS and hydroperoxides and sustained the endogenous antioxidant homeostasis by balancing altered levels of endogenous antioxidant markers. Overall, TSE was observed as a potent agent abrogating arthritis-mediated cartilage/bone degradation, inflammation and associated stress in vivo demanding further attention.

  9. Injection-induced gluteus muscle contractures: diagnosis with the "reverse Ober test" and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, William F; White, Klane K; Song, Kit M; Mosca, Vincent S

    2015-03-01

    Adoption rates are increasing in the United States and other developed countries. A large proportion of adopted children have been found to have unsuspected medical diagnoses, including orthopedic problems. One condition, termed injection-induced gluteus maximus contracture, has been previously described in several case series and can be difficult to diagnose if unfamiliar with this condition. By reviewing the etiology and pathoanatomy of this problem, as well as the typical examination findings, including the near-pathognomonic-positive "reverse Ober test," treating providers will be better prepared to recognize and properly treat this condition. This is a retrospective review of 4 patients treated at our institution for injection-induced gluteus maximus contracture. Patient history, physical examination findings, and treatment outcomes were recorded. All had undergone surgical treatment through a longitudinal incision along the posterior margin of the iliotibial band, with division of thickened, contracted gluteus tissue down to the ischial tuberosity. All 4 of the patients were adopted from orphanages in developing countries. Chief complaints of the patients varied, but physical examination findings were very consistent. Three of the 4 patients had undergone rotational osteotomies for presumed femoral retroversion before their diagnosis and treatment for injection-induced gluteus maximus contracture. All patients had concave, atrophic buttock contours and numerous punctate buttock scars. All walked with an out-toed gait and had marked apparent femoral retroversion. Each patient was found to have full hip adduction when the hip was extended but a hip abduction contracture when the hip was flexed. This finding of increasing abduction as an extended/adducted hip is flexed to 90 degrees is described as a positive "reverse Ober test." After surgical treatment, all hips could adduct to neutral from full extension to full flexion. Although common in some countries

  10. Surgical incision-induced nociception causes cognitive impairment and reduction in synaptic NMDA receptor 2B in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqin; Xin, Xin; Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Yiying; Yu, Buwei; Mao, Jianren; Xie, Zhongcong

    2013-11-06

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with impairments in daily functioning, and increased morbidity and mortality. However, the causes and neuropathogenesis of POCD remain largely unknown. Uncontrolled pain often occurs postoperatively. We therefore set out to determine the effects of surgical incision-induced nociception on the cognitive function and its underlying mechanisms in 3- and 9-month-old mice. The mice had surgical incision in the hindpaw and then were tested for nociceptive threshold, learning, and memory. Brain levels of NMDA receptor and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) were also assessed. We found that surgical incision-induced nociception in mice led to a decreased freezing time in the tone test (which assesses the hippocampus-independent learning and memory function), but not the context test, of Fear Conditioning System at 3 and 7 d, but not 30 d post incision in 9-month-old, but not 3-month-old mice. Consistently, the surgical incision selectively decreased synaptic NMDA receptor 2B levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, and increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and CDK5 in the cortex, but not hippocampus, of the mice. Finally, eutectic mixture of local anesthetics and CDK5 inhibitor, roscovitine, attenuated the surgical incision-induced reduction in the synaptic NMDA receptor 2B levels and learning impairment. These results suggested that surgical incision-induced nociception reduced the synaptic NMDA receptor 2B level in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice, which might lead to hippocampus-independent learning impairment, contributing to POCD. These findings call for further investigation to determine the role of surgical incision-induced nociception in POCD.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells as a potent cell source for articular cartilage regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamadreza; Baghaban; Eslaminejad; Elham; Malakooty; Poor

    2014-01-01

    Since articular cartilage possesses only a weak capac-ity for repair, its regeneration potential is considered one of the most important challenges for orthopedic surgeons. The treatment options, such as marrow stimulation techniques, fail to induce a repair tissue with the same functional and mechanical properties of native hyaline cartilage. Osteochondral transplantation is considered an effective treatment option but is as-sociated with some disadvantages, including donor-site morbidity, tissue supply limitation, unsuitable mechani-cal properties and thickness of the obtained tissue. Although autologous chondrocyte implantation results in reasonable repair, it requires a two-step surgical pro-cedure. Moreover, chondrocytes expanded in culture gradually undergo dedifferentiation, so lose morpho-logical features and specialized functions. In the search for alternative cells, scientists have found mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) to be an appropriate cellular mate-rial for articular cartilage repair. These cells were origi-nally isolated from bone marrow samples and further investigations have revealed the presence of the cells in many other tissues. Furthermore, chondrogenic dif-ferentiation is an inherent property of MSCs noticedat the time of the cell discovery. MSCs are known to exhibit homing potential to the damaged site at which they differentiate into the tissue cells or secrete a wide spectrum of bioactive factors with regenerative proper-ties. Moreover, these cells possess a considerable im-munomodulatory potential that make them the general donor for therapeutic applications. All of these topics will be discussed in this review.

  12. Biochemical effects on long-term frozen human costal cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Stefany P.; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Yoshito, Daniele; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: mathor@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Currently, the progresses on treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with the evolving of artificial implants and the success of tissue transplantation between genetically different individuals have conducted to an increase in radiosterilization. Regarding to tissue transplantation, it is essential to have sterile tissue and many tissue banks use radiosterilization as an effective method to sterilize these tissues. However, high doses of ionizing radiation and the preservation method may induce structural modifications in the tissues, as degradation of structural scaffold, decreasing its mechanical properties. Particularly, cartilage have been preserved in high concentrations of glycerol or deep-frozen at -70 degree C for storage after radiosterilization. Therefore, it is important to study the modifications induced in cartilage by preservation methods and by radiosterilization to determine the appropriated parameters for high quality of human allografts. Costal cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -20 degree C for 2 years long in order to compare with previous studies for fresh, deep-frozen and glycerolised cartilages. The mechanical tests were carried out in a universal testing machine until sample failure. According our results, there is no significant statistical difference between stress at break of fresh, long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages and deep-frozen cartilage. This early result suggests, regarding to tensile property, that long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages corresponds to glycerolised costal cartilages irradiated with 25 kGy or deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy. Thus, this long-term frozen cartilages may be used for tissue banks, but more studies about effects of ionizing radiation are necessary. (author)

  13. An amidated carboxymethylcellulose hydrogel for cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Gemma; Fini, Milena; Torricelli, Paola; Giardino, Roberto; Barbucci, Rolando

    2008-08-01

    An amidic derivative of carboxymethylcellulose was synthesized (CMCA). The new polysaccharide was obtained by converting a large percentage of carboxylic groups ( approximately 50%) of carboxymethylcellulose into amidic groups rendering the macromolecule quite similar to hyaluronan. Then, the polysaccharide (CMCA) was crosslinked. The behavior of CMCA hydrogel towards normal human articular chondrocytes (NHAC) was in vitro studied monitoring the cell proliferation and synthesis of extra cellular matrix (ECM) components and compared with a hyaluronan based hydrogel (Hyal). An extracellular matrix rich in cartilage-specific collagen and proteoglycans was secreted in the presence of hydrogels. The injectability of the new hydrogels was also analysed. An experimental in vivo model was realized to study the effect of CMCA and Hyal hydrogels in the treatment of surgically created partial thickness chondral defects in the rabbit knee. The preliminary results pointed out that CMCA hydrogel could be considered as a potential compound for cartilage regeneration.

  14. Anti-cartilage antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbury, C L; Skingle, J

    1979-08-01

    Antibody to cartilage has been demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence on rat trachea in the serum of about 3% of 1126 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:640. The antibody was not found in 284 patients with primary or secondary osteoarthritis or in 1825 blood donors, nor, with the exception of two weak reactors, in 1314 paraplegic patients. In most cases the antibody appears to be specific for native type II collagen. Using this as an antigen in a haemagglutination test 94% of anti-cartilage sera were positive, whereas among 100 rheumatoid control sera there were only three weak positives. More than 80% of patients with antibody had some erosion of articular cartilage, but there was no correlation with age, sex, duration of disease, nor any recognisable clinical event or change.

  15. The role of drug-induced sleep endoscopy in surgical planning for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Ozturk; Erdur, Omer; Cirik, Ahmet Adnan; Kayhan, Fatma Tulin

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the role of drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) in the surgical treatment planning of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This study was conducted using patients diagnosed with OSAS between January 2007 and March 2009, who were scheduled for surgical treatment. DISE was performed using propofol in patients considered to have upper respiratory tract obstruction as indicated by Muller's maneuver. After completing the sleep endoscopy, the patient was intubated and surgery was performed (tonsillectomy and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty). A successful operation was defined as a decrease in the respiratory disturbance index to below 5 or a decrease of ≥50 % following the operation. The study included 20 patients (4 female and 16 male) aged 19-57 years. No statistically significant correlation between modified Mallampati class and operation success or between the polysomnographic stage of disease and operation success was identified. A significantly high operation success rate was found in the group with obstruction of the upper airway according to DISE (p DISE (p DISE may be used to identify the localization of obstruction for diagnostic purposes, and it can be helpful in selecting the treatment method.

  16. SURGICALLY INDUCED ASTIGMATISM AFTER 20G VS 23G PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokabhi Reddy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pars Plana Vitrectomy is done to clear the Vitreous cavity of the Eye. Trans conjunctival Sutureless Vitrectomy with 23G & 25G has become more popular over the Conventional 20G Vitrectomy in recent times. It has many advantages. Less amount of Surgically Induc ed Astigmatism is one of the Advantages with Sutureless Vitrectomy, which will have the Advantage of Early Visual rehabilitation with better Vision. An interventional comparative study was done between 20G & 23 G Pars Plana Vitrectomy in 2 Groups of 30 pat ients each to assess the amount of Post - Operative Astigmatism. The cases were followed up for 6 months to assess the long term effects. There was a significant difference in immediate Post - Operative Astigmatism. But after some time the difference is much l ess showing that the main advantage on Astigmatism with Trans conjunctival Sutureless Vitrectomy is noted mainly during the first few weeks after the Surgery.

  17. Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Elizabeth G; Grossman, Daniel; Weaver, Mark A; Toti, Stephanie; Winikoff, Beverly

    2014-11-01

    The recent surge of new legislation regulating induced abortion in the United States is ostensibly motivated by the desire to protect women's health. To provide context for interpreting the risk of abortion, we compared abortion-related mortality to mortality associated with other outpatient surgical procedures and selected nonmedical activities. We calculated the abortion-related mortality rate during 2000-2009 using national data. We searched PubMed and other sources for contemporaneous data on mortality associated with other outpatient procedures commonly performed on healthy young women, marathon running, bicycling and driving. The abortion-related mortality rate in 2000-2009 in the United States was 0.7 per 100,000 abortions. Studies in approximately the same years found mortality rates of 0.8-1.7 deaths per 100,000 plastic surgery procedures, 0-1.7deaths per 100,000 dental procedures, 0.6-1.2 deaths per 100,000 marathons run and at least 4 deaths among 100,000 cyclists in a large annual bicycling event. The traffic fatality rate per 758 vehicle miles traveled by passenger cars in the United States in 2007-2011 was about equal to the abortion-related mortality rate. The safety of induced abortion as practiced in the United States for the past decade met or exceeded expectations for outpatient surgical procedures and compared favorably to that of two common nonmedical voluntary activities. The new legislation restricting abortion is unnecessary; indeed, by reducing the geographic distribution of abortion providers and requiring women to travel farther for the procedure, these laws are potentially detrimental to women's health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fractal analysis of the surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Kun; Kim, Jin Soo [School of Dentisity, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs using fractal analysis. Also, the capabilities of fractal analysis as bone analysis techniques were compared with those of histomorphometric analysis. A total of 24 implants were inserted in 6 dogs. After a 3-months, experimental periimplantitis characterized by a bone loss of about 3 mm was established by inducing with wires. Surgical treatment involving flap procedure, debridement of implants surface with chlorhexidine and saline (group 1), guided bone regeneration (GBR) with absorbable collagen membrane and mineralized bone graft (group 2), and CO2 laser application with GBR (group 3) were performed. After animals were sacrificed in 8 and 16 weeks respectively, bone sections including implants were made. Fractal dimensions were calculated by box-counting method on the skeletonized images, made from each region of interest, including five screws at medial and distal aspects of implant, were selected. Statistically significant differences in the fractal dimensions between the group 1 (0.9340 {+-} 0.0126) and group 3 (0.9783 {+-} 0.0118) at 16 weeks were found (P<0.05). The fractal dimension was statistically significant different between 8 (0.9395 {+-} 0.0283) and 16 weeks in group 3 (P<0.05). These results were similar with the result of the evaluation of new bone formation in histomorphometric analysis. Treatment of experimental peri-implantitis by using CO2 laser with GBR is more useful than other treatments in the formation of new bone and also the tendency of fractal dimension to increase relative to healing time may be a useful means of evaluating.

  19. The junction between hyaline cartilage and engineered cartilage in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Makoto; Komura, Hiroko; Otani, Yushi; Kanamori, Yutaka; Iwanaka, Tadashi; Hoshi, Kazuto; Tsuyoshi, Takato; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2013-06-01

    Tracheoplasty using costal cartilage grafts to enlarge the tracheal lumen was performed to treat congenital tracheal stenosis. Fibrotic granulomatous tissue was observed at the edge of grafted costal cartilage. We investigated the junction between the native hyaline cartilage and the engineered cartilage plates that were generated by auricular chondrocytes for fabricating the airway. Controlled, prospecive study. In group 1, costal cartilage from New Zealand white rabbits was collected and implanted into a space created in the cervical trachea. In group 2, chondrocytes from auricular cartilages were seeded on absorbable scaffolds. These constructs were implanted in the subcutaneous space. Engineered cartilage plates were then implanted into the trachea after 3 weeks of implantation of the constructs. The grafts in group 1 and 2 were retrieved after 4 weeks. In group 1, histological studies of the junction between the native hyaline cartilage and the implanted costal cartilage demonstrated chondrogenic tissue in four anastomoses sides out of the 10 examined. In group 2, the junction between the native trachea and the engineered cartilage showed neocartilage tissue in nine anastomoses sides out of 10. Engineered cartilage may be beneficial for engineered airways, based on the findings of the junction between the native and engineered grafts. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Transplantation of rib cartilage reshaped with 1.56 μm laser radiation in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, E.; Baum, O.; Alexandrovskaya, Yu.; Shekhter, A.; Selezneva, L.; Svistuskin, V.

    2017-02-01

    As cartilage is an ideal natural material for transplantation, its use in the ENT surgery is limited by a difficulty to get proper shape of cartilage implants. Aim of the work is to make ring-shaped cartilage implants, to check their stability after laser reshaping and to perform transplantation into rabbits in vivo. We experimented with costal cartilages of 1-2 mm in thickness obtained from 3rd and 4rd ribs of a rabbit. 1.56 μm laser (Arcuo Medical Inc.) was used for cartilage reshaping. The laser settings were established taking into account anisotropy of cartilage structure for different orientation of the implants. The reshaped cartilage implants were surgically sewn to rib cartilages of the other rabbits. The rabbits were slaughtered in 3.5-4 months after surgery. The results have shown that (1) all reshaped implants kept circular form, and (2) the implants were adhered to the native rabbit cartilage sites (3) pronounced signs of regeneration in the intermediate zones were observed. The prospects of the cartilage implants use in larynx stenosis surgery are discussed.

  1. New technique for preparing cartilage for intracordal injection: the freezing and grinding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Min; Lee, Won Yong; Lim, Yun-Sung; Lee, Jin-Choon; Lee, Byung-Joo; Wang, Soo-Geun

    2014-07-01

    We developed a technique for preparing harvested cartilage that creates finer, more uniform pieces by freezing with liquid nitrogen and grinding with a mortar and pestle. Herein, we report the application of this new technique for intracordal cartilage injection. Experimental study. Human cartilage was obtained from surgical cases. In the standard method, harvested cartilage was prepared with scissors and a knife. In the experimental group, harvested cartilage was frozen with liquid nitrogen and ground with a mortar and pestle. It took an average of 60 minutes to manipulate cartilage using the standard technique, whereas it took an average of 10 minutes using the freezing and grinding method (P<0.001). The average size of cartilage flakes generated by the standard and new techniques were 727 and 48.6 μm, respectively. The cartilage flakes produced using scissors and a knife were able to pass through a 19-gauge needle, whereas those created using the freezing and grinding method were able to pass through a 24-gauge needle. Using the freezing and grinding method, cartilage was broken into fine, uniform pieces that could pass through a 24-gauge needle. This new technique will facilitate the production of commercial cartilage material for intracordal injection. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  2. Autologous, allogeneic, induced pluripotent stem cell or a combination stem cell therapy? Where are we headed in cartilage repair and why: a concise review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, L.A.; Windt, de T.S.; Slaper-Cortenbach, Ineke C.M.; Saris, D.B.F.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of articular cartilage repair procedures has resulted in a variety of cell-based therapies that use both autologous and allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). As these cells are increasingly available and show promising results both in vitro and in vivo, cell-based strategies, wh

  3. The Functions of BMP3 in Rabbit Articular Cartilage Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs play important roles in skeletal development and repair. Previously, we found fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 induced up-regulation of BMP2, 3, 4 in the process of rabbit articular cartilage repair, which resulted in satisfactory repair effects. As BMP2/4 show a clearly positive effect for cartilage repair, we investigated the functions of BMP3 in rabbit articular cartilage repair. In this paper, we find that BMP3 inhibits the repair of partial-thickness defect of articular cartilage in rabbit by inducing the degradation of extracellular matrix, interfering with the survival of chondrocytes surrounding the defect, and directly inhibiting the expression of BMP2 and BMP4. Meanwhile BMP3 suppress the repair of full-thickness cartilage defect by destroying the subchondral bone through modulating the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs, and directly increasing the expression of BMP4. Although BMP3 has different functions in the repair of partial and full-thickness defects of articular cartilage in rabbit, the regulation of BMP expression is involved in both of them. Together with our previous findings, we suggest the regulation of the BMP signaling pathway by BMP3 is essential in articular cartilage repair.

  4. Cartilage differentiation in cephalopod molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Alison G; Hall, Brian K

    2009-01-01

    Amongst the various metazoan lineages that possess cartilage, tissues most closely resembling vertebrate hyaline cartilage in histological section are those of cephalopod molluscs. Although elements of the adult skeleton have been described, the development of these cartilages has not. Using serial histology of sequential developmental stages of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, we investigate these skeletal elements and offer the first description of the formation of any cellular invertebrate cartilage. Our data reveal that cuttlefish cartilage most often differentiates from uncondensed mesenchymal cells near the end of embryonic development, but that the earliest-forming cartilages differentiate from a cellular condensation which goes through a protocartilage stage in a manner typical of vertebrate primary cartilage formation. We further investigate the distribution and degree of differentiation of cartilages at the time of hatching in an additional four cephalopod species. We find that the timing of cartilage development varies between elements within a single species, as well as between species. We identify a tendency towards cartilage differentiation from uncondensed connective tissue in elements that form at the end of embryogenesis or after hatching. These data suggest a form of metaplasia from connective tissue is the ancestral mode of cartilage formation in this lineage.

  5. Comparison of surgical conditions in 2 different anesthesia techniques of esmolol-induced controlled hypotension in breast reduction surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besir, Ahmet; Cekic, Bahanur; Kutanis, Dilek; Akdogan, Ali; Livaoglu, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Breast reduction surgery is a common cosmetic surgery with a high incidence of blood loss and transfusion. In this surgery, the reduction of blood loss related to surgical manipulation and the volume of resected tissue is a target. In the present study, we compared the effects of esmolol-induced controlled hypotension on surgical visibility, surgical bleeding, and the duration of surgery in patients anesthetized with propofol/remifentanil (PR) or sevoflurane/remifentanil (SR). Methods: Patients in the American Society of Anesthesiologists I/II risk group undergoing breast reduction surgery were prospectively randomized into PR (n = 25) and SR (n = 25) groups. Controlled hypotension was induced with esmolol in both groups. During the intraoperative period, the heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), operation duration, volume of intraoperative blood loss, volume of blood received through postoperative drains, volume of resected tissues, and surgical area bleeding score were recorded. Results: The duration of operation in the incisional period was shorter in group PR compared to group SR (P = 0.04). The change in HR was lower in incision and hemostasis periods in the group PR compared to the group SR (P blood received through drains on postoperative postoperative day 1, day 2, and in total were found to be significantly lower in group PR compared to group SR. Surgical visibility scoring was more effective in group PR compared to SR. Conclusion: In the breast reduction surgery performed under esmolol-induced controlled hypotension, the effect of propofol + remifentanil anesthesia on the duration of incisional surgery, surgical visibility, and volume of surgical blood loss was more reliable and effective compared to that of sevoflurane + remifentanil, which seems to be an advantage. PMID:28272228

  6. Surgical treatment of cyclosporine A- and nifedipine-induced gingival enlargement: gingivectomy versus periodontal flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilloni, A; Camargo, P M; Carere, M; Carranza, F A

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare probing depth resolution achieved by gingivectomy and periodontal flap techniques in the treatment of cyclosporine A- and nifedipine-induced gingival enlargement. Ten kidney transplant patients who were receiving cyclosporine A and nifedipine for at least 6 months participated in the study. Five patients were randomly assigned to the gingivectomy group and 5 patients to the periodontal flap group. Only anterior segments of the oral cavity (canine to canine) were surgically treated. Clinical measurements, including probing depths, plaque index, and gingival sulcus index, were taken at baseline, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year. Results showed that probing depths, while similar for both groups in the first 6 weeks of the study, were significantly shallower for the periodontal flap group when compared to the gingivectomy group at 6 months (2.48 +/- 0.34 mm versus 4.87 +/- 0.79 mm, respectively) and 1 year (322 +/- 0.65 mm versus 6.40 +/- 1.02 mm, respectively). Within its limitations, this study suggests that the pocket reduction achieved by the periodontal flap may be sustained for longer periods of time than by the gingivectomy technique in the treatment of cyclosporine A- and nifedipine-induced gingival enlargement.

  7. Surgical treatment of denture-induced fibrous hyperplasia with plasma rich in growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzati, Marco; Mortellaro, Carmen; Gallesio, Giorgia; Ruggiero, Tiziana; Pol, Renato

    2015-05-01

    Denture-induced fibrous hyperplasia is a fibrous connective tissue lesion that commonly occurs in oral mucosa in patients showing important alveolar ridge atrophy. In this study, we propose Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF) to overcome constrains of traditional surgical treatment. Herein, we demonstrated that PRGF represents an autologous source of growth factors able to reduce the healing time of the alveolar mucosa and the discomfort of those patients. These properties are the result of PRGF's precise biological features that result in the following: reduction of duration and intensity of postsurgical pain, acceleration of re-epithelialization of the wound, and reduction of bleeding events and of edema. In conclusion, we showed that using PRGF on patients affected by denture-induced fibrous hyperplasia allows a short healing time, thereby reducing complications and overall improving their quality of life. The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of PRGF-ENDORET on secondary re-epithelialization in vestibuloplasty after excision of denture irritation fibrous hyperplasia, with an explorative randomized case control trial with 10 patients, 5 patients treated with PRGF and 5 patients with traditional hemostasis, and to analyze differences with simple surgery, considering postoperative rapidity of re-epithelialization, comfort, and discomfort of patients, pain, swelling, and infections.

  8. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism in patients with horizontal rectus muscle recession

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harun; akmak; Tolga; Kocatürk; Sema; Oru; Dündar

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To compare surgically induced astigmatism(SIA)following horizontal rectus muscle recession surgery between suspension recession with both the "hang-back" technique and conventional recession technique.·METHODS: Totally, 48 eyes of 24 patients who had undergone horizontal rectus muscle recession surgery were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups. Twelve patients were operated on by the hang-back technique(Group 1), and 12 by the conventional recession technique(Group 2). SIA was calculated on the 1stwk, 1stand in the 3rdmo after surgery using the SIA calculator.·RESULTS: SIA was statistically higher in the Group 1all postoperative follow-up. SIA was the highest in the 1st wk, and decreased gradually in both groups.·CONCLUSION: The suspension recession technique induced much more SIA than the conventional recession technique. This difference also continued in the following visits. Therefore, the refractive power should be checked postoperatively in order to avoid refractive amblyopia.Conventional recession surgery should be the preferred method so as to minimize the postoperative refractive changes in patients with amblyopia.

  9. PREVALENCE OF LARYNGEAL CARTILAGE CALCIFICATIONS IN MANGALORE POPULATION; A RADIOGRAPHIC STUDY

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    Nandita Shenoy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue calcifications in the orofacial region are uncommon and are usually asymptomatic in nature. Some of the common calcifications found are Carotid artery calcifications (CAC, Triticeous cartilage, and Superior cornu of the thyroid cartilage, Tonsilloliths and lymph nodes calcifications. Disordered ossification or calcification of ligaments or cartilages may compress neurovascular structures, may be able to cause serious implications in any surgical intervention in the region, may lead to false neurological differential diagnosis or may be benign in nature without any clinical significance. Ossification and calcification of the laryngeal cartilages have been widely investigated since the original study by Chievitz in 1882 1 . The thyroid, cricoid, and greater part of the arytenoid cartilages consist of hyaline cartilage that undergoes calcification and ossification as part of the ageing process. The thyroid cartilage tends to be visible on the cephalometric and lateral neck radiograph when the ossification starts within the lamina or either of the cornua. The cricoids and arytenoid cartilages also become apparent when the ossification begins within their laminae. Radiographs of the head and neck are used to study the growth and development of skeletal structures can be used for identification of these calcifications 2 . A good understanding of the anatomy and the knowledge of variations in the laryngeal cartilage ossification is important for all clinicians especially while interpreting head and neck radiographs of patients who exhibit anatomical or functional deviations from the normal. The lateral cephalometric radiographs are advised more commonly by an orthodontist to look for occlusion and lateral profile of the patient pre and post orthodontic treatment. They also demonstrate the posterosuperior part of the lamina, and the superior cornu of the thyroid cartilage. Laryngeal and related cartilages like the cricoid and triticeal

  10. Bladder changes after several coverage modalities in the surgically induced model of myelomeningocele in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, L; Encinas, J L; García-Cabezas, M Á; Peiró, J L; López-Santamaría, M; Jaureguízar, E

    2014-01-01

    To assess the presence of early bladder abnormalities in a prenatally corrected and uncorrected animal model of Myelomeningocele (MMC). A MMC-like lesion was surgically created in 18 fetal lambs between the 60th and the 80th day of gestation. Eight of them did not undergo fetal repair (group A), three were repaired with an open two-layer closure (group B), three using BioGlue® (groupC) and four fetoscopically (group D). At term, bladders were examined macroscopically and histopathological changes were assessed using H-E and Masson Trichrome. Five animals in group A (5/8, 62%), two in group B (2/3, 66%), one in group C (1/3, 33%) and one in group D (1/4, 25%) survived. Macroscopically bladders in group A were severely dilated and showed thinner walls. Microscopically they showed a thin layer of colagenous tissue (Blue layer. BL) lying immediately subjacent to the urothelium. The muscular layers were thinner. Non compliant pattern with thick wall and low capacity was also found in the non corrected model. Group B and the control showed preservation of muscular layers and absence of BL. Groups C and D presented BL but also preservation of muscular layers. Bladder changes in a surgically-induced model of MMC can be described using histopathological data. Both extremes of bladder changes can be observed in the model. These changes were completely prevented with open fetal surgery and partially with other coverage modalities. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatially resolved elemental distributions in articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, T.; Reibetanz, U.; Vogt, J.; Butz, T.; Werner, A.; Gründer, W.

    2001-07-01

    In this study, the nuclear microprobe technique is employed to analyse the chemistry of joint cartilage in order to correlate internal structures of the collagen network with the elemental distribution. The samples were taken from pig's knee joint. 30 μm thick coronar cross-sections were prepared by means of cryosectioning and freeze-drying. We performed simultaneously particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). Thus we obtained spatially resolved distributions of the elements H, C, N, O, P, S, Cl, K and Ca. The main components of the organic matrix are H, C, N and O. It was shown that their relations vary with the cartilage structures. It could be shown that zones with aligned collagen fibrils contain less sulphur and potassium but more chlorine. The higher chlorine concentration is remarkable because newest biochemical studies found that hypochloric acid is involved in cartilage degradation. Furthermore, the calcium distribution is still of great interest. Its correlation to structural changes inside the cartilage is still being discussed. It could be disproved that zones of higher calcium concentration are related to the aligned structures of the collagen network.

  12. Advances in cartilage tissue engineering : in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Mandl (Erik)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWithin the body three subtypes of cartilage can be distinguished: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage. Hyaline cartilage is the predominant subtype and is mainly located in articular joints and in less extent in the nasal septum and cricoid. Elastic cartilage can be

  13. Levamisole-induced leukocytoclastic vasculitis and neutropenia in a patient with cocaine use: An extensive case with necrosis of skin, soft tissue, and cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Levamisole-induced vasculitis is a relatively new entity in people who use cocaine. We describe a 44-year-old woman with a history of cocaine use who presented with a complaint of a painful rash of 2-3 month’s duration on her extremities, cheeks, nose, and earlobes. She had not experienced fever, weight loss, alopecia, dry eyes, oral ulcers, photosensitivity, or arthralgia. Examination revealed tender purpuric eruptions with central necrosis on her nose, cheeks, earlobes, and extremities. Laboratory investigations revealed neutropenia, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), presence of lupus anticoagulant, low complement component 3 (C3), and presence of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA). A urine toxicology screen was positive for cocaine, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was positive for levamisole. Skin biopsy showed leukocytoclastic vasculitis and small vessel thrombosis. Necrotic lesions of the nose led to its self-amputation. Large bullae on the lower extremities ruptured, leading to wound infection and extensive necrosis that required multiple surgical debridements. When necrosis progressed despite debridement, bilateral above-knee amputation of the legs was performed. Once new lesions stopped appearing, the patient was discharged home. Two months later, she had a recurrence related to cocaine use. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of levamisole-induced vasculitis that required above-knee amputation. PMID:23186390

  14. Combined microwave irradiation and intraarticular glutamine administration-induced HSP70 expression therapy prevents cartilage degradation in a rat osteoarthritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shinya; Arai, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shuji; Takahashi, Kenji A; Terauchi, Ryu; Inoue, Atsuo; Tonomura, Hitoshi; Hiraoka, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Hiroaki; Tsuchida, Shinji; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of heat stimulation and glutamine (Gln) on the expression of extracellular matrix genes and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in rat articular cartilage in vivo and to determine whether HSP70 expression achieved with a combination of microwave (MW) and Gln suppresses osteoarthritis (OA) progression in a rat OA model. Stimulation at 40 W was assumed to be appropriate in the present study, and the effects of heat treatment at this intensity were evaluated. Articular cartilage was collected at 8 h after heat stimulation and/or intraarticular Gln administration, and total RNA was extracted. The expression of HSP70, aggrecan, and type II collagen was quantified using real-time RT-PCR. Cartilage samples from the OA model were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and safranin O staining. HSP70 and aggrecan expression was greatest in a group receiving both MW and Gln. In the rat OA model, the severity of OA was significantly milder in a group receiving MW and Gln than in the control group. HSP70, stimulated by the combination of MW heat and Gln, may be involved in the suppression of OA progression.

  15. Prospective Clinical Trial for Septic Arthritis: Cartilage Degradation and Inflammation Are Associated with Upregulation of Cartilage Metabolites

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    Hagen Schmal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intra-articular infections can rapidly lead to osteoarthritic degradation. The aim of this clinical biomarker analysis was to investigate the influence of inflammation on cartilage destruction and metabolism. Methods. Patients with acute joint infections were enrolled in a prospective clinical trial and the cytokine composition of effusions (n=76 was analyzed. Characteristics of epidemiology and disease severity were correlated with levels of cytokines with known roles in cartilage turnover and degradation. Results. Higher synovial IL-1β concentrations were associated with clinical parameters indicating a higher disease severity (p<0.03 excluding the incidence of sepsis. Additionally, intra-articular IL-1β levels correlated with inflammatory serum parameters as leucocyte counts (LC and C-reactive protein concentrations (p<0.05 but not with age or comorbidity. Both higher LC and synovial IL-1β levels were associated with increased intra-articular collagen type II cleavage products (C2C indicating cartilage degradation. Joints with preinfectious lesions had higher C2C levels. Intra-articular inflammation led to increased concentrations of typical cartilage metabolites as bFGF, BMP-2, and BMP-7. Infections with Staphylococcus species induced higher IL-1β expression but less cartilage destruction than other bacteria. Conclusion. Articular infections have bacteria-specific implications on cartilage metabolism. Collagen type II cleavage products reliably mark destruction, which is associated with upregulation of typical cartilage turnover cytokines. This trial is registered with DRKS00003536, MISSinG.

  16. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 functions as a negative regulator in the differentiation of myoblasts, but not as an inducer for the formations of cartilage and bone in mouse embryonic tongue

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    Suzuki Erika

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro studies using the myogenic cell line C2C12 demonstrate that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 converts the developmental pathway of C2C12 from a myogenic cell lineage to an osteoblastic cell lineage. Further, in vivo studies using null mutation mice demonstrate that BMPs inhibit the specification of the developmental fate of myogenic progenitor cells. However, the roles of BMPs in the phases of differentiation and maturation in skeletal muscles have yet to be determined. The present study attempts to define the function of BMP-2 in the final stage of differentiation of mouse tongue myoblast. Results Recombinant BMP-2 inhibited the expressions of markers for the differentiation of skeletal muscle cells, such as myogenin, muscle creatine kinase (MCK, and fast myosin heavy chain (fMyHC, whereas BMP-2 siRNA stimulated such markers. Neither the recombinant BMP-2 nor BMP-2 siRNA altered the expressions of markers for the formation of cartilage and bone, such as osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, collagen II, and collagen X. Further, no formation of cartilage and bone was observed in the recombinant BMP-2-treated tongues based on Alizarin red and Alcian blue stainings. Neither recombinant BMP-2 nor BMP-2 siRNA affected the expression of inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation 1 (Id1. The ratios of chondrogenic and osteogenic markers relative to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, a house keeping gene were approximately 1000-fold lower than those of myogenic markers in the cultured tongue. Conclusions BMP-2 functions as a negative regulator for the final differentiation of tongue myoblasts, but not as an inducer for the formation of cartilage and bone in cultured tongue, probably because the genes related to myogenesis are in an activation mode, while the genes related to chondrogenesis and osteogenesis are in a silencing mode.

  17. Lubrication of Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Sabrina; Seror, Jasmine; Klein, Jacob

    2016-07-11

    The major synovial joints such as hips and knees are uniquely efficient tribological systems, able to articulate over a wide range of shear rates with a friction coefficient between the sliding cartilage surfaces as low as 0.001 up to pressures of more than 100 atm. No human-made material can match this. The means by which such surfaces maintain their very low friction has been intensively studied for decades and has been attributed to fluid-film and boundary lubrication. Here, we focus especially on the latter: the reduction of friction by molecular layers at the sliding cartilage surfaces. In particular, we discuss such lubrication in the light of very recent advances in our understanding of boundary effects in aqueous media based on the paradigms of hydration lubrication and of the synergism between different molecular components of the synovial joints (namely hyaluronan, lubricin, and phospholipids) in enabling this lubrication.

  18. Monitoring of Biological Changes in Electromechanical Reshaping of Cartilage Using Imaging Modalities

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    Seok Jin Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromechanical reshaping (EMR is a promising surgical technique used to reshape cartilage by direct current and mechanical deformation. It causes local stress relaxation and permanent alterations in the shape of cartilage. The major advantages of EMR are its minimally invasive nature and nonthermal electrochemical mechanism of action. The purpose of this study is to validate that EMR does not cause thermal damage and to observe structural changes in post-EMR cartilage using several imaging modalities. Three imaging modality metrics were used to validate the performance of EMR by identifying structural deformation during cartilage reshaping: infrared thermography was used to sense the temperature of the flat cartilages (16.7°C at 6 V, optical coherence tomography (OCT was used to examine the change in the cartilage by gauging deformation in the tissue matrix during EMR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to show that EMR-treated cartilage is irregularly arranged and the thickness of collagen fibers varies, which affects the change in shape of the cartilage. In conclusion, the three imaging modalities reveal the nonthermal and electromechanical mechanisms of EMR and demonstrate that use of an EMR device is feasible for reshaping cartilage in a minimally invasive manner.

  19. Changes in the tangent modulus of rabbit septal and auricular cartilage following electromechanical reshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Amanda; Protsenko, Dmitry E; Wong, Brian J F

    2011-09-01

    Transforming decades' old methodology, electromechanical reshaping (EMR) may someday replace traditionally destructive surgical techniques with a less invasive means of cartilage reshaping for reconstructive and esthetic facial surgery. Electromechanical reshaping is essentially accomplished through the application of voltage to a mechanically deformed cartilage specimen. While the capacity of the method for effective reshaping has been consistently shown, its associated effects on cartilage mechanical properties are not fully comprehended. To begin to explore the mechanical effect of EMR on cartilage, the tangent moduli of EMR-treated rabbit septal and auricular cartilage were calculated and compared to matched control values. Between the two main EMR parameters, voltage and application time, the former was varied from 2-8 V and the latter held constant at 2 min for septal cartilage, 3 min for auricular cartilage. Flat platinum electrodes were used to apply voltage, maintaining the flatness of the specimens for more precise mechanical testing through a uniaxial tension test of constant strain rate 0.01 mm/s. Above 2 V, both septal and auricular cartilage demonstrated a slight reduction in stiffness, quantified by the tangent modulus. A thermal effect was observed above 5 V, a newly identified EMR application threshold to avoid the dangers associated with thermoforming cartilage. Optimizing EMR application parameters and understanding various side effects bridge the gap between EMR laboratory research and clinical use, and the knowledge acquired through this mechanical study may be one additional support for that bridge.

  20. Mechanical overloading causes mitochondrial superoxide and SOD2 imbalance in chondrocytes resulting in cartilage degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Masato; Nojiri, Hidetoshi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Watanabe, Kenji; Muramatsu, Yuta; Kaneko, Haruka; Morikawa, Daichi; Kobayashi, Keiji; Saita, Yoshitomo; Sasho, Takahisa; Shirasawa, Takuji; Yokote, Koutaro; Kaneko, Kazuo; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2015-06-25

    Mechanical stress and aging are major risk factors of cartilage degeneration. Human studies have previously reported that oxidative damage increased, while SOD2 protein was reciprocally downregulated in osteoarthritic degenerated cartilage. However, it remains unclear whether mitochondrial superoxide imbalance in chondrocytes causes cartilage degeneration. We herein demonstrate that mechanical loading promoted mitochondrial superoxide generation and selective Sod2 downregulation in chondrocytes in vivo and that mitochondrial superoxide inducer also downregulated Sod2 expression in chondrocytes in vitro. A genetically manipulated model revealed that Sod2 deficiency in chondrocytes also resulted in mitochondrial superoxide overproduction and dysfunction, thus leading to cartilage degeneration. Intra-articular injection of a permeable antioxidant effectively suppressed the mechanical loading-induced mitochondrial superoxide generation and cartilage degeneration in mice. Our findings demonstrate that mitochondrial superoxide plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of osteoarthritis, and the mitochondrial superoxide balance may therefore be a promising target for the treatment of cartilage degeneration.

  1. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism in various incisions in manual small incision cataract surgery

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    Nidhi Jauhari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine the surgically induced astigmatism (SIA in Straight, Frown and Inverted V shape (Chevron incisions in manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS.METHODS:A prospective cross sectional study was done on a total of 75 patients aged 40y and above with senile cataract. The patients were randomly divided into three groups (25 each. Each group received a particular type of incision (Straight, Frown or Inverted V shape incisions. Manual SICS with intraocular lens (IOL implantation was performed. The patients were compared 4wk post operatively for uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and SIA. All calculations were performed using the SIA calculator version 2.1, a free software program. The study was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 statistical analysis software.RESULTS:The study found that 89.5% of patients in Straight incision group, 94.2% in Frown incision group and 95.7% in Inverted V group attained BCVA post-operatively in the range of 6/6 to 6/18. Mean SIA was minimum (-0.88±0.61D×90 degrees with Inverted V incision which was statistically significant.CONCLUSION:Inverted V (Chevron incision gives minimal SIA.

  2. Prognosis of surgically treated radiation-induced damage to the intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnson, S.; Westerborn, O. (Orebro Medical Center Hospital, Orebro (Sweden)); Gerdin, B. (Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1992-10-01

    A series of 88 patients operated on during 24 years for radiation-induced damage (RID) to the intestinal tract were retrospectively reviewed and clinical and surgical factors were related to the ultimate prognosis by multivariate analysis. The first operation was performed on the small intestine in 47 patients, the large intestine in 32 patients or both in nine patients. Postoperative complications occurred in 35 patients (40%), with fatal outcome in 12 (13%). Thirty-one patients (35%) required further surgery and altogether 19 patients (22%) ultimately died from RID. Negative prognostic factors after the first operation were post-operative intestinal leak (P < 0.05) and operation for fistula or perforation (P < 0.01). The outcome after the last operation was negatively influenced by intestinal leak (P < 0.001) by the choice of bypass as operative procedure (P < 0.01) and by operation for fistula or perforation (P < 0.01). In addition, 43% of the patients in whom the disease had progressed between two explorations died from RID. Thus, the severity of the RID as diagnosed at laparotomy, and progression of the disease between two subsequent explorations were related to the prognosis. Care should be taken to avoid intestinal leak. Resections should be preferred to bypass of injured intestine whenever possible. (author).

  3. Traumatic foot injuries in horses: surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Managing traumatic foot wounds in horses may require surgical intervention. These wounds include coronary-band and heel-bulb lacerations, septic pedal osteitis, septic navicular bursitis, sepsis of the collateral cartilages, and hoof-wall injuries. This article provides a practical overview of the surgical management of these types of wounds.

  4. Scaffolding Biomaterials for Cartilage Regeneration

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    Zhen Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Completely repairing of damaged cartilage is a difficult procedure. In recent years, the use of tissue engineering approach in which scaffolds play a vital role to regenerate cartilage has become a new research field. Investigating the advances in biological cartilage scaffolds has been regarded as the main research direction and has great significance for the construction of artificial cartilage. Native biological materials and synthetic polymeric materials have their advantages and disadvantages. The disadvantages can be overcome through either physical modification or biochemical modification. Additionally, developing composite materials, biomimetic materials, and nanomaterials can make scaffolds acquire better biocompatibility and mechanical adaptability.

  5. Nanoparticles for diagnostics and laser medical treatment of cartilage in orthopaedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, O. I.; Soshnikova, Yu. M.; Omelchenko, A. I.; Sobol, Emil

    2013-02-01

    Laser reconstruction of intervertebral disc (LRD) is a new technique which uses local, non-destructive laser irradiation for the controlled activation of regenerative processes in a targeted zone of damaged disc cartilage. Despite pronounced advancements of LRD, existing treatments may be substantially improved if laser radiation is absorbed near diseased and/or damaged regions in cartilage so that required thermomechanical stress and strain at chondrocytes may be generated and non-specific injury reduced or eliminated. The aims of the work are to study possibility to use nanoparticles (NPs) to provide spatial specificity for laser regeneration of cartilage. Two types of porcine joint cartilage have been impregnated with magnetite NPs: 1) fresh cartilage; 2) mechanically damaged cartilage. NPs distribution was studied using transition electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation techniques. Laser radiation and magnetic field have been applied to accelerate NPs impregnation. It was shown that NPs penetrate by diffusion into the mechanically damaged cartilage, but do not infiltrate healthy cartilage. Temperature dynamics in cartilage impregnated with NPs have been theoretically calculated and measurements using an IR thermo vision system have been performed. Laser-induced alterations of cartilage structure and cellular surviving have been studied for cartilage impregnated with NPs using histological and histochemical techniques. Results of our study suggest that magnetite NPs might be used to provide spatial specificity of laser regeneration. When damaged, the regions of cartilage impreganted with NPs have higher absorption of laser radiation than that for healthy areas. Regions containing NPs form target sites that can be used to generate laser-induced thermo mechanical stress leading to regeneration of cartilage of hyaline type.

  6. UP3005, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba, Improves Pain Sensitivity and Cartilage Degradations in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Rat OA Disease Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a multifactorial disease primarily noted by cartilage degradation in association with inflammation that causes significant morbidity, joint pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Present-day management of OA is inadequate due to the lack of principal therapies proven to be effective in hindering disease progression where symptomatic therapy focused approach masks the actual etiology leading to irreversible damage. Here, we describe the effect of UP3005, a composition containing a proprietary blend of two standardized extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba, in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA- induced rat OA disease model. Pain sensitivity, micro-CT, histopathology, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs level analysis were conducted. Diclofenac at 10 mg/kg was used as a reference compound. UP3005 resulted in almost a complete inhibition in proteoglycans degradation, reductions of 16.6% (week 4, 40.5% (week 5, and 22.0% (week 6 in pain sensitivity, statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity, minimal visual subchondral bone damage, and statistically significant increase in bone mineral density when compared to the vehicle control with MIA. Therefore, UP3005 could potentially be considered as an alternative therapy from natural sources for the treatment of OA and/or its associated symptoms.

  7. Morphometric study of cricoid cartilages in Western India

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    Mohini Joshi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is important to determine the size and proportion of thelarynx as such information is useful in procedures such asintubation, endoscopy and surgical manipulations. Recentinterest in the cases of subglottic stenosis and postintubationalstenosis of the lower respiratory tract has ledto renewed interest in ascertaining the measurements ofthe various laryngeal cartilages. The aim of the presentstudy was to collect morphometric data of cricoid cartilagefrom a regional population.MethodFifty laryngeal preparations from adult cadavers of WesternIndia were assessed. Sections were prepared via dissectionand the removed cricoid cartilages then measured andweighed.ResultsThe mean antero-posterior diameter (19.29±2.47 of thecricoid cartilage was greater than the average transversediameter (18.33±2.26. The height of arch of cricoidcartilage was 6.54±1.23mm and height of lamina was21.45±1.97mm. Mean weight of cricoid cartilage was4.53±1.27grams. The shape of the cricoid cartilage wasovoid in 46% of cases, oval in 38%, pear shaped in 12% andnarrow-oblong in 4% of cases.ConclusionInter-subject variability in the dimensions of cricoidcartilages was observed. The large difference in almost allsizes and shapes of the cricoid cartilage makes it difficult tostandardise the rigid stents used in these organs.Endotracheal tubes of the appropriate size should thereforebe based on the measurements of individual patients.Clinicians should therefore be aware of morphologicalvariations as they are of fundamental clinical importance.Key WordsCricoid cartilage, larynx, morphometry

  8. Co-culture systems-based strategies for articular cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Shuyun; Guo, Weimin; Wang, Mingjie; Hao, Chunxiang; Gao, Shuang; Zhang, Xueliang; Li, Xu; Chen, Mingxue; Li, Penghao; Peng, Jiang; Lu, Shibi; Guo, Quanyi

    2017-05-26

    Cartilage engineering facilitates repair and regeneration of damaged cartilage using engineered tissue that restores the functional properties of the impaired joint. The seed cells used most frequently in tissue engineering, are chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. Seed cells activity plays a key role in the regeneration of functional cartilage tissue. However, seed cells undergo undesirable changes after in vitro processing procedures, such as degeneration of cartilage cells and induced hypertrophy of mesenchymal stem cells, which hinder cartilage tissue engineering. Compared to monoculture, which does not mimic the in vivo cellular environment, co-culture technology provides a more realistic microenvironment in terms of various physical, chemical and biological factors. Co-culture technology is used in cartilage tissue engineering to overcome obstacles related to the degeneration of seed cells, and shows promise for cartilage regeneration and repair. In this review, we focus first on existing co-culture systems for cartilage tissue engineering and related fields, and discuss the conditions and mechanisms thereof. This is followed by methods for optimizing seed cell co-culture conditions to generate functional neo-cartilage tissue, which will lead to a new era in cartilage tissue engineering. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of temporalis fascia muscle and full-thickness cartilage grafts in type 1 pediatric tympanoplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegin, Yakup; Çelik, Mustafa; Koç, Arzu Karaman; Küfeciler, Levent; Elbistanlı, Mustafa Suphi; Kayhan, Fatma Tülin

    Various graft materials have been used to close tympanic membrane perforations. In the literature, there are few studies in pediatric populations comparing different graft materials. To our knowledge, there is no reported study that measured the thickness of the tragal cartilage in pediatric tympanoplasties. The tragal cartilage is not of uniform thickness in every patient. To compare anatomical and functional outcomes of temporalis fascia muscle and full-thickness tragal cartilage in type 1 pediatric tympanoplasties. In total, 78 patients (38 males, 40 females; average age 10.02±1.98 years; range, 7-18 years) who underwent type 1 tympanoplasties in our clinic were included. Demographics, anatomical, and functional outcomes were collected. Temporalis fascia muscle and tragal cartilage were used as graft materials. Tragal cartilage was used without thinning, and the thickness of tragal cartilage was measured using a micrometer. Anatomical and functional outcomes of cartilage and fascia were compared. Audiometric results comparing the cartilage and fascia groups were conducted at 6 months, and we continued to follow the patients to 1 year after surgery. An intact graft and an air-bone gap≤20dB were regarded as a surgical success. Results with a p-valuefascia group. In the fascia group, the preoperative air-bone gap was 33.68±11.44 dB and postoperative air-bone gap was 24.25±12.68dB. In the cartilage group, the preoperative air-bone gap was 35.68±12.94dB and postoperative air-bone gap was 26.11±12.87dB. The anatomical success rate in the cartilage group was significantly better than that for the fascia group (pfascia and cartilage groups (p>0.05). The average thickness of tragal cartilage in the pediatric population was 0.693±0.094mm in males and 0.687±0.058 mm in females. Our data suggest that the anatomical success rate for a cartilage tympanoplasty was higher than for a fascia tympanoplasty. Functional results with cartilage were not different than with

  10. [The anatomical structure similarity research on auricular cartilage and nasal alar cartilage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyong; Fan, Fei; Li, Wenzhi; Li, Binbin; You, Jianjun; Wang, Huan

    2015-09-01

    There are many scaffold materials of repairing nasal alar cartilage defects. Auricuiar cartilage was used extensively in terms of its abundant tissues, good elasticity, little donor-site malformation, good plasticity etc. The authors dissected auricular cartilage and nasal alar cartilage, measured cartilage's morphous data and found some similar territories with nasal alar cartilage in the structure of auricular cartilage. An anatomical study was performed using 10 adult cadavers acquired through Plastic Surgery Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. Seven male and three female cadav-ers were included in the study. Harvest 20 auricular cartilage specimens and 20 nasal alar cartilage specimens. Then, Computed Tomography Scan on the auricular cartilage and nasal alar cartilage were performed. The datas were imported into mimics and three-dimensional reconstructions of the auricular cartilage and nasal alar cartilage were carried on. Parts of the auricular cartilage, such as conchal fossa, tragus, intertragic notch, and cymba of auricular concha, curs of helix and curs of helix, triangular fossa, are ana-tomically similar to nasal alar cartilage. This study reports the anatomy of auricular cartilage and nasal alar cartilage, found some territories in the auricular cartilage, such as conchal fossa, tragus, intertragic notch, and cymba of auricular concha, curs of helix and curs of helix, triangular fossa, are anatomically similar to nasal alar cartilage. This research provides the anatomical basis that auricular cartilage was used to repair the nasal cartilage defect.

  11. Construction of tissue-engineered cartilage using human placenta-derived stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Human placenta-derived stem cells (hPDSCs) were isolated by trypsinization and further induced into cartilage cells in vitro.The engineered cartilage was constructed by combining hPDSCs with collagen sponge and the cartilage formation was observed by implantation into nude mice.Results showed that hPDSCs featured mesenchymal stem cells and maintained proliferation in vitro for over 30 passages while remaining undifferentiated.All results indicated that hPDSCs have the potential to differentiate into functional cartilage cells in vitro when combined with collagen sponge,which provided experimental evidence for prospective clinical application.

  12. Age variations in the properties of human tibial trabecular bone and cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2000-01-01

    ) to investigate the age-related and osteoarthrosis-related changes in the mechanical properties of the human tibial cartilage-bone complex; and 3) to evaluate mutual associations among various properties. Normal specimens from human autopsy proximal tibiae were used for investigation of age variations...... in the properties of trabecular bone and the cartilage-bone complex, and osteoarthrotic specimens were used for the investigation of changes in the mechanical properties of the cartilage-bone complex induced by this disease process. The mechanical properties and physical/compositional properties of trabecular bone...... is parallel to the longitudinal loading axis of the tibia. The mechanical properties of the normal cartilage and bone vary with age and respond simultaneously to mechanical loading. Both cartilage and bone in early-stage OA are mechanically inferior to normal, and OA cartilage and bone have lost their unit...

  13. [Current status of bone/cartilage tissue engineering towards clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgushi, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    Osteo/chondrogenic differentiation capabilities are seen after in vivo implantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are currently used for the patients having bone/cartilage defects. Importantly, the differentiation capabilities are induced by culturing technology, resulting in in vitro bone/cartilage formation. Especially, the in vitro bone tissue is useful for bone tissue regeneration. For cartilage regeneration, culture expanded chondrocytes derived from patient's normal cartilage are also used for the patients having cartilage damages. Recently, the cultured chondrocytes embedded in atelocollagen gel are obtainable as tissue engineered products distributed by Japan Tissue Engineering Co. Ltd. The products are available in the well-regulated hospitals by qualified orthopedic surgeons. The criteria for these hospitals/surgeons have been established. This review paper focuses on current status of bone/cartilage tissue engineering towards clinical applications in Japan.

  14. Comparative digital cartilage histology for human and common osteoarthritis models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen DR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Douglas R Pedersen, Jessica E Goetz, Gail L Kurriger, James A MartinDepartment of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USAPurpose: This study addresses the species-specific and site-specific details of weight-bearing articular cartilage zone depths and chondrocyte distributions among humans and common osteoarthritis (OA animal models using contemporary digital imaging tools. Histological analysis is the gold-standard research tool for evaluating cartilage health, OA severity, and treatment efficacy. Historically, evaluations were made by expert analysts. However, state-of-the-art tools have been developed that allow for digitization of entire histological sections for computer-aided analysis. Large volumes of common digital cartilage metrics directly complement elucidation of trends in OA inducement and concomitant potential treatments.Materials and methods: Sixteen fresh human knees, 26 adult New Zealand rabbit stifles, and 104 bovine lateral plateaus were measured for four cartilage zones and the cell densities within each zone. Each knee was divided into four weight-bearing sites: the medial and lateral plateaus and femoral condyles.Results: One-way analysis of variance followed by pairwise multiple comparisons (Holm–Sidak method at a significance of 0.05 clearly confirmed the variability between cartilage depths at each site, between sites in the same species, and between weight-bearing articular cartilage definitions in different species.Conclusion: The present study clearly demonstrates multisite, multispecies differences in normal weight-bearing articular cartilage, which can be objectively quantified by a common digital histology imaging technique. The clear site-specific differences in normal cartilage must be taken into consideration when characterizing the pathoetiology of OA models. Together, these provide a path to consistently analyze the volume and variety of histologic slides necessarily generated

  15. 13C NMR relaxation studies on cartilage and cartilage components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, L; Kaufmann, J; Huster, D; Schiller, J; Arnold, K

    2000-08-07

    We have investigated the molecular motions of polysaccharides of bovine nasal and pig articular cartilage by measuring the 13C NMR relaxation times (T1 and T2). Both types of cartilage differ significantly towards their collagen/glycosaminoglycan ratio, leading to different NMR spectra. As chondroitin sulfate is the main constituent of cartilage, aqueous solutions of related poly- and monosaccharides (N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid) were also investigated. Although there are only slight differences in T1 relaxation of the mono- and the polysaccharides, T2 decreases about one order of magnitude, when glucuronic acid or N-acetylglucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are compared. It is concluded that the ring carbons are motion-restricted primarily by the embedment in the rigid pyranose structure and, thus, additional limitations of mobility do not more show a major effect. Significant differences were observed between bovine nasal and pig articular cartilage, resulting in a considerable line-broadening and a lower signal to noise ratio in the spectra of pig articular cartilage. This is most likely caused by the higher collagen content of articular cartilage in comparison to the polysaccharide-rich bovine nasal cartilage.

  16. Regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage in situ with SOX9 stimulation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Wu, Shili; Naccarato, Ty; Prakash-Damani, Manan; Chou, Yuan; Chu, Cong-Qiu; Zhu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Microfracture, a common procedure for treatment of cartilage injury, induces fibrocartilage repair by recruiting bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to the site of cartilage injury. However, fibrocartilage is inferior biomechanically to hyaline cartilage. SRY-type high-mobility group box-9 (SOX9) is a master regulator of chondrogenesis by promoting proliferation and differentiation of MSC into chondrocytes. In this study we aimed to test the therapeutic potential of cell penetrating recombinant SOX9 protein in regeneration of hyaline cartilage in situ at the site of cartilage injury. We generated a recombinant SOX9 protein which was fused with super positively charged green fluorescence protein (GFP) (scSOX9) to facilitate cell penetration. scSOX9 was able to induce chondrogenesis of bone marrow derived MSC in vitro. In a rabbit cartilage injury model, scSOX9 in combination with microfracture significantly improved quality of repaired cartilage as shown by macroscopic appearance. Histological analysis revealed that the reparative tissue induced by microfracture with scSOX9 had features of hyaline cartilage; and collagen type II to type I ratio was similar to that in normal cartilage. This short term in vivo study demonstrated that when administered at the site of microfracture, scSOX9 was able to induce reparative tissue with features of hyaline cartilage.

  17. Human conchal cartilage and temporal fascia: an evidence-based roadmap from rhinoplasty to an in vivo study and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpean, Anca Maria; Crăiniceanu, Zorin; Mihailovici, Dorina; Bratu, Tiberiu; Raica, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Conchal cartilage or cartilage/ temporal fascia composite grafting (DC-F) used for rhinoplasty is applied by plastic surgeons for reconstructive purposes. Previous studies on experimental models such as mice or rabbits have elucidated on the late events following grafting, with tissue specimens being harvested two months after implantation. Early microscopic and molecular events following DC-F grafting are completely unknown. We designed a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model for human grafts study, regarding the dynamic observation of graft survival and its mutual interrelation with the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane microenvironment. The DC-F graft preserved its cartilage component in a normal state compared to cartilage graft-only because of protective factors provided by temporal fascia. Its strong adherence to the cartilage, lack of angiogenic factors and high content of collagen IV-derived fragments with anti-angiogenic effects make the temporal fascia a good protective tissue to prevent implanted cartilage degeneration. The cartilage graft produced high inflammation, stromal fibrosis and activated angiogenic cascade through VEGF-mediated pathways followed by cartilage degeneration. Also, high content of podoplanin from conchal cartilage chondrocytes exerted a major role in inflammation accompanying cartilage graft. The presently employed experimental model allowed us to characterize the early histological and molecular events triggered by temporal fascia, cartilage or composite graft DC-F implanted on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. Our microscopic and molecular observations may help explain some post-surgical complications generated after using cartilage alone as biomaterial for nasal augmentation, supporting the use of DC-F composite graft, with the aim to reduce unwanted post-surgical events. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Deferasirox limits cartilage damage following haemarthrosis in haemophilic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Laurens; Roosendaal, Goris; Mastbergen, Simon C; Coeleveld, Katja; Biesma, Douwe H; Lafeber, Floris P J G; Schutgens, Roger E G

    2014-11-01

    Joint bleeds in haemophilia result in iron-mediated synovitis and cartilage damage. It was evaluated whether deferasirox, an iron chelator, was able to limit the development of haemophilic synovitis and cartilage damage. Haemophilic mice were randomly assigned to oral treatment with deferasirox (30 mg/kg) or its vehicle (control) (30 mg/kg). Eight weeks after start of treatment, haemarthrosis was induced. After another five weeks of treatment, blood-induced synovitis and cartilage damage were determined. Treatment with deferasirox resulted in a statistically significant (pdeferasirox group. However, deferasirox treatment resulted in a statistically significant (pdeferasirox group with the control group: score 2 (65.4 % vs 4.2 %), score 3 (26.9 % vs 4.2 %), score 4 (7.7 % vs 20.8 %), score 5 (0 % vs 54.2 %), and score 6 (0 % vs 16.7 %). Treatment with deferasirox limits cartilage damage following the induction of a haemarthrosis in haemophilic mice. This study demonstrates the role of iron in blood-induced cartilage damage. Moreover, these data indicate that iron chelation may be a potential prevention option to limit the development of haemophilic arthropathy.

  19. Tensorial electrokinetics in articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Boris; Quinn, Thomas M

    2006-09-15

    Electrokinetic phenomena contribute to biomechanical functions of articular cartilage and underlie promising methods for early detection of osteoarthritic lesions. Although some transport properties, such as hydraulic permeability, are known to become anisotropic with compression, the direction-dependence of cartilage electrokinetic properties remains unknown. Electroosmosis experiments were therefore performed on adult bovine articular cartilage samples, whereby fluid flows were driven by electric currents in directions parallel and perpendicular to the articular surface of statically compressed explants. Magnitudes of electrokinetic coefficients decreased slightly with compression (from approximately -7.5 microL/As in the range of 0-20% compression to -6.0 microL/As in the 35-50% range) consistent with predictions of microstructure-based models of cartilage material properties. However, no significant dependence on direction of the electrokinetic coupling coefficient was detected, even for conditions where the hydraulic permeability tensor is known to be anisotropic. This contrast may also be interpreted using microstructure-based models, and provides insights into structure-function relationships in cartilage extracellular matrix and physical mediators of cell responses to tissue compression. Findings support the use of relatively simple isotropic modeling approaches for electrokinetic phenomena in cartilage and related materials, and indicate that measurement of electrokinetic properties may provide particularly robust means for clinical evaluation of cartilage matrix integrity.

  20. Shear loading of costal cartilage

    CERN Document Server

    Subit, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A series of tests were performed on a single post-mortem human subject at various length scales. First, tabletop tests were performed. Next, the ribs and intercostal muscles were tested with the view to characterize the load transfer between the ribs. Finally, the costal cartilage was tested under shear loading, as it plays an important in the transfer of the load between the ribs and the sternum. This paper reports the results of dynamic shear loading tests performed on three samples of costal cartilage harvested from a single post-mortem human subject, as well as the quantification of the effective Young's modulus estimated from the amount of cartilage calcification.

  1. Biotribology :articular cartilage friction, wear, and lubrication

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Matthew O

    1995-01-01

    This study developed, explored, and refined techniques for the in vitro study of cartilage-on-cartilage friction, deformation, and wear. Preliminary results of in vitro cartilage-on- cartilage experiments with emphasis on wear and biochemistry are presented. Cartilage-bone specimens were obtained from the stifle joints of steers from a separate controlled study. The load, sliding speed, and traverse of the lower specimens were held constant as lubricant and test length were varied. Lubric...

  2. Brief report: reconstruction of joint hyaline cartilage by autologous progenitor cells derived from ear elastic cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Shinji; Takebe, Takanori; Kan, Hiroomi; Yabuki, Yuichiro; Matsuzaki, Takahisa; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y; Nakabayashi, Seiichiro; Ik, Lee Jeong; Maegawa, Jiro; Taniguchi, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    In healthy joints, hyaline cartilage covering the joint surfaces of bones provides cushioning due to its unique mechanical properties. However, because of its limited regenerative capacity, age- and sports-related injuries to this tissue may lead to degenerative arthropathies, prompting researchers to investigate a variety of cell sources. We recently succeeded in isolating human cartilage progenitor cells from ear elastic cartilage. Human cartilage progenitor cells have high chondrogenic and proliferative potential to form elastic cartilage with long-term tissue maintenance. However, it is unknown whether ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells can be used to reconstruct hyaline cartilage, which has different mechanical and histological properties from elastic cartilage. In our efforts to develop foundational technologies for joint hyaline cartilage repair and reconstruction, we conducted this study to obtain an answer to this question. We created an experimental canine model of knee joint cartilage damage, transplanted ear-derived autologous cartilage progenitor cells. The reconstructed cartilage was rich in proteoglycans and showed unique histological characteristics similar to joint hyaline cartilage. In addition, mechanical properties of the reconstructed tissues were higher than those of ear cartilage and equal to those of joint hyaline cartilage. This study suggested that joint hyaline cartilage was reconstructed from ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells. It also demonstrated that ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells, which can be harvested by a minimally invasive method, would be useful for reconstructing joint hyaline cartilage in patients with degenerative arthropathies.

  3. Chitosan: A promising polymer for cartilage repair and viscosupplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comblain, Fanny; Rocasalbas, Guillem; Gauthier, Sandrine; Henrotin, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a painful, degenerative and inflammatory disease that affects the entire synovial joints. Nowadays, no cure exists, and the pharmacological treatments are limited to symptoms alleviation. There is a need for a new efficient and safe treatment. Viscosupplementation is a process that aims to restore the normal rheological properties of synovial fluid. For the past years, hyaluronic acid was usually used but this molecule has some limitations including the short residency time in joint cavity. Recently, in vitro studies have suggested that chitosan could promote the expression of cartilage matrix components and reduce inflammatory and catabolic mediator's production by chondrocytes. In vivo, chitosan prevented cartilage degradation and synovial membrane inflammation in OA induced rabbit model. Several studies have also shown that chitosan could induce chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Therefore, chitosan is an interesting polymer to design scaffold and hydrogel for cartilage lesion repair, cells transplantation, sustained drug release and viscosupplementation.

  4. Versatility of three-dimensional total alar cartilage dissection in aesthetic rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, In Sik; Rah, Dong Kyun; Kim, Sung Min

    2010-11-01

    In many cases, Asians' noses are shorter; their nasal tips have a bulbous shape and typically lack the projection. To correct these problems, we completely dissected the alar cartilage in a three-dimensional manner by which the alar cartilage could be repositioned. Thus, no external force was exerted to the alar cartilage. For approximately 4 years, a total of 502 patients were treated with this surgical method. Using the open rhinoplasty, the alar cartilage was dissected in such a manner that it should be completely isolated from the skin, nasal mucosa, and upper lateral cartilage in 3 layers. Thereafter, using various nasal tip plasty techniques, the alar cartilage was reshaped and then repositioned. Patients were followed up for a mean period of 18 months. Then, the degree of subjective satisfaction of patients was analyzed with the use of 4-point visual analog scale scores. On the assessment of the degree of subjective satisfaction of patients, of a total of 502 patients, 87% responded as "very satisfactory" or "satisfactory." Through an analysis of the photographs taken before and after surgery, in patients with a short nose, the current surgical procedure was effective in extending the length of nose without the septal extension graft. The nasolabial angle was ideally expressed. Through meticulous cartilage manipulation, the tip projection improved and a bulbous shape of the nasal tip was resolved. In an aesthetic rhinoplasty for Asians, if plastic surgery of the nasal tip should be performed using a three-dimensional dissection of the alar cartilage, it would be helpful for surgeons to effectively and freely manipulate the alar cartilage according to their plans.

  5. A novel in vivo model for the study of cartilage degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J; Greenham, A K; Lewis, E J

    1993-09-01

    Methods of quantifying cartilage destruction are described using a sponge/cartilage implant model in the rat. A cylinder of bovine nasal cartilage was positioned in the center of a sponge which had been pretreated with an irritant. The sponge/cartilages were then implanted subcutaneously into the backs of rats for periods of up to 16 days. The implanted sponges were rapidly surrounded by granulation tissue, maximal on day 2, and infiltrated by inflammatory cells which reached peak levels on day 9. Analysis of the cartilage shows an initial increase in wet weight and rapid loss of glycosaminoglycans. These changes were later followed by loss of cartilage wet weight and significant loss of hydroxyproline content. In a separate study, the effects of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), kaolin, and zymosan were compared (1 mg/sponge) and the results showed that only Mtb induced pronounced inflammation and degradation of cartilage. The cartilage degradation directly correlated with the granulation tissue weight, but not with cellular infiltration. We believe that this simple, reproducible in vivo model could be used to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the destructive process and evaluate the efficacy of inhibitors of cartilage degradation.

  6. Large, stratified, and mechanically functional human cartilage grown in vitro by mesenchymal condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Eton, Ryan E.; Oungoulian, Sevan R.; Wan, Leo Q.; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    The efforts to grow mechanically functional cartilage from human mesenchymal stem cells have not been successful. We report that clinically sized pieces of human cartilage with physiologic stratification and biomechanics can be grown in vitro by recapitulating some aspects of the developmental process of mesenchymal condensation. By exposure to transforming growth factor-β, mesenchymal stem cells were induced to condense into cellular bodies, undergo chondrogenic differentiation, and form cartilagenous tissue, in a process designed to mimic mesenchymal condensation leading into chondrogenesis. We discovered that the condensed mesenchymal cell bodies (CMBs) formed in vitro set an outer boundary after 5 d of culture, as indicated by the expression of mesenchymal condensation genes and deposition of tenascin. Before setting of boundaries, the CMBs could be fused into homogenous cellular aggregates giving rise to well-differentiated and mechanically functional cartilage. We used the mesenchymal condensation and fusion of CMBs to grow centimeter-sized, anatomically shaped pieces of human articular cartilage over 5 wk of culture. For the first time to our knowledge biomechanical properties of cartilage derived from human mesenchymal cells were comparable to native cartilage, with the Young’s modulus of >800 kPa and equilibrium friction coeffcient of CMBs have capability to form mechanically strong cartilage–cartilage interface in an in vitro cartilage defect model. The CMBs, which acted as “lego-like” blocks of neocartilage, were capable of assembling into human cartilage with physiologic-like structure and mechanical properties. PMID:24778247

  7. Electric block current induced detachment from surgical stainless steel and decreased viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borden, AJ; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, H

    2005-01-01

    In vitro Studies investigating the influence of electric DC current on bacterial detachment have demonstrated that continuous currents of only 25-125 mu A stimulated Staphylococcal strains to detach from surgical stainless steel. However, DC Currents produce more power that has to be dissipated by t

  8. Study on Elasticity of Articular Cartilage using Osmosis-Induced Swelling and Ultrasound Elastomicroscopy%运用渗透性膨胀和超声显微成像弹性技术研究关节软骨的力学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王青; 郑永平

    2011-01-01

    关节软骨是覆盖在关节骨表面的重要承重组织,其结构与成分的变化均会造成软骨的退化,从而最终导致骨关节炎等疾病的发生,因此研究关节软骨的力学性质具有重要意义.该研究通过改变关节软骨外溶液的离子浓度引起软骨的渗透性膨胀行为,结合超声显微弹性成像技术,依据超声回波计算得到软骨不同深度的位移变化量,绘制软骨内部组织弹性成像并预测了随深度变化的软骨轴向模量.该研究表明利用超声显微弹性成像技术可以有效观测软骨内部由渗透压力引起的膨胀行为,并可以描述关节软骨的力学性质,为研究关节软骨早期病变提供一个有效可行的方法.%Articular cartilage is important weight-bearing connective tissue covering the articulating bony ends in diarthrodial joints. The structural or component changes of articular cartilage induce degenerations of the tissue and consequently cause osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, we used osmosis loading to induce swelling behavior of articular cartilage and apply ultrasound elastomicroscropy to map the depth-dependent deformations in the tissue. The intrinsic layered material parameters of the articular cartilage were extracted using a triphasic model. Results showed that the ultrasound elastomicroscropy system could investigate the mechanical properties of articular cartilage associated with osmosis-induced swelling behavior of articular cartilage in a non-contact way. This method could be potential to assess the progressive degeneration of cartilage for the early diagnosis of OA.

  9. Subchondral chitosan/blood implant-guided bone plate resorption and woven bone repair is coupled to hyaline cartilage regeneration from microdrill holes in aged rabbit knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Morales, J; Lafantaisie-Favreau, C-H; Chen, G; Hoemann, C D

    2014-02-01

    Little is known of how to routinely elicit hyaline cartilage repair tissue in middle-aged patients. We tested the hypothesis that in skeletally aged rabbit knees, microdrill holes can be stimulated to remodel the bone plate and induce a more integrated, voluminous and hyaline cartilage repair tissue when treated by subchondral chitosan/blood implants. New Zealand White rabbits (13 or 32 months old, N = 7) received two 1.5 mm diameter, 2 mm depth drill holes in each knee, either left to bleed as surgical controls or press-fit with a 10 kDa (distal hole: 10K) or 40 kDa (proximal hole: 40K) chitosan/blood implant with fluorescent chitosan tracer. Post-operative knee effusion was documented. Repair tissues at day 0 (N = 1) and day 70 post-surgery (N = 6) were analyzed by micro-computed tomography, and by histological scoring and histomorphometry (SafO, Col-2, and Col-1) at day 70. All chitosan implants were completely cleared after 70 days, without increasing transient post-operative knee effusion compared to controls. Proximal control holes had worse osteochondral repair than distal holes. Both implant formulations induced bone remodeling and improved lateral integration of the bone plate at the hole edge. The 40K implant inhibited further bone repair inside 50% of the proximal holes, while the 10K implant specifically induced a "wound bloom" reaction, characterized by decreased bone plate density in a limited zone beyond the initial hole edge, and increased woven bone (WB) plate repair inside the initial hole (P = 0.016), which was accompanied by a more voluminous and hyaline cartilage repair (P hyaline cartilage repair can be promoted by treating acute drill holes with a biodegradable subchondral implant that elicits bone plate resorption followed by anabolic WB repair within a 70-day repair period. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Persistent sciatica induced by quadratus femoris muscle tear and treated by surgical decompression: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanakakis George

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Quadratus femoris tear is an uncommon injury, which is only rarely reported in the literature. In the majority of cases the correct diagnosis is delayed due to non-specific symptoms and signs. A magnetic resonance imaging scan is crucial in the differential diagnosis since injuries to contiguous soft tissues may present with similar symptoms. Presentation with sciatica is not reported in the few cases existing in the English literature and the reported treatment has always been conservative. Case presentation We report here on a case of quadratus femoris tear in a 22-year-old Greek woman who presented with persistent sciatica. She was unresponsive to conservative measures and so was treated with surgical decompression. Conclusion The correct diagnosis of quadratus muscle tear is a challenge for physicians. The treatment is usually conservative, but in cases of persistent sciatica surgical decompression is an alternative option.

  11. Blocking Surgically Induced Lysyl Oxidase Activity Reduces the Risk of Lung Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Rachman-Tzemah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgery remains the most successful curative treatment for cancer. However, some patients with early-stage disease who undergo surgery eventually succumb to distant metastasis. Here, we show that in response to surgery, the lungs become more vulnerable to metastasis due to extracellular matrix remodeling. Mice that undergo surgery or that are preconditioned with plasma from donor mice that underwent surgery succumb to lung metastases earlier than controls. Increased lysyl oxidase (LOX activity and expression, fibrillary collagen crosslinking, and focal adhesion signaling contribute to this effect, with the hypoxic surgical site serving as the source of LOX. Furthermore, the lungs of recipient mice injected with plasma from post-surgical colorectal cancer patients are more prone to metastatic seeding than mice injected with baseline plasma. Downregulation of LOX activity or levels reduces lung metastasis after surgery and increases survival, highlighting the potential of LOX inhibition in reducing the risk of metastasis following surgery.

  12. Similar hyaline-like cartilage repair of osteochondral defects in rabbits using isotropic and anisotropic collagen scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mulder, Eric L W; Hannink, Gerjon; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Daamen, Willeke F; Buma, Pieter

    2014-02-01

    Lesions in knee joint articular cartilage (AC) have limited repair capacity. Many clinically available treatments induce a fibrous-like cartilage repair instead of hyaline cartilage. To induce hyaline cartilage repair, we hypothesized that type I collagen scaffolds with fibers aligned perpendicular to the AC surface would result in qualitatively better tissue repair due to a guided cellular influx from the subchondral bone. By specific freezing protocols, type I collagen scaffolds with isotropic and anisotropic fiber architectures were produced. Rabbits were operated on bilaterally and two full thickness defects were created in each knee joint. The defects were filled with (1) an isotropic scaffold, (2) an anisotropic scaffold with pores parallel to the cartilage surface, and (3) an anisotropic scaffold with pores perpendicular to the cartilage surface. Empty defects served as controls. After 4 (n=13) and 12 (n=13) weeks, regeneration was scored qualitatively and quantitatively using histological analysis and a modified O'Driscoll score. After 4 weeks, all defects were completely filled with partially differentiated hyaline cartilage tissue. No differences in O'Driscoll scores were measured between empty defects and scaffold types. After 12 weeks, all treatments led to hyaline cartilage repair visualized by increased glycosaminoglycan staining. Total scores were significantly increased for parallel anisotropic and empty defects over time (phyaline-like cartilage repair. Fiber architecture had no effect on cartilage repair.

  13. Chondrocalcinosis of the hyaline cartilage of the knee: MRI manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, J.; Marty-Delfaut, E.; Bencardino, J.; Rosenberg, Z.S. [Department of Radiology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States); Steiner, G. [Department of Pathology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States); Aparisi, F. [Department of Radiology, Residencia Sanitaria ``La Fe``, Valencia (Spain); Padron, M. [Clinica San Camilo, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-07-01

    Purpose. To determine the ability of MRI to detect the presence of crystals of calcium pyrophosphate in the articular cartilage of the knee. Design and patients. The MR studies of 12 knees (11 cases) were reviewed retrospectively and correlated with radiographs (12 cases) and the findings at arthroscopy (2 cases) and surgery (1 case). A total of 72 articular surfaces were evaluated. Radiographic, surgical or arthroscopic demonstration of chondrocalcinosis was used as the gold standard. Additionally, two fragments of the knee of a patient who underwent total knee replacement and demonstrated extensive chondrocalcinosis were studied with radiography and MRI using spin-echo T1-, T2- and proton-density-weighted images as well as two- and three-dimensional fat saturation (2D and 3D Fat Sat) gradient recalled echo (GRE) and STIR sequences. Results. MRI revealed multiple hypointense foci within the articular cartilage in 34 articular surfaces, better shown on 2D and 3D GRE sequences. Radiographs showed 12 articular surfaces with chondrocalcinosis. In three cases with arthroscopic or surgical correlation, MRI demonstrated more diffuse involvement of the articular cartilage than did the radiographs. The 3D Fat Sat GRE sequences were the best for demonstrating articular calcification in vitro. In no case was meniscal calcification identified with MRI. Hyperintense halos around some of the calcifications were seen on the MR images. Conclusion. MRI can depict articular cartilage calcification as hypointense foci using GRE techniques. Differential diagnosis includes loose bodies, post-surgical changes, marginal osteophytes and hemosiderin deposition. (orig.) With 4 figs., 14 refs.

  14. Mechanical loading of knee articular cartilage induced by muscle contraction can be assessed by measuring electrical potentials at the surface of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Buschmann, Michael D; Savard, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Electroarthrography (EAG) consists of recording electrical potentials on the knee surface that originate from streaming potentials within articular cartilage while the joint is undergoing compressive loading. The aim was to investigate how the contraction of specific leg muscles affects the contact force of the knee joint and, in turn, the EAG values. For six normal subjects, voluntary isometric muscle contractions were repeatedly conducted to activate four leg muscle groups while the subject was lying on his back. Two EAG signals were recorded on the medial and lateral sides of the knee, as well as four EMG signals (gastrocnemius, hamstring, quadriceps, tensor fascia latae), and the signal from a force plate fixed against the foot according to the direction of the force. The EAG and force signals were very well correlated: the median of the correlation coefficients between an EAG signal and the corresponding force signal during each loading cycle was 0.91, and 86% of the correlation coefficients were statistically significant (pmuscle contraction was possible for the gastrocnemius and hamstring, but not always for the quadriceps and tensor fascia latae. Using the clinical loading protocol which consists of a one-legged stance, the quadriceps and hamstring EMGs showed minimal activity; loading cycles with increased EAG amplitude were associated with higher EMG activity from the gastrocnemius, which is involved in antero-posterior balance. These results document the role of the EAG as a "sensor" of the knee contact force and contribute to the development of clinical loading protocols with improved reproducibility.

  15. Neurophysiological basis for neurogenic-mediated articular cartilage anabolism alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouze-Decaris, E; Philippe, L; Minn, A; Haouzi, P; Gillet, P; Netter, P; Terlain, B

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the pathways involved in neurogenic-mediated articular cartilage damage triggered by a nonsystemic distant subcutaneous or intra-articular inflammation. The cartilage damage was assessed 24 h after subcutaneous or intra-articular complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection measuring patellar proteoglycan (PG) synthesis (ex vivo [Na(2)(35)SO(4)] incorporation) in 96 Wistar rats. Unilateral subcutaneous or intra-articular injection of CFA induced significant decrease (25-29%) in PG synthesis in both patellae. Chronic administration of capsaicin (50 mg. kg(-1). day(-1) during 4 days), which blunted the normal response of C fiber stimulation, prevented the bilateral significant decrease in cartilage synthesis. Similarly, intrathecal injection of MK-801 (10 nmol/day during 5 days), which blocked the glutamatergic synaptic transmission at the dorsal horn of signal originating in primary afferent C fibers, eliminated the CFA-induced PG synthesis decrease in both patellae. Chemical sympathectomy, induced by guanethidine (12.5 mg. kg(-1). day(-1) during 6 wk), also prevented PG synthesis alteration. Finally, compression of the spinal cord at the T3-T5 level had a similar protective effect on the reduction of [Na(2)(35)SO(4)] incorporation. It is concluded that the signal that triggers articular cartilage synthesis damage induced by a distant local inflammation 1) is transmitted through the afferent C fibers, 2) makes glutamatergic synaptic connections with the preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic system, and 3) involves spinal and supraspinal pathways.

  16. A comparison of healthy human and swine articular cartilage dynamic indentation mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronken, S; Arnold, M P; Ardura García, H; Jeger, A; Daniels, A U; Wirz, D

    2012-05-01

    Articular cartilage is a multicomponent, poroviscoelastic tissue with nonlinear mechanical properties vital to its function. A consequent goal of repair or replacement of injured cartilage is to achieve mechanical properties in the repair tissue similar to healthy native cartilage. Since fresh healthy human articular cartilage (HC) is not readily available, we tested whether swine cartilage (SC) could serve as a suitable substitute for mechanical comparisons. To a first approximation, cartilage tissue and surgical substitutes can be evaluated mechanically as viscoelastic materials. Stiffness measurements (dynamic modulus, loss angle) are vital to function and are also a non-destructive means of evaluation. Since viscoelastic material stiffness is strongly strain rate dependent, stiffness was tested under different loading conditions related to function. Stiffness of healthy HC and SC specimens was determined and compared using two non-destructive, mm-scale indentation test modes: fast impact and slow sinusoidal deformation. Deformation resistance (dynamic modulus) and energy handling (loss angle) were determined. For equivalent anatomic locations, there was no difference in dynamic modulus. However, the HC loss angle was ~35% lower in fast impact and ~12% higher in slow sinusoidal mode. Differences seem attributable to age (young SC, older HC) but also to species anatomy and biology. Test mode-related differences in human-swine loss angle support use of multiple function-related test modes. Keeping loss angle differences in mind, swine specimens could serve as a standard of comparison for mechanical evaluation of e.g. engineered cartilage or synthetic repair materials.

  17. Pulmonary transcriptome analysis in the surgically induced rabbit model of diaphragmatic hernia treated with fetal tracheal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Alexander C; Brady, Paul D; Kammoun, Molka; Finalet Ferreiro, Julio; DeKoninck, Philip; Endo, Masayuki; Toelen, Jaan; Vermeesch, Joris R; Deprest, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a malformation leading to pulmonary hypoplasia, which can be treated in utero by fetal tracheal occlusion (TO). However, the changes of gene expression induced by TO remain largely unknown but could be used to further improve the clinically used prenatal treatment of this devastating malformation. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the pulmonary transcriptome changes caused by surgical induction of diaphragmatic hernia (DH) and additional TO in the fetal rabbit model. Induction of DH was associated with 378 upregulated genes compared to controls when allowing a false-discovery rate (FDR) of 0.1 and a fold change (FC) of 2. Those genes were again downregulated by consecutive TO. But DH+TO was associated with an upregulation of 157 genes compared to DH and controls. When being compared to control lungs, 106 genes were downregulated in the DH group and were not changed by TO. Therefore, the overall pattern of gene expression in DH+TO is more similar to the control group than to the DH group. In this study, we further provide a database of gene expression changes induced by surgical creation of DH and consecutive TO in the rabbit model. Future treatment strategies could be developed using this dataset. We also discuss the most relevant genes that are involved in CDH.

  18. Matrilin-3 Role in Cartilage Development and Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha S. Muttigi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM of cartilage performs essential functions in differentiation and chondroprogenitor cell maintenance during development and regeneration. Here, we discuss the vital role of matrilin-3, an ECM protein involved in cartilage development and potential osteoarthritis pathomechanisms. As an adaptor protein, matrilin-3 binds to collagen IX to form a filamentous network around cells. Matrilin-3 is an essential component during cartilage development and ossification. In addition, it interacts directly or indirectly with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2 eventually regulates chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophic differentiation. Interestingly, matrilin-3 increases interleukin receptor antagonists (IL-Ra in chondrocytes, suggesting its role in the suppression of IL-1β-mediated inflammatory action. Matrilin-3 downregulates the expression of matrix-degrading enzymes, such as a disintegrin metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4 (ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5, matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13, and collagen X, a hypertrophy marker during development and inflammatory conditions. Matrilin-3 essentially enhances collagen II and aggrecan expression, which are required to maintain the tensile strength and elasticity of cartilage, respectively. Interestingly, despite these attributes, matrilin-3 induces osteoarthritis-associated markers in chondrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Existing data provide insights into the critical role of matrilin-3 in inflammation, matrix degradation, and matrix formation in cartilage development and osteoarthritis.

  19. 经“Y”型软骨截骨髋臼挽救术治疗儿童和青少年TypeⅡ型骨盆尤文肉瘤%Acetabulum salvage by osteotomy through triradiate cartilage for surgical management of type Ⅱ pelvic Ewing sarcoma in children and adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宏斌; 王臻; 郭征; 付军; 吴志钢; 陈国景; 栗向东; 李靖

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨采用经“Y”型软骨截骨髋臼挽救术治疗儿童和青少年TypeⅡ型骨盆尤文肉瘤患者的生存率及疗效.方法 回顾性分析2001年1月至2010年10月采用经髋臼“Y”型软骨截骨、异体髋臼复合钢板重建、髋臼挽救术治疗8例骨盆TypeⅡ型尤文肉瘤患者资料,男6例,女2例;手术时年龄7~16岁,平均12.7岁.其中3例肿瘤位于“Y”型软骨上方,4例位于“Y”型软骨前下方,1例位于“Y”型软骨后下方;均为局部肿瘤,无远处转移.所有患者均行X线、CT、MRI等影像学检查,并经病理学诊断证实.化疗采用顺铂(CDP)、阿霉素(ADM)和异环磷酰胺(IFO)方案.所有患者术前均接受一个循环的新辅助化疗(即IFO-ADM+CDP-IFO),术后均接受三个循环的IFO-ADM+CDP-IFO和局部放疗;放射治疗覆盖时间内的化学治疗同期进行.3例采用传统切除重建手术,5例借助于计算机辅助导航系统接受了肿瘤的精确切除和重建手术.结果 依据实体瘤疗效评价标准对新辅助化疗进行评价,结果显示1例为完全响应,6例为部分响应,1例为病情平稳.无一例患者被诊断为疾病进展.术后8例患者均获得随访,随访时间为12~ 72个月,中位随访时间为37.8个月.7例患者无瘤生存时间为24~ 60个月,平均39个月.术后24个月1例患者死于肿瘤转移.两年生存率为100%,五年生存率为87.5%(7/8).肌肉骨骼肿瘤协会(MSTS)评分为18~ 27分,平均25.4分.国际保肢协会影像学评分为76%~ 94%,平均90.1%.结论 采用经髋臼“Y”型软骨截骨、异体髋臼复合钢板重建、髋臼挽救术治疗儿童和青少年TypeⅡ型骨盆尤文肉瘤,术后患者生存率高,可恢复患者的肢体功能.“Y”型软骨有可能是抵御肿瘤侵袭的天然屏障.%Objective To analyze the survival rate and functional outcomes after osteotomy through acetabular triradiate cartilage for surgical management of type Ⅱ pelvic Ewing

  20. 白内障手术技巧对术源性散光的影响%Effect of surgical skill on surgically -induced astigmatism in cataract surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Numan Eraslan; Ufuk Elgin; Emine Sen; Pelin Yilmazbas

    2015-01-01

    目的:评估行普通白内障超声乳化术,手术经验对术源性散光( SIA)的影响。  方法:选取患者50例53眼,平均年龄64.5±10.8a,随机分为两组,一组23眼,二组30眼。手术方式均采用透明角膜切口白内障超声乳化吸除联合人工晶状体植入术。第一组由白内障专家手术,第二组则由住院医师手术。术前所有患者均接受全面眼科检查,包括角膜曲率和自动屈光检测。 SIA应用向量分析程序-Alpins法计算,于术后1d,1mo及2mo重复上述检查并记录结果变化。应用Shapiro Wilk和Mann-Whitney检验判断两组间SIA的统计学差异。  结果:两组患者人口资料差异无统计学意义。组间分析显示,一组术后1d,1mo及2mo的SIA分别为0.79±0.41 D,0.54±0.41 D及0.47±0.37 D;二组分别为1.27±0.66 D,0.98±0.56 D及0.94±0.54 D。可见一组术后1d ( P=0.002),1mo (P=0.004)及2mo (P=0.001)的SIA更小。  结论:手术经验是影响SIA的因素之一。住院医师应增加超声乳化术手术量以获取更多手术经验。%?AIM:To evaluate the effect of surgical experience on surgically-induced astigmatism ( SIA ) in patients with uncomplicated phacoemulsification surgery. ?METHODS:Fifty-three eyes of fifty patients, mean age 64.5±10.8y, were randomly divided into two groups (23 eyes and 30 eyes) .First group was underwent surgery by cataract specialists and the second was by residents.At baseline all the patients were underwent a complete opthalmological examination including keratom etry and autorefractometer measurements. Vector analysis programme including the Alpins'method was used for the calcu lation of SIA.All the measurements were repeated postoperative first day, first month and second month and changes were recorded.Shapiro Wilk and Mann-Whitney tests were applied for determiningthe statistic al differences between the SIA

  1. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein specific antibodies are pathogenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Hui; Nandakumar, Kutty Selva; Pramhed, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a major non-collagenous component of cartilage. Earlier, we developed a new mouse model for rheumatoid arthritis using COMP. This study was undertaken to investigate the epitope specificity and immunopathogenicity of COMP...... and the pathogenicity of mAbs was investigated by passive transfer experiments. RESULTS: B cell immunodominant epitopes were localized within 4 antigenic domains of the COMP but with preferential response to the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain. Some of our anti-COMP mAbs showed interactions with the native...... form of COMP, which is present in cartilage and synovium. Passive transfer of COMP-specific mAbs enhanced arthritis when co-administrated with a sub-arthritogenic dose of a mAb specific to collagen type II. Interestingly, we found that a combination of 5 COMP mAbs was capable of inducing arthritis...

  2. Does Radio Frequency Ablation (RFA) Epiphysiodesis Affect Joint Cartilage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Abood, Ahmed Abdul-Hussein; Rahbek, Ole;

    Background: Epiphysiodesis made with RFA has resulted, in animal models, an effective procedure that disrupts the growth plate and induces LLD. This procedure involves an increase of temperature (>92°C) of the targeted region causing thermal damage. To our knowledge, no study that investigates...... the effect of this procedure in the adjacent joint articular cartilage has been reported Purpose / Aim of Study: Proof of concept that epiphysiodesis made with RFA is a safe procedure that disrupts the growth plate without damaging the adjacent joint articular cartilage Materials and Methods: RFA...... articular joint cartilage. This study resembles possible results of RFA epiphysiodesis on humans. Previous studies suggest that an 8 min ablation is enough to disrupt the growth plate. This study shows that RFA can be done safely in the growing physis even on triple-long procedures. It is important...

  3. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  4. Results of otoplasty by scoring anterior surface of auricular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašić Jugoslav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A prominent ear, so called a protruding or 'lop' ear, is the most common congenital deformity of the external ear. This deformity persists when the mastoid-helix angle (MHA is higher than 30 degrees. It is relatively common among the population with the incidence of about 5%. The aim of this study is to present surgical procedure and our results using otoplasty with scoring anterior surface of the auricular cartilage. To analyze objective and subjective surgical procedure effects. Between 2011 and 2014 we treated 28 patients. We found statistically high significance p<0.01 in value mastoid-helix angle (MHA preoperative and postoperative. In patients with bilateral otoplasty the difference between left and right MHAs after surgical procedure is less than 4 degrees. The difference of head-helix distance (HHD preoperative and postoperative is statistically important with high significance p<0.05. Preoperative satisfaction by personal appearance was better after surgical procedure p<0.05. Complications occurred in 9 cases (32.4%. Otoplasty by scoring anterior surface of auricular cartilage is safe procedure for correction of prominent ear with excellent results on patient satisfaction by personal appearance. Effect of reducing the MHA and HHD is long lasting.

  5. Transcriptomic signatures in cartilage ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Age is an important factor in the development of osteoarthritis. Microarray studies provide insight into cartilage aging but do not reveal the full transcriptomic phenotype of chondrocytes such as small noncoding RNAs, pseudogenes, and microRNAs. RNA-Seq is a powerful technique for the interrogation of large numbers of transcripts including nonprotein coding RNAs. The aim of the study was to characterise molecular mechanisms associated with age-related changes in gene signatures. Methods RNA for gene expression analysis using RNA-Seq and real-time PCR analysis was isolated from macroscopically normal cartilage of the metacarpophalangeal joints of eight horses; four young donors (4 years old) and four old donors (>15 years old). RNA sequence libraries were prepared following ribosomal RNA depletion and sequencing was undertaken using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Differentially expressed genes were defined using Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate correction with a generalised linear model likelihood ratio test (P ageing cartilage. Conclusion There was an age-related dysregulation of matrix, anabolic and catabolic cartilage factors. This study has increased our knowledge of transcriptional networks in cartilage ageing by providing a global view of the transcriptome. PMID:23971731

  6. Propranolol Attenuates Surgical Stress-Induced Elevation of the Regulatory T Cell Response in Patients Undergoing Radical Mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Li, Yunli; Li, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Gong; Liang, Huiying; Wu, Yuhui; Tong, Jianbin; Ouyang, Wen

    2016-04-15

    Surgical stress and inflammatory response induce the release of catecholamines and PGs, which may be key factors in facilitating cancer recurrence through immunosuppression. Animal studies have suggested the efficacy of perioperative blockades of catecholamines and PGs in reducing immunosuppression. In this study, to our knowledge, we present the first report of the effects of perioperative propranolol and/or parecoxib on peripheral regulatory T cells (Tregs) in breast cancer patients. Patients were randomly assigned to control, propranolol, parecoxib, and propranolol plus parecoxib groups. We demonstrated that levels of circulating epinephrine, norepinephrine, and PGE2increased in response to surgery. Meanwhile, peripheral FOXP3 mRNA level and Treg frequencies were elevated on postoperative day 7. Propranolol administration, rather than parecoxib, attenuated such elevation of Tregs, indicating the critical roles for catecholamines in surgery-induced promotion of Tregs. Besides, propranolol plus parecoxib treatment demonstrated no additive or synergistic effects. Furthermore, a study of Treg activity on CD4(+)T cell responses to specific tumor Ags was performed in the control and propranolol groups. Propranolol abrogated the increased Treg activity and accompanying suppression of CD4(+)T cell responses after surgery. Finally, we conducted ex vivo experiments on the effects of varying concentrations of epinephrine and/or propranolol on Treg proliferation over PBMCs from breast cancer patients, to provide further direct evidence strengthening our clinical observations. Epinephrine markedly promoted Treg proliferation, whereas propranolol prevented such enhancement effect. In conclusion, our study highlights beneficial roles for propranolol in inhibiting Treg responses in vivo and in vitro, and demonstrates that propranolol could alleviate surgical stress-induced elevation of Tregs in breast cancer patients.

  7. The study on the mechanical characteristics of articular cartilage in simulated microgravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Jun Niu; Qing Wang; Yue-Xiang Wang; Ang Li; Lian-Wen Sun; Yan Yan; Fan Fan; De-Yu Li; Yu-Bo Fan

    2012-01-01

    The microgravity environment of a long-term space flight may induce acute changes in an astronaut's musculo-skeletal systems.This study explores the effects of simulated microgravity on the mechanical characteristics of articular cartilage.Six rats underwent tail suspension for 14 days and six additional rats were kept under normal earth gravity as controls.Swelling strains were measured using high-frequency ultrasound in all cartilage samples subject to osmotic loading.Site-specific swelling strain data were used in a triphasic theoretical model of cartilage swelling to determine the uniaxial modulus of the cartilage solid matrix.No severe surface irregularities were found in the cartilage samples obtained from the control or tail-suspended groups.For the tail-suspended group,the thickness of the cartilage at a specified site,as determined by ultrasound echo,showed a minor decrease.The uniaxial modulus of articular cartilage at the specified site decreased significantly,from (6.31 ± 3.37) MPa to (5.05 ± 2.98) MPa (p < 0.05).The histology-stained image of a cartilage sample also showed a reduced number of chondrocytes and decreased degree of matrix staining.These results demonstrated that the 14 d simulated microgravity induced significant effects on the mechanical characteristics of articular cartilage.This study is the first attempt to explore the effects of simulated microgravity on the mechanical characteristics of articular cartilage using an osmotic loading method and a triphasic model.The conclusions may provide reference information for manned space flights and a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on the skeletal system.

  8. The study on the mechanical characteristics of articular cartilage in simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hai-Jun; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yue-Xiang; Li, Ang; Sun, Lian-Wen; Yan, Yan; Fan, Fan; Li, De-Yu; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2012-10-01

    The microgravity environment of a long-term space flight may induce acute changes in an astronaut's musculo-skeletal systems. This study explores the effects of simulated microgravity on the mechanical characteristics of articular cartilage. Six rats underwent tail suspension for 14 days and six additional rats were kept under normal earth gravity as controls. Swelling strains were measured using high-frequency ultrasound in all cartilage samples subject to osmotic loading. Site-specific swelling strain data were used in a triphasic theoretical model of cartilage swelling to determine the uniaxial modulus of the cartilage solid matrix. No severe surface irregularities were found in the cartilage samples obtained from the control or tail-suspended groups. For the tail-suspended group, the thickness of the cartilage at a specified site, as determined by ultrasound echo, showed a minor decrease. The uniaxial modulus of articular cartilage at the specified site decreased significantly, from (6.31 ± 3.37)MPa to (5.05 ± 2.98)MPa ( p < 0.05). The histology-stained image of a cartilage sample also showed a reduced number of chondrocytes and decreased degree of matrix staining. These results demonstrated that the 14 d simulated microgravity induced significant effects on the mechanical characteristics of articular cartilage. This study is the first attempt to explore the effects of simulated microgravity on the mechanical characteristics of articular cartilage using an osmotic loading method and a triphasic model. The conclusions may provide reference information for manned space flights and a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on the skeletal system.

  9. Nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) scaffolds provide a functional microenvironment for cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Kuan Y; Andriotis, Orestis G; Li, Siwei; Basnett, Pooja; Su, Bo; Roy, Ipsita; Tare, Rahul S; Sengers, Bram G; Stolz, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Articular cartilage defects, when repaired ineffectively, often lead to further deterioration of the tissue, secondary osteoarthritis and, ultimately, joint replacement. Unfortunately, current surgical procedures are unable to restore normal cartilage function. Tissue engineering of cartilage provides promising strategies for the regeneration of damaged articular cartilage. As yet, there are still significant challenges that need to be overcome to match the long-term mechanical stability and durability of native cartilage. Using electrospinning of different blends of biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate), we produced polymer scaffolds and optimised their structure, stiffness, degradation rates and biocompatibility. Scaffolds with a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) ratio of 1:0.25 exhibit randomly oriented fibres that closely mimic the collagen fibrillar meshwork of native cartilage and match the stiffness of native articular cartilage. Degradation of the scaffolds into products that could be easily removed from the body was indicated by changes in fibre structure, loss of molecular weight and a decrease in scaffold stiffness after one and four months. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis after three weeks of culture with human articular chondrocytes revealed a hyaline-like cartilage matrix. The ability to fine tune the ultrastructure and mechanical properties using different blends of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) allows to produce a cartilage repair kit for clinical use to reduce the risk of developing secondary osteoarthritis. We further suggest the development of a toolbox with tailor-made scaffolds for the repair of other tissues that require a 'guiding' structure to support the body's self-healing process.

  10. Semiquantitative correction of posttraumatic enophthalmos with sliced cartilage grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, K; Hirose, T; Furuta, S; Hayashi, M; Watanabe, T

    1989-03-01

    A simple surgical technique for correcting posttraumatic enophthalmos is described. The steps are as follows: (1) a plaster mold is obtained of the patient's face, (2) wax is added to the enophthalmic eye of the plaster mold until it becomes symmetrical, (3) the quantity of wax is measured, and (4) the same amount of sliced costal cartilage is implanted beneath the periosteum of the extended orbital wall behind the vertical axis of the globe. Using this technique, we have successfully treated six patients with traumatic orbital floor defects without complication. This approach is useful for decreasing the orbital volume using a semiquantitative procedure to estimate the amount of graft material required. In this respect, costal cartilage demonstrates a marked advantage, with stability and cosmetic appearance verified over 12 months of follow-up.

  11. Survival of a patient with trauma-induced mucormycosis using an aggressive surgical and medical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sickels, Nicholas; Hoffman, Jordan; Stuke, Lance; Kempe, Kelly

    2011-02-01

    Mucormycosis is a deadly angioinvasive fungal infection that is increasing in incidence. Gastrointestinal and abdominal involvement is rare, has higher mortality rates, and is frequently diagnosed late. We report a patient who sustained multiple gunshot wounds to the chest and abdomen and subsequently developed omental and hepatic mucormycosis. He underwent 14 abdominal washouts and several liver debridements, and he received combination therapy with amphotericin B and micafungin. The patient survived the disease, with negative cultures and pathology at the last washout, and underwent skin grafting. He is clinically improved and remains on oral antifungals as an outpatient. Mucormycosis should be considered in trauma patients with persistent signs of infection after lavage and antibiotics, especially when necrosis or atypical wound presentations are noted. Approaches such as ours using aggressive surgical management and intensive antifungal administration should be instituted once the diagnosis is suspected.

  12. Transcriptomic profiling of cartilage ageing

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    Mandy Jayne Peffers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The musculoskeletal system is severely affected by the ageing process, with many tissues undergoing changes that lead to loss of function and frailty. Articular cartilage is susceptible to age related diseases, such as osteoarthritis. Applying RNA-Seq to young and old equine cartilage, we identified an over-representation of genes with reduced expression relating to extracellular matrix, degradative proteases, matrix synthetic enzymes, cytokines and growth factors in cartilage from older donors. Here we describe the contents and quality controls in detail for the gene expression and related results published by Peffers and colleagues in Arthritis Research and Therapy 2013 associated with the data uploaded to ArrayExpress (E-MTAB-1386.

  13. Surgical Management of Levamisole-Adulterated Cocaine Induced Soft Tissue Necrosis: Case Study and Treatment Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcevenue, Giancarlo; Brichacek, Michael; Logsetty, Sarvesh; Shahrokhi, Shar

    2016-08-18

    Levamisole is an increasingly common cocaine adulterant that can cause severe and rapid onset cutaneous vasculitis in humans. While most cases may be managed conservatively, we describe a series of patients in whom the extent of skin and soft tissue necrosis mandated surgical intervention. A retrospective review of all patients admitted to one of two regional burn centers between 2006 and 2016 for soft tissue necrosis after exposure to levamisole-adulterated cocaine was included in our study. Ten patients, majority female (9/10) with an average age of 43.4 years (range 31-57), were included. Cocaine usage before presentation averaged 6 days (range 1-14). Presenting complaints consisted of arthralgia (5/10), fever (7/10), and purpuric lesions (10/10). Average TBSA involvement was 23.5% (range 4-70). Immunological testing revealed pANCA+ in 8 of 10 and cANCA+ in 4 of 8 patients. Operative intervention occurred by postadmission day 11.6 (range 3-30). The mean number of operations required was 3 (range 2-6); length of stay averaged 46.8 days (range 14-120); and survival to discharge was 100% (10/10). To our knowledge, this is the largest case study detailing the surgical management of levamisole-associated skin necrosis. Additionally, we describe the most extensive case of this disease process at 70% TBSA involvement. Based on our experience, we recommend waiting for purpuric rash resolution and soft tissue necrosis to be fully demarcated before fascial debridement and then staged skin grafting with allograft followed by autograft.

  14. Management of cannabis-induced periodontitis via resective surgical therapy: A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Kang, Philip

    2017-03-01

    There is a lack of clinical research on the potential effect of cannabis use on the periodontium as well as its effect on treatment outcomes. The aim of this case report is to illustrate the clinical presentation of periodontal disease in a young woman who was a chronic cannabis user, as well as successful treatment involving motivating the patient to quit cannabis use and undergo nonsurgical and surgical therapy. A 23-year-old woman sought care at the dental clinic for periodontal treatment. During a review of her medical history, the patient reported using cannabis frequently during a 3-year period, which coincided with the occurrence of gingival inflammation. She used cannabis in the form of cigarettes that were placed at the mandibular anterior region of her mouth for prolonged periods. Localized prominent papillary and marginal gingival enlargement of the anterior mandible were present. The mandibular anterior teeth showed localized severe chronic periodontitis. The clinicians informed the patient about the potentially detrimental consequences of continued cannabis use; she was encouraged to quit, which she did. The clinicians performed nonsurgical therapy (scaling and root planing) and osseous surgery. The treatment outcome was evaluated over 6 months; improved radiographic and clinical results were observed throughout the follow-up period. Substantial availability and usage of cannabis, specifically among young adults, requires dentists to be vigilant about clinical indications of cannabis use and to provide appropriate treatments. Behavioral modification, nonsurgical therapy, and surgical therapy offer the potential for successful management of cannabis-related periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. PHOTOCROSSLINKABLE HYDROGELS FOR CARTILAGE TISSUE ENGINEERING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levett, Peter Andrew

    2015-01-01

    For millions of people, damaged cartilage is a major source of pain and disability. As those people often discover upon seeking medical treatment, once damaged, cartilage is very difficult to repair. Finding better clinical therapies for damaged cartilage has generated a huge amount of research inte

  16. Biomaterial and Cell Based Cartilage Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to human native cartilage tissue are particularly troublesome because cartilage has little ability to heal or regenerate itself. The reconstruction, repair, and regeneration of cartilage tissue continue to be one of the greatest clinical challenges, especially in orthopaedic and plastic sur

  17. Biomaterial and Cell Based Cartilage Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to human native cartilage tissue are particularly troublesome because cartilage has little ability to heal or regenerate itself. The reconstruction, repair, and regeneration of cartilage tissue continue to be one of the greatest clinical challenges, especially in orthopaedic and plastic

  18. Limitations and sources of bias in clinical knee cartilage research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Jamie; Waterman, Brian R; Davidson, Philip A; Lubowitz, James H

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the limitations and biases inherent to surgical trials on the management of knee chondral defects. A literature search of PubMed/Medline, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted in September 2010 and updated in August 2011 to identify all English-language, Level I evidence, prospective, randomized controlled trials published from 1996 to present. The keyword search included the following: "autologous chondrocyte," "cartilage graft," "cartilage repair," "chondroplasty," "microfracture," "mosaicplasty," and/or "osteochondral." Nonoperative studies, nonhuman studies, ex vivo studies, non-knee studies, and/or studies with follow-up of less than 1 year were excluded. A systematic review was performed on all included studies, and limitations and/or biases were identified and quantitated. Of 15,311 citations, 33 abstracts were reviewed and 11 prospective, randomized controlled trials were included. We identified 9 major limitations (subject age, subject prior surgery, subject duration of symptoms, lesion location, lesion size, lesion number, procedure selection, procedure standardization, and limited histologic analysis) and 7 common biases (selection, performance, transfer, nonresponder, detection, publication, and study design). Level I therapeutic studies investigating the surgical management of human knee cartilage defects have substantial identified biases and limitations. This review has limitations because other classifications of bias or limitation exist. Optimal management of cartilage defects is controversial, and future rigorous research methods could minimize common biases through strict study design and patient selection criteria, larger patient enrollment, more extended follow-up, and standardization of clinical treatment pathways. Level I, systematic review of Level I studies. Copyright © 2012

  19. Dissipated energy as a method to characterize the cartilage damage in large animal joints: an in vitro testing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Christian; Leichtle, Ulf; Lorenz, Andrea; Mittag, Falk; Wülker, Nikolaus; Müller, Otto; Bobrowitsch, Evgenij; Rothstock, Stephan

    2013-09-01

    Several quantitative methods for the in vitro characterization of cartilage quality are available. However, only a few of these methods allow surgical cartilage manipulations and the subsequent analysis of the friction properties of complete joints. This study introduces an alternative approach to the characterization of the friction properties of entire joint surfaces using the dissipated energy during motion of the joint surfaces. Seven sheep wrist joints obtained post mortem were proximally and distally fixed to a material testing machine. With the exception of the carpometacarpal articulation surface, all joint articulations were fixed with 'Kirschner' wires. Three cartilage defects were simulated with a surgically introduced groove (16 mm(2), 32 mm(2), 300 mm(2)) and compared to intact cartilage without an artificial defect. The mean dissipated energy per cycle was calculated from the hysteresis curve during ten torsional motion cycles (±10°) under constant axial preload (100-900 N). A significant increase in dissipated energy was observed with increasing cartilage defect size and axial load (p0.073), while all other defect conditions were significantly different (p=0.015). All defect sizes were significantly different (p=0.049) at 900 N axial load. We conclude that the method introduced here could be an alternative for the study of cartilage damage, and further applications based on the principles of this method could be developed for the evaluation of different cartilage treatments. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nasal reconstruction with articulated irradiated rib cartilage

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    Murakami, C.S.; Cook, T.A.; Guida, R.A. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Nasal structural reconstruction is a formidable task in cases where there is loss of support to both the nasal dorsum and tip. A multitude of surgical approaches and materials have been used for the correction of the saddle-nose deformity with varying degrees of success. Articulated irradiated rib cartilage inserted through an external rhinoplasty approach was used to reconstruct nasal deformities in 18 patients over a 6-year period. Simultaneous use of a midline forehead flap to reconstruct the overlying soft tissue was required in four cases. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years (mean, 2.8 years). Results were rewarding in most cases with marked improvement in nasal support and airway. Revision and/or replacement secondary to trauma or warping of the graft was required in four cases. None of the patients exhibited infection, extrusion, or noticeable resorption. A description of the surgical technique, review of all the cases, and recommendation for continued use of this graft material are discussed.

  1. Towards one-stage cell-based treatment and non-invasive evaluation of cartilage defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, J.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to improve the clinical outcome of patients with a focal articular cartilage lesion treated with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), by improvement of the surgical technique, the development of specific treatment algorithms and the evaluation and validation o

  2. ROLE OF INCISION SITE IN REDUCING SURGICALLY INDUCE D ASTIGMATISM IN MANUAL SMALL INCISION CATARACT SURGE RY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Phacoemulsification and foldable IOLs allow modern day surgeon to aim at minimal induction of any astigmatic error as well a s correct any pre-operative refractive errors thus making patients’ life, spectacle free i.e. una ided emmetropia. But its high price and maintenance with a long learning curve for the surg eon make it unsuitable for the Indian camp scenario. Manual SICS in comparison needs a larger incision f or both nucleus removal and a rigid IOL insertion, but still provides for a sutureless and c onvenient alternative to phaco. Manual SICS does induce some amount of astigmatism by altering corneal curvatures (i.e., by coupling effect, while phaco surgery with 3 mm incision is astigmatic ally neutral. Manifold of studies have been done to compare Surgically Induced Astigmatism of ma nual SICS to phaco surgery but not much has been done to compare various techniques in manua l SICS itself. In this study an attempt has been made to analyze t he role of incision site depending on the pre operative keratometry readings in reducing su rgically induced astigmatism in manual small incision cataract surgery.

  3. Surgically induced astigmatism after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal clear corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hwan Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the corneal refractive changes induced after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: This prospective study comprised a consecutive case series of 60 eyes from 30 patients with bilateral phacoemulsification that were implanted with a 6.0 mm foldable intraocular lens through a 3.0 mm horizontal clear corneal incision (temporal in the right eyes, nasal in the left eyes. The outcome measures were surgically induced astigmatism (SIA and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA 1 and 3 months, post-operatively. Results: At 1 month, the mean SIA was 0.81 diopter (D for the temporal incisions and 0.92 D for nasal incisions (P = 0.139. At 3 months, the mean SIA were 0.53 D for temporal incisions and 0.62 D for nasal incisions (P = 0.309. The UCVA was similar in the 2 incision groups before surgery, and at 1 and 3 months post-operatively. Conclusion: After bilateral cataract surgery using 3.0 mm temporal and nasal horizontal corneal incisions, the induced corneal astigmatic change was similar in both incision groups. Especially in Asian eyes, both temporal and nasal incisions (3.0 mm or less would be favorable for astigmatism-neutral cataract surgery.

  4. High-Fat Diet in the Absence of Obesity Does Not Aggravate Surgically Induced Lymphoedema in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousopoulos, Epameinondas; Karaman, Sinem; Proulx, Steven T; Leu, Kristin; Buschle, Dorina; Detmar, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Lymphoedema represents the cardinal manifestation of lymphatic dysfunction and is associated with expansion of the adipose tissue in the affected limb. In mice, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity was associated with impaired collecting lymphatic vessel function, and adiposity aggravated surgery-induced lymphoedema in a mouse model. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether adiposity is necessary to impair lymphatic function or whether increased lipid exposure alone might be sufficient in a surgical lymphoedema model. To investigate the role of increased lipid exposure in lymphoedema development we used a well-established mouse tail lymphoedema model. Female mice were subjected to a short-term (6 weeks) HFD, without development of obesity, before surgical induction of lymphedema. Lymphoedema was followed over a period of 6 weeks measuring oedema, evaluating tissue histology and lymphatic vascular function. HFD increased baseline angiogenesis and average lymphatic vessel size in comparison to the chow control group. Upon induction of lymphedema, HFD-treated mice did not exhibit aggravated oedema and no morphological differences were observed in the blood and lymphatic vasculature. Importantly, the levels of fibro-adipose tissue deposition were comparable between the 2 groups and lymphatic vessel function was not impaired as a result of the HFD. Although the net immune cell infiltration was comparable, the HFD group displayed an increased infiltration of macrophages, which exhibited an M2 polarization phenotype. These results indicate that increased adiposity rather than dietary influences determines predisposition to or severity of lymphedema. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Combination of Collagen-Based Scaffold and Bioactive Factors Induces Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Chondrogenic Differentiation In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Giovanna; Forte, Stefano; Gulino, Rosario; Cefalì, Francesco; Figallo, Elisa; Salvatorelli, Lucia; Maniscalchi, Eugenia T.; Angelico, Giuseppe; Parenti, Rosalba; Gulisano, Massimo; Memeo, Lorenzo; Giuffrida, Raffaella

    2017-01-01

    Recently, multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted much attention in the field of regenerative medicine due to their ability to give rise to different cell types, including chondrocytes. Damaged articular cartilage repair is one of the most challenging issues for regenerative medicine, due to the intrinsic limited capability of cartilage to heal because of its avascular nature. While surgical approaches like chondral autografts and allografts provide symptoms and function improvement only for a short period, MSC based stimulation therapies, like microfracture surgery or autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis demonstrate to be more effective. The use of adult chondrocytes, which are the main cellular constituent of cartilage, in medical practice, is indeed limited due to their instability in monolayer culture and difficulty to collect donor tissue (articular and nasal cartilage). The most recent cartilage engineering approaches combine cells, biomaterial scaffold and bioactive factors to promote functional tissue replacements. Many recent evidences demonstrate that scaffolds providing specific microenvironmental conditions can promote MSCs differentiation toward a functional phenotype. In the present work, the chondrogenic potential of a new Collagen I based 3D scaffold has been assessed in vitro, in combination with human adipose-derived MSCs which possess a higher chondrogenic potential compared to MSCs isolated from other tissues. Our data indicate that the scaffold was able to promote the early stages of chondrogenic commitment and that supplementation of specific soluble factors was able to induce the complete differentiation of MSCs in chondrocytes as demonstrated by the appearance of cartilage distinctive markers (Sox 9, Aggrecan, Matrilin-1, and Collagen II), as well as by the cartilage-specific Alcian Blue staining and by the acquisition of typical cellular morphology. Such evidences suggest that the investigated scaffold formulation could

  6. Variation of perimplant biofilm induced by non surgical periodontal therapy and the use of probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Gatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to improved surgical tecniques the use of dental implants has increased greatly. However, high rates of osseointegrated correctly implants, over the years are undermined by disease of bacterial etiology in the perimplant zone, especially by Gram negative anaerobes such as in gingivitis and periodontitis, in particular: Fusobacterium spp.(F., Treponema denticola (T.d., Tannerella forsythensis (T.f., Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a., Prevotella intermedia (P.i. e Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.. The mechanic treatment (MS results in a reduction of the total bacterial count (TBC and a slight change in the subgingival bacterial microflora towards the less pathogenic species and more like those of a healthy periodontium.Also the use of a probiotic in the form of buccal tablets of Lactobacillus reuteri (L.r., as demonstrated in this study, is thought to improve and modulate the composition of plaque, as it is able to exert an inhibitory effect on oral bacteria that support caries, gingivitis, periodontal and perimplant disease with a combination of different mechanisms.

  7. Evaluations of sagittal and vertical changes induced by surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, Giorgio; Bocchino, Tecla; Casadei, Matteo; Baldi, Domenico; Robiony, Massimo

    2013-07-01

    Class II, anterior open bite and/or a steep mandibular plane angle are frequently considered a contraindication to the use of surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE). Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the maxillary and mandibular effects after SARPE on the sagittal and vertical planes, with dissimilar results and small samples of patients.The aim of the current study was to evaluate the sagittal and vertical effects after SARPE. Twenty-one consecutive adult patients (7 males, 14 females; mean age, 25.6 ± 6.3 years) who required SARPE were included in this study. All patients were subjected to subtotal LeFort I osteotomy with pterygomaxillary disjunction. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken during the preoperative assessment (T0) and 6 months after the end of the expansion (T1). Cephalometric measurements were realized at T0 and T1 for all the patients. Independent-sample t test and analysis of variance were used. Statistically significant changes were observed only in upper incisor^NA (P = 0.04). No skeletal sagittal or vertical variation was found after SARPE. Class II, anterior open bite and/or a steep mandibular plane angle cannot be considered an outright contraindication to its use. Upper incisor palatal inclination could result after SARPE.

  8. Expression of caspase-3 and -9 relevant to cartilage destruction and chondrocyte apoptosis in human osteoarthritic cartilage.

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    Matsuo M

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the involvement of the caspase family in the pathway of NO-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, osteoarthritis (OA cartilage obtained from 8 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty were used for histopathological study. Cartilage samples taken from non-fibrillated areas of femoral head resected during surgery for femoral neck fracture were used for comparison. DNA fragmentation of chondrocytes was detected by the nick end-labeling (TUNEL method. Apoptosis was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The distributions of nitrotyrosine (NT, caspase-3, and -9 were examined immunohistochemically. The populations of apoptotic as well as NT-, caspase-3-, and -9-positive cells were quantified by counting the number of cells in the superficial, middle, and deep layers, respectively. The TUNEL-positive cells were observed primarily in superficial proliferating chondrocytes, clustering chondrocytes, and deep-layer chondrocytes of OA cartilage. Few positive cells were seen in the proliferating chondrocytes in the middle layer. Positive reactions for caspase-3 and -9 were observed in chondrocytes in similar areas. Histological OA grade showed significant correlations with the mean populations of apoptotic chondrocytes (% apoptosis over the 3 areas. The populations of NT-positive cells (% NT over the same areas also showed significant correlation with OA grade. Positivity for caspase-3 closely correlated with the OA grade, % apoptosis and %NT. It was concluded that caspase-3 and -9 could play a role in NO-induced chondrocyte apoptosis in OA cartilage.

  9. Strategies for Stratified Cartilage Bioprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, W.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple materials, cells and growth factors can be combined into one construct by the use of a state–of-the-art bioprinter. This technique may in the future make the fabrication of complete tissues or organs possible. In this thesis the feasibility of the bioprinting of cartilage and the difference

  10. Postnatal development of articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) is the thin layer of tissue that covers the ends of the bones in the synovial joints in mammals. Functional adult AC has depth-dependent mechanical properties that are not yet present at birth. These depth-dependent mechanical properties in adult life are the result of a

  11. Postnatal development of articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) is the thin layer of tissue that covers the ends of the bones in the synovial joints in mammals. Functional adult AC has depth-dependent mechanical properties that are not yet present at birth. These depth-dependent mechanical properties in adult life are the result of a dep

  12. Surgically Induced Interpregnancy Weight Loss and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmer, Mikaela; Berglind, Daniel; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Näslund, Erik; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Introduction According to the fetal overnutrition hypothesis, obesity in pregnancy predisposes the offspring to obesity. Previous studies have suggested that after biliopancreatic surgery for obesity, the offspring is less likely to be obese. This study aims to further compare the BMI development of children born before and after maternal surgical weight loss. Method Women with at least one child born before and one child born after bariatric surgery were identified by record-linkage. Information about maternal BMI was extracted from medical records, as was information about the children's BMI from birth to 10 years of age. We retrieved BMI data at four years of age for 340 children, born to 223 women (164 children born before surgery (BS), 176 children born after surgery (AS)). We evaluated prevalence of overweight/obesity and mean BMI in children born BS and AS at the ages of four, six and ten using GEE regression models. For 71 families, where we had complete data on mother and both children, we used a fixed-effects regression model to explore the association between differences in maternal BMI in w10 of the pre- and post-operative pregnancies with siblings' BMI differences at age four. Results In no age group did we see a significantly reduced prevalence of overweight/obesity AS. For 10-year-old girls, the AS group had significantly higher rates of obesity. There was no association between differences in maternal BMI in early pregnancy and differences in siblings' BMI at four years of age (β = −0.01, CI 95% = −0.11; 0.09). Conclusions We have been unable to demonstrate any effect of bariatric surgery on weight development in offspring. It seems unlikely that restrictive bariatric surgery conveys a protective effect in offspring with regards to obesity. PMID:24349234

  13. Lactoferrin inhibits dexamethasone-induced chondrocyte impairment from osteoarthritic cartilage through up-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and suppression of FASL, FAS, and Caspase 3

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    Tu, Yihui [Department of Orthopaedics, Yangpu District Central Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University School of Medicine, 450 Tengyue Road, Shanghai (China); Xue, Huaming [Department of Orthopaedics, Yangpu District Central Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University School of Medicine, 450 Tengyue Road, Shanghai (China); Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park (United Kingdom); Francis, Wendy [Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park (United Kingdom); Davies, Andrew P. [Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, Moriston Hospital, Swansea (United Kingdom); Pallister, Ian; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu [Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park (United Kingdom); Xia, Zhidao, E-mail: zhidao.xia@gmail.com [Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Dex exerts dose-dependant inhibition of HACs viability and induction of apoptosis. •Dex-induced impairment of chondrocytes was attenuated by rhLF. •ERK and FASL/FAS signaling are involved in the effects of rhLF. •OA patients with glucocorticoid-induced cartilage damage may benefit from treatment with rhLF. -- Abstract: Dexamethasone (Dex) is commonly used for osteoarthritis (OA) with excellent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. However, Dex also has many side effects following repeated use over prolonged periods mainly through increasing apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation. Lactoferrin (LF) exerts significantly anabolic effect on many cells and little is known about its effect on OA chondrocytes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether LF can inhibit Dex-induced OA chondrocytes apoptosis and explore its possible molecular mechanism involved in. MTT assay was used to determine the optimal concentration of Dex and recombinant human LF (rhLF) on chondrocytes at different time and dose points. Chondrocytes were then stimulated with Dex in the absence or presence of optimal concentration of rhLF. Cell proliferation and viability were evaluated using MTT and LIVE/DEAD assay, respectively. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by multi-parameter apoptosis assay kit using both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), FAS, FASL, and Caspase-3 (CASP3) at the mRNA and protein levels were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The optimal concentration of Dex (25 μg/ml) and rhLF (200 μg/ml) were chosen for the following experiments. rhLF significantly reversed the detrimental effect of Dex on chondrocytes proliferation, viability, and apoptosis. In addition, rhLF significantly prevented Dex-induced down-regulation of ERK and up-regulation of FAS, FASL, and CASP3. These findings demonstrated that rhLF acts as

  14. An ex vivo RT-qPCR-based assay for human peripheral leukocyte responsiveness to glucocorticoids in surgically induced inflammation

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    Gråberg T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Truls Gråberg,1 Lovisa Strömmer,1 Erik Hedman,2 Mehmet Uzunel,3 Ewa Ehrenborg,4 Ann-Charlotte Wikström5 1Division of Surgery, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska University Hospital, 3Division of Therapeutic Immunology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, 4Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, 5Unit of Translational Immunology, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Introduction: An assay to determine glucocorticoid (GC responsiveness in humans could be used to monitor GC non-responsiveness in states of GC insufficiency and could provide a tool to adapt GC treatment to individual patients. We propose an ex vivo assay to test GC responsiveness in peripheral leukocytes. The assay was evaluated in a human experimental model of surgery-induced inflammation. Patients and methods: Changes in expression of the GC-regulated genes GILZ, IL1R2, FKBP5, and HLA-DR and glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GRα were determined by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR in peripheral leukocytes from surgical patients and healthy blood donors (total n=60 in response to low (1 nM and high (1 µM dexamethasone (DEX. The final selection of a suitable endogenous control gene was based on the studies of stability during DEX treatment and inflammation. Correlations between pre- and postoperative GC-induced gene expression, the postoperative systemic inflammatory and metabolic response (CRP, IL-6, white blood cell count, cytokines, resistin, free fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and adiponectin, and the clinical outcome were analyzed. The length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU-LOS, the length of stay in the hospital, and postoperative complications were used to measure clinical outcome. Results: When the blood donors were compared to the patients, there were no significant

  15. Co-micronized palmitoylethanolamide/polydatin treatment causes endometriotic lesion regression in a rodent model of surgically-induced endometriosis

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    Rosanna Di Paola

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a chronic, painful disease characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, an endogenous fatty acid amide, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. PEA lacks free radical scavenging activity, unlike polydatin (PLD, a natural precursor of resveratrol. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of orally administered co-micronized PEA/polydatin (m(PEA/PLD in an autologous rat model of surgically-induced endometriosis. Endometriosis was induced in female Wistar albino rats by auto-transplantation of uterine squares (implants into the intestinal mesentery and peritoneal cavity. Rats were distributed into one control group and one treatment group (10 animals each: m(PEA/PLD 10 mg/kg/day. At 28 days after surgery the relative volume of the endometrioma was determined. Endometrial-like tissue was confirmed by histology: Masson trichrome and toluidine blue were used to detect fibrosis and mast cells, respectively. The treated group displayed a smaller cyst diameter, with improved fibrosis score and mast cell number decrease. m(PEA/PLD administration decreased angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor, nerve growth factor, intercellular adhesion molecule, matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression and lymphocyte accumulation. m(PEA/PLD treatment also reduced peroxynitrite formation, (poly-ADPribose polymerase activation, IkBα phosphorylation and nuclear facor-kB traslocation in the nucleus. Our results suggested that m(PEA/PLD may be of use to inhibit development of endometriotic lesions in rats.

  16. Co-micronized Palmitoylethanolamide/Polydatin Treatment Causes Endometriotic Lesion Regression in a Rodent Model of Surgically Induced Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Fusco, Roberta; Gugliandolo, Enrico; Crupi, Rosalia; Evangelista, Maurizio; Granese, Roberta; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic, painful disease characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous fatty acid amide, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. PEA lacks free radical scavenging activity, unlike polydatin (PLD), a natural precursor of resveratrol. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of orally administered co-micronized PEA/polydatin [m(PEA/PLD)] in an autologous rat model of surgically induced endometriosis. Endometriosis was induced in female Wistar albino rats by auto-transplantation of uterine squares (implants) into the intestinal mesentery and peritoneal cavity. Rats were distributed into one control group and one treatment group (10 animals each): m(PEA/PLD) 10 mg/kg/day. At 28 days after surgery the relative volume of the endometrioma was determined. Endometrial-like tissue was confirmed by histology: Masson trichrome and toluidine blue were used to detect fibrosis and mast cells, respectively. The treated group displayed a smaller cyst diameter, with improved fibrosis score and mast cell number decrease. m(PEA/PLD) administration decreased angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor), nerve growth factor, intercellular adhesion molecule, matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression, and lymphocyte accumulation. m(PEA/PLD) treatment also reduced peroxynitrite formation, (poly-ADP)ribose polymerase activation, IkBα phosphorylation and nuclear facor-kB traslocation in the nucleus. Our results suggested that m(PEA/PLD) may be of use to inhibit development of endometriotic lesions in rats. PMID:27790149

  17. Cartilage-selective genes identified in genome-scale analysis of non-cartilage and cartilage gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohn Zachary A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cartilage plays a fundamental role in the development of the human skeleton. Early in embryogenesis, mesenchymal cells condense and differentiate into chondrocytes to shape the early skeleton. Subsequently, the cartilage anlagen differentiate to form the growth plates, which are responsible for linear bone growth, and the articular chondrocytes, which facilitate joint function. However, despite the multiplicity of roles of cartilage during human fetal life, surprisingly little is known about its transcriptome. To address this, a whole genome microarray expression profile was generated using RNA isolated from 18–22 week human distal femur fetal cartilage and compared with a database of control normal human tissues aggregated at UCLA, termed Celsius. Results 161 cartilage-selective genes were identified, defined as genes significantly expressed in cartilage with low expression and little variation across a panel of 34 non-cartilage tissues. Among these 161 genes were cartilage-specific genes such as cartilage collagen genes and 25 genes which have been associated with skeletal phenotypes in humans and/or mice. Many of the other cartilage-selective genes do not have established roles in cartilage or are novel, unannotated genes. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the unique pattern of gene expression observed by microarray analysis. Conclusion Defining the gene expression pattern for cartilage has identified new genes that may contribute to human skeletogenesis as well as provided further candidate genes for skeletal dysplasias. The data suggest that fetal cartilage is a complex and transcriptionally active tissue and demonstrate that the set of genes selectively expressed in the tissue has been greatly underestimated.

  18. Surgical Assisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Insert and remove Foley urinary bladder catheter Place pneumatic tourniquet Confirm procedure with surgeon Drape patient within ... Technology and Surgical Assisting (NBSTSA) offers the CertifiedSurgical First Assistant (CSFA) credential, and the National Surgical Assistant ...

  19. Inducible chondrocyte-specific overexpression of BMP2 in young mice results in severe aggravation of osteophyte formation in experimental OA without altering cartilage damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, E.N.; Vitters, E.L.; Bennink, M.B.; Lent, P.L. van; Caam, A.P. van; Blom, A.B.; Berg, W.B. van den; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Kraan, P.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes surrounding lesions express elevated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) levels. To investigate the functional consequence of chondrocyte-specific BMP2 expression, we made a collagen type II dependent, doxycycline (dox)-inducible BMP2 transgenic mouse

  20. Cartilage and bone malformations in the head of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos following exposure to disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, Ruben, E-mail: Ruben.Strecker@cos.uni-heidelberg.de [Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Weigt, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.weigt@merckgroup.com [Institute of Toxicology, Merck KGaA, 64293 Darmstadt (Germany); Braunbeck, Thomas, E-mail: braunbeck@uni-hd.de [Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    In order to investigate teratogenic effects, especially on cartilage and bone formation, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 144 h to the dithiocarbamate pesticide disulfiram (20–320 μg/L) and acetic acid hydrazide (0.375–12 g/L), a degradation product of isoniazid. After fixation and full-mount staining, disulfiram could be shown to induce strong cartilage malformations after exposure to ≥ 80 μg/L, whereas acetic acid hydrazide caused cartilage alterations only from 1.5 g/L. Undulating notochords occurred after exposure to disulfiram even at the lowest test concentration of 20 μg/L, whereas at the two lowest concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide (0.375 and 0.75 g/L) mainly fractures of the notochord were observed. Concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide ≥ 1.5 g/L resulted in undulated notochords similar to disulfiram. Cartilages and ossifications of the cranium, including the cleithrum, were individually analyzed assessing the severity of malformation and the degree of ossification in a semi-quantitative approach. Cartilages of the neurocranium such as the ethmoid plate proved to be more stable than cartilages of the pharyngeal skeleton such as Meckel's cartilage. Hence, ossification proved significantly more susceptible than cartilage. The alterations induced in the notochord as well as in the cranium might well be of ecological relevance, since notochord malformation is likely to result in impaired swimming and cranial malformation might compromise regular food uptake. - Highlights: ► Disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide as notochord, cartilage and bone teratogens ► Zebrafish embryos to model effects on single cartilages and bones in the head ► LC50 calculation and head length measurements after six days post-fertilization ► Lethality, head length and teratogenic effects are dose-dependent. ► Cartilages of the neurocranium are the most stable elements in the head.

  1. Image-Guided Techniques Improve the Short-Term Outcome of Autologous Osteochondral Cartilage Repair Surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Steven M.; Hurtig, Mark B.; Waldman, Stephen D.; Rudan, John F.; Bardana, Davide D.; Stewart, A. James

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Autologous osteochondral cartilage repair is a valuable reconstruction option for cartilage defects, but the accuracy to harvest and deliver osteochondral grafts remains problematic. We investigated whether image-guided methods (optically guided and template guided) can improve the outcome of these procedures. Design: Fifteen sheep were operated to create traumatic chondral injuries in each knee. After 4 months, the chondral defect in one knee was repaired using (a) conventional approach, (b) optically guided method, or (c) template-guided method. For both image-guided groups, harvest and delivery sites were preoperatively planned using custom-made software. During optically guided surgery, instrument position and orientation were tracked and superimposed onto the surgical plan. For the template-guided group, plastic templates were manufactured to allow an exact fit between template and the joint anatomy. Cylindrical holes within the template guided surgical tools according to the plan. Three months postsurgery, both knees were harvested and computed tomography scans were used to compare the reconstructed versus the native pre-injury joint surfaces. For each repaired defect, macroscopic (International Cartilage Repair Society [ICRS]) and histological repair (ICRS II) scores were assessed. Results: Three months after repair surgery, both image-guided surgical approaches resulted in significantly better histology scores compared with the conventional approach (improvement by 55%, P < 0.02). Interestingly, there were no significant differences found in cartilage surface reconstruction and macroscopic scores between the image-guided and the conventional surgeries. PMID:26069658

  2. A novel mouse model of high flow-induced pulmonary hypertension-surgically induced by right pulmonary artery ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anchen; Wang, Hongfei; Wang, Shengwei; Huang, Xiaofan; Ye, Ping; Du, Xinling; Xia, Jiahong

    2017-02-01

    This study sought to establish a new model of high-flow pulmonary hypertension (PH) in mice. This model may be useful for studies seeking to reduce the pulmonary vascular resistance and delay the development of PH caused by congenital heart disease. The right pulmonary artery was ligated via a right posterolateral thoracotomy. Pulmonary hemodynamics was evaluated by right heart catheterization immediately after ligation and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk postoperatively. The right ventricle (RV) and the left ventricle (LV) with septum (S) were weighed to calculate the RV/(LV + S) ratio as an index of right ventricular hypertrophy. Morphologic changes in the left lungs were analyzed, and percentages of muscularized pulmonary vessels were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin, elastica van Gieson and alpha-smooth muscle actin staining. All the study data were compared with data from a model of PH generated by hypoxic stimulation. A pulmonary hypertensive state was successfully induced by 2 wk after surgery. However, the morphologic analysis demonstrated that pulmonary vascular muscularization, as evaluated using right ventricular systolic pressure and RV/(LV + S), was not significantly increased until 4 wk postoperatively. When mice from the new model and the hypoxic model were compared, no significant differences were observed in any of the evaluated indices. High-flow PH can be induced within 4 wk after ligation of the right pulmonary artery, which is easily performed in mice. Such mice can be used as a model of high-flow PH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulation of cartilage differentiation by melanoma inhibiting activity/cartilage-derived retinoic acid-sensitive protein (MIA/CD-RAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Thomas; Schlegel, Jacqueline; Schmid, Rainer; Opolka, Alfred; Grassel, Susanne; Humphries, Martin; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin

    2010-03-31

    Melanoma inhibiting activity/cartilage-derived retinoic acid-sensitive protein (MIA/CD-RAP) is a small soluble protein secreted from malignant melanoma cells and from chondrocytes. Recently, we revealed that MIA/CD-RAP can modulate bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2-induced osteogenic differentiation into a chondrogenic direction. In the current study we aimed to find the molecular details of this MIA/CD-RAP function. Direct influence of MIA on BMP2 by protein-protein-interaction or modulating SMAD signaling was ruled out experimentally. Instead, we revealed inhibition of ERK signaling by MIA/CD-RAP. This inhibition is regulated via binding of MIA/CD-RAP to integrin alpha5 and abolishing its activity. Active ERK signaling is known to block chondrogenic differentiation and we revealed induction of aggrecan expression in chondrocytes by treatment with MIA/CD-RAP or PD098059, an ERK inhibitor. In in vivo models we could support the role of MIA/CD-RAP in influencing osteogenic differentiation negatively. Further, MIA/CD-RAP-deficient mice revealed an enhanced calcified cartilage layer of the articular cartilage of the knee joint and disordered arrangement of chondrocytes. Taken together, our data indicate that MIA/CD-RAP stabilizes cartilage differentiation and inhibits differentiation into bone potentially by regulating signaling processes during differentiation.

  4. Surgical therapy of radiation-induced lesions of the colon and rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miholic, J.; Schwarz, C.; Moeschl, P.

    1988-06-01

    Thirty-six operations for late sequelae of radiotherapy were carried out in 31 patients from 1971 to 1986. The most frequent indications for surgery were stricture (58 percent) and fistula (29 percent). In the first 8 year period from 1971 through 1978, 13 of 14 operations were diversions (colostomy or by-pass). From 1979 through 1986, a more aggressive approach prevailed. Only 32 percent of the operations were diversions. This more aggressive strategy was accompanied by a decrease of the postoperative mortality rate from 21 percent through 1978 to 0 in the later period. The overall complication rate was 23 percent. Complications were relatively more frequent after two-layer sutured or stapled anastomoses and after resection or fistula closure without temporary colostomy. We conclude that in radiation-induced colonic and rectal lesions, diversion should be performed in patients with unproved cure of disease or tumor persistence. Resection and fistula closure can be carried out safely, and a temporary colostomy is strongly recommended.

  5. Mechanobiology and Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Céline; HUSELSTEIN; Natalia; de; ISLA; Sylvaine; MULLER; Jean-Franois; STOLTZ

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionThe cartilage is a hydrated connective tissue in joints that withstands and distributes mechanical forces. Chondrocytes utilize mechanical signals to maintain tissue homeostasis. They regulate their metabolic activity through complex biological and biophysical interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Although some of the mechanisms of mechanotransduction are known today, there are certainly many others left unrevealed. Different topics of chondrocytes mechanobiology have led to the de...

  6. Dorsal Augmentation with Septal Cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Murrell, George L.

    2008-01-01

    Deficiency of nasal dorsal projection may be inherent or acquired. Repair is most commonly performed with an onlay graft. When nasal septal cartilage is available, it is the author's preferred source for graft material. It is important to realize that dorsal augmentation is an operation performed for aesthetic not functional reasons. As such, patients understandably scrutinize their postoperative result, and attention to detail in all aspects of the surgery is critical in achieving a favorabl...

  7. Resident mesenchymal progenitors of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Maria Elena; Yasuhara, Rika; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2014-10-01

    Articular cartilage has poor capacity of self-renewal and repair. Insufficient number and activity of resident mesenchymal (connective tissue) progenitors is likely one of the underlying reasons. Chondroprogenitors reside not only in the superficial zone of articular cartilage but also in other zones of articular cartilage and in the neighboring tissues, including perichondrium (groove of Ranvier), synovium and fat pad. These cells may respond to injury and contribute to articular cartilage healing. In addition, marrow stromal cells can migrate through subchondral bone when articular cartilage is damaged. We should develop drugs and methods that correctly stimulate resident progenitors for improvement of repair and inhibition of degenerative changes in articular cartilage. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Diode laser (980nm) cartilage reshaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kharbotly, A.; El Tayeb, T.; Mostafa, Y.; Hesham, I.

    2011-03-01

    Loss of facial or ear cartilage due to trauma or surgery is a major challenge to the otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons as the complicated geometric contours are difficult to be animated. Diode laser (980 nm) has been proven effective in reshaping and maintaining the new geometric shape achieved by laser. This study focused on determining the optimum laser parameters needed for cartilage reshaping with a controlled water cooling system. Harvested animal cartilages were angulated with different degrees and irradiated with different diode laser powers (980nm, 4x8mm spot size). The cartilage specimens were maintained in a deformation angle for two hours after irradiation then released for another two hours. They were serially measured and photographed. High-power Diode laser irradiation with water cooling is a cheep and effective method for reshaping the cartilage needed for reconstruction of difficult situations in otorhinolaryngologic surgery. Key words: cartilage,diode laser (980nm), reshaping.

  9. Repair of articular cartilage defects in minipigs by microfracture surgery and BMSCs transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of minimal invasive repair of cartilage defect by arthroscope-aided microfracture surgery and autologous transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells. Methods: Bone marrow of minipigs was taken out and the bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated and cultured to passage 3. Then 6 minipigs were randomly divided into 2 groups with 6 knees in each group. After the articular cartilage defect was induced in each knee. the left defect received microfracture surgery and was injected with 2. 5 ml BMSCs cells at a concentration of 3×107 cells/ml into the articular cavity; while right knee got single microfracture or served as blank control group. The animals were killed at 8 or 16 weeks, and the repair tissue was histologically and immunohistochemically examined for the presence of type Ⅱ collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) at 8 and 16 weeks. Results:Eight weeks after the surgery, the overlying articular surface of the cartilage defect showed normal color and integrated to adjacent cartilage. And 16 weeks after surgery, hyaline cartilage was observed at the repairing tissues and immunostaining indicated the diffuse presence of this type Ⅱ collagen and GAGs throughout the repair cartilage in the treated defects. Single microfracture group had the repairing of fibro-cartilage, while during the treatment, the defects of blank group were covered with fewer fiber tissues, and no blood capillary growth or any immunological rejection was observed. Conclusion:Microfracture technique and BMSCs transplantation to repair cartilage defect is characterized with minimal invasion and easy operation, and it will greatly promote the regeneration repair of articular cartilage defect.

  10. Harnessing Biomechanics to Develop Cartilage Regeneration Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasiou, KA; Responte, DJ; Brown, WE; Hu, JC

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2015 by ASME. As this review was prepared specifically for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers H.R. Lissner Medal, it primarily discusses work toward cartilage regeneration performed in Dr. Kyriacos A. Athanasiou's laboratory over the past 25 years. The prevalence and severity of degeneration of articular cartilage, a tissue whose main function is largely biomechanical, have motivated the development of cartilage tissue engineering approaches informed by biomechanics. Thi...

  11. Surgically induced astigmatism after phacoemulsification with and without correction for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion: randomized controlled study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ian

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To report the impact of posture-related ocular cyclotorsion on one surgeon\\'s surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) results and the variance in SIA. SETTING: Institute of Eye Surgery, Whitfield Clinic, Waterford, Ireland. METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled study included eyes that had phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. Eyes were randomly assigned to have (intervention group) or not have (control group) correction for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion. In the intervention group, the clear corneal incision was placed precisely at the 120-degree meridian with instruments designed to correct posture-related ocular cyclotorsion. In the control group, the surgeon endeavored to place the incision at the 120-degree meridian, but without markings. RESULTS: The intervention group comprised 41 eyes and the control group, 61 eyes. The mean absolute SIA was 0.74 diopters (D) in the intervention group and 0.78 D in the control group; the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P>.5, unpaired 2-tailed Student t test). The variance in SIA was 0.29 D(2) and 0.31 D(2), respectively; the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P>.5, unpaired F test). CONCLUSIONS: Attempts to correct for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion did not influence SIA or its variance in a single-surgeon series. These results should be interpreted with full appreciation of the limitations of currently available techniques to correct for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion in the clinical setting.

  12. Treatment of surgical brain injury by immune tolerance induced by intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injection of brain antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weijian; Liu, Yong; Liu, Baolong; Tan, Huajun; Lu, Hao; Wang, Hong; Yan, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Surgical brain injury (SBI) defines complications induced by intracranial surgery, such as cerebral edema and other secondary injuries. In our study, intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injection of allogeneic myelin basic protein (MBP) or autogeneic brain cell suspensions were administered to a standard SBI model. Serum pro-inflammatory IL-2, anti-inflammatory IL-4 concentrations and the CD4+T/CD8+T ratio were measured at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after surgery to verify the establishment of immune tolerance. Furthermore, we confirmed neuroprotective effects by evaluating neurological scores at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after SBI. Anti-Fas ligand (FasL) immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays of brain sections were tested at 21 d after surgery. Intrathymic injections of MBP or autogeneic brain cell suspensions functioned by both suppressing secondary inflammatory reactions and improving prognoses, whereas hepatic portal vein injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions exerted a better effect than MBP. Intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injections of MBP had equal effects on reducing secondary inflammation and improving prognoses. Otherwise, hepatic portal vein injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions had better outcomes than intrathymic injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions. Moreover, the benefit of injecting antigens into the thymus was outweighed by hepatic portal vein injections. PMID:27554621

  13. Can Glucosamine Supplements Protect My Knee Cartilage from Osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can glucosamine supplements protect my knee cartilage from osteoarthritis? Answers from Brent A. Bauer, M.D. Study results on this question have ... build cartilage. The most common type of arthritis, osteoarthritis wears away the slick cartilage that covers the ...

  14. Is the repair of articular cartilage lesion by costal chondrocyte transplantation donor age-dependent? An experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Popko

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The repair of chondral injuries is a very important problem and a subject of many experimental and clinical studies. Different techniques to induce articular cartilage repair are under investigation. In the present study, we have investigated whether the repair of articular cartilage folowing costal chondrocyte transplantation is donor age-dependent. Transplantation of costal chondrocytes from 4- and 24-week old donors, with artificially induced femoral cartilage lesion, was performed on fourteen 20-week-old New Zealand White male rabbits. In the control group, the lesion was left without chondrocyte transplantation. The evaluation of the cartilage repair was performed after 12 weeks of transplantation. We analyzed the macroscopic and histological appearance of the newly formed tissue. Immunohistochemistry was also performed using monoclonal antibodies against rabbit collagen type II. The newly formed tissue had a hyaline-like appearance in most of the lesions after chondrocyte transplantation. Positive immunohistochemical reaction for collagen II was also observed in both groups with transplanted chondrocytes. Cartilage from adult donors required longer isolation time and induced slightly poorer repair. However, hyaline-like cartilage was observed in most specimens from this group, in contrast to the control group, where fibrous connective tissue filled the lesions. Rabbit costal chondrocytes seem to be a potentially useful material for inducing articular cartilage repair and, even more important, they can also be derived from adult, sexually mature animals.

  15. Rates of clinically apparent heparin-induced thrombocytopenia for unfractionated heparin vs. low molecular weight heparin in non-surgical patients are low and similar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerber Jonathan

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the growing use of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE, it is important to provide an evidence-based comparison with unfractionated heparin (UFH concerning rates of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT. Such comparisons are essential in clinical decision-making and cost-modeling. In this paper we review data regarding non-surgical (medical patients. We conclude that the lack of uniform evaluation and standardized testing for HIT in the current literature precludes making a reliable estimate of the relative risk of HIT in UFH vs. LMWH in either the treatment or prevention of VTE in non-surgical patients. However, current data suggest that the risk of thrombocytopenia and HIT is low and similar for non-surgical patients who receive either LMWH or UFH.

  16. Optical properties of nasal septum cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagratashvili, Nodar V.; Sviridov, Alexander P.; Sobol, Emil N.; Kitai, Moishe S.

    1998-05-01

    Optical parameters (scattering coefficient s, absorption coefficient k and scattering anisotropy coefficient g) of hyaline cartilage were studied for the first time. Optical properties of human and pig nasal septum cartilage, and of bovine ear cartilage were examined using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere, and an Optical Multi-Channel Analyser. We measured total transmission Tt, total reflection Rt, and on-axis transmission Ta for light propagating through cartilage sample, over the visible spectral range (14000 - 28000 cm-1). It is shown that transmission and reflection spectra of human, pig and bovine cartilage are rather similar. It allows us to conclude that the pig cartilage can be used for in-vivo studies instead of human cartilage. The data obtained were treated by means of the one-dimensional diffusion approximation solution of the optical transport equation. We have found scattering coefficient s, absorption coefficient k and scattering anisotropy coefficient g by the iterative comparison of measured and calculated Tt, Rt and Ta values for human and pig cartilage. We found, in particular, that for 500 nm irradiation s equals 37,6 plus or minus 3.5 cm-1, g equals 0,56 plus or minus 0.05, k approximately equals 0,5 plus or minus 0.3 cm-1. The above data were used in Monte Carlo simulation for spatial intensity profile of light scattered by a cartilage sample. The computed profile was very similar to the profile measured using an Optical Multi-Channel Analyzer (OMA).

  17. Elasticity measurement of nasal cartilage as a function of temperature using optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chih Hao; Skryabina, M. N.; Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Wu, Chen; Sobol, E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    Current clinical methods of reconstruction surgery involve laser reshaping of nasal cartilage. The process of stress relaxation caused by laser heating is the primary method to achieve nasal cartilage reshaping. Based on this, a rapid, non-destructive and accurate elasticity measurement would allow for a more robust reshaping procedure. In this work, we have utilized a phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography (PhSSSOCE) to quantify the Young's modulus of porcine nasal septal cartilage during the relaxation process induced by heating. The results show that PhS-SSOCE was able to monitor changes in elasticity of hyaline cartilage, and this method could potentially be applied in vivo during laser reshaping therapies.

  18. Neurotrophin-3 Induces BMP-2 and VEGF Activities and Promotes the Bony Repair of Injured Growth Plate Cartilage and Bone in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Wen; Chung, Rosa; Ruan, Chun-Sheng; Chim, Shek Man; Kuek, Vincent; Dwivedi, Prem P; Hassanshahi, Mohammadhossein; Chen, Ke-Ming; Xie, Yangli; Chen, Lin; Foster, Bruce K; Rosen, Vicki; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Xu, Jiake; Xian, Cory J

    2016-06-01

    Injured growth plate is often repaired by bony tissue causing bone growth defects, for which the mechanisms remain unclear. Because neurotrophins have been implicated in bone fracture repair, here we investigated their potential roles in growth plate bony repair in rats. After a drill-hole injury was made in the tibial growth plate and bone, increased injury site mRNA expression was observed for neurotrophins NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 and their Trk receptors. NT-3 and its receptor TrkC showed the highest induction. NT-3 was localized to repairing cells, whereas TrkC was observed in stromal cells, osteoblasts, and blood vessel cells at the injury site. Moreover, systemic NT-3 immunoneutralization reduced bone volume at injury sites and also reduced vascularization at the injured growth plate, whereas recombinant NT-3 treatment promoted bony repair with elevated levels of mRNA for osteogenic markers and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) and increased vascularization and mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial cell marker CD31 at the injured growth plate. When examined in vitro, NT-3 promoted osteogenesis in rat bone marrow stromal cells, induced Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation, and enhanced expression of BMPs (particularly BMP-2) and VEGF in the mineralizing cells. It also induced CD31 and VEGF mRNA in rat primary endothelial cell culture. BMP activity appears critical for NT-3 osteogenic effect in vitro because it can be almost completely abrogated by co-addition of the BMP inhibitor noggin. Consistent with its angiogenic effect in vivo, NT-3 promoted angiogenesis in metatarsal bone explants, an effect abolished by co-treatment with anti-VEGF. This study suggests that NT-3 may be an osteogenic and angiogenic factor upstream of BMP-2 and VEGF in bony repair, and further studies are required to investigate whether NT-3 may be a potential target for preventing growth plate faulty bony repair or for promoting bone fracture healing. © 2016

  19. Microfracture for treatment of knee cartilage defects in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salzmann, Gian M; Sah, Bert-Ram; Schmal, Hagen;

    2012-01-01

    Even though operative microfracture is the most frequent method for treatment of limited knee joint cartilage lesions among adults, data about ouctome in children and adolescents are rare. We performed a retrospective chart review and telephone interview to analyze for the clinical outcome...... analysis did not reveal a significant impact of patient or defect characteristics on clinical outcome. Arthroscopic microfracturing for treatment of limited size symptomatic knee joint cartilage defects among children and adolescents is considered a reasonable surgical option. However, long-term outcome...... following knee joint cartilage defect microfracturing among 10 children. Mean postoperative Lysholm was 92.1±9.9 and Tegner was 7.0±1.9. Clinical outcome differed across knee joint regions, as well as in dependence of varying pre-operative symptom duration, although this was not significant. Regression...

  20. Early excision and grafting, an alternative approach to the surgical management of large body surface area levamisole-adulterated cocaine induced skin necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jason; Gruber, Paul; Perry, Travis L

    2015-05-01

    Levamisole-adulterated cocaine as a cause of retiform purpura progressing to full-thickness skin necrosis was first documented in 2003 and currently comprises over 200 reported cases. Whereas, its presentation, pathophysiology, and diagnostic workup have been reasonably well-defined, only one publication has significantly detailed its surgical management. For this reason there exists a relative absence of data in comparison to its reported incidence to suggest a preferred treatment strategy. In the case mentioned, treatment emphasized delayed surgical intervention while awaiting lesion demarcation and the monitoring of autoantibodies. At our institution we offer an alternative approach and present the case of a 34 year old female who presented with 49% TBSA, levamisole-induced skin necrosis managed with early surgical excision and skin grafting. The patient presented three days following cocaine exposure with painful, purpura involving the ears, nose, buttocks, and bilateral lower extremities which quickly progressed to areas of full-thickness necrosis. Lab analysis demonstrated elevated p-ANCA and c-ANCA, as well as leukopenia, decreased C4 complement, and urinalysis positive for levamisole, corroborating the diagnosis. Contrasting the most thoroughly documented case in which the patient underwent first surgical excision on hospital day 36 and underwent 18 total excisions, our patient underwent first excision on hospital day 10 and received only one primary excision prior to definitive autografting. To our knowledge, this is the largest surface area surgically treated that did not result in surgical amputation or autoamputation of limbs or appendages, respectively. We contend that early excision and grafting provides optimal surgical management of this syndrome while avoiding the morbidity seen with delayed intervention.

  1. Prefabrication of 3D cartilage contructs: towards a tissue engineered auricle--a model tested in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim von Bomhard

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of an auricle for congenital deformity or following trauma remains one of the greatest challenges in reconstructive surgery. Tissue-engineered (TE three-dimensional (3D cartilage constructs have proven to be a promising option, but problems remain with regard to cell vitality in large cell constructs. The supply of nutrients and oxygen is limited because cultured cartilage is not vascular integrated due to missing perichondrium. The consequence is necrosis and thus a loss of form stability. The micro-surgical implantation of an arteriovenous loop represents a reliable technology for neovascularization, and thus vascular integration, of three-dimensional (3D cultivated cell constructs. Auricular cartilage biopsies were obtained from 15 rabbits and seeded in 3D scaffolds made from polycaprolactone-based polyurethane in the shape and size of a human auricle. These cartilage cell constructs were implanted subcutaneously into a skin flap (15 × 8 cm and neovascularized by means of vascular loops implanted micro-surgically. They were then totally enhanced as 3D tissue and freely re-implanted in-situ through microsurgery. Neovascularization in the prefabricated flap and cultured cartilage construct was analyzed by microangiography. After explantation, the specimens were examined by histological and immunohistochemical methods. Cultivated 3D cartilage cell constructs with implanted vascular pedicle promoted the formation of engineered cartilaginous tissue within the scaffold in vivo. The auricles contained cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM components, such as GAGs and collagen even in the center oft the constructs. In contrast, in cultivated 3D cartilage cell constructs without vascular pedicle, ECM distribution was only detectable on the surface compared to constructs with vascular pedicle. We demonstrated, that the 3D flaps could be freely transplanted. On a microangiographic level it was evident that all the skin flaps

  2. The importance of drug-induced sedation endoscopy (D.I.S.E.) techniques in surgical decision making: conventional versus target controlled infusion techniques-a prospective randomized controlled study and a retrospective surgical outcomes analysis.

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    De Vito, Andrea; Agnoletti, Vanni; Zani, Gianluca; Corso, Ruggero Massimo; D'Agostino, Giovanni; Firinu, Elisabetta; Marchi, Chiara; Hsu, Ying-Shuo; Maitan, Stefano; Vicini, Claudio

    2017-02-17

    Drug-Induced Sedation Endoscopy (DISE) consists of the direct observation of the upper airways during sedative-induced sleep, allowing the identification of the sites of pharyngeal collapse, which is the main pathological event in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The Authors have compared Target Controlled Infusion (TCI) sedation endoscopy (TCI-DISE) technique to conventional DISE (CDISE), performed by a manual bolus injection of sedative agent, to recreate accurately and safely snoring and apnea patterns comparable to natural sleep. The authors conducted a prospective, randomized, long-term study and a retrospective analysis of surgical outcomes. The apnea-event observation and its correlation with pharyngeal collapse patterns is the primary endpoint; secondary endpoints are defined as stability and safety of sedation plan of DISE-TCI technique. From January 2009 to January 2011, OSA patients were included in the study and randomly allocated into two groups: the bolus injection conventional DISE group and the TCI-DISE group. Third endpoint is to compare the surgical outcomes enrolling OSA patients from January 2009 to June 2015. We recorded the complete apnea-event at oropharynx and hypopharynx levels in 15/50 pts in conventional DISE group (30%) and in 99/123 pts in TCI-DISE group (81%) (p DISE group because a severe desaturation occurred during the first bolus of propofol (1 mg/kg) (p = 0.4872 ns). We recorded instability of the sedation plan in 13 patients of conventional DISE group (65%) and 1 patient of the TCI-DISE group (5%) (p = 0.0001). In 37 TCI-DISE group surgical patients we reported a significant reduction of postoperative AHI (from 42.7 ± 20.2 to 11.4 ± 10.3) in comparison with postoperative AHI in 15 C-DISE group surgical patients (from 41.3 ± 23.4 to 20.4 ± 15.5) (p = 0.05). Our results suggest the DISE-TCI technique as first choice in performing sleep-endoscopy because of its increased accuracy, stability and

  3. Which cartilage is regenerated, hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage? Non-invasive ultrasonic evaluation of tissue-engineered cartilage.

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    Hattori, K; Takakura, Y; Ohgushi, H; Habata, T; Uematsu, K; Takenaka, M; Ikeuchi, K

    2004-09-01

    To investigate ultrasonic evaluation methods for detecting whether the repair tissue is hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage in new cartilage regeneration therapy. We examined four experimental rabbit models: a spontaneous repair model (group S), a large cartilage defect model (group L), a periosteal graft model (group P) and a tissue-engineered cartilage regeneration model (group T). From the resulting ultrasonic evaluation, we used %MM (the maximum magnitude of the measurement area divided by that of the intact cartilage) as a quantitative index of cartilage regeneration. The results of the ultrasonic evaluation were compared with the histological findings and histological score. The %MM values were 61.1 +/- 16.5% in group S, 29.8 +/- 15.1% in group L, 36.3 +/- 18.3% in group P and 76.5 +/- 18.7% in group T. The results showed a strong similarity to the histological scoring. The ultrasonic examination showed that all the hyaline-like cartilage in groups S and T had a high %MM (more than 60%). Therefore, we could define the borderline between the two types of regenerated cartilage by the %MM.

  4. Articular Cartilage Changes in Maturing Athletes

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    Luria, Ayala; Chu, Constance R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Articular cartilage has a unique functional architecture capable of providing a lifetime of pain-free joint motion. This tissue, however, undergoes substantial age-related physiologic, mechanical, biochemical, and functional changes that reduce its ability to overcome the effects of mechanical stress and injury. Many factors affect joint function in the maturing athlete—from chondrocyte survival and metabolism to structural composition and genetic/epigenetic factors governing cartilage and synovium. An evaluation of age-related changes for joint homeostasis and risk for osteoarthritis is important to the development of new strategies to rejuvenate aging joints. Objective: This review summarizes the current literature on the biochemical, cellular, and physiologic changes occurring in aging articular cartilage. Data Sources: PubMed (1969-2013) and published books in sports health, cartilage biology, and aging. Study Selection: Keywords included aging, athlete, articular cartilage, epigenetics, and functional performance with age. Study Design: Systematic review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Data Extraction: To be included, research questions addressed the effect of age-related changes on performance, articular cartilage biology, molecular mechanism, and morphology. Results: The mature athlete faces challenges in maintaining cartilage health and joint function due to age-related changes to articular cartilage biology, morphology, and physiology. These changes include chondrocyte loss and a decline in metabolic response, alterations to matrix and synovial tissue composition, and dysregulation of reparative responses. Conclusion: Although physical decline has been regarded as a normal part of aging, many individuals maintain overall fitness and enjoy targeted improvement to their athletic capacity throughout life. Healthy articular cartilage and joints are needed to maintain athletic performance and general activities. Genetic and potentially reversible

  5. Microfracture for the treatment of cartilage defects in the knee joint - A golden standard?

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    Erggelet, Christoph; Vavken, P

    2016-01-01

    The evidence for the effectiveness of the microfracture procedure is largely derived from case series and few randomized trials. Clinical outcomes improve with microfracture for the most part, but in some studies these effects are not sustained. The quality of cartilage repair following microfracture is variable and inconsistent due to unknown reasons. Younger patients have better clinical outcomes and quality of cartilage repair than older patients. When lesion location was shown to affect microfracture outcome, patients with lesions of the femoral condyle have the best clinical improvements and quality of cartilage repair compared with patients who had lesions in other areas. Patients with smaller lesions have better clinical improvement than patients with larger lesions. The necessity of long postoperative CPM and restricted weight bearing is widely accepted but not completely supported by solid data. Maybe new developments like the scaffold augmented microfracture(6) will show even more consistent clinical and biological results as well as faster rehabilitation for the treatment of small to medium sized cartilage defects in younger individuals. All in all there is limited evidence that micro fracture should be accepted as gold standard for the treatment of cartilage lesions in the knee joint. There is no study available which compares empty controls or non-surgical treatment/physiotherapy with microfracture. According to the literature there is even evidence for self regeneration of cartilage lesions. The natural history of damaged cartilage seems to be written e.g. by inflammatory processes, genetic predisposition and other factors. Possibly that explains the large variety of the clinical outcome after micro fracture and possibly the standard tools for evaluation of new technologies (randomized controlled trials, case series, etc.) are not sufficient (anymore). Future technologies will be evaluated by big data from international registries for earlier

  6. Cartilage surface characterization by frictional dissipated energy during axially loaded knee flexion--an in vitro sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Andrea; Rothstock, Stephan; Bobrowitsch, Evgenij; Beck, Alexander; Gruhler, Gerhard; Ipach, Ingmar; Leichtle, Ulf G; Wülker, Nikolaus; Walter, Christian

    2013-05-31

    Cartilage defects and osteoarthritis (OA) have an increasing incidence in the aging population. A wide range of treatment options are available. The introduction of each new treatment requires controlled, evidence based, histological and biomechanical studies to identify potential benefits. Especially for the biomechanical testing there is a lack of established methods which combine a physiologic testing environment of complete joints with the possibility of body-weight simulation. The current in-vitro study presents a new method for the measurement of friction properties of cartilage on cartilage in its individual joint environment including the synovial fluid. Seven sheep knee joints were cyclically flexed and extended under constant axial load with intact joint capsule using a 6° of freedom robotic system. During the cyclic motion, the flexion angle and the respective torque were recorded and the dissipated energy was calculated. Different mechanically induced cartilage defect sizes (16 mm², 50 mm², 200 mm²) were examined and compared to the intact situation at varying levels of the axial load. The introduced setup could significantly distinguish between most of the defect sizes for all load levels above 200 N. For these higher load levels, a high reproducibility was achieved (coefficient of variation between 4% and 17%). The proposed method simulates a natural environment for the analysis of cartilage on cartilage friction properties and is able to differentiate between different cartilage defect sizes. Therefore, it is considered as an innovative method for the testing of new treatment options for cartilage defects.

  7. Ultrasonic quantitation of superficial degradation of articular cartilage.

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    Saarakkala, Simo; Töyräs, Juha; Hirvonen, Jani; Laasanen, Mikko S; Lappalainen, Reijo; Jurvelin, Jukka S

    2004-06-01

    Ultrasound (US) has been suggested as a means for the quantitative detection of early osteoarthrotic changes in articular cartilage. In this study, the ability of quantitative US 2-D imaging (20 MHz) to reveal superficial changes in bovine articular cartilage after mechanical or enzymatic degradation was investigated in vitro. Mechanical degradation was induced by grinding samples against an emery paper with the grain size of 250 microm, 106 microm, 45 microm or 23 microm. For enzymatic degradation, samples were digested with collagenase, trypsin or chondroitinase ABC. Variations of the US reflection coefficient induced by the degradation were investigated. Furthermore, two novel parameters, the US roughness index (URI) and the spatial variation of the US reflection coefficient (SVR), were established to quantitate the integrity of the cartilage surface. Statistically significant decreases (p < 0.05) in US reflection coefficient were observed after mechanical degradations or enzymatic digestion with collagenase. Increases (p < 0.05) in URI were also revealed after these treatments. We conclude that quantitative US imaging may be used to detect collagen disruption and increased roughness in the articular surface. These structural damages are typical of early osteoarthrosis.

  8. Elemental and structural studies at the bone-cartilage interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaabar, W., E-mail: w.kaabar@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Daar, E. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bunk, O. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Farquharson, M.J. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Laklouk, A. [Al-Fateh University, Tripoli (Libya); Bailey, M.; Jeynes, C. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Gundogdu, O. [Umuttepe Campus, University of Kocaeli, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey); Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01

    Micro-Proton Induced X-ray Emission ({mu}-PIXE) and Proton Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) techniques were employed in the investigation of trace and essential elements distribution in normal and diseased human femoral head sections affected by osteoarthritis (OA). PIGE was exploited in the determination of elements of low atomic number z<15 such as Na and F whereas elements with z>15 viz Ca, Z, P and S were determined by PIXE. Accumulations of key elements in the bone and cartilage sections were observed, significant S and Na concentrations being found in the cartilage region particularly in normal tissues. Zn showed enhanced concentrations at the bone-cartilage interface. At a synchrotron facility, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was utilized on a decalcified human femoral head section affected by OA, direct measurements being made of spatial alterations of collagen fibres. The SAXS results showed a slight decrease in the axial periodicity between normal collagen type I and that in diseased tissue in various sites, in contrast with the findings of others.

  9. Role of computer aided detection (CAD) integration: case study with meniscal and articular cartilage CAD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Nabile; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Saiprasad, Ganesh; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    Knee-related injuries involving the meniscal or articular cartilage are common and require accurate diagnosis and surgical intervention when appropriate. With proper techniques and experience, confidence in detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage abnormalities can be quite high. However, for radiologists without musculoskeletal training, diagnosis of such abnormalities can be challenging. In this paper, the potential of improving diagnosis through integration of computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms for automatic detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries of the knees is studied. An integrated approach in which the results of algorithms evaluating either meniscal tears or articular cartilage injuries provide feedback to each other is believed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the individual CAD algorithms due to the known association between abnormalities in these distinct anatomic structures. The correlation between meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries is exploited to improve the final diagnostic results of the individual algorithms. Preliminary results from the integrated application are encouraging and more comprehensive tests are being planned.

  10. Semi-automatic 3D segmentation of costal cartilage in CT data from Pectus Excavatum patients

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    Barbosa, Daniel; Queirós, Sandro; Rodrigues, Nuno; Correia-Pinto, Jorge; Vilaça, J.

    2015-03-01

    One of the current frontiers in the clinical management of Pectus Excavatum (PE) patients is the prediction of the surgical outcome prior to the intervention. This can be done through computerized simulation of the Nuss procedure, which requires an anatomically correct representation of the costal cartilage. To this end, we take advantage of the costal cartilage tubular structure to detect it through multi-scale vesselness filtering. This information is then used in an interactive 2D initialization procedure which uses anatomical maximum intensity projections of 3D vesselness feature images to efficiently initialize the 3D segmentation process. We identify the cartilage tissue centerlines in these projected 2D images using a livewire approach. We finally refine the 3D cartilage surface through region-based sparse field level-sets. We have tested the proposed algorithm in 6 noncontrast CT datasets from PE patients. A good segmentation performance was found against reference manual contouring, with an average Dice coefficient of 0.75±0.04 and an average mean surface distance of 1.69+/-0.30mm. The proposed method requires roughly 1 minute for the interactive initialization step, which can positively contribute to an extended use of this tool in clinical practice, since current manual delineation of the costal cartilage can take up to an hour.

  11. Elemental and structural studies at the bone-cartilage interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. A.; Kaabar, W.; Gundogdu, O.

    2012-02-01

    The techniques μProton-Induced X-and γ-ray Emission, μ-PIXE and μ-PIGE, were used to investigate trace and essential element distributions in sections of normal and osteoarthritic (OA) human femoral head. μ-PIGE yielded 2-D mappings of Na and F while Ca, Z, P and S were mapped by μ-PIXE. The concentration of chondroitin sulphate supporting functionality in healthy cartilage is significantly reduced in OA samples. Localised Zn points to osteoblastic/osteoclastic activity at the bone-cartilage interface. Small-angle X-ray scattering applied to decalcified OA-affected tissue showed spatial alterations of collagen fibres of decreased axial periodicity compared to normal collagen type I.

  12. Anatomical study of nasal cartilage in buffalo (Bubalus bubulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Yeganehzad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study used ten heads of adult buffalo taken from slaughterhouse. After transferring the samples to the anatomy hall, a split was carefully created on skin of muzzle and the skin was slowly separated from muscles and hypodermal connective tissue. Place of connection of cartilages to bone, cartilages to each other and shape of the cartilages were specified. In buffalo, nose apex has two nostrils fixed by bone and cartilage. After identifying and separating the cartilages, it was found that nasal cartilages in buffalo consisted of: 1 septum nasal located between two nostrils and reinforces it from inside. 2 dorso-lateral nasal cartilage constituting dorsal and lateral parts of the nostril. 3 ventro-lateral nasal cartilage constituting ventral and lateral parts of the nostril. 4 lateral accessory cartilage constituting lateral and ventral parts of the nostril. 5 medial accessory nasal cartilage located at Alar fold and connected to ventro-lateral nasal cartilage.

  13. Strategies for Zonal Cartilage Repair using Hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Travis J.; Rizzi, Simone C.; Reichert, Johannes C.; Georgi, Nicole; Malda, Jos; Schuurman, Wouter; Crawford, Ross W.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.

    2009-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a highly hydrated tissue with depth-dependent cellular and matrix properties that provide low-friction load bearing in joints. However, the structure and function are frequently lost and there is insufficient repair response to regenerate high-quality cartilage. Several hydrog

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Winalski, Carl S.; Marlovits, Stephan; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Welsch, Goetz H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair. In the first 2 sections, preclinical and clinical MRI of cartilage repair tissue are described with a focus on morphological depiction of cartilage and the use of functional (biochemical) MR methodologies for the visualization of the ultrastructure of cartilage repair. In the third section, a short overview is provided on the regulatory issues of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) regarding MR follow-up studies of patients after cartilage repair surgeries. PMID:26069565

  15. Disease severity classification using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging data of cartilage in femoroacetabular impingement.

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    Henn, Lisa L; Hughes, John; Iisakka, Eleena; Ellermann, Jutta; Mortazavi, Shabnam; Ziegler, Connor; Nissi, Mikko J; Morgan, Patrick

    2017-04-30

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a condition in which subtle deformities of the femoral head and acetabulum (hip socket) result in pathological abutment during hip motion. FAI is a common cause of hip pain and can lead to acetabular cartilage damage and osteoarthritis. For some patients with FAI, surgical intervention is indicated, and it can improve quality of life and potentially delay the onset of osteoarthritis. For other patients, however, surgery is contraindicated because significant cartilage damage has already occurred. Unfortunately, current imaging modalities (X-rays and conventional MRI) are subjective and lack the sensitivity to distinguish these two groups reliably. In this paper, we describe the pairing of T2* mapping data (an investigational, objective MRI sequence) and a spatial proportional odds model for surgically obtained ordinal outcomes (Beck's scale of cartilage damage). Each hip in the study is assigned its own spatial dependence parameter, and a Dirichlet process prior distribution permits clustering of said parameters. Using the fitted model, we produce a six-color, patient-specific predictive map of the entire acetabular cartilage. Such maps will facilitate patient education and clinical decision making. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Molecular Dynamic Analysis of Hyaluronic Acid and Phospholipid Interaction in Tribological Surgical Adjuvant Design for Osteoarthritis.

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    Siódmiak, Jacek; Bełdowski, Piotr; Augé, Wayne K; Ledziński, Damian; Śmigiel, Sandra; Gadomski, Adam

    2017-09-04

    Tribological surgical adjuvants constitute a therapeutic discipline made possible by surgical advances in the treatment of damaged articular cartilage beyond palliative care. The purpose of this study is to analyze interactions between hyaluronic acid and phospholipid molecules, and the formation of geometric forms, that play a role in the facilitated lubrication of synovial joint organ systems. The analysis includes an evaluation of the pathologic state to detail conditions that may be encountered by adjuvants during surgical convalescence. The synovial fluid changes in pH, hyaluronic acid polydispersity, and phospholipid concentration associated with osteoarthritis are presented as features that influence the lubricating properties of adjuvant candidates. Molecular dynamic simulation studies are presented, and the Rouse model is deployed, to rationalize low molecular weight hyaluronic acid behavior in an osteoarthritic environment of increased pH and phospholipid concentration. The results indicate that the hyaluronic acid radius of gyration time evolution is both pH- and phospholipid concentration-dependent. Specifically, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine induces hydrophobic interactions in the system, causing low molecular weight hyaluronic acid to shrink and at high concentration be absorbed into phospholipid vesicles. Low molecular weight hyaluronic acid appears to be insufficient for use as a tribological surgical adjuvant because an increased pH and phospholipid concentration induces decreased crosslinking that prevents the formation of supramolecular lubricating forms. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine remains an adjuvant candidate for certain clinical situations. The need to reconcile osteoarthritic phenotypes is a prerequisite that should serve as a framework for future adjuvant design and subsequent tribological testing.

  17. In vitro observation of cartilage-degeneration progression by Fourier-domain OCT

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    Marx, Ulrich; Schmitt, Robert; Nebelung, Sven; Tingart, Markus; Lüring, Christian; Rath, Björn

    2012-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) as emerging clinical diagnostic imaging technology for dermatology and other semitransparent tissues has shown high potential in monitoring and evaluating the inner structure of articular cartilages. Since novel therapies for the limitation of cartilage degeneration in early stages of osteoarthritis are available, the early minimal invasive diagnosis of cartilage degradation is clinically essential for further treatment options. With the advancing performance and thus diagnostic opportunities of 3D-OCT devices, we carried out a systematic study by monitoring arthrotic alterations of porcine osteochondral explants that are mechanically induced under traumatic impaction. As for in-vitro tomographic imaging we utilized two OCT devices, a Thorlabs FD-OCT device with 92KHz A-scan rate and 1310nm as central wavelength and a self-developed FD-OCT device at 840nm central wavelength. This allows the comparison in image contrast and optical penetration of cartilage tissue between these two spectral bandwidths. Further we analyzed human biopsies of articular cartilages with various degrees of osteoarthritis. The 2D and 3D OCT tomograms are characterized qualitatively regarding the inner tissue structure and quantitatively regarding the tissue absorption parameters. Therefore, we are developing image processing algorithms for the automated monitoring of cartilage tissue. A scoring system for 3D-monitoring allows the characterization of the probe volume regarding the morphological structure and tissue compactness by processing the C - scan data.

  18. {mu}-PIXE and SAXS studies at the bone-cartilage interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaabar, W. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.kaabar@surrey.ac.uk; Gundogdu, O. [Umuttepe Campus, University of Kocaeli, 41380, Kocaeli (Turkey); Laklouk, A. [Food Science Department, Al-Fateh Unversity, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Bunk, O. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Pfeiffer, F. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Farquharson, M.J. [Department of Radiography, City University, London EC1V OHB (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Micro Proton Induced X-ray Emission ({mu}-PIXE) analysis has been employed herein in investigating and quantifying the distribution of a number of essential elements in thin human diseased articular cartilage sections affected by osteoarthritis (OA). Various cations Ca, P and Zn have been reported to play an important role both in the normal growth and remodelling of articular cartilage and subchondral bone as well as in the degenerative and inflammatory processes associated with the disease; they act as co-factors of a class of enzymes known as metalloproteinases which are believed to be active during the initiation, progress and remodelling processes associated with osteoarthritis. Other important enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase are associated with cartilage mineralization. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) for mapping of elemental distributions in bone and cartilage has also been employed by the present group and others. In the current investigations using the cSAXS beamline at the Swiss light source, Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) was carried out on decalcified human articular cartilage to explore the structural and organizational changes of collagen networks in diseased articular cartilage.

  19. MicroRNA-181b regulates articular chondrocytes differentiation and cartilage integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinsoo; Lee, Myeungsu; Kim, Dongkyun; Han, Jiyeon; Chun, Churl-Hong; Jin, Eun-Jung

    2013-02-08

    MicroRNAs are endogenous gene regulators that have been implicated in various developmental and pathological processes. However, the precise identities and functions of the miRNAs involved in cartilage development are not yet well understood. Here, we report that miR-181b regulates chondrocyte differentiation and maintains cartilage integrity, and is thus a potent therapeutic target. MiR-181b was significantly down-regulated during chondrogenic differentiation of TGF-β3-stimulated limb mesenchymal cells, but it was significantly up-regulated in osteoarthritic chondrocytes isolated from the cartilage of osteoarthritis patients. The use of a mimic or an inhibitor to alter miR-181b levels in chondroblasts and articular chondrocytes showed that attenuation of miR-181b reduced MMP-13 expression while inducing type II collagen expression. Furthermore, over-expression of anti-miR-181b significantly reduced the cartilage destruction caused by DMM surgery in mice. In sum, our data suggest that miR-181b is a negative regulator of cartilage development, and that inhibition of miR-181b could be an effective therapeutic strategy for cartilage-related disease.

  20. Characterizing depth-dependent refractive index of articular cartilage subjected to mechanical wear or enzymic degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuyu; Wu, Jianping; Day, Robert; Kirk, Thomas Brett; Hu, Xiaozhi

    2016-09-01

    Utilizing a laser scanning confocal microscope system, the refractive indices of articular cartilage (AC) with mechanical or biochemical degenerations were characterized to investigate whether potential correlations exist between refractive index (RI) and cartilage degeneration. The cartilage samples collected from the medial femoral condyles of kangaroo knees were mechanically degenerated under different loading patterns or digested in trypsin solution with different concentrations. The sequences of RI were then measured from cartilage surface to deep region and the fluctuations of RI were quantified considering combined effects of fluctuating frequency and amplitude. The compositional and microstructural alterations of cartilage samples were assessed with histological methods. Along with the loss of proteoglycans, the average RI of cartilage increased and the local fluctuation of RI became stronger. Short-term high-speed test induced little influence to both the depth fluctuation and overall level of RI. Long-term low-speed test increased the fluctuation of RI but the average RI was barely changed. The results substantially demonstrate that RI of AC varies with both compositional and structural alterations and is potentially an indicator for the degeneration of AC.

  1. Reproducibility and accuracy of quantitative assessment of articular cartilage volume measurements with 3.0 tesla magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Wei; SHENG Jing; CHEN Wen-hua; TIAN Jian-ming; ZHANG Li-rong; WANG Dong-qing

    2011-01-01

    Background Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) of articular cartilage represents a powerful tool in osteoarthritis research, but has so far been confined to a field strength of 1.5 T. The aim of the study was to determine the reproducibility and accuracy of qMRI assessments of the knee cartilage volume by comparing quantitative swine cartilage volumes of the sagittal (sag) multi echo data imagine combination water-excitation (MEDICwe) sequence and the fast low-angle shoot water-excitation (FLASHwe) sequence at 3.0-T MRI to directly measured volumes (DMV) of the surgically removed articular cartilage.Methods Test-retest MRI was acquired in 20 swine knees. Two sag FLASHwe sequences and two sag MEDICwe sequences (spatial resolution 0.4 mm × 0.4 mm × 1.0 mm of 3-dimension (3D) were acquired at 3-T MRI in a knee.Articular cartilage volume was calculated from 3D reformations of the MRI by using a manual program. Calculated volumes were compared with DMV of the surgically removed articular cartilage. Knee joint cartilage plates were quantified paired in order.Results In the knee joint of swine, reproducibility errors (paired analysis) for cartilage volume were 2.5% to 3.2% with sag FLASHwe, and 1.6% to 3.0% with sag MEDICwe. Correlation coefficients between results obtained with qMRI and DMV ranged from 0.90 to 0.98 for cartilage volume. Systematic pairwise difference between results obtained with qMRI and DMV ranged from -1.1% to 2.8%. Random pairwise differences between results obtained with qMRI and DMV ranged from (2.9 ±2.4)% to (6.8±4.5)%.Conclusions FLASHwe and MEDICwe sequences permit highly accurate and reproducible analysis of cartilage volume in the knee joints of swine at 3-T MRI. Cartilage volume reproducibility for the MEDICwe data is slightly higher than the FLASHwe data.

  2. Drug-induced gingival enlargement: biofilm control and surgical therapy with gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser-A 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Guaré, Renata; Costa, Soraya Carvalho; Baeder, Fernando; de Souza Merli, Luiz Antonio; Dos Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Drug-induced gingival enlargement has been reported in patients treated with various types of anticonvulsant drugs, and is generally associated with the presence of plaque, gingival inflammation, and a genetic predisposition. Effective treatment includes daily oral hygiene and periodic professional prophylaxis. However, in some patients, surgical removal of the gingival tissue overgrowth becomes necessary. The patient in this case report was mentally impaired and had severe drug-induced gingival enlargement. This report describes the initial protocol, the gingivectomy, and a 2-year follow-up. A diode laser was used as an effective and safe method to remove the patient's overgrown gingival tissue.

  3. Gene expression profile of the cartilage tissue spontaneously regenerated in vivo by using a novel double-network gel: Comparisons with the normal articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurokawa Takayuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found a phenomenon that spontaneous regeneration of a hyaline cartilage-like tissue can be induced in a large osteochondral defect by implanting a double-network (DN hydrogel plug, which was composed of poly-(2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and poly-(N, N'-Dimetyl acrylamide, at the bottom of the defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify gene expression profile of the regenerated tissue in comparison with that of the normal articular cartilage. Methods We created a cylindrical osteochondral defect in the rabbit femoral grooves. Then, we implanted the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the regenerated tissue was analyzed using DNA microarray and immunohistochemical examinations. Results The gene expression profiles of the regenerated tissues were macroscopically similar to the normal cartilage, but showed some minor differences. The expression degree of COL2A1, COL1A2, COL10A1, DCN, FMOD, SPARC, FLOD2, CHAD, CTGF, and COMP genes was greater in the regenerated tissue than in the normal cartilage. The top 30 genes that expressed 5 times or more in the regenerated tissue as compared with the normal cartilage included type-2 collagen, type-10 collagen, FN, vimentin, COMP, EF1alpha, TFCP2, and GAPDH genes. Conclusions The tissue regenerated by using the DN gel was genetically similar but not completely identical to articular cartilage. The genetic data shown in this study are useful for future studies to identify specific genes involved in spontaneous cartilage regeneration.

  4. Micro-morphometrical assessment of the effect of Harpagophytum procumbens extract on articular cartilage in rabbits with experimental osteoarthritis using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsmuth, L; Lindhorst, E; Wrubel, S; Hadzhiyski, H; Hudelmaier, M; Eckstein, F; Chrubasik, S

    2011-08-01

    In vitro effects indicate a putative beneficial effect of Harpagophytum procumbens on cartilage turnover, however, in vivo protective effects on cartilage have yet to be demonstrated. A 7.1T MRI scanner was used to derive measurements of thickness, surface area and volume of the tibial condylar cartilage and to assess their precision (in the case of volume also accuracy) against the volumes of dissected cartilage measured by water displacement. Quantitative measurements were made in 16 rabbits, 6 months after unilateral medial meniscectomy and transection of the anterior cruciate ligament, after which eight of these were given a proprietary extract of Harpagophytum procumbens (HP). A semiquantitative MRI-based grading of the tibial cartilage was also compared with a 'macroscopic' grading based on direct visual inspection of dissected joints. The test-retest precision for MRI-based measurement was ≤6.4%. MRI-based measurements correlated well with volumes of surgically resected cartilage (r =  0.97, pair-wise random difference 4.2%). The medial tibial cartilage thickness and volume were about 35% smaller in the operated knees than in the non-operated contralateral knees (p volume of the medial tibial cartilage was slightly but not significantly smaller in the HP-treated group than in the non-treated group.

  5. The Immunosuppressant FTY720 (Fingolimod enhances Glycosaminoglycan depletion in articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stradner Martin H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background FTY720 (Fingolimod is a novel immunosuppressive drug investigated in clinical trials for organ transplantation and multiple sclerosis. It acts as a functional sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P receptor antagonist, thereby inhibiting the egress of lymphocytes from secondary lymphoid organs. As S1P is able to prevent IL-1beta induced cartilage degradation, we examined the direct impact of FTY720 on cytokine induced cartilage destruction. Methods Bovine chondrocytes were treated with the bioactive phosphorylated form of FTY720 (FTY720-P in combination with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. Expression of MMP-1,-3.-13, iNOS and ADAMTS-4,-5 and COX-2 was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Glycosaminoglycan depletion from cartilage explants was determined using a 1,9-dimethylene blue assay and safranin O staining. Results FTY720-P significantly reduced IL-1beta and TNF-alpha induced expression of iNOS. In contrast FTY720-P increased MMP-3 and ADAMTS-5 mRNA expression. Furthermore depletion of glycosaminoglycan from cartilage explants by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha was significantly enhanced by FTY720-P in an MMP-3 dependent manner. Conclusions Our results suggest that FTY720 may enhance cartilage degradation in pro-inflammatory environment.

  6. Knee cartilage extraction and bone-cartilage interface analysis from 3D MRI data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez-Pena, Jose G.; Barbu-McInnis, Monica; Totterman, Saara

    2004-05-01

    This works presents a robust methodology for the analysis of the knee joint cartilage and the knee bone-cartilage interface from fused MRI sets. The proposed approach starts by fusing a set of two 3D MR images the knee. Although the proposed method is not pulse sequence dependent, the first sequence should be programmed to achieve good contrast between bone and cartilage. The recommended second pulse sequence is one that maximizes the contrast between cartilage and surrounding soft tissues. Once both pulse sequences are fused, the proposed bone-cartilage analysis is done in four major steps. First, an unsupervised segmentation algorithm is used to extract the femur, the tibia, and the patella. Second, a knowledge based feature extraction algorithm is used to extract the femoral, tibia and patellar cartilages. Third, a trained user corrects cartilage miss-classifications done by the automated extracted cartilage. Finally, the final segmentation is the revisited using an unsupervised MAP voxel relaxation algorithm. This final segmentation has the property that includes the extracted bone tissue as well as all the cartilage tissue. This is an improvement over previous approaches where only the cartilage was segmented. Furthermore, this approach yields very reproducible segmentation results in a set of scan-rescan experiments. When these segmentations were coupled with a partial volume compensated surface extraction algorithm the volume, area, thickness measurements shows precisions around 2.6%

  7. All-Arthroscopic Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis for the Treatment of Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; de Girolamo, Laura; Grassi, Miriam; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Montrasio, Umberto Alfieri; Boga, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Several surgical techniques have been described for the treatment of talar chondral lesions. Among them, microfracture is well established. Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC), using microfracture and biomaterials, has shown promising results for the treatment of knee osteochondral lesions and has been proposed for the ankle as an open technique. We describe an all-arthroscopic AMIC technique. The benefits of an all-arthroscopic procedure include smaller incisions with less soft-tissue dissection, better visualization of the joint, and a quicker recovery compared with open surgery. The use of matrix to support cartilage regeneration promotes good-quality cartilage tissue with satisfactory long-term outcomes. Our all-arthroscopic AMIC technique uses a type I–type III porcine collagen matrix (Chondro-Gide; Geistlich Pharma, Wolhusen, Switzerland) and is characterized by 2 different arthroscopic surgical phases. First, adequate exposure is achieved through use of a Hintermann spreader (Integra LifeSciences, Plainsboro, NJ) with sufficient joint distraction and wet lesion preparation. The second surgical step is performed dry, involving matrix placement and fixation. The all-arthroscopic AMIC technique for the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus allows a very precise reconstruction in the case of cartilage defects and avoids the need for a more invasive operation associated with higher morbidity and a longer surgical time. PMID:26258040

  8. Cartilage T2 assessment: differentiation of normal hyaline cartilage and reparative tissue after arthroscopic cartilage repair in equine subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lawrence M; Sussman, Marshall S; Hurtig, Mark; Probyn, Linda; Tomlinson, George; Kandel, Rita

    2006-11-01

    To prospectively assess T2 mapping characteristics of normal articular cartilage and of cartilage at sites of arthroscopic repair, including comparison with histologic results and collagen organization assessed at polarized light microscopy (PLM). Study protocol was compliant with the Canadian Council on Animal Care Guidelines and approved by the institutional animal care committee. Arthroscopic osteochondral autograft transplantation (OAT) and microfracture arthroplasty (MFx) were performed in knees of 10 equine subjects (seven female, three male; age range, 3-5 years). A site of arthroscopically normal cartilage was documented in each joint as a control site. Joints were harvested at 12 (n = 5) and 24 (n = 5) weeks postoperatively and were imaged at 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) with a 10-echo sagittal fast spin-echo acquisition. T2 maps of each site (21 OAT harvest, 10 MFx, 12 OAT plug, and 10 control sites) were calculated with linear least-squares curve fitting. Cartilage T2 maps were qualitatively graded as "organized" (normal transition of low-to-high T2 signal from deep to superficial cartilage zones) or "disorganized." Quantitative mean T2 values were calculated for deep, middle, and superficial cartilage at each location. Results were compared with histologic and PLM assessments by using kappa analysis. T2 maps were qualitatively graded as organized at 20 of 53 sites and as disorganized at 33 sites. Perfect agreement was seen between organized T2 and histologic findings of hyaline cartilage and between disorganized T2 and histologic findings of fibrous reparative tissue (kappa = 1.0). Strong agreement was seen between organized T2 and normal PLM findings and between disorganized T2 and abnormal PLM findings (kappa = .92). Quantitative assessment of the deep, middle, and superficial cartilage, respectively, showed mean T2 values of 53.3, 58.6, and 54.9 msec at reparative fibrous tissue sites and 40.7, 53.6, and 61.6 msec at hyaline cartilage sites. A

  9. A cartilage-inspired lubrication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, George W; Olszewska, Anna; Osterberg, Monika; Zhu, Haijin; Horn, Roger

    2014-01-14

    Articular cartilage is an example of a highly efficacious water-based, natural lubrication system that is optimized to provide low friction and wear protection at both low and high loads and sliding velocities. One of the secrets of cartilage's superior tribology comes from a unique, multimodal lubrication strategy consisting of both a fluid pressurization mediated lubrication mechanism and a boundary lubrication mechanism supported by surface bound macromolecules. Using a reconstituted network of highly interconnected cellulose fibers and simple modification through the immobilization of polyelectrolytes, we have recreated many of the mechanical and chemical properties of cartilage and the cartilage lubrication system to produce a purely synthetic material system that exhibits some of the same lubrication mechanisms, time dependent friction response, and high wear resistance as natural cartilage tissue. Friction and wear studies demonstrate how the properties of the cellulose fiber network can be used to control and optimize the lubrication and wear resistance of the material surfaces and highlight what key features of cartilage should be duplicated in order to produce a cartilage-mimetic lubrication system.

  10. Regulatory Challenges for Cartilage Repair Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Kevin B; Stiegman, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, few Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved options exist for the treatment of focal cartilage and osteochondral lesions. Developers of products for cartilage repair face many challenges to obtain marketing approval from the FDA. The objective of this review is to discuss the necessary steps for FDA application and approval for a new cartilage repair product. FDA Guidance Documents, FDA Panel Meetings, scientific organization recommendations, and clinicaltrials.gov were reviewed to demonstrate the current thinking of FDA and the scientific community on the regulatory process for cartilage repair therapies. Cartilage repair therapies can receive market approval from FDA as medical devices, drugs, or biologics, and the specific classification of product can affect the nonclinical, clinical, and regulatory strategy to bring the product to market. Recent FDA guidance gives an outline of the required elements to bring a cartilage repair product to market, although these standards are often very general. As a result, companies have to carefully craft their study patient population, comparator group, and clinical endpoint to best showcase their product's attributes. In addition, regulatory strategy and manufacturing process validation need to be considered early in the clinical study process to allow for timely product approval following the completion of clinical study. Although the path to regulatory approval for a cartilage repair therapy is challenging and time-consuming, proper clinical trial planning and attention to the details can eventually save companies time and money by bringing a product to the market in the most expeditious process possible.

  11. NMR Studies of Cartilage Dynamics, Diffusion, Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, Daniel; Schiller, Jurgen; Naji, Lama; Kaufmann Jorn; Arnold, Klaus

    An increasing number of people is suffering from rheumatic diseases, and, therefore, methods of early diagnosis of joint degeneration are urgently required. For their establishment, however, an improved knowledge about the molecular organisation of cartilage would be helpful. Cartilage consists of three main components: Water, collagen and chondroitin sulfate (CS) that is (together with further polysaccharides and proteins) a major constituent of the proteoglycans of cartilage. 1H and 13C MAS (magic-angle spinning) NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) opened new perspectives for the study of the macromolecular components in cartilage. We have primarily studied the mobilities of CS and collagen in bovine nasal and pig articular cartilage (that differ significantly in their collagen/polysaccharide content) by measuring 13C NMR relaxation times as well as the corresponding 13C CP (cross polarisation) MAS NMR spectra. These data clearly indicate that the mobility of cartilage macromolecules is broadly distributed from almost completely rigid (collagen) to highly mobile (polysaccharides), which lends cartilage its mechanical strength and shock-absorbing properties.

  12. Does intraarticular inflammation predict biomechanical cartilage properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldstein, Wenzel; Perino, Giorgio; Jawetz, Shari T; Gilbert, Susannah L; Boettner, Friedrich

    2014-07-01

    Intact cartilage in the lateral compartment is an important requirement for medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). Progression of cartilage degeneration in the lateral compartment is a common failure mode of medial UKA. Little is known about factors that influence the mechanical properties of lateral compartment cartilage. The purposes of this study were to answer the following questions: (1) Does the synovial fluid white blood cell count predict the biomechanical properties of macroscopically intact cartilage of the distal lateral femur? (2) Is there a correlation between MRI grading of synovitis and the biomechanical properties of macroscopically intact cartilage? (3) Is there a correlation between the histopathologic assessment of the synovium and the biomechanical properties of macroscopically intact cartilage? The study included 84 patients (100 knees) undergoing primary TKA for varus osteoarthritis between May 2010 and January 2012. All patients underwent preoperative MRI to assess the degree of synovitis. During surgery, the cartilage of the distal lateral femur was assessed macroscopically using the Outerbridge grading scale. In knees with an Outerbridge grade of 0 or 1, osteochondral plugs were harvested from the distal lateral femur for biomechanical and histologic assessment. The synovial fluid was collected to determine the white blood cell count. Synovial tissue was taken for histologic evaluation of the degree of synovitis. The mean aggregate modulus and the mean dynamic modulus were significantly greater in knees with 150 or less white blood cells/mL synovial fluid compared with knees with greater than 150 white blood cells/mL synovial fluid. There was no correlation among MRI synovitis grades, histopathologic synovitis grades, and biomechanical cartilage properties. The study suggests that lateral compartment cartilage in patients with elevated synovial fluid white blood cell counts has a reduced ability to withstand compressive loads

  13. Therapeutic options in the treatment of cartilage defects: techniques and indications; Therapieoptionen zur Behandlung von Knorpelschaeden: Techniken und Indikationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resinger, C.; Vecsei, V.; Marlovits, S. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Unfallchirurgie, Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria)

    2004-08-01

    Cartilage is composed of chondrocytes embedded within an extracellular matrix of collagens, proteoglycans, and noncollagenous proteins. Together, these structures maintain the unique mechanical properties and manifest its striking inability to heal even the most minor injury. This review presents the principles of cartilage structure and the biological background of cartilage repair and gives information about the surgical techniques for treating cartilage defects. The response of cartilage to injuries differs from that of other tissues because of its avascularity, the immobility of chondrocytes and the limited ability of mature chondrocytes to proliferate and alter their synthetic patterns. Surgical therapeutic efforts in treating cartilage defects have focused on bringing new cells and tissues capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions and facilitating the access to the vascular system. The right indication and the treatment of joint instability and axis deformation are essential for the successful use of cartilage repair procedures. (orig.) [German] Das artikulaere Knorpelgewebe besteht aus einer einzelnen Zellpopulation, integriert in ein dreidimensionales Netzwerk hochorganisierter Matrixstrukturen. Dieser feingewebliche Aufbau bestimmt die einzigartigen mechanischen Eigenschaften, limitiert aber auch die physiologischen Reparationsmoeglichkeiten von Knorpeldefekten. Diese Uebersicht beschreibt die Grundlagen der Knorpelbiologie und die Mechanismen der Knorpelreparatur und behandelt die klinischen Ergebnisse chirurgischer Techniken zur Therapie umschriebener Knorpeldefekte. Die chirurgischen Techniken zur Therapie lokalisierter Defekte der Gelenkoberflaeche versuchen durch die Integration biologischer Mechanismen die mangelnde Regenerationsfaehigkeit artikulaeren Knorpels zu ueberwinden. Die Techniken der Transplantation chondrogener Gewebe wurden in juengster Zeit durch die Defektauffuellung mit autologen Chondrozyten erweitert. Eine klare Indikationsstellung

  14. Evolution of Autologous Chondrocyte Repair and Comparison to Other Cartilage Repair Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin K. Dewan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage defects have been addressed using microfracture, abrasion chondroplasty, or osteochondral grafting, but these strategies do not generate tissue that adequately recapitulates native cartilage. During the past 25 years, promising new strategies using assorted scaffolds and cell sources to induce chondrocyte expansion have emerged. We reviewed the evolution of autologous chondrocyte implantation and compared it to other cartilage repair techniques. Methods. We searched PubMed from 1949 to 2014 for the keywords “autologous chondrocyte implantation” (ACI and “cartilage repair” in clinical trials, meta-analyses, and review articles. We analyzed these articles, their bibliographies, our experience, and cartilage regeneration textbooks. Results. Microfracture, abrasion chondroplasty, osteochondral grafting, ACI, and autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis are distinguishable by cell source (including chondrocytes and stem cells and associated scaffolds (natural or synthetic, hydrogels or membranes. ACI seems to be as good as, if not better than, microfracture for repairing large chondral defects in a young patient’s knee as evaluated by multiple clinical indices and the quality of regenerated tissue. Conclusion. Although there is not enough evidence to determine the best repair technique, ACI is the most established cell-based treatment for full-thickness chondral defects in young patients.

  15. First and second order stereology of hyaline cartilage: Application on mice femoral cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorafshan, Ali; Niazi, Behnam; Mohamadpour, Masoomeh; Hoseini, Leila; Hoseini, Najmeh; Owji, Ali Akbar; Rafati, Ali; Sadeghi, Yasaman; Karbalay-Doust, Saied

    2016-11-01

    Stereological techniques could be considered in research on cartilage to obtain quantitative data. The present study aimed to explain application of the first- and second-order stereological methods on articular cartilage of mice and the methods applied on the mice exposed to cadmium (Cd). The distal femoral articular cartilage of BALB/c mice (control and Cd-treated) was removed. Then, volume and surface area of the cartilage and number of chondrocytes were estimated using Cavalieri and optical dissector techniques on isotropic uniform random sections. Pair-correlation function [g(r)] and cross-correlation function were calculated to express the spatial arrangement of chondrocytes-chondrocytes and chondrocytes-matrix (chondrocyte clustering/dispersing), respectively. The mean±standard deviation of the cartilage volume, surface area, and thickness were 1.4±0.1mm(3), 26.2±5.4mm(2), and 52.8±6.7μm, respectively. Besides, the mean number of chondrocytes was 680±200 (×10(3)). The cartilage volume, cartilage surface area, and number of chondrocytes were respectively reduced by 25%, 27%, and 27% in the Cd-treated mice in comparison to the control animals (pcartilage components carried potential advantages for investigating the cartilage in different joint conditions. Chondrocyte clustering/dispersing and cellularity can be evaluated in cartilage assessment in normal or abnormal situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Triticeous Cartilage CT Imaging Characteristics, Prevalence, Extent, and Distribution of Ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Eman; Marrero, Daniel E; Champion, Walter L; Alawaji, Ahmed; Kousoubris, Philip D; Small, Juan E

    2016-01-01

    The triticeous cartilage is a small ovoid cartilaginous structure variably present as a component of the laryngeal skeleton. This structure has received scant attention in the literature and has yet to be described adequately on cross-sectional imaging. Retrospective study in a tertiary medical center. We investigated triticeous cartilage prevalence in a large population utilizing computed tomography images. The cases of all patients with computed tomography angiography images of the neck from October 1, 2013, to September 31, 2014, were examined. A total of 663 patients were included in this study (age: range, 18-97 years; mean ± SD, 65 ± 15 years), 58.4% men and 41.6% women. The presence of a triticeal cartilage and its site, number, and degree of ossification were recorded. A total of 53.1% of patients had at least 1 triticeous cartilage (352 of 663). Prevalence was 57.4% (222 of 387) among men and 47.1% (130 of 276) among women. The presence of bilateral triticeous cartilages was more common than unilateral (63.1%, 222 of 352). A minority of patients (4.5%, 16 of 352) had a cartilaginous triticeous with no appreciable ossification, and more than half (54.0%, 190 of 352) had mild triticeal ossification. Moderate ossification was found in 34.9% of patients (123 of 352) and marked ossification in 6.5% (23 of 352). The presence of a triticeous cartilage is common and of variable appearance. As the clinical and surgical significance of this anatomic structure may be misinterpreted, it is important for imaging interpreters to be familiar with this seldom-recognized anatomic structure and recognize its variable appearance on cross-sectional imaging to avoid a misdiagnosis. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  17. Clinical Features and Management of Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Shiasi Arani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is a rare hereditary cause of short stature. The aim of this study was to familiarize physicians with this rare but important disease. Evidence Acquisition: This article is a narrative review of the scientific literature to inform about clinical features and management of Cartilage-hair hypoplasia. A systematic search identified 127 papers include original and review articles and case reports. Results: Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia characterized by short-limb dwarfism associated with metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. The inheritance is autosomal recessive. Other findings include hair hypoplasia, anemia, immunodeficiency, propensity to infections, gastrointestinal disorders (Hirschsprung disease, anal stenosis, esophageal atresia and malabsorption, defective spermatogenesis, increased risk of malignancies and higher rate of mortality. Immunodeficiency in cartilage-hair hypoplasia may be an isolated B-cell or isolated T-cell immunodeficiency or combined B and T-cell immunodeficiency; however, severe combined immunodeficiency is rare. There is no known treatment for hair hypoplasia. Growth hormone was used with conflicting results for short stature in children with Cartilage-hair hypoplasia. Skeletal problems must be managed with physiotherapy and appropriate orthopedic interventions. Hirschsprung disease, anal stenosis and esophageal atresia should be surgically corrected. Patients with severe hypoplastic anemia require repeated transfusions. Bone marrow transplantation may be required for patients with severe combined immunodeficiency or severe persistent hypoplastic anemia. Treatment with G-CSF is useful for neutropenia. Patients should be monitored closely for developing malignancy such as skin neoplasms, lymphomas and leukemias. Conclusions: Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is an important hereditary disease with different medical aspects. The high rate of consanguineous marriages in Iran necessitates considering CHH in any

  18. Comparison of temporal muscle fascia and cartilage grafts in pediatric tympanoplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Sule; Tuzuner, Arzu; Karadas, Hatice; Acıkgoz, Cemile; Caylan, Refik; Samim, Ethem Erdal

    2014-01-01

    To compare anatomic and functional outcomes of the different graft materials used in pediatric tympanoplasty. The patients younger than 18 years of age and who had tympanoplasty between 2010 and 2012 were included in the study. Temporal muscle fascia or cartilage was used as the graft material. The age, gender, the side of the operated ear, the operation technique, pre- and postoperative audiological results, and the status of the graft were noted. An intact graft and an air-bone gap (ABG) ≤ 20 were regarded as surgical success in the postoperative period. Audiograms obtained before surgery and 1 year after surgery were used for the comparison. Sixty pediatric cases were included in the study. Fascia graft was used as the graft material in 35 of them, and cartilage was used in 25 patients. The graft success rate was 82.9% in the fascia group while it was 92% in the cartilage group. In the fascia group preoperative ABG was 28.2 ± 10.1 dB, postoperative ABG was 15.1 ± 10.2dB, and postoperative gain was 13.1 ± 9.6 dB. In the cartilage group, preoperative ABG was 28.9 ± 10.2dB, and postoperative ABG was 16.8 ± 10.3 dB with a postoperative gain of 12.1 ± 6.8 dB. The differences between the fascia and the cartilage groups were not statistically significant either for hearing gain or graft success rate. Cartilage and fascia grafts yield similar results for hearing gain and graft success rate in pediatric tympanoplasty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Inhibitory Effect of Salmon Calcitonin on Tri-Iodothyronine Induction of Early Hypertrophy in Articular Cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Pingping Chen-An; Kim Vietz Andreassen; Kim Henriksen; Yadong Li; Morten Asser Karsdal; Anne-Christine Bay-Jensen

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Salmon calcitonin has chondroprotective effect both in vitro and in vivo, and is therefore being tested as a candidate drug for cartilage degenerative diseases. Recent studies have indicated that different chondrocyte phenotypes may express the calcitonin receptor (CTR) differentially. We tested for the presence of the CTR in chondrocytes from tri-iodothyronin (T3)-induced bovine articular cartilage explants. Moreover, investigated the effects of human and salmon calcitonin on the ...

  20. Rate process analysis of thermal damage in cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Sergio H; Nelson, J Stuart; Wong, Brian J F [Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2003-01-07

    Cartilage laser thermoforming (CLT) is a new surgical procedure that allows in situ treatment of deformities in the head and neck with less morbidity than traditional approaches. While some animal and human studies have shown promising results, the clinical feasibility of CLT depends on preservation of chondrocyte viability, which has not been extensively studied. The present paper characterizes cellular damage due to heat in rabbit nasal cartilage. Damage was modelled as a first order rate process for which two experimentally derived coefficients, A=1.2x10{sup 70} s{sup -1} and E{sub a}=4.5x10{sup 5} J mole{sup -1}, were determined by quantifying the decrease in concentration of healthy chondrocytes in tissue samples as a function of exposure time to constant-temperature water baths. After immersion, chondrocytes were enzymatically isolated from the matrix and stained with a two-component fluorescent dye. The dye binds nuclear DNA differentially depending upon chondrocyte viability. A flow cytometer was used to detect differential cell fluorescence to determine the percentage of live and dead cells in each sample. As a result, a damage kinetic model was obtained that can be used to predict the onset, extent and severity of cellular injury to thermal exposure.

  1. Electric field stimulation can increase protein synthesis in articular cartilage explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGinitie, L A; Gluzband, Y A; Grodzinsky, A J

    1994-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that the electric fields associated with the dynamic loading of cartilage may affect its growth, remodeling, and biosynthesis. While the application of exogenous fields has been shown to modulate cartilage biosynthesis, it is not known what range of field magnitudes and frequencies can alter biosynthesis and how they relate to the magnitudes and frequencies of endogenous fields. Such information is necessary to understand and identify mechanisms by which fields may act on cartilage metabolism. In this study, incorporation of 35S-methionine was used as a marker for electric field-induced changes in chondrocyte protein synthesis in disks of cartilage from the femoropatellar groove of 1 to 2-week-old calves. The cartilage was stimulated sinusoidally at 1, 10, 100, 10(3), and 10(4) Hz with current densities of 10-30 mA/cm2. Incorporation was assessed in control disks maintained in the absence of applied current at 37, 41, and 43 degrees C. The possibility that applied currents would induce synthesis of the same stress proteins that are caused by heating or other mechanisms was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and examination of gel fluorographs. Total radiolabel incorporation in cartilage that had been stimulated relative to incorporation in the controls increased with current density magnitudes greater than 10 mA/cm2. The increase was greatest at 100 Hz and 1 kHz, and it depended on the position on the joint surface from which the cartilage samples were taken. Together, these results suggest that endogenous electric fields could affect cartilage biosynthesis. Stress proteins were not induced at any current density when the electrodes were electrically connected but chemically isolated from the media by agarose bridges. Stress proteins were observed for disks incubated at temperatures greater than 39 degrees C (no field) and when the stimulating platinum electrodes were in direct contact with the media

  2. A history of the understanding of cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, T G

    2006-03-01

    To review the historic development of the understanding of articular cartilage from the earliest comment in the fourth century BCE until about 2000. The history up to 1900 is told chronologically, divided into (1) recognition of the tissue, (2) structure, and (3) chemistry. The twentieth century is sketched with a timeline of discoveries that at the time were important and a bibliography of journal review articles. By 1900 the avascular, aneural state and fibrillar composition have been accepted. The nutrition of articular cartilage remained in dispute. The composition of the binding substance and its relation to collagen remained unknown. Research in the first half of the twentieth century continued to be impeded by lack of technology. The advent of electron microscopy, isotopic tracer technics and enzymology rapidly accelerated the understanding of hyaline cartilage beginning in the 1950s. The history of research on hyaline cartilage illustrates the dependence of scientific progress on technologic innovation.

  3. The minor collagens in articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yunyun

    2017-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a connective tissue consisting of a specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) that dominates the bulk of its wet and dry weight. Type II collagen and aggrecan are the main ECM proteins in cartilage. However, little attention has been paid to less abundant molecular components......, especially minor collagens, including type IV, VI, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and XIV, etc. Although accounting for only a small fraction of the mature matrix, these minor collagens not only play essential structural roles in the mechanical properties, organization, and shape of articular cartilage, but also...... fulfil specific biological functions. Genetic studies of these minor collagens have revealed that they are associated with multiple connective tissue diseases, especially degenerative joint disease. The progressive destruction of cartilage involves the degradation of matrix constituents including...

  4. Isolation, identification and differentiation of human embryonic cartilage stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Changhao; Yan, Zi; Xu, Hao; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Qi; Wei, Anhui; Yang, Xi; Wang, Yi

    2015-07-01

    We isolated human embryonic cartilage stem cells (hECSCs), a novel stem cell population, from the articular cartilage of eight-week-old human embryos. These stem cells demonstrated a marker expression pattern and differentiation potential intermediate to those of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human adult stem cells (hASCs). hECSCs expressed markers associated with both hESCs (OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-3 and SSEA-4) and human adult stem cells (hASCs) (CD29, CD44, CD90, CD73 and CD10). These cells also differentiated into adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, neurons and islet-like cells under specific inducing conditions. We identified N(6), 2'-O-dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (Bt2cAMP) as an inducer of chondrogenic differentiation in hECSCs. Similar results using N(6), 2'-O-dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (Bt2cAMP) were obtained for two other types of human embryonic tissue-derived stem cells, human embryonic hepatic stem cells (hEHSCs) and human embryonic amniotic fluid stem cells (hEASCs), both of which exhibited a marker expression pattern similar to that of hECSCs. The isolation of hECSCs and the discovery that N(6), 2'-O-dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (Bt2cAMP) induces chondrogenic differentiation in different stem cell populations might aid the development of strategies in tissue engineering and cartilage repair.

  5. SURGICALLY INDUCED ASTIGMATISM AFTER 2.8 MM TEMPORAL AND NASAL CLEAR CORNEAL INCISIONS IN PHACOEMULSIFICATION CATARACT SURGERY OF SAME PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the surgically induced astigmatism in phacoemulsification cataract surgery after 2.8 mm temporal and nasal clear corneal incision of same patient . MATERIAL AND METHOD : This prospective study comprised a consecutive case series of 60 eyes. Eyes from 30 patients with phacoemulsification those were implanted with a 6.00 mm foldable intraocular le ns through a 2.8 mm horizontal clear corneal incision (temporal in the right eye , nasal in the left eye. RESULTS : T he outcome measures were surgically induced astigmatism (SIA and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA , at 1 and 3 months post - operatively. A 1 month the mean SIA was 0.81 D. for the temporal incision and 0.92 D for nasal incision (P = 0.139 at 3 months the mean SIA was 0.53 D for temporal incision and 0.62 D for nasal incision (P =0.309. The pre - operative parameters i.e. (UCVA , mean keratomet ry & keratometric cylinder between these groups were comparable. There was no statistically significant difference found between three groups pre - operatively . CONCLUSION : After cataract surgery using 2.8mm temporal and nasal horizontal corneal incision , t he induced corneal astigmatic changes was similar in both incision groups. Especially in Asian eyes , both temporal and nasal incisions (2.8 mm or less would be equally favourable for astigmatism neutral cataract surgery

  6. Materials science: Like cartilage, but simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    The properties of articular cartilage, which lines bones in joints, depend partlyon repulsion between components of the material. A new synthetic gel that mimics this feature has rare, direction-dependent properties.......The properties of articular cartilage, which lines bones in joints, depend partlyon repulsion between components of the material. A new synthetic gel that mimics this feature has rare, direction-dependent properties....

  7. The structure and function of cartilage proteoglycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P J Roughley

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage contains a variety of proteoglycans that are essential for its normal function. These include aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican. Each proteoglycan serves several functions that are determined by both its core protein and its glycosaminoglycan chains. This review discusses the structure/function relationships of the cartilage proteoglycans, and the manner in which perturbations in proteoglycan structure or abundance can adversely affect tissue function.

  8. Cartilage proteoglycans inhibit fibronectin-mediated adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, A. M.; Pearlstein, E.; Weissmann, G.; Hoffstein, S. T.

    1981-09-01

    Normal tissues and organs show, on histological examination, a pattern of cellular and acellular zones that is characteristic and unique for each organ or tissue. This pattern is maintained in health but is sometimes destroyed by disease. For example, in mobile joints, the articular surfaces consist of relatively acellular hyaline cartilage, and the joint space is enclosed by a capsule of loose connective tissue with a lining of fibroblasts and macrophages. In the normal joint these cells are confined to the synovial lining and the articular surface remains acellular. In in vitro culture, macrophages and their precursor monocytes are very adhesive, and fibroblasts can migrate and overgrow surfaces such as collagen or plastic used for tissue culture. The fibroblasts adhere to collagen by means of fibronectin, which they synthesize and secrete1. Because the collagen of cartilage is capable of binding serum fibronectin2 and fibronectin is present in cartilage during its development3, these cells should, in theory, slowly migrate from the synovial lining to the articular surface. It is their absence from the articular cartilage in normal circumstances, and then presence in such pathological states as rheumatoid arthritis, that is striking. We therefore set out to determine whether a component of cartilage could prevent fibroblast adherence in a defined adhesion assay. As normal cartilage is composed of 50% proteoglycans and 50% collagen by dry weight4, we tested the possibility that the proteoglycans in cartilage inhibit fibroblast adhesion to collagen. We present here evidence that fibroblast spreading and adhesion to collagenous substrates is inhibited by cartilage proteoglycans.

  9. Elevated Mechanical Loading When Young Provides Lifelong Benefits to Cortical Bone Properties in Female Rats Independent of a Surgically Induced Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galley, Matthew R.; Hurd, Andrea L.; Wallace, Joseph M.; Gallant, Maxime A.; Richard, Jeffrey S.; George, Lydia A.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise that mechanically loads the skeleton is advocated when young to enhance lifelong bone health. Whether the skeletal benefits of elevated loading when young persist into adulthood and after menopause are important questions. This study investigated the influence of a surgically induced menopause in female Sprague-Dawley rats on the lifelong maintenance of the cortical bone benefits of skeletal loading when young. Animals had their right forearm extrinsically loaded 3 d/wk between 4 and 10 weeks of age using the forearm axial compression loading model. Left forearms were internal controls and not loaded. Animals were subsequently detrained (restricted to cage activities) for 94 weeks (until age 2 years), with ovariectomy (OVX) or sham-OVX surgery being performed at 24 weeks of age. Loading enhanced midshaft ulna cortical bone mass, structure, and estimated strength. These benefits persisted lifelong and contributed to loaded ulnas having greater strength after detraining. Loading also had effects on cortical bone quality. The benefits of loading when young were not influenced by a surgically induced menopause because there were no interactions between loading and surgery. However, OVX had independent effects on cortical bone mass, structure, and estimated strength at early postsurgery time points (up to age 58 weeks) and bone quality measures. These data indicate skeletal loading when young had lifelong benefits on cortical bone properties that persisted independent of a surgically induced menopause. This suggests that skeletal loading associated with exercise when young may provide lifelong antifracture benefits by priming the skeleton to offset the cortical bone changes associated with aging and menopause. PMID:23782938

  10. Articular Cartilage Repair Through Muscle Cell-Based Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    32–36). Surgically induced OAmodels may be more clinically relevant than chemically induced models with regard to the patho- physiology of OA. However...Am J Pathol 1989;135:1001–14. 33. Guingamp C, Gegout-Pottie P, Philippe L, Terlain B, Netter P, Gillet P. Mono-iodoacetate–induced experimental

  11. Precision of hyaline cartilage thickness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, K.; Buckwalter, K.; Helvie, M.; Niklason, L.; Martel, W. (Univ. of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1992-05-01

    Measurement of cartilage thickness in vivo is an important indicator of the status of a joint as the various degenerative and inflammatory arthritides directly affect the condition of the cartilage. In order to assess the precision of thickness measurements of hyaline articular cartilage, we undertook a pilot study using MR imaging, plain radiography, and ultrasonography (US). We measured the cartilage of the hip and knee joints in 10 persons (4 healthy volunteers and 6 patients). The joints in each patient were examined on two separate occasions using each modality. In the hips a swell as the knee joints, the most precise measuring method was plain film radiography. For radiographs of the knees obtained in the standing position, the coefficient of variation was 6.5%; in the hips this figure was 6.34%. US of the knees and MR imaging of the hips were the second best modalities in the measurement of cartilage thickness. In addition, MR imaging enabled the most complete visualization of the joint cartilage. (orig.).

  12. Stimulation of proteoglycan synthesis by glucuronosyltransferase-I gene delivery: a strategy to promote cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, N; Barré, L; Benani, A; Netter, P; Magdalou, J; Fournel-Gigleux, S; Ouzzine, M

    2004-12-28

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by a progressive loss of articular cartilage components, mainly proteoglycans (PGs), leading to destruction of the tissue. We investigate a therapeutic strategy based on stimulation of PG synthesis by gene transfer of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-synthesizing enzyme, beta1,3-glucuronosyltransferase-I (GlcAT-I) to promote cartilage repair. We previously reported that IL-1beta down-regulated the expression and activity of GlcAT-I in primary rat chondrocytes. Here, by using antisense oligonucleotides, we demonstrate that GlcAT-I inhibition impaired PG synthesis and deposition in articular cartilage explants, emphasizing the crucial role of this enzyme in PG anabolism. Thus, primary chondrocytes and cartilage explants were engineered by lipid-mediated gene delivery to efficiently overexpress a human GlcAT-I cDNA. Interestingly, GlcAT-I overexpression significantly enhanced GAG synthesis and deposition as evidenced by (35)S-sulfate incorporation, histology, estimation of GAG content, and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis analysis. Metabolic labeling and Western blot analyses further suggested that GlcAT-I expression led to an increase in the abundance rather than in the length of GAG chains. Importantly, GlcAT-I delivery was able to overcome IL-1beta-induced PG depletion and maintain the anabolic activity of chondrocytes. Moreover, GlcAT-I also restored PG synthesis to a normal level in cartilage explants previously depleted from endogenous PGs by IL-1beta-treatment. In concert, our investigations strongly indicated that GlcAT-I was able to control and reverse articular cartilage defects in terms of PG anabolism and GAG content associated with IL-1beta. This study provides a basis for a gene therapy approach to promote cartilage repair in degenerative joint diseases.

  13. Compositional variation of fibrous callus and joint cartilage in different internal environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-tang; HU Yun-yu; ZHAO Li; L(U) Rong; WANG Jun; BAI Jian-ping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the compositional variation of fibrous callus in the fracture site and the joint cavity and joint cartilage after being transplanted in the muscle pouch.Methods: Thirty 2-month-old New Zealand white rabbits (weighing 1-1.5 kg) were randomly divided into two groups: a callus transplantation group (Group A, n =15) and a cartilage transplantation group ( Group B, n =15). In Group A, closed radius fracture was made and the autologous fibrous callus was transplanted in the right knee joint cavity at 12 days postoperatively. In Group B, the right knee joint cartilage of the animals was transplanted in the autologous back muscle pouches under anesthesia. Then all the animals were killed by overdose anesthetic 3 weeks after transplantation. And the transplanted fibrous callus,the healed bones in the fracture sites and the transplanted joint cartilage were obtained for assessment of compositional variation.Results: Pure fibrous composition was found in the callus at the fracture sites in Group A at 12 days postoperatively. And for 11 out of the 15 animals, the fibrous callus was transformed into cartilaginous tissues after 3 weeks of transplantation, but the fibrous callus was absent in the other 4 animals. The fibrous calluses at the original site and the fracture locus were differentiated into bony tissues. Bony tissue transformation was found in the transplanted joint cartilages in the muscle pouch of all the animals in Group B.Conclusions: The fracture sites or joint cavity may facilitate callus differentiation in different ways: the former is helpful for osteogenesis while the latter for the development and maintenance of cartilages, and the muscle pouch is inclined to induce the osteogenic phenotype for cartilages.

  14. Radiologically determined orthodontically induced external apical root resorption in incisors after non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Long D; Saltaji, Humam; Normando, David; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-07-23

    This study aims to critically evaluate orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) in incisors of patients undergoing non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion by a systematic review of the published data. An electronic search of two databases was performed; the bibliographies of relevant articles were also reviewed. Studies were included if they examined the amount of OIEARR in incisors produced during non-surgical orthodontic treatment of individuals with class II division I malocclusion in the permanent dentition. Individuals had no previous history of OIEARR, syndromes, pathologies, or general diseases. Study selections, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Eight studies of moderate methodological quality were finally included. An increased prevalence (65.6% to 98.1%) and mild to moderate severity of OIEARR (resorption was found. For the maxillary incisors, there was no evidence that either the central or lateral incisor was more susceptible to OIEARR. A weak to moderate positive correlation between treatment duration and root resorption, and anteroposterior apical displacement and root resorption was found. Current limited evidence suggests that non-surgical comprehensive orthodontic treatment to correct class II division 1 malocclusions causes increased prevalence and severity of OIEARR the more the incisor roots are displaced and the longer this movement takes.

  15. CCN family member 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF has anti-aging effects that protect articular cartilage from age-related degenerative changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Itoh

    Full Text Available To examine the role of connective tissue growth factor CCN2/CTGF (CCN2 in the maintenance of the articular cartilaginous phenotype, we analyzed knee joints from aging transgenic mice (TG overexpressing CCN2 driven by the Col2a1 promoter. Knee joints from 3-, 14-, 40-, and 60-day-old and 5-, 12-, 18-, 21-, and 24-month-old littermates were analyzed. Ccn2-LacZ transgene expression in articular cartilage was followed by X-gal staining until 5 months of age. Overexpression of CCN2 protein was confirmed through all ages in TG articular cartilage and in growth plates. Radiographic analysis of knee joints showed a narrowing joint space and other features of osteoarthritis in 50% of WT, but not in any of the TG mice. Transgenic articular cartilage showed enhanced toluidine blue and safranin-O staining as well as chondrocyte proliferation but reduced staining for type X and I collagen and MMP-13 as compared with those parameters for WT cartilage. Staining for aggrecan neoepitope, a marker of aggrecan degradation in WT articular cartilage, increased at 5 and 12 months, but disappeared at 24 months due to loss of cartilage; whereas it was reduced in TG articular cartilage after 12 months. Expression of cartilage genes and MMPs under cyclic tension stress (CTS was measured by using primary cultures of chondrocytes obtained from wild-type (WT rib cartilage and TG or WT epiphyseal cartilage. CTS applied to primary cultures of mock-transfected rib chondrocytes from WT cartilage and WT epiphyseal cartilage induced expression of Col1a1, ColXa1, Mmp-13, and Mmp-9 mRNAs; however, their levels were not affected in CCN2-overexpressing chondrocytes and TG epiphyseal cartilage. In conclusion, cartilage-specific overexpression of CCN2 during the developmental and growth periods reduced age-related changes in articular cartilage. Thus CCN2 may play a role as an anti-aging factor by stabilizing articular cartilage.

  16. Rho GTPase protein Cdc42 is critical for postnatal cartilage development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahama, Ryo [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamada, Atsushi, E-mail: yamadaa@dent.showa-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Junichi [Department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Aizawa, Ryo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Dai [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Kassai, Hidetoshi [Laboratory of Animal Resources, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Matsuo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Mishima, Kenji [Department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Aiba, Atsu [Laboratory of Animal Resources, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Maki, Koutaro [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan); Kamijo, Ryutaro [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-19

    Cdc42, a small Rho GTPase family member, has been shown to regulate multiple cellular functions in vitro, including actin cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, proliferation, and gene expression. However, its tissue-specific roles in vivo remain largely unknown, especially in postnatal cartilage development, as cartilage-specific Cdc42 inactivated mice die within a few days after birth. In this study, we investigated the physiological functions of Cdc42 during cartilage development after birth using tamoxifen-induced cartilage-specific inactivated Cdc42 conditional knockout (Cdc42 {sup fl/fl}; Col2-CreERT) mice, which were generated by crossing Cdc42 flox mice (Cdc42 {sup fl/fl}) with tamoxifen-induced type II collagen (Col2) Cre transgenic mice using a Cre/loxP system. The gross morphology of the Cdc42 cKO mice was shorter limbs and body, as well as reduced body weight as compared with the controls. In addition, severe defects were found in growth plate chondrocytes of the long bones, characterized by a shorter proliferating zone (PZ), wider hypertrophic zone (HZ), and loss of columnar organization of proliferating chondrocytes, resulting in delayed endochondral bone formation associated with abnormal bone growth. Our findings demonstrate the importance of Cdc42 for cartilage development during both embryonic and postnatal stages. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen-induced cartilage specific inactivated Cdc42 mutant mice were generated. • Cdc42 mutant mice were shorter limbs and body. • Severe defects were found in growth plate chondrocytes.

  17. Surgical induced astigmatism correlated with corneal pachymetry and intraocular pressure: transconjunctival sutureless 23-gauge versus 20-gauge sutured vitrectomy in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; Shao; Li-Jie; Dong; Yan; Zhang; Hui; Liu; Bo-Jie; Hu; Ju-Ping; Liu; Xiao-Rong; Li

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the difference of surgical induced astigmatism between conventional 20-gauge sutured vitrectomy and 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy, and the influence of corneal pachymetry and intraocular pressure(IOP) on surgical induced astigmatism in diabetic patients.METHODS: This retrospective, consecutive case series consisted of 40 eyes of 38 diabetic subjects who underwent either 20-gauge or 23-gauge vitrectomy. The corneal curvature and thickness were measured with Scheimpflug imaging before surgery and 1wk; 1, 3mo after surgery. We compared the surgical induced astigmatism(SIA) on the true net power in 23-gauge group with that in 20-gauge group. We determined the correlation between corneal thickness change ratio, IOP and SIA measured by Pentacam. RESULTS: The mean SIAs were 1.082 ±0.085 D( mean ± SEM), 0.689 ±0.070 D and 0.459 ±0.063 D at postoperative 1wk; 1, 3mo respectively in diabetic subjects. The vitrectomy induced astigmatisms were declined significantly with time(F2,36=33.629, P =0.000)postoperatively. The 23-gauge surgery group induced significantly less astigmatism than 20-gauge surgery group(F1,37=11.046, P =0.020). Corneal thickness in diabetes elevated after surgery(F3,78=10.532, P =0.000).The linear regression analysis at postoperatively 1wk went as: SIA =-4.519 +4.931 change ratio(Port3) +0.026IOP(R2=0.46, P =0.000), whereas the rate of cornealthickness change and IOP showed no correlation with the change of astigmatism at postoperatively 1 and 3mo.CONCLUSION: There are significant serial changes in both 20-gauge and 23-gauge group in diabetic subjects.23-gauge induce less astigmatism than 20-gauge and become stable more rapidly than 20-gauge. The elevation of corneal thickness and IOP was associated with increased astigmatim at the early postoperative stage both in 23-gauge and 20-gauge surgery group.

  18. Maximizing cartilage formation and integration via a trajectory-based tissue engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew B; Henning, Elizabeth A; Söegaard, Nicole B; Dodge, George R; Steinberg, David R; Mauck, Robert L

    2014-02-01

    Given the limitations of current surgical approaches to treat articular cartilage injuries, tissue engineering (TE) approaches have been aggressively pursued. Despite reproduction of key mechanical attributes of native tissue, the ability of TE cartilage constructs to integrate with native tissue must also be optimized for clinical success. In this paper, we propose a "trajectory-based" tissue engineering (TB-TE) approach, based on the hypothesis that time-dependent increases in construct maturation in-vitro prior to implantation (i.e. positive rates) may provide a reliable predictor of in-vivo success. As an example TE system, we utilized hyaluronic acid hydrogels laden with mesenchymal stem cells. We first modeled the maturation of these constructs in-vitro to capture time-dependent changes. We then performed a sensitivity analysis of the model to optimize the timing and amount of data collection. Finally, we showed that integration to cartilage in-vitro is not correlated to the maturation state of TE constructs, but rather their maturation rate, providing a proof-of-concept for the use of TB-TE to enhance treatment outcomes following cartilage injury. This new approach challenges the traditional TE paradigm of matching only native state parameters of maturity and emphasizes the importance of also establishing an in-vitro trajectory in constructs in order to improve the chance of in-vivo success.

  19. Autophagy modulates articular cartilage vesicle formation in primary articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Ann K; Gohr, Claudia M; Mitton-Fitzgerald, Elizabeth; Grewal, Rupinder; Ninomiya, James; Coyne, Carolyn B; Jackson, William T

    2015-05-22

    Chondrocyte-derived extracellular organelles known as articular cartilage vesicles (ACVs) participate in non-classical protein secretion, intercellular communication, and pathologic calcification. Factors affecting ACV formation and release remain poorly characterized; although in some cell types, the generation of extracellular vesicles is associated with up-regulation of autophagy. We sought to determine the role of autophagy in ACV production by primary articular chondrocytes. Using an innovative dynamic model with a light scatter nanoparticle counting apparatus, we determined the effects of autophagy modulators on ACV number and content in conditioned medium from normal adult porcine and human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Healthy articular chondrocytes release ACVs into conditioned medium and show significant levels of ongoing autophagy. Rapamycin, which promotes autophagy, increased ACV numbers in a dose- and time-dependent manner associated with increased levels of autophagy markers and autophagosome formation. These effects were suppressed by pharmacologic autophagy inhibitors and short interfering RNA for ATG5. Caspase-3 inhibition and a Rho/ROCK inhibitor prevented rapamycin-induced increases in ACV number. Osteoarthritic chondrocytes, which are deficient in autophagy, did not increase ACV number in response to rapamycin. SMER28, which induces autophagy via an mTOR-independent mechanism, also increased ACV number. ACVs induced under all conditions had similar ecto-enzyme specific activities and types of RNA, and all ACVs contained LC3, an autophagosome-resident protein. These findings identify autophagy as a critical participant in ACV formation, and augment our understanding of ACVs in cartilage disease and repair.

  20. Improved cartilage integration and interfacial strength after enzymatic treatment in a cartilage transplantation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van de Breevaart Bravenboer; C.D. in der Maur; L. Feenstra (Louw); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); H.H. Weinans (Harrie); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo); P.K. Bos (Koen)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the present study was to investigate whether treatment of articular cartilage with hyaluronidase and collagenase enhances histological and mechanical integration of a cartilage graft into a defect. Discs of 3 mm diameter were taken from 8-mm diameter bo

  1. Cartilage repair surgery: outcome evaluation by using noninvasive cartilage biomarkers based on quantitative MRI techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Pia M; Baum, Thomas; Bauer, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Erdle, Benjamin; Link, Thomas M; Li, Xiaojuan; Trattnig, Siegfried; Rummeny, Ernst J; Woertler, Klaus; Welsch, Goetz H

    2014-01-01

    New quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are increasingly applied as outcome measures after cartilage repair. To review the current literature on the use of quantitative MRI biomarkers for evaluation of cartilage repair at the knee and ankle. Using PubMed literature research, studies on biochemical, quantitative MR imaging of cartilage repair were identified and reviewed. Quantitative MR biomarkers detect early degeneration of articular cartilage, mainly represented by an increasing water content, collagen disruption, and proteoglycan loss. Recently, feasibility of biochemical MR imaging of cartilage repair tissue and surrounding cartilage was demonstrated. Ultrastructural properties of the tissue after different repair procedures resulted in differences in imaging characteristics. T2 mapping, T1rho mapping, delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are applicable on most clinical 1.5 T and 3 T MR scanners. Currently, a standard of reference is difficult to define and knowledge is limited concerning correlation of clinical and MR findings. The lack of histological correlations complicates the identification of the exact tissue composition. A multimodal approach combining several quantitative MRI techniques in addition to morphological and clinical evaluation might be promising. Further investigations are required to demonstrate the potential for outcome evaluation after cartilage repair.

  2. Cartilage Repair Surgery: Outcome Evaluation by Using Noninvasive Cartilage Biomarkers Based on Quantitative MRI Techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia M. Jungmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. New quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques are increasingly applied as outcome measures after cartilage repair. Objective. To review the current literature on the use of quantitative MRI biomarkers for evaluation of cartilage repair at the knee and ankle. Methods. Using PubMed literature research, studies on biochemical, quantitative MR imaging of cartilage repair were identified and reviewed. Results. Quantitative MR biomarkers detect early degeneration of articular cartilage, mainly represented by an increasing water content, collagen disruption, and proteoglycan loss. Recently, feasibility of biochemical MR imaging of cartilage repair tissue and surrounding cartilage was demonstrated. Ultrastructural properties of the tissue after different repair procedures resulted in differences in imaging characteristics. T2 mapping, T1rho mapping, delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC, and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI are applicable on most clinical 1.5 T and 3 T MR scanners. Currently, a standard of reference is difficult to define and knowledge is limited concerning correlation of clinical and MR findings. The lack of histological correlations complicates the identification of the exact tissue composition. Conclusions. A multimodal approach combining several quantitative MRI techniques in addition to morphological and clinical evaluation might be promising. Further investigations are required to demonstrate the potential for outcome evaluation after cartilage repair.

  3. Anti-Angiogenesis and Anti-Tumor Effect of Shark Cartilage Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锋; 王漪涛; 谢莉萍; 张荣庆

    2001-01-01

    The effect of shark cartilage extract (SCE), purified in this laboratory, on angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), on the activity of collagenase IV and on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (ECV-304) proliferation and apoptosis was investigated in vitro. The results showed that SCE caused a decline in CAM blood vessels and significantly prevented collagenase-induced collagenolysis. Moreover, SCE produced a dose-dependent decline in ECV-304 proliferation and altered its normal cell cycle. These results suggest that the anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor effects of shark cartilage may be due to inhibition of endothelial cells as well as collagenolysis.

  4. Evaluation of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee using T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B J

    2001-06-01

    To determine the accuracy of T2*-weighted three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging in the identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee. A retrospective evaluation of 80 patients who underwent both arthroscopic and MRI evaluation was performed. The 3D images were interpreted by one observer without knowledge of the surgical results. The medial and lateral femoral condyles, the medial and lateral tibial plateau, the patellar cartilage and trochlear groove were evaluated. MR cartilage images were considered positive if focal reduction of cartilage thickness was present (grade 3 chondromalacia) or if complete loss of cartilage was present (grade 4 chondromalacia). Comparison of the 3D MR results with the arthroscopic findings was performed. Eighty patients were included in the study group. A total of 480 articular cartilage sites were evaluated with MRI and arthroscopy. Results of MR identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia, all sites combined, were: sensitivity 83%, specificity 97%, false negative rate 17%, false positive rate 3%, positive predictive value 87%, negative predictive value 95%, overall accuracy 93%. The results demonstrate that T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging can identify grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee.

  5. Evaluation of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee using T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, FL (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Objective. To determine the accuracy of T2*-weighted three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging in the identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee.Design and patients. A retrospective evaluation of 80 patients who underwent both arthroscopic and MRI evaluation was performed. The 3D images were interpreted by one observer without knowledge of the surgical results. The medial and lateral femoral condyles, the medial and lateral tibial plateau, the patellar cartilage and trochlear groove were evaluated. MR cartilage images were considered positive if focal reduction of cartilage thickness was present (grade 3 chondromalacia) or if complete loss of cartilage was present (grade 4 chondromalacia). Comparison of the 3D MR results with the arthroscopic findings was performed.Results. Eighty patients were included in the study group. A total of 480 articular cartilage sites were evaluated with MRI and arthroscopy. Results of MR identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia, all sites combined, were: sensitivity 83%, specificity 97%, false negative rate 17%, false positive rate 3%, positive predictive value 87%, negative predictive value 95%, overall accuracy 93%.Conclusion. The results demonstrate that T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging can identify grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee. (orig.)

  6. Tissue engineering strategies to study cartilage development, degeneration and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Maumita; Coburn, Jeannine; Centola, Matteo; Murab, Sumit; Barbero, Andrea; Kaplan, David L; Martin, Ivan; Ghosh, Sourabh

    2015-04-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering has primarily focused on the generation of grafts to repair cartilage defects due to traumatic injury and disease. However engineered cartilage tissues have also a strong scientific value as advanced 3D culture models. Here we first describe key aspects of embryonic chondrogenesis and possible cell sources/culture systems for in vitro cartilage generation. We then review how a tissue engineering approach has been and could be further exploited to investigate different aspects of cartilage development and degeneration. The generated knowledge is expected to inform new cartilage regeneration strategies, beyond a classical tissue engineering paradigm.

  7. One-stage vs two-stage cartilage repair: a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meyerkort

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Meyerkort, David Wood, Ming-Hao ZhengCenter for Orthopaedic Research, School of Surgery and Pathology, University of Western Australia, Perth, AustraliaIntroduction: Articular cartilage has a poor capacity for regeneration if damaged. Various methods have been used to restore the articular surface, improve pain, function, and slow progression to osteoarthritis.Method: A PubMed review was performed on 18 March, 2010. Search terms included “autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI” and “microfracture” or “mosaicplasty”. The aim of this review was to determine if 1-stage or 2-stage procedures for cartilage repair produced different functional outcomes.Results: The main procedures currently used are ACI and microfracture. Both first-generation ACI and microfracture result in clinical and functional improvement with no significant differences. A significant increase in functional outcome has been observed in second-generation procedures such as Hyalograft C, matrix-induced ACI, and ChondroCelect compared with microfracture. ACI results in a higher percentage of patients with clinical improvement than mosaicplasty; however, these results may take longer to achieve.Conclusion: Clinical and functional improvements have been demonstrated with ACI, microfracture, mosaicplasty, and synthetic cartilage constructs. Heterogeneous products and lack of good-quality randomized-control trials make product comparison difficult. Future developments involve scaffolds, gene therapy, growth factors, and stem cells to create a single-stage procedure that results in hyaline articular cartilage.Keywords: autologous chondrocyte implantation, microfracture, cartilage repair

  8. The secreted glycoprotein lubricin protects cartilage surfaces and inhibits synovial cell overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, David K.; Marcelino, Jose; Baker, MacArthur; Gong, Yaoqin; Smits, Patrick; Lefebvre, Véronique; Jay, Gregory D.; Stewart, Matthew; Wang, Hongwei; Warman, Matthew L.; Carpten, John D.

    2005-01-01

    The long-term integrity of an articulating joint is dependent upon the nourishment of its cartilage component and the protection of the cartilage surface from friction-induced wear. Loss-of-function mutations in lubricin (a secreted glycoprotein encoded by the gene PRG4) cause the human autosomal recessive disorder camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis syndrome (CACP). A major feature of CACP is precocious joint failure. In order to delineate the mechanism by which lubricin protects joints, we studied the expression of Prg4 mRNA during mouse joint development, and we created lubricin-mutant mice. Prg4 began to be expressed in surface chondrocytes and synoviocytes after joint cavitation had occurred and remained strongly expressed by these cells postnatally. Mice lacking lubricin were viable and fertile. In the newborn period, their joints appeared normal. As the mice aged, we observed abnormal protein deposits on the cartilage surface and disappearance of underlying superficial zone chondrocytes. In addition to cartilage surface changes and subsequent cartilage deterioration, intimal cells in the synovium surrounding the joint space became hyperplastic, which further contributed to joint failure. Purified or recombinant lubricin inhibited the growth of these synoviocytes in vitro. Tendon and tendon sheath involvement was present in the ankle joints, where morphologic changes and abnormal calcification of these structures were observed. We conclude that lubricin has multiple functions in articulating joints and tendons that include the protection of surfaces and the control of synovial cell growth. PMID:15719068

  9. Oxidative stress in secondary osteoarthritis: from cartilage destruction to clinical presentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskoven, Christoph; Jäger, Marcus; Zilkens, Christoph; Bloch, Wilhelm; Brixius, Klara; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2010-09-23

    Due to an increasing life expectance, osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic diseases. Although strong efforts have been made to regenerate degenerated joint cartilage, OA is a progressive and irreversible disease up to date. Among other factors the dysbalance between free radical burden and cellular scavenging mechanisms defined as oxidative stress is a relevant part of OA pathogenesis. Here, only little data are available about the mediation and interaction between different joint compartments. The article provides a review of the current literature regarding the influence of oxidative stress on cellular aging, senescence and apoptosis in different joint compartments (cartilage, synovial tissue and subchondral bone). Free radical exposure is known to promote cellular senescence and apoptosis. Radical oxygen species (ROS) involvement in inflammation, fibrosis control and pain nociception has been proven. The data from literature indicates a link between free radical burden and OA pathogenesis mediating local tissue reactions between the joint compartments. Hence, oxidative stress is likely not only to promote cartilage destruction but also to be involved in inflammative transformation, promoting the transition from clinically silent cartilage destruction to apparent OA. ROS induced by exogenous factors such as overload, trauma, local intraarticular lesion and consecutive synovial inflammation cause cartilage degradation. In the affected joint, free radicals mediate disease progression. The interrelationship between oxidative stress and OA etiology might provide a novel approach to the comprehension and therefore modification of disease progression and symptom control.

  10. Oxidative stress in secondary osteoarthritis: from cartilage destruction to clinical presentation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Ziskoven

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to an increasing life expectance, osteoarthritis (OA is one of the most common chronic diseases. Although strong efforts have been made to regenerate degenerated joint cartilage, OA is a progressive and irreversible disease up to date. Among other factors the dysbalance between free radical burden and cellular scavenging mechanisms defined as oxidative stress is a relevant part of OA pathogenesis. Here, only little data are available about the mediation and interaction between different joint compartments. The article provides a review of the current literature regarding the influence of oxidative stress on cellular aging, senescence and apoptosis in different joint compartments (cartilage, synovial tissue and subchondral bone. Free radical exposure is known to promote cellular senescence and apoptosis. Radical oxygen species (ROS involvement in inflammation, fibrosis control and pain nociception has been proven. The data from literature indicates a link between free radical burden and OA pathogenesis mediating local tissue reactions between the joint compartments. Hence, oxidative stress is likely not only to promote cartilage destruction but also to be involved in inflammative transformation, promoting the transition from clinically silent cartilage destruction to apparent OA. ROS induced by exogenous factors such as overload, trauma, local intraarticular lesion and consecutive synovial inflammation cause cartilage degradation. In the affected joint, free radicals mediate disease progression. The interrelationship between oxidative stress and OA etiology might provide a novel approach to the comprehension and therefore modification of disease progression and symptom control.

  11. SHP2-Deficiency in Chondrocytes Deforms Orofacial Cartilage and Ciliogenesis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Shen, Jingling; Noda, Kazuo; Kitami, Megumi; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Chen, Di; Komatsu, Yoshihiro

    2015-11-01

    Congenital orofacial abnormalities are clinically seen in human syndromes with SHP2 germline mutations such as LEOPARD and Noonan syndrome. Recent studies demonstrate that SHP2-deficiency leads to skeletal abnormalities including scoliosis and cartilaginous benign tumor metachondromatosis, suggesting that growth plate cartilage is a key tissue regulated by SHP2. The role and cellular mechanism of SHP2 in the orofacial cartilage, however, remains unknown. Here, we investigated the postnatal craniofacial development by inducible disruption of Shp2 in chondrocytes. Shp2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice displayed severe deformity of the mandibular condyle accompanied by disorganized, expanded cartilage in the trabecular bone region, enhanced type X collagen, and reduced Erk production. Interestingly, the length of primary cilia, an antenna like organelle sensing environmental signaling, was significantly shortened, and the number of primary cilia was reduced in the cKO mice. The expression levels of intraflagellar transports (IFTs), essential molecules in the assembly and function of primary cilia, were significantly decreased. Taken together, lack of Shp2 in orofacial cartilage led to severe defects of ciliogenesis through IFT reduction, resulting in mandibular condyle malformation and cartilaginous expansion. Our study provides new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of SHP2-deficiency in cartilage and helps to understand orofacial and skeletal manifestations seen in patients with SHP2 mutations.

  12. The inhibitory effect of salmon calcitonin on tri-iodothyronine induction of early hypertrophy in articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping Chen-An

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Salmon calcitonin has chondroprotective effect both in vitro and in vivo, and is therefore being tested as a candidate drug for cartilage degenerative diseases. Recent studies have indicated that different chondrocyte phenotypes may express the calcitonin receptor (CTR differentially. We tested for the presence of the CTR in chondrocytes from tri-iodothyronin (T3-induced bovine articular cartilage explants. Moreover, investigated the effects of human and salmon calcitonin on the explants. METHODS: Early chondrocyte hypertrophy was induced in bovine articular cartilage explants by stimulation over four days with 20 ng/mL T3. The degree of hypertrophy was investigated by molecular markers of hypertrophy (ALP, IHH, COLX and MMP13, by biochemical markers of cartilage turnover (C2M, P2NP and AGNxII and histology. The expression of the CTR was detected by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. T3-induced explants were treated with salmon or human calcitonin. Calcitonin down-stream signaling was measured by levels of cAMP, and by the molecular markers. RESULTS: Compared with untreated control explants, T3 induction increased expression of the hypertrophic markers (p<0.05, of cartilage turnover (p<0.05, and of CTR (p<0.01. Salmon, but not human, calcitonin induced cAMP release (p<0.001. Salmon calcitonin also inhibited expression of markers of hypertrophy and cartilage turnover (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: T3 induced early hypertrophy of chondrocytes, which showed an elevated expression of the CTR and was thus a target for salmon calcitonin. Molecular marker levels indicated salmon, but not human, calcitonin protected the cartilage from hypertrophy. These results confirm that salmon calcitonin is able to modulate the CTR and thus have chondroprotective effects.

  13. Cartilage development requires the function of Estrogen-related receptor alpha that directly regulates sox9 expression in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Il; No Lee, Joon; Bhandari, Sushil; Nam, In-Koo; Yoo, Kyeong-Won; Kim, Se-Jin; Oh, Gi-Su; Kim, Hyung-Jin; So, Hong-Seob; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil

    2015-12-10

    Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ESRRa) regulates a number of cellular processes including development of bone and muscles. However, direct evidence regarding its involvement in cartilage development remains elusive. In this report, we establish an in vivo role of Esrra in cartilage development during embryogenesis in zebrafish. Gene expression analysis indicates that esrra is expressed in developing pharyngeal arches where genes necessary for cartilage development are also expressed. Loss of function analysis shows that knockdown of esrra impairs expression of genes including sox9, col2a1, sox5, sox6, runx2 and col10a1 thus induces abnormally formed cartilage in pharyngeal arches. Importantly, we identify putative ESRRa binding elements in upstream regions of sox9 to which ESRRa can directly bind, indicating that Esrra may directly regulate sox9 expression. Accordingly, ectopic expression of sox9 rescues defective formation of cartilage induced by the knockdown of esrra. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that ESRRa is essential for cartilage development by regulating sox9 expression during vertebrate development.

  14. Intact Pericellular Matrix of Articular Cartilage Is Required for Unactivated Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 in the Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Polur, Ilona; Servais, Jacqueline M.; Hsieh, Sirena; Lee, Peter L.; Goldring, Mary B.; Li, Yefu

    2011-01-01

    Increased expression of the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) results from its interaction with collagen type II. This induces expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, leading to osteoarthritis (OA). To investigate the impact of the pericellular matrix of chondrocytes on DDR2, we generated a mouse model with inducible overexpression of DDR2 in cartilage. Conditional overexpression of DDR2 in mature mouse articular cartilage was controlled via the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein promoter using the Tet-Off-inducible system. Doxycycline was withdrawn at 1 month of age, and knee joints were examined at 2, 3, and 4 months of age. Microsurgery was performed on 3-month-old transgenic mice overexpressing DDR2 to destabilize the medial meniscus, and serial paraffin sections were examined at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. DDR2 expression increased in the knee joints of transgenic mice. However, the increased DDR2 did not induce MMP-13 expression. No OA-like changes were observed in the transgenic mice at the age of 4 months. When transgenic mice were subjected to destabilizing of the medial meniscus, we observed accelerated progression to OA, which was associated with DDR2 activation. Therefore, conditionally overexpressing DDR2 in the mature articular cartilage of mouse knee joints requires activation to induce OA, and altered biomechanical stress can accelerate the onset of cartilage loss and progression to OA in transgenic mice. PMID:21855682

  15. Intact pericellular matrix of articular cartilage is required for unactivated discoidin domain receptor 2 in the mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Polur, Ilona; Servais, Jacqueline M; Hsieh, Sirena; Lee, Peter L; Goldring, Mary B; Li, Yefu

    2011-09-01

    Increased expression of the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) results from its interaction with collagen type II. This induces expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, leading to osteoarthritis (OA). To investigate the impact of the pericellular matrix of chondrocytes on DDR2, we generated a mouse model with inducible overexpression of DDR2 in cartilage. Conditional overexpression of DDR2 in mature mouse articular cartilage was controlled via the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein promoter using the Tet-Off-inducible system. Doxycycline was withdrawn at 1 month of age, and knee joints were examined at 2, 3, and 4 months of age. Microsurgery was performed on 3-month-old transgenic mice overexpressing DDR2 to destabilize the medial meniscus, and serial paraffin sections were examined at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. DDR2 expression increased in the knee joints of transgenic mice. However, the increased DDR2 did not induce MMP-13 expression. No OA-like changes were observed in the transgenic mice at the age of 4 months. When transgenic mice were subjected to destabilizing of the medial meniscus, we observed accelerated progression to OA, which was associated with DDR2 activation. Therefore, conditionally overexpressing DDR2 in the mature articular cartilage of mouse knee joints requires activation to induce OA, and altered biomechanical stress can accelerate the onset of cartilage loss and progression to OA in transgenic mice.

  16. Intra-articular injection of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells and hyaluronic acid promote regeneration of massive cartilage defects in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Ogay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intra-articular injection of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SD MSCs with low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA could promote regeneration of massive cartilage in rabbits. Material and methods: The SD MSCs were harvested from the knees of 10 Flemish giant rabbits, expanded in culture, and characterized. A reproducible 4-mm cylindrical defect was created in the intercondylar groove area using a kit for the mosaic chondroplasty of femoral condyle COR (De Puy, Mitek. The defect was made within the cartilage layer without destruction of subchondral bone. Two weeks after the cartilage defect, SD MSCs (2 × 106 cell/0.15 ml were suspended in 0.5% low molecular weight HA (0.15 ml and injected into the left knee, and HA solution (0.30 ml alone was placed into the right knee. Cartilage regeneration in the experimental and control groups were evaluated by macroscopically and histologically at 10, 30, and 60 days. Results: On day 10, after intra-articular injection of SD MSCs, we observed an early process of cartilage regeneration in the defect area. Histological studies revealed that cartilage defect was covered by a thin layer of spindle-shaped undifferentiated cells and proliferated chodroblasts. In contrast, an injection of HA did not induce reparation of cartilage in the defect area. At 30 days, macroscopic observation showed that the size of cartilage defect after SD MSC injection was significantly smaller than after HA injection. Histological score was also better in the MSC- treated intercondylar defect. At 60 days after MSC treatment, cartilage defect was nearly nonexistent and looked similar to an intact cartilage. Conclusion: Thus, intra-articular injection of SD MSCs can adhere to the defect in the intercondylar area, and promote cartilage regeneration in rabbits.

  17. Enhanced cartilage repair in 'healer' mice-New leads in the search for better clinical options for cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jamie

    2017-02-01

    Adult articular cartilage has a poor capacity to undergo intrinsic repair. Current strategies for the repair of large cartilage defects are generally unsatisfactory because the restored cartilage does not have the same resistance to biomechanical loading as authentic articular cartilage and degrades over time. Recently, an exciting new research direction, focused on intrinsic cartilage regeneration rather than fibrous repair by external means, has emerged. This review explores the new findings in this rapidly moving field as they relate to the clinical goal of restoration of structurally robust, stable and non-fibrous articular cartilage following injury.

  18. Hyaline cartilage regeneration by combined therapy of microfracture and long-term bone morphogenetic protein-2 delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hee Seok; La, Wan-Geun; Bhang, Suk Ho; Kim, Hak-Jun; Im, Gun-Il; Lee, Haeshin; Park, Jung-Ho; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2011-07-01

    Microfracture of cartilage induces migration of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. However, this treatment often results in fibrocartilage regeneration. Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 induce the differentiation of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes, which can be used for hyaline cartilage regeneration. Here, we tested the hypothesis that long-term delivery of BMP-2 to cartilage defects subjected to microfracture results in regeneration of high-quality hyaline-like cartilage, as opposed to short-term delivery of BMP-2 or no BMP-2 delivery. Heparin-conjugated fibrin (HCF) and normal fibrin were used as carriers for the long- and short-term delivery of BMP-2, respectively. Rabbit articular cartilage defects were treated with microfracture combined with one of the following: no treatment, fibrin, short-term delivery of BMP-2, HCF, or long-term delivery of BMP-2. Eight weeks after treatment, histological analysis revealed that the long-term delivery of BMP-2 group (microfracture + HCF + BMP-2) showed the most staining with alcian blue. A biochemical assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction assay and Western blot analysis all revealed that the long-term delivery of BMP-2 group had the highest glucosaminoglycan content as well as the highest expression level of collagen type II. Taken together, the long-term delivery of BMP-2 to cartilage defects subjected to microfracture resulted in regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage, as opposed to short-term delivery or no BMP-2 delivery. Therefore, this method could be more convenient for hyaline cartilage regeneration than autologous chondrocyte implantation due to its less invasive nature and lack of cell implantation.

  19. Surgical Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azarmehr, Iman; Stokbro, Kasper; Bell, R. Bryan

    2017-01-01

    were identified in the field of traumatology. Treatment of complex orbital fractures was considerably improved by the use of SN compared with traditionally treated control groups. Conclusions: SN seems to be a very promising addition to the surgical toolkit. Planning details of the surgical procedure...... in a 3-dimensional virtual environment and execution with real-time guidance can significantly improve precision. Among factors to be considered are the financial investments necessary and the learning curve....

  20. Regeneration of spine disc and joint cartilages under temporal and space modulated laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, E.; Shekhter, A.; Baskov, A.; Baskov, V.; Baum, O.; Borchshenko, I.; Golubev, V.; Guller, A.; Kolyshev, I.; Omeltchenko, A.; Sviridov, A.; Zakharkina, O.

    2009-02-01

    The effect of laser radiation on the generation of hyaline cartilage in spine disc and joints has been demonstrated. The paper considers physical processes and mechanisms of laser regeneration, presents results of investigations aimed to optimize laser settings and to develop feedback control system for laser reconstruction of spine discs. Possible mechanisms of laser-induced regeneration include: (1) Space and temporary modulated laser beam induces nonhomogeneous and pulse repetitive thermal expansion and stress in the irradiated zone of cartilage. Mechanical effect due to controllable thermal expansion of the tissue and micro and nano gas bubbles formation in the course of the moderate (up to 45-50 oC) heating of the NP activate biological cells (chondrocytes) and promote cartilage regeneration. (2) Nondestructive laser radiation leads to the formation of nano and micro-pores in cartilage matrix. That promotes water permeability and increases the feeding of biological cells. Results provide the scientific and engineering basis for the novel low-invasive laser procedures to be used in orthopedics for the treatment cartilages of spine and joints. The technology and equipment for laser reconstruction of spine discs have been tested first on animals, and then in a clinical trial. Since 2001 the laser reconstruction of intervertebral discs have been performed for 340 patients with chronic symptoms of low back or neck pain who failed to improve with non-operative care. Substantial relief of back pain was obtained in 90% of patients treated who returned to their daily activities. The experiments on reparation of the defects in articular cartilage of the porcine joints under temporal and spase modulated laser radiation have shown promising results.

  1. "Changes in cartilage of rats after treatment with Quinolone and in Magnesium-deficient diet "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakibaei M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural changes in immature articular carilage were studied after treatment of 5-weeks-old rats with ofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, and in magnesium deficiency.We concluded that quinolone-induced arthropathy is probably due to chelation of functionally available magnesium in joint cartilage as magnesium deficiency in joint cartilage could impair chondrocyte-matrix- interaction which is mediated by cation-dependent integrin-receptors of the β1-subfamily. With immuno-histochemical methods using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies we showed that B1 integrins were expressed in rat joint cartilage. Joint cartilage lesions were detected in ofloxacin-treated and magnesium-deficient rats. Lesions were more pronounced in the quinolone-treated group. Expression of several integrins was reduced in the vicinity of lesions after oral treatment with 2×600 mg ofloxacin/kg body wt for one day. Gross-structural lesions (e.g. cleft formation, unmasked collagen fibres in magnesium deficient rats were very similar but changes in intergrin expression were less pronounced. Alterations observed on the ultrastructural level showed striking similarities in magnesium-deficient rats and in rats treated with single doses of 600 mg ofloxacin per kg body wt.Typical observation were: bundle shaped, electron-dense aggregates on the surface and in the cytoplasm of chondrocytes, detachement of the cell membrance from the matrix and necrotic chondrocytes, reduced synthesis and/or reduced of extracellular matrix and swelling of cell organelles such as mitochondria.The results of this study confirm our previously reported finding that quinolone-induced arthropathy probably is caued by a reduction of functionally available magnesium (ionized Mg2+ in cartilage. Furthermore, they provide a basis for aimed studies with human cartilage samples from quinolone-treated patients which might be available postmortal or after hip replacement surgery

  2. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Change in the optical properties of hyaline cartilage heated by the near-IR laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagratashvili, Viktor N.; Bagratashvili, N. V.; Gapontsev, V. P.; Makhmutova, G. Sh; Minaev, V. P.; Omel'chenko, A. I.; Samartsev, I. E.; Sviridov, A. P.; Sobol', E. N.; Tsypina, S. I.

    2001-06-01

    The in vitro dynamics of the change in optical properties of hyaline cartilage heated by fibre lasers at wavelengths 0.97 and 1.56 μm is studied. The laser-induced bleaching (at 1.56 μm) and darkening (at 0.97 μm) of the cartilage, caused by the heating and transport of water as well as by a change in the cartilage matrix, were observed and studied. These effects should be taken into account while estimating the depth of heating of the tissue. The investigated dynamics of light scattering in the cartilage allows one to choose the optimum radiation dose for laser plastic surgery of cartilage tissues.

  3. Biomaterial composite scaffolds in repair of sports-induced articular cartilage defects%生物材料复合支架与运动性关节软骨缺损的修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏亮; 韩东

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨复合支架的组织工程学特性及其修复关节软骨缺损的性能评价.方法:以"关节软骨、生物材料、工程软骨、复合材料、复合支架"为中文关键词,以" tissue enginneering,articular cartilage,scaffold material"为英文关键词,采用计算机检索中国期刊全文数据库、PubMed数据库(1993-01/2010-11)相关文章.纳入复合支架材料-细胞复合物修复关节软骨损伤相关的文章,排除重复研究或Meta分析类文章.结果:共入选18篇文章进入结果分析.复合支架是当前软骨组织工程中应用较多的支架,它是将具有互补特征的生物相容性可降解支架,按一定比例和方式组合,设计出结构与性能优化的复合支架.较单一支架材料具有显著优越性,具有更好的生物相容性和一定强度的韧性,较好的孔隙和机械强度.复合支架的制备不仅包括同一类生物材料的复合,还包括不同类别生物材料之间的交叉复合.可分为纯天然支架材料、纯人工支架材料以及天然与人工支架材料的复合等3类.结论:复合支架使生物材料具有互补特性,一定程度上满足了理想生物支架材料应具有的综合特点,但目前很多研究仍处于实验阶段,还有一些问题有待于解决,如不同材料的复合比例、复合工艺等.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate the tissue engineering properties of the composite scaffold and its performance evaluation for the repair of articular cartilage defects.METHODS: Using "articular cartilage, biological materials, engineering cartilage, composite materials, composite scaffold" in Chinese and "tissue engineering, articular cartilage, scaffold material" in English as the key words, a computer-based online search of China Academic Journal Full-text database and PubMed database (1993-01/2010-11) was performed. Articles about the composite scaffold-cell compound in the repair of articular cartilage injury, duplicated research or Meta

  4. Surgical treatment of giant cell tumors of long bone combined with inserted microwave antennas induced hyperthermia%插入式微波天线阵列诱导高温治疗长骨骨巨细胞瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇; 范清宇; 马保安; 张明华; 沈万安

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the surgical treatment methods of giant cell tumors (GCT) of long bone in conjunction with inserted microwave antennas induced hyperthermia.METHODS:46 patients, included the surgical procedures,the oncology results,the functions of the limbs and the complications were analyzed.RESULTS:Follow up 3.5 to 9 years (mean 5.5 years).All patients were evaluated according to oncological and orthopaedic criteria.Two tumors were recurred.Orthopaedic function were perfect in 44 patients and were fair in 2.Infection was found in 2 patients.CONCLUSION:The surgical procedure to treat the giant cell tumors of long bone by inserted microwave antennas induced hyperthermia is a definitive surgical method which is safe and confident.

  5. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor in chondrocytes of articular cartilages in human osteoarthritis%骨关节炎关节软骨细胞中低氧诱导因子2α及血管内皮生长因子的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丰; 彭昊; 周建林; 方洪松; 邓爽; 杨骁; 翁金清

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Studies have found that vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia inducible factor are involved in the development process of osteoarthritis, but their correlation is rarely reported. OBJECTIVE:To observe the expression and correlation of hypoxia inducible factor-2α and vascular endothelial growth factor in chondrocytes of articular cartilages in human osteoarthritis. METHODS: Articular cartilage specimens were colected from 50 patients with knee osteoarthritis undergoing total knee joint replacement. According to the joint Kelgren-Lawrance (K-L) X-ray grouping classification standard, there were 18 cases of K-LIII level and 32 cases of K-LIV level. Besides, articular cartilage specimens from 10 patients undergoing amputation for legs tumor or traffic accident served as control group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, Safranin O-Fast Green staining and Mankin scoring were performed to observe and evaluate the histological characteristics of articular cartilages of each group, immunohistochemical staining was conducted to detect the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-2α and vascular endothelial growth factor in chondrocytes of articular cartilages, and their correlations were analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The Mankin score of K-LIV group was significantly higher than those of K-LIII group and control group. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the number of chondrocytes with positive expression of hypoxia inducible factor-2α or vascular endothelial growth factor in K-LIV group was significantly higher than that in K-LIII group and control group (P < 0.05). The expression of hypoxia inducible factor-2α and vascular endothelial growth factor increased in chondrocytes of articular cartilages of osteoarthritis patients, and to up-regulate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor may be the regulatory mechanism of hypoxia inducible factor-2αinthe pathogenesis of osteoarthritis.%背景:已有研究发现血管内皮生长因子

  6. Thermogravimetry of irradiated human costal cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Machado, Luci D.B.; Dias, Djalma B.; Mathor, Monica B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: antonio_carlos_martinho@msn.com; lmachado@ipen.br; dbdias@ipen.br; mathor@ipen.br; Herson, Marisa R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Banco de Tecidos do Instituto Central]. E-mail: marisah@vifm.org; Meumann, Nilton F.; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Verificacao de Obitos]. E-mail: svoc@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Costal cartilage has been sterilized with gamma radiation using {sup 60}Co sources at two different doses, 25 kGy and 50 kGy, for storage in tissue banks. Samples of costal cartilage were deep-freezing as method of preservation. Thermogravimetry (Shimadzu TGA-50) was used to verify the water release of costal cartilage before and after irradiation. The TG tests were carried out at heating rate of 10 deg C/min from room temperature to 600 deg C under a flow rate of 50 mL/min of compressed air. Samples of costal cartilage were divided in 2 parts. One part of them was kept as reference material; the other part was irradiated. This procedure assures better homogeneity of the sample and reproducibility of the experimental results. The obtained data have shown that the TG curves have the same pattern, independently of the sample. Non-irradiated samples showed great variability of thermogravimetric curves among different donors and for the same donor. Further experimental work is being carried out on human cartilage preserved in glycerol in high concentration (> 98%) to compare with those deep freezing. (author)

  7. Surgical treatment of epilepsy induced by gray matter heterotopia%灰质异位所致癫痫的外科治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗智刚; 唐运林; 周连银; 周辉; 卞园园; 单健; 张奕生

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between gray matter heterotopia and epilepsy and assess the therapeutic effect of surgical intervention. Methods Six cases of gray matter heterotopia-induced epilepsy treated in our department between May, 2004 and May, 2006 were analyzed retrospectively for the clinical characteristics, surgical approaches, and the outcomes in the 2- to 4-year-long follow-up. Results All the patients received surgical interventions through different approaches, including resection of the heterotopic gray matter plus bipolar coagulation of the cortexes in 4 cases, heterotopic gray matter resection with bipolar coagulation of the cortexes and temporal lobectomy in 1 case, and exclusive bipolar coagulation of the cortexes in 1 case. Five patients were free of seizure attach and 1 patient showed significantly reduced seizure attack after the operation. Conclusion Surgical intervention can be effective for treatment of intractable epilepsy induced by gray matter heterotopia.%目的 探讨大脑灰质异位(HGM)与癫痫的关系,以及手术治疗的价值. 方法 回顾性分析解放军第四五八医院神经外科自2004年5月至2006年5月收治的6例HGM所致癫痫患者的临床特点、手术方式以及随访结果. 结果 6例患者中,4例行异位灰顶切除+皮层热灼,1例行异位灰顶切除+皮层热灼+前颞叶切除.1例行单纯皮层热灼.术后随访2~4年,5例至今未见发作,1例发作明显缓解. 结论 对于HGM所致的难治性癫痫,外科手术是一个有效的治疗方法.

  8. Induction of spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration using a double-network gel: efficacy of a novel therapeutic strategy for an articular cartilage defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Nobuto; Yasuda, Kazunori; Ogawa, Munehiro; Arakaki, Kazunobu; Kai, Shuken; Onodera, Shin; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Gong, Jian Ping

    2011-06-01

    A double-network (DN) gel, which was composed of poly-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) and poly-(N,N'-dimetyl acrylamide) (PAMPS/PDMAAm), has the potential to induce chondrogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. To establish the efficacy of a therapeutic strategy for an articular cartilage defect using a DN gel. Controlled laboratory study. A 4.3-mm-diameter osteochondral defect was created in rabbit trochlea. A DN gel plug was implanted into the defect of the right knee so that a defect 2 mm in depth remained after surgery. An untreated defect of the left knee provided control data. The osteochondral defects created were examined by histological and immunohistochemical evaluations, surface assessment using confocal laser scanning microscopy, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis at 4 and 12 weeks. Samples were quantitatively evaluated with 2 scoring systems reported by Wayne et al and O'Driscoll et al. The DN gel-implanted defect was filled with a sufficient volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue rich in proteoglycan and type 2 collagen. Quantitative evaluation using the grading scales revealed a significantly higher score in the DN gel-implanted defects compared with the untreated control at each period (P cartilage at 12 weeks (P = .0106), while there was no statistical difference between the DN gel-implanted and normal knees. This study using the mature rabbit femoral trochlea osteochondral defect model demonstrated that DN gel implantation is an effective treatment to induce cartilage regeneration in vivo without any cultured cells or mammalian-derived scaffolds. This study has prompted us to develop a potential innovative strategy to repair cartilage lesions in the field of joint surgery.

  9. Repair of osteochondral defects in rabbits with ectopically produced cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, PJ; Hulsbosch, M; Wetzels, GMR; Bulstra, SK; Kuijer, R

    2005-01-01

    Cartilage has poor regenerative capacity. Donor site morbidity and interference with joint homeostasis should be considered when applying the autologous chondrocyte transplantation technique. The use of ectopically produced cartilage, derived from periosteum, might be a novel method to heal

  10. In vitro cartilage production using an extracellular matrix-derived scaffold and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan-hong; YANG Qiang; XIA Qun; PENG Jiang; LU Shi-bi; GUO Quan-yi; MA Xin-long

    2013-01-01

    Background Cartilage repair is a challenging research area because of the limited healing capacity of adult articular cartilage.We had previously developed a natural,human cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived scaffold for in vivo cartilage tissue engineering in nude mice.However,before these scaffolds can be used in clinical applications in vivo,the in vitro effects should be further explored.Methods We produced cartilage in vitro using a natural cartilage ECM-derived scaffold.The scaffolds were fabricated by combining a decellularization procedure with a freeze-drying technique and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),micro-computed tomography (micro-CT),histological staining,cytotoxicity assay,biochemical and biomechanical analysis.After being chondrogenically induced,the induction results of BMSCs were analyzed by histology and Immunohisto-chemistry.The attachment and viability assessment of the cells on scaffolds were analyzed using SEM and LIVE/DEAD staining.Cell-scaffold constructs cultured in vitro for 1 week and 3 weeks were analyzed using histological and immunohistochemical methods.Results SEM and micro-CT revealed a 3-D interconnected porous structure.The majority of the cartilage ECM was found in the scaffold following the removal of cellular debris,and stained positive for safranin O and collagen Ⅱ.Viability staining indicated no cytotoxic effects of the scaffold.Biochemical analysis showed that collagen content was (708.2±44.7)μg/mg,with GAG (254.7±25.9) μg/mg.Mechanical testing showed the compression moduli (E) were (1.226±0.288) and (0.052±0.007) MPa in dry and wet conditions,respectively.Isolated canine bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) were induced down a chondrogenic pathway,labeled with PKH26,and seeded onto the scaffold.Immunofluorescent staining of the cell-scaffold constructs indicated that chondrocyte-like cells were derived from seeded BMSCs and excreted ECM.The cell-scaffold constructs contained

  11. Use of micro-computed tomography to evaluate the effects of exercise on preventing the degeneration of articular cartilage in tail-suspended rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hui-Qin; Sun, Lian-Wen; Huang, Yun-Fei; Wu, Xin-tong; Niu, Haijun; Liu, Hong; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2015-07-01

    Space flight has been shown to induce bone loss and muscle atrophy, which could initiate the degeneration of articular cartilage. Countermeasures to prevent bone loss and muscle atrophy have been explored, but few spaceflight or ground-based studies have focused on the effects on cartilage degeneration. In this study, we investigated the effects of exercise on articular cartilage deterioration in tail-suspended rats. Thirty-two female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8 in each): tail suspension (TS), tail suspension plus passive motion (TSP), tail suspension plus active exercise (TSA), and control (CON) groups. In the TS, TSP, and TSA groups, the rat hindlimbs were unloaded for 21 days by tail suspension. Next, the cartilage thickness and volume, and the attenuation coefficient of the distal femur were evaluated by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Histological analysis was used to assess the surface integrity of the cartilage, cartilage thickness, and chondrocytes. The results showed that: (1) the cartilage thickness on the distal femur was significantly lower in the TS and TSP groups compared with the CON and TSA groups; (2) the cartilage volume in the TS group was significantly lower compared with the CON, TSA, and TSP groups; and (3) histomorphology showed that the chondrocytes formed clusters where the degree of matrix staining was lower in the TS and TSP groups. There were no significant differences between any of these parameters in the CON and TSA groups. The cartilage thickness measurements obtained by μCT and histomorphology correlated well. In general, tail suspension could induce articular cartilage degeneration, but active exercise was effective in preventing this degeneration in tail-suspended rats.

  12. Treatment of Knee Osteochondral Lesions Using a Novel Clot of Autologous Plasma Rich in Growth Factors Mixed with Healthy Hyaline Cartilage Chips and Intra-Articular Injection of PRGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugat, Ramón; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Álvarez-Díaz, Pedro; Cuscó, Xavier; Seijas, Roberto; Barastegui, David; Navarro, Jordi; Laiz, Patricia; García-Balletbó, Montserrat

    2017-01-01

    Knee cartilage or osteochondral lesions are common and challenging injuries. To date, most symptomatic lesions warrant surgical treatment. We present two cases of patients with knee osteochondral defects treated with a one-step surgical procedure consisting of an autologous-based matrix composed of healthy hyaline cartilage chips, mixed plasma poor-rich in platelets clot, and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF). Both patients returned to playing soccer at the preinjury activity level and demonstrated excellent defect filling in both magnetic resonance imaging and second-look arthroscopy (in one of them). The use of a clot of autologous plasma poor in platelets with healthy hyaline cartilage chips and intra-articular injection of plasma rich in platelets is an effective, easy, and cheap option to treat knee cartilage injuries in young and athletic patients.

  13. The tumbling concha-cartilage flap for correction of lop ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C

    2000-08-01

    This article presents a new surgical method that uses tumbling concha-cartilage flaps to correct lop ears. Through a posterior or anterior auricular skin incision, a rectangular or T-shaped cartilage flap is elevated from the concha and tumbled backward. After passing under the postauricular skin, the flap's tip is fixed to the lidded helix or scapha. The recoiling force of the flap's conchal side enables the lidded portion to be in a normal, erect, anatomic position. The method also increases the vertical height of the ear and creates a normally shaped scapha. Sixteen lop ears were corrected using this procedure, with most of them maintaining natural auricular features. Therefore, this method was considered effective for the correction of moderate lop ear deformity.

  14. Harvesting split thickness costal cartilage graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Gaba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: There are few complications associated with harvesting of full thickness coastal cartilage grafts i.e., pneumothorax (0.9%, contour deformities and prolonged post-operative pain. To address these issues, authors devised special scalpel to harvest split-thickness costal cartilage grafts. Materials and Methods: Standard inframammary incision was used for harvesting rib. Incision was made directly over the desired rib. Specially designed scalpel was used to cut through the rib cartilage to the half of the thickness. The study was conducted in two parts – cadaveric and clinical. Results: There was significantly less pain and no pneumothorax in the patients in whom the split thickness graft was harvested. Wounds healed without any complication. Discussion: Thus, newly devised angulated scalpel used in the current study, showed the potential to supply the reconstructive surgeon with split thickness rib graft without risk of complications such as pneumothorax or warping contour deformities and post-operative pain.

  15. Development of artificial articular cartilage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswajit Bera

    2009-10-01

    The present study describes the development of artificial articular cartilage on the basis of mimicking structural gel properties and mechanical gel properties of natural articular cartilage. It is synthesized from PVA/Si nanocomposite containing 20% Tetra ethoxy silane (TEOS) by sol–gel method. Mechanical strength of Poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA is improved up to 35 MPa. Manufacturing method is adopted considering colloidal stability of nano silica particle in PVA sol at specific pH = 1. An adhesive is also prepared from PVA/Si nanocomposite containing 40% TEOS for firm attachment of artificial articular cartilage on underlying bone with high bond strength.

  16. Tissue engineering of cartilages using biomatrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melrose, J.; Chuang, C.; Whitelock, J.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue engineering is an exciting new cross-disciplinary methodology which applies the principles of engineering and structure-function relationships between normal and pathological tissues to develop biological substitute to restore, maintain or improve tissue function. Tissue engineering...... therefore involves a melange of approaches encompassing developmental biology, tissue mechanics, medicine, cell differentiation and survival biology, mechanostransduction and nano-fabrication technology. The central tissue of interest in this review is cartilage. Traumatic injuries, congenital abnormalities...... and age-related degenerative diseases can all lead to cartilage loss; however, the low cell density and very limited self-renewal capacity of cartilage necessitate the development of effective therapeutic repair strategies for this tissue. The ontogeny of the chondrocyte, which is the cell that provides...

  17. Multi-parametric MRI characterization of enzymatically degraded articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissi, Mikko J; Salo, Elli-Noora; Tiitu, Virpi; Liimatainen, Timo; Michaeli, Shalom; Mangia, Silvia; Ellermann, Jutta; Nieminen, Miika T

    2016-07-01

    Several laboratory and rotating frame quantitative MRI parameters were evaluated and compared for detection of changes in articular cartilage following selective enzymatic digestion. Bovine osteochondral specimens were subjected to 44 h incubation in control medium or in collagenase or chondroitinase ABC to induce superficial collagen or proteoglycan (glycosaminoglycan) alterations. The samples were scanned at 9.4 T for T1 , T1 Gd (dGEMRIC), T2 , adiabatic T1 ρ , adiabatic T2 ρ , continuous-wave T1 ρ , TRAFF2 , and T1 sat relaxation times and for magnetization transfer ratio (MTR). For reference, glycosaminoglycan content, collagen fibril orientation and biomechanical properties were determined. Changes primarily in the superficial cartilage were noted after enzymatic degradation. Most of the studied parameters were sensitive to the destruction of collagen network, whereas glycosaminoglycan depletion was detected only by native T1 and T1 Gd relaxation time constants throughout the tissue and by MTR superficially. T1 , adiabatic T1 ρ , adiabatic T2 ρ , continuous-wave T1 ρ , and T1 sat correlated significantly with the biomechanical properties while T1 Gd correlated with glycosaminoglycan staining. The findings indicated that most of the studied MRI parameters were sensitive to both glycosaminoglycan content and collagen network integrity, with changes due to enzymatic treatment detected primarily in the superficial tissue. Strong correlation of T1 , adiabatic T1ρ , adiabatic T2 ρ , continuous-wave T1 ρ , and T1 sat with the altered biomechanical properties, reflects that these parameters were sensitive to critical functional properties of cartilage. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1111-1120, 2016.

  18. Joint homeostasis in tissue engineering for cartilage repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saris, D.B.F.

    2002-01-01

    Traumatic joint damage, articular cartilage and the research into methods of restoring the articulation are not new topics of interest. For centuries, clinicians have recognized the importance of cartilage damage and sought ways of learning about the normal form and function of hyaline cartilage as

  19. Preparation of Articular Cartilage Specimens for Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupina, T A

    2016-08-01

    We developed and adapted a technology for preparation of articular cartilage specimens for scanning electron microscopy. The method includes prefixation processing, fixation, washing, and dehydration of articular cartilage specimens with subsequent treatment in camphene and air-drying. The technological result consists in prevention of deformation of the articular cartilage structures. The method is simpler and cheaper than the known technologies.

  20. Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of repaired articular cartilage after a microfracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohi Yoshihiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical practice, surgeons differentiate color changes in repaired cartilage compared with surrounding intact cartilage, but cannot quantify these color changes. Objective assessments are required. A spectrocolorimeter was used to evaluate whether intact and repaired cartilage can be quantified. Findings We investigated the use of a spectrocolorimeter and the application of two color models (L* a* b* colorimetric system and spectral reflectance distribution to describe and quantify articular cartilage. In this study, we measured the colors of intact and repaired cartilage after a microfracture. Histologically, the repaired cartilage was a mixture of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. In the L* a* b* colorimetric system, the L* and a* values recovered to close to the values of intact cartilage, whereas the b* value decreased over time after the operation. Regarding the spectral reflectance distribution at 12 weeks after the operation, the repaired cartilage had a higher spectral reflectance ratio than intact cartilage between wavelengths of 400 to 470 nm. Conclusion This study reports the first results regarding the relationship between spectrocolorimetric evaluation and the histological findings of repair cartilage after a microfracture. Our findings demonstrate the ability of spectrocolorimetric measurement to judge the repair cartilage after treatment on the basis of objective data such as the L*, a* and b* values and the SRP as a coincidence index of the spectral reflectance curve.

  1. Repairing articular cartilage defects with tissue-engineering cartilage in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hong-xing; LI Fo-bao; SHEN Hui-liang; LIAO Wei-ming; LIU Miao; WANG Min; CAO Jun-ling

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of cancellous bone matrix gelatin (BMG) engineered with allogeneic chondrocytes in repairing articular cartilage defects in rabbits.Methods: Chondrocytes were seeded onto three-dimensional cancellous BMG and cultured in vitro for 12 days to prepare BMG-chondrocyte complexes. Under anesthesia with 2.5% pentobarbital sodium (1 ml/kg body weight), articular cartilage defects were made on the right knee joints of 38 healthy New Zealand white rabbits (regardless of sex, aged 4-5 months and weighing 2.5-3 kg) and the defects were then treated with 2.5 % trypsin.Then BMG-chondrocyte complex (Group A, n=18 ),BMG ( Group B, n=10), and nothing ( Group C, n=10)were implanted into the cartilage defects, respectively. The repairing effects were assessed by macroscopic, histologic,transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observation,immunohistochemical examination and in situ hybridization detection, respectively, at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks after operation.Results: Cancellous BMG was degraded within 8 weeks after operation. In Group A, lymphocyte infiltration was observed around the graft. At 24 weeks after operation, the cartilage defects were repaired by cartilage tissues and the articular cartilage and subchondral bone were soundly healed. Proteoglycan and type Ⅱ collagen were detected in the matrix of the repaired tissues by Safranin-O staining and immunohistochemical staining,respectively. In situ hybridization proved gene expression of type Ⅱ collagen in the cytoplasm of chondrocytes in the repaired tissues. TEM observation showed that chondrocytes and cartilage matrix in repaired tissues were almost same as those in the normal articular cartilage. In Group B, the defects were repaired by cartilage-fibrous tissues. In Group C, the defects were repaired only by fibrous tissues.Conclusions : Cancellous BMG can be regarded as the natural cell scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering.Articular cartilage defects can be repaired by

  2. Semi-automatic knee cartilage segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Erik B.; Folkesson, Jenny; Pettersen, Paola C.; Christiansen, Claus

    2006-03-01

    Osteo-Arthritis (OA) is a very common age-related cause of pain and reduced range of motion. A central effect of OA is wear-down of the articular cartilage that otherwise ensures smooth joint motion. Quantification of the cartilage breakdown is central in monitoring disease progression and therefore cartilage segmentation is required. Recent advances allow automatic cartilage segmentation with high accuracy in most cases. However, the automatic methods still fail in some problematic cases. For clinical studies, even if a few failing cases will be averaged out in the overall results, this reduces the mean accuracy and precision and thereby necessitates larger/longer studies. Since the severe OA cases are often most problematic for the automatic methods, there is even a risk that the quantification will introduce a bias in the results. Therefore, interactive inspection and correction of these problematic cases is desirable. For diagnosis on individuals, this is even more crucial since the diagnosis will otherwise simply fail. We introduce and evaluate a semi-automatic cartilage segmentation method combining an automatic pre-segmentation with an interactive step that allows inspection and correction. The automatic step consists of voxel classification based on supervised learning. The interactive step combines a watershed transformation of the original scan with the posterior probability map from the classification step at sub-voxel precision. We evaluate the method for the task of segmenting the tibial cartilage sheet from low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of knees. The evaluation shows that the combined method allows accurate and highly reproducible correction of the segmentation of even the worst cases in approximately ten minutes of interaction.

  3. The relationship between ultra-short telomeres, aging of articular cartilage and the development of human hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, M; Delaisse, J M; Kjaersgaard-Andersen, P;

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-short telomeres caused by stress-induced telomere shortening are suggested to induce chondrocyte senescence in human osteoarthritic knees. Here we have further investigated the role of ultra-short telomeres in the development of osteoarthritis (OA) and in aging of articular cartilage in human...

  4. [Chondrocyte mecanobiology. Application in cartilage tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Jean François; Netter, Patrick; Huselstein, Céline; de Isla, Natalia; Wei Yang, Jing; Muller, Sylvaine

    2005-11-01

    Cartilage is a hydrated connective tissue that withstands and distributes mechanical forces within joints. Chondrocytes utilize mechanical signals to maintain cartilaginous tissue homeostasis. They regulate their metabolic activity through complex biological and biophysical interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Some mechanotransduction mechanisms are known, while many others no doubt remain to be discovered. Various aspects of chondrocyte mechanobiology have been applied to tissue engineering, with the creation of replacement tissue in vitro from bioresorbable or non-bioresorbable scaffolds and harvested cells. The tissues are maintained in a near-physiologic mechanical and biochemical environment. This paper is an overview of both chondrocyte mechanobiology and cartilage tissue engineering

  5. Body weight independently affects articular cartilage catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, W Matt; Winward, Jason G; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J Ty; Seeley, Matthew K

    2015-06-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key pointsWalking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration.Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in

  6. Optimization and translation of MSC-based hyaluronic acid hydrogels for cartilage repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Isaac E.

    2011-12-01

    Traumatic injury and disease disrupt the ability of cartilage to carry joint stresses and, without an innate regenerative response, often lead to degenerative changes towards the premature development of osteoarthritis. Surgical interventions have yet to restore long-term mechanical function. Towards this end, tissue engineering has been explored for the de novo formation of engineered cartilage as a biologic approach to cartilage repair. Research utilizing autologous chondrocytes has been promising, but clinical limitations in their yield have motivated research into the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an alternative cell source. MSCs are multipotent cells that can differentiate towards a chondrocyte phenotype in a number of biomaterials, but no combination has successfully recapitulated the native mechanical function of healthy articular cartilage. The broad objective of this thesis was to establish an MSC-based tissue engineering approach worthy of clinical translation. Hydrogels are a common class of biomaterial used for cartilage tissue engineering and our initial work demonstrated the potential of a photo-polymerizable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel to promote MSC chondrogenesis and improved construct maturation by optimizing macromer and MSC seeding density. The beneficial effects of dynamic compressive loading, high MSC density, and continuous mixing (orbital shaker) resulted in equilibrium modulus values over 1 MPa, well in range of native tissue. While compressive properties are crucial, clinical translation also demands that constructs stably integrate within a defect. We utilized a push-out testing modality to assess the in vitro integration of HA constructs within artificial cartilage defects. We established the necessity for in vitro pre-maturation of constructs before repair to achieve greater integration strength and compressive properties in situ. Combining high MSC density and gentle mixing resulted in integration strength over 500 k

  7. POSSIBILITIES OF CURRENT CELLULAR TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARTICULAR CARTILAGE REPAIR (ANALYTICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Bozhokin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a wide variety of surgical procedures utilized in clinical practice for treatment of articular cartilage lesions, the search for other options of articular reconstruction remains a relevant and open issue at the current stage of medicine and biotechnologies development. The recent years demonstrated a strong belief in cellular methods of hyaline cartilage repair such as implantation of autologous chondrocytes (ACI or cultures of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC including techniques for genetic modification of cells.The purpose of presented review is to summarize the published scientific data on up to date results of perspective cellular technologies for articular cartilage repair that are being developed. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation originally performed by Swedish researchers in 1987 is considered the first clinically applied technique for restoration of hyaline cartilage using cellular technologies. However, the transplanted cell culture featured low proliferative capacity and inability to form a regenerate resistant to high physical activity. Another generation of methods originated at the turn of the century utilized mesenchymal stem cells instead of autologous chondrocytes. Preparation of MSCs is a less invasive procedure compared to chondrocytes harvesting and the culture is featured by a higher proliferative ability. Researchers use various biodegradable carriers (matrices to secure cell fixation. Despite good clinical mid-term outcomes the transplanted tissue-engineering structures deteriorate with time due to cellular de-differentiation. Next generation of techniques being currently under pre-clinical studies is featured by the preliminary chondrogenic modification of transplanted cell culture. Usage of various growth factors, modified cell product and gene-activated matrices allow to gain a stable regulatory and key proteins synthesis and achieve a focused influence on regenerate's chondrogenic proliferation and in result

  8. Release of transgenic progranulin from a living hyaline cartilage graft model: An in vitro evaluation on anti-inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ting Ting; Zhang, Feng; Tang, Wei; Wang, Dong-An

    2016-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent condition that compromises and even jeopardizes the life quality of millions of people. Common symptoms in OA includes joint stiffness and soreness, and they are often associated with inflammations to various extend. Due to the avascular and aneural nature of articular hyaline cartilage, it has limited self-repair capabilities; especially under inflammatory conditions, damages inflicted on cartilage are often irreversible. Hence, treatment approaches focus on anti-inflammation or articular cartilage replacement. In this study, an engineered, dual-functional living hyaline cartilage graft (LhCG), capable of releasing transgenic anti-inflammatory cytokine-progranulin (PGRN) is developed and envisioned to simultaneously fulfil both requirements. The therapeutic functionality of PGRN releasing LhCG is evaluated by co-culturing the constructs with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) secreting THP-1 cells to simulate the inflammatory condition in arthritis. Non-transgenic LhCG constructs and non-coculture sample groups were set up as controls. Gene expression and ECM composition changes across samples were assessed to understand the effects of PGRN as well as inflammatory environment on the cartilage graft. Collectively, the results in this study suggest that in situ release of transgenic recombinant PGRN protects LhCG from induced inflammation in vitro; contrastively, in the absence of PGRN, cartilage grafts are at risk of being degraded and mineralized under exposure to TNFα signaling. This shows that cartilage graft itself can be at risk of degradation or calcification when implanted in arthritic microenvironment. Hence, the inflammatory microenvironment has to be considered in cartilage replacement therapy to increase chances of successful joint mobility restoration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2968-2977, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Inhibition of cartilage degradation and suppression of PGE2 and MMPs expression by pomegranate fruit extract in a model of posttraumatic osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nahid; Khan, Nazir M; Ashruf, Omer S; Haqqi, Tariq M

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by cartilage degradation in the affected joints. Pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) inhibits cartilage degradation in vitro. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral consumption of PFE inhibits disease progression in rabbits with surgically induced OA. OA was surgically induced in the tibiofemoral joints of adult New Zealand White rabbits. In one group, animals were fed PFE in water for 8 wk postsurgery. In the second group, animals were fed PFE for 2 wk before surgery and for 8 wk postsurgery. Histologic assessment and scoring of the cartilage was per Osteoarthritis Research Society International guidelines. Gene expression and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) activity were determined using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and fluorometric assay, respectively. Interleukin (IL)-1 β, MMP-13, IL-6, prostaglandin (PG)E2, and type II collagen (COL2A1) levels in synovial fluid/plasma/culture media were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of active caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase p85 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Effect of PFE and inhibitors of MMP-13, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB was studied in IL-1 β-stimulated rabbit articular chondrocytes. Safranin-O-staining and chondrocyte cluster formation was significantly reduced in the anterior cruciate ligament transaction plus PFE fed groups. Expression of MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13 mRNA was higher in the cartilage of rabbits given water alone but was significantly lower in the animals fed PFE. PFE-fed rabbits had lower IL-6, MMP-13, and PGE2 levels in the synovial fluid and plasma, respectively, and showed higher expression of aggrecan and COL2A1 mRNA. Significantly higher numbers of chondrocytes were positive for markers of apoptosis in the joints of rabbits with OA given water only compared with those in the PFE-fed groups. PFE pretreatment significantly reduced

  10. Iodoacetate and allogenous cartilage particles as models for arthritis induction in equine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elmesiry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental models of osteoarthritis (OA have been widely developed in different animal species, because of the high incidence of osteoarthritis diseases in humans and animals. To date, no ideal OA animal model has been reported. The present study compare different osteoarthritis models to determine which one is suitable for inducing experimental equine OA. Fifteen donkeys were divided into three equal groups (n = 5. The radio carpal joints of the right forelimb of 15 donkeys were injected with 25 mg monoiodoacetate (MIA (group A, 50 mg allogenous cartilage particles (ACP (group B, or vehicle solution (group C over a period of 70 days. Osteoarthritis induction was evaluated weekly through lameness score, carpal circumference, joint flexion angel, synovial fluid analysis (total protein and WBC count, and radiology. Animal were euthanized and joints histopathology were performed at 70 days. Lameness score and joint circumference was increased in both group A and B however joint flexion angel was decreased compared to group C (p < 0.05. Osteophytes were observed in MIA injected joints only accompanied with subchondral bone sclerosis. Cartilage damage was observed grossly and histologically in Group A together with synovial membrane fibrosis. Group B had on cartilage damage grossly however histological examination revealed some cartilage surface discontinuity with synovial membrane edema. Injection of monoiodoacetate in the donkey is a successful model to create the acute clinical signs of joint disease as well as cartilage damage. However, allogenous cartilage particles injection need more investigation to be applied.

  11. Pharmacological influence of antirheumatic drugs on proteoglycans from interleukin-1 treated articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmeyer, J; Daufeldt, S

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether drugs used in the treatment of arthritic disorders possess any inhibitory potential on the proteoglycanolytic activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and to determine whether drugs which inhibit these enzymes also modulate the biosynthesis and release of proteoglycans (PGs) from interleukin-1-(IL-1) treated articular cartilage explants. The cartilage-bone marrow extract and the glycosaminoglycan-peptide complex (DAK-16) dose-dependently inhibited MMP proteoglycanases in vitro when tested at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 55 mg/mL, displaying an IC50 value of 31.78 mg/mL and 10.64 mg/mL (1.9 x 10[-4] M) respectively. (R,S)-N-[2-[2-(hydroxyamino)-2-oxoethyl]-4-methyl-1-oxopentyl++ +]-L-leucyl-L-phenylalaninamide (U-24522) proved to be a potent inhibitor of MMP proteoglycanases (IC50 value 1.8 x 10[-9] M). None of the other tested drugs, such as possible chondroprotective drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors tested at a concentration of 10(-4) M displayed any significant inhibition. Only U-24522, tested at a concentration ranging from 10(-4) to 10(-6) M, significantly inhibited the IL-1-induced augmentation of PG loss from cartilage explants into the nutrient media, whereas DAK-16 and the cartilage-bone marrow extract were ineffective. DAK-16 and the cartilage-bone marrow extract did not modulate the IL-1-mediated reduced biosynthesis and aggregability of PGs by the cartilage explants. The addition of 10(-5) M U-24522, however, partially maintained the aggregability of PGs ex vivo. In our experiments, both possible chondroprotective drugs as well as U-24522 demonstrated no cytotoxic effects on chondrocytes.

  12. Prostaglandin E2 role in inhibition of joint cartilage collagen destruction in patients with osteoarthritis

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    E V Chetina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin E2 role in inhibition of articular cartilage collagen degradation in patients with osteoarthritis. Objective. To assess prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 role in inhibition of type II collagen digestion in explants of articular cartilage of pts with osteoarthritis (OA. Material and methods. Explants of articular cartilage of pts with OA were cultured with PGE2 1pg to 10 ng/ml. Type II collagen digestion was assessed with immuno-enzyme assay. Gene expression was evaluated with PCR in real time. Results. PGE2 10 pg/ml as well as transforming growth factor β2 (TGFβ2 suppressed type II collagen digestion in explants of articular cartilage of pts with OA. This concentration of PGE2 did not suppress proteoglycan (aggrecan degradation. Gene expression analysis in 5 OA pts showed that PGE2 10 pg/ml suppressed metallomonooxigenase (MMP-13, MMP-1 and marker of chondrocyte hypertrophy type X collagen (COL10A1 as well as proinflammatory cytokines interleukine (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα. Naproxen, nonselective cyclooxygenase(COX-2 and 1 inhibitor concentration from 5 to 30 mcg/ml blocked TGFβ2 induced collagen digestion inhibition proving that PGE2 mediate influence of this growth factor. Naproxen concentration 5 mcg/ml increased collagen degradation. Conclusion. The study showed that PGE2 is a chondroprotector because it is able to suppress selectively OA pts cartilage collagen degradation. Beside that cartilage chondrocyte hypertrophy in OA connected functionally with increased collagen digestion is also regulated by low concentrations of PGE2

  13. Viscoelastic properties of bovine articular cartilage attached to subchondral bone at high frequencies

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    Shepherd Duncan ET

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage is a viscoelastic material, but its exact behaviour under the full range of physiological loading frequencies is unknown. The objective of this study was to measure the viscoelastic properties of bovine articular cartilage at loading frequencies of up to 92 Hz. Methods Intact tibial plateau cartilage, attached to subchondral bone, was investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. A sinusoidally varying compressive force of between 16 N and 36 N, at frequencies from 1 Hz to 92 Hz, was applied to the cartilage surface by a flat indenter. The storage modulus, loss modulus and phase angle (between the applied force and the deformation induced were determined. Results The storage modulus, E', increased with increasing frequency, but at higher frequencies it tended towards a constant value. Its dependence on frequency, f, could be represented by, E' = Aloge (f + B where A = 2.5 ± 0.6 MPa and B = 50.1 ± 12.5 MPa (mean ± standard error. The values of the loss modulus (4.8 ± 1.0 MPa mean ± standard deviation were much less than the values of storage modulus and showed no dependence on frequency. The phase angle was found to be non-zero for all frequencies tested (4.9 ± 0.6°. Conclusion Articular cartilage is viscoelastic throughout the full range of frequencies investigated. The behaviour has implications for mechanical damage to articular cartilage and the onset of osteoarthritis. Storage modulus increases with frequency, until the plateau region is reached, and has a higher value than loss modulus. Furthermore, loss modulus does not increase with loading frequency. This means that more energy is stored by the tissue than is dissipated and that this effect is greater at higher frequencies. The main mechanism for this excess energy to be dissipated is by the formation of cracks.

  14. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism after coaxial phacoemulsification through 1.8 mm microincision and bimanual phacoemulsification through 1.7 mm microincision.

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    Wilczynski, Michal; Supady, Ewa; Piotr, Loba; Synder, Aleksandra; Palenga-Pydyn, Dorota; Omulecki, Wojciech

    2009-09-01

    To compare surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) after coaxial 1.8 mm microincision cataract surgery (MICS) and bimanual 1.7 mm MICS calculated with 3 mathematical methods. Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland. Study comprised a nonrandomized prospective consecutive series of 58 eyes of 58 patients who had uneventful coaxial MICS with implantation of an Akreos MI60 foldable intraocular lens (IOL) using a 1.8 mm temporal clear corneal incision. Fifty eyes of 50 patients who had uneventful bimanual MICS through a 1.7 mm clear corneal incision for a sleeveless phaco tip and a 1.5 mm side port for an irrigating chopper with implantation of an Acri.Smart 48S foldable IOL served as a comparison group. All surgery was performed by 2 experienced surgeons. Surgically induced astigmatism was calculated using 3 methods. The patients were examined preoperatively and 2 weeks to 1 month postoperatively. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were seen in any patient. The corrected distance visual acuity improved significantly in both groups after surgery (P.05). In vector analysis, the mean SIA was 0.42 +/- 0.29 in the coaxial MICS group and 0.50 +/- 0.24 in the bimanual group; the difference was not statistically significant (P>.05). In vector decomposition, the mean SIA (C90) coaxial MICS group was 0.23 +/- 0.29 in the coaxial MICS group and 0.23 +/- 0.22 in the bimanual MICS group; the difference was not significant. Using the Naeser method, DeltaKP-90 was calculated, amounting to 0.05 +/- 0.44 in the coaxial MICS group and -0.04 +/- 0.42 in the bimanual MICS group; the difference was not significant. The amount of SIA induced by bimanual MICS and coaxial MICS phacoemulsification was very small. The bimanual MICS induced a slightly higher degree of SIA; however, according to all methods of SIA analysis, there was no significant difference in the mean SIA induced by both techniques.

  15. Overexpression of hsa-miR-148a promotes cartilage production and inhibits cartilage degradation by osteoarthritic chondrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Lucienne A.; Kragten, Angela H.M.; Dhert, Wouter J.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Creemers, Laura B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hsa-miR-148a expression is decreased in OA cartilage, but its functional role in cartilage has never been studied. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of overexpressing hsa-miR-148a on cartilage metabolism of OA chondrocytes. Design OA chondrocytes were transfected with a

  16. Overexpression of hsa-miR-148a promotes cartilage production and inhibits cartilage degradation by osteoarthritic chondrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, L A; Kragten, A H M; Dhert, W J A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10261847X; Saris, D B F; Creemers, L B

    OBJECTIVE: Hsa-miR-148a expression is decreased in Osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage, but its functional role in cartilage has never been studied. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of overexpressing hsa-miR-148a on cartilage metabolism of OA chondrocytes. DESIGN: OA chondrocytes were

  17. Surgical management of presbyopia

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    Torricelli AA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available André AM Torricelli, Jackson B Junior, Marcony R Santhiago, Samir J BecharaDivision of Ophthalmology, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Presbyopia, the gradual loss of accommodation that becomes clinically significant during the fifth decade of life, is a physiologic inevitability. Different technologies are being pursued to achieve surgical correction of this disability; however, a number of limitations have prevented widespread acceptance of surgical presbyopia correction, such as optical and visual distortion, induced corneal ectasia, haze, anisometropy with monovision, regression of effect, decline in uncorrected distance vision, and the inherent risks with invasive techniques, limiting the development of an ideal solution. The correction of the presbyopia and the restoration of accommodation are considered the final frontier of refractive surgery. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update about current procedures available for presbyopia correction, their advantages, and disadvantages.Keywords: presbyopia, surgical correction, treatment

  18. Effect of antibiotics on in vitro and in vivo avian cartilage degradation.

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    Peters, T L; Fulton, R M; Roberson, K D; Orth, M W

    2002-01-01

    Antibiotics are used in the livestock industry not only to treat disease but also to promote growth and increase feed efficiency in less than ideal sanitary conditions. However, certain antibiotic families utilized in the poultry industry have recently been found to adversely affect bone formation and cartilage metabolism in dogs, rats, and humans. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to determine if certain antibiotics used in the poultry industry would inhibit in vitro cartilage degradation. The second objective was to determine if the antibiotics found to inhibit in vitro cartilage degradation also induced tibial dyschondroplasia in growing broilers. Ten antibiotics were studied by an avian explant culture system that is designed to completely degrade tibiae over 16 days. Lincomycin, tylosin tartrate, gentamicin, erythromycin, and neomycin sulfate did not inhibit degradation at any concentration tested. Doxycycline (200 microg/ml), oxytetracycline (200 microg/ml), enrofloxacin (200 and 400 microg/ml), ceftiofur (400 microg/ml), and salinomycin (10 microg/ml) prevented complete cartilage degradation for up to 30 days in culture. Thus, some of the antibiotics did inhibit cartilage degradation in developing bone. Day-old chicks were then administered the five antibiotics at 25%, 100%, or 400% above their recommended dose levels and raised until 21 days of age. Thiram, a fungicide known to induce experimental tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), was given at 20 ppm. Birds were then killed by cervical dislocation, and each proximal tibiotarsus was visually examined for TD lesions. The results showed that none of these antibiotics significantly induced TD in growing boilers at any concentration tested, whereas birds given 20 ppm thiram had a 92% incidence rate.

  19. Surgical dislocation of the hip in patients with femoroacetabular impingement: Surgical techniques and our experience

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    Mladenović Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Arthrosis of the hip is the most common cause of a hip joint disorders. The aim of this study was to present our experience in the application of a safe surgical dislocation of the hip in patients with minor morphological changes in the hip joint, which, through the mechanism of femoroacetabular impingement, cause damage to the acetabular labrum and adjacent cartilage as an early sign of the hip arthrosis. Methods. We have operated 51 patients with different morphological bone changes in the hip area and resultant soft tissue damage of the acetabular labrum and its adjacent cartilage. Surgical technique that we applied in this group of patients, was adapted to our needs and capabilities and it was minimaly modified compared to the original procedure. Results. The surgical technique presented in this paper, proved to be a good method of treatment of bone and soft tissue pathomorphological changes of the hip in patients with femoroacetabular impingement. We had no cases with avascular necrosis of the femoral head, and two patients had nonunion of the greater trochanter, 9 patients developed paraarticular ossification, without subjective symptoms, while 3 patients suffered from postoperative pain in the groin during more energetic physical activities. Conclusion. Utilization of our partly modified surgical technique of controlled and safe dislocation of the hip can solve all the bone and soft tissue problems in patients with femoroacetibular impingement to stop already developed osteoarthritis of the hip or to prevent mild form of it.

  20. Effect of the Lectin of Bauhinia variegata and Its Recombinant Isoform on Surgically Induced Skin Wounds in a Murine Model

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    Rodrigo Bainy Leal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of highly specific carbohydrate-binding proteins. Due to their great biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata (nBVL and its recombinant isoform (rBVL-1. Following surgical creation of dorsal skin wounds, seven groups of mice were submitted to topical treatment for 12 days with lectin, D-galactose, BSA and saline. The animals were anesthetized and euthanized on POD 2, 7 and 12 in order to evaluate the healing potential of each treatment. The parameters considered included wound size, contraction rate, epithelialization rate and histopathological findings. Wound closure was fastest in animals treated with rBVL-1 (POD 7. nBVL was more effective than the controls. All skin layers were reconstructed and keratin deposition increased. Our findings indicate that the lectin of Bauhinia variegata possesses pro-healing properties and may be employed in the treatment of acute skin wounds.

  1. Effect of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata and its recombinant isoform on surgically induced skin wounds in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Luiz Gonzaga do Nascimento; Pinto, Luciano da Silva; Bastos, Rafaela Mesquita; Evaristo, Francisco Flávio Vasconcelos; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves de; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Júnior, Valdemiro Amaro da Silva; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

    2011-11-07

    Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of highly specific carbohydrate-binding proteins. Due to their great biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata (nBVL) and its recombinant isoform (rBVL-1). Following surgical creation of dorsal skin wounds, seven groups of mice were submitted to topical treatment for 12 days with lectin, D-galactose, BSA and saline. The animals were anesthetized and euthanized on POD 2, 7 and 12 in order to evaluate the healing potential of each treatment. The parameters considered included wound size, contraction rate, epithelialization rate and histopathological findings. Wound closure was fastest in animals treated with rBVL-1 (POD 7). nBVL was more effective than the controls. All skin layers were reconstructed and keratin deposition increased. Our findings indicate that the lectin of Bauhinia variegata possesses pro-healing properties and may be employed in the treatment of acute skin wounds.

  2. Advances and Prospects in Stem Cells for Cartilage Regeneration

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    Mingjie Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The histological features of cartilage call attention to the fact that cartilage has a little capacity to repair itself owing to the lack of a blood supply, nerves, or lymphangion. Stem cells have emerged as a promising option in the field of cartilage tissue engineering and regenerative medicine and could lead to cartilage repair. Much research has examined cartilage regeneration utilizing stem cells. However, both the potential and the limitations of this procedure remain controversial. This review presents a summary of emerging trends with regard to using stem cells in cartilage tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In particular, it focuses on the characterization of cartilage stem cells, the chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells, and the various strategies and approaches involving stem cells that have been used in cartilage repair and clinical studies. Based on the research into chondrocyte and stem cell technologies, this review discusses the damage and repair of cartilage and the clinical application of stem cells, with a view to increasing our systematic understanding of the application of stem cells in cartilage regeneration; additionally, several advanced strategies for cartilage repair are discussed.

  3. Generating cartilage repair from pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Aixin; Hardingham, Timothy E; Kimber, Susan J

    2014-08-01

    The treatment of degeneration and injury of articular cartilage has been very challenging for scientists and surgeons. As an avascular and hypocellular tissue, cartilage has a very limited capacity for self-repair. Chondrocytes are the only cell type in cartilage, in which they are surrounded by the extracellular matrix that they secrete and assemble. Autologous chondrocyte implantation for cartilage defects has achieved good results, but the limited resources and complexity of the procedure have hindered wider application. Stem cells form an alternative to chondrocytes as a source of chondrogenic cells due to their ability to proliferate extensively while retaining the potential for differentiation. Adult stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells have been differentiated into chondrocytes, but the limitations in their proliferative ability and the heterogeneous cell population hinder their adoption as a prime alternative source for generating chondrocytes. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are attractive as candidates for cell replacement therapy because of their unlimited self-renewal and ability for differentiation into mesodermal derivatives as well as other lineages. In this review, we focus on current protocols for chondrogenic differentiation of ESCs, in particular the chemically defined culture system developed in our lab that could potentially be adapted for clinical application.

  4. Oxygen, nitric oxide and articular cartilage

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    B Fermor

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecular oxygen is required for the production of nitric oxide (NO, a pro-inflammatory mediator that is associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. To date there has been little consideration of the role of oxygen tension in the regulation of nitric oxide production associated with arthritis. Oxygen tension may be particularly relevant to articular cartilage since it is avascular and therefore exists at a reduced oxygen tension. The superficial zone exists at approximately 6% O2, while the deep zone exists at less than 1% O2. Furthermore, oxygen tension can alter matrix synthesis, and the material properties of articular cartilage in vitro.The increase in nitric oxide associated with arthritis can be caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines and mechanical stress. Oxygen tension significantly alters endogenous NO production in articular cartilage, as well as the stimulation of NO in response to both mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines also increase the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. There is a complex interaction between NO and PGE2, and oxygen tension can alter this interaction. These findings suggest that the relatively low levels of oxygen within the joint may have significant influences on the metabolic activity, and inflammatory response of cartilage as compared to ambient levels. A better understanding of the role of oxygen in the production of inflammatory mediators in response to mechanical loading, or pro-inflammatory cytokines, may aid in the development of strategies for therapeutic intervention in arthritis.

  5. Fetal jaw movement affects condylar cartilage development.

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    Habib, H; Hatta, T; Udagawa, J; Zhang, L; Yoshimura, Y; Otani, H

    2005-05-01

    Using a mouse exo utero system to examine the effects of fetal jaw movement on the development of condylar cartilage, we assessed the effects of restraint of the animals' mouths from opening, by suture, at embryonic day (E)15.5. We hypothesized that pre-natal jaw movement is an important mechanical factor in endochondral bone formation of the mandibular condyle. Condylar cartilage was reduced in size, and the bone-cartilage margin was ill-defined in the sutured group at E18.5. Volume, total number of cells, and number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-positive cells in the mesenchymal zone were lower in the sutured group than in the non-sutured group at E16.5 and E18.5. Hypertrophic chondrocytes were larger, whereas fewer apoptotic chondrocytes and osteoclasts were observed in the hypertrophic zone in the sutured group at E18.5. Analysis of our data revealed that restricted fetal TMJ movement influences the process of endochondral bone formation of condylar cartilage.

  6. In vivo generation of cartilage from periosteum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, PJ; Surtel, DAM; Frings, EJJ; Bulstra, SK; Kuijer, R

    Periosteum has chondrogenic and osteogenic potential and plays an important role in fracture healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reactive tissue formed after damaging the periosteum. Damaging the periosteum may be a way to generate ectopic cartilage or bone, which may be useful

  7. Advanced Strategies for Articular Cartilage Defect Repair

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    Fergal J. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a unique tissue owing to its ability to withstand repetitive compressive stress throughout an individual’s lifetime. However, its major limitation is the inability to heal even the most minor injuries. There still remains an inherent lack of strategies that stimulate hyaline-like articular cartilage growth with appropriate functional properties. Recent scientific advances in tissue engineering have made significant steps towards development of constructs for articular cartilage repair. In particular, research has shown the potential of biomaterial physico-chemical properties significantly influencing the proliferation, differentiation and matrix deposition by progenitor cells. Accordingly, this highlights the potential of using such properties to direct the lineage towards which such cells follow. Moreover, the use of soluble growth factors to enhance the bioactivity and regenerative capacity of biomaterials has recently been adopted by researchers in the field of tissue engineering. In addition, gene therapy is a growing area that has found noteworthy use in tissue engineering partly due to the potential to overcome some drawbacks associated with current growth factor delivery systems. In this context, such advanced strategies in biomaterial science, cell-based and growth factor-based therapies that have been employed in the restoration and repair of damaged articular cartilage will be the focus of this review article.

  8. Recent developments in scaffold-guided cartilage tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jinfeng; Shi, Kun; Ding, Qiuxia; Qu, Ying; Luo, Feng; Qian, Zhiyong

    2014-10-01

    Articular cartilage repair is one of the most challenging problems in biomedical engineering because the regenerative capacity of cartilage is intrinsically poor. The lack of efficient treatment modalities motivates researches into cartilage tissue engineering such as combing cells, scaffolds and growth factors. In this review we summarize the current developments on scaffold systems available for cartilage tissue engineering. The factors that are critical to successfully design an ideal scaffold for cartilage regeneration were discussed. Then we present examples of selected material types (natural polymers and synthetic polymers) and fabricated forms of the scaffolds (three-dimensional scaffolds, micro- or nanoparticles, and their composites). In the end of review, we conclude with an overview of the ways in which biomedical nanotechnology is widely applied in cartilage tissue engineering, especially in the design of composite scaffolds. This review attempts to provide recommendations on the combination of qualities that would produce the ideal scaffold system for cartilage tissue engineering.

  9. Prolonged in vitro precultivation alleviates post-implantation inflammation and promotes stable subcutaneous cartilage formation in a goat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Dan; Yin, Zongqi; Luo, Xusong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Cao, Yilin; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Guangdong

    2016-12-02

    Synthetic biodegradable scaffolds such as polylactic acid coated polyglycolic acid (PLA-PGA) are especially suitable for engineering shaped cartilage such as auricle, but they induce a serious inflammatory reaction particularly in the immunologically aggressive subcutaneous site, leading to resorption of the engineered autologous cartilage. Our previous study in a rabbit model has demonstrated 2 weeks of in vitro precultivation could significantly alleviate the post-implantation inflammation induced by PLA-PGA engineered cartilaginous grafts, but reproduction of this result failed in a preclinical goat model. The aims of the current study were to investigate whether prolonged in vitro precultivation could form a mature cartilaginous graft to resist the acute host response and promote stable subcutaneous cartilage formation in a preclinical goat model. Goat chondrocytes were seeded onto PLA-PGA scaffolds, in vitro precultivated for 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks, and then implanted subcutaneously in autologous goats for 1 and 8 weeks. The in vitro engineered cartilage (vitro-EC) was examined histologically (hematoxylin and eosin, safranin-O, collagen II). The 1 week explants were examined histologically and stained for CD3, CD68, collagen I, and apoptosis. The 8 week explants were evaluated by histology, wet weight, volume, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) quantification and Young's modulus. With prolonged in vitro time, the quality of vitro-EC improved and the amount of scaffold residue decreased; more pronounced cartilage formation with fewer immune cells (CD3 and CD68 positive), apoptotic cells, and less collagen I expression were observed in explants that had been in vitro precultivated for a longer period. The subcutaneously regenerated neocartilage became more mature after prolonged implantation. These results suggested that prolonged in vitro precultivation allowed formation of a mature cartilaginous graft to resist the acute host response and promoted stable subcutaneous

  10. [Histologic assessment of tissue healing of hyaline cartilage by use of semiquantitative evaluation scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukasović, Andreja; Ivković, Alan; Jezek, Davor; Cerovecki, Ivan; Vnuk, Drazen; Kreszinger, Mario; Hudetz, Damir; Pećina, Marko

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage is an avascular and aneural tissue lacking lymph drainage, hence its inability of spontaneous repair following injury. Thus, it offers an interesting model for scientific research. A number of methods have been suggested to enhance cartilage repair, but none has yet produced significant success. The possible application of the aforementioned methods has brought about the necessity to evaluate their results. The objective of this study was to analyze results of a study of the effects of the use of TGF-beta gene transduced bone marrow clot on articular cartilage defects using ICRS visual histological assessment scale. The research was conducted on 28 skeletally mature sheep that were randomly assigned to four groups and surgically inflicted femoral chondral defects. The articular surfaces were then treated with TGF-beta1 gene transduced bone marrow clot (TGF group), GFP transduced bone marrow clot (GFP group), untransduced bone marrow clot (BM group) or left untreated (NC group). The analysis was performed by visual examination of cartilage samples and results were obtained using ICRS visual histological assessment scale. The results were subsequently subjected to statistical assessment using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Kruskal-Wallis test yielded statistically significant difference with respect to cell distribution. Mann-Whitney test showed statistically significant difference between TGF and NC groups (P = 0.002), as well as between BM and NC groups (P = 0.002 with Bonferroni correction). Twenty-six of the twenty-eight samples were subjected to histologic and subsequent statistical analysis; two were discarded due to faulty histology technique. Our results indicated a level of certainty as to the positive effect of TGF-beta1 gene transduced bone marrow clot in restoration of articular cartilage defects. However, additional research is necessary in the field. One of the significant drawbacks on histologic assessment of cartilage

  11. Facilitating cartilage volume measurement using MRI

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    Maataoui, Adel, E-mail: adel.maataoui@gmx.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gurung, Jessen, E-mail: jessen.gurung@gmx.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ackermann, Hanns, E-mail: h.ackermann@add.uni-frankfurt.d [Institute for Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Abolmaali, Nasreddin [Biological and Molecular Imaging, ZIK OncoRay - Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Kafchitsas, Konstantinos [Department of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery, Johannes Gutenberg University, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: t.vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Khan, M. Fawad, E-mail: fawad@gmx.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To compare quantitative cartilage volume measurement (CVM) using different slice thicknesses. Materials and methods: Ten knees were scanned with a 1.5 T MRI (Sonata, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) using a 3D gradient echo sequence (FLASH, fast low-angle shot). Cartilage volume of the medial and lateral tibial plateau was measured by two independent readers in 1.5 mm, 3.0 mm and 5.0 mm slices using the Argus software application. Accuracy and time effectiveness served as control parameters. Results: Determining cartilage volume, time for calculation diminished for the lateral tibial plateau from 384.6 {+-} 127.7 s and 379.1 {+-} 117.6 s to 214.9 {+-} 109.9 s and 213.9 {+-} 102.2 s to 122.1 {+-} 60.1 s and 126.8 {+-} 56.2 s and for the medial tibial plateau from 465.0 {+-} 147.7 s and 461.8 {+-} 142.7 s to 214.0 {+-} 67.9 s and 208.9 {+-} 66.2 s to 132.6 {+-} 41.5 s and 130.6 {+-} 42.0 s measuring 1.5 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm slices, respectively. No statistically significant difference between cartilage volume measurements was observed (p > 0.05) while very good inter-reader correlation was evaluated. Conclusion: CVM using 1.5 mm slices provides no higher accuracy than cartilage volume measurement in 5 mm slices while an overall time saving up to 70% is possible.

  12. Comparison of the effects of curcumin, tramadol and surgical treatments on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Dilek; Kocman, Atacan Emre; Yildirim, Engin; Ozatik, Orhan; Aydin, Sule; Aydan, Kose

    2017-04-04

    Nerve entrapment syndromes are the most common causes of neuropathic pain. Surgical decompression is preferred method of treatment. The goal of the study was to compare the efficacy of curcumin, tramadol and chronic constriction release treatment (CCR), individually or together, in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury. Eighty male-rats were divided into eight study groups. Group 1 was the sham group. Group 2 was the control group with established chronic constriction injury (CCI). CCI was also established in Groups 3-8. Group 3 underwent chronic constriction release (CCR). Groups 4 and 5 received curcumin and tramadol. Groups 6 and 7 also received curcumin (100 mg kg-1 daily, oral) and tramadol (10 mg kg-1 daily, intraperitoneal, 14 days) after CCR, respectively. Combined curcumin-tramadol treatment was applied to Group 8. Behavioral tests (thermal hyperalgesia, dynamic plantar, cold plate test) were performed on days 0, 3, 7, 13, 17, and 21. Tissue tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were analyzed in the nerve and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) samples on day 21.days. Histopathologic examination was performed on nervous tissue and DRG. Tramadol-CCR and tramadol-curcumin significantly attenuated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. In CCI-CCR-tramadol treatment, TNF-α levels were found significantly lower in the sciatic nerve tissue and DRG, and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in the sciatic nerve tissue. CCI-CCR-tramadol treatment is highly effective in the symptomatic treatment of neuropathic pain. CCR-curcumin is associated with decreased degeneration and increased regeneration of the nerve tissue.

  13. Latent Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 Functionalised Electrospun Scaffolds Promote Human Cartilage Differentiation: Towards an Engineered Cartilage Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erh-Hsuin Lim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo overcome the potential drawbacks of a short half-life and dose-related adverse effects of using active transforming growth factor-beta 1 for cartilage engineering, a cell-mediated latent growth factor activation strategy was developed incorporating latent transforming growth factor-β1 (LTGF into an electrospun poly(L-lactide scaffold.MethodsThe electrospun scaffold was surface modified with NH3 plasma and biofunctionalised with LTGF to produce both random and orientated biofunctionalised electrospun scaffolds. Scaffold surface chemical analysis and growth factor bioavailability assays were performed. In vitro biocompatibility and human nasal chondrocyte gene expression with these biofunctionalised electrospun scaffold templates were assessed. In vivo chondrogenic activity and chondrocyte gene expression were evaluated in athymic rats.ResultsChemical analysis demonstrated that LTGF anchored to the scaffolds was available for enzymatic, chemical and cell activation. The biofunctionalised scaffolds were non-toxic. Gene expression suggested chondrocyte re-differentiation after 14 days in culture. By 6 weeks, the implanted biofunctionalised scaffolds had induced highly passaged chondrocytes to re-express Col2A1 and produce type II collagen.ConclusionsWe have demonstrated a proof of concept for cell-mediated activation of anchored growth factors using a novel biofunctionalised scaffold in cartilage engineering. This presents a platform for development of protein delivery systems and for tissue engineering.

  14. Accuracy of 3D cartilage models generated from MR images is dependent on cartilage thickness: laser scanner based validation of in vivo cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Seungbum; Giori, Nicholas J; Gold, Garry E; Dyrby, Chris O; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2009-12-01

    Cartilage morphology change is an important biomarker for the progression of osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of in vivo cartilage thickness measurements from MR image-based 3D cartilage models using a laser scanning method and to test if the accuracy changes with cartilage thickness. Three-dimensional tibial cartilage models were created from MR images (in-plane resolution of 0.55 mm and thickness of 1.5 mm) of osteoarthritic knees of ten patients prior to total knee replacement surgery using a semi-automated B-spline segmentation algorithm. Following surgery, the resected tibial plateaus were laser scanned and made into 3D models. The MR image and laser-scan based models were registered to each other using a shape matching technique. The thicknesses were compared point wise for the overall surface. The linear mixed-effects model was used for statistical test. On average, taking account of individual variations, the thickness measurements in MRI were overestimated in thinner (<2.5 mm) regions. The cartilage thicker than 2.5 mm was accurately predicted in MRI, though the thick cartilage in the central regions was underestimated. The accuracy of thickness measurements in the MRI-derived cartilage models systemically varied according to native cartilage thickness.

  15. Scaffold-based Drug Delivery for Cartilage Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalumon, K T; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative engineering is an advanced field comprising the collective benefit of biodegradable polymers with cells and tissue inducing factors. Current method of replacing the defective organ is through transplantation, but is limited due to immune rejection and availability. As a solution, new polymeric biomaterial-based three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds in combination with cells and inducing factors were aroused to fulfil the existing demands. These scaffolds apply material science, biomedical technology and translational medicine to develop functional tissue engineering constructs. Presence of small molecules and growth factors guides the cell phenotypes to specific organ development. The 3D scaffold thus could also be favorably used as carriers for various types of drugs and genes, with the release profile fine-tuned by modulation of the scaffold's morphology, porosity, and composition. An increasing trend was observed in recent years toward the combination of scaffolds and growth factors to fabricate a bioactive system, which not only provide a biomimetic biodegradable physical support for tissue growth but also explores biological signals to modulate tissue regeneration. In this review, along with general aspects of tissue engineering, we also discuss the importance of various scaffold architectures like nanofibers, hydrogels, beads, meshes, microspheres etc. in combination with specific drugs, growth factors and small molecules for cartilage regeneration. Growth factors may be incorporated into scaffolds by direct blending, physical adsorption, drop casting, surface grafting, covalent bonding, chemical immobilization, coaxial electrospinning, microparticle incorporation etc. This offers new possibilities for the development of biomimetic scaffolds that are endowed with a hierarchical architecture and sophisticated release kinetics of the growth factors. This review portrait the fundamentals of tissue engineering with emphasis on the role of inducing factors

  16. Mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage (MAGIC) syndrome complicated by aneurysmal aortitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin Soon; Hogan, Patrick; McKenzie, Scott; Gibbs, Harry; Strutton, Geoff; Wong, Richard

    2007-08-01

    "MAGIC syndrome" (Mouth And Genital ulcers with Inflamed Cartilage) has been proposed to describe patients with clinical features of both relapsing polychondritis and Behcet disease. A total of 18 cases have been reported with only 1 case associated with aneurysmal aortitis described in 1997. Herein, we describe a patient with MAGIC syndrome complicated by aneurysmal aortitis requiring cardiothoracic surgery and intensive immunosuppression. Monitoring for the possible development of inflammatory aortic aneurysms should thus be considered in patients with MAGIC syndrome who have persistently elevated serum inflammatory markers. If an aortic aneurysm is detected, cardiothoracic surgical referral is necessary, close monitoring for enlargement is mandatory, and intensification of immunosuppressive therapy should be considered.

  17. Articular cartilage defect detectability in human knees with MR-arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, A. [Orthopaedic Clinic, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Kramer, J. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Stiglbauer, R. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Hajek, P.C. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Imhof, H. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    1993-04-01

    One hundred and thirteen knee joints were examined, of which 48 showed damage of the hyaline cartilage in one or more locations. For the evaluation of the magnetic resonance (MR) arthrographic images we used the macroscopic staging according to Outerbridge, the defect staging according to Bauer, as well as a new MR-arthrographic staging. The results of the evaluation were compared with the surgical findings in 61 knee joints. This revealed a sensitivity of 86 %, a specificity of 100 % and accuracy of 90 %. All lesions that could not be classified on MR-arthrography were of stage-I chondromalacia. (orig.)

  18. Autologous chondrocyte implantation for treatment of cartilage defects of the knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungmann, Pia M; Salzmann, Gian M; Schmal, Hagen

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a well-established treatment option for isolated cartilage defects of the knee joint, providing satisfying outcome. However, cases of treatment failure with the need for surgical reintervention are reported; typical patient's individual...... bone marrow stimulation (P = .041), and (4) periosteum patch-covered ACI (P = .028). An influence of patient age, body mass index (BMI), defect number, defect size, lesion origin, lesion location, parallel treatment, or smoking on the risk for reintervention could not be observed. CONCLUSION: The study...

  19. Progression of Gene Expression Changes following a Mechanical Injury to Articular Cartilage as a Model of Early Stage Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, R S; Ashwell, M S; Maltecca, C; O'Nan, A T; Mente, P L

    2014-01-01

    An impact injury model of early stage osteoarthritis (OA) progression was developed using a mechanical insult to an articular cartilage surface to evaluate differential gene expression changes over time and treatment. Porcine patellae with intact cartilage surfaces were randomized to one of three treatments: nonimpacted control, axial impaction (2000 N), or a shear impaction (500 N axial, with tangential displacement to induce shear forces). After impact, the patellae were returned to culture for 0, 3, 7, or 14 days. At the appropriate time point, RNA was extracted from full-thickness cartilage slices at the impact site. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to evaluate differential gene expression for 18 OA related genes from four categories: cartilage matrix, degradative enzymes and inhibitors, inflammatory response and signaling, and cell apoptosis. The shear impacted specimens were compared to the axial impacted specimens and showed that shear specimens more highly expressed type I collagen (Col1a1) at the early time points. In addition, there was generally elevated expression of degradative enzymes, inflammatory response genes, and apoptosis markers at the early time points. These changes suggest that the more physiologically relevant shear loading may initially be more damaging to the cartilage and induces more repair efforts after loading.

  20. MR imaging of post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries confined to the femoral trochlea Arthroscopic correlation and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huegli, Rolf W. E-mail: rhuegli@uhbs.ch; Moelleken, Sonja M.C.; Stork, Alexander; Bonel, Harald M.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Meckel, Stephan; Genant, Harry K.; Tirman, Phillip F.J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess and describe post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries isolated to the trochlear groove and provide insight into potential mechanism of injury. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated MR imaging findings of all knee MRIs performed at our institution over the last 2 years (2450). Thirty patients met the criteria of a cartilage injury confined to the trochlear groove. In 15 cases, which were included in our study, arthroscopic correlation was available. Each plane was evaluated and graded for the presence and appearance of articular cartilage defects using a standard arthroscopic grading scheme adapted to MR imaging. Any additional pathological derangement was documented and information about the mechanism of injury was retrieved by chart review. Results: In all cases the cartilaginous injury was well demonstrated on MRI. In 13 patients additional pathological findings could be observed. The most frequently associated injury was a meniscal tear in nine patients. In eight cases, the arthroscopic grading of the trochlear injury matched exactly with the MRI findings. In the remaining seven cases, the discrepancy between MRI and arthroscopy was never higher than one grade. In 13 out of 15 of patients trauma mechanism could be evaluated. Twelve patients suffered an indirect twisting injury and one suffered a direct trauma to their knee. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate that MR imaging allows reliable grading of isolated injury to the trochlear groove cartilage and assists in directing surgical diagnosis and treatment. These injuries may be the only hyaline cartilage injury in the knee and meniscal tears are a frequently associated finding. Therefore, it is important to search specifically for cartilage injuries of the trochlear groove in patients with anterior knee pain, even if other coexistent pathology could potentially explain the patient's symptoms.

  1. The response to oestrogen deprivation of the cartilage collagen degradation marker, CTX-II, is unique compared with other markers of collagen turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tabassi, Nadine C B; Sondergaard, Lene V;

    2009-01-01

    The urinary level of the type II collagen degradation marker CTX-II is increased in postmenopausal women and in ovariectomised rats, suggesting that oestrogen deprivation induces cartilage breakdown. Here we investigate whether this response to oestrogen is also true for other type II collagen tu...... turnover markers known to be affected in osteoarthritis, and whether it relates to its presence in specific areas of cartilage tissue....

  2. The role of type X collagen in facilitating and regulating endochondral ossification of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, G

    2005-02-01

    AUTHOR: Shen G Objective -This review was compiled to explore the role of type X collagen in growth, development and remodeling of articular cartilage by elucidating the linkage between the synthesis of this protein and the phenotypic changes in chondrogenesis and the onset of endochondral ossification. The current studies closely dedicated to elucidating the role of type X collagen incorporating into chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification of articular cartilage were assessed and analyzed to allow for obtaining the mainstream consensus on the bio-molecular mechanism with which type X collagen functions in articular cartilage. There are spatial and temporal correlations between synthesis of type X collagen and occurrence of endochondral ossification. The expression of type X collagen is confined within hypertrophic condrocytes and precedes the embark of endochondral bone formation. Type X collagen facilitates endochondral ossification by regulating matrix mineralization and compartmentalizing matrix components. Type X collagen is a reliable marker for new bone formation in articular cartilage. The future clinical application of this collagen in inducing or mediating endochondral ossification is perceived, e.g. the fracture healing of synovial joints and adaptive remodeling of madibular condyle.

  3. Hydrogels as a Replacement Material for Damaged Articular Hyaline Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte M. Beddoes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyaline cartilage is a strong durable material that lubricates joint movement. Due to its avascular structure, cartilage has a poor self-healing ability, thus, a challenge in joint recovery. When severely damaged, cartilage may need to be replaced. However, currently we are unable to replicate the hyaline cartilage, and as such, alternative materials with considerably different properties are used. This results in undesirable side effects, including inadequate lubrication, wear debris, wear of the opposing articular cartilage, and weakening of the surrounding tissue. With the number of surgeries for cartilage repair increasing, a need for materials that can better mimic cartilage, and support the surrounding material in its typical function, is becoming evident. Here, we present a brief overview of the structure and properties of the hyaline cartilage and the current methods for cartilage repair. We then highlight some of the alternative materials under development as potential methods of repair; this is followed by an overview of the development of tough hydrogels. In particular, double network (DN hydrogels are a promising replacement material, with continually improving physical properties. These hydrogels are coming closer to replicating the strength and toughness of the hyaline cartilage, while offering excellent lubrication. We conclude by highlighting several different methods of integrating replacement materials with the native joint to ensure stability and optimal behaviour.

  4. NONLINEAR SPECTRAL IMAGING OF ELASTIC CARTILAGE IN RABBIT EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JING CHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Elastic cartilage in the rabbit external ear is an important animal model with attractive potential value for researching the physiological and pathological states of cartilages especially during wound healing. In this work, nonlinear optical microscopy based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation were employed for imaging and quantifying the intact elastic cartilage. The morphology and distribution of main components in elastic cartilage including cartilage cells, collagen and elastic fibers were clearly observed from the high-resolution two-dimensional nonlinear optical images. The areas of cell nuclei, a parameter related to the pathological changes of normal or abnormal elastic cartilage, can be easily quantified. Moreover, the three-dimensional structure of chondrocytes and matrix were displayed by constructing three-dimensional image of cartilage tissue. At last, the emission spectra from cartilage were obtained and analyzed. We found that the different ratio of collagen over elastic fibers can be used to locate the observed position in the elastic cartilage. The redox ratio based on the ratio of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH over flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD fluorescence can also be calculated to analyze the metabolic state of chondrocytes in different regions. Our results demonstrated that this technique has the potential to provide more accurate and comprehensive information for the physiological states of elastic cartilage.

  5. Mechanical properties of hyaline and repair cartilage studied by nanoindentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, O; Durst, K; Maier, V; Göken, M; Birkholz, T; Schneider, H; Hennig, F; Gelse, K

    2007-11-01

    Articular cartilage is a highly organized tissue that is well adapted to the functional demands in joints but difficult to replicate via tissue engineering or regeneration. Its viscoelastic properties allow cartilage to adapt to both slow and rapid mechanical loading. Several cartilage repair strategies that aim to restore tissue and protect it from further degeneration have been introduced. The key to their success is the quality of the newly formed tissue. In this study, periosteal cells loaded on a scaffold were used to repair large partial-thickness cartilage defects in the knee joint of miniature pigs. The repair cartilage was analyzed 26 weeks after surgery and compared both morphologically and mechanically with healthy hyaline cartilage. Contact stiffness, reduced modulus and hardness as key mechanical properties were examined in vitro by nanoindentation in phosphate-buffered saline at room temperature. In addition, the influence of tissue fixation with paraformaldehyde on the biomechanical properties was investigated. Although the repair process resulted in the formation of a stable fibrocartilaginous tissue, its contact stiffness was lower than that of hyaline cartilage by a factor of 10. Fixation with paraformaldehyde significantly increased the stiffness of cartilaginous tissue by one order of magnitude, and therefore, should not be used when studying biomechanical properties of cartilage. Our study suggests a sensitive method for measuring the contact stiffness of articular cartilage and demonstrates the importance of mechanical analysis for proper evaluation of the success of cartilage repair strategies.

  6. Cartilage issues in football—today's problems and tomorrow's solutions