Sample records for surgical training education

  1. Evolving Educational Techniques in Surgical Training. (United States)

    Evans, Charity H; Schenarts, Kimberly D


    Training competent and professional surgeons efficiently and effectively requires innovation and modernization of educational methods. Today's medical learner is quite adept at using multiple platforms to gain information, providing surgical educators with numerous innovative avenues to promote learning. With the growth of technology, and the restriction of work hours in surgical education, there has been an increase in use of simulation, including virtual reality, robotics, telemedicine, and gaming. The use of simulation has shifted the learning of basic surgical skills to the laboratory, reserving limited time in the operating room for the acquisition of complex surgical skills". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mental training in surgical education: a systematic review. (United States)

    Davison, Sara; Raison, Nicholas; Khan, Muhammad S; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran


    Pressures on surgical education from restricted working hours and increasing scrutiny of outcomes have been compounded by the development of highly technical surgical procedures requiring additional specialist training. Mental training (MT), the act of performing motor tasks in the 'mind's eye', offers the potential for training outside the operating room. However, the technique is yet to be formally incorporated in surgical curricula. This study aims to review the available literature to determine the role of MT in surgical education. EMBASE and Medline databases were searched. The primary outcome measure was surgical proficiency following training. Secondary analyses examined training duration, forms of MT and trainees level of experience. Study quality was assessed using Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials scores or Quality Assessment Tool for Before-After (Pre-Post) Studies with No Control Group. Fourteen trials with 618 participants met the inclusion criteria, of which 11 were randomized and three longitudinal. Ten studies found MT to be beneficial. Mental rehearsal was the most commonly used form of training. No significant correlation was found between the length of MT and outcomes. MT benefitted expert surgeons more than medical students or novice surgeons. The majority studies demonstrate MT to be beneficial in surgical education especially amongst more experienced surgeons within a well-structured MT programme. However, overall studies were low quality, lacked sufficient methodology and suffered from small sample sizes. For these reasons, further research is required to determine optimal role of MT as a supplementary educational tool within the surgical curriculum. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  3. Cognitive training: How can it be adapted for surgical education? (United States)

    Wallace, Lauren; Raison, Nicholas; Ghumman, Faisal; Moran, Aidan; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran


    There is a need for new approaches to surgical training in order to cope with the increasing time pressures, ethical constraints, and legal limitations being placed on trainees. One of the most interesting of these new approaches is "cognitive training" or the use of psychological processes to enhance performance of skilled behaviour. Its ability to effectively improve motor skills in sport has raised the question as to whether it could also be used to improve surgical performance. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current evidence on the use of cognitive training within surgery, and evaluate the potential role it can play in surgical education. Scientific database searches were conducted to identify studies that investigated the use of cognitive training in surgery. The key studies were selected and grouped according to the type of cognitive training they examined. Available research demonstrated that cognitive training interventions resulted in greater performance benefits when compared to control training. In particular, cognitive training was found to improve surgical motor skills, as well as a number of non-technical outcomes. Unfortunately, key limitations restricting the generalizability of these findings include small sample size and conceptual issues arising from differing definitions of the term 'cognitive training'. When used appropriately, cognitive training can be a highly effective supplementary training tool in the development of technical skills in surgery. Although further studies are needed to refine our understanding, cognitive training should certainly play an important role in future surgical education. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The cutting-edge training modalities and educational platforms for accredited surgical training: A systematic review. (United States)

    Forgione, Antonello; Guraya, Salman Y


    Historically, operating room (OR) has always been considered as a stand-alone trusted platform for surgical education and training. However, concerns about financial constraints, quality control, and patient safety have urged the surgical educators to develop more cost-effective, surgical educational platforms that can be employed outside the OR. Furthermore, trained surgeons need to regularly update their surgical skills to keep abreast with the emerging surgical technologies. This research aimed to explore the value of currently available modern surgical tools that can be used outside the OR and also elaborates the existing laparoscopic surgical training programs in world-class centers across the globe with a view to formulate a blended and unified structured surgical training program. Several data sources were searched using MeSH terms "Laparoscopic surgery" and "Surgical training" and "Surgical curriculum" and "fundamentals of endoscopic surgery" and "fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery" and "Telementoring" and "Box trainer." The eligibility criteria used in data extraction searched for original and review articles and by excluding the editorial articles, short communications, conference proceedings, personal view, and commentaries. Data synthesis and data analysis were done by reviewing the initially retrieved 211 articles. Irrelevant and duplicate and redundant articles were excluded from the study. Finally, 12 articles were selected for this systematic review. Data results showed that a myriad of cutting-edge technical innovations have provided modern surgical training tools such as the simulation-based mechanical and virtual reality simulators, animal and cadaveric labs, telementoring, telerobotic-assisted surgery, and video games. Surgical simulators allow the trainees to acquire surgical skills in a tension-free environment without supervision or time constraints. The existing world-renowned surgical training centers employ various clusters of training

  5. The cutting-edge training modalities and educational platforms for accredited surgical training: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Forgione


    Full Text Available Background: Historically, operating room (OR has always been considered as a stand-alone trusted platform for surgical education and training.However, concerns about financial constraints, quality control, and patient safety have urged the surgical educators to develop more cost-effective, surgical educational platforms that can be employed outside the OR. Furthermore, trained surgeons need to regularly update their surgical skills to keep abreast with the emerging surgical technologies. This research aimed to explore the value of currently available modern surgical tools that can be used outside the OR and also elaborates the existing laparoscopic surgical training programs in world-class centers across the globe with a view to formulate a blended and unified structured surgical training program. Materials and Methods: Several data sources were searched using MeSH terms “Laparoscopic surgery” and “Surgical training” and “Surgical curriculum” and “fundamentals of endoscopic surgery” and “fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery” and “Telementoring” and “Box trainer.” The eligibility criteria used in data extraction searched for original and review articles and by excluding the editorial articles, short communications, conference proceedings, personal view, and commentaries. Data synthesis and data analysis were done by reviewing the initially retrieved 211 articles. Irrelevant and duplicate and redundant articles were excluded from the study. Results: Finally, 12 articles were selected for this systematic review. Data results showed that a myriad of cutting-edge technical innovations have provided modern surgical training tools such as the simulation-based mechanical and virtual reality simulators, animal and cadaveric labs, telementoring, telerobotic-assisted surgery, and video games. Surgical simulators allow the trainees to acquire surgical skills in a tension-free environment without supervision or time constraints

  6. [Simulation training in surgical education - application of virtual reality laparoscopic simulators in a surgical skills course]. (United States)

    Lehmann, K S; Gröne, J; Lauscher, J C; Ritz, J-P; Holmer, C; Pohlen, U; Buhr, H-J


    Training and simulation are gaining importance in surgical education. Today, virtual reality surgery simulators provide sophisticated laparoscopic training scenarios and offer detailed assessment methods. This also makes simulators interesting for the application in surgical skills courses. The aim of the current study was to assess the suitability of a virtual surgery simulator for training and assessment in an established surgical training course. The study was conducted during the annual "Practical Course for Visceral Surgery" (Warnemuende, Germany). 36 of 108 course participants were assigned at random for the study. Training was conducted in 15 sessions over 5 days with 4 identical virtual surgery simulators (LapSim) and 2 standardised training tasks. The simulator measured 16 individual parameters and calculated 2 scores. Questionnaires were used to assess the test persons' laparoscopic experience, their training situation and the acceptance of the simulator training. Data were analysed with non-parametric tests. A subgroup analysis for laparoscopic experience was conducted in order to assess the simulator's construct validity and assessment capabilities. Median age was 32 (27 - 41) years; median professional experience was 3 (1 - 11) years. Typical laparoscopic learning curves with initial significant improvements and a subsequent plateau phase were measured over 5 days. The individual training sessions exhibited a rhythmic variability in the training results. A shorter night's sleep led to a marked drop in performance. The participants' different experience levels could clearly be discriminated ( ≤ 20 vs. > 20 laparoscopic operations; p ≤ 0.001). The questionnaire showed that the majority of the participants had limited training opportunities in their hospitals. The simulator training was very well accepted. However, the participants severely misjudged the real costs of the simulators that were used. The learning curve on the

  7. The Current State of Surgical Ergonomics Education in U.S. Surgical Training: A Survey Study. (United States)

    Epstein, Sherise; Tran, Bao N; Capone, Avery C; Ruan, Qing Z; Fukudome, Eugene Y; Ricci, Joseph A; Testa, Marcia A; Dennerlein, Jack T; Lee, Bernard T; Singhal, Dhruv


    The aim of this study was to characterize the current state of surgical ergonomics education in the United States. The burden of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in surgeons is high and no overarching strategy for redress exists. Twelve distinct specialties describe an unmet need for surgical ergonomics education (SEE). This study aimed to define the current state of SEE in U.S. surgical training programs. We performed a descriptive analysis of a 20-item questionnaire of ACGME-certified program directors from 14 surgical and interventional medical specialties. Formal SEE was defined as any organized education module that reviewed the occupation-specific burden of common work-related MSDs and described a framework for prevention via occupation-specific applied ergonomics. Program directors were queried regarding SEE provision, characteristics, and perceived trainee attitude toward the education. Questionnaires were received from 130 of 441 (29.5%) program directors. Two (1.5%) provided formal SEE and 33 (25.4%) provided informal SEE, which consisted of unstructured intraoperative directives and isolated lectures. Two programs previously provided SEE but discontinued the effort due to lack of an evidence-based framework and instructors. Trainees appeared to think that learning surgical ergonomics skills was a worthwhile time investment in 100% and 76.7% of current formal and informal SEE, respectively. SEE is rarely provided in any capacity (25.4%), let alone in a consistent or evaluable fashion (1.5%). Impediments to sustainable SEE include lack of an evidence-based framework for education and instructors. An evidence-based, reproducible, and accreditation council-compliant SEE module would be a valuable resource for the surgical and interventional medical communities.

  8. European Surgical Education and Training in Gynecologic Oncology: The impact of an Accredited Fellowship. (United States)

    Chiva, Luis M; Mínguez, Jose; Querleu, Denis; Cibula, David; du Bois, Andreas


    The aim of this study was to understand the current situation of surgical education and training in Europe among members of the European Society of Gynecological Oncology (ESGO) and its impact on the daily surgical practice of those that have completed an accredited fellowship in gynecologic oncology. A questionnaire addressing topics of interest in surgical training was designed and sent to ESGO members with surgical experience in gynecologic oncology. The survey was completely confidentially and could be completed in less than 5 minutes. Responses from 349 members from 42 European countries were obtained, which was 38% of the potential target population. The respondents were divided into 2 groups depending on whether they had undergone an official accreditation process. Two thirds of respondents said they had received a good surgical education. However, accredited gynecologists felt that global surgical training was significantly better. Surgical self-confidence among accredited specialists was significantly higher regarding most surgical oncological procedures than it was among their peers without such accreditation. However, the rate of self-assurance in ultraradical operations, and bowel and urinary reconstruction was quite low in both groups. There was a general request for standardizing surgical education across the ESGO area. Respondents demanded further training in laparoscopy, ultraradical procedures, bowel and urinary reconstruction, and postoperative management of complications. Furthermore, they requested the creation of fellowship programs in places where they are not now accredited and the promotion of rotations and exchange in centers of excellence. Finally, respondents want supporting training in disadvantaged countries of the ESGO area. Specialists in gynecologic oncology that have obtained a formal accreditation received a significantly better surgical education than those that have not. The ESGO responders recognize that their society should

  9. Impact of a novel education curriculum on surgical training within an academic training program. (United States)

    Lee, Liz; Brunicardi, F Charles; Scott, Bradford G; Berger, David H; Bush, Ruth L; Awad, Samir S; Brandt, Mary L


    The training of the 21st century surgeon has become increasingly complex with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competency requirements and work-hour restrictions. Herein we report the two-year results of a novel problem-based learning education module at a large academic surgery program. All data were prospectively collected from 2004 to 2006 on all categorical residents in the department of surgery (n = 42). Analysis was performed to identify any correlation between class attendance and American Board of Surgery In-Service Training Exam (ABSITE) score performance (percentile change). All data were reported as a mean with a standard error of the mean. Categorical variables were analyzed using a paired Student's t-test. A bivariate correlation was calculated using Spearman's rho correlation. When comparing the 2004 scores (pre-program) to 2006 scores, there was significant score improvement (P attendance and ABSITE score improvement, however, this did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.15). A problem-based learning (PBL) based education program can successfully meet the educational goals of a surgical training program. Furthermore, this program has demonstrated consistent results with maintenance of score improvements through a two-year period.

  10. Hands-On Surgical Training Workshop: an Active Role-Playing Patient Education for Adolescents. (United States)

    Wongkietkachorn, Apinut; Boonyawong, Pangpoom; Rhunsiri, Peera; Tantiphlachiva, Kasaya


    Most patient education involves passive learning. To improve patient education regarding surgery, an active learning workshop-based teaching method is proposed. The objective of this study was to assess level of patient surgical knowledge, achievement of workshop learning objectives, patient apprehension about future surgery, and participant workshop satisfaction after completing a surgical training workshop. A four-station workshop (surgical scrub, surgical suture, laparoscopic surgery, and robotic surgery) was developed to teach four important components of the surgical process. Healthy, surgery-naive adolescents were enrolled to attend this 1-h workshop-based training program. Training received by participants was technically and procedurally identical to training received by actual surgeons. Pre- and post-workshop questionnaires were used to assess learning outcomes. There were 1312 participants, with a mean age 15.9 ± 1.1 years and a gender breakdown of 303 males and 1009 females. For surgical knowledge, mean pre-workshop and post-workshop scores were 6.1 ± 1.5 and 7.5 ± 1.5 (out of 10 points), respectively (p workshop satisfaction scores were all higher than 4.5. Active, hands-on patient education is an effective way to improve understanding of surgery-related processes. This teaching method may also decrease apprehension that patients or potential patients harbor regarding a future surgical procedure.

  11. Mental training in surgical education: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Immenroth, Marc; Bürger, Thomas; Brenner, Jürgen; Nagelschmidt, Manfred; Eberspächer, Hans; Troidl, Hans


    To evaluate the impact of a cognitive training method on the performance of simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomy in laparoscopic training courses. Surgeons are like professional sportsmen in that they have to be able to perform complicated, fine-motor movements under stressful conditions. Mental training, systematically and repeatedly imagining a movement's performance, is a well-established technique in sports science, and this study aimed to determine its value in training surgeons. A total of 98 surgeons undergoing basic laparoscopic training participated in a randomized controlled trial; 31 received additional mental training, 32 additional practical training, and 35 received no additional training (control group). All used a Pelvi-Trainer simulator to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy at baseline and follow-up, after any additional intervention. We used a modified Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) instrument to assess performance. Principle outcome variables were the OSATS task-specific checklist (11 procedural steps, scored as correctly [1] or wrongly [0] performed) and the global rating scale (an overall performance evaluation, scored 1-5). Improvement in the task-specific checklist score between baseline and follow-up differed significantly between groups (P = 0.046 on ANOVA). Least significant difference tests yielded differences between the mental and practical training groups (P = 0.024) and between the mental training and control groups (P = 0.040), but not between the practical training and control groups (P = 0.789). Paired Student t test showed that performance at follow-up was significantly better in the mental training and control groups (mental training group, P = 0.001; control group, P = 0.018) but not the practical training group (P = 0.342). There were no significant intergroup differences in global rating scale results. Additional mental training is an effective way of optimizing the outcomes of further training

  12. Optimizing performance through stress training - An educational strategy for surgical residents. (United States)

    Goldberg, Michael B; Mazzei, Michael; Maher, Zoë; Fish, Joel H; Milner, Richard; Yu, Daohai; Goldberg, Amy J


    Stress management programs improve efficacy in aviation, military, and professional sports; however, similar educational strategies have not been adopted in surgical training. We have evaluated the effectiveness of a stress management program for surgical residents. From 2011 to 2016, 137 surgical residents participated in a prospective, blinded study. The intervention group (n = 65) underwent training in self-awareness, focus, relaxation, positive self-talk, visualization, and team building. All participants subsequently completed a high-stress trauma simulation, requiring diagnosis and management of a life-threatening problem. Study endpoints included measures of procedural efficiency, and physiologic and subjective measurements of anxiety. Residents with stress training came to an accurate diagnosis 21% faster than controls (mean diagnosis time: 2.2 vs. 2.8 min; p = 0.04), and performed with greater technical accuracy (mean OSAT scores: 9.4 vs. 8.9; p = 0.03). Both cohorts exhibited similar physiologic and subjective anxiety metrics after simulation. Stress management education may enhance technical performance in surgical trainees during simulation. This underscores the need for early, comprehensive stress training in surgical residency. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Surgical education and training in an outer metropolitan hospital: a qualitative study of surgical trainers and trainees. (United States)

    Nestel, Debra; Harlim, Jennifer; Bryant, Melanie; Rampersad, Rajay; Hunter-Smith, David; Spychal, Bob


    The landscape of surgical training is changing. The anticipated increase in the numbers of surgical trainees and the shift to competency-based surgical training places pressures on an already stretched health service. With these pressures in mind, we explored trainers' and trainees' experiences of surgical training in a less traditional rotation, an outer metropolitan hospital. We considered practice-based learning theories to make meaning of surgical training in this setting, in particular Actor-network theory. We adopted a qualitative approach and purposively sampled surgical trainers and trainees to participate in individual interviews and focus groups respectively. Transcripts were made and thematically analysed. Institutional human research ethics approval was obtained. Four surgical trainers and fourteen trainees participated. Almost without exception, participants' report training needs to be well met. Emergent inter-related themes were: learning as social activity; learning and programmatic factors; learning and physical infrastructure; and, learning and organizational structure. This outer metropolitan hospital is suited to the provision of surgical training with the current rotational system for trainees. The setting offers experiences that enable consolidation of learning providing a rich and varied overall surgical training program. Although relational elements of learning were paramount they occurred within a complex environment. Actor-network theory was used to give meaning to emergent themes acknowledging that actors (both people and objects) and their interactions combine to influence training quality, shifting the focus of responsibility for learning away from individuals to the complex interactions in which they work and learn.

  14. Postgraduate surgical education and training in Canada and Australia: each may benefit from the other's experiences. (United States)

    Pollett, William G; Waxman, Bruce P


    Canada and Australia share similar cultural origins and current multicultural societies and demographics but there are differences in climate and sporting pursuits. Surgeons and surgeon teachers similarly share many of the same challenges, but the health care and health-care education systems differ in significant ways. The objective of this review is to detail the different postgraduate surgical training programs with a focus on general surgery and how the programs of each country may benefit from appreciating the experiences of the other. The major differences relate to entry requirements, the role of universities in governance of training, mandatory skills courses in early training, the accreditation process, remuneration for surgical teachers and the impact of private practice. Many of the differences are culturally entrenched in their respective medical systems and unlikely to change substantially. Direct entry into specialty training without an internship per se is now firmly established in Canada just as delayed entry after internship is mandated by the Australian Medical Board. Both recognize the importance of establishing goals and objectives, modular curricular and the emerging role of online educational resources and how these may impact on assessments. The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons is unlikely to cede much responsibility to the universities but alternative academic models are emerging. Private health care in the two countries differs, but there are increasing opportunities for training in the private sector in Australia. In spite of the differences, both provide excellent health care and surgical training opportunities in an environment with significant fiscal, technological and societal challenges. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  15. Systematic review of serious games for medical education and surgical skills training. (United States)

    Graafland, M; Schraagen, J M; Schijven, M P


    The application of digital games for training medical professionals is on the rise. So-called 'serious' games form training tools that provide a challenging simulated environment, ideal for future surgical training. Ultimately, serious games are directed at reducing medical error and subsequent healthcare costs. The aim was to review current serious games for training medical professionals and to evaluate the validity testing of such games. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PsychInfo and CINAHL were searched using predefined inclusion criteria for available studies up to April 2012. The primary endpoint was validation according to current criteria. A total of 25 articles were identified, describing a total of 30 serious games. The games were divided into two categories: those developed for specific educational purposes (17) and commercial games also useful for developing skills relevant to medical personnel (13). Pooling of data was not performed owing to the heterogeneity of study designs and serious games. Six serious games were identified that had a process of validation. Of these six, three games were developed for team training in critical care and triage, and three were commercially available games applied to train laparoscopic psychomotor skills. None of the serious games had completed a full validation process for the purpose of use. Blended and interactive learning by means of serious games may be applied to train both technical and non-technical skills relevant to the surgical field. Games developed or used for this purpose need validation before integration into surgical teaching curricula. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Disruptive visions: surgical education. (United States)

    Satava, R M


    Technological change, decreased financial support for medical education, and social oversight (in the form of the "To Err Is Human" report, HIPPA, and reduced work hours) are forcing a rethinking of the traditional model of surgical education to improve patient safety. New approaches to evaluating surgical competence, such as objective assessment, in combination with new technologies, such as the Internet and surgical simulators, provide the tools to effect a revolution in surgical education and training. Competency based upon quantifiable criteria measures must replace the traditional subjective assessment. The implementation requires accurately defining the elements of training, establishing new quantifiable metrics, stringently measuring performance against criterion, and reporting outcomes throughout the career of a surgeon.

  17. Simulation-based education: understanding the socio-cultural complexity of a surgical training 'boot camp'. (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer; Walker, Kenneth G; Gale, Michael; Nicol, Laura G


    The focus of simulation-based education (SBE) research has been limited to outcome and effectiveness studies. The effect of social and cultural influences on SBE is unclear and empirical work is lacking. Our objective in this study was to explore and understand the complexity of context and social factors at a surgical boot camp (BC). A rapid ethnographic study, employing the theoretical lenses of complexity and activity theory and Bourdieu's concept of 'capital', to better understand the socio-cultural influences acting upon, and during, two surgical BCs, and their implications for SBE. Over two 4-day BCs held in Scotland, UK, an observer and two preceptors conducted 81 hours of observations, 14 field interviews and 11 formal interviews with faculty members (n = 10, including the lead faculty member, session leaders and junior faculty members) and participants (n = 19 core surgical trainees and early-stage residents). Data collection and inductive analysis for emergent themes proceeded iteratively. This paper focuses on three analytical themes. First, the complexity of the surgical training system and wider health care education context, and how this influenced the development of the BC. Second, participants' views of the BC as a vehicle not just for learning skills but for gaining 'insider information' on how best to progress in surgical training. Finally, the explicit aim of faculty members to use the Scottish Surgical Bootcamp to welcome trainees and residents into the world of surgery, and how this occurred. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first empirical study of a surgical BC that takes a socio-cultural approach to exploring and understanding context, complexities, uncertainties and learning associated with one example of SBE. Our findings suggest that a BC is as much about social and cultural processes as it is about individual, cognitive and acquisitive learning. Acknowledging this explicitly will help those planning similar enterprises and

  18. 40-4-40: educational and economic outcomes of a free, international surgical training event. (United States)

    Glasbey, James; Sinclair, Piriyah; Mohan, Helen; Harries, Rhiannon


    To demonstrate a model for delivery of an international surgical training event, and demonstrate its educational and economic outcomes. The Association of Surgeons in Training (ASiT) ran a course series on 16 January 2016 across the UK and Ireland. A mandatory, self-reported, online questionnaire collected delegate feedback, using 5-point Likert Scales, and a NetPromoter feedback tool. Precourse and postcourse matched questionnaires were collected for 'Foundation Skills in Surgery' (FSS) courses. Paired economic analysis was performed. Statistical analysis was carried out using RStudio (V.3.1.1 Boston, Massachusetts, USA). Forty courses were held across the UK and Ireland (65.0% technical, 35.0% non-technical), with 184 faculty members. Of 570 delegates, 529 fully completed the feedback survey (92.8% response rate); 56.5% were male. The median age was 26 years (range: 18-67 years). The mean overall course NetPromoter Score was 8.7 out of 10. On logistic regression high NetPromoter Score was associated with completing a Foundation Skills in Surgery course (R=0.44, OR: 1.49, p=0.025) and having clear learning outcomes (R=0.72, OR: 2.04, p=0.029) but not associated with specialty, course style or teaching style. For Foundation Skills in Surgery courses, delegates reported increased commitment to a career in surgery (p<0.001), confidence with basic surgical skills (p<0.001) and confidence with assisting in theatre (p<0.001). A comparable cost saving of £231,462.37 was calculated across the 40 courses. The ASiT '40-4-40' event demonstrated the diversity and depth of surgical training, with 40 synchronous technical and non-technical courses, demonstrable educational benefit and a significant cost saving to surgical trainees. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Systematic review of serious games for medical education and surgical skills training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, M.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Schijven, M.P.


    Background: The application of digital games for training medical professionals is on the rise. So-called ‘serious’ games form training tools that provide a challenging simulated environment, ideal for future surgical training. Ultimately, serious games are directed at reducing medical error and

  20. Systematic review of serious games for medical education and surgical skills training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, M.; Schraagen, J. M.; Schijven, M. P.


    Background: The application of digital games for training medical professionals is on the rise. So-called serious games form training tools that provide a challenging simulated environment, ideal for future surgical training. Ultimately, serious games are directed at reducing medical error and

  1. Mental practice and acquisition of motor skills: examples from sports training and surgical education. (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca G


    Learning surgical skills involves both fine and gross motor skills, and necessitates performance in stressful situations. This environment is similar to the environment in which an athlete performs. Mental imagery has been used successfully in training athletes of all levels of proficiency and enhances both motor skills and motivational skills of performing under stress. The literature of using mental imagery to train surgeons is limited to the teaching of simple surgical skills, but shows promise as another tool to teach technical skills.

  2. Development of the surgical science examination of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons surgical education and training programme: putting the chicken before the egg. (United States)

    Martin, Jenepher; Blennerhassett, John; Hardman, David; Mundy, Julie


    Basic science knowledge is a foundational element of surgical practice. Increasing surgical specialization may merit a reconsideration of the 'whole-body' approach to basic science curriculum in favour of specialty specific depth. The conundrum of depth or breadth of basic science curriculum is currently being addressed by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, which introduced a new surgical education and training programme for nine surgical specialties in 2008. This paper describes an innovative solution to the design of a basic science curriculum in the nine different surgical specialty streams of this programme. The task was to develop a curriculum and rigorous assessment in basic sciences to meet the needs of the training programme, for implementation within the first year. A number of political/cultural and technical issues were identified as critical to success. To achieve a robust assessment within the required time frame attention was paid to engagement, governance, curriculum definition, assessment development, and implementation. The pragmatic solution to curriculum and assessment was to use the existing assessment items and blueprint to determine a new curriculum definition and assessment. The resulting curriculum comprises a generic component, undertaken by all trainees, and specialty specific components. In a time critical environment, a pragmatic solution to curriculum, applied with predetermined, structured and meticulous methodology, allowed explicit definition of breadth for the generic basic science curriculum for surgical training in Australia and New Zealand. Implicit definition of specialty specific-basic science curricula was through the creation of a blueprinted assessment.

  3. Nontechnical skill training and the use of scenarios in modern surgical education. (United States)

    Brunckhorst, Oliver; Khan, Muhammad S; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran


    Nontechnical skills are being increasingly recognized as a core reason of surgical errors. Combined with the changing nature of surgical training, there has therefore been an increase in nontechnical skill research in the literature. This review therefore aims to: define nontechnical skillsets, assess current training methods, explore assessment modalities and suggest future research aims. The literature demonstrates an increasing understanding of the components of nontechnical skills within surgery. This has led to a greater availability of validated training methods for its training, including the use of didactic teaching, e-learning and simulation-based scenarios. In addition, there are now various extensively validated assessment tools for nontechnical skills including NOTSS, the Oxford NOTECHS and OTAS. Finally, there is now more focus on the development of tools which target individual nontechnical skill components and an attempt to understand which of these play a greater role in specific procedures such as laparoscopic or robotic surgery. Current evidence demonstrates various training methods and tools for the training of nontechnical skills. Future research is likely to focus increasingly on individual nontechnical skill components and procedure-specific skills.

  4. Robotic surgical education: a collaborative approach to training postgraduate urologists and endourology fellows. (United States)

    Mirheydar, Hossein; Jones, Marklyn; Koeneman, Kenneth S; Sweet, Robert M


    Currently, robotic training for inexperienced, practicing surgeons is primarily done vis-à-vis industry and/or society-sponsored day or weekend courses, with limited proctorship opportunities. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an extended-proctorship program at up to 32 months of follow-up. An extended-proctorship program for robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy was established at our institution. The curriculum consisted of 3 phases: (1) completing an Intuitive Surgical 2-day robotic training course with company representatives; (2) serving as assistant to a trained proctor on 5 to 6 cases; and (3) performing proctored cases up to 1 year until confidence was achieved. Participants were surveyed and asked to evaluate on a 5-point Likert scale their operative experience in robotics and satisfaction regarding their training. Nine of 9 participants are currently performing robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) independently. Graduates of our program have performed 477 RALP cases. The mean number of cases performed within phase 3 was 20.1 (range, 5 to 40) prior to independent practice. The program received a rating of 4.2/5 for effectiveness in teaching robotic surgery skills. Our robotic program, with extended proctoring, has led to an outstanding take-rate for disseminating robotic skills in a metropolitan community.

  5. Transforming the culture of surgical education: promoting teacher identity through human factors training. (United States)

    Cahan, Mitchell A; Starr, Susan; Larkin, Anne C; Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sullivan, Kate M; Quirk, Mark E


    Promoting a culture of teaching may encourage students to choose a surgical career. Teaching in a human factors (HF) curriculum, the nontechnical skills of surgery, is associated with surgeons' stronger identity as teachers and with clinical students' improved perception of surgery and satisfaction with the clerkship experience. To describe the effects of an HF curriculum on teaching culture in surgery. Surgeons and educators developed an HF curriculum including communication, teamwork, and work-life balance. Teacher identity, student interest in a surgical career, student perception of the HF curriculum, and teaching awards. Ninety-two of 123 faculty and residents in a single program (75% of total) completed a survey on teacher identity. Fifteen of the participants were teachers of HF. Teachers of HF scored higher than control participants on the total score for teacher identity (P teach (P = .008), receiving rewards (P =.01), and HF (P = .02). Third-year clerks indicated that they were more likely to select surgery as their career after the clerkship and rated the curriculum higher when it was taught by surgeons than when taught by educators. Of the teaching awards presented to surgeons during HF years, 100% of those awarded to attending physicians and 80% of those awarded to residents went to teachers of HF. Curricular focus on HF can strengthen teacher identity, improve teacher evaluations, and promote surgery as a career choice.

  6. Evolution of surgical skills training (United States)

    Roberts, Kurt E; Bell, Robert L; Duffy, Andrew J


    Surgical training is changing: one hundred years of tradition is being challenged by legal and ethical concerns for patient safety, work hours restrictions, the cost of operating room time, and complications. Surgical simulation and skills training offers an opportunity to teach and practice advanced skills outside of the operating room environment before attempting them on living patients. Simulation training can be as straight forward as using real instruments and video equipment to manipulate simulated “tissue” in a box trainer. More advanced, virtual reality simulators are now available and ready for widespread use. Early systems have demonstrated their effectiveness and discriminative ability. Newer systems enable the development of comprehensive curricula and full procedural simulations. The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education’s (ACGME) has mandated the development of novel methods of training and evaluation. Surgical organizations are calling for methods to ensure the maintenance of skills, advance surgical training, and to credential surgeons as technically competent. Simulators in their current form have been demonstrated to improve the operating room performance of surgical residents. Development of standardized training curricula remains an urgent and important agenda, particularly for minimal invasive surgery. An innovative and progressive approach, borrowing experiences from the field of aviation, can provide the foundation for the next century of surgical training, ensuring the quality of the product. As the technology develops, the way we practice will continue to evolve, to the benefit of physicians and patients. PMID:16718842

  7. Virtual reality in surgical training. (United States)

    Lange, T; Indelicato, D J; Rosen, J M


    Virtual reality in surgery and, more specifically, in surgical training, faces a number of challenges in the future. These challenges are building realistic models of the human body, creating interface tools to view, hear, touch, feel, and manipulate these human body models, and integrating virtual reality systems into medical education and treatment. A final system would encompass simulators specifically for surgery, performance machines, telemedicine, and telesurgery. Each of these areas will need significant improvement for virtual reality to impact medicine successfully in the next century. This article gives an overview of, and the challenges faced by, current systems in the fast-changing field of virtual reality technology, and provides a set of specific milestones for a truly realistic virtual human body.

  8. [Professionalization of surgical education in the daily clinical routine. Training concept of the Surgical Working Group for Teaching of the German Society of Surgery]. (United States)

    Adili, F; Kadmon, M; König, S; Walcher, F


    For competency-oriented teaching in surgery a comprehensive medical educational training and professionalization of clinical teachers is essential. The Surgical Working Group for Teaching has therefore set itself the task of developing an appropriate training concept. In the first step the core group took stock of the most relevant educational barriers in the clinical environment. Taking into account these findings a trimodular course was devised that addressed both previous knowledge and different clinical functions of the faculty as well as modern concepts of competency-based academic teaching. The A course is designed for medical teaching of novices with a focus on collation of the medical history, clinical examination and teaching of practical skills. The B course is devised for experienced clinicians and should qualify them for competency-based teaching in complex educational scenarios, such as the operating room or ward rounds, while the C course is directed to a group of persons entrusted with the organization and administration of clinical teaching.

  9. Surgical Training in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borel Rinkes, I.H.M.; Gouma, D.J.; Hamming, J.F.


    Surgical training in the Netherlands has traditionally been characterized by learning on the job under the classic master-trainee doctrine. Over the past decades, it has become regionally organized with intensive structural training courses, and a peer-based quality control system. Recently,

  10. Simulation-based surgical education. (United States)

    Evgeniou, Evgenios; Loizou, Peter


    The reduction in time for training at the workplace has created a challenge for the traditional apprenticeship model of training. Simulation offers the opportunity for repeated practice in a safe and controlled environment, focusing on trainees and tailored to their needs. Recent technological advances have led to the development of various simulators, which have already been introduced in surgical training. The complexity and fidelity of the available simulators vary, therefore depending on our recourses we should select the appropriate simulator for the task or skill we want to teach. Educational theory informs us about the importance of context in professional learning. Simulation should therefore recreate the clinical environment and its complexity. Contemporary approaches to simulation have introduced novel ideas for teaching teamwork, communication skills and professionalism. In order for simulation-based training to be successful, simulators have to be validated appropriately and integrated in a training curriculum. Within a surgical curriculum, trainees should have protected time for simulation-based training, under appropriate supervision. Simulation-based surgical education should allow the appropriate practice of technical skills without ignoring the clinical context and must strike an adequate balance between the simulation environment and simulators. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  11. Laparoscopy training in surgical education: the utility of incorporating a structured preclinical laparoscopy course into the traditional apprenticeship method. (United States)

    De Win, Gunter; Van Bruwaene, Siska; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Crea, Nicola; Zhang, Zhewen; De Ridder, Dirk; Miserez, Marc


    To investigate whether preclinical laparoscopy training offers a benefit over standard apprenticeship training and apprenticeship training in combination with simulation training. This randomized controlled trial consisted of 3 groups of first-year surgical registrars receiving a different teaching method in laparoscopic surgery. The KU LEUVEN Faculty of Medicine is the largest medical faculty in Belgium. Thirty final-year medical students starting a general surgical career in the next academic year. Thirty final-year medical students were randomized into 3 groups, which differed in the way they were exposed to laparoscopic simulation training but were comparable in regard to ambidexterity, sex, age, and laparoscopic psychomotoric skills. The control group received only clinical training during surgical residentship, whereas the interval group received clinical training in combination with simulation training. The registrars were allowed to do deliberate practice. The Centre for Surgical Technologies Preclinical Training Programme (CST PTP) group received a preclinical simulation course during the final year as medical students, but was not exposed to any extra simulation training during surgical residentship. At the beginning of surgical residentship and 6 months later, all subjects performed a standardized suturing task and a laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a POP Trainer. All procedures were recorded together with time and motion tracking parameters. All videos were scored by a blinded observer using global rating scales. At baseline the 3 groups were comparable. At 6 months, for suturing, the CST PTP group was better than both the other groups with respect to time, checklist, and amount of movements. The interval group was better than the control group on only the time and checklist score. For the cholecystectomy evaluation, there was a statistical difference between the CST PTP study group and both other groups on all evaluation scales in favor of the CST PTP

  12. Using dummies for surgical skills training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke


    teaching methods for veterinary surgical training. At the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, a number of low fidelity, stuffed toy animal dummies was developed for the Surgical Skills Lab in order to teach 4th year students the basic surgical skills. In the Surgical...... so that it is ready for the next person. The Surgical Skills Lab seems to be a useful educational tool that provides students with a safe opportunity to practise before live animal surgery. The dummies, whose major parts are reusable and whose disposable parts are cheap and easily accessible makes...... procedures on research animals, in order to learn the basic skills along the way. From an ethical point of view it is questionable however to use live research animals for the sole purpose of practising surgery, and also, research animals are very costly. It is therefore necessary to identify alternative...

  13. Achieving Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty hours compliance within advanced surgical training: a simulation-based feasibility assessment. (United States)

    Obi, Andrea; Chung, Jennifer; Chen, Ryan; Lin, Wandi; Sun, Siyuan; Pozehl, William; Cohn, Amy M; Daskin, Mark S; Seagull, F Jacob; Reddy, Rishindra M


    Certain operative cases occur unpredictably and/or have long operative times, creating a conflict between Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) rules and adequate training experience. A ProModel-based simulation was developed based on historical data. Probabilistic distributions of operative time calculated and combined with an ACGME compliant call schedule. For the advanced surgical cases modeled (cardiothoracic transplants), 80-hour violations were 6.07% and the minimum number of days off was violated 22.50%. There was a 36% chance of failure to fulfill any (either heart or lung) minimum case requirement despite adequate volume. The variable nature of emergency cases inevitably leads to work hour violations under ACGME regulations. Unpredictable cases mandate higher operative volume to ensure achievement of adequate caseloads. Publically available simulation technology provides a valuable avenue to identify adequacy of case volumes for trainees in both the elective and emergency setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relationship of Endoscopic Proficiency to Educational Expense for Virtual Reality Simulator Training Amongst Surgical Trainees. (United States)

    Raque, Jessica; Goble, Adam; Jones, Veronica M; Waldman, Lindsey E; Sutton, Erica


    With the introduction of Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery, training methods in flexible endoscopy are being augmented with simulation-based curricula. The investment for virtual reality simulators warrants further research into its training advantage. Trainees were randomized into bedside or simulator training groups (BED vs SIM). SIM participated in a proficiency-based virtual reality curriculum. Trainees' endoscopic skills were rated using the Global Assessment of Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Skills (GAGES) in the patient care setting. The number of cases to reach 90 per cent of the maximum GAGES score and calculated costs of training were compared. Nineteen residents participated in the study. There was no difference in the average number of cases required to achieve 90 per cent of the maximum GAGES score for esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 13 (SIM) versus11 (BED) (P = 0.63), or colonoscopy 21 (SIM) versus 4 (BED) (P = 0.34). The average per case cost of training for esophagogastroduodenoscopy was $35.98 (SIM) versus $39.71 (BED) (P = 0.50), not including the depreciation costs associated with the simulator ($715.00 per resident over six years). Use of a simulator appeared to increase the cost of training without accelerating the learning curve or decreasing faculty time spent in instruction. The importance of simulation in endoscopy training will be predicated on more cost-effective simulators.

  15. Virtual reality in surgical education. (United States)

    Ota, D; Loftin, B; Saito, T; Lea, R; Keller, J


    Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging technology that can teach surgeons new procedures and can determine their level of competence before they operate on patients. Also VR allows the trainee to return to the same procedure or task several times later as a refresher course. Laparoscopic surgery is a new operative technique which requires the surgeon to observe the operation on a video-monitor and requires the acquisition of new skills. VR simulation could duplicate the operative field and thereby enhance training and reduce the need for expensive animal training models. Our preliminary experience has shown that we have the technology to model tissues and laparoscopic instruments and to develop in real time a VR learning environment for surgeons. Another basic need is to measure competence. Surgical training is an apprenticeship requiring close supervision and 5-7 years of training. Technical competence is judged by the mentor and has always been subjective. If VR surgical simulators are to play an important role in the future, quantitative measurement of competence would have to be part of the system. Because surgical competence is "vague" and is characterized by such terms as "too long, too short" or "too close, too far," it is possible that the principles of fuzzy logic could be used to measure competence in a VR surgical simulator. Because a surgical procedure consists of a series of tasks and each task is a series of steps, we will plan to create two important tasks in a VR simulator and validate their use. These tasks consist of laparoscopic knot tying and laparoscopic suturing. Our hypothesis is that VR in combination with fuzzy logic can educate surgeons and determine when they are competent to perform these procedures on patients.

  16. Incorporating simulation into gynecologic surgical training. (United States)

    Wohlrab, Kyle; Jelovsek, J Eric; Myers, Deborah


    Today's educational environment has made it more difficult to rely on the Halstedian model of "see one, do one, teach one" in gynecologic surgical training. There is decreased surgical volume, but an increased number of surgical modalities. Fortunately, surgical simulation has evolved to fill the educational void. Whether it is through skill generalization or skill transfer, surgical simulation has shifted learning from the operating room back to the classroom. This article explores the principles of surgical education and ways to introduce simulation as an adjunct to residency training. We review high- and low-fidelity surgical simulators, discuss the progression of surgical skills, and provide options for skills competency assessment. Time and money are major hurdles when designing a simulation curriculum, but low-fidelity models, intradepartmental cost sharing, and utilizing local experts for simulation proctoring can aid in developing a simulation program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 3D-Printed Models of Cleft Lip and Palate for Surgical Training and Patient Education. (United States)

    Chou, Pang-Yun; Hallac, Rami R; Shih, Ellen; Trieu, Jenny; Penumatcha, Anjani; Das, Priyanka; Meyer, Clark A; Seaward, James R; Kane, Alex A


    Sculpted physical models and castings of the anatomy of cleft lip and palate are used for parent, patient, and trainee education of cleft lip and palate conditions. In this study, we designed a suite of digital 3-dimensional (3D) models of cleft lip and palate anatomy with additive manufacturing techniques for patient education. CT scans of subjects with isolated cleft palate, unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate, and a control were obtained. Soft tissue and bony structures were segmented and reconstructed into digital 3D models. The oral soft tissues overlying the cleft palate were manually molded with silicone putty and scanned using CT to create digital 3D models. These were then combined with the original model to integrate with segmentable soft tissues. Bone and soft tissues were 3D printed in different materials to mimic the rigidity/softness of the relevant anatomy. These models were presented to the parents/patients at our craniofacial clinic. Visual analog scale (VAS) surveys were obtained pertaining to the particular use of the models, to ascertain their value in parental education. A total of 30 parents of children with cleft conditions completed VAS evaluations. The models provided the parents with a better understanding of their child's condition with an overall evaluation score of 9.35 ± 0.5. We introduce a suite of 3D-printed models of cleft conditions that has a useful role in patient, parental, and allied health education with highly positive feedback.

  18. Using dummies for surgical skills training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke


    teaching methods for veterinary surgical training. At the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, a number of low fidelity, stuffed toy animal dummies was developed for the Surgical Skills Lab in order to teach 4th year students the basic surgical skills. In the Surgical...... this a relatively low budget solution with a big ethical benefit....

  19. Surgical registrars' perceptions of surgical training and capacity in Zambia: Results from three COSECSA affiliated training hospitals. (United States)

    Freitas, Derek M; Munthali, James; Musowoya, Joseph; Ismail, Hebah; Herbst, Allyson; Chikoya, Laston; Dhage, Shubhada; Hopkins, Mary Ann


    Surgery is a vital component of a comprehensive health system, but there are often personnel limitations in resource constrained areas. Zambia provides post graduate surgical training through two systems to help address this shortage. However, no studies have analyzed surgical trainees' perceptions of these programs. Surgical registrars at COSECSA affiliated hospitals in Zambia were surveyed about their programs. Responses were analyzed to identify key strengths and challenges across several categories including: operative training, clinical training, educational experiences, and career plans. Registrars report having significant independence and receiving broad and high quality operative training. They note specific challenges including limitations in specialty training, resources, and infrastructure. Zambian training programs have the potential to increase number of surgeons in Zambia by a significant amount in the coming years. These programs have many strengths but also face challenges in their goal to expand surgical access in the country. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Implementation of a novel portfolio of structured, curriculum-aligned, simulation-based, cardiothoracic surgery training courses: Evolving the delivery of surgical education. (United States)

    Moorjani, Narain; Lewis, Michael; Shah, Rajesh; Barnard, Sion; Graham, Tim; Rathinam, Sridhar


    The provision of high-quality cardiothoracic surgical training faces many challenges. This has generated an increased interest in simulation-based learning, which can provide a less stressful environment for deliberate practice. We developed a comprehensive, structured program of knowledge and simulation-based learning aligned to the official cardiothoracic surgery curriculum. A portfolio of 10 curriculum-aligned training courses was designed for cardiothoracic surgical trainees during their 6-year training program. The courses were delivered through a multitude of education methods, including live porcine operating simulation models, and were evaluated through a series of quantitative (5-point Likert-scale) and qualitative assessments. The trainees (n = 15-21 per course) also completed pre- and postsession self-confidence and competency levels for each training episode of knowledge and skill, respectively. In addition, board examination pass rates were assessed in the 3-year periods before and after implementation of the courses. Quantitative analysis of the trainees' feedback demonstrated an extremely positive view of the portfolio of the simulation-based training courses with excellent satisfaction scores (out of 5) for teaching sessions (4.44 ± 0.07), faculty (4.64 ± 0.07), content and materials (4.63 ± 0.07), and facilities (4.73 ± 0.05). The courses have shown a significant improvement in the post-self-confidence (7.98 ± 0.13 vs 5.62 ± 0.20, P training in cardiothoracic surgery. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Thoracic surgical resident education: a costly endeavor. (United States)

    Calhoon, John H; Baisden, Clint; Holler, Ben; Hicks, George L; Bove, Ed L; Wright, Cameron D; Merrill, Walter H; Fullerton, Dave A


    We sought to define an accurate measure of thoracic surgical education costs. Program directors from six distinct and differently sized and geographically located thoracic surgical training programs used a common template to provide estimates of resident educational costs. These data were reviewed, clarifying questions or discrepancies when noted and using best estimates when exact data were unavailable. Subsequently, a composite of previously published cost-estimation products was used to capture accurate cost data. Data were then compiled and averaged to provide an accurate picture of all costs associated with thoracic surgical education. Before formal accounting was performed, the estimated average for all programs was approximately $250,000 per year per resident. However, when formal evaluations by the six programs were performed, the annual cost of resident education ranged from $330,000 to $667,000 per year per resident. The average cost of $483,000 per year was almost double the initial estimates. Variability was noted by region and size of program. Faculty teaching costs varied from $208,000 to $346,000 per year. Simulation costs ranged from $0 to $80,000 per year. Resident savings to program ranged from $0 to $135,000 per year and averaged $37,000 per year per resident. Thoracic surgical education costs are considerably higher than initial estimates from program directors and probably represent an unappreciated source of financial burden for cardiothoracic surgical educational programs. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Integration of Surgical Residency Training With US Military Humanitarian Missions. (United States)

    Jensen, Shane; Tadlock, Matthew D; Douglas, Trent; Provencher, Matthew; Ignacio, Romeo C


    To describe how the US Navy integrates surgical resident training during hospital ship-based humanitarian activities and discuss the potential operative and educational benefits during these missions. Retrospective review of predeployment surgical plans, operative case logs, and after-action reports from United States Naval Ship (USNS) Mercy humanitarian deployments from 2006 to 2012. The USNS Mercy hospital ship. We enrolled 24 surgical residents from different surgical specialties including general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, urology, otolaryngology, and ophthalmology. During 4 planned deployments (2006-2012), 2887 surgical procedures were performed during 20 humanitarian missions conducted by the USNS Mercy in 9 different Southeast Asian countries. Of all the general surgery eligible procedures performed, 1483 (79%) were defined categories under the current general surgery Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines, including abdominal (31%); skin, soft tissue, and breast (21%); ear, nose, and throat (20.5%); plastic surgery (15.5%); and pediatric (12%) cases. The number of surgical cases completed by each resident ranged from 30 to 67 cases over a period of 4 to 6 weeks during the overseas humanitarian rotation. The US Navy's humanitarian experience provides a unique educational opportunity for young military surgeons to experience various global health systems, diverse cultures, and complex logistical planning without sacrificing the breadth and depth of surgical training. This model may provide a framework to develop future international electives for other general surgery training programs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. [Simulation-based robot-assisted surgical training]. (United States)

    Kolontarev, K B; Govorov, A V; Rasner, P I; Sheptunov, S A; Prilepskaya, E A; Maltsev, E G; Pushkar, D Yu


    Since the first use of robotic surgical system in 2000, the robot-assisted technology has gained wide popularity throughout the world. Robot-assisted surgical training is a complex issue that requires significant efforts from students and teacher. During the last two decades, simulation-based training had received active development due to wide-spread occurrence and popularization of laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgical techniques. We performed a systematic review to identify the currently available simulators for robot-assisted surgery. We searched the Medline and Pubmed, English sources of literature data, using the following key words and phrases: "robotics", "robotic surgery", "computer assisted surgery", "simulation", "computer simulation", "virtual reality", "surgical training", and "surgical education". There were identified 565 publications, which meet the key words and phrases; 19 publications were selected for the final analysis. It was established that simulation-based training is the most promising teaching tool that can be used in the training of the next generation robotic surgeons. Today the use of simulators to train surgeons is validated. Price of devices is an obvious barrier for inclusion in the program for training of robotic surgeons, but the lack of this tool will result in a sharp increase in the duration of specialists training.

  4. Surgical education and adult learning: Integrating theory into practice. (United States)

    Rashid, Prem


    Surgical education continues to evolve from the master-apprentice model. Newer methods of the process need to be used to manage the dual challenges of educating while providing safe surgical care. This requires integrating adult learning concepts into delivery of practical training and education in busy clinical environments. A narrative review aimed at outlining and integrating adult learning and surgical education theory was undertaken. Additionally, this information was used to relate the practical delivery of surgical training and education in day-to-day surgical practice. Concepts were sourced from reference material. Additional material was found using a PubMed search of the words: 'surgical education theory' and 'adult learning theory medical'. This yielded 1351 abstracts, of which 43 articles with a focus on key concepts in adult education theory were used. Key papers were used to formulate structure and additional cross-referenced papers were included where appropriate. Current concepts within adult learning have a lot to offer when considering how to better deliver surgical education and training. Better integration of adult learning theory can be fruitful. Individual teaching surgical units need to rethink their paradigms and consider how each individual can contribute to the education experience. Up skilling courses for trainers can do much to improve the delivery of surgical education. Understanding adult learning concepts and integrating these into day-to-day teaching can be valuable.

  5. Virtual reality simulation in endovascular surgical training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tsang, J S


    Shortened trainingtimes duetothe European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and increased public scrutiny of surgical competency have led to a move away from the traditional apprenticeship model of training. Virtual reality (VR) simulation is a fascinating innovation allowing surgeons to develop without the need to practice on real patients and it may be a solution to achieve competency within a shortened training period.

  6. [Modern didactics in surgical education--between demand and reality]. (United States)

    Pape-Köhler, C; Chmelik, C; Rose, M; Heiss, M M


    Surgical residency contains an inadequate amount of hands-on training in the operating room and time constraints further make this type of education on the floor unlikely. Due to these deficits in residency training, private surgical courses outside of the established residency programmes are in high demand. Therefore, surgical residents must spend their own resources and time in addition to their residency training in order to receive adequate clinical exposure. Didactic approaches like problem-based learning have begun to influence our modern education. These novel education approaches along with visualisation training, video-based presentations, and multimedia-based training can be useful adjuncts to traditional surgical training. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart ˙ New York.

  7. Overcoming Complications Through Pre-patient Surgical Training in Otolaryngology. (United States)

    Mostaan, Leila Vazifeh; Poursadegh, Mahdi; Pourhamze, Mojgan; Roknabadi, Koorush; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi


    Planning a balanced academic and practical surgical curriculum that is parallel to the constant innovations in surgical fields is the cornerstone of surgical education. Current training methods have coinciding benefits and drawbacks. In this study, we compare the efficacy of two learning models: pre-patient training outside the operating room versus step-by-step training on real patients in the operating room. Facial nerve preservation in superficial parotidectomy is the surgical model used in the study. Five otolaryngology residents in the third year of their residency participated in this study. They were divided into two groups: a treatment group which underwent a pre-patient training program by cadaver dissection and a control group which followed a step-by-step training model. At the end of the study, significant differences were apparent between two groups in the ability to find facial nerve trunk, microdissection of facial nerve branches, and the mean duration of total operating time. Pre-patient training programs outside the operating room provide surgical residents the opportunity to learn by trial and error without fear of complications.

  8. Sawbones laboratory in orthopedic surgical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar M. Hetaimish


    Full Text Available Sawbones are artificial bones designed to simulate the bone architecture, as well as the bone’s physical properties. The incorporation of sawbones simulation laboratories in many orthopedic training programs has provided the residents with flexibility in learning and scheduling that align with their working hour limitations. This review paper deliberates the organization of sawbones simulation in orthopedic surgical training to enhance trainee’s future learning. In addition, it explores the implications of sawbones simulation in orthopedic surgical teaching and evaluation. It scrutinizes the suitability of practicing on sawbones at the simulation laboratory to improve orthopedic trainee’s learning. This will be followed with recommendations for future enhancement of sawbones simulation-based learning in orthopedic surgical training.

  9. Using dummies for surgical skills training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke


    teaching methods for veterinary surgical training. At the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, a number of low fidelity, stuffed toy animal dummies was developed for the Surgical Skills Lab in order to teach 4th year students the basic surgical skills. In the Surgical...... Skills Lab fifteen stations guide the students through specific surgical or surgery-related basic skills that students prepare for on-line. The majority of stations consist of dummies made from simple materials such as stuffed toy animals, balloons, beads, corn flour and rubber tubing. Students move from...... station to station at own pace and succession but all stations must be completed within two days. A part from teachers’ supervision, each station has written step-by-step instructions, and teachers instruct students to instruct each other. After completing a task/station the student must restore the dummy...

  10. Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism: a comparative assessment of virtue-based leadership development in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents (United States)

    Schulz, Kristine; Puscas, Liana; Tucci, Debara; Woodard, Charles; Witsell, David; Esclamado, Ramon M.; Lee, Walter T.


    Introduction Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism (STEPP) was developed in 2011 to train tomorrow's leaders during residency. It is based on virtue ethics and takes an approach similar to West Point military academy. The purpose of this research was: (i) to compare the virtue profiles of our residents with that of the military cohort using a standardized virtue assessment tool; and (ii) to assess the value of virtue education on residents. Methods As part of STEPP, otolaryngology residents participated in a virtue-based validated assessment tool called Virtue in Action (VIA) Inventory. This was completed at the initiation of STEPP in July 2011 as well as 1 year later in June 2012. Comparison of the VIA to a military cohort was performed. Leadership ‘Basic Training’ is a series of forums focused on virtues of initiative, integrity, responsibility, self-discipline, and accountability. A pre- and post-test was administered assessing resident perceptions of the value of this ‘Basic Training’. Results Virtues are shared between otolaryngology residents (n=9) and military personnel (n=2,433) as there were no significant differences in strength scores between two military comparison groups and otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) residents. There was a significant improvement (p<0.001) in the understanding of components of the leadership vision and a significant improvement in the understanding of key leadership concepts based on ‘Basic Training’. All residents responded in the post-test that the STEPP program was valuable, up from 56%. Conclusions A virtue-based approach is valued by residents as a part of leadership training during residency. PMID:24172053

  11. Virtual reality simulation for the operating room: proficiency-based training as a paradigm shift in surgical skills training. (United States)

    Gallagher, Anthony G; Ritter, E Matt; Champion, Howard; Higgins, Gerald; Fried, Marvin P; Moses, Gerald; Smith, C Daniel; Satava, Richard M


    To inform surgeons about the practical issues to be considered for successful integration of virtual reality simulation into a surgical training program. The learning and practice of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) makes unique demands on surgical training programs. A decade ago Satava proposed virtual reality (VR) surgical simulation as a solution for this problem. Only recently have robust scientific studies supported that vision A review of the surgical education, human-factor, and psychology literature to identify important factors which will impinge on the successful integration of VR training into a surgical training program. VR is more likely to be successful if it is systematically integrated into a well-thought-out education and training program which objectively assesses technical skills improvement proximate to the learning experience. Validated performance metrics should be relevant to the surgical task being trained but in general will require trainees to reach an objectively determined proficiency criterion, based on tightly defined metrics and perform at this level consistently. VR training is more likely to be successful if the training schedule takes place on an interval basis rather than massed into a short period of extensive practice. High-fidelity VR simulations will confer the greatest skills transfer to the in vivo surgical situation, but less expensive VR trainers will also lead to considerably improved skills generalizations. VR for improved performance of MIS is now a reality. However, VR is only a training tool that must be thoughtfully introduced into a surgical training curriculum for it to successfully improve surgical technical skills.

  12. Training and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, E.; Oria, M.


    The paper deals with problems of training and education in a developing country which decided to launch a nuclear propramme. The aims of training and education under such circumstances are described and tecniques for accomplishing these aims are suggested [fr

  13. Subspecialist training in surgical gynecological oncology in the nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Sofie L; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B


    To survey the centers that can provide subspecialty surgical training and education in gynecological oncology in the Nordic countries we developed an online questionnaire in cooperation with the Nordic Society of Gynecological Oncology. The link to the survey was mailed to 22 Scandinavian...... gynecological centers in charge of surgical treatment of cancer patients. Twenty centers (91%) participated. Four centers reported to be accredited European subspecialty training centers, a further six were interested in being accredited, and 11 centers were accredited by the respective National Board. Fourteen...... (74%) centers were interested in being listed for exchange of fellows. Our data show a large Nordic potential and interest in improving the gynecologic oncology standards and can be used to enhance the awareness of gynecological oncology training in Scandinavia and to facilitate the exchange...

  14. Educational and training aspects of new surgical techniques: experience with the endoscopic–laparoscopic interdisciplinary training entity (ELITE) model in training for a natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach to appendectomy. (United States)

    Gillen, Sonja; Gröne, Jörn; Knödgen, Fritz; Wolf, Petra; Meyer, Michael; Friess, Helmut; Buhr, Heinz-Johannes; Ritz, Jörg-Peter; Feussner, Hubertus; Lehmann, Kai S


    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a new surgical concept that requires training before it is introduced into clinical practice. The endoscopic–laparoscopic interdisciplinary training entity (ELITE) is a training model for NOTES interventions. The latest research has concentrated on new materials for organs with realistic optical and haptic characteristics and the possibility of high-frequency dissection. This study aimed to assess both the ELITE model in a surgical training course and the construct validity of a newly developed NOTES appendectomy scenario. The 70 attendees of the 2010 Practical Course for Visceral Surgery (Warnemuende, Germany) took part in the study and performed a NOTES appendectomy via a transsigmoidal access. The primary end point was the total time required for the appendectomy, including retrieval of the appendix. Subjective evaluation of the model was performed using a questionnaire. Subgroups were analyzed according to laparoscopic and endoscopic experience. The participants with endoscopic or laparoscopic experience completed the task significantly faster than the inexperienced participants (p = 0.009 and 0.019, respectively). Endoscopic experience was the strongest influencing factor, whereas laparoscopic experience had limited impact on the participants with previous endoscopic experience. As shown by the findings, 87.3% of the participants stated that the ELITE model was suitable for the NOTES training scenario, and 88.7% found the newly developed model anatomically realistic. This study was able to establish face and construct validity for the ELITE model with a large group of surgeons. The ELITE model seems to be well suited for the training of NOTES as a new surgical technique in an established gastrointestinal surgery skills course.

  15. Review of influential articles in surgical education: 2002-2012. (United States)

    Wohlauer, Max V; George, Brian; Lawrence, Peter F; Pugh, Carla M; Van Eaton, Erik G; Darosa, Debra


    Exploring the trends in surgical education research offers insight into concerns, developments, and questions researchers are exploring that are relevant to teaching and learning in surgical specialties. We conducted a review of the surgical education literature published between 2002 and 2012. The purpose was 2-fold: to provide an overview of the most frequently cited articles in the field of surgical education during the last decade and to describe the study designs and themes featured in these articles. Articles were identified through Web of Science by using "surgical education" and "English language" as search terms. Using a feature in Web of Science, we tracked the number of citations of any publication. Of the 800 articles produced by the initial search, we initially selected 23 articles with 45 or more citations, and ultimately chose the 20 articles that were most frequently cited for our analysis. Analysis of the most frequently cited articles published in US journals between the years 2002-2012 identified 7 research themes and presented them in order of frequency with which they appear: use of simulation, issues in student/resident assessment, specialty choice, patient safety, team training, clinical competence assessment, and teaching the clinical sciences, with surgical simulation being the central theme. Researchers primarily used descriptive methods. Popular themes in surgical education research illuminate the information needs of surgical educators as well as topics of high interest to the surgical community.

  16. Mohs Surgical Reconstruction Educational Activity: a resident education tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croley JA


    Full Text Available Julie A Croley,1 C Helen Malone,1 Brandon P Goodwin,1 Linda G Phillips,2 Eric L Cole,2 Richard F Wagner1 1Department of Dermatology, 2Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA Background: Surgical reconstructive planning following Mohs surgery can be a difficult subject for dermatology residents to master. Prior research demonstrates that active learning is preferred and more effective compared to passive learning models and that dermatology residents desire greater complexity and volume in surgical training. We present a novel, active, problem-based learning tool for the education of Mohs reconstruction with the goal of improving residents’ ability to plan surgical reconstructions.Materials and methods: The Mohs Surgical Reconstruction Educational Activity is an active, problem-based learning activity in which residents designed repairs for planned Mohs defects prior to surgery on an iPad application or on a printed photograph. The attending Mohs surgeon reviewed the reconstructive designs, provided feedback, guided discussion, and facilitated insight into additional issues requiring further review. Residents performed or observed the Mohs and reconstructive surgical procedures for respective repairs. Surveys were administered to participants before and after participating in the Mohs Surgical Reconstruction Educational Activity to assess the educational value of the activity. Survey responses were recorded on a 5-point Likert scale.Results: Mean participant-reported confidence in flap and graft knowledge, flap and graft planning, and flap and graft performance increased 1.50–2.50 Likert scale points upon completion of the Mohs surgery rotation by residents participating in the educational activity. The observed trend was larger in the dermatology resident subset, with increases of 2.00–3.50 Likert scale points reported for these questions. Mean participant

  17. [Evaluation of a face model for surgical education]. (United States)

    Schneider, G; Voigt, S; Rettinger, G


    The complex anatomy of the human face requires a high degree of experience and skills in surgical dressing of facial soft tissue defects. The previous education contains literature studies and supervision during surgery, according to surgical spectrum of the educating hospital. A structured education including a training of different surgical methods on a model and slow increase of complexity could improve considerably the following education related to the patient.During a cooperative project, the 3 di GmbH and the Department of Otolaryngology at the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena developed a face model for surgical education that allows the training of surgical interventions in the face. The model was used during the 6th and 8th Jena Workshop for Functional and Aesthetic Surgery as well as a workshop for surgical suturation, and tested and evaluated by the attendees.The attendees mostly rated the work-ability of the models and the possibility to practice on a realistic face model with artificial skin very well and beneficial. This model allows a repeatable and structured education of surgical standards, and is very helpful in preparation for operating facial defects of a patient. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. [Evaluation of technical skills in surgical training]. (United States)

    Kasparian, Andres C; Martinez, A C; JoverClos, R J; Chércoles, R A


    technical skills acquisition is considered to be of paramount importance in surgical training. Yet, formal assessment of technical skills is the weakest and less developed area. Currently available resources to evaluate technical skills are largely subjective, and lack of validity and reliability. Direct observation, one of the most frequently used methods, is largely biased by interpersonal subjectivity and personality traits. We propose the creation and use of a new procedure-specific tool for objective assessment of technical skills in surgery to evaluate validity and reliability. laparoscopic cholecystectomy and Lichstenstein's inguinal hernia repair were the chosen procedures. Three groups of comparison were defined according to surgical expertise: initial, intermediate, and experts. Surgeries were videorecorded in real time without identification of the patient or the surgeon. Tapes without any posterior edition were assigned to two expert surgeons in a blind and randomized sequence. A newly proposed procedure-specific rating scale was used for evaluation, as well as Reznick's OSATS global scale. Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test was used to assess validity. p 0.8 granted reliability. from April 2010 to December 2012 36 laparoscopic cholecystectomies and 31 inguinal hernia repairs were recorded. Significant difference was found among groups of comparison for every item (ptechnical skills in surgery is feasible and useful. The tool we proposed showed construct validity and reliability. Video recording of surgical procedures grants durability over time to an ephemeral phenomenon. The objectivity is based on the explicit statements and quantification of every step to be evaluated, and the blind randomization and anonymous treatment of the sample. Sharing the same quality criteria between evaluators is of paramount importance to reach satisfactory results. The process of evaluation always implies a shortened view of the reality.

  19. Development of a tool for evaluating multimedia for surgical education. (United States)

    Coughlan, Jane; Morar, Sonali S


    Educational multimedia has been designed to provide surgical trainees with expert operative information outside of the operating theater. The effectiveness of multimedia (e.g., CD-ROMs) for learning has been a common research topic since the 1990s. To date, however, little discussion has taken place on the mechanisms to evaluate the quality of multimedia-driven teaching. This may be because of a lack of research into the development of appropriate tools for evaluating multimedia, especially for surgical education. This paper reports on a small-scale pilot and exploratory study (n = 12) that developed a tool for surgical multimedia evaluation. The validity of the developed tool was established through adaptation of an existing tool, which was reviewed using experts in surgery, usability, and education. The reliability of the developed tool was tested with surgical trainees who used it to assess a multimedia CD-ROM created for teaching basic surgical skills. The findings contribute to an understanding of surgical trainees' experience of using educational multimedia, in terms of characteristics of the learning material for interface design and content and the process of developing evaluation tools, in terms of inclusion of appropriate assessment criteria. The increasing use of multimedia in medical education necessitates the development of standardized tools for determining the quality of teaching and learning. Little research exists into the development of such tools and so the present work stimulates discussion on how to evaluate surgical training.

  20. Training program for fundamental surgical skill in robotic laparoscopic surgery. (United States)

    Suh, Irene; Mukherjee, Mukul; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun


    Although the use of robotic laparoscopic surgery has increased in popularity, training protocols for gaining proficiency in robotic surgical skills are not well established. The purpose of this study was to examine a fundamental training program that provides an effective approach to evaluate and improve robotic surgical skills performance using the da Vinci(™) Surgical System. Fifteen medical students without any robotic surgical experience were recruited. Participants went through a 4-day training program for developing fundamental robotic surgical skills and received a retention test 1 day after the completion of training. Data analysis included time to task completion, average speed, total distance traveled and movement curvature of the instrument tips, and muscle activities of the participants' forearms. Surgical performance was graded by the modified Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills for robotic laparoscopic surgery. Finally, participants evaluated their own performance after each session through questionnaires. Significant training effects were shown for the time to task completion (p movement curvature (p mastery, familiarity, and self-confidence and less difficulty in performing fundamental tasks with the surgical robot in both post-testing and retention sessions. Our 4-day training program comprising of a series of training tasks from fundamental to surgical skill levels was effective in improving surgical skills. Further studies are required to verify these findings with a longer period of retention. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Implementation of full patient simulation training in surgical residency. (United States)

    Fernandez, Gladys L; Lee, Patrick C; Page, David W; D'Amour, Elizabeth M; Wait, Richard B; Seymour, Neal E


    Simulated patient care has gained acceptance as a medical education tool but is underused in surgical training. To improve resident clinical management in critical situations relevant to the surgical patient, high-fidelity full patient simulation training was instituted at Baystate Medical Center in 2005 and developed during successive years. We define surgical patient simulation as clinical management performed in a high fidelity environment using a manikin simulator. This technique is intended to be specifically modeled experiential learning related to the knowledge, skills, and behaviors that are fundamental to patient care. We report 3 academic years' use of a patient simulation curriculum. Learners were PGY 1-3 residents; 26 simulated patient care experiences were developed based on (1) designation as a critical management problem that would otherwise be difficult to practice, (2) ability to represent the specific problem in simulation, (3) relevance to the American Board of Surgery (ABS) certifying examination, and/or (4) relevance to institutional quality or morbidity and mortality reports. Although training started in 2005, data are drawn from the period of systematic and mandatory training spanning from July 2006 to June 2009. Training occurred during 1-hour sessions using a computer-driven manikin simulator (METI, Sarasota, Florida). Educational content was provided either before or during presimulation briefing sessions. Scenario areas included shock states, trauma and critical care case management, preoperative processes, and postoperative conditions and complications. All sessions were followed by facilitated debriefing. Likert scale-based multi-item assessments of core competency in medical knowledge, patient care, diagnosis, management, communication, and professionalism were used to generate a performance score for each resident for each simulation (percentage of best possible score). Performance was compared across PGYs by repeated

  2. Best practices across surgical specialties relating to simulation-based training. (United States)

    Gardner, Aimee K; Scott, Daniel J; Pedowitz, Robert A; Sweet, Robert M; Feins, Richard H; Deutsch, Ellen S; Sachdeva, Ajit K


    Simulation-based training is playing an increasingly important role in surgery. However, there is insufficient discussion among the surgical specialties regarding how simulation may best be leveraged for training. There is much to be learned from one another as we all strive to meet new requirements within the context of Undergraduate Medical Education, Graduate Medical Education, and Continuing Medical Education. To address this need, a panel was convened at the 6th Annual Meeting of the Consortium of the American College of Surgeons-Accredited Education Institutes consisting of key leaders in the field of simulation from 4 surgical subspecialties, namely, general surgery, orthopedic surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, urology, and otolaryngology. An overview of how the 5 surgical specialties are using simulation-based training to meet a wide array of educational needs for all levels of learners is presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Accelerating surgical training and reducing the burden of surgical disease in Haiti before and after the earthquake. (United States)

    DeGennaro, Vincent A; DeGennaro, Vincent A; Kochhar, Amit; Nathan, Nirmal; Low, Christopher; Avashia, Yash J; Thaller, Seth R


    In general, university-based global health initiatives have tended to focus on expanding access to primary care. In the past, surgical programs may have been characterized by sporadic participation with little educational focus. However, there have been some notable exceptions with plastic surgery volunteer missions. We offer another model of regularly scheduled surgical trips to rural Haiti in plastic and general surgery. The goal of these trips is to reduce the burden of surgical disease and ultimately repair every cleft lip/palate in Haiti. Another principal objective is to accelerate the training of American residents through increased case load and personal interaction with attending surgeons in a concentrated period. Diversity of the case load and the overall number of surgeries performed by residents in a typical surgical trip outpaces the experiences available during a typical week in an American hospital setting. More importantly, we continue to provide ongoing training to Haitian nurses and surgeons in surgical techniques and postoperative care. Our postoperative complication rate has been relatively low. Our follow-up rates have been lower than 70% despite intensive attempts to maintain continued communication with our patients. Through our experiences in surgical care in rural Haiti, we were able to quickly ramp up our trauma and orthopedic surgical care immediately after the earthquake. Project Medishare and the University of Miami continue to operate a trauma and acute care hospital in Port au Prince. The hospital provides ongoing orthopedic, trauma, and neurosurgical expertise from the rotating teams of American surgeons and training of Haitian surgeons in modern surgical techniques. We believe that surgical residencies in the United States can improve their training programs and reduce global surgical burden of disease through consistent trips and working closely with country partners.

  4. The effects of the European Working Time Directive on surgical training: the basic surgical trainee's perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, B D


    BACKGROUND: On the 1 August 2009, the implementation of European Working Time Directive became European law and was implemented in Galway University Hospital (GUH). AIMS: The aim of the study is to ascertain the opinion of the 25 surgical SHOs in GUH on the effect of the implementation of an EWTD compliant roster had on the quality of their training. METHODS: A questionnaire was circulated to all 25 surgical SHOs. RESULTS: Twenty-two (88%) SHOs report a reduction in the quality of their training. 18 (72%) report a reduction in the development of their operative skills. The SHOs believed the EWTD Rotas would encourage Irish graduates to train abroad. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical training faces a challenge with the implementation of EWTD Rotas. Major changes need to be made to the surgical training structure to train surgeons to the highest standard and to retain Irish-trained surgeons in the Irish healthcare system.

  5. [The Marburg surgical curriculum - improving the attraction of medical education by teaching central surgical competence]. (United States)

    Schwarting, T; Ruchholtz, S; Josephs, D; Oberkircher, L; Bartsch, D K; Fendrich, V


    The quality of medical education is an ongoing challenge due to the continuing changes of the health-care politics and general social conditions. At many German university hospitals the dominating picture is overfilled courses, lack of hands-on practice, reduced patient contact and the dull provision of theoretical, abstract knowledge. The reformed surgical curriculum at the University of Marburg university hospital is used to demonstrate that, in spite of large student numbers, a practice-oriented, small-group training at a high didactic level is possible. The surgical training courses are organized in detail and coordinated. Course contents and structure are media available in print and online versions for both students and teachers and thus fulfill not only transparency needs but also contemporary requirements. The strategy of a practice- and patient-oriented, small-group training is followed strictly in the surgical curriculum. In addition, accompanying tutorial possibilities for individual study in an up-to-date learning center are offered. Here the students have the opportunity to intensify knowledge acquired in previous or future courses with numerous attractive education means. Continuous evaluation of the individual training courses at the end of each semester not only document motivation of the students but also serve to continuously improve the training concepts. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Effects of Technological Advances in Surgical Education on Quantitative Outcomes From Residency Programs. (United States)

    Dietl, Charles A; Russell, John C


    The purpose of this article is to review the literature on current technology for surgical education and to evaluate the effect of technological advances on the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Core Competencies, American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) scores, and American Board of Surgery (ABS) certification. A literature search was obtained from MEDLINE via,, and Google Scholar on all peer-reviewed studies published since 2003 using the following search queries: technology for surgical education, simulation-based surgical training, simulation-based nontechnical skills (NTS) training, ACGME Core Competencies, ABSITE scores, and ABS pass rate. Our initial search list included the following: 648 on technology for surgical education, 413 on simulation-based surgical training, 51 on simulation-based NTS training, 78 on ABSITE scores, and 33 on ABS pass rate. Further, 42 articles on technological advances for surgical education met inclusion criteria based on their effect on ACGME Core Competencies, ABSITE scores, and ABS certification. Systematic review showed that 33 of 42 and 26 of 42 publications on technological advances for surgical education showed objective improvements regarding patient care and medical knowledge, respectively, whereas only 2 of 42 publications showed improved ABSITE scores, but none showed improved ABS pass rates. Improvements in the other ACGME core competencies were documented in 14 studies, 9 of which were on simulation-based NTS training. Most of the studies on technological advances for surgical education have shown a positive effect on patient care and medical knowledge. However, the effect of simulation-based surgical training and simulation-based NTS training on ABSITE scores and ABS certification has not been assessed. Studies on technological advances in surgical education and simulation-based NTS training showing quantitative evidence that surgery residency

  7. Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgical Simulation Training Curriculum: Transfer Reliability and Maintenance of Skill Over Time. (United States)

    Dunn, John C; Belmont, Philip J; Lanzi, Joseph; Martin, Kevin; Bader, Julia; Owens, Brett; Waterman, Brian R


    Surgical education is evolving as work hour constraints limit the exposure of residents to the operating room. Potential consequences may include erosion of resident education and decreased quality of patient care. Surgical simulation training has become a focus of study in an effort to counter these challenges. Previous studies have validated the use of arthroscopic surgical simulation programs both in vitro and in vivo. However, no study has examined if the gains made by residents after a simulation program are retained after a period away from training. In all, 17 orthopedic surgery residents were randomized into simulation or standard practice groups. All subjects were oriented to the arthroscopic simulator, a 14-point anatomic checklist, and Arthroscopic Surgery Skill Evaluation Tool (ASSET). The experimental group received 1 hour of simulation training whereas the control group had no additional training. All subjects performed a recorded, diagnostic arthroscopy intraoperatively. These videos were scored by 2 blinded, fellowship-trained orthopedic surgeons and outcome measures were compared within and between the groups. After 1 year in which neither group had exposure to surgical simulation training, all residents were retested intraoperatively and scored in the exact same fashion. Individual surgical case logs were reviewed and surgical case volume was documented. There was no difference between the 2 groups after initial simulation testing and there was no correlation between case volume and initial scores. After training, the simulation group improved as compared with baseline in mean ASSET (p = 0.023) and mean time to completion (p = 0.01). After 1 year, there was no difference between the groups in any outcome measurements. Although individual technical skills can be cultivated with surgical simulation training, these advancements can be lost without continued education. It is imperative that residency programs implement a simulation curriculum and

  8. Surgical education and adult learning: Integrating theory into practice [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Rashid


    Full Text Available Surgical education continues to evolve from the master-apprentice model. Newer methods of the process need to be used to manage the dual challenges of educating while providing safe surgical care. This requires integrating adult learning concepts into delivery of practical training and education in busy clinical environments. A narrative review aimed at outlining and integrating adult learning and surgical education theory was undertaken. Additionally, this information was used to relate the practical delivery of surgical training and education in day-to-day surgical practice. Concepts were sourced from reference material. Additional material was found using a PubMed search of the words: ‘surgical education theory’ and ‘adult learning theory medical’. This yielded 1351 abstracts, of which 43 articles with a focus on key concepts in adult education theory were used. Key papers were used to formulate structure and additional cross-referenced papers were included where appropriate. Current concepts within adult learning have a lot to offer when considering how to better deliver surgical education and training. Better integration of adult learning theory can be fruitful. Individual teaching surgical units need to rethink their paradigms and consider how each individual can contribute to the education experience. Up skilling courses for trainers can do much to improve the delivery of surgical education. Understanding adult learning concepts and integrating these into day-to-day teaching can be valuable.

  9. Appraisal of face and content validity of a serious game improving situational awareness in surgical training. (United States)

    Graafland, Maurits; Bemelman, Willem A; Schijven, Marlies P


    Equipment-related malfunctions during minimally invasive surgery (MIS) are common and threaten patient safety. As they occur in the periphery of the surgeon's vision, the surgical team requires a high level of situational awareness in order to intercept these errors timely. A serious game has been developed to train surgical residents to deal with equipment-related errors. This study investigates to what extent surgical educators and trainees would accept a serious game as a training method. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 45 surgeons, surgical residents, and medical students who played the serious game at a scientific convention. The questionnaire contained statements on perceived realism, usefulness, teaching capability, user experience and application toward surgical training. RESULTS were analyzed according to participants' MIS experience ("expert," "intermediate," and "novice"). The majority found that important medical constructs are represented realistically (64.4%-88.9%) and indicated the game to be particularly useful for training operating room nurses and surgical residents (75%-86%). Both educators and trainees found the game to be useful for surgical training (53%). Serious gaming was viewed as positive (78%) and challenging (60%), and 66% would play the game in their leisure time. Licensed surgeons perceived the game more frequently as boring than the intermediate-level and trainee groups (23.5% versus 6.7% and 8.3%; P=.045). This is the first study to show acceptance of a serious game as a training format in surgical training by educators and trainees. Future research should investigate whether the serious game indeed improves problem-solving and situational awareness in the operating room.

  10. [Surgical education in the 21st century: undergraduate education]. (United States)

    Muto, T


    The purpose of medical education is to bring up good physicians with a high level of knowledge of science, art, and humanity. To achieve this goal, medical education should continue for life starting from the undergraduate period: surgical education should also be lifelong. Unlike the past when the education system was teacher driven, the new system should be student driven, and students must have the ability to question and solve problems. Themselves Bedside learning may offer undergraduates the best understanding of everyday surgical practice; therefore such learning programs should be devised. A nationwide standardized surgical education program is required, with specialized courses added by each medical school. Medical school staff including professors should recognize that their primary obligation is to impact education and spend more time on it. Surgical education for undergraduates is especially important since it influences their future careers as surgeons and should be revised as soon as possible.

  11. Module based training improves and sustains surgical skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, C G; Lindorff-Larsen, K; Funch-Jensen, P


    -lab course followed by 20 supervised Lichtenstein hernia repairs. Operative performance was video recorded and blindly rated by two consultants using a previously validated skills rating scale (8-40 points). Outcome measures were change in the ratings of operative skills and operative time. RESULTS......PURPOSE: Traditional surgical training is challenged by factors such as patient safety issues, economic considerations and lack of exposure to surgical procedures due to short working hours. A module-based clinical training model promotes rapidly acquired and persistent surgical skills. METHODS......: A randomised controlled trial concerning supervised hernia repair in eight training hospitals in Denmark was performed. The participants were 18 registrars [Post graduate year (PGY) 3 or more] in their first year of surgical specialist training. The intervention consisted of different modules with a skills...

  12. The role of student surgical interest groups and surgical Olympiads in anatomical and surgical undergraduate training in Russia. (United States)

    Dydykin, Sergey; Kapitonova, Marina


    Traditional department-based surgical interest groups in Russian medical schools are useful tools for student-based selection of specialty training. They also form a nucleus for initiating research activities among undergraduate students. In Russia, the Departments of Topographical Anatomy and Operative Surgery play an important role in initiating student-led research and providing learners with advanced, practical surgical skills. In tandem with department-led activities, student surgical interest groups prepare learners through surgical competitions, known as "Surgical Olympiads," which have been conducted in many Russian centers on a regular basis since 1988. Surgical Olympiads stimulate student interest in the development of surgical skills before graduation and encourage students to choose surgery as their postgraduate specialty. Many of the participants in these surgical Olympiads have become highly qualified specialists in general surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, urology, gynecology, and emergency medicine. The present article emphasizes the role of student interest groups and surgical Olympiads in clinical anatomical and surgical undergraduate training in Russia. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Training and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, E.; Oria, M.


    The paper deals essentially with problems of training and education in a developing country that has made the decision to launch a nuclear programme. All teaching has a double aim: to transfer knowledge, and to form responsible individuals. In a state each pedagogic action has a relatively definite aim. In the nuclear field this aim can be construction of a research or power reactor (or participation in its construction) or the operation of these reactors. There are no well-defined borders between these various aims and for each aim the overall needs should be defined. The personnel needs can be expressed by a series of desired outlines for each function. The starting point should be the students or the active population (in particular those who have already been employed in a conventional power station). The means to proceed from the original state to the desired situation will be sought. The number of people trained should be at least twice that needed (accidents, holidays, resignations). For technicians and engineers a good basic knowledge of fundamental science is necessary in every case. It should be kept in mind that the government ought to be informed beforehand on the alternate choices by advisers trained in specialized courses, i.e. IAEA courses for decision-makers. First, the local educational means shall be used. For very specialized functions the supplier of the power station will provide an adequate training. Specialized teaching centres abroad will provide additional knowledge to those who already have the required fundamental education. Theoretical learning can be useful only after a long period of training in a reactor department in the country itself or abroad. This training should tend to actual integration in a team. A certain amount of information should be given preferably in situ, in particular in the field of health physics, as each member of the staff must be fully aware of its importance. (author)

  14. E-mentoring in Surgical Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAL Macafee


    Full Text Available Introduction E-mentoring uses electronic communications to build and maintain a mentoring relationship. A previous study found E-mentoring to be beneficial to surgical trainees when delivered by a single E-mentor. This study aimed to see if these benefits persisted within a larger network of surgical E-mentors. Methods Surgical ST1 to ST3 trainees (E-mentees and E-mentors were recruited in 2007. The study ran over one year with five questionnaires prompting discussions of a range of issues. At study end, a feedback questionnaire was sent via an independent third party. Results Twenty three E-mentees were recruited, 16 (70% were male, median age was 28 (IQR 2. Fifty four surgical E-mentors volunteered, the majority being Specialist Registrars (n = 52; 96%. E-mentees found the process to be very useful in identifying the good and bad points of their jobs. E-mentoring was not useful for improving academic knowledge, operative skills or clinical management. Conclusions This study shows that E-mentoring is beneficial to surgical trainees who are engaged in the process. The process encourages reflection and was a useful source of advice but there remains areas where its scope is limited.

  15. Effect of Process Changes in Surgical Training on Quantitative Outcomes From Surgery Residency Programs. (United States)

    Dietl, Charles A; Russell, John C


    The purpose of this article is to review the literature on process changes in surgical training programs and to evaluate their effect on the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Core Competencies, American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) scores, and American Board of Surgery (ABS) certification. A literature search was obtained from MEDLINE via,, Google Scholar on all peer-reviewed studies published since 2003 using the following search queries: surgery residency training, surgical education, competency-based surgical education, ACGME core competencies, ABSITE scores, and ABS pass rate. Our initial search list included 990 articles on surgery residency training models, 539 on competency-based surgical education, 78 on ABSITE scores, and 33 on ABS pass rate. Overall, 31 articles met inclusion criteria based on their effect on ACGME Core Competencies, ABSITE scores, and ABS certification. Systematic review showed that 5/31, 19/31, and 6/31 articles on process changes in surgical training programs had a positive effect on patient care, medical knowledge, and ABSITE scores, respectively. ABS certification was not analyzed. The other ACGME core competencies were addressed in only 6 studies. Several publications on process changes in surgical training programs have shown a positive effect on patient care, medical knowledge, and ABSITE scores. However, the effect on ABS certification, and other quantitative outcomes from residency programs, have not been addressed. Studies on education strategies showing evidence that residency program objectives are being achieved are still needed. This article addresses the 6 ACGME Core Competencies. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of virtual simulation in surgical training. (United States)

    Zerbato, Davide; Dall'Alba, Diego


    The comparison of the developments obtained by training for aviation with the ones obtained by training for surgery highlights the efforts that are still required to define shared and validated training curricula for surgeons. This work focuses on robotic assisted surgery and the related training systems to analyze the current approaches to surgery training based on virtual environments. Limits of current simulation technology are highlighted and the systems currently on the market are compared in terms of their mechanical design and characteristics of the virtual environments offered. In particular the analysis focuses on the level of realism, both graphical and physical, and on the set of training tasks proposed. Some multimedia material is proposed to support the analysis and to highlight the differences between the simulations and the approach to training. From this analysis it is clear that, although there are several training systems on the market, some of them with a lot of scientific literature proving their validity, there is no consensus about the tasks to include in a training curriculum or the level of realism required to virtual environments to be useful.

  17. Association of a Surgical Task During Training With Team Skill Acquisition Among Surgical Residents: The Missing Piece in Multidisciplinary Team Training. (United States)

    Sparks, Jessica L; Crouch, Dustin L; Sobba, Kathryn; Evans, Douglas; Zhang, Jing; Johnson, James E; Saunders, Ian; Thomas, John; Bodin, Sarah; Tonidandel, Ashley; Carter, Jeff; Westcott, Carl; Martin, R Shayn; Hildreth, Amy


    The human patient simulators that are currently used in multidisciplinary operating room team training scenarios cannot simulate surgical tasks because they lack a realistic surgical anatomy. Thus, they eliminate the surgeon's primary task in the operating room. The surgical trainee is presented with a significant barrier when he or she attempts to suspend disbelief and engage in the scenario. To develop and test a simulation-based operating room team training strategy that challenges the communication abilities and teamwork competencies of surgeons while they are engaged in realistic operative maneuvers. This pre-post educational intervention pilot study compared the gains in teamwork skills for midlevel surgical residents at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center after they participated in a standardized multidisciplinary team training scenario with 3 possible levels of surgical realism: (1) SimMan (Laerdal) (control group, no surgical anatomy); (2) "synthetic anatomy for surgical tasks" mannequin (medium-fidelity anatomy), and (3) a patient simulated by a deceased donor (high-fidelity anatomy). Participation in the simulation scenario and the subsequent debriefing. Teamwork competency was assessed using several instruments with extensive validity evidence, including the Nontechnical Skills assessment, the Trauma Management Skills scoring system, the Crisis Resource Management checklist, and a self-efficacy survey instrument. Participant satisfaction was assessed with a Likert-scale questionnaire. Scenario participants included midlevel surgical residents, anesthesia providers, scrub nurses, and circulating nurses. Statistical models showed that surgical residents exposed to medium-fidelity simulation (synthetic anatomy for surgical tasks) team training scenarios demonstrated greater gains in teamwork skills compared with control groups (SimMan) (Nontechnical Skills video score: 95% CI, 1.06-16.41; Trauma Management Skills video score: 95% CI, 0.61-2.90) and

  18. The Pareto Analysis for Establishing Content Criteria in Surgical Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramp, Kelvin H.; van Det, Marc J.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E. N.


    INTRODUCTION: Current surgical training is still highly dependent on expensive operating room (OR) experience. Although there have been many attempts to transfer more training to the skills laboratory, little research is focused on which technical behaviors can lead to the highest profit when they

  19. Surgical Resident Doctor's Perspective of Their Training in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There are several problems militating against satisfactory residency training in Nigeria. These problems may not be effectively identified and resolved if the opinion of the trainee doctors is ignored. Objectives: To review surgical residents' perspectives of their training program in South-eastern Nigeria, with the ...

  20. Exploring the Changing Landscape of Surgical Residency Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Hopmans (Niels)


    textabstractWithin the past decade, the structure and format of surgical residency training has changed radically by the introduction of competency-based training programs, the progressive fragmentation of general surgery into subspecialties, and the implementation of stringent work hour

  1. A novel approach to teaching surgical skills to medical students using an ex vivo animal training model. (United States)

    Bauer, Florian; Rommel, Niklas; Kreutzer, Kilian; Weitz, Jochen; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Gulati, Aakshay; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kesting, Marco R


    Traditional surgical teaching is influenced by restrictive factors, such as financial pressures and ethical constraints. The teaching of surgical skills during a medical school education seems not to be robust enough at present, possibly resulting in stressful circumstance for surgical novices. However, the authors are convinced that practical training is fundamental for preparing medical students optimally for challenges in the operating theater and have, therefore, examined a novel method of teaching basic surgical skills to medical students. A total of 20 medical students received surgical skill training, which included theoretical lessons, working with ex vivo pig training models, and active participation in the operating theater. All the trainees took written tests and were rated in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. Before and after training, the students completed a self-assessment form involving the choice of the correct surgical indication and the performance of surgical procedures. The students' performance in the written examination and in the Objective Structured Clinical Examination increased significantly after training (p ≤ 0.001). Furthermore, the evaluation of the self-assessment form revealed significant improvements in all categories (p ≤ 0.001). Our surgical training method appears to improve the surgical abilities of medical students and to increase their self-confidence with respect to surgical procedures. Therefore, the authors recommend the integration of this method into the medical school curriculum to prepare medical students well for surgical challenges. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fellowship training as a modifier of the surgical learning curve (United States)

    Bianco, FJ; Cronin, AM; Klein, EA; Pontes, JE; Scardino, PT; Vickers, AJ


    Purpose To investigate the effects of fellowship training on the learning curve for cancer control after open radical prostatectomy. Methods The study cohort included 7765 prostate cancer patients who were treated with radical prostatectomy by one of 72 surgeons at four major U.S. academic medical centers between 1987 and 2003. Multivariable models were used to determine the learning curves for biochemical recurrence and surgical margins, separately for surgeons with and without fellowship training, with adjustment for standard prognostic variables. Results Initial results of fellowship and non-fellowship trained surgeons were similar (5-year probability of recurrence for first case 19.4% vs 18.3%, respectively; absolute difference −1.1%; 95% CI −5.5% to 3.0%; p=0.7). However, the rate of learning was faster among fellowship trained surgeons (p=0.006), resulting in superior cancer control overall for fellowship trained surgeons (p=0.001; difference 4.7%; 95% CI 2.6% to 7.4%). In contrast, fellowship trained surgeons started off with superior positive margin rates (p=0.005; 36% vs 42%; absolute difference 6%; 95% CI 1% to 10%), but there was no obvious difference in the subsequent learning curve (p=0.9). Conclusions The learning curve for biochemical recurrence depends on surgical training, whereas the learning curve for surgical margins does not. This suggests that improvements in margin rates result from reflection on specific aspects of surgical procedure, while improvements in biochemical recurrence occur by some general process of improved surgical technique. Further research into the mechanisms of surgical learning is warranted. PMID:20520043

  3. Education and Training: Radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.


    Education in radiation physics, radiobiology and radiation protection may be divided into three different levels: education during the initial medical studies, during specialisation in radiology, and in continuing education. During medical studies, the European directives (Council directive 97/43/Euratom) state that the member states shall encourage introduction of a course of radiation protection in the basic curriculum at medical school. The European Association of Radiology (EAR) and the European Federation of Organisation of Medical Physics (EFOMP) have suggested the contents of such a course, and these suggestions are now included in the present EAR recommendations for radiology and training in Europe. For specialist education, EAR has in the same way recommended radiation physics, radiobiology and radiation protection to be included in the 'basic sciences' of the core of knowledge. A 40 h theoretical course covering these demands has been defined by the EAR in collaboration with EFOMP. For continuing medical education, little is so far defined as to radiation protection, but it is obvious that an update of the contents included in the specialist education at regular levels is needed. (author)

  4. Identifying quality indicators of surgical training: A national survey. (United States)

    Bhatti, Nasir I; Ahmed, Aadil; Choi, Sukgi S


    Evidence shows a positive association between quality of surgical training received and patient outcomes. Traditionally, improved patient outcomes are linked with increased operative volume. However, generalizing this finding to surgeons in training is unclear. In addition, reduced exposure due to work-hour restrictions calls for alternative methods to determine the quality of training. The purpose of this study was to identify the indicators of high-quality training by surveying the trainees and trainers. A questionnaire was developed based on input from faculty and previous studies. The survey was divided into three sections asking about the indicators of quality training, methods to measure them, and interventions for improvement. The questionnaire was administered to program directors (PDs) and senior residents of otolaryngology training programs nationwide. The strongest indicators of quality training that were agreed upon by both residents and PDs were having faculty development as an ideal trainer while having a balanced level of supervision and independence, logbooks for exposure to volume and variety of pathology, continuous evaluation and provision of feedback. However, structured teaching, simulation-based training, and trainee exam scores failed to reach an agreement as a metric of high-quality surgical training. Measuring quality of a residency training program is imperative to produce competent surgeons and ensuring patient safety. The results of this study will help the residency programs to better train their residents and improve the quality of their teaching. N/A. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Verification of Accurate Technical Insight: A Prerequisite for Self-Directed Surgical Training (United States)

    Hu, Yinin; Kim, Helen; Mahmutovic, Adela; Choi, Joanna; Le, Ivy; Rasmussen, Sara


    Simulation-based surgical skills training during preclinical education is a persistent challenge due to time constraints of trainees and instructors alike. Self-directed practice is resource-efficient and flexible; however, insight into technical proficiency among trainees is often lacking. The purpose of this study is to prospectively assess the…

  6. Surgical Safety Training of World Health Organization Initiatives. (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R; Bates, Anthony S; Toll, Edward C; Cole, Matthew; Smith, Frank C T; Stark, Michael


    Undergraduate training in surgical safety is essential to maximize patient safety. This national review quantified undergraduate surgical safety training. Training of 2 international safety initiatives was quantified: (1) World Health Organization (WHO) "Guidelines for Safe Surgery" and (2) Department of Health (DoH) "Principles of the Productive Operating Theatre." Also, 13 additional safety skills were quantified. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U tests. In all, 23 universities entered the study (71.9% response). Safety skills from WHO and DoH documents were formally taught in 4 UK medical schools (17.4%). Individual components of the documents were taught more frequently (47.6%). Half (50.9%) of the additional safety skills identified were taught. Surgical societies supplemented safety training, although the total amount of training provided was less than that in university curricula (P < .0001). Surgical safety training is inadequate in UK medical schools. To protect patients and maximize safety, a national undergraduate safety curriculum is recommended. © 2013 by the American College of Medical Quality.

  7. Nuclear training and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandklef, S.


    There is a large need in this period of anticipated growth of the nuclear industry to keep and increase the level of competence beyond that provided by universities, technical institutes and on-the-job training. ANT International has developed several programs to assist the nuclear industry in meeting this need. The programs are based on utilizing the experience and skills of a network of experts who have a wide experience in the relevant technical areas of importance to nuclear power operations. Examples of these programs are given in this report together with an extensive list of ANT International reports in the field of nuclear fuel technology, water chemistry and reactor materials. These reports have been and are used for training and education in Europe, North America and Asia. (author)

  8. Informatics Approach to Improving Surgical Skills Training (United States)

    Islam, Gazi


    Surgery as a profession requires significant training to improve both clinical decision making and psychomotor proficiency. In the medical knowledge domain, tools have been developed, validated, and accepted for evaluation of surgeons' competencies. However, assessment of the psychomotor skills still relies on the Halstedian model of…

  9. Surgical simulation training in orthopedics: current insights. (United States)

    Kalun, Portia; Wagner, Natalie; Yan, James; Nousiainen, Markku T; Sonnadara, Ranil R


    While the knowledge required of residents training in orthopedic surgery continues to increase, various factors, including reductions in work hours, have resulted in decreased clinical learning opportunities. Recent work suggests residents graduate from their training programs without sufficient exposure to key procedures. In response, simulation is increasingly being incorporated into training programs to supplement clinical learning. This paper reviews the literature to explore whether skills learned in simulation-based settings results in improved clinical performance in orthopedic surgery trainees. A scoping review of the literature was conducted to identify papers discussing simulation training in orthopedic surgery. We focused on exploring whether skills learned in simulation transferred effectively to a clinical setting. Experimental studies, systematic reviews, and narrative reviews were included. A total of 15 studies were included, with 11 review papers and four experimental studies. The review articles reported little evidence regarding the transfer of skills from simulation to the clinical setting, strong evidence that simulator models discriminate among different levels of experience, varied outcome measures among studies, and a need to define competent performance in both simulated and clinical settings. Furthermore, while three out of the four experimental studies demonstrated transfer between the simulated and clinical environments, methodological study design issues were identified. Our review identifies weak evidence as to whether skills learned in simulation transfer effectively to clinical practice for orthopedic surgery trainees. Given the increased reliance on simulation, there is an immediate need for comprehensive studies that focus on skill transfer, which will allow simulation to be incorporated effectively into orthopedic surgery training programs.

  10. Nuclear education, training and support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vityazev, Vsevolod; Ushakov Artem


    The structure and key elements of the ROSATOM education and training system are presented. Educational and training services and technical support are provided during the NPP lifetime, including nuclear Infrastructure, nuclear power plant personnel training, equipment and post-warranty spare parts, nuclear power plant operation support, maintenance and repair, modernization and lifetime extension

  11. Education and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.K.


    Summary: • Many presentations today and during the week about training and the application of SAT in MS. • IAEA can provide support and assistance in these areas. • Several Interactive IAEA presentations today and rest of the week to share our tools and services in this area. • Member States encouraged to continue Education/Industry cooperation to ensure E&T meets Industry’s needs • Such cooperation should also be used to foster Outreach activities to stimulate interest in a career in nuclear for young people, as well as increasing support for nuclear power

  12. Enhancing Surgical Team Performance with Game-Based training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Kreutzer


    Full Text Available  Poor team communication has been attributed to many patient safety issues in healthcare. Efficacious team training methods are needed. The present study examines the use of a game-based training approach for enhancing surgical team communication skills. Participants who played the game achieved improved declarative knowledge, and had greater levels of training transfer relative to the control group. These results suggest that game-based training may to be a promising mechanism for improving teamwork in the healthcare industry.  

  13. Let our fellows go: a plea for allowing global surgery electives during pediatric surgical training. (United States)

    Emil, Sherif; O'Neill, James; Poenaru, Dan


    In the last 2 years, a coalescence of forces has brought the needs of surgical patients in low resource settings to the top of the international healthcare policy agenda. This same dynamic has propelled academic global surgery, and particularly education, to the forefront. The proportion of surgical trainees seeking global surgical experiences, and interested in incorporating global surgery into their clinical and academic career, has risen sharply. International surgical electives are now allowed in a number of surgical residency programs, if they meet strict criteria. However, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) currently does not allow international electives during pediatric surgical training. This decision has not been contested by the American Board of Surgery (ABS) or the Association of Pediatric Surgery Training Program Directors (APSTPD). Valid concerns exist regarding international pediatric surgical electives. In this article, the authors address these concerns and exhort the APSTPD, the ABS, and the ACGME to re-examine their position on the value of pediatric global surgery electives. 5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Augmented Reality Feedback in Surgical Training Environment. (United States)

    Zahiri, Mohsen; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun


    Providing computer-based laparoscopic surgical training has several advantages that enhance the training process. Self-evaluation and real-time performance feedback are 2 of these advantages, which avoid dependency of trainees on expert feedback. The goal of this study was to investigate the use of a visual time indicator as real-time feedback correlated with the laparoscopic surgical training. Twenty novices participated in this study working with (and without) different presentations of time indicators. They performed a standard peg transfer task, and their completion times and muscle activity were recorded and compared. Also of interest was whether the use of this type of feedback induced any side effect in terms of motivation or muscle fatigue. Of the 20 participants, 15 (75%) preferred using a time indicator in the training process rather than having no feedback. However, time to task completion showed no significant difference in performance with the time indicator; furthermore, no significant differences in muscle activity or muscle fatigue were detected with/without time feedback. The absence of significant difference between task performance with/without time feedback shows that using visual real-time feedback can be included in surgical training based on user preference. Trainees may benefit from this type of feedback in the form of increased motivation. The extent to which this can influence training frequency leading to performance improvement is a question for further study.

  15. Effects of Surgical Assistant's Level of Resident Training on Surgical Treatment of Intermittent Exotropia: Operation Time and Surgical Outcomes. (United States)

    Kim, Moo Hyun; Chung, Hyunuk; Kim, Won Jae; Kim, Myung Mi


    To evaluate the effects of the surgical assistant's level of resident training on operation time and surgical outcome in the surgical treatment of intermittent exotropia. This study included 456 patients with intermittent exotropia who underwent lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection and were followed up for 24 months after surgery. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical assistant's level of resident training: group F (surgery assisted by a first-year resident [n = 198]) and group S (surgery assisted by a second-, third-, or fourth-year resident [n = 258]). The operation time and surgical outcomes (postoperative exodeviation and the number of patients who underwent a second operation) were compared between the two groups. The average operation times in groups F and S were 36.54 ± 7.4 and 37.34 ± 9.94 minutes, respectively (p = 0.33). Immediate postoperative exodeviation was higher in group F (0.79 ± 3.82 prism diopters) than in group S (0.38 ± 3.75 prism diopters). However, repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed no significant difference in exodeviation between the two groups during the 24-month follow-up period (p = 0.45). A second operation was performed in 29.3% (58 / 198) of the patients in group F, and in 32.2% (83 / 258) of those in group S (p = 0.51). No significant difference in operation time was observed when we compared the effects of the level of resident training in the surgical treatment of intermittent exotropia. Although the immediate postoperative exodeviation was higher in patients who had undergone surgery assisted by a first-year resident, the surgical outcome during the 24-month follow-up was not significantly different.

  16. Robotic technologies in surgical oncology training and practice. (United States)

    Orvieto, Marcelo A; Marchetti, Pablo; Castillo, Octavio A; Coelho, Rafael F; Chauhan, Sanket; Rocco, Bernardo; Ardila, Bobby; Mathe, Mary; Patel, Vipul R


    The modern-day surgeon is frequently exposed to new technologies and instrumentation. Robotic surgery (RS) has evolved as a minimally invasive technique aimed to improve clinical outcomes. RS has the potential to alleviate the inherent limitations of laparoscopic surgery such as two dimensional imaging, limited instrument movement and intrinsic human tremor. Since the first reported robot-assisted surgical procedure performed in 1985, the technology has dramatically evolved and currently multiple surgical specialties have incorporated RS into their daily clinical armamentarium. With this exponential growth, it should not come as a surprise the ever growing requirement for surgeons trained in RS as well as the interest from residents to receive robotic exposure during their training. For this reason, the establishment of set criteria for adequate and standardized training and credentialing of surgical residents, fellows and those trained surgeons wishing to perform RS has become a priority. In this rapidly evolving field, we herein review the past, present and future of robotic technologies and its penetration into different surgical specialties. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving Recruitment of surgical trainees and Training of Surgeons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paper reports on how to improve recruitment of surgical trainees and training of surgeons in Uganda, focusing on perceptions of potential trainees, trainers, and medical administrators. Methods: This was cross sectional, descriptive study sampled at least 50% of each of the relevant category of interviewees.

  18. Surgical training in your hands: organising a skills course. (United States)

    Burnand, Henry; Mutimer, Jon


    The advent of simulated surgical skills courses has brought dynamic changes to the traditional approach to acquiring practical skills in surgery. Teaching is a core part of the surgical profession, and any trainee can be involved in the organisation of skills training courses. This paper outlines the importance of organising surgical skills courses for trainees, and provides a practical guide on how to do so within busy clinical environments. The paper examines how to plan a course, how to design the programme, and provides tips on faculty staff requirements, venue, finance and participants, with additional suggestions for assessment and evaluation. We recommend the organisation of skills courses to any trainee. By following key ground rules, the surgical trainee can enable the acquisition of advanced learning opportunities and the ability to demonstrate valuable organisational skills. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  19. A young surgeon's perspective on alternate surgical training pathways. (United States)

    Sutherland, Michael J


    Most residents in training today are in focused on their training, and the thoughts of changing the structure of residencies and fellowships is something that they are ambivalent about or have never heard anything about. The small minority who are vocal on these issues represent an activist group supporting change. This group is very vocal and raises many of the excellent questions we have examined. In discussion with residents, some feel that shortened training will help with the financial issues facing residents. However, many people today add additional years to their training with research years or "super" fellowships. The residents demonstrate that they want to get the skill sets that they desire despite the added length of training. This is unlikely to change even if the minimum number of years of training changes with the evolution of tracked training programs. Medical students, in the Resident and Associate Society of the American College of Surgeons survey, did not indicate that shortened training would have an affect on decision to pursue or not pursue a surgical career. If the focus of these changes is to encourage medical students to pursue a residency in surgical specialties, we may need to look at other options to increase medical student interest. Medical students indicated that lifestyle issues, types of clinical problems, stress-related concerns, and interactions with the surgical faculty were far more important in their decision to enter a surgical specialty than work hours or duration of training. If we are to make a difference in the quality and quantity of applicants for surgical residencies, then changes in the structure of residencies do not seem to be the most effective way to accomplish this. We should possibly focus more on faculty and medical student interaction and the development of positive role models for medical students to see surgeons with attractive practices that minimize some of the traditionally perceived negative stereotypes

  20. Virtual reality training for surgical trainees in laparoscopic surgery. (United States)

    Nagendran, Myura; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Loizidou, Marilena; Davidson, Brian R


    Standard surgical training has traditionally been one of apprenticeship, where the surgical trainee learns to perform surgery under the supervision of a trained surgeon. This is time-consuming, costly, and of variable effectiveness. Training using a virtual reality simulator is an option to supplement standard training. Virtual reality training improves the technical skills of surgical trainees such as decreased time for suturing and improved accuracy. The clinical impact of virtual reality training is not known. To assess the benefits (increased surgical proficiency and improved patient outcomes) and harms (potentially worse patient outcomes) of supplementary virtual reality training of surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded until July 2012. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing virtual reality training versus other forms of training including box-trainer training, no training, or standard laparoscopic training in surgical trainees with little laparoscopic experience. We also planned to include trials comparing different methods of virtual reality training. We included only trials that assessed the outcomes in people undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Two authors independently identified trials and collected data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using Review Manager 5 analysis. For each outcome we calculated the mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals based on intention-to-treat analysis. We included eight trials covering 109 surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. Of the eight trials, six compared virtual reality versus no supplementary training. One trial compared virtual reality training versus box-trainer training and versus no supplementary training, and one trial compared

  1. Plasticine Model: An Useful Surgical Training in Plastic Surgery. (United States)

    Ji, Chenyang; Li, Ruiting; Liang, Weiqiang; Chen, Yuhong; Zhang, Jinming


    To help surgical trainees reach a deep understanding of plastic operations, we developed and evaluated an economical and convenient model using plasticine for plastic surgical training. From Sep of 2012 to Dec of 2014, we invited 57 medical interns to participate in a program designed for the qualitative evaluation of this model. In this program, 57 interns were asked to simulate certain surgical operations under guidance of the experienced staff of our department using the plasticine model. The value of the plasticine model was evaluated through questionnaire surveys. Their acceptance of the plasticine model, as well as the benefits and the flaws, was evaluated by the questionnaire survey. All the participants completed the training session as well as the questionnaire, all of whom felt that the plasticine model had increased their familiarity with the surgical procedure they were assigned. By remodeling plasticine, the trainees understood either the brief surgical procedures or some confusing operative details in plastic surgery. In the questionnaire surveys, the trainees showed considerable consensus with the training program. The flaws of this method were also listed. The flaws generally reflected that "it is difficult to model into a vivid image" and "it is not suitable for all the operation". Overall, the plasticine model is accepted by the participants in this survey. This model is economical and versatile, and could be used as a complementary training tool for novices in simulated operation training of plastic surgery. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors

  2. An evaluation of hernia education in surgical residency programs. (United States)

    Hope, W W; O'Dwyer, B; Adams, A; Hooks, W B; Kotwall, C A; Clancy, T V


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgical residents' educational experience related to ventral hernias. A 16-question survey was sent to all program coordinators to distribute to their residents. Consent was obtained following a short introduction of the purpose of the survey. Comparisons based on training level were made using χ(2) test of independence, Fisher's exact, and Fisher's exact with Monte Carlo estimate as appropriate. A p value techniques for open ventral hernia varied; the most common (32 %) was intra-abdominal placement of mesh with defect closure. Twenty-two percent of residents had not heard of the retrorectus technique for hernia repair, 48 % had not performed the operation, and 60 % were somewhat comfortable with and knew the general categories of mesh prosthetics products. Mesh choices, biologic and synthetic, varied among the different products. The most common type of hernia education was teaching in the operating room in 87 %, didactic lecture 69 %, and discussion at journal club 45 %. Number of procedures, comfort level with open and laparoscopic techniques, indications for mesh use and technique, familiarity and use of retrorectus repair, and type of hernia education varied significantly based on resident level (p techniques and mesh prosthetics in surgical residency programs appears to vary. Further evaluation is needed and may help in standardizing curriculums for hernia repair for surgical residents.

  3. Multidisciplinary crisis simulations: the way forward for training surgical teams. (United States)

    Undre, Shabnam; Koutantji, Maria; Sevdalis, Nick; Gautama, Sanjay; Selvapatt, Nowlan; Williams, Samantha; Sains, Parvinderpal; McCulloch, Peter; Darzi, Ara; Vincent, Charles


    High-reliability organizations have stressed the importance of non-technical skills for safety and of regularly providing such training to their teams. Recently safety skills training has been applied in the practice of medicine. In this study, we developed and piloted a module using multidisciplinary crisis scenarios in a simulated operating theatre to train entire surgical teams. Twenty teams participated (n = 80); each consisted of a trainee surgeon, anesthetist, operating department practitioner (ODP), and scrub nurse. Crisis scenarios such as difficult intubation, hemorrhage, or cardiac arrest were simulated. Technical and non-technical skills (leadership, communication, team skills, decision making, and vigilance), were assessed by clinical experts and by two psychologists using relevant technical and human factors rating scales. Participants received technical and non-technical feedback, and the whole team received feedback on teamwork. Trainees assessed the training favorably. For technical skills there were no differences between surgical trainees' assessment scores and the assessment scores of the trainers. However, nurses overrated their technical skill. Regarding non-technical skills, leadership and decision making were scored lower than the other three non-technical skills (communication, team skills, and vigilance). Surgeons scored lower than nurses on communication and teamwork skills. Surgeons and anesthetists scored lower than nurses on leadership. Multidisciplinary simulation-based team training is feasible and well received by surgical teams. Non-technical skills can be assessed alongside technical skills, and differences in performance indicate where there is a need for further training. Future work should focus on developing team performance measures for training and on the development and evaluation of systematic training for technical and non-technical skills to enhance team performance and safety in surgery.

  4. Selection for Surgical Training: An Evidence-Based Review. (United States)

    Schaverien, Mark V


    The predictive relationship between candidate selection criteria for surgical training programs and future performance during and at the completion of training has been investigated for several surgical specialties, however there is no interspecialty agreement regarding which selection criteria should be used. Better understanding the predictive reliability between factors at selection and future performance may help to optimize the process and lead to greater standardization of the surgical selection process. PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases were searched. Over 560 potentially relevant publications were identified using the search strategy and screened using the Cochrane Collaboration Data Extraction and Assessment Template. 57 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several selection criteria used in the traditional selection demonstrated inconsistent correlation with subsequent performance during and at the end of surgical training. The following selection criteria, however, demonstrated good predictive relationships with subsequent resident performance: USMLE examination scores, Letters of Recommendation (LOR) including the Medical Student Performance Evaluation (MSPE), academic performance during clinical clerkships, the interview process, displaying excellence in extracurricular activities, and the use of unadjusted rank lists. This systematic review supports that the current selection process needs to be further evaluated and improved. Multicenter studies using standardized outcome measures of success are now required to improve the reliability of the selection process to select the best trainees. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Features that contribute to the usefulness of low-fidelity models for surgical skills training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebaek, Rikke; Berendt, Mette; Tanggaard, Lene


    of the usefulness of the models in applying the trained skills to live animal surgery. One hundred and forty-six veterinary fourth-year students evaluated the models on a four-point Likert scale. Of these, 26 additionally participated in individual semistructured interviews. The survey results showed that 75 per......For practical, ethical and economic reasons, veterinary surgical education is becoming increasingly dependent on models for training. The limited availability and high cost of commercially produced surgical models has increased the need for useful, low-cost alternatives. For this reason, a number...... of models were developed to be used in a basic surgical skills course for veterinary students. The models were low fidelity, having limited resemblance to real animals. The aim of the present study was to describe the students' learning experience with the models and to report their perception...

  6. Assessment methods in surgical training in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenios Evgeniou


    Full Text Available A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used.

  7. Laparoscopic surgical box model training for surgical trainees with no prior laparoscopic experience. (United States)

    Nagendran, Myura; Toon, Clare D; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan


    Surgical training has traditionally been one of apprenticeship, where the surgical trainee learns to perform surgery under the supervision of a trained surgeon. This is time consuming, costly, and of variable effectiveness. Training using a box model physical simulator - either a video box or a mirrored box - is an option to supplement standard training. However, the impact of this modality on trainees with no prior laparoscopic experience is unknown. To compare the benefits and harms of box model training versus no training, another box model, animal model, or cadaveric model training for surgical trainees with no prior laparoscopic experience. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded to May 2013. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing box model trainers versus no training in surgical trainees with no prior laparoscopic experience. We also included trials comparing different methods of box model training. Two authors independently identified trials and collected data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using Review Manager for analysis. For each outcome, we calculated the standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on intention-to-treat analysis whenever possible. Twenty-five trials contributed data to the quantitative synthesis in this review. All but one trial were at high risk of bias. Overall, 16 trials (464 participants) provided data for meta-analysis of box training (248 participants) versus no supplementary training (216 participants). All the 16 trials in this comparison used video trainers. Overall, 14 trials (382 participants) provided data for quantitative comparison of different methods of box training. There were no trials comparing box model training versus animal model or cadaveric model training. Box model training versus no training: The meta-analysis showed that the time

  8. Gynaecological surgical training in the operating room : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Houwen, Clasien; Boor, Klarke; Essed, Gerard G. M.; Boendermaker, Peter M.; Scherpbier, Albert A. J. J. A.; Scheele, Fedde

    Objective: One of the challenging goals of gynaecological education is preparing trainees for independent practice of surgery. Research, however, on how to acquire surgical skills in the operating room safely, effectively and efficiently is scarce. We performed this study to explore trainers' and

  9. Professionalism Training For Surgical Residents: Documenting the Advantages of a Professionalism Curriculum. (United States)

    Hochberg, Mark S; Berman, Russell S; Kalet, Adina L; Zabar, Sondra; Gillespie, Colleen; Pachter, H Leon


    Professionalism education is a vital component of surgical training. This research attempts to determine whether an annual, year-long professionalism curriculum in a large surgical residency can effectively change professionalism attitudes. The ACGME mandated 6 competencies in 2003. The competencies of Professionalism and Interpersonal/Professional Communication Skills had never been formally addressed in surgical resident education in the past. A professionalism curriculum was developed focusing on specific resident professionalism challenges: admitting mistakes, effective communication with colleagues at all levels, delivering the news of an unexpected death, interdisciplinary challenges of working as a team, the cultural challenge of obtaining informed consent through an interpreter, and the stress of surgical practice on you and your family. These professionalism skills were then evaluated with a 6-station Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Identical OSCE scenarios were administered to 2 cohorts of surgical residents: in 2007 (before instituting the professionalism curriculum in 2008) and again in 2014. Surgical residents were rated by trained Standardized Patients according to a behaviorally anchored professionalism criteria checklist. An analysis of variance was conducted of overall OSCE professionalism scores (% well done) as the dependent variable for the 2 resident cohorts (2007 vs 2014). The 2007 residents received a mean score of 38% of professionalism items "well done" (SD 9%) and the 2014 residents received a mean 59% "well done" (SD 8%). This difference is significant (F = 49.01, P Professionalism education has improved surgical resident understanding, awareness, and practice of professionalism in a statistically significant manner from 2007 to 2014. This documented improvement in OSCE performance reflects the value of a professionalism curriculum in the care of the patients we seek to serve.

  10. Research reactor education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gless, B.; Chanteux, P.


    CORYS T.E.S.S. and TECHNICATOME present in this document some of the questions that can be rightfully raised concerning education and training of nuclear facilities' staffs. At first, some answers illustrate the tackled generic topics: importance of training, building of a training program, usable tools for training purposes. Afterwards, this paper deals more specifically with research reactors as an actual training tool. The pedagogical advantages they can bring are illustrated through an example consisting in the description of the AZUR facility training capabilities followed by the detailed experiences CORYS T.E.S.S. and TECHNICATOME have both gathered and keeps on gaining using research reactors for training means. The experience shows that this incomparable training material is not necessarily reserved to huge companies or organisations' numerous personnel. It offers enough flexibility to be adapted to the specific needs of a thinner audience. Thus research reactor staffs can also take advantages of this training method. (author)

  11. Active Learning in Medical Education: Application to the Training of Surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica G.Y. Luc


    Full Text Available Our article defines active learning in the context of surgical education and reviews the growing body of research on new approaches to teaching. We then discuss future perspectives and the challenges faced by the trainee and surgeon in applying active learning to surgical training. As modern surgical education faces numerous challenges, we hope our article will help surgical educators in the evaluation of curriculum development, methods of instruction, and assessment.

  12. An Assessment of the Continuing Surgical Education Program, a Surgical Preceptor Program for Faculty Members. (United States)

    Cundiff, Geoffrey W; Geoffrion, Roxana


    The Continuing Surgical Education Preceptor program (CSEP) was designed to meet population needs by facilitating development of new skills by practising surgeons. Elements include entry criteria, dedicated OR time, assigned preceptors, structured assessment of competence, a mechanism for credentialing, and a reimbursement model. This study analyzed the effectiveness of the CSEP in increasing the number of clinician educators performing laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH) without compromising rates of vaginal hysterectomy (VH) and in enhancing residents' training in performing minimally invasive hysterectomy (MIH; either LH or VH). We performed a retrospective descriptive study to longitudinally analyze the numbers and proportions of different surgical approaches to hysterectomy at two hospital sites over five years. The CSEP was implemented differently at the two sites. Success of the program was indicated by a surgeon performing 50% or more of hysterectomies as MIH. To assess the impact on resident education, we longitudinally analyzed the number of hysterectomy teaching cases performed as MIH. The proportion of surgeons performing 50% of hysterectomies as MIH steadily increased in the first five years after implementation of the CSEP. At one hospital, the proportion increased from 13% to 56%, due to an increase in LH cases with no change in VH cases. The proportion of resident LH teaching cases increased from 0% to 26%, with a similar rise in the proportion of MIH cases, although it did not quite reach the target proportion of 50% or more. Contrasting the experience of the CSEP between two hospitals revealed that having OR time dedicated to MIH cases provided significantly better results. The CSEP is an effective and sustainable model of lifelong learning applied to teaching practising surgeons new surgical skills. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by

  13. Education and training support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Rhuji; Iyadomi, Motomi.


    In order to train the specialist such as operator or maintenance stuff of large scale plant such as nuclear power plant or thermal power plant, a high grade teaching and training support system is required as well as in training pilot of aeroplane. The specialist in such large scale plant is also a researcher in the field of machinery, electricity and physics at first, and is grown up a expert operator or maintenance stuff through learning of CAI system or OTJ used training material for teaching tool in addition of training used operating or maintenance training device imitating actual plant after acquiring determined knowledges by receiving fundamental education on nuclear and thermal power plants. In this paper, the teaching and training support systems of the nuclear and thermal power plants for a system supporting such teaching and training, respectively, were introduced. (G.K.)

  14. PGH Training Centers helps institutionalize surgical sterilization in Philippine program. (United States)


    The Philippine Study and Training Center for Surgical Sterilization (STCSS) was established in August 1974 under the auspices of the Philippine General Hospital and the University of the Philippines College of Medicine to institutionalize surgical sterilization in the medical schools and family planning organizations. The success of the program is documented by the increase in acceptors from 1400 in 1974 to 49,000 in 1976 and from the increase in sterilization centers from 50 when the program began to 165 in 1975. Approximately 300 doctors have completed the program which provides a variety of procedures to the public. Follow-up evaluation trips made by the program staff members to program graduates allow the program to benefit from feedback on conditions under which the graduates work and thus to keep its content realistic and practical. Such visits also revealed the need to train not only a physician but also his or her support staff, and courses to this effect are currently being planned. This national training center is closely allied with the Philippine Sterilization Certifying Board and engages in a variety of research activities. Research findings and training materials have been published in 2 manuals.

  15. What evidence is there for the use of workplace-based assessment in surgical training? (United States)

    Shalhoub, Joseph; Vesey, Alex Thomas; Fitzgerald, James Edward Frankland


    Recent years have seen broad changes in postgraduate training with a move toward structured formative and summative evaluation of trainees' competencies using workplace-based assessment (WBA) tools. The fitness for purpose of these instruments in surgery has been much debated. The aim of this study is to explore the evidence underlying the introduction and ongoing use of WBAs in surgical training. A critical literature review was conducted to identify studies evaluating the use of WBAs in postgraduate surgical training. The search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed for full-text articles in English. Additional critical evaluations of the curriculum relating to WBAs were included. The articles were synthesized in a narrative review. The implementation of WBA requirements in surgical training has occurred despite a relative dearth of direct evidence of their efficacy and benefit. Studies and critical reviews are being regularly undertaken to ensure that supporting evidence is accrued and the drive for improvement and refinement is maintained. It is emerging that WBAs are (contrary to their current nomenclature) formative tools for feedback and hence learning. They can facilitate the progression toward expert practice at the center of the zone of proximal development and the higher levels of Miller's pyramid, but fall short--owing to their focus on competence--of guiding surgical trainees to the higher levels of Maslow's hierarchy. Limited evidence has potentially undermined the introduction of WBAs in surgical training to date. There are misunderstandings regarding their use as either summative or formative educational tools. These shortcomings are an opportunity for further work in examining WBAs in their current or modified form. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reforming Vocational Education and Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friche, Nanna; Kondrup, Sissel

    The systems of vocational education and training are facing a number of challenges in many European countries. The share of young people who are neither employed, nor in education or training (NEET) is still higher for graduates from upper secondary VET than from upper secondary general programmes...... attractive vocational education and training’. But what does 'better' and 'more attractive' mean? Firstly, this paper examines the perceptions and concepts of quality that is reflected in the political Agreement on the quality and attractiveness of Danish vocational education. Secondly, the paper identifies...... a number of challenges related to these different perceptions and concepts of quality. The research question of the paper is: What concepts of quality draws the political Agreement on Better and More Attractive Vocational Education and Training programmes on? And with which potential implications...

  17. Computers and virtual reality for surgical education in the 21st century. (United States)

    Haluck, R S; Krummel, T M


    Surgeons must learn to perform operations. The current system of surgical resident education is facing many challenges in terms of time efficiency, costs, and patient safety. In addition, as new types of operations are developed rapidly, practicing surgeons may find a need for more efficient methods of surgical skill education. An in-depth examination of the current learning environment and the literature of motor skills learning provides insights into ways in which surgical skills education can be improved. Computers will certainly be a part of this process. Computer-based training in technical skills has the potential to solve many of the educational, economic, ethical, and patient safety issues related to learning to perform operations. Although full virtual-reality systems are still in development, there has been early progress that should encourage surgeons to incorporate computer simulation into the surgical curriculum.

  18. Getting lost in translation? Workplace based assessments in surgical training. (United States)

    Ali, Jason M


    Workplace based assessments (WBA) are integral to the competence-based surgical training curriculum that currently exists in the UK. The GMC emphasise the value of WBA's as assessments for learning (formative), rather than as assessments of learning (summative). Current implementation of WBA's in the workplace though, is at odds with their intended use, with the formative functions often being overlooked in favour of the summative, as exemplified by the recent announcement that trainees are required to complete a minimum of 40 WBA's a year, an increase from 24. Even before this increase, trainees viewed WBA's as tick-box exercises that negatively impact upon training opportunities. As a result, the tools are commonly misused, often because both trainees and trainers lack understanding of the benefits of full engagement with the formative learning opportunities afforded by WBA's. To aid the transition in mind-set of trainees and trainers to the purpose of assessment in the workplace, the GMC propose the introduction of 'supervised learning events' and 'assessments of performance' to supersede 'WBA's'. The impact of this change and how these will be integrated into surgical training is yet to be seen, but is likely to be a step in the right direction. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Pareto Analysis for Establishing Content Criteria in Surgical Training. (United States)

    Kramp, Kelvin H; van Det, Marc J; Veeger, Nic J G M; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N


    Current surgical training is still highly dependent on expensive operating room (OR) experience. Although there have been many attempts to transfer more training to the skills laboratory, little research is focused on which technical behaviors can lead to the highest profit when they are trained outside the OR. The Pareto principle states that in any population that contributes to a common effect, a few account for the bulk of the effect. This principle has been widely used in business management to increase company profits. This study uses the Pareto principle for establishing content criteria for more efficient surgical training. A retrospective study was conducted to assess verbal guidance provided by 9 supervising surgeons to 12 trainees performing 64 laparoscopic cholecystectomies in the OR. The verbal corrections were documented, tallied, and clustered according to the aimed change in novice behavior. The corrections were rank ordered, and a cumulative distribution curve was used to calculate which corrections accounted for 80% of the total number of verbal corrections. In total, 253 different verbal corrections were uttered 1587 times and were categorized into 40 different clusters of aimed changes in novice behaviors. The 35 highest-ranking verbal corrections (14%) and the 11 highest-ranking clusters (28%) accounted for 80% of the total number of given verbal corrections. Following the Pareto principle, we were able to identify the aspects of trainee behavior that account for most corrections given by supervisors during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on humans. This strategy can be used for the development of new training programs to prepare the trainee in advance for the challenges encountered in the clinical setting in an OR. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Consultant outcomes publication and surgical training: Consensus recommendations by the association of surgeons in training. (United States)

    Mohan, Helen M; Gokani, Vimal J; Williams, Adam P; Harries, Rhiannon L


    Consultant Outcomes Publication (COP) has the longest history in cardiothoracic surgery, where it was introduced in 2005. Subsequently COP has been broadened to include all surgical specialties in NHS England in 2013-14. The Association of Surgeons in Training (ASiT) fully supports efforts to improve patient care and trust in the profession and is keen to overcome potential unintended adverse effects of COP. Identification of these adverse effects is the first step in this process: Firstly, there is a risk that COP may lead to reluctance by consultants to provide trainees with the necessary appropriate primary operator experience to become skilled consultant surgeons for the future. Secondly, COP may lead to inappropriately cautious case selection. This adjusted case mix affects both patients who are denied operations, and also limits the complexity of the case mix to which surgical trainees are exposed. Thirdly, COP undermines efforts to train surgical trainees in non-technical skills and human factors, simply obliterating the critical role of the multidisciplinary team and organisational processes in determining outcomes. This tunnel vision masks opportunities to improve patient care and outcomes at a unit level. It also misinforms the public as to the root causes of adverse events by failing to identify care process deficiencies. Finally, for safe surgical care, graduate retention and morale is important - COP may lead to high calibre trainees opting out of surgical careers, or opting to work abroad. The negative effects of COP on surgical training and trainees must be addressed as high quality surgical training and retention of high calibre graduates is essential for excellent patient care. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Education and vocational training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fair, M.F.; Turner, J.E.


    The Faculty Institute in Applied Health Physics started in the summer of 1974 in response to the nation's needs for persons trained at the bachelor's level in health physics technology. Surveys indicate that between 3300 and 6000 new trained technologists will be needed by 1985. They will be required for nuclear power reactors, fuel-cycle operations, nuclear medicine, regulatory activities, and as replacements for currently employed workers. The Faculty Institute program provides support for contacting college officials to make them aware of these forecasts and interest them in instituting undergraduate health physics course work at their institutions. In addition, the program provides support for ten faculty participants from different universities to spend ten weeks during the summer in the Health Physics Division. These participants have access to the staff and the diverse research and field facilities of the Division. They also utilize the facilities of the Special Training Division at ORAU

  2. Education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.


    The ability of this country to move forward into and have an impact on the nuclear technology of the 21st century will be dependent upon the availability of well-trained scientists in many subfields and an informed public. The number of nuclear-trained faculty is an indicator of the means for producing nuclear scientists. The currently experienced decline in nuclear faculty is resulting in decreases in graduate students in nuclear fields and a decrease at the undergraduate level of nuclear awareness. An apparent shortfall between supply and demand is identified and discussed

  3. The use of virtual reality tools in surgical education. (United States)

    Smith, Andrew


    Advances in computing, specifically those used for simulation and games technology has allowed for exciting developments in dental and surgical education. At the same time concerns are being raised that students with relatively little training, practise to improve their skill on patients with all of the inherent risks that may occur. Simulation in dentistry has been practised for many years and so the concept is not new to the profession. New tools have been developed that both enhance teaching and learning and are also useful for assessment of students and trainees. The challenge of virtual and simulated reality tools is to have the required fidelity to improve teaching and learning outcomes over the currently utilized methodology.

  4. Cross-sectional study of the financial cost of training to the surgical trainee in the UK and Ireland. (United States)

    O'Callaghan, John; Mohan, Helen M; Sharrock, Anna; Gokani, Vimal; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Williams, Adam P; Harries, Rhiannon L


    Applications for surgical training have declined over the last decade, and anecdotally the costs of training at the expense of the surgical trainee are rising. We aimed to quantify the costs surgical trainees are expected to cover for postgraduate training. Prospective, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study. A non-mandatory online questionnaire for UK-based trainees was distributed nationally. A similar national questionnaire was distributed for Ireland, taking into account differences between the healthcare systems. Only fully completed responses were included. There were 848 and 58 fully completed responses from doctors based in the UK and Ireland, respectively. Medical students in the UK reported a significant increase in debt on graduation by 55% from £17 892 (2000-2004) to £27 655 (2010-2014) (ptraining, a surgical trainee in the UK spends on average £9105 on courses, £5411 on conferences and £4185 on exams, not covered by training budget. Irish trainees report similarly high costs. Most trainees undertake a higher degree during their postgraduate training. The cost of achieving the mandatory requirements for completion of training ranges between £20 000 and £26 000 (dependent on specialty), except oral and maxillofacial surgery, which is considerably higher (£71 431). Medical students are graduating with significantly larger debt than before. Surgical trainees achieve their educational requirements at substantial personal expenditure. To encourage graduates to pursue and remain in surgical training, urgent action is required to fund the mandatory requirements and annual training costs for completion of training and provide greater transparency to inform doctors of what their postgraduate training costs will be. This is necessary to increase diversity in surgery, reduce debt load and ensure surgery remains a popular career choice. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  5. Social Media: Changing the Paradigm for Surgical Education. (United States)

    Petrucci, Andrea M; Chand, Manish; Wexner, Steven D


    The role of social media (SoMe) in surgical education is emerging as a tool that augments and complements traditional learning. As SoMe usage has steadily increased in our personal and professional lives, it is no surprise that it has permeated into surgical education. Different SoMe sites offer distinct platforms from which knowledge can be transmitted, while catering to various learning styles. The purpose of this review is to outline the various SoMe platforms and their use in surgical education. Moreover, it will discuss their effectiveness in teaching and learning surgical knowledge and skills as well as other potential roles SoMe has to offer to improve surgical education.

  6. Cognitive and Technical Skill Assessment in Surgical Education: a Changing Horizon. (United States)

    Vergis, Ashley; Hardy, Krista


    Assessment is an integral component of training and credentialing surgeons for practice. Traditional methods of cognitive and technical appraisal are well established but have clear shortcomings. This review outlines the components of the surgical care assessment model, identifies the deficits of current evaluation techniques, and discusses novel and emerging technologies that attempt to ameliorate this educational void.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Petrov


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider two trends in teaching methods and tools chosen on the base of continuing education concept and challenges of the information society. Indeed, the modern post-school education requires improved efficiency and activity of training as it should or can be combined with productive activity of students. Here we discuss and analyze some trends of contemporary distance learning in order to include them into solution of lifelong learning problems. 

  8. Effective and efficient learning in the operating theater with intraoperative video-enhanced surgical procedure training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Det, M.J.; Meijerink, W.J.; Hoff, C.; Middel, B.; Pierie, J.P.

    INtraoperative Video Enhanced Surgical procedure Training (INVEST) is a new training method designed to improve the transition from basic skills training in a skills lab to procedural training in the operating theater. Traditionally, the master-apprentice model (MAM) is used for procedural training

  9. Blood transfusion knowledge of surgical residents: is an educational intervention effective? (United States)

    Champion, Caitlin; Saidenberg, Elianna; Lampron, Jacinthe; Pugh, Debra


    Evidence-based transfusion education for surgical residents is crucial to improving practice. A pilot study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of an education module for improving transfusion knowledge among surgical residents. Modules were developed and delivered by experts in surgery and transfusion medicine. They were delivered to residents in their first 2 years of training (Surgical Foundations), and to General Surgery residents across all years of training. Premodule and postmodule and retention knowledge assessments were used to assess efficacy. Median assessment scores for each group were compared using a two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum analysis. Chi-square tests were used to compare each group's correct response rates for each question across the three tests. Median assessment scores of residents in the Surgical Foundations program improved from a mean of 60% premodule to 80% postmodule and remained at 80% in the retention assessment (p transfusion dose, preoperative blood management, management of reactions, and informed consent (p Transfusion knowledge of surgical residents was improved by a collaborative educational initiative. This could serve as a model for other training programs to improve resident knowledge of evidence-based transfusion practices. The efficacy of such interventions in changing practice remains untested. © 2017 AABB.

  10. Perioperative feedback in surgical training: A systematic review. (United States)

    McKendy, Katherine M; Watanabe, Yusuke; Lee, Lawrence; Bilgic, Elif; Enani, Ghada; Feldman, Liane S; Fried, Gerald M; Vassiliou, Melina C


    Changes in surgical training have raised concerns about residents' operative exposure and preparedness for independent practice. One way of addressing this concern is by optimizing teaching and feedback in the operating room (OR). The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on perioperative teaching and feedback. A systematic literature search identified articles from 1994 to 2014 that addressed teaching, feedback, guidance, or debriefing in the perioperative period. Data was extracted according to ENTREQ guidelines, and a qualitative analysis was performed. Thematic analysis of the 26 included studies identified four major topics. Observation of teaching behaviors in the OR described current teaching practices. Identification of effective teaching strategies analyzed teaching behaviors, differentiating positive and negative teaching strategies. Perceptions of teaching behaviors described resident and attending satisfaction with teaching in the OR. Finally models for delivering structured feedback cited examples of feedback strategies and measured their effectiveness. This study provides an overview of perioperative teaching and feedback for surgical trainees and identifies a need for improved quality and quantity of structured feedback. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Training responsibly to improve global surgical and anaesthesia capacity through institutional health partnerships: a case study. (United States)

    Macpherson, Laura; Collins, Maggie


    Urgent investment in human resources for surgical and anaesthesia care is needed globally. Responsible training and education is required to ensure healthcare providers are confident and skilled in the delivery of this care in both the rural and the urban setting. The Tropical Health and Education Trust (THET), a UK-based specialist global health organisation, is working with health training institutions, health professionals, Ministries of Health and Health Partnerships or 'links' between healthcare institutions in the UK and low- or middle-income country (LMIC) counterparts. These institutions may be hospitals, professional associations or universities whose primary focus is delivery of health services or the training and education of health workers. Since 2011, THET has been delivering the Health Partnership Scheme (HPS), a UK government-funded programme that provides grants and guidance to health partnerships and promotes the voluntary engagement of UK health professionals overseas. To date, the £30 million Scheme has supported peer-to-peer collaborations involving more than 200 UK and overseas hospitals, universities and professional associations across 25 countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. In this paper, we focus on four partnerships that are undertaking training initiatives focused on building capacity for surgery and anaesthesia. In order to do so, we discuss their role as a responsible and effective approach to harnessing the expertise available in the UK in order to increase surgical and anaesthesia capacity in LMICs. Specifically, how well they: (1) respond to locally identified needs; (2) are appropriate to the local context and are of high quality; and (3) have an overarching goal of making a sustainable contribution to the development of the health workforce through education and training. The HPS has now supported 24 training initiatives focused on building capacity for surgery and anaesthesia in 16 countries across sub-Saharan Africa

  12. Surgical training: design of a virtual care pathway approach. (United States)

    Beyer-Berjot, Laura; Patel, Vishal; Acharya, Amish; Taylor, Dave; Bonrath, Esther; Grantcharov, Teodor; Darzi, Ara; Aggarwal, Rajesh


    Both intra- and perioperative care are essential for patients' safety. Training for intraoperative technical skills on simulators and for perioperative care in virtual patients have independently demonstrated educational value, but no training combining these 2 approaches has been designed yet. The aim of this study was to design a pathway approach for training in general surgery. A common disease requiring essential skills was chosen, namely, acute appendicitis. Preoperative care training was created using virtual patients presenting with acute right iliac fossa (RIF) pain. A competency-based curriculum for laparoscopic appendectomy (LAPP) was designed on a virtual reality simulator: Novices (100 LAPP) were enrolled to perform 2 virtual LAPP for assessment of validity evidence; novices performed 8 further LAPP for analysis of a learning curve. Finally, postoperative virtual patients were reviewed after LAPP. Four preoperative patient scenarios were designed with different presentations of RIF; not all required operative management. Comments were provided through case progression to allow autonomous practice. Ten novices and 10 experienced surgeons were enrolled for intraoperative training. Time taken (median values) of novices versus experienced surgeons (285 vs 259 seconds; P = .026) and performance score (67% vs 99%; P virtual patients were created with an uneventful or complicated outcome. A virtual care pathway approach has been designed for acute appendicitis, enabling trainees to follow simulated patients from admission to discharge. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. American Pediatric Surgical Association (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  14. General surgery residents' perception of robot-assisted procedures during surgical training. (United States)

    Farivar, Behzad S; Flannagan, Molly; Leitman, I Michael


    With the continued expansion of robotically assisted procedures, general surgery residents continue to receive more exposure to this new technology as part of their training. There are currently no guidelines or standardized training requirements for robot-assisted procedures during general surgical residency. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of this new technology on general surgery training from the residents' perspective. An anonymous, national, web-based survey was conducted on residents enrolled in general surgery training in 2013. The survey was sent to 240 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-approved general surgery training programs. Overall, 64% of the responding residents were men and had an average age of 29 years. Half of the responses were from postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) and PGY2 residents, and the remainder was from the PGY3 level and above. Overall, 50% of the responses were from university training programs, 32% from university-affiliated programs, and 18% from community-based programs. More than 96% of residents noted the availability of the surgical robot system at their training institution. Overall, 63% of residents indicated that they had participated in robotic surgical cases. Most responded that they had assisted in 10 or fewer robotic cases with the most frequent activities being assisting with robotic trocar placement and docking and undocking the robot. Only 18% reported experience with operating the robotic console. More senior residents (PGY3 and above) were involved in robotic cases compared with junior residents (78% vs 48%, p robotic case. Approximately 64% of residents reported that formal training in robotic surgery was important in residency training and 46% of residents indicated that robotic-assisted cases interfered with resident learning. Only 11% felt that robotic-assisted cases would replace conventional laparoscopic surgery in the future. This study illustrates that although the most residents

  15. Training surgical residents for a career in academic global surgery: a novel training model. (United States)

    Swain, JaBaris D; Matousek, Alexi C; Scott, John W; Cooper, Zara; Smink, Douglas S; Bolman, Ralph Morton; Finlayson, Samuel R G; Zinner, Michael J; Riviello, Robert


    Academic global surgery is a nascent field focused on improving surgical care in resource-poor settings through a broad-based scholarship agenda. Although there is increasing momentum to expand training opportunities in low-resource settings among academic surgical programs, most focus solely on establishing short-term elective rotations rather than fostering research or career development. Given the complex nature of surgical care delivery and programmatic capacity building in the resource-poor settings, many challenges remain before global surgery is accepted as an academic discipline and an established career path. Brigham and Women's Hospital has established a specialized global surgery track within the general surgery residency program to develop academic leaders in this growing area of need and opportunity. Here we describe our experience with the design and development of the program followed by practical applications and lessons learned from our early experiences. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Open abdominal surgical training differences experienced by integrated vascular and general surgery residents. (United States)

    Tanious, Adam; Wooster, Mathew; Jung, Andrew; Nelson, Peter R; Armstrong, Paul A; Shames, Murray L


    As the integrated vascular residency program reaches almost a decade of maturity, a common area of concern among trainees is the adequacy of open abdominal surgical training. It is our belief that although their overall exposure to open abdominal procedures has decreased, integrated vascular residents have an adequate and focused exposure to open aortic surgery during training. National operative case log data supplied by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education were compiled for both graduating integrated vascular surgery residents (IVSRs) and graduating categorical general surgery residents (GSRs) for the years 2012 to 2014. Mean total and open abdominal case numbers were compared between the IVSRs and GSRs, with more in-depth exploration into open abdominal procedures by organ system. Overall, the mean total 5-year case volume of IVSRs was 1168 compared with 980 for GSRs during the same time frame (P surgery, representing 57% of all open abdominal cases. GSRs completed an average of 116 open alimentary tract surgeries during their training. Open abdominal surgery represented an average of 7.1% of the total vascular case volume for the vascular residents, whereas open abdominal surgery represented 21% of a GSR's total surgical experience. IVSRs reported almost double the number of total cases during their training, with double chief-level cases. Sixty-five percent of open abdominal surgeries performed by IVSRs involved the aorta or its renovisceral branches. Whereas open abdominal surgery represented 7.1% of an IVSR's surgical training, GSRs had a far broader scope of open abdominal procedures, completing nearly double those of IVSRs. The differences in open abdominal procedures pertain to the differing diseases treated by GSRs and IVSRs. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Teaching surgical exposures to undergraduate medical students: an integration concept for anatomical and surgical education. (United States)

    Hammer, Niels; Hepp, Pierre; Löffler, Sabine; Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Steinke, Hanno; Klima, Stefan


    Decreasing numbers of students are interested in starting a surgical career, posing substantial challenges to patient care in the next years. The anatomy course is one of the key subjects in medical training, especially in surgical disciplines. Innovative teaching concepts that integrate surgically relevant anatomy and manual dexterity might help boost student interest in surgery. A preclinical workshop entitled "Surgical exposures" was developed. A team of anatomists and surgeons introduced the surgical exposures, demonstrating the procedures on Thiel-fixed body donors. Following this introduction, students practiced the exposures in an operating room-like manner. A six-point Likert scale was used to evaluate the workshop and to compare it to the first-year dissection course. The overall evaluation result for the surgical exposures was excellent, proving to be a significantly better result when compared to the first-year dissection course. The students were more satisfied with the teaching time invested by the peers and regarded the workshop as clinically highly relevant. Furthermore, they felt that questions were addressed better and that the overall atmosphere was better than in the gross anatomy course. Subject to criticism was the course size and practicing time in both cases. The surgical exposures workshop provides preclinical students with clinically relevant anatomy and manual dexterity. It may positively influence the decision to follow a surgical career. This course, however, requires extensive teaching resources. The given concept may help implement practical medical skills in the preclinical curriculum, strengthening the professional identity of surgeons and anatomists.

  18. Education Research: Neurology training reassessed (United States)

    Maas, Matthew B.; Coleman, Mary; Jozefowicz, Ralph; Engstrom, John


    Objective: To assess the strengths and weaknesses of neurology resident education using survey methodology. Methods: A 27-question survey was sent to all neurology residents completing residency training in the United States in 2011. Results: Of eligible respondents, 49.8% of residents returned the survey. Most residents believed previously instituted duty hour restrictions had a positive impact on resident quality of life without impacting patient care. Most residents rated their faculty and clinical didactics favorably. However, many residents reported suboptimal preparation in basic neuroscience and practice management issues. Most residents (71%) noted that the Residency In-service Training Examination (RITE) assisted in self-study. A minority of residents (14%) reported that the RITE scores were used for reasons other than self-study. The vast majority (86%) of residents will enter fellowship training following residency and were satisfied with the fellowship offers they received. Conclusions: Graduating residents had largely favorable neurology training experiences. Several common deficiencies include education in basic neuroscience and clinical practice management. Importantly, prior changes to duty hours did not negatively affect the resident perception of neurology residency training. PMID:23091077

  19. Inventory on cleaner production education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pöyry, Sirkka; Huisingh, Donald

    Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training......Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training...

  20. Systematic video game training in surgical novices improves performance in virtual reality endoscopic surgical simulators: a prospective randomized study. (United States)

    Schlickum, Marcus Kolga; Hedman, Leif; Enochsson, Lars; Kjellin, Ann; Felländer-Tsai, Li


    Previous studies have shown a correlation between previous video game experience and performance in minimally invasive surgical simulators. The hypothesis is that systematic video game training with high visual-spatial demands and visual similarity to endoscopy would show a transfer effect on performance in virtual reality endoscopic surgical simulation. A prospective randomized study was performed. Thirty surgical novices were matched and randomized to five weeks of systematic video game training in either a first-person shooter game (Half Life) with high visual-spatial demands and visual similarities to endoscopy or a video game with mainly cognitive demands (Chessmaster). A matched control group (n = 10) performed no video game training during five weeks. Performance in two virtual reality endoscopic surgical simulators (MIST-VR and GI Mentor II) was measured pre- and post-training. Before simulator training we also controlled for students' visual-spatial ability, visual working memory, age, and previous video game experience. The group training with Half Life showed significant improvement in two GI Mentor II variables and the MIST-VR task MD level medium. The group training with Chessmaster only showed an improvement in the MIST-VR task. No effect was observed in the control group. As recently shown in other studies, current and previous video game experience was important for simulator performance. Systematic video game training improved surgical performance in advanced virtual reality endoscopic simulators. The transfer effect increased when increasing visual similarity. The performance in intense, visual-spatially challenging video games might be a predictive factor for the outcome in surgical simulation.

  1. Transfer of systematic computer game training in surgical novices on performance in virtual reality image guided surgical simulators. (United States)

    Kolga Schlickum, Marcus; Hedman, Leif; Enochsson, Lars; Kjellin, Ann; Felländer-Tsai, Li


    We report on a pilot study that investigates the transfer effect of systematic computer game training on performance in image guided surgery. In a group of 22 surgical novices, subjects were matched and randomized into one group training with a 3-D first person shooter (FPS) game and one group training with a 2-D non-FPS game. We also included a control group. Subjects were tested pre- and post training in the MIST-VR and GI-Mentor surgical simulators. We found that subjects with past experience specific to FPS games were significantly better in performing the simulated endoscopy task, both regarding time and efficiency of screening, compared to subjects lacking FPS game experience. Furthermore subjects who underwent systematic FPS game training performed better in the MIST-VR than those training with a 2-D game. Our findings indicate a transfer effect and that experience of video games are important for training outcome in simulated surgical procedures. Video game training can become useful when designing future skills training curricula for surgeons.

  2. The Training of Teachers in Special Education. (United States)

    Gulliford, Ronald


    As special needs children are integrated into regular education, new needs in teacher training have become apparent. Focusing on the United Kingdom, this paper discusses the training of special education teachers and the preservice education and inservice training of all teachers. (Author/JDD)

  3. Usefulness and capability of three-dimensional, full high-definition movies for surgical education. (United States)

    Takano, M; Kasahara, K; Sugahara, K; Watanabe, A; Yoshida, S; Shibahara, T


    Because of changing surgical procedures in the fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery, new methods for surgical education are needed and could include recent advances in digital technology. Many doctors have attempted to use digital technology as educational tools for surgical training, and movies have played an important role in these attempts. We have been using a 3D full high-definition (full-HD) camcorder to record movies of intra-oral surgeries. The subjects were medical students and doctors receiving surgical training who did not have actual surgical experience ( n  = 67). Participants watched an 8-min, 2D movie of orthognathic surgery and subsequently watched the 3D version. After watching the 3D movie, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire. A lot of participants (84%) felt a 3D movie excellent or good and answered that the advantages of a 3D movie were their appearance of solidity or realism. Almost all participants (99%) answered that 3D movies were quite useful or useful for medical practice. Three-dimensional full-HD movies have the potential to improve the quality of medical education and clinical practice in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  4. Multimedia-based training on Internet platforms improves surgical performance: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Pape-Koehler, Carolina; Immenroth, Marc; Sauerland, Stefan; Lefering, Rolf; Lindlohr, Cornelia; Toaspern, Jens; Heiss, Markus


    Surgical procedures are complex motion sequences that require a high level of preparation, training, and concentration. In recent years, Internet platforms providing surgical content have been established. Used as a surgical training method, the effect of multimedia-based training on practical surgical skills has not yet been evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of multimedia-based training on surgical performance. A 2 × 2 factorial, randomized controlled trial with a pre- and posttest design was used to test the effect of multimedia-based training in addition to or without practical training on 70 participants in four groups defined by the intervention used: multimedia-based training, practical training, and combination training (multimedia-based training + practical training) or no training (control group). The pre- and posttest consisted of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a Pelvi-Trainer and was video recorded, encoded, and saved on DVDs. These were evaluated by blinded raters using a modified objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS). The main evaluation criterion was the difference in OSATS score between the pre- and posttest (ΔOSATS) results in terms of a task-specific checklist (procedural steps scored as correct or incorrect). The groups were homogeneous in terms of demographic parameters, surgical experience, and pretest OSATS scores. The ΔOSATS results were highest in the multimedia-based training group (4.7 ± 3.3; p Multimedia-based training improved surgical performance significantly and thus could be considered a reasonable tool for inclusion in surgical curricula.

  5. Supply versus demand: a review of application trends to Canadian surgical training programs. (United States)

    Austin, Ryan E; Wanzel, Kyle R


    Despite increases in medical school enrolment, applications to surgical residency programs in Canada have been in decline over the past decade, with an increasing number of unmatched surgical residency positions. We examined the current status of surgical residency in Canada and analyzed application trends (2002–2013) for surgical training programs across Canada. Our findings suggest that most undergraduate medical schools across Canada are having difficulty fostering interest in surgical careers. We propose that a lack of adequate early exposure to the surgical specialties during undergraduate training is a critical factor. Moving forward, we must examine how the best-performing institutions and surgical programs have maintained interest in pursuing surgical careers and adapt our recruitment methods to both maintain and grow future interest. As Mary Engelbreit said, "If you don't like something, change it; if you can't change it, change the way you think about it."

  6. Promoting Undergraduate Surgical Education: Current Evidence and Students' Views on ESMSC International Wet Lab Course. (United States)

    Sideris, Michail; Papalois, Apostolos; Theodoraki, Korina; Dimitropoulos, Ioannis; Johnson, Elizabeth O; Georgopoulou, Efstratia-Maria; Staikoglou, Nikolaos; Paparoidamis, Georgios; Pantelidis, Panteleimon; Tsagkaraki, Ismini; Karamaroudis, Stefanos; Potoupnis, Michael E; Tsiridis, Eleftherios; Dedeilias, Panagiotis; Papagrigoriadis, Savvas; Papalois, Vassilios; Zografos, Georgios; Triantafyllou, Aggeliki; Tsoulfas, Georgios


    Undergraduate Surgical Education is becoming an essential element in the training of the future generation of safe and efficient surgeons. Essential Skills in the Management of Surgical Cases (ESMSC), is an international, joint applied surgical science and simulation-based learning wet lab course. We performed a review of the existing literature on the topic of undergraduate surgical education. Following that, we analyzed the feedback questionnaire received 480 from 2 recent series of ESMSC courses (May 2015, n = 49 and November 2015, n = 40), in order to evaluate European Union students' (UK, Germany, Greece) views on the ESMSC course, as well as on the undergraduate surgical education. Results Using a 10 point graded scale, the overall ESMSC concept was positively evaluated, with a mean score of 9.41 ± 0.72 (range: 8-10) and 8.94 ± 1.1 (range: 7-10). The majority of delegates from both series [9.86 ± 0.43 (range: 8-10) and 9.58 ± 0.91 (range: 6-10), respectively] believed that ESMSC should be incorporated in the undergraduate surgical curriculum. Comparison of responses from the UK to the Greek Medical Student, as well as the findings from the third and fourth year versus the fifth and sixth year Medical Students, revealed no statistically significant differences pertaining to any of the questions (p > 0.05). Current evidence in the literature supports the enhancement of surgical education through the systematic use of various modalities that provide Simulation-Based Training (SBT) hands-on experience, starting from the early undergraduate level. The findings of the present study are in agreement with these previous reports.

  7. IVUmed: a nonprofit model for surgical training in low-resource countries. (United States)

    Jalloh, Mohamed; Wood, Joshua P; Fredley, Mary; deVries, Catherine R


    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face both training and infrastructural challenges for surgical care, particularly for specialty care, such as for urology. Practitioners charged with caring for these patients have few options for basic or advanced training. IVUmed, a nonprofit organization, has for 20 years supported urological educational programs in 30 LMICs by coordinating a network of US and international academic and private providers, institutions, industry partners, and professional societies. IVUmed's motto, "Teach One, Reach Many" has emphasized a teach-the-teacher approach. Program partners, such as Hopital General de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal, have advanced from little urological subspecialty availability to having the capacity to treat a wide range of conditions while also teaching surgeons from Senegal and neighboring countries. Long-term program commitments; effective communication; and a shared vision among the program site, the coordinating nongovernmental organization, and supporting organizations facilitate the development of thriving surgical teaching programs capable of serving local communities and conducting outreach training. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Street Smarts and a Scalpel: Emotional Intelligence in Surgical Education. (United States)

    Erdman, Mary Kate; Bonaroti, Alisha; Provenzano, Gina; Appelbaum, Rachel; Browne, Marybeth

    To evaluate trends of emotional intelligence (EI) in surgical education and to compare the incorporation of EI in surgical education to other fields of graduate medical education. A MEDLINE search was performed for publications containing both "surgery" and "emotional intelligence" with at least one term present in the title. Articles were included if the authors deemed EI in surgical education to be a significant focus. A separate series of MEDLINE searches were performed with the phrase "emotional intelligence" in any field and either "surg*," "internal medicine," "pediatric," "neurology," "obstetric," "gynecology," "OBGYN," "emergency," or "psychiat*" in the title. Articles were included if they discussed resident education as the primary subject. Next, a qualitative analysis of the articles was performed, with important themes from each article noted. Lehigh Valley Health Network in Allentown, PA. Eight articles addressed surgical resident education and satisfied inclusion criteria with 0, 1, and 7 articles published between 2001 and 2005, 2005 and 2010, and 2010 and 2015, respectively. The comparative data for articles on EI and resident education showed the following : 8 in surgery, 2 in internal medicine, 2 in pediatrics, 0 in neurology, 0 in OBGYN, 1 in emergency medicine, and 3 in psychiatry. Integration of EI principles is a growing trend within surgical education. A prominent theme is quantitative assessment of EI in residents and residency applicants. Further study is warranted on the integration process of EI in surgical education and its effect on patient outcomes and long-term job satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Perceptions regarding cardiothoracic surgical training at Veterans Affairs hospitals. (United States)

    Bakaeen, Faisal G; Stephens, Elizabeth H; Chu, Danny; Holman, William L; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Merrill, Walter H; Grover, Frederick L


    With cardiothoracic education going through a critical phase of reevaluation and adaptation, we investigated perceptions of Veterans Affairs hospitals in cardiothoracic training. A content-validated survey was distributed electronically to 676 cardiothoracic surgery residents, recent cardiothoracic graduates (on or after June 2006), cardiothoracic surgery chairpersons, program directors, associate program directors, and section heads. The Cardiothoracic Surgery Network was used to identify target recipients and their e-mail addresses. Forty-three percent of the target recipients (292/676) completed the survey. Of those who were residents, 59% (65/111) rotated at a Veterans Affairs hospital during their cardiothoracic training; this rotation accounted for 25% or more of the total training period for 19% of them (21/111). A Veterans Affairs appointment was held by 42% of program directors/chairpersons (20/48) and 24% of graduates, associate program directors, and section heads (31/129). An affiliation with a Veterans Affairs hospital was rated as somewhat to very beneficial by 93% of the responders (273/292), and the cardiothoracic training received at Veterans Affairs facilities was rated as good to excellent by 73% of the responders (213/292). Sixty-nine percent of respondents (201/292) reported the operating room environment at Veterans Affairs hospitals to be at least as conducive to learning as that at the affiliate teaching hospital, and 76% (223/292) indicated that residents get more autonomy and hands-on experience at Veterans Affairs institutions. In addition, 64% of responders (188/292) reported that they would seek or recommend a Veterans Affairs job. Responses were positive toward the Veterans Affairs system regardless of whether the responder had any Veterans Affairs affiliation (ie, appointment as staff or rotation as resident); however, a Veterans Affairs affiliation was associated with a higher rate of positive responses regarding Veterans Affairs

  10. Training of adult education teachers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    The article presents the Danish adult educational system, the extend of adult learning and the objectives of the adult education program. It presents the teacher training institutions and programs and the programs for continuing education in practice. Further on the article presents and discus...... the pedagogical principles and theories behind the training of teachers in adult education....

  11. Education, Training and Communication: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeck, M.


    Good communication on nuclear science and its applications is a challenging practice. Nuclear topics are generally perceived as being complex from the technical-scientific point of view, and also from the societal point of view, agreement and acceptance is not straightforward. Moreover, the application fields of ionising radiation are numerous and spread over many areas. The nuclear industry and the nuclear research sector, the medical sector, several branches of the non-nuclear industry and several disciplines in the academic world, all appeal on the phenomenon of the nuclear process of reduction of an excess of inner energy, called radioactivity. Besides these sectors who consciously use radioactivity in one or other application, other branches such as aviation and the fossil fuel industry are faced with artificially raised levels of natural radioactivity. Maintaining a high level in nuclear competencies is crucial in order to guarantee the safe use of current nuclear applications and to ensure the protection of workers, the public and the environment. Next to this, an up-to-date nuclear knowledge is vital in research and development related to the optimisation of current and the development of future technologies. An essential component in ensuring a high level of expertise in the future is a sustainable Education and Training infrastructure. Educational systems provide the initial study to young learners. It is knowledge-based and generally provided by the academic world. Complementary to education is the unceasing maintenance of the level of competencies. Training activities need to be provided to young and not-so-young professionals working with ionizing radiation in all disciplines and at all levels. When it comes to the future development and the realization of new great infrastructures, obviously preservation of knowledge through education and training is a necessary but not sufficient element, and also research itself is subject to support by government

  12. Education and training for ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, J.R.A.


    The practice of ALARA or the optimisation of Radiation Protection is an important feature of the task of the Radiation Protection Professionals. The teaching of the subject is an equally important part of the education and training curriculum. This paper commences with a general view of the educational process and concludes with specific comments on the educational needs. The concept of ALARA is suggested to be central to the safety culture of radiation protection practice. It is considered to be a part of the scientific culture which is well recognised but not well understood. These topics are reviewed and the conclusions applied to a proposal for a syllabus for the teaching of ALARA and this is compared with the content of courses on the subject. (Author)

  13. Strategies to accommodate resident work-hour restrictions: impact on surgical education. (United States)

    Freiburg, Carter; James, Ted; Ashikaga, Takamura; Moalem, Jacob; Cherr, Greg


    The introduction of duty-hour restrictions has impacted surgical training. Several strategies were introduced by training programs in response to these restrictions. The purpose of this study was to assess the various strategies employed by residency programs to comply with work-hour restrictions with respect to the impact on the quality of surgical education. A national survey was developed and distributed to resident members of the Resident and Associate Society of the American College of Surgeons in all accredited residency programs across North America. Questions in the survey addressed 10 separate accommodation strategies used by training programs to adhere to resident work-hour restrictions. Resident respondents completed a 5-point Likert scale rating each strategy according to its impact on surgical education (detrimental, not very helpful, neutral, somewhat helpful, and very helpful). A total of 599 (9.7%) responses were received from 6186 members of the Resident Associate Society. The use of health information technology (IT), nurse practitioners, and physician assistants were most highly rated. Hiring clinical fellows, establishing nonteaching services, and shift-work scheduling were the three most poorly rated accommodations to work-hour restrictions with respect to resident education. Hospital IT and nonphysician care providers were rated by residents to optimize surgical education in the current work-hour limitation environment. We infer that strategies which lead to increased efficiency and redistribution of resident workload allow surgical trainees to spend more time on activities perceived to have higher educational value. Copyright © 2011 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Personnel education and training at Bohunice NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malovec, J.


    Procedure for education and training of all the personnel employed at Bohunice Nuclear power plant is presented in detail describing the training system structure, kinds of training, staff members qualification development, short term and long term tasks needed to assure attaining the training objectives. The proposed Staff Members Lifetime education implementation project contains basic starting points, measures to be implemented by 1998. It was prepared on the basis of a primary analysis which confirmed the existing need for implementing the lifetime education system

  15. An integrated approach to endoscopic instrument tracking for augmented reality applications in surgical simulation training. (United States)

    Loukas, Constantinos; Lahanas, Vasileios; Georgiou, Evangelos


    Despite the popular use of virtual and physical reality simulators in laparoscopic training, the educational potential of augmented reality (AR) has not received much attention. A major challenge is the robust tracking and three-dimensional (3D) pose estimation of the endoscopic instrument, which are essential for achieving interaction with the virtual world and for realistic rendering when the virtual scene is occluded by the instrument. In this paper we propose a method that addresses these issues, based solely on visual information obtained from the endoscopic camera. Two different tracking algorithms are combined for estimating the 3D pose of the surgical instrument with respect to the camera. The first tracker creates an adaptive model of a colour strip attached to the distal part of the tool (close to the tip). The second algorithm tracks the endoscopic shaft, using a combined Hough-Kalman approach. The 3D pose is estimated with perspective geometry, using appropriate measurements extracted by the two trackers. The method has been validated on several complex image sequences for its tracking efficiency, pose estimation accuracy and applicability in AR-based training. Using a standard endoscopic camera, the absolute average error of the tip position was 2.5 mm for working distances commonly found in laparoscopic training. The average error of the instrument's angle with respect to the camera plane was approximately 2°. The results are also supplemented by video segments of laparoscopic training tasks performed in a physical and an AR environment. The experiments yielded promising results regarding the potential of applying AR technologies for laparoscopic skills training, based on a computer vision framework. The issue of occlusion handling was adequately addressed. The estimated trajectory of the instruments may also be used for surgical gesture interpretation and assessment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Workplace-based assessment in surgical training: experiences from the Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme. (United States)

    Eardley, Ian; Bussey, Maria; Woodthorpe, Adrian; Munsch, Chris; Beard, Jonathan


    The Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme was launched in the United Kingdom in 2007. At its heart was the reliance upon clear, defined curricula, competence-based training and the use of workplace-based assessments to assess the competence. The principle assessments used were Case-based Discussion, Procedure-based Assessments (PBA), Direct Observation of Procedural Skills, and Clinical Evaluation Exercise and a Multisource Feedback tool. We report the initial experience with that system, and most importantly, the experience with workplace-based assessment. Themes include issues around faculty development, misuse of assessments, inappropriate timing of assessments, concerns about validity and reliability of the assessments and concerns about the actual process of workplace-based assessments. Of the assessments, the PBA performed best. As a consequence, there has been an increased focus upon faculty development, while some of the assessments have been redesigned in line with the PBA. A global rating scale has been introduced that uses clinical anchors. The rating scales have also been altered with a reduction in the number of ratings while an enhanced description of the complexity of the case has been introduced within the Case-based Discussion and the Clinical Evaluation Exercise. A re-evaluation will take place in the near future. © 2013 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  17. Team Training (Training at Own Facility) versus Individual Surgeon’s Training (Training at Trainer’s Facility) When Implementing a New Surgical Technique:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Andresen, Kristoffer; Laursen, Jannie


    the teaching there. Methods. An informal literature review was conducted to provide a basis for discussing pros and cons. We also wanted to discuss how many surgeons can be trained in a day and the importance of the demand for a new surgical procedure to ensure a high adoption rate and finally to apply...... these issues on a discussion of barriers for adoption of the new ONSTEP technique for inguinal hernia repair after initial training. Results and Conclusions. The optimal training method would include moving the teacher to the trainee's department to obtain team-training effects simultaneous with surgical......Background. When implementing a new surgical technique, the best method for didactic learning has not been settled. There are basically two scenarios: the trainee goes to the teacher's clinic and learns the new technique hands-on, or the teacher goes to the trainee's clinic and performs...

  18. American College of Surgeons/Association for Surgical Education medical student simulation-based surgical skills curriculum needs assessment. (United States)

    Glass, Charity C; Acton, Robert D; Blair, Patrice G; Campbell, Andre R; Deutsch, Ellen S; Jones, Daniel B; Liscum, Kathleen R; Sachdeva, Ajit K; Scott, Daniel J; Yang, Stephen C


    Simulation can enhance learning effectiveness, efficiency, and patient safety and is engaging for learners. A survey was conducted of surgical clerkship directors nationally and medical students at 5 medical schools to rank and stratify simulation-based educational topics. Students applying to surgery were compared with others using Wilcoxon's rank-sum tests. Seventy-three of 163 clerkship directors (45%) and 231 of 872 students (26.5%) completed the survey. Of students, 28.6% were applying for surgical residency training. Clerkship directors and students generally agreed on the importance and timing of specific educational topics. Clerkship directors tended to rank basic skills, such as examination skills, higher than medical students. Students ranked procedural skills, such as lumbar puncture, more highly than clerkship directors. Surgery clerkship directors and 4th-year medical students agree substantially about the content of a simulation-based curriculum, although 4th-year medical students recommended that some topics be taught earlier than the clerkship directors recommended. Students planning to apply to surgical residencies did not differ significantly in their scoring from students pursuing nonsurgical specialties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Entrepreneurship education and training at the Further Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. We assessed the levels of entrepreneurship education and training at the Further Education and Training (FET) level in a South African context. We are of the opinion that entrepreneurship education and training (of necessity) must fulfill a primary role in preparing our youth for their future. Evidence from elsewhere,

  20. Hypnosis Training and Education: Distinctive Features of Training Hypnosis Educators. (United States)

    Linden, Julie H; Anbar, Ran


    Much of the field of hypnosis education focuses on what to teach (content) and who to teach (professional identities). A deserving area of focus, and less often addressed, is how to teach basic hypnosis concepts. Worldwide models for teaching hypnosis have mostly included lecture, demonstration, and practice, with little attention paid to the meta-level of educational principles (i.e., what makes an expert trainer). Trainers in hypnosis have been compared to parents: They teach the way they were taught (adults parent the way they were parented). There is a human tendency to repeat what we have experienced. This propensity can be seen while watching the new student use the same induction, in the same way, as his or her first "operator" did when s/he was a subject of his/her first hypnotic experience. Mirroring is a part of all learning, and this article asks what else is needed in faculty education for the trainer to take students beyond mere mimicry to scientifically informed, skilled, and clinically creative uses of hypnosis. This article addresses the unique requirements for teaching hypnosis, reviews a teaching program for clinical hypnosis educators developed by the authors, and looks to future innovations in clinical hypnosis training.

  1. Education and gender: training social educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación Bas-Peña


    Full Text Available Fromthe Universal Declaration of Human Rights international organizations have launched initiatives to achieve men and women equality and withstand all forms of discrimination and violence. This paper presents the research on gender training of students in Spanish universities that taught the Degree in Social Education. It was conducted in 36 universities (29 public and 7 private.We used a multi-method perspective.We performed a deep analysis of the degree programme through the teaching guides for all courses, in order to identify the presence of gender related areas in specific subjects and in those that include it transversely.We have also set up an on-line questionnaire for 4th year students (213 people, in order to have their opinion on the gender training received throughout their careers.We detected the weak presence, in the degree programmes, of specific subjects related to these topics. Most of the current focus is on gender equality / inequality, being residual the inclusion / exclusion and violence concepts. The subjects that transversely teach it are mostly mandatory and basic. The results extracted from the questionnaire include that students do received little training on these topics.While they give great importance to gender training. They show great unawareness about their right to receive such training and in addition be able to claim it. As well as not having knowledge of the Equality Plan in their university. A high percentage of respondents declared using sexist language, but it is still higher the percentage of students who said that teachers use it in their classes

  2. Self-assessment in laparoscopic surgical skills training: Is it reliable? (United States)

    Ganni, Sandeep; Chmarra, Magdalena K; Goossens, Richard H M; Jakimowicz, Jack J


    The concept of self-assessment has been widely acclaimed for its role in the professional development cycle and self-regulation. In the field of medical education, self-assessment has been most used to evaluate the cognitive knowledge of students. The complexity of training and evaluation in laparoscopic surgery has previously acted as a barrier in determining the benefits self-assessment has to offer in comparison with other fields of medical education. Thirty-five surgical residents who attended the 2-day Laparoscopic Surgical Skills Grade 1 Level 1 curriculum were invited to participate from The Netherlands, India and Romania. The competency assessment tool (CAT) for laparoscopic cholecystectomy was used for self- and expert-assessment and the resulting distributions assessed. A comparison between the expert- and self-assessed aggregates of scores from the CAT agreed with previous studies. Uniquely to this study, the aggregates of individual sub-categories-'use of instruments'; 'tissue handling'; and errors 'within the component tasks' and the 'end product' from both self- and expert-assessments-were investigated. There was strong positive correlation (r s  > 0.5; p self-assessment in all categories with only the 'tissue handling' having a weaker correlation (r s  = 0.3; p = 0.04). The distribution of the mean of the differences between self-assessment and expert-assessment suggested no significant difference between the scores of experts and the residents in all categories except the 'end product' evaluation where the difference was significant (W = 119, p = 0.03). Self-assessment using the CAT form gives results that are consistently not different from expert-assessment when assessing one's proficiency in surgical skills. Areas where there was less agreement could be explained by variations in the level of training and understanding of the assessment criteria.

  3. The Education of American Surgeons and the Rise of Surgical Residencies, 1930-1960. (United States)

    Barr, Justin


    In the first half of the twentieth century, the training of American surgeons changed from an idiosyncratic, often isolated venture to a standardized, regulated, and mandated regimen in the form of the surgical residency. Over the three critical decades between 1930 and 1960, these residencies developed from an extraordinary, unique opportunity for a few leading practitioners to a widespread, uniform requirement. This article explores the transformation of surgical education in the United States, focusing on the standardization and dissemination of residencies during this key period. Utilizing the archives of professional organizations, it shows how surgical societies initiated and forced reform in the 1930s. It demonstrates the seminal and early role taken by the federal government in the expansion of surgical residencies through incentivized policies and, especially, the growth of the Veterans Administration health system after World War II. Finally, an examination of intra-professional debates over this process illustrates both the deeper struggles to control the nature of surgical training and the importance of residency education in defining the midcentury American surgeon. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  4. Simulation based education - models for teaching surgical skills in general practice. (United States)

    Sinha, Sankar; Cooling, Nicholas


    Simulation based education is an accepted method of teaching procedural skills in both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. There is an increasing need for developing authentic simulation models for use in general practice training. This article describes the preparation of three simulation models to teach general practice registrars basic surgical skills, including excision of a sebaceous cyst and debridement and escharectomy of chronic wounds. The role of deliberate practise in improving performance of procedural skills with simulation based education is well established. The simulation models described are inexpensive, authentic and can be easily prepared. They have been used in general practice education programs with positive feedback from participants and could potentially be used as in-practice teaching tools by general practitioner supervisors. Importantly, no simulation can exactly replicate the actual clinical situation, especially when complications arise. It is important that registrars are provided with adequate supervision when initially applying these surgical skills to patients.

  5. Exploring Athletic Training Educators' Development as Teachers (United States)

    Payne, Ellen K.; Walker, Stacy E.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.


    Context: Little research is available on how athletic training educators develop their instructional styles over the course of their careers and what influences their teaching practices. Understanding the development of athletic training educators' teaching practices may help promote effective teaching in athletic training programs and help guide…

  6. Revitalizing Technical and Vocational Education Training for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    employment for sustainable development. Revitalizing technical and vocational education and training in Nigeria. Skill training enhances productivity and sustains competitiveness in the global economy. Worldwide countries are renewing efforts to promote technical and vocational education and training, this is because it is ...

  7. Surgical and procedural skills training at medical school - a national review. (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R; Toll, Edward C; Bates, Anthony S; Cole, Matthew D; Smith, Frank C T


    This national study quantifies procedural and surgical skills training at medical schools in the United Kingdom (UK), a stipulated requirement of all graduates by the General Medical Council (GMC). A questionnaire recorded basic procedural and surgical skills training provided by medical schools and surgical societies in the UK. Skills were extracted from (1) GMC Tomorrows Doctors and (2) The Royal College of Surgeons Intercollegiate Basic Surgical Skills (BSS) course. Data from medical school curricula and extra-curricular student surgical societies were compared against the national GMC guidelines and BSS course content. Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney U tests. Representatives from 23 medical schools completed the survey (71.9% response). Thirty one skills extracted from the BSS course were split into 5 categories, with skills content cross referenced against GMC documentation. Training of surgical skills by medical schools was as follows: Gowning and gloving (72.8%), handling instruments (29.4%), knot tying (17.4%), suturing (24.7%), other surgical techniques (4.3%). Surgical societies provided significantly more training of knot tying (64.4%, P = 0.0013) and suturing (64.5%, P = 0.0325) than medical schools. Medical schools provide minimal basic surgical skills training, partially supplemented by extracurricular student surgical societies. Our findings suggest senior medical students do not possess simple surgical and procedural skills. Newly qualified doctors are at risk of being unable to safely perform practical procedures, contradicting GMC Guidelines. We propose a National Undergraduate Curriculum in Surgery and Surgical Skills to equip newly qualified doctors with basic procedural skills to maximise patient safety. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Education and driver-training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Justinek


    Full Text Available The characteristics of the driver are manifested in his/her behaviour. For safe driving one must have a driver's knowledge. The contents of educational material are determined by law, and are both theoretical and practical, yet frequently they do not suffice to meet the requirements of safe driving. In this paper, the author suggests that, in the training of drivers, more educational elements should be included, such a would have  an effective influence on the driver's moti ves and attitudes. The driver's motives - which may result in incorrect driving­ are diverse: most often, the default is overspeeding, even though the drivers always over-estimate the potential time gain. In fact, over-fast driving is a way of satisfying other, different needs; and, above all, it is a form of compensation for unsettled life problems, and at the same time an indication of the driver's personal inability to cope with stress.

  9. Surgical skills training restructured for the 21st century. (United States)

    Morris, Michael; Caskey, Robert; Mitchell, Marc; Sawaya, David


    Few if any medical schools have a comprehensive surgical skills program taking medical students from learning basic knot tying and surgical skills to performing these skills at a level adequate for function during a primary care, surgical, or subspecialty residency. We have designed and continue to refine a program, which consists of five workshops focused on basic surgical skills, which are applicable to all medical and surgical disciplines. During the first workshop students learn how to tie both one- and two-handed surgical knots. The second workshop involves teaching students differences in suture type and use, instrument handling, and suturing techniques. The third workshop is used to address problems and refine techniques previously learned in the first two sessions. The fourth workshop comprises a final examination to evaluate suture and knot tying skills. The fifth session is a voluntary knot tying and suturing competition with awards for speed, finesse, aesthetics, and the watertightness of a vascular surgical repair. Surgical faculty and house staff are present at each workshop to provide direction and constructive criticism. Fifty-seven third-year medical students have completed the surgical skills curriculum. Statistical analysis demonstrates significant improvement in both knot tying and suturing (P < 0.05) for these students. Forty-four percent of students have successfully sewn a watertight anastomosis. We hypothesize that this curriculum will produce medical students with basic surgical skills, appreciation of surgical technique, and the confidence to perform basic surgical skills at completion of the curriculum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cadaver embalming fluid for surgical training courses: modified Larssen solution. (United States)

    Bilge, Okan; Celik, Servet


    10% Formalin (F10)-fixed cadavers have disadvantages such as disturbing smell, mucosal irritation, discoloration and rigidity. We aimed to determine a suitable, simple and cost-effective embalming method that preserves color, texture, pliability and flexibility of the tissues for a long time without a disturbing smell and mucosal irritation. The embalmed cadavers were expected to be durable against environmental effects, utilizable for multiple and repetitive surgical trainings and instrumentations. Eight male (six intact, two autopsied bodies) and four female (three intact and one imported trunk) human cadavers were preserved with modified Larssen solution (MLS). Preserved bodies were kept in the deep freezers at -18/-20 °C. Bodies were allowed to thaw at room temperature 3 days prior to use. They were used in postgraduate hands-on courses for several medical disciplines. Each course lasted at least 1 day and during this period the bodies were stayed at room temperature. Assessments of 30 trainers and 252 trainees were collected during the courses. Additionally, the organoleptic characteristics of the fresh frozen (FF), preserved with MLS and F10-fixed cadavers were compared. The colors of muscles, fasciae, fatty tissue, nerves and vessels were evaluated and life-like tissues of MLS cadavers were impressive. There were no obvious or disturbing smell and sign of putrefaction of the MLS cadavers. MLS is a sustainable and relatively affordable soft cadaver embalming method. Its application is same as in other conventional methods and does not need new equipment. This article indicates the success of the MLS method in human cadavers.

  11. Continuous Curvilinear Capsulorhexis Training and Non-Rhexis Related Vitreous Loss: The Specificity of Virtual Reality Simulator Surgical Training (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis). (United States)

    McCannel, Colin A


    To assess the specificity of simulation-based virtual reality ophthalmic cataract surgery training on the Eyesi ophthalmic virtual reality surgical simulator, and test the hypothesis that microsurgical motor learning is highly specific. Retrospective educational interventional case series. The rates of vitreous loss and retained lens material, and vitreous loss and retained lens material associated with an errant continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) were assessed among 1037 consecutive cataract surgeries performed during four consecutive academic years at a teaching hospital. The data were grouped by Eyesi use and capsulorhexis intensive training curriculum (CITC) completion. The main intervention was the completion of the CITC on the Eyesi. In the Eyesi simulator experience-based stratification, the vitreous loss rate was similar in each group (chi square p=0.95) and was not preceded by an errant CCC in 86.2% for "CITC done at least once", 57.1% for "CITC not done, but some Eyesi use", and 48.9% for "none" training groups (p=4×10-5). Retained lens material overall and occurring among the errant CCC cases was similar among training groups (p=0.82 and p=0.71, respectively). Eyesi capsulorhexis training was not associated with lower vitreous loss rates overall. However, non-errant CCC associated vitreous loss was higher among those who underwent Eyesi capsulorhexis training. Training focused on the CCC portion of cataract surgery may not reduce vitreous loss unassociated with an errant CCC. It is likely that surgical training is highly specific to the task being trained. Residents may need to be trained for all surgical steps with adequate intensity to minimize overall complication rates.

  12. Development and validation of trauma surgical skills metrics: Preliminary assessment of performance after training. (United States)

    Shackelford, Stacy; Garofalo, Evan; Shalin, Valerie; Pugh, Kristy; Chen, Hegang; Pasley, Jason; Sarani, Babak; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark; Mackenzie, Colin F


    Maintaining trauma-specific surgical skills is an ongoing challenge for surgical training programs. An objective assessment of surgical skills is needed. We hypothesized that a validated surgical performance assessment tool could detect differences following a training intervention. We developed surgical performance assessment metrics based on discussion with expert trauma surgeons, video review of 10 experts and 10 novice surgeons performing three vascular exposure procedures and lower extremity fasciotomy on cadavers, and validated the metrics with interrater reliability testing by five reviewers blinded to level of expertise and a consensus conference. We tested these performance metrics in 12 surgical residents (Year 3-7) before and 2 weeks after vascular exposure skills training in the Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) course. Performance was assessed in three areas as follows: knowledge (anatomic, management), procedure steps, and technical skills. Time to completion of procedures was recorded, and these metrics were combined into a single performance score, the Trauma Readiness Index (TRI). Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test compared pretraining/posttraining effects. Mean time to complete procedures decreased by 4.3 minutes (from 13.4 minutes to 9.1 minutes). The performance component most improved by the 1-day skills training was procedure steps, completion of which increased by 21%. Technical skill scores improved by 12%. Overall knowledge improved by 3%, with 18% improvement in anatomic knowledge. TRI increased significantly from 50% to 64% with ASSET training. Interrater reliability of the surgical performance assessment metrics was validated with single intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.7 to 0.98. A trauma-relevant surgical performance assessment detected improvements in specific procedure steps and anatomic knowledge taught during a 1-day course, quantified by the TRI. ASSET training reduced time to complete vascular

  13. Putting the MeaT into TeaM Training: Development, Delivery, and Evaluation of a Surgical Team-Training Workshop. (United States)

    Seymour, Neal E; Paige, John T; Arora, Sonal; Fernandez, Gladys L; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Tsuda, Shawn T; Powers, Kinga A; Langlois, Gerard; Stefanidis, Dimitrios


    Despite importance to patient care, team training is infrequently used in surgical education. To address this, a workshop was developed by the Association for Surgical Education Simulation Committee to teach team training using high-fidelity patient simulators and the American College of Surgeons-Association of Program Directors in Surgery team-training curriculum. Workshops were conducted at 3 national meetings. Participants completed preworkshop and postworkshop questionnaires to define experience, confidence in using simulation, intention to implement, as well as workshop content quality. The course consisted of (A) a didactic review of Preparation, Implementation, and Debriefing and (B) facilitated small group simulation sessions followed by debriefings. Of 78 participants, 51 completed the workshops. Overall, 65% indicated that residents at their institutions used patient simulation, but only 33% used the American College of Surgeons-the Association of Program Directors in Surgery team-training modules. The workshop increased confidence to implement simulation team training (3.4 ± 1.3 vs 4.5 ± 0.9). Quality and importance were rated highly (5.4 ± 00.6, highest score = 6). Preparation for simulation-based team training is possible in this workshop setting, although the effect on actual implementation remains to be determined. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Surgical Residency Training in Developing Countries: West African College of Surgeons as a Case Study. (United States)

    Ajao, Oluwole Gbolagunte; Alao, Adekola


    In 1904, William Halsted introduced the present model of surgical residency program which has been adopted worldwide. In some developing countries, where surgical residency training programs are new, some colleges have introduced innovations to the Halsted's original concept of surgical residency training. These include 1) primary examination, 2) rural surgical posting, and 3) submission of dissertation for final certification. Our information was gathered from the publications on West African College of Surgeons' (WACS) curriculum of the medical schools, faculty papers of medical schools, and findings from committees of medical schools. Verbal information was also gathered via interviews from members of the WACS. Additionally, our personal experience as members and examiners of the college are included herein. We then noted the differences between surgical residency training programs in the developed countries and that of developing countries. The innovations introduced into the residency training programs in the developing countries are mainly due to the emphasis placed on paper qualifications and degrees instead of performance. We conclude that the innovations introduced into surgical residency training programs in developing countries are the result of the misconception of what surgical residency training programs entail. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Smoking cessation counseling by surgical and nonsurgical residents: opportunities for health promotion education. (United States)

    Turner, Simon R; Lai, Hollis; Bédard, Eric L R


    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in North America and a major contributor to surgically treated diseases and operative complications. Counseling by residents can be an effective means of helping patients to quit smoking, and with the introduction of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and CanMEDS competency frameworks, health promotion is a required component of residency training. However, past studies have found that smoking cessation counseling by residents, and in particular surgical residents, is lacking. In light of the introduction of health promotion as a core competency in residency training, this study was designed to examine the attitudes and practices of residents at our institution regarding smoking cessation counseling, comparing surgical and nonsurgical residents and seeking to identify barriers to resident counseling. An internet-based questionnaire was distributed to all residents at the University of Alberta in the fall of 2012. Items examined residents׳ attitudes and practices related to smoking cessation counseling and barriers to counseling. Although almost all residents believed that smoking cessation was important and that counseling was part of their job as a resident, far fewer routinely practiced the counseling behaviors examined. Surgical residents were less likely to perform counseling and more likely to think that counseling was not part of their job. Surgical residents were also more likely to identify obstacles to counseling such as a lack of time and formal training. Residents, and surgical residents in particular, are missing opportunities to help their patients quit smoking and improve their health. Given their positive attitudes toward counseling, it may be possible to improve their counseling practices through simple means. By identifying obstacles to counseling and tools that may increase residents׳ tendency to perform counseling, this study can help to guide training programs

  16. Skills-O-Mat: Computer Supported Interactive Motion- and Game-Based Training in Mixing Alginate in Dental Education (United States)

    Hannig, Andreas; Lemos, Martin; Spreckelsen, Cord; Ohnesorge-Radtke, Ulla; Rafai, Nicole


    The training of motor skills is a crucial aspect of medical education today. Serious games and haptic virtual simulations have been used in the training of surgical procedures. Otherwise, however, a combination of serious games and motor skills training is rarely used in medical education. This article presents Skills-O-Mat, an interactive serious…

  17. Evaluation of training program for surgical trauma teams in Botswana. (United States)

    Hanche-Olsen, Terje Peder; Alemu, Lulseged; Viste, Asgaut; Wisborg, Torben; Hansen, Kari S


    Trauma represents a challenge to healthcare systems worldwide, particularly in low-and middle-income countries. Positive effects can be achieved by improving trauma care at the scene of the accident and throughout hospitalization and rehabilitation. Therefore, we assessed the long-term effects of national implementation of a training program for multidisciplinary trauma teams in a southern African country. From 2007 to 2009, an educational program for trauma, "Better and Systematic Team Training," (BEST) was implemented at all government hospitals in Botswana. The effects were assessed through interviews, a structured questionnaire, and physical inspections using the World Health Organization's "Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care." Data on human and physical resources, infrastructure, trauma administrative functions, and quality-improvement activities before and at 2-year follow-up were compared for all 27 government hospitals. A majority of hospitals had formed local trauma organizations; half were performing multidisciplinary trauma simulations and some had organized multidisciplinary trauma teams with alarm criteria. A number of hospitals had developed local trauma guidelines and local trauma registries. More equipment for advanced airway management and stiff cervical collars were available after 2 years. There were also improvements in the skills necessary for airway and breathing management. The most changes were seen in the northern region of Botswana. Implementation of BEST in Botswana hospitals was associated with several positive changes at 2-year follow-up, particularly for trauma administrative functions and quality-improvement activities. The effects on obtaining technical equipment and skills were moderate and related mostly to airway and breathing management.

  18. Educational and health impact of the Baume Report: 'A Cutting Edge: Australia's Surgical Workforce'. (United States)

    Hillis, David J; Gorton, Michael W; Barraclough, Bruce H; Beckett, David


    The Baume Report (1994) on Australia's surgical workforce had the potential to impact upon the health and educational sectors. This paper analyses the recommendations of this report and their impact at the time and 15 years later (2009). A questionnaire-based study was performed with the 18 senior Fellows and the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) solicitor who had been instrumental in facilitating responses to the review. The 19 respondents were asked to evaluate 22 areas from the Baume Report. The most highly ranked areas identified as being reasonable in 1994 were: additional funding being made available for more training positions, identifying workforce deficits, moving towards compulsory continuing professional development and having evidence of competence before introducing new technology. In 2009, the most highly ranked areas were: funding for more training positions; compulsory continuing professional development, involving the profession in improvements and broadening the training environment beyond public hospitals. Areas considered to be substantially addressed were: the selection process and encouragement of diversity, workforce numbers and deficits, confirming the educational merit of the training program and the role of professional colleges. The Baume Report highlighted many issues including workforce planning, the role of professional organisations in society and the complex interface between health and education. Issues of ongoing standards through a surgical career, access for patients to surgical services, funding for more training posts to provide the appropriate workforce level and distribution, and the assessment and introduction of technology remain priorities. Time has not diminished the relevance of these issues. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THIS TOPIC?: The impact of key government reviews can always be substantial. The Baume Report was directed to postgraduate specialist medical training, particularly surgical training. There have been

  19. Basic surgical training in Ireland: the impact of operative experience, training program allocation and mentorship on trainee satisfaction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, K E


    Application to the Irish basic surgical training (BST) program in Ireland has decreased progressively over the past 5 years. We hypothesised that this decline was secondary to dissatisfaction with training correlated with reduced operative experience and lack of mentorship among BSTs.

  20. Transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant leadership characteristics of a surgical resident cohort: analysis using the multifactor leadership questionnaire and implications for improving surgical education curriculums. (United States)

    Horwitz, Irwin B; Horwitz, Sujin K; Daram, Pallavi; Brandt, Mary L; Brunicardi, F Charles; Awad, Samir S


    The need for leadership training has become recognized as being highly important to improving medical care, and should be included in surgical resident education curriculums. Surgical residents (n = 65) completed the 5x-short version of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire as a means of identifying leadership areas most in need of training among medical residents. The leadership styles of the residents were measured on 12 leadership scales. Comparisons between gender and postgraduate year (PGY) and comparisons to national norms were conducted. Of 12 leadership scales, the residents as a whole had significantly higher management by exception active and passive scores than those of the national norm (t = 6.6, P leadership factors with eigenvalues over 1.0. Hierarchical regression found evidence of an augmentation effect for transformational leadership. Areas of resident leadership strengths and weaknesses were identified. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire was demonstrated to be a valuable tool for identifying specific areas where leadership training would be most beneficial in the educational curriculum. The future use of this instrument could prove valuable to surgical education training programs.

  1. Training situational awareness to reduce surgical errors in the operating room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, M.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Boermeester, M.A.; Bemelman, W.A.; Schijven, M.P.


    Background: Surgical errors result from faulty decision-making, misperceptions and the application of suboptimal problem-solving strategies, just as often as they result from technical failure. To date, surgical training curricula have focused mainly on the acquisition of technical skills. The aim

  2. Nuclear safety education and training network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, J.; Ulfkjaer, L.


    In March 2001, the Secretariat convened an Advisory Group on Education and Training in nuclear safety. The Advisory Group considered structure, scope and means related to the implementation of an IAEA Programme on Education and Training . A strategic plan was agreed and the following outputs were envisaged: 1. A Training Support Programme in nuclear safety, including a standardized and harmonized approach for training developed by the IAEA and in use by Member States. 2. National and regional training centres, established to support sustainable national nuclear safety infrastructures. 3. Training material for use by lecturers and students developed by the IAEA in English and translated to other languages. The implementation of the plan was initiated in 2002 emphasizing the preparation of training materials. In 2003 a pilot project for a network on Education and Training in Asia was initiated

  3. A literature review of professionalism in surgical education: suggested components for development of a curriculum. (United States)

    Deptula, Peter; Chun, Maria B J


    While it is evident that a surgeon must master medical knowledge and technical skill, there are other "soft skills" that are essential to a successful surgeon. One of these skills is professionalism. The challenge in surgical education lies in developing an effective professionalism curriculum and a related method of evaluation. Our review updates the literature and provides recommendations for improving instruction and evaluation of professionalism. A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Knowledge. We restricted our search to documents published from 2009 to 2012 that address methods of teaching and tools for assessing professionalism in surgical education. Sixty-three documents were reviewed, with 14 fitting our search criteria for professionalism in surgical education completely. Other articles focused on the topics of professionalism in surgery, medical professionalism, and professionalism education in medical specialties other than surgery. Development of a professionalism curriculum for surgical residents might begin with defining professionalism in terms of tangible behaviors. The program might also include a precurriculum preparatory course and simulation-based training. Residency programs must also maintain professionalism among its faculty. Assessment in the form of multisource feedback that is consistent with observable behavioral definitions of professionalism should also be considered in evaluating resident professionalism. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceptions of gender-based discrimination during surgical training and practice


    Adrienne N. Bruce; Alexis Battista; Michael W. Plankey; Lynt B. Johnson; M. Blair Marshall


    Background: Women represent 15% of practicing general surgeons. Gender-based discrimination has been implicated as discouraging women from surgery. We sought to determine women’s perceptions of gender-based discrimination in the surgical training and working environment.Methods: Following IRB approval, we fielded a pilot survey measuring perceptions and impact of gender-based discrimination in medical school, residency training, and surgical practice. It was sent electronically to 1,065 indiv...

  5. Can UK undergraduate dental programmes provide training in non-surgical facial aesthetics? (United States)

    Walker, T W M; Gately, F; Stagnell, S; Kerai, A; Mills, C; Thomas, S


    Aim Recently, more and more dentists have found themselves engaging in the delivery of non-surgical facial aesthetics (NSFA) as part of their regular practice routine. NSFA is a growing field in aesthetic medicine that is practised by a range of clinicians including doctors, dentists and registered prescriber nurses and is an industry estimated to be worth over £3 billion in the UK alone. In the past few years, several public scandals in aesthetic medicine have prompted reactions by several bodies including the Government and Royal Colleges. With Health Education England (HEE) having recently released standards in education, it is clear that a shift in attitude towards training is imminent. With a large volume of dentists making up this NSFA workforce it is reasonable to consider the stance of undergraduate training and the relevance of the existing knowledge within dentistry in the context of the HEE standards.Method All dental schools in the UK were contacted to establish the range of subjects taught within the curriculum, with particular reference to those relevant to NSFA. The two largest aesthetic pharmacies were contacted regarding numbers of registered dentists they serve.Results Twelve out of 16 dental schools responded. Two-thirds of responding dental schools do not cover NSFA in their curricula. However, many dental schools cover related subjects including: facial anatomy/material science/neuromuscular junction physiology (100%), anatomy of the aging face (66%), pharmacology of botulinum toxin (25%) and ethical-legal implications of aesthetic dentistry/NSFA (50%/42% respectively).Conclusion Dentists are well placed to deliver NSFA given their background in relevant subjects and surgical training. With the emergence and growth of such a large multi-disciplinary field it is crucial that dentistry is not left behind. Just as most dental schools have embraced the evolution of cosmetic dentistry and implantology, it would be prudent to consider that training

  6. Training of adult education teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne


    The background of the study was that a group of teachers should develop competences in order to apply a new pedagogical approach, cooperative learning (CL), in a skilled manner. The total competence development process included theoretical knowledge about the method, practical training in its use......, and ongoing and extensive coaching related to the teachers' experiences of implementing CL. It was assumed that the competence development process would result in a higher usage of CL as well as an increasingly professional and more reflected application of the teaching method over the year. The results from...... into the course, teachers already perceived themselves as being able to apply the method. They also reported that their skills were developed further during the course. They found that they became better at solving educational challenges, that they became more satisfied with their own teaching, and that they were...

  7. Training of Adult Education Teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne


    The background of the study was that a group of teachers should develop competences in order to apply a new pedagogical approach, cooperative learning (CL), in a skilled manner. The total competence development process included theoretical knowledge about the method, practical training in its use......, and ongoing and extensive coaching related to the teachers' experiences of implementing CL. It was assumed that the competence development process would result in a higher usage of CL as well as an increasingly professional and more reflected application of the teaching method over the year. The results from...... into the course, teachers already perceived themselves as being able to apply the method. They also reported that their skills were developed further during the course. They found that they became better at solving educational challenges, that they became more satisfied with their own teaching, and that they were...

  8. Second Life™: a novel simulation platform for the training of surgical residents. (United States)

    Flowers, Michael G; Aggarwal, Rajesh


    A virtual world is a three-dimensional, computer-generated, simulated environment. Human users create "avatars," or virtual projections of themselves, in order to explore this virtual environment and interact with the objects and structures inside it. Second Life™ is one such virtual world accessible freely via the internet, which has been used to construct a virtual hospital complete with reception areas, changing rooms, offices, and hospital wards. Early pioneering studies have demonstrated the advantages of using virtual worlds in the education of surgical residents in a number of ways, from introductions to the clinical environment, initial patient assessment, and managing adverse outcomes, to gaining informed consent, hospital-wide training, and medical device development.

  9. The comprehensive training in Colombian higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo M. Posada Alvarez


    Full Text Available In this article the integral formation fundamental than action Under the new legislation and contemporary predicaments on education, knowledge and research education is analyzed. This training involves not only students but the entire university community, particularly teachers, whose reflective responsibility for their work should bring them to operate the pillars identified in education. Likewise Institutional factors that can ensure and strengthen the comprehensive training in higher education are analyzed: disciplinary integration, flexibility, innovation, leadership, participation, self-evaluation and accreditation.

  10. Entrepreneurship Education and Training at the Further Education and Training (FET) Level in South Africa (United States)

    Isaacs, Eslyn; Visser, Kobus; Friedrich, Christian; Brijlal, Pradeep


    We assessed the levels of entrepreneurship education and training at the Further Education and Training (FET) level in a South African context. We are of the opinion that entrepreneurship education and training (of necessity) must fulfill a primary role in preparing our youth for their future. Evidence from elsewhere, in particular industrialised…

  11. Optimising surgical training: use of feedback to reduce errors during a simulated surgical procedure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, Emily


    To assess the effect of proximate or immediate feedback during an intensive training session. The authors hypothesised that provision of feedback during a training session would improve performance and learning curves.

  12. A review of training research and virtual reality simulators for the da Vinci surgical system. (United States)

    Liu, May; Curet, Myriam


    PHENOMENON: Virtual reality simulators are the subject of several recent studies of skills training for robot-assisted surgery. Yet no consensus exists regarding what a core skill set comprises or how to measure skill performance. Defining a core skill set and relevant metrics would help surgical educators evaluate different simulators. This review draws from published research to propose a core technical skill set for using the da Vinci surgeon console. Publications on three commercial simulators were used to evaluate the simulators' content addressing these skills and associated metrics. An analysis of published research suggests that a core technical skill set for operating the surgeon console includes bimanual wristed manipulation, camera control, master clutching to manage hand position, use of third instrument arm, activating energy sources, appropriate depth perception, and awareness of forces applied by instruments. Validity studies of three commercial virtual reality simulators for robot-assisted surgery suggest that all three have comparable content and metrics. However, none have comprehensive content and metrics for all core skills. INSIGHTS: Virtual reality simulation remains a promising tool to support skill training for robot-assisted surgery, yet existing commercial simulator content is inadequate for performing and assessing a comprehensive basic skill set. The results of this evaluation help identify opportunities and challenges that exist for future developments in virtual reality simulation for robot-assisted surgery. Specifically, the inclusion of educational experts in the development cycle alongside clinical and technological experts is recommended.

  13. Strengthening health professions education and training

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health professions are anchored in the education and training that underpin them; such training continues to evolve with ... methods, but also innovate other feasible methods to improve training by means of evidence-based scholarly ... practice in HPE, there is a need for individual institutions to generate local evidence of ...

  14. Environmental education and training in industry: Changing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper argues that environmental training in industry can no longer trundle along 'business as usual' pathways, nor can it ignore the changes in education and training policies or environmental management practices. The paper points to current narrow orientations to environmental training, and the tendency in industry ...

  15. Education and Training in Britain. CRE Factsheet. (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about education and training in Britain for people from nonWhite ethnic groups. In spring 1997, 545,000 men and women of working age from nonWhite ethnic groups in Britain were receiving education and training in schools, colleges, and universities and through other courses, compared with an average of 15% of…

  16. Measuring Nontechnical Aspects of Surgical Clinician Development in an Otolaryngology Residency Training Program. (United States)

    Shin, Jennifer J; Cunningham, Michael J; Emerick, Kevin G; Gray, Stacey T


    Surgical competency requires sound clinical judgment, a systematic diagnostic approach, and integration of a wide variety of nontechnical skills. This more complex aspect of clinician development has traditionally been difficult to measure through standard assessment methods. This study was conducted to use the Clinical Practice Instrument (CPI) to measure nontechnical diagnostic and management skills during otolaryngology residency training; to determine whether there is demonstrable change in these skills between residents who are in postgraduate years (PGYs) 2, 4, and 5; and to evaluate whether results vary according to subspecialty topic or method of administration. Prospective study using the CPI, an instrument with previously established internal consistency, reproducibility, interrater reliability, discriminant validity, and responsiveness to change, in an otolaryngology residency training program. The CPI was used to evaluate progression in residents' ability to evaluate, diagnose, and manage case-based clinical scenarios. A total of 248 evaluations were performed in 45 otolaryngology resident trainees at regular intervals. Analysis of variance with nesting and postestimation pairwise comparisons were used to evaluate total and domain scores according to training level, subspecialty topic, and method of administration. Longitudinal residency educational initiative. Assessment with the CPI during PGYs 2, 4, and 5 of residency. Among the 45 otolaryngology residents (248 CPI administrations), there were a mean (SD) of 5 (3) administrations (range, 1-4) during their training. Total scores were significantly different among PGY levels of training, with lower scores seen in the PGY-2 level (44 [16]) compared with the PGY-4 (64 [13]) or PGY-5 level (69 [13]) (P otolaryngology (mean [SD], 72 [14]) than in subspecialties (range, 55 [12], P = .003, to 56 [19], P < .001). Neither administering the examination with an electronic scoring system, rather than a

  17. Current concepts of team training in surgical residency: a survey of North American program directors. (United States)

    Dedy, Nicolas J; Zevin, Boris; Bonrath, Esther M; Grantcharov, Teodor P


    The purpose of the present survey was to (1) establish the prevalence of Crew Resource Management (CRM)- and team-training interventions among general surgery residency programs of the United States and Canada; (2) to characterize current approaches to training and assessment of nontechnical skills; and (3) to inquire about program directors' (PDs') recommendations for future curricula in graduate medical education. An online questionnaire was developed by the authors and distributed via email to the directors of all accredited general surgery residency programs across the United States and Canada. After 3 email reminders, paper versions were sent to all nonresponders. PDs of accredited general surgery residency programs in the United States and Canada. One hundred twenty (47%) PDs from the United States and 9 (53%) from Canada responded to the survey. Of all respondents, 32% (n = 40) indicated conducting designated team-training interventions for residents. Three main instructional strategies were identified: combined approaches using simulation and didactic methods (42%, n = 16); predominantly simulation-based approaches (37%, n = 14); and didactic approaches (21%, n = 8). Correspondingly, 83% (n = 93) of respondents recommended a combination of didactic methods and opportunities for practice for future curricula. A high agreement between responding PDs was shown regarding learning objectives for a proposed team-based training curriculum (α = 0.95). The self-reported prevalence of designated CRM- and team-training interventions among responding surgical residency programs was low. For the design of future curricula, the vast majority of responding PDs advocated for the combination of interactive didactic methods and opportunities for practice. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Curtailment of higher surgical training in the UK: likely effects in otology (United States)

    Ray, J; Hadjihannas, E; Irving, R M


    Higher surgical training in the UK faces a cut of two years. We conducted a questionnaire survey to assess the operative experience of current higher surgical trainees in otological surgery and the likely effect of the proposed reduction from six to four years. 91 (65%) of the 142 higher surgical trainees responded with details of major otological procedures performed (independently or assisting) over one year. In the present six-year scheme a typical trainee performs 72 myringoplasties, 79 mastoidectomies, 7 skull base procedures and 28 other procedures. In the first four years, however, his or her experience is only 39 myringoplasties, 44 mastoidectomies, 4 skull base procedures and 7 others. The large shortfall in experience that might result from shortening of the training programme would need to be met by intensification of the training or institution of accredited otology fellowships. Very similar dilemmas are faced by other surgical specialties. PMID:15928375

  19. Can surgical simulation be used to train detection and classification of neural networks? (United States)

    Zisimopoulos, Odysseas; Flouty, Evangello; Stacey, Mark; Muscroft, Sam; Giataganas, Petros; Nehme, Jean; Chow, Andre; Stoyanov, Danail


    Computer-assisted interventions (CAI) aim to increase the effectiveness, precision and repeatability of procedures to improve surgical outcomes. The presence and motion of surgical tools is a key information input for CAI surgical phase recognition algorithms. Vision-based tool detection and recognition approaches are an attractive solution and can be designed to take advantage of the powerful deep learning paradigm that is rapidly advancing image recognition and classification. The challenge for such algorithms is the availability and quality of labelled data used for training. In this Letter, surgical simulation is used to train tool detection and segmentation based on deep convolutional neural networks and generative adversarial networks. The authors experiment with two network architectures for image segmentation in tool classes commonly encountered during cataract surgery. A commercially-available simulator is used to create a simulated cataract dataset for training models prior to performing transfer learning on real surgical data. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first attempt to train deep learning models for surgical instrument detection on simulated data while demonstrating promising results to generalise on real data. Results indicate that simulated data does have some potential for training advanced classification methods for CAI systems.

  20. Avoiding Surgical Skill Decay : A Systematic Review on the Spacing of Training Sessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Cnossen, Fokie; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Tio, René A


    OBJECTIVE: Spreading training sessions over time instead of training in just 1 session leads to an improvement of long-term retention for factual knowledge. However, it is not clear whether this would also apply to surgical skills. Thus, we performed a systematic review to find out whether spacing

  1. Ethical challenges in international surgical education, for visitors and hosts. (United States)

    Howe, Kathryn L; Malomo, Adefolarin O; Bernstein, Mark A


    Contributing to medical practice in developing countries has become increasingly prevalent. Primary care and preventative health initiatives have been most visible, although attention has recently shifted to surgical disease, which represents a large burden in resource-poor settings. Typically dominated by individual efforts, there is now a more concerted approach, with surgical care being included in the comprehensive primary health care plan set by the World Health Organization. Although ethical dilemmas in international surgery have been discussed sporadically in the context of specific missions from the visiting surgeon/team perspective, we are missing a comprehensive evaluation of these issues in the literature. Here we have chosen to systematically categorize ethical issues confronted while teaching and operating in a developing country into 2 broad categories: venue (i.e., host) and visitor related. For each category, topics within follow an ordinal sequence that one might use when designing a surgical education mission. Illustrative examples are provided, as well as a depiction of the ethical principles or theories involved. This article provides a discussion written from visiting and host surgeon perspectives on diverse ethical challenges for which there is limited literature, including location selection, unmet needs at home, role of sponsors, and personal gain. In addition to candid discussion and a solutions-focused approach, the reader is provided with an "ethical checklist" for international surgical education, akin to the World Health Organization surgical safety checklist, to serve as a framework for the design of surgical missions that avoid ethical pitfalls. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. e-Learning in Surgical Education: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Jayakumar, Nithish; Brunckhorst, Oliver; Dasgupta, Prokar; Khan, Muhammad Shamim; Ahmed, Kamran


    e-Learning involves the delivery of educational content through web-based methods. Owing to work-hour restrictions and changing practice patterns in surgery, e-learning can offer an effective alternative to traditional teaching. Our aims were to (1) identify current modalities of e-learning, (2) assess the efficacy of e-learning as an intervention in surgical education through a systematic review of the literature, and (3) discuss the relevance of e-learning as an educational tool in surgical education. This is the first such systematic review in this field. A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted for relevant articles published until July 2014, using a predefined search strategy. The database search was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 38 articles were found which met the inclusion criteria. In these studies, e-learning was used as an intervention in 3 different ways: (1) to teach cases through virtual patients (18/38); (2) to teach theoretical knowledge through online tutorials, or other means (18/38); and (3) to teach surgical skills (2/38). Nearly all of the studies reviewed report significant knowledge gain from e-learning; however, 2 in 3 studies did not use a control group. e-Learning has emerged as an effective mode of teaching with particular relevance for surgical education today. Published studies have demonstrated the efficacy of this method; however, future work must involve well-designed randomized controlled trials comparing e-learning against standard teaching. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Recruitment of Young Medical Apprentices (RYOMA) project: a comprehensive surgical education program at a local academic institute in Japan. (United States)

    Nanashima, Atsushi; Hidaka, Shigekazu; Nonaka, Takashi; Yamasaki, Naoya; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Miyazaki, Takuro; Hatachi, Go; Sumida, Yorihisa; Sawai, Terumitsu; Yasutake, Toru; Nagayasu, Takeshi


    The number of young surgeons in Japan has significantly decreased in recent years, which may lead to future problems in the medical field. Therefore, comprehensive training programs for young surgeons are needed. Retrospective study We developed a specific education program called the "Recruitment of Young Medical Apprentices" (RYOMA) project. We performed this project between January 2008 and August 2013 on fourth- to sixth-year medical students and internship doctors. The RYOMA project included step-by-step surgical education programs on open and scopic procedures as dry, wet, and animal laboratory training. Our goal was to increase the number of young and specialist surgeons. Based on an interview questionnaire answered by 90 medical students, most young students were interested in surgical training and several chose to become surgeons in the future. The most positive opinions regarding the field of surgery were the impressive results achieved with surgery, whereas negative opinions included the difficulty of the surgical skill, physical concerns related to difficult work environments, and the severity of surgical procedures. The present program has begun to resolve negative opinions through adequate training or simulations. Of the 19 medical students and internship doctors who attended the RYOMA project in 2008, 17 trainees (90%) were satisfied with this special surgical program and 16 (88%) showed interest in becoming surgeons. The number of participants considering the field of surgery increased between 2008 and 2013. Of 23 participants, 19 (83%) had a positive opinion of the program after the training. Gaining experience in surgical training from an early stage in medical school and step-by-step authorized education by teaching staff are important for recruiting students and increasing the number of young surgeons. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Electromyographic correlates of learning during robotic surgical training in virtual reality. (United States)

    Suh, Irene H; Mukherjee, Mukul; Schrack, Ryan; Park, Shi-Hyun; Chien, Jung-Hung; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the muscle activation and the muscle frequency response of the dominant arm muscles (flexor carpi radialis and extensor digitorum) and hand muscles (abductor pollicis and first dorsal interosseous) during robotic surgical skills training in a virtual environment. The virtual surgical training tasks consisted of bimanual carrying, needle passing and mesh alignment. The experimental group (n=5) was trained by performing four blocks of the virtual surgical tasks using the da Vinci™ surgical robot. During the pre- and post-training tests, all subjects were tested by performing a suturing task on a "life-like" suture pad. The control group (n=5) performed only the suturing task without any virtual task training. Differences between pre- and post-training tests were significantly greater in the virtual reality group, as compared to the control group in the muscle activation of the hand muscle (abductor pollicis) for both the suture tying and the suture running (pvirtual reality leads to specific changes in neuromotor control of robotic surgical tasks.

  5. Some Observations on Veterinary Undergraduate Training in Surgical Techniques. (United States)

    Whittick, William G.


    The undergraduate surgery course of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, is described with focus on its experential method of teaching surgical techniques. Also discussed are the benefits of veterinary school cooperation with a large city Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA). (JMD)

  6. International Perspectives on Police Education and Training


    Stanislas, Perry


    Training and education constitutes the backbone of a significant amount of police activity and expenditure in developing the most important resources involved in policing work. It also involves an array of actors and agencies, such as educational institutions which have a long and important relationship with police organisations. This book examines the role of education and training in the development of police in the contemporary world. Bringing together specialist scholars and practitio...

  7. Lessons from the surgical experience with simulators: incorporation into training and utilization in determining competency. (United States)

    Fried, Gerald M


    Simulation technology in laparoscopic surgery has developed in response to a need to teach fundamental surgical skills in a safe environment. The skill set needed was defined carefully according to the classic educational model of needs assessment. Once defined, the skills were modeled in a simulator. The recognition that a simulator need not have high fidelity to achieve significant educational value was important in keeping costs reasonably low. Intrinsic to an effective simulation program is a set of metrics or measurements of performance. These metrics provide motivation for the student and allow comparison among students. Once shown to be reliable and valid, the simulator metrics can be used to set reasonable goals and standards for certification. Although simulators permit verification of learning, point simulation testing cannot by itself be used at present to ensure competence. Until the predictive value of these tests has been validated further, competence still needs to be determined by expert assessment of observed performance in real cases and by measurable outcome variables from real procedures. Simulation training is most beneficial when incorporated into a curriculum that teaches the accompanying knowledge and judgment essential for safe practice of the skills taught in the simulator. The FLS program distributed by the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons and the American College of Surgeons is an example of a carefully planned and validated program that incorporates these principles in laparoscopic surgery education. The lessons learned from development of the FLS program can be useful in designing a similar program for flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy.

  8. Virtual vitreoretinal surgery: construction of a training programme on the Eyesi Surgical Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Grauslund, Jakob

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the construct validity of a full virtual reality vitreoretinal training program at the Eyesi Surgical simulator. Design and methods: A virtual vitreoretinal training program was composed on the Eyesi Surgical simulator, software version 2.9.2 (VRmagic...... developed a training program in virtual vitreoretinal surgery with construct validity for four out of six modules and for overall score. This makes the program a useful tool in the training of future vitreoretinal surgeons....... GmbH, Manheim, Germany). It was completed twice by three groups: Group 1: Twenty medical students Group 2: Ten ophthalmology residents Group 3: Five vitreoretinal surgeons The program consisted of six training modules (Figure 1): Navigation level 2 (Nav2) Forceps Training level 5 (ForT5) Bimanual...

  9. European Working Time Directive: implications for surgical training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, C L


    The forthcoming implementation of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) for non-consultant hospital doctors (NCHDs) poses a number of challenges in the areas of patient care, training, service provision and quality of life for workers. Surgery, as a craft-based speciality, will face a greater impact on training of future surgeons as operating time could be lost to service provision. The EWTD acts a stimulus for reform of current working practices and re-configuration of services. It will necessitate transformation of the way in which surgeons are trained, if current standards are to be maintained.

  10. Residency Surgical Training at an Independent Academic Medical Center. (United States)

    Jones, Jeremiah; Sidwell, Richard A


    Independent academic medical centers have been training surgeons for more than a century; this environment is distinct from university or military programs. There are several advantages to training at a community program, including a supportive learning environment with camaraderie between residents and faculty, early and broad operative experience, and improved graduate confidence. Community programs also face challenges, such as resident recruitment and faculty engagement. With the workforce needs for general surgeons, independent training programs will continue to play an integral role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 3D Printed Models of Cleft Palate Pathology for Surgical Education. (United States)

    Lioufas, Peter A; Quayle, Michelle R; Leong, James C; McMenamin, Paul G


    To explore the potential viability and limitations of 3D printed models of children with cleft palate deformity. The advantages of 3D printed replicas of normal anatomical specimens have previously been described. The creation of 3D prints displaying patient-specific anatomical pathology for surgical planning and interventions is an emerging field. Here we explored the possibility of taking rare pediatric radiographic data sets to create 3D prints for surgical education. Magnetic resonance imaging data of 2 children (8 and 14 months) were segmented, colored, and anonymized, and stereolothographic files were prepared for 3D printing on either multicolor plastic or powder 3D printers and multimaterial 3D printers. Two models were deemed of sufficient quality and anatomical accuracy to print unamended. One data set was further manipulated digitally to artificially extend the length of the cleft. Thus, 3 models were printed: 1 incomplete soft-palate deformity, 1 incomplete anterior palate deformity, and 1 complete cleft palate. All had cleft lip deformity. The single-material 3D prints are of sufficient quality to accurately identify the nature and extent of the deformities. Multimaterial prints were subsequently created, which could be valuable in surgical training. Improvements in the quality and resolution of radiographic imaging combined with the advent of multicolor multiproperty printer technology will make it feasible in the near future to print 3D replicas in materials that mimic the mechanical properties and color of live human tissue making them potentially suitable for surgical training.

  12. 3D Printed Surgical Simulation Models as educational tool by maxillofacial surgeons. (United States)

    Werz, S M; Zeichner, S J; Berg, B-I; Zeilhofer, H-F; Thieringer, F


    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether inexpensive 3D models can be suitable to train surgical skills to dental students or oral and maxillofacial surgery residents. Furthermore, we wanted to know which of the most common filament materials, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or polylactic acid (PLA), can better simulate human bone according to surgeons' subjective perceptions. Upper and lower jaw models were produced with common 3D desktop printers, ABS and PLA filament and silicon rubber for soft tissue simulation. Those models were given to 10 blinded, experienced maxillofacial surgeons to perform sinus lift and wisdom teeth extraction. Evaluation was made using a questionnaire. Because of slightly different density and filament prices, each silicon-covered model costs between 1.40-1.60 USD (ABS) and 1.80-2.00 USD (PLA) based on 2017 material costs. Ten experienced raters took part in the study. All raters deemed the models suitable for surgical education. No significant differences between ABS and PLA were found, with both having distinct advantages. The study demonstrated that 3D printing with inexpensive printing filaments is a promising method for training oral and maxillofacial surgery residents or dental students in selected surgical procedures. With a simple and cost-efficient manufacturing process, models of actual patient cases can be produced on a small scale, simulating many kinds of surgical procedures. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Novice teen driving : education and training administrative standards. (United States)


    The Novice Teen Driver Education and Training Administrative Standards set forth in this document serve to guide all novice teen driver education and training programs in States striving to provide quality, consistent driver education and training. W...

  14. Engagement and role of surgical trainees in global surgery: Consensus statement and recommendations from the Association of Surgeons in Training. (United States)

    Mohan, Helen M; Fitzgerald, Edward; Gokani, Vimal; Sutton, Paul; Harries, Rhiannon; Bethune, Robert; McDermott, Frank D


    There is a wide chasm in access to essential and emergency surgery between high and low/middle income countries (LMICs). Surgeons worldwide are integral to solutions needed to address this imbalance. Involving surgical trainees, who represent the future of surgery, is vital to this endeavour. The Association of Surgeons in Training (ASiT) is an independent charity that support surgical trainees of all ten surgical specialties in the UK and Ireland. ASiT convened a consensus meeting at the ASiT conference in Liverpool 2016 to discuss trainee engagement with global surgery, including potential barriers and solutions. A face-to-face consensus meeting reviewed the engagement of, and roles for, surgical trainees in global surgery at the ASiT Conference (Liverpool, England), March 2016. Participants self-identified based on experience and interest in the field, and included trainees (residents and students) and consultants (attending grade). Following expert review, seven pre-determined core areas were presented for review and debate. Extensive discussion was facilitated by a consultant and a senior surgical trainee, with expertise in global surgery. The draft derived from these initial discussions was circulated to all those who had participated, and an iterative process of revision was undertaken until a final consensus and recommendations were reached. There is increasing interest from trainee surgeons to work in LMICs. There are however, ethical considerations, and it is important that trainees working in LMICs undertake work appropriate to their training stage and competencies. Visiting surgeons must consider the requirements of the hosting centres rather than just their own objectives. If appropriately organised, both short and long-term visits, can enable development of transferable clinical, organisational, research and education skills. A central repository of information on global surgery would be useful to trainees, to complement existing resources. Challenges

  15. university engineering education and training in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    EDUCATION. AND. TRAINING. IN. NIGERIA. Up to the middle of this century, engineering and technical education for Nigerians was of the lowest priority in the educational system of the country. Yaba Higher College established in 1930 as the first real institution of higher learning in the country was planned to provide a ...

  16. The Conceptual Model of Future Teachers Training to Dual Education in VET (Vocational Education & Training) (United States)

    Zholdasbekova, Saule; Nurzhanbayeva, Zhanat; Karatayev, Galymzhan; Akhmet, Laura Smatullaevna; Anarmetov, Bahitzhan


    In the article the author presents the theoretical understanding of research problems of training of the future teachers-organizers of the dual training system in vocational education & training (VET) in the conditions of the credit technology of education. The author's vision of way to solve the problem is discussed in the description of the…

  17. Surgical resident education in patient safety: where can we improve? (United States)

    Putnam, Luke R; Levy, Shauna M; Kellagher, Caroline M; Etchegaray, Jason M; Thomas, Eric J; Kao, Lillian S; Lally, Kevin P; Tsao, KuoJen


    Effective communication and patient safety practices are paramount in health care. Surgical residents play an integral role in the perioperative team, yet their perceptions of patient safety remain unclear. We hypothesized that surgical residents perceive the perioperative environment as more unsafe than their faculty and operating room staff despite completing a required safety curriculum. Surgeons, anesthesiologists, and perioperative nurses in a large academic children's hospital participated in multifaceted, physician-led workshops aimed at enhancing communication and safety culture over a 3-y period. All general surgery residents from the same academic center completed a hospital-based online safety curriculum only. All groups subsequently completed the psychometrically validated safety attitudes questionnaire to evaluate three domains: safety culture, teamwork, and speaking up. Results reflect the percent of respondents who slightly or strongly agreed. Chi-square analysis was performed. Sixty-three of 84 perioperative personnel (75%) and 48 of 52 surgical residents (92%) completed the safety attitudes questionnaire. A higher percentage of perioperative personnel perceived a safer environment than the surgical residents in all three domains, which was significantly higher for safety culture (68% versus 46%, P = 0.03). When stratified into two groups, junior residents (postgraduate years 1-2) and senior residents (postgraduate years 3-5) had lower scores for all three domains, but the differences were not statistically significant. Surgical residents' perceptions of perioperative safety remain suboptimal. With an enhanced safety curriculum, perioperative staff demonstrated higher perceptions of safety compared with residents who participated in an online-only curriculum. Optimal surgical education on patient safety remains unknown but should require a dedicated, systematic approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Educating the Educator: Teaching Airway Adjunct Techniques in Athletic Training (United States)

    Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert


    The 5th edition of the "Athletic Training Education Competencies" ("Competencies") now requires athletic training educators (ATEs) to introduce into the curriculum various types of airway adjuncts including: (1) oropharyngeal airways (OPA), (2) nasopharyngeal airways (NPA), (3) supraglottic airways (SGA), and (4) suction. The addition of these…

  19. Assessment of the role of aptitude in the acquisition of advanced laparoscopic surgical skill sets: results from a virtual reality-based laparoscopic colectomy training programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Emmeline


    The surgeons of the future will need to have advanced laparoscopic skills. The current challenge in surgical education is to teach these skills and to identify factors that may have a positive influence on training curriculums. The primary aim of this study was to determine if fundamental aptitude impacts on ability to perform a laparoscopic colectomy.

  20. Experimental evaluation of training accelerators for surgical drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin Florian


    Full Text Available In some specific maxillo-facial surgeries, like the Epker, the cortical part of the lower maxilla must be drilled with minimum penetration into the spongy bone to avoid the trigeminal nerve. The result of the surgery is highly dependent on the quality of the drill. Drilling must therefore be mastered by students before acting as surgeon. The study compares the efficiency of two punctual drilling training programs developed on a virtual reality platform with non medical participants. The results show better benefit of training on relevant haptic aspects of the task before introducing multimodal drilling over repeated multimodal simulated drilling exercises.

  1. Training of leadership skills in medical education. (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Schmidt-Huber, Marion; Netzel, Janine; Krohn, Alexandra C; Angstwurm, Matthias; Fischer, Martin R


    Effective team performance is essential in the delivery of high-quality health-care. Leadership skills therefore are an important part of physicians' everyday clinical life. To date, the development of leadership skills are underrepresented in medical curricula. Appropriate training methods for equipping doctors with these leadership skills are highly desirable. The review aims to summarize the findings in the current literature regarding training in leadership skills in medicine and tries to integrate the findings to guide future research and training development. The PubMED, ERIC, and PsycArticles, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX and Academic search complete of EBSCOhost were searched for training of leadership skills in medicine in German and English. Relevant articles were identified and findings were integrated and consolidated regarding the leadership principles, target group of training and number of participants, temporal resources of the training, training content and methods, the evaluation design and trainings effects. Eight studies met all inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria. The range of training programs is very broad and leadership skill components are diverse. Training designs implied theoretical reflections of leadership phenomena as well as discussions of case studies from practice. The duration of training ranged from several hours to years. Reactions of participants to trainings were positive, yet no behavioral changes through training were examined. More research is needed to understand the factors critical to success in the development of leadership skills in medical education and to adapt goal-oriented training methods. Requirements analysis might help to gain knowledge about the nature of leadership skills in medicine. The authors propose a stronger focus on behavioral training methods like simulation-based training for leadership skills in medical education.

  2. Training of Leadership Skills in Medical Education (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Schmidt-Huber, Marion; Netzel, Janine; Krohn, Alexandra C.; Angstwurm, Matthias; Fischer, Martin R.


    Background: Effective team performance is essential in the delivery of high-quality health-care. Leadership skills therefore are an important part of physicians’ everyday clinical life. To date, the development of leadership skills are underrepresented in medical curricula. Appropriate training methods for equipping doctors with these leadership skills are highly desirable. Objective: The review aims to summarize the findings in the current literature regarding training in leadership skills in medicine and tries to integrate the findings to guide future research and training development. Method: The PubMED, ERIC, and PsycArticles, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX and Academic search complete of EBSCOhost were searched for training of leadership skills in medicine in German and English. Relevant articles were identified and findings were integrated and consolidated regarding the leadership principles, target group of training and number of participants, temporal resources of the training, training content and methods, the evaluation design and trainings effects. Results: Eight studies met all inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria. The range of training programs is very broad and leadership skill components are diverse. Training designs implied theoretical reflections of leadership phenomena as well as discussions of case studies from practice. The duration of training ranged from several hours to years. Reactions of participants to trainings were positive, yet no behavioral changes through training were examined. Conclusions: More research is needed to understand the factors critical to success in the development of leadership skills in medical education and to adapt goal-oriented training methods. Requirements analysis might help to gain knowledge about the nature of leadership skills in medicine. The authors propose a stronger focus on behavioral training methods like simulation-based training for leadership skills in medical education. PMID:24282452

  3. Learning computer technology in the development of educational practice «Care for surgical patients»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyabkin E.V.


    Full Text Available this article deals with the problem of implementation in the educational process of new computer technologies. Modern students of medical educational institutions need computer programs, which encourage them to absorb necessary educational material and stimulate cognitive interest in the subject. This training flash program is recommended for implementation in the educational process in educational practice and it consists of «Care for surgical patients» module. The computer program includes educational material, revealing the structure and equipment of the surgical department with the use of animation clip. In order to check the quality of learning, the student must pass a test and solve situational problems. This article is devoted to the indicated problem.

  4. Scriptwriting for Educational Broadcasting: A Training Problem (United States)

    Sherrington, Richard


    Outlines a possible syllabus for training educational scriptwriters under the following headings: objectives, audience analysis, message planning, media semiology, format variables, production constraints, and tricks of the trade. (BD)

  5. Students education and training for Slovak NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipka, J.; Slugen, V.; Hascik, J.; Miglierini, M.


    Slovak University of Technology is the largest and also the oldest university of technology in Slovakia. Surely more than 50% of high-educated technicians who work nowadays in nuclear industry have graduated from this university. The Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology as a one of seven faculties of this University feels responsibility for proper engineering education and training for Slovak NPP operating staff. The education process is realised via undergraduate (Bc.), graduate (MSc.) and postgraduate (PhD.) study as well as via specialised training courses in a frame of continuous education system. (author)

  6. Surgical Resident Doctor's Perspective of Their Training in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    included enhanced supervision/mentoring/teaching by senior colleagues, inclusion of didactic lecture sessions, research trainings, .... Incorporation of didactic lectures and enhanced teaching by Consultants during ward rounds ... on development of clinical judgment and technical skills.[9,10]. The transition from a resident ...

  7. Surgical Resident Doctor's Perspective of Their Training in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    A resident doctor in Nigeria is a fully registered medical practitioner undergoing further training in an institution accredited by either the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria and/or the West African Postgraduate Medical. College.[1] In both Colleges, fellowship is awarded after passing a 3-stage examination ...

  8. Using virtual reality technology and hand tracking technology to create software for training surgical skills in 3D game (United States)

    Zakirova, A. A.; Ganiev, B. A.; Mullin, R. I.


    The lack of visible and approachable ways of training surgical skills is one of the main problems in medical education. Existing simulation training devices are not designed to teach students, and are not available due to the high cost of the equipment. Using modern technologies such as virtual reality and hands movements fixation technology we want to create innovative method of learning the technics of conducting operations in 3D game format, which can make education process interesting and effective. Creating of 3D format virtual simulator will allow to solve several conceptual problems at once: opportunity of practical skills improvement unlimited by the time without the risk for patient, high realism of environment in operational and anatomic body structures, using of game mechanics for information perception relief and memorization of methods acceleration, accessibility of this program.

  9. Objective assessment of surgical performance and its impact on a national selection programme of candidates for higher surgical training in plastic surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Sean M


    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a transparent, fair and objective assessment programme for the selection of surgical trainees into higher surgical training (HST) in plastic surgery in the Republic of Ireland. METHODS: Thirty-four individuals applied for HST in plastic surgery at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) in the academic years 2005-2006 and 2006-2007. Eighteen were short-listed for interview and further assessment. All applicants were required to report on their undergraduate educational performance and their postgraduate professional development. Short-listed applicants completed validated objective assessment simulations of surgical skills, an interview and assessment of their suitability for a career in surgery. RESULTS: When applicants\\' short-listing scores were combined with their interview scores and assessment of their suitability for a career in surgery, individuals who were selected for HST in plastic surgery performed significantly better than those who were not (P<0.002). However, when the assessment of technical skills scores were added the significance level of this difference increased further (P<0.0001) as did the statistical power of the difference to 99.9%, thus increasing the robustness of the selection package. CONCLUSION: The results from this study suggest that the assessment protocol we used to select individuals for HST in plastic surgery reliably and statistically significantly discriminated between the performances of candidates.

  10. Hospitality Management Education and Training. (United States)

    Brotherton, Bob, Ed.; And Others


    Seven articles on hospitality management training discuss the following: computerized management games for restaurant manager training, work placement, real-life exercises, management information systems in hospitality degree programs, modular programming, service quality concepts in the curriculum, and General National Vocational Qualifications…

  11. Explaining lower educated workers' training intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.; Oomens, S.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Hazelzet, A.


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to contribute to the discussion on how to increase lower educated workers' participation in training programs inside and outside the workplace through stimulating intentions with respect to training. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on data

  12. An Evaluation of the Role of Simulation Training for Teaching Surgical Skills in Sub-Saharan Africa. (United States)

    Campain, Nicholas J; Kailavasan, Mithun; Chalwe, Mumba; Gobeze, Aberra A; Teferi, Getaneh; Lane, Robert; Biyani, Chandra Shekhar


    An estimated 5 billion people worldwide lack access to any surgical care, whilst surgical conditions account for 11-30% of the global burden of disease. Maximizing the effectiveness of surgical training is imperative to improve access to safe and essential surgical care on a global scale. Innovative methods of surgical training have been used in sub-Saharan Africa to attempt to improve the efficiency of training healthcare workers in surgery. Simulation training may have an important role in up-scaling and improving the efficiency of surgical training and has been widely used in SSA. Though not intended to be a systematic review, the role of simulation for teaching surgical skills in Sub-Saharan Africa was reviewed to assess the evidence for use and outcomes. A systematic search strategy was used to retrieve relevant studies from electronic databases PubMed, Ovid, Medline for pertinent articles published until August 2016. Studies that reported the use of simulation-based training for surgery in Africa were included. In all, 19 articles were included. A variety of innovative surgical training methods using simulation techniques were identified. Few studies reported any outcome data. Compared to the volume of surgical training initiatives that are known to take place in SSA, there is very limited good quality published evidence for the use of simulation training in this context. Simulation training presents an excellent modality to enhance and improve both volume and access to high quality surgical skills training, alongside other learning domains. There is a desperate need to meticulously evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of simulation training in SSA, where simulation training could have a large potential beneficial impact. Training programs should attempt to assess and report learner outcomes.

  13. Personal satisfaction and mentorship are critical factors for today's resident surgeons to seek surgical training. (United States)

    Lukish, Jeffrey; Cruess, David


    The specific aim of this study was to summarize the viewpoints of the Resident and Associate Society of the American College of Surgeons (RAS-ACS) membership regarding current training and quality of life-related issues prior to implementation of the new duty-hour guidelines. The goal was to gain insight of the members that may be useful to recruit and guide the future training of surgical residents. An Internet-based survey was developed to evaluate the viewpoints of RAS-ACS. The survey was administered by via the ACS Web page from 2000 to 2003. RAS-ACS member participation was voluntary and anonymous. Analyses were performed to determine the frequency of response for each survey item. Two hundred thirty-five members completed the survey representing 5 per cent of RAS-ACS. Eighty-four per cent were general surgery residents. Personal satisfaction (64%) and mentorship (49%) were top factors for respondents to pursue surgical training; discussion with colleagues and future income was less important. Forty-five per cent reported that job performance was their most important concern during residency. A rewarding surgical career and family life were ranked as the most important expectations. Eighty-six per cent reported that they were satisfied with their residency, and 66 per cent reported that work hours should be limited. Personal satisfaction and mentorship were critical factors for members of the RAS-ACS to seek surgical training. Although most of the members report that work hours should be limited, an overwhelming majority reports satisfaction with surgical training prior to institution of the new duty-hour guidelines. Further emphasis on mentorship and work-hour reform may be beneficial in recruiting medical students into surgical residencies.

  14. The effect of video-assisted oral feedback versus oral feedback on surgical communicative competences in undergraduate training. (United States)

    Ruesseler, M; Sterz, J; Bender, B; Hoefer, S; Walcher, F


    Feedback can significantly improve future performance. Reviewing one's performance by video is discussed as useful adjunct to debriefing, particularly for non-technical skills. Communicative competencies are an essential part of daily clinical practice; thus should be taught and assessed during undergraduate training. The aim of this study was to compare the educational value of video-assisted feedback versus oral feedback in communicative competencies in the surgical context. Fourth-year medical students completed a 210-min training unit of 'taking patient's history and obtaining informed consents prior to surgery' using role plays. Oral feedback was received directly thereafter using agenda-led, outcome-based guidelines (ALOBA). In the study group, the role plays were video-taped and reviewed thereafter. Afterwards, students completed two OSCE stations, where they were assessed regarding their communicative competencies and the content of the clinical scenario. One-hundred students (49 receiving video-assisted feedback, 51 oral) participated in the study. Those receiving video-assisted feedback performed significantly better in overall score in both OSCE stations (p communicative competencies at taking patient history (p = 0.029 or better), and in 2 of 5 items at obtaining informed consent (p = 0.008, <0.001). The educational effect size for both tasks was large. Using our methodology, video-assisted feedback offered a significant educational benefit over oral feedback alone during a simulated patient encounter in a surgical context.

  15. Telehealth innovations in health education and training. (United States)

    Conde, José G; De, Suvranu; Hall, Richard W; Johansen, Edward; Meglan, Dwight; Peng, Grace C Y


    Telehealth applications are increasingly important in many areas of health education and training. In addition, they will play a vital role in biomedical research and research training by facilitating remote collaborations and providing access to expensive/remote instrumentation. In order to fulfill their true potential to leverage education, training, and research activities, innovations in telehealth applications should be fostered across a range of technology fronts, including online, on-demand computational models for simulation; simplified interfaces for software and hardware; software frameworks for simulations; portable telepresence systems; artificial intelligence applications to be applied when simulated human patients are not options; and the development of more simulator applications. This article presents the results of discussion on potential areas of future development, barries to overcome, and suggestions to translate the promise of telehealth applications into a transformed environment of training, education, and research in the health sciences.

  16. Education and Training in Crisis Management (United States)

    Hošková-Mayerová, Šárka


    Quality education is an indispensable prerequisite for all kinds of human activities. No area of human activity if it has to function properly can exist without sophisticated education that determines the quality of workers in the given area. Training of public administration officials is a very important step to ensure conditions for adequate…

  17. Informing Educational Psychology Training with Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article was to describe students' experiences of community engagement in an Educational Psychology practicum in order to inform relevant educational psychology training literature with experiences of students' community engagement. Experiential learning served as our theoretical framework and we ...

  18. Interactive Multimedia in Education and Training (United States)

    Mishra, Sanjaya, Ed.; Sharma, Ramesh C., Ed.


    "Interactive Multimedia in Education and Training" emerges out of the need to share information and knowledge on the research and practices of using multimedia in various educational settings. The book discusses issues related to planning, designing and development of interactive multimedia in a persuasive tone and style, offering rich research…

  19. Educational contracts in family medicine residency training.


    Mahood, S.; Rojas, R.; Andres, D.; Zagozeski, C.; White, G.; Bradel, T.


    An educational contract for family medicine residency training and evaluation addresses many of the difficulties and challenges of current postgraduate medical education. This article identifies important principles for developing a contractual approach; describes the contract used in one program and its implementation; and discusses its theory, advantages, and limitations.

  20. Selection for professional training as educational psychologists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I co-ordinate the MEd Psych programme of the Department of Educational Psychology, University of Stellenbosch. After the completion of this training programme as well as an internship of twelve months, candidates are qualified to register as educational psychologists at the Health Professions Council of South Africa.

  1. Immersive Training Systems: Virtual Reality and Education and Training. (United States)

    Psotka, Joseph


    Describes virtual reality (VR) technology and VR research on education and training. Focuses on immersion as the key added value of VR, analyzes cognitive variables connected to immersion, how it is generated in synthetic environments and its benefits. Discusses value of tracked, immersive visual displays over nonimmersive simulations. Contains 78…

  2. Two-part silicone mold. A new tool for flexible ureteroscopy surgical training


    Marroig,Bruno; Fortes,Marco Antonio Q. R.; Pereira-Sampaio,Marco; Sampaio,Francisco J. B.; Favorito,Luciano A.


    ABSTRACT Introduction and objectives: Flexible ureteroscopy is a common procedure nowadays. Most of the training programs use virtual reality simulators. The aim of this study was to standardize the building of a three-dimensional silicone mold (cavity) of the collecting system, on the basis of polyester resin endocasts, which can be used in surgical training programs. Materials and Methods: A yellow polyester resin was injected into the ureter to fill the collecting system of 24 cadaveric ...

  3. Educational Challenges to Train Accountable Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Abdolmaleki


    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: social accountability, a concept which is in the focal attention more than ever, is to provide service in the field of medical sciences. We aimed to identify the educational challenges to train accountable graduates in the medical education system to meet social needs.Methods: This study was conducted by qualitative content analysis using in-depth semi-structured interviews with eleven academic members of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences who were selected by purposeful sampling. The interviews were analyzed using thematic content analysis.Results: The findings of the study consisted of 3 main themes and each one was extracted from categories, sub-categories, and codes. One of the themes was educational program which consisted of 2 categories called defects in the curriculum and inappropriate educational strategies. The second theme was management policies, including macro policies and the policies of the university. The third theme was personal factors which mostly referred to formal and informal education prior to university.Conclusions: The results of the study indicated the educational challenges to train accountable graduates in the medical education system. It seemed that although the results were obtained from Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, it had many common points with other universities. Therefore, planning and taking appropriate measures to address these challenges can find a way to train accountable graduates in the medical education system to meet social needs.Keywords: SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY, EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM, MEDICAL EDUCATION

  4. Student retention in athletic training education programs. (United States)

    Dodge, Thomas M; Mitchell, Murray F; Mensch, James M


    The success of any academic program, including athletic training, depends upon attracting and keeping quality students. The nature of persistent students versus students who prematurely leave the athletic training major is not known. Understanding the profiles of athletic training students who persist or leave is important. To (1) explore the relationships among the following variables: anticipatory factors, academic integration, clinical integration, social integration, and motivation; (2) determine which of the aforementioned variables discriminate between senior athletic training students and major changers; and (3) identify which variable is the strongest predictor of persistence in athletic training education programs. Descriptive study using a qualitative and quantitative mixed-methods approach. Thirteen athletic training education programs located in District 3 of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. Ninety-four senior-level athletic training students and 31 college students who changed majors from athletic training to another degree option. Data were collected with the Athletic Training Education Program Student Retention Questionnaire (ATEPSRQ). Data from the ATEPSRQ were analyzed via Pearson correlations, multivariate analysis of variance, univariate analysis of variance, and a stepwise discriminant analysis. Open-ended questions were transcribed and analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Member checks and peer debriefing techniques ensured trustworthiness of the study. Pearson correlations identified moderate relationships among motivation and clinical integration (r = 0.515, P motivation and academic integration (r = 0.509, P motivation (F(1,121) = 68.887, P motivation was the strongest predictor of persistence in athletic training education, accounting for 37.2% of the variance between groups. The theoretic model accurately classified 95.7% of the seniors and 53.8% of the major changers. A common theme emerging from the

  5. Model of historical education and teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Daniel Mora Hernández


    Full Text Available In Mexico Model Historical Education is an educational proposal that is based on the interaction with primary sources and use of analytical concepts ("second order". Training model as part of the "representations" of student teachers of history and teaching -tradicionalistas- confronted with experiential activities. Follow the procedural learning teaching model. He concludes with the teaching work in real conditions ("situated learning", the drafting of a "receptional document" and the professional examination (reflexive teaching.This training model we have developed in the specialty of History of Bachelor of Secondary Education in Higher Normal School of Mexico since 2006, advising a hundred students.

  6. Design-Based Comparison of Spine Surgery Simulators: Optimizing Educational Features of Surgical Simulators. (United States)

    Ryu, Won Hyung A; Mostafa, Ahmed E; Dharampal, Navjit; Sharlin, Ehud; Kopp, Gail; Jacobs, W Bradley; Hurlbert, R John; Chan, Sonny; Sutherland, Garnette R


    Simulation-based education has made its entry into surgical residency training, particularly as an adjunct to hands-on clinical experience. However, one of the ongoing challenges to wide adoption is the capacity of simulators to incorporate educational features required for effective learning. The aim of this study was to identify strengths and limitations of spine simulators to characterize design elements that are essential in enhancing resident education. We performed a mixed qualitative and quantitative cohort study with a focused survey and interviews of stakeholders in spine surgery pertaining to their experiences on 3 spine simulators. Ten participants were recruited spanning all levels of training and expertise until qualitative analysis reached saturation of themes. Participants were asked to perform lumbar pedicle screw insertion on 3 simulators. Afterward, a 10-item survey was administrated and a focused interview was conducted to explore topics pertaining to the design features of the simulators. Overall impressions of the simulators were positive with regards to their educational benefit, but our qualitative analysis revealed differing strengths and limitations. Main design strengths of the computer-based simulators were incorporation of procedural guidance and provision of performance feedback. The synthetic model excelled in achieving more realistic haptic feedback and incorporating use of actual surgical tools. Stakeholders from trainees to experts acknowledge the growing role of simulation-based education in spine surgery. However, different simulation modalities have varying design elements that augment learning in distinct ways. Characterization of these design characteristics will allow for standardization of simulation curricula in spinal surgery, optimizing educational benefit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparing International and United States Undergraduate Medical Education and Surgical Outcomes Using a Refined Balance Matching Methodology. (United States)

    Zaheer, Salman; Pimentel, Samuel D; Simmons, Kristina D; Kuo, Lindsay E; Datta, Jashodeep; Williams, Noel; Fraker, Douglas L; Kelz, Rachel R


    The aim of this study is to compare surgical outcomes of international medical graduates (IMGs) and United States medical graduates (USMGs). IMGs represent 15% of practicing surgeons in the United States (US), and their training pathways often differ substantially from USMGs. To date, differences in the clinical outcomes between the 2 cohorts have not been examined. Using a unique dataset linking AMA Physician Masterfile data with hospital discharge claims from Florida and New York (2008-2011), patients who underwent 1 of 32 general surgical operations were stratified by IMG and USMG surgeon status. Mortality, complications, and prolonged length of stay were compared between IMG and USMG surgeon status using optimal sparse network matching with balance. We identified 972,718 operations performed by 4581 surgeons (72% USMG, 28% IMG). IMG and USMG surgeons differed significantly in demographic (age, gender) and baseline training (years of training, university affiliation of training hospital) characteristics. USMG surgeons performed complex procedures (13.7% vs 11.1%, P educational background, surgical training characteristics, and practice patterns, IMG and USMG-surgeons deliver equivalent surgical care to the patients whom they treat.

  8. Clinical and educational proficiency gain of supervised laparoscopic colorectal surgical trainees. (United States)

    Mackenzie, Hugh; Miskovic, Danilo; Ni, Melody; Parvaiz, Amjad; Acheson, Austin G; Jenkins, John T; Griffith, John; Coleman, Mark G; Hanna, George B


    The self-taught learning curve in laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCS) is between 100 and 150 cases. Supervised training has been shown to shorten the proficiency gain curve of senior specialist surgeons. Little is known about the learning curve of LCS trainees undergoing mentored training. The aim of this study was to analyze the proficiency gain curve and clinical outcomes of English surgical trainees during laparoscopic colorectal surgery fellowships. In 2010 the educational, Web-based platform from the National Training Program in Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery in England was newly available to surgical trainees undertaking a laparoscopic colorectal fellowship. These fellows were asked to submit clinical outcomes, including patient demographics and case specifications. In addition, self-perceived performance was evaluated using a validated task-specific self-assessment form [global assessment scale (GAS) range 1-6]. Proficiency gain curves and learning rates were evaluated using risk-adjusted (RA) cumulative sum (CUSUM) curves. Of 654 cases 608 were included for analysis. The clinical outcomes included 9.2 % conversions, 16.9 % complications, 4 % reoperations, 2.6 % readmissions and a 0.8 % in-hospital mortality rate. RA CUSUM curves for complications and reoperation do not show a learning effect. However, the RA CUSUM curve for conversion has an inflection point at 24 cases. The GAS CUSUM curves for 'setup' and 'exposure' have inflection points at case 15 and case 29 respectively. The curves for 'mobilization of colon,' 'vascular pedicle' and 'anastomosis' plateau towards the end of the training period. 'Flexure' and 'mesorectum' do not of reach a plateau by case 40. Supervised fellowships provide training in LCS without compromising patient safety. Forty cases are required for the fellows to feel confident to perform the majority of tasks except dissection of the mesorectum and flexure, which will require further training.

  9. Two-part silicone mold. A new tool for flexible ureteroscopy surgical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Marroig

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and objectives: Flexible ureteroscopy is a common procedure nowadays. Most of the training programs use virtual reality simulators. The aim of this study was to standardize the building of a three-dimensional silicone mold (cavity of the collecting system, on the basis of polyester resin endocasts, which can be used in surgical training programs. Materials and Methods: A yellow polyester resin was injected into the ureter to fill the collecting system of 24 cadaveric fresh human kidneys. After setting off the resin, the kidneys were immersed in hydrochloric acid until total corrosion of the organic matter was achieved and the collecting system endocasts obtained. The endocasts were used to prepare white color two-part silicone molds, which after endocasts withdrawn, enabled a ureteroscope insertion into the collecting system molds (cavities. Also, the minor calices were painted with different colors in order to map the access to the different caliceal groups. The cost of the materials used in the molds is $30.00 and two days are needed to build them. Results: Flexible ureteroscope could be inserted into all molds and the entire collecting system could be examined. Since some anatomical features, as infundular length, acute angle, and perpendicular minor calices may difficult the access to some minor calices, especially in the lower caliceal group, surgical training in models leads to better surgical results. Conclusions: The two-part silicone mold is feasible, cheap and allows its use for flexible ureteroscopy surgical training.

  10. The role of inter-institutional cooperation in surgical training and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Contact was first initiated between the heads of department at the two institutions and communications was almost entirely through e-mail. A Memorandum of Understanding ... taking part in the exchange programs. Keywords: Surgical training, North-South divide, academic exchange programs, Tanzania, Germany ...

  11. Pedagogical professional training in Cuban educative context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayre Acosta Calderón


    Full Text Available The conception of the pedagogical professional training has evolved alongside with the educative changes that have taken place in the history of Cuban education. This research was intended to examine the evolution of professional training from the foundation of colleges of Education to the present. The study takes into account the relation of the instructive, educative and developing aspects; the development of the professional needs and their influence on cognitive and formative activity of learners and their professional performance; the components of contents included in the evaluation of the professional competence; and the comprehensive disciplinary approach of the formation process. Thus, this investigation is aimed at providing a historical analysis of the development of the pedagogical professional training, illustrating the continuity of the formative process in Cuban context. This study revealed the main trends of the pedagogical professional training for the General Senior High Education, It shows the movement from a former segmentation of instructive and educative components and emotional and intellectual educations to a and interconnected approach of both processes.

  12. Simulation for training in oral cancer biopsy: a surgical model and feedback from GDPs. (United States)

    Seoane, Juan; Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Esparza-Gómez, Germán; Cerero-Lapiedra, Rocío; Seoane-Romero, Juan M; Diz, Pedro


    To describe a new bench model for oral precancer/cancer biopsy training and to assess its effectiveness in terms of trainees' perception. Cross-sectional, descriptive, performed on 424 general dental practitioners (GDP) who undertook biopsies on a pig tongue. The participants were assessed by direct observation for 2.5 hours using specific check-lists and by means of a self-applied questionnaire. The workshop was perceived as "very interesting" even by those with previous surgical experience (Xi - Xj = 0.07; 95%CI= -0.20-0.09). Most GDPs considered themselves able to undertake oral biopsies on real patients after the workshop. Those who had previously received theoretical continuous education courses on oral biopsy scored higher values within the group (Xi - Xj = 0.20; 95%CI= 0.04-0.37). There is a need for including clinical abilities workshops when instructing on oral biopsy techniques. More studies are needed to validate the procedure and to address cognitive and communication skills.

  13. Nuclear energy and education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soentono, S.


    In the modern society, education and training is a must since without it one is impossible to a part of the society. It is also indispensable since human resource is more important than natural resources to sustain the development. The modern society needs, and is also the product of a very long effort of human race, 'education and training'. Nuclear energy education and trainings, as one of the efforts to enhance the modern society, are currently demanded to assure the quality and reliability of personnel being involved in various kinds, levels, and stages of nuclear industries. These education and trainings are also required to suffice the demand for assurance of the quality and reliability of the products, e.g. nuclear components, systems, installations, other products, techniques, and services. Linking and matching of these education and trainings are also required. In the developing countries, it will be better to start with the non-energy application, e.g. application of isotopes and radiation in various fields. There must be cooperation giving rise to strong links between universities. The mechanism and cooperation should facilitate the character building of nuclear energy man power covering attitudes for pioneering, having scientific tradition and industrial orientated views, considering the safety first toward safety culture, and mastering communication. (J.P.N.)

  14. [Curriculum for Practical Surgical Education during Internships - with a Strategy for New Perspectives]. (United States)

    Gillen, S; Hofmann, A; Friess, H; Berberat, P


    It seems that the experience gained in the courses of surgical training in medical education does not really motivate students for surgery in Germany. Inspired by this problem the Department of Surgery of the Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich has developed a substantial reform for the internship since 2009 with the aim of not only improving the quality of education significantly, but also the attractiveness and thus the fascination for the subject. Based on the slogan "We want to awaken your fascination for surgery" a structured and standardised training of all students in their internship regardless of the ward or section and local conditions was developed. For this purpose a completely new curriculum was steadily implemented into clinical practice, based on the following four basic principles: (i) integration and perception in the clinic, (ii) central and peripheral maintenance, (iii) systematic and individual training, (iv) evaluation and feedback at all levels. To analyse the effectiveness of the reform, standardised evaluations by students and faculty were carried out regularly. To date, since the beginning of the reform in 2009, there has been an approximately linear increase in the number of students in the PJ surgery. The daily systematic courses showed a good to excellent rating in all formats. The comparison showed a clear increasing trend in all the values, in particular, the "integration into the overall hospital" significantly improved (mean, 4.7 vs. 5.5, p = 0.003). However, the point "motivating for surgery" (mean, 3.3) remains at a low level. But also medical educators were satisfied with the new curriculum for the internship students (mean, 4.5). The reform was adopted universally in a very positive manner and the current data support the need for such a reform. Overall, the reform showed a positive development of the internship training in the surgical department of the faculty. The satisfaction of the students and

  15. A Descriptive Analysis of the Use of Workplace-Based Assessments in UK Surgical Training. (United States)

    Shalhoub, Joseph; Santos, Cristel; Bussey, Maria; Eardley, Ian; Allum, William


    Workplace-based assessments (WBAs) were introduced formally in the UK in 2007. The aim of the study was to describe the use of WBAs by UK surgical trainees and examine variations by training region, specialty, and level of training. The database of the Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme was examined for WBAs between August 2007 and July 2013, with in-depth analysis of 2 periods: August 2011 to July 2012 and August 2012 to July 2013. The numbers of validated WBAs per trainee per year increased more than 7-fold, from median 6 per trainee in 2007 to 2008, to 39 in 2011 to 2012, and 44 in 2012 to 2013. In the period 2011 to 2012, 58.4% of core trainees completed the recommended 40 WBAs, with only 38.1% of specialty trainees achieving 40 validated WBAs. In the period 2012 to 2013, these proportions increased to 67.7% and 57.0% for core and specialty trainees, respectively. Core trainees completed more WBAs per year than specialty trainees in the same training region. London core trainees completed the highest numbers of WBAs in both the periods 2011 to 2012 (median 67) and 2012 to 2013 (median 74). There was a peak in WBAs completed by London specialty trainees in the period 2012 to 2013 (median 63). The most validated WBAs were completed by ST1/CT1 (specialty surgical training year, core surgical training year), with a gradual decrease in median WBAs to ST4, followed by a plateau; in the period 2012 to 2013, there was an increase in WBAs at ST8. Core surgical trainees complete ~50% "operative" (procedure-based assessment/direct observation of procedural skills) and ~50% "nonoperative" assessments (case-based discussion/clinical evaluation exercise). During specialty training, procedure-based assessments represented ~46% of WBAs, direct observation of procedural skills 11.2%, case-based discussion ~23%, and clinical evaluation exercise ~15%. UK surgical trainees are, on an average, undertaking 1 WBA per week. Variation exists in use of WBAs between training

  16. Clinical fellowships in surgical training: analysis of a national pan-specialty workforce survey. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J E F; Milburn, J A; Khera, G; Davies, R S M; Hornby, S T; Giddings, C E B


    Fellowship posts are increasingly common and offer targeted opportunities for training and personal development. Despite international demand, there is little objective information quantifying this effect or the motivations behind undertaking such a post. The present study investigated surgical trainees' fellowship aims and intentions. An electronic, 38-item, self-administered questionnaire survey was distributed in the United Kingdom via national and regional surgical mailing lists and websites via the Association of Surgeons in Training, Royal Surgical Colleges, and Specialty Associations. In all, 1,581 fully completed surveys were received, and 1,365 were included in the analysis. These represented trainees in core or higher training programs or research from all specialties and training regions: 66 % were male; the mean age was 32 years; 77.6 % intended to or had already completed a fellowship. Plastic surgery (95.2 %) and cardiothoracic (88.6 %) trainees were most likely to undertake a fellowship, with pediatrics (51.2 %), and urology (54.3 %) the least likely. Fellowship uptake increased with seniority (p training does not deliver sufficient levels of competence and confidence merit further investigation.

  17. Can virtual reality be used to measure and train surgical skills? (United States)

    Arnold, Paul; Farrell, Martin J


    The quantitative literature on the use of virtual environments to measure and train a variety of surgical skills is critically reviewed. We selected works from the years 1995-2000. Theoretical perspectives, such as those of Saltzman (1979), Bernstein (1967) and Schmidt (1975) and techniques, such as hierarchical task analysis, are presented and contrasted with the largely atheoretical approach of the practitioners of virtual surgery. It is concluded that the quantitative work discussed provides few findings of value to practising surgeons. This may be due in part to the lack of consideration paid to fundamental issues in the learning of motor skills, such as whether motor skills learning is most effective with varying training conditions and the distinction between purely motoric aspects and knowledge of procedures. Possible ways forward for surgical training are outlined. It is suggested that the theoretical perspectives and techniques available in the area of motor behaviour should be incorporated into future experimental studies of surgery in virtual environments.

  18. Systematic review of skills transfer after surgical simulation-based training. (United States)

    Dawe, S R; Pena, G N; Windsor, J A; Broeders, J A J L; Cregan, P C; Hewett, P J; Maddern, G J


    Simulation-based training assumes that skills are directly transferable to the patient-based setting, but few studies have correlated simulated performance with surgical performance. A systematic search strategy was undertaken to find studies published since the last systematic review, published in 2007. Inclusion of articles was determined using a predetermined protocol, independent assessment by two reviewers and a final consensus decision. Studies that reported on the use of surgical simulation-based training and assessed the transferability of the acquired skills to a patient-based setting were included. Twenty-seven randomized clinical trials and seven non-randomized comparative studies were included. Fourteen studies investigated laparoscopic procedures, 13 endoscopic procedures and seven other procedures. These studies provided strong evidence that participants who reached proficiency in simulation-based training performed better in the patient-based setting than their counterparts who did not have simulation-based training. Simulation-based training was equally as effective as patient-based training for colonoscopy, laparoscopic camera navigation and endoscopic sinus surgery in the patient-based setting. These studies strengthen the evidence that simulation-based training, as part of a structured programme and incorporating predetermined proficiency levels, results in skills transfer to the operative setting. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Benchmarking Danish Vocational Education and Training Programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Wittrup, Jesper

    This study paper discusses methods whereby Danish vocational education and training colleges can be benchmarked, and presents results from a number of models. It is conceptually complicated to benchmark vocational colleges, as the various colleges in Denmark offer a wide range of course programmes...... attempt to summarise the various effects that the colleges have in two relevant figures, namely retention rates of students and employment rates among students who have completed training programmes....

  20. The Educational Psychology of Clinical Training. (United States)

    Bailey, Jessica H; Rutledge, Brian


    Clinical training is paramount to the educational experience of learners, and the purpose of this training can be categorized into the following 4 categories of learning taxonomies: socialization, clinical reasoning, medical management of patient care and attitudinal change. This article investigates the educational psychology that provides the foundation of the categories of learning that take place in the clinical environment. Understanding this is critically important to create an opportunity for learners to activate their knowledge repertoire at the precise time of appropriate application. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear education and training: cause for concern?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Mankind now enjoys many benefits from nuclear-related technologies. There is, however, growing concern in many OECD countries that nuclear education and training is decreasing, perhaps to problematic levels. This booklet, a summary of the full report, conveys the results of a pioneering survey on nuclear education and training in almost 200 organisations in 16 countries. The current situation is presented and causes for concern are examined. Recommendations are made as to the actions governments, academia and industry must take in order to assure that crucial present requirements are met and future options are not precluded. (authors)

  2. Education, Training and Skills in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles


    The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education, training and skills) when designing and implementing innovation policies. After a brief literature review, this paper suggests a typology of internal/external and individual/organizational...... sources of competences that are related to innovation activities. This serves to examine briefly the most common initiatives that governments are taking in this regard. The paper identifies three overall deficiencies and imbalances in innovation systems in terms of education, training and skills...

  3. Online Experimentation in Education and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Restivo


    Full Text Available The increasing use of emergent technologies in industry, medicine, research, training and education attests to the relevance of their integration in teaching/learning approaches. Online experimentation comprises remote and virtual experimentation also supported and complemented by other online tools that incorporate necessarily the use of emergent technologies. The present work synthesizes the final outcomes of a project aiming to develop, use and disseminate Online Experimentation, funded by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. Some application examples are given to illustrate the use of online experimentation on different contexts, such as secondary and higher education (STEM, lifelong learning or industrial training.

  4. Impact of point-of-care ultrasound training on surgical residents' confidence. (United States)

    Kotagal, Meera; Quiroga, Elina; Ruffatto, Benjamin J; Adedipe, Adeyinka A; Backlund, Brandon H; Nathan, Robert; Roche, Anthony; Sajed, Dana; Shah, Sachita


    Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is a vital tool for diagnosis and management of critically ill patients, particularly in resource-limited settings where access to diagnostic imaging may be constrained. We aimed to develop a novel POCUS training curriculum for surgical practice in the United States and in resource-limited settings in low- and middle-income countries and to determine its effect on surgical resident self-assessments of efficacy and confidence. We conducted an observational cohort study evaluating a POCUS training course that comprised 7 sessions of 2 hours each with didactics and proctored skills stations covering ultrasound applications for trauma (Focused Assessement with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) examination), obstetrics, vascular, soft tissue, regional anesthesia, focused echocardiography, and ultrasound guidance for procedures. Surveys on attitudes, prior experience, and confidence in point-of-care ultrasound applications were conducted before and after the course. General Surgery Training Program in Seattle, Washington. A total of 16 residents participated in the course; 15 and 10 residents completed the precourse and postcourse surveys, respectively. The mean composite confidence score from pretest compared with posttest improved from 23.3 (±10.2) to 37.8 (±6.7). Median confidence scores (1-6 scale) improved from 1.5 to 5.0 in performance of FAST (p training, surgical residents overwhelmingly agreed with statements that ultrasound would improve their US-based practice, make them a better surgical resident, and improve their practice in resource-limited settings. After a POCUS course designed specifically for surgeons, surgical residents had improved self-efficacy and confidence levels across a broad range of skills. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intercultural Communication Training in Vocational and Industrial Education Training (United States)

    Hastjarjo, S.; Nuryana, A.


    The globalization and free trade between countries and nations has created demands for the knowledge and skills in the area of intercultural interaction and transaction. Intercultural Communication Competences (ICC) is one of the capabilities that need to be possessed by workers and professionals who want to have a bigger role in the business and industries in international level. Vocational education institutions are demanded to provide their students with a certain degree of competences in multicultural interaction and communication. This paper aims to address the effectiveness of trainings in a vocational education institution in equipping its students with the intercultural communication skills. Using a sample of students from the ISP Cruiseship and Hotel School Surakarta, Central Java, this study will analyses the differences of ICC between groups of students who have undergone various forms of training in intercultural communication, in order to determine the effectiveness of the training in equipping the students with the necessary intercultural communication skills. The study incorporates a quantitative approach, using survey method. The data will be analyzed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variations between groups. The result shows that the intercultural communication training increase the level of ICC especially in the intercultural confidence dimension.

  6. A Descriptive History of the Discipline of Athletic Training Education. (United States)

    Lisher, Scott M.

    The purpose of this paper is to trace the history of athletic training education as an academic discipline, showing how formal education has evolved for professionals in the field of athletic training. The roots of athletic training education can be traced to the mid-1950s. From that period, athletic training has changed immensely, and the field…

  7. Surgical Competence: Assessing, Acquiring, Maintaining, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    (prerequisites for successful passage through surgical training) to either pass or fail at the final summative assessment would allow better identification of those areas that need investment in training and education by surgical colleges for different cohorts of surgical trainees. Figure 1. UK University acceptances 2004 2012.

  8. Students education and training for Slovak NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.; Lipka, J.; Hascik, J.; Miglierini, M.


    Slovak University of Technology is the largest and also the oldest university of technology in Slovakia. It is certain that more than 50% of the highly-educated technicians who are currently working in the nuclear industry have graduated from this university. The Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology as one of the seven faculties of this University feels the responsibility to impart proper engineering education and training for Slovak NPP operating staff. The education process is realised via undergraduate (BSc), graduate (MSc) and postgraduate (PhD) study as well as via specialised training courses within the framework of a continuous education system. (author)

  9. Use of Google Glass to Enhance Surgical Education of Neurosurgery Residents: "Proof-of-Concept" Study. (United States)

    Nakhla, Jonathan; Kobets, Andrew; De la Garza Ramos, Rafeal; Haranhalli, Neil; Gelfand, Yaroslav; Ammar, Adam; Echt, Murray; Scoco, Aleka; Kinon, Merritt; Yassari, Reza


    The relatively decreased time spent in the operating room and overall reduction in cases performed by neurosurgical trainees as a result of duty-hour restrictions demands that the pedagogical content within each surgical encounter be maximized and crafted toward the specific talents and shortcomings of the individual. It is imperative to future generations that the quality of training adapts to the changing administrative infrastructures and compensates for anything that may compromise the technical abilities of trainees. Neurosurgeons in teaching hospitals continue to experiment with various emerging technologies-such as simulators and virtual presence-to supplement and improve surgical training. The authors participated in the Google Glass Explorer Program in order to assess the applicability of Google Glass as a tool to enhance the operative education of neurosurgical residents. Google Glass is a type of wearable technology in the form of eyeglasses that employs a high-definition camera and allows the user to interact using voice commands. Google Glass was able to effectively capture video segments of various lengths for residents to review in a variety of clinical settings within a large, tertiary care university hospital, as well as during a surgical mission to a developing country. The resolution and quality of the video were adequate to review and use as a teaching tool. While Google Glass harbors the potential to dramatically improve both neurosurgical education and practice in a variety of ways, certain technical drawbacks of the current model limit its effectiveness as a teaching tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Immersive virtual reality used as a platform for perioperative training for surgical residents. (United States)

    Witzke, D B; Hoskins, J D; Mastrangelo, M J; Witzke, W O; Chu, U B; Pande, S; Park, A E


    Perioperative preparations such as operating room setup, patient and equipment positioning, and operating port placement are essential to operative success in minimally invasive surgery. We developed an immersive virtual reality-based training system (REMIS) to provide residents (and other health professionals) with training and evaluation in these perioperative skills. Our program uses the qualities of immersive VR that are available today for inclusion in an ongoing training curriculum for surgical residents. The current application consists of a primary platform for patient positioning for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Having completed this module we can create many different simulated problems for other procedures. As a part of the simulation, we have devised a computer-driven real-time data collection system to help us in evaluating trainees and providing feedback during the simulation. The REMIS program trains and evaluates surgical residents and obviates the need to use expensive operating room and surgeon time. It also allows residents to train based on their schedule and does not put patients at increased risk. The method is standardized, allows for repetition if needed, evaluates individual performance, provides the possible complications of incorrect choices, provides training in 3-D environment, and has the capability of being used for various scenarios and professions.

  11. The future of patient safety: Surgical trainees accept virtual reality as a new training tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogelbach Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of virtual reality (VR has gained increasing interest to acquire laparoscopic skills outside the operating theatre and thus increasing patients' safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate trainees' acceptance of VR for assessment and training during a skills course and at their institution. Methods All 735 surgical trainees of the International Gastrointestinal Surgery Workshop 2006–2008, held in Davos, Switzerland, were given a minimum of 45 minutes for VR training during the course. Participants' opinion on VR was analyzed with a standardized questionnaire. Results Fivehundred-twenty-seven participants (72% from 28 countries attended the VR sessions and answered the questionnaires. The possibility of using VR at the course was estimated as excellent or good in 68%, useful in 21%, reasonable in 9% and unsuitable or useless in 2%. If such VR simulators were available at their institution, most course participants would train at least one hour per week (46%, two or more hours (42% and only 12% wouldn't use VR. Similarly, 63% of the participants would accept to operate on patients only after VR training and 55% to have VR as part of their assessment. Conclusion Residents accept and appreciate VR simulation for surgical assessment and training. The majority of the trainees are motivated to regularly spend time for VR training if accessible.

  12. Exploring Surgeons' Perceptions of the Role of Simulation in Surgical Education: A Needs Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Clark


    Full Text Available Introduction: The last two decades have seen the adoption of simulation-based surgical education in various disciplines. The current study’s goal was to perform a needs assessment using the results to inform future curricular planning and needs of surgeons and learners. Methods: A survey was distributed to 26 surgeon educators and interviews were conducted with 8 of these surgeons.  Analysis of survey results included reliability and descriptive statistics. Interviews were analyzed for thematic content with a constant comparison technique, developing coding and categorization of themes. Results: The survey response rate was 81%. The inter-item reliability, according to Cronbach’s alpha was 0.81 with strongest agreement for statements related to learning new skills, training new residents and the positive impact on patient safety and learning.   There was less strong agreement for maintenance of skills, improving team functioning and reducing teaching in the operating room. Interview results confirmed those themes from the survey and highlighted inconsistencies for identified perceived barriers and a focus on acquisition of skills only.  Interview responses specified concerns with integrating simulation into existing curricula and the need for more evaluation as a robust educational strategy. Conclusion: The findings were summarized in four themes: 1 use of simulation, 2 integration into curriculum, 3 leadership, and 4 understanding gaps in simulation use. This study exemplifies a mixed-methods approach to planning a surgical simulation program through a general needs assessment.

  13. Model of historical education and teacher training


    Gerardo Daniel Mora Hernández; Rosa Ortiz Paz


    In Mexico Model Historical Education is an educational proposal that is based on the interaction with primary sources and use of analytical concepts ("second order"). Training model as part of the "representations" of student teachers of history and teaching -tradicionalistas- confronted with experiential activities. Follow the procedural learning teaching model. He concludes with the teaching work in real conditions ("situated learning"), the drafting of a "receptional document" and the prof...

  14. Muscle strength and functional performance in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury treated with training and surgical reconstruction or training only: a two to five-year followup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Thomeé, Roland; Neeter, Camille


    surgery in restoring muscle function is unclear. METHODS: Of 121 patients with ACL injury included in a randomized controlled trial on training and surgical reconstruction versus training only (the Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament, NON-surgical versus surgical treatment [KANON] study, ISRCTN: 84752559...... Symmetry Index (LSI; injured leg divided by uninjured and multiplied by 100) value and absolute values were used for comparisons between groups (analysis of variance). An LSI >or=90% was considered normal. RESULTS: There were no differences between the surgical and nonsurgical treatment groups in muscle...... strength or functional performance. Between 44% and 89% of subjects had normal muscle function in the single tests, and between 44% and 56% had normal function in the test batteries. CONCLUSION: The lack of differences between patients treated with training and surgical reconstruction or training only...

  15. Education and Training in Psychiatry in the U.K. (United States)

    Carney, Stuart; Bhugra, Dinesh K.


    Background/Objective: Recent training and education changes have raised important issues in delivery of psychiatric education at all levels. In this article, the authors describe the current status of mental health education in the training of all doctors and postgraduate training and education in psychiatry in the U.K. Method: The authors explore…

  16. Global Reconstructions of Vocational Education and Training (United States)

    Avis, James


    In this introduction to the special issue, the author examines the wider context within which vocational education and training (VET) is set and the surrounding debates. He considers the prominence of neoliberalism and notions of competitiveness, crisis, skill and knowledge. Despite differences between systems of VET with respect to their reach…

  17. Augmented Reality in Education and Training (United States)

    Lee, Kangdon


    There are many different ways for people to be educated and trained with regard to specific information and skills they need. These methods include classroom lectures with textbooks, computers, handheld devices, and other electronic appliances. The choice of learning innovation is dependent on an individual's access to various technologies and the…

  18. University Engineering Education and Training in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian University engineering education and training system is be-set by a number of inadequacies - low entry standards, non-uniformity in entry process for all engineering faculties in the country, moderate academic quality of entrants for the profession, low level knowledge of Mathematics and physical Sciences for ...

  19. Interprofessional Education and Practice in Athletic Training (United States)

    Breitbach, Anthony P.; Richardson, Russ


    Professional preparation in athletic training has grown from modest roots based in physical education in the 1960s to its emergence as a recognized health profession today. The profession has long embraced interprofessional practice (IPP), but many times has not been included in discussions held at the institutional, governmental, and…


    Indiana State Employment Security Div., Indianapolis.


  1. Essays in economics of education and training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidalgo Saá, D.


    This thesis collects four studies on the economics of education and training. The first study examines the impact on school attendance of the provision of free school uniforms to children in poor urban areas in Ecuador. Consistent with a sunk-cost effect, it finds that free school uniforms increase

  2. Development and validation of a laparoscopic hysterectomy cuff closure simulation model for surgical training. (United States)

    Tunitsky-Bitton, Elena; Propst, Katie; Muffly, Tyler


    The number of robotically assisted hysterectomies is increasing, and therefore, the opportunities for trainees to become competent in performing traditional laparoscopic hysterectomy are decreasing. Simulation-based training is ideal for filling this gap in training. The objective of the study was to design a surgical model for training in laparoscopic vaginal cuff closure and to present evidence of its validity and reliability as an assessment and training tool. Participants included gynecology staff and trainees at 2 tertiary care centers. Experienced surgeons were also recruited at the combined International Urogynecologic Association and American Urogynecologic Society scientific meeting. Participants included 19 experts and 21 trainees. All participants were recorded using the laparoscopic hysterectomy cuff closure simulation model. The model was constructed using the an advanced uterine manipulation system with a sacrocolopexy tip/vaginal stent, a vaginal cuff constructed from neoprene material and lined with a swimsuit material (nylon and spandex) secured to the vaginal stent with a plastic cable tie. The uterine manipulation system was attached to the fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery laparoscopic training box trainer using a metal bracket. Performance was evaluated using the Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills scale. In addition, needle handling, knot tying, and incorporation of epithelial edge were also evaluated. The Student t test was used to compare the scores and the operating times between the groups. Intrarater reliability between the scores by the 2 masked experts was measured using the interclass correlation coefficient. Total and annual experience with laparoscopic suturing and specifically vaginal cuff closure varied greatly among the participants. For the construct validity, the participants in the expert group received significantly higher scores in each of the domains of the Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills

  3. Gender, education and training: an international perspective. (United States)

    Leach, F


    This article examines the causes and consequences of sex discrimination in education in developing countries and considers whether the available educational structures improve gender equity or reinforce the status quo. After an introduction that distinguishes between "education" and "schooling" and identifies schooling as a means of patriarchal control, the article sketches the growing awareness of gender disparities in education. The next section describes how gender inequality in education leads to low participation of women in the labor market and limits women's access to information and services, to mobility, and to decision-making. The article then reviews the international agenda on promoting female education that has resulted in donor-driven initiatives arising from such events as the 1990 World Conference on Education For All. A look at the benefits of educating women then focuses on the "family welfare" perspective and the acknowledgement of women's full socioeconomic role. After pointing to the slow progress towards gender equity in education, the article discusses barriers to this goal posed by poverty, social conventions, early marriage, violence in schools, and curricular gender stereotyping. The article then considers problems encountered by efforts to provide informal education and training and the fact that educational initiatives are donor-driven and fail to address the causes of the gender gap. It is concluded that governments and donors must transform schools as part of a larger program of socioeconomic reforms designed to improve women's status.

  4. Usefulness of Surgical Media Center as a Cataract Surgery Educational Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoichiro Ogawa


    Full Text Available Purpose. This study retrospectively analyzed cataract surgeries to examine the usefulness of Surgical Media Center (SMC (Abbott Medical Optics Inc., a new cataract surgery recording device, for training of cataract surgery. Methods. We studied five hundred cataract surgeries conducted with a phacoemulsification system connected to the SMC. After surgery, the surgical procedures were reviewed, with changes in aspiration rate, vacuum level, and phaco power displayed as graphs superimposed on the surgical video. We examined whether use of SMC is able to demonstrate the differences in technique between experienced and trainee operators, to identify inappropriate phacoemulsification techniques from analyzing the graphs, and to elucidate the cause of intraoperative complications. Results. Significant differences in the time taken to reach maximum vacuum and the speed of increase in vacuum during irrigation and aspiration were observed between experienced and trainee operators. Analysis of the graphs displayed by SMC detected inappropriate phacoemulsification techniques mostly in cases operated by trainee operators. Conclusions. Using SMC, it was possible to capture details of cataract surgery objectively. This recording device allows surgeons to review cataract surgery techniques and identify the cause of intraoperative complication and is a useful education tool for cataract surgery.

  5. Paradoxes in Danish Vocational Education and Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louw, Arnt Vestergaard; Katznelson, Noemi


    All vocational education and training schools in Denmark are required to launch retention initiatives and report yearly on their efforts to increase retention and the completion rate of their students. This article argues that the structural conditions and incentive structure around VET produces...... teaching practices in VET that create unmotivated, weak students and unintentional push-out effects. Further, it is suggested that the marketization of education has a profound effect on the practice in VET such that good education has come to be more associated with retaining all students in the VET...

  6. Update on Simulation-Based Surgical Training and Assessment in Ophthalmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ann Sofia S; Subhi, Yousif; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke


    Library, and Web of Science) and was completed on March 1, 2014. Overall, the included trials were divided into animal, cadaver, inanimate, and virtual-reality models. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Validity evidence was evaluated using a modern validity framework......; 4 trials (65 participants) evaluated the effect of simulation-based training on patient-related outcomes. Because of heterogeneity of the studies, it was not possible to conduct a quantitative analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The methodologic rigor of trials investigating simulation-based surgical training...... in ophthalmology is inadequate. To ensure effective implementation of training models, evidence-based knowledge of validity and efficacy is needed. We provide a useful tool for implementation and evaluation of research in simulation-based training....

  7. Training and Education of Environmental Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Sinding, Knud; Madsen, Henning

    An analysis of the training backgrounds of environmental managers in a range of environmentally advanced European companies reveals the very broad qualifications ideally required of these managers. At the same time, however, it is found that the provision of training opportunities relevant for th...... for this important category of managers is both limited in scope and foundation, and highly dependent on the randomly distributed efforts of educators with an environmental interest.......An analysis of the training backgrounds of environmental managers in a range of environmentally advanced European companies reveals the very broad qualifications ideally required of these managers. At the same time, however, it is found that the provision of training opportunities relevant...

  8. Health physics education and training in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.


    Health physics education and training (HPET) are close counterparts for an effective enforcement of radiation protection (RP) regulations and development of an advanced RP infrastructure in a country. The related history in Iran dates back to over 30 years ago advancing towards promotion of a 'Sustainable Training Program' (STP) through programs such as academic courses, intensive courses, research, on-the-job training and media training. The STP has been effective in development of an advanced national infrastructure for effective enforcement of regulations in different applications and provision of self-sustained national services. In this paper, the elements of a long-term national STP are discussed with a hope it could act as a model in developing countries. (author)

  9. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Kubota, Ryuji; Fujiwara, Tadashi; Sakuma, Hitoshi


    The education and training system for Accident Management was developed by the Japanese BWR group and Hitachi Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the education and training system with computer simulations. Both systems are designed to be executed on personal computers. The outlines of the CAI education system and the education and training system with simulator are reported below. These systems provides plant operators and technical support center staff with the effective education and training for accident management. (author)

  10. Ethics education in psychoanalytic training: a survey. (United States)

    Ransohoff, Paul M


    Didactic education in psychoanalytic ethics is a relatively new phenomenon. Ethics courses were offered by few institutes before they were mandated and before publication of the first Ethics Case Book in 2001. As institutes have developed ethics training, the solutions they have arrived at-formats, length and placement of courses, and preferred readings- remain unknown to other educators and analysts. This survey was undertaken to gain an overview of the current state of ethics education. Twenty-nine of the thirty-one training institutes of the American Psychoanalytic Association (93%) responded to inquiries. Most institutes (79%) offered one course, and the average number of class sessions was 6.3. Of 258 different readings used, 61 (23.6%) were used by more than one institute and 37 (14.3%) by more than two. The most frequent topics were boundaries, confidentiality, and illness, and Dewald and Clark's Case Book (2008) and Gabbard and Lester (1995) were the most common readings. These findings should be useful to instructors, curriculum committees, and ethics committees in their ethics education planning, as well as to practicing analysts in their ethical self-education. This study may also serve as a model for analogous investigations into other areas of analytic education and as an impetus to further research and educational innovation.

  11. [Education and Training of Personnel in Morphology]. (United States)

    Katagiri, Hisako; Yamagata, Junko


    We introduce our efforts to utilize education, training, competence assessment, and quality control of personnel engaged in urinary sediment and blood cell morphology examinations in our laboratory. There are no standard samples for these morphological examinations, and standardization has not been completed for all types of blood cells or urinary sediment components. We had been carrying out simultaneous microscopic examination involving trainee staff and senior laboratory technologists as a means of education and evaluation, but acceptance criteria were unclear. Moreover, we had continued our operation without assessment of the level of achievement of routine works or the competence of individual staff members. Taking the opportunity of receiving ISO 15189 certification, we have been able to establish clear standards for evaluating personnel education and training in morphological examinations. We will continuously make efforts to maintain and manage this system.

  12. China's Medical Education and Interventional Neuroradiology Training. (United States)

    Lv, Xianli; He, Hongwei; Wu, Zhongxue


    China's medical education system is complex and consists of degree programs lasting from 3 to 8 years, the inconsistency across previous educational backgrounds is a challenge when implementing residency training objectives and contents. Only in several advanced medical universities, education for interventional neuroradiology (INR) is a part of a rotation in the 2-year training for neurosurgery. Advanced INR techniques are confined to big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, where most of the Chinese INRs have their 6 to 12 months fellowship to major medical centers. With a tremendous economic growth in the region, we expect that INR practice will evolve at an equally rapid pace, and information presented in this chapter may soon become obsolete. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of a training program after surgically treated ankle fracture: a prospective randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekdahl Charlotte S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite conflicting results after surgically treated ankle fractures few studies have evaluated the effects of different types of training programs performed after plaster removal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week standardised but individually suited training program (training group versus usual care (control group after plaster removal in adults with surgically treated ankle fractures. Methods In total, 110 men and women, 18-64 years of age, with surgically treated ankle fracture were included and randomised to either a 12-week training program or to a control group. Six and twelve months after the injury the subjects were examined by the same physiotherapist who was blinded to the treatment group. The main outcome measure was the Olerud-Molander Ankle Score (OMAS which rates symptoms and subjectively scored function. Secondary outcome measures were: quality of life (SF-36, timed walking tests, ankle mobility tests, muscle strength tests and radiological status. Results 52 patients were randomised to the training group and 58 to the control group. Five patients dropped out before the six-month follow-up resulting in 50 patients in the training group and 55 in the control group. Nine patients dropped out between the six- and twelve-month follow-up resulting in 48 patients in both groups. When analysing the results in a mixed model analysis on repeated measures including interaction between age-group and treatment effect the training group demonstrated significantly improved results compared to the control group in subjects younger than 40 years of age regarding OMAS (p = 0.028, muscle strength in the plantar flexors (p = 0.029 and dorsiflexors (p = 0.030. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that when adjusting for interaction between age-group and treatment effect the training model employed in this study was superior to usual care in patients under the age of 40. However, as only three

  14. Determinants of cataract surgical opportunities and complication rates in UK higher specialist training. (United States)

    Buchan, J C; Cassels-Brown, A


    The volume of cataract surgery performed by trainee ophthalmologists in the UK, and the complication rates experienced by those trainees is unknown. As a result, no appropriate audit benchmark exists for trainees or their trainers. This study describes the surgical opportunities and rates of posterior capsule rupture (PCR) experienced by higher specialist trainees in one UK training region and explores influencing factors. Number of cataract operations and episodes of PCR in each calendar month were recorded from surgical logbooks for all Specialist Registrars (SpRs) who had completed at least 6 months of training by January 2007. Dates and details of the posts in which the surgery was performed were also recorded. Data from 475 completed months were collected from 19 trainees including 4322 cataract operations and 99 episodes of PCR. Trainees performed a mean 9.1 operations per month. This varied significantly between different subspeciality posts; the fewest cataracts were on paediatric and oculo-plastic firms. District General Hospitals offered more surgery than Teaching Hospitals; mean 10.9 vs 8.5 cataracts per month (P=0.005). No difference in surgical opportunity was found between male and female trainees. An overall PCR rate of 2.3% (95% CI 2.25-2.33%) was found, which decreased significantly with increasing experience (Ptraining. A PCR rate of 2.3% was found for trainees with a mean of 25 months higher specialist training which compares favourably with published series of trainees from other countries.

  15. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in psychology. (United States)


    This award is given by the Board of Educational Affairs in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education and training in psychology. These contributions might include important research on education and training; the development of effective materials for instruction; the establishment of workshops, conferences, or networks of communication for education and training; achievement and leadership in administration that facilitates education and training; or activity in professional organizations that promote excellence. The Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in psychology recognizes a specific contribution to education and training. The Career designation is added to the award at the discretion of the Education and Training Awards Committee to recognize continuous significant contributions made over a lifelong career in psychology. This year the Education and Training Awards Committee selected a psychologist for the Career designation. The 2017 recipients of the APA Education and Training Contributions Awards were selected by the 2016 Education and Training Awards Committee appointed by the Board of Educational Affairs (BEA). Members of the 2016 Education and Training Awards Committee were Erica Wise, PhD (Chair); Ron Rozensky, PhD; Jane D. Halonen, PhD; Sharon Berry, PhD (Chair Elect); Emil Rodolfa, PhD; and Sylvia A. Rosenfield, PhD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Impact of Residency Training Level on the Surgical Quality Following General Surgery Procedures. (United States)

    Loiero, Dominik; Slankamenac, Maja; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Slankamenac, Ksenija


    To investigate the safety of surgical performance by residents of different training level performing common general surgical procedures. Data were consecutively collected from all patients undergoing general surgical procedures such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laparoscopic appendectomy, inguinal, femoral and umbilical hernia repair from 2005 to 2011 at the Department of Surgery of the University Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland. The operating surgeons were grouped into junior residents, senior residents and consultants. The comprehensive complication index (CCI) representing the overall number and severity of all postoperative complications served as primary safety endpoint. A multivariable linear regression analysis was used to analyze differences between groups. Additionally, we focused on the impact of senior residents assisting junior residents on postoperative outcome comparing to consultants. During the observed time, 2715 patients underwent a general surgical procedure. In 1114 times, a senior resident operated and in 669 procedures junior residents performed the surgery. The overall postoperative morbidity quantified by the CCI was for consultants 5.0 (SD 10.7), for senior residents 3.5 (8.2) and for junior residents 3.6 (8.3). After adjusting for possible confounders, no difference between groups concerning the postoperative complications was detected. There is also no difference in postoperative complications detectable if junior residents were assisted by consultants then if assisted by senior residents. Patient safety is ensured in general surgery when performed by surgical junior residents. Senior residents are able to adopt the role of the teaching surgeon in charge without compromising patients' safety.

  17. The assessment of surgical skills as a complement to the training method. Revision. (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, J; Bachiller-Burgos, J; Serrano-Pascual, Á; Cózar-Olmo, J M; Díaz-Güemes Martín-Portugués, I; Pérez-Duarte, F J; Hernández-Hurtado, L; Álvarez-Ossorio, J L; Sánchez-Margallo, F M


    The acquisition and improvement of surgical skills constitute a fundamental element in the training of any practitioner. At present, however, the assessment of these skills is a scarcely developed area of research. The aim of this study was to analyse the peculiarities of the various assessment systems and establish the minimum criteria that a skills and knowledge assessment system should meet as a method for assessing surgical skills in urological surgery. Scientific literature review aimed at the various currently available assessment systems for skills and competencies (technical and nontechnical), with a special focus on the systematic reviews and prospective studies. After conducting the review, we found that the various assessment systems for surgical competence have, in our opinion, a number of shortcomings. There is a certain degree of subjectivity in the assessment of surgeons by the evaluators. The assessment of nontechnical competencies is not formally recorded. There is no description of a follow-up assessment or any basic parameters associated with healthcare quality. There is no registration of associated competencies associated with the various surgical techniques. There is also no ranking of these competencies and the specific peculiarities for their application. We believe that the development of a new assessment system for surgical competencies (technical and nontechnical) aimed at assessing urologists in the various surgical techniques is necessary. To this end, our team has worked on developing the Evaluation System for Surgical Competencies on Laparoscopy, which is based on the definition, ranking and assessment of competencies demonstrated by surgeons. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance of Vascular Exposure and Fasciotomy Among Surgical Residents Before and After Training Compared With Experts. (United States)

    Mackenzie, Colin F; Garofalo, Evan; Puche, Adam; Chen, Hegang; Pugh, Kristy; Shackelford, Stacy; Tisherman, Samuel; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark W


    Surgical patient outcomes are related to surgeon skills. To measure resident surgeon technical and nontechnical skills for trauma core competencies before and after training and up to 18 months later and to compare resident performance with the performance of expert traumatologists. This longitudinal study performed from May 1, 2013, through February 29, 2016, at Maryland State Anatomy Board cadaver laboratories included 40 surgical residents and 10 expert traumatologists. Performance was measured during extremity vascular exposures and lower extremity fasciotomy in fresh cadavers before and after taking the Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) course. The primary outcome variable was individual procedure score (IPS), with secondary outcomes of IPSs on 5 components of technical and nontechnical skills, Global Rating Scale scores, errors, and time to complete the procedure. Two trained evaluators located in the same laboratory evaluated performance with a standardized script and mobile touch-screen data collection. Thirty-eight (95%) of 40 surgical residents (mean [SD] age, 31 [2.9] years) who were evaluated before and within 4 weeks of ASSET training completed follow-up evaluations 12 to 18 months later (mean [SD], 14 [2.7] months). The experts (mean [SD] age, 52 [10.0] years) were significantly older and had a longer (mean [SD], 46 [16.3] months) interval since taking the ASSET course (both P knowledge, correct procedural steps, and decreased errors from 60% to 19% after the ASSET course regardless of clinical year of training (P knowledge (the 2 IPS components most improved with training) indicates the resident's performance was within 1 nearest-neighbor classifier of experts after ASSET training. Five residents had no improvement with training. The Trauma Readiness Index for experts (mean [SD], 74 [4]) was significantly different compared with the trained residents (mean [SD], 48 [7] before training vs 63 [7] after training [P = .004

  19. Effectiveness of Immersive Virtual Reality in Surgical Training-A Randomized Control Trial. (United States)

    Pulijala, Yeshwanth; Ma, Minhua; Pears, Matthew; Peebles, David; Ayoub, Ashraf


    Surgical training methods are evolving with the technological advancements, including the application of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality. However, 28 to 40% of novice residents are not confident in performing a major surgical procedure. VR surgery, an immersive VR (iVR) experience, was developed using Oculus Rift and Leap Motion devices (Leap Motion, Inc, San Francisco, CA) to address this challenge. Our iVR is a multisensory, holistic surgical training application that demonstrates a maxillofacial surgical technique, the Le Fort I osteotomy. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of using VR surgery on the self-confidence and knowledge of surgical residents. A multisite, single-blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial (RCT) was performed. The participants were novice surgical residents with limited experience in performing the Le Fort I osteotomy. The primary outcome measures were the self-assessment scores of trainee confidence using a Likert scale and an objective assessment of the cognitive skills. Ninety-five residents from 7 dental schools were included in the RCT. The participants were randomly divided into a study group of 51 residents and a control group of 44. Participants in the study group used the VR surgery application on an Oculus Rift with Leap Motion device. The control group participants used similar content in a standard PowerPoint presentation on a laptop. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance was applied to the data to assess the overall effect of the intervention on the confidence of the residents. The study group participants showed significantly greater perceived self-confidence levels compared with those in the control group (P = .034; α = 0.05). Novices in the first year of their training showed the greatest improvement in their confidence compared with those in their second and third year. iVR experiences improve the knowledge and self-confidence of the surgical residents

  20. Education and Training: Is There Any Longer a Useful Distinction? (United States)

    Hager, Paul; Laurent, John


    Although education and training were distinct concepts when Taylorism dominated the workplace, it is no longer appropriate to separate them. Today's highly competitive environment requires the education of a flexible, multiskilled workforce, not training for narrowly defined employment tasks. (SK)

  1. Examination of Supplemental Driver Training and Online Basic Driver Education (United States)


    This report describes supplemental driver training programs and online basic driver education. It coves supplemental driver training that : focused on knowledge and skills beyond those normally found in traditional driver education delivered in the U...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Solodka


    Full Text Available Today international community is united by the idea of world citizen education. Intensively developing American educational space is aimed at global human education, regardless of people’s place of residence. Understanding the fact, that modern education has to become international, leads to improving young people's ability to evaluate the effects of other human positions, different cultures. The article deals with the one of the most perspective trends of pedagogical researches – international education. This issue is understood as applied scientific and socio-educational activity. Its main task is the education of people who can interact cross-culturally. International education is deliberate and systematic effort to create the conditions for cross-cultural training. The aim and result of cross-cultural training is the developed ability of sensitive and competent interaction in different cultural contexts. The availability to interact across cultures is determined by the following components: productive interaction, positive interaction, ability to cultural transformation, multi subjective interaction. The article stresses, that in the process of cross-cultural interaction its participants need to achieve compliance (compatibility to a new cultural environment. Ability to cultural transformation, adaptation (compatibility with the environment of another culture serves the following criteria availability for crosscultural interaction. This aim can be reached in the process of education before the contacts with another culture.

  3. The CRINE initiative -- Education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlewood, S.K.


    CRINE's aim is to have everyone in the industry working in new ways and doing so because it is second nature. CRINE is an acronym for Cost Reduction Initiative for the New Era, is an industry-wide program now under way in the UK continental shelf oil and gas fields whose main objective is to achieve thirty percent or more savings in capital costs and to half the operating costs over the next few years. Such a culture change is only feasible through an extensive program of education and training. This is under way, helped in many organizations by CRINE 'champions' driving the courses and training aids

  4. Education and training in nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon, S.; Marco, M.


    CIEMAT participates in the European project Matisse (Materials Innovations for a Safe and Sustainable nuclear in Europe) belonging to FP7, whose main objective is to promote the link between the respective national research programs through networking and integration of activities for innovation in materials for advanced nuclear systems, sharing among partners best practices and implementation of training tools and efficient communication. The draft four years, from 2013 to 2017, includes aspects such as the interaction between infrastructure, R and D programs and postgraduate education and training. (Author)

  5. Alliance for Sequestration Training, Outreach, Research & Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Hilary [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Geophysics Jackson School of Geosciences


    The Sequestration Training, Outreach, Research and Education (STORE) Alliance at The University of Texas at Austin completed its activity under Department of Energy Funding (DE-FE0002254) on September 1, 2013. The program began as a partnership between the Institute for Geophysics, the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering Department at UT. The initial vision of the program was to promote better understanding of CO2 utilization and storage science and engineering technology through programs and opportunities centered on training, outreach, research and technology transfer, and education. With over 8,000 hrs of formal training and education (and almost 4,500 of those hours awarded as continuing education credits) to almost 1,100 people, STORE programs and activities have provided benefits to the Carbon Storage Program of the Department of Energy by helping to build a skilled workforce for the future CCS and larger energy industry, and fostering scientific public literacy needed to continue the U.S. leadership position in climate change mitigation and energy technologies and application. Now in sustaining mode, the program is housed at the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, and benefits from partnerships with the Gulf Coast Carbon Center, TOPCORP and other programs at the university receiving industry funding.

  6. Systematic review of the implementation of simulation training in surgical residency curriculum. (United States)

    Kurashima, Yo; Hirano, Satoshi


    We reviewed the literature regarding the specific methods and strategies for implementing simulation-based training into the modern surgical residency curriculum. Residency programs are still struggling with how best to implement it into their curricula from a practical viewpoint. A systematic review was performed using Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and other resources for studies involving the use of simulation for technical skills training in the surgical residency curriculum. Studies were selected based on the integration of simulation into the curriculum and/or a description of the details of implementation and the resources required. In total, 2533 unique citations were retrieved based on this search, and 31 articles met the inclusion criteria. Most simulators were focused on laparoscopic procedures, and training occurred most often in a skills lab. The assessment of skills consisted mostly of speed of task completion. Only 4 studies addressed issues of cost, and 6 programs mentioned human resources without any mention of skills center personnel or administrative support. All of the studies described the nature of the simulation training, but very few commented on how it was actually implemented and what was needed from organizational, administrative and logistical perspectives.

  7. A Communication Training Program to Encourage Speaking-Up Behavior in Surgical Oncology. (United States)

    D'Agostino, Thomas A; Bialer, Philip A; Walters, Chasity B; Killen, Aileen R; Sigurdsson, Hrafn O; Parker, Patricia A


    Patient safety in the OR depends on effective communication. We developed and tested a communication training program for surgical oncology staff members to increase communication about patient safety concerns. In phase one, 34 staff members participated in focus groups to identify and rank factors that affect speaking-up behavior. We compiled ranked items into thematic categories that included role relations and hierarchy, staff rapport, perceived competence, perceived efficacy of speaking up, staff personality, fear of retaliation, institutional regulations, and time pressure. We then developed a communication training program that 42 participants completed during phase two. Participants offered favorable ratings of the usefulness and perceived effect of the training. Participants reported significant improvement in communicating patient safety concerns (t 40  = -2.76, P = .009, d = 0.48). Findings offer insight into communication challenges experienced by surgical oncology staff members and suggest that our training demonstrates the potential to improve team communication. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Deliberate Practice of Creativity Training Set Series - A Creativity Training Material for Education (work in progress)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrge, Christian


    Five training sets including 450 unique thinking direction cards and 120 exercise cards. Designed for Educational Purposes.......Five training sets including 450 unique thinking direction cards and 120 exercise cards. Designed for Educational Purposes....

  9. 10 CFR 835.103 - Education, training and skills. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Education, training and skills. 835.103 Section 835.103... § 835.103 Education, training and skills. Individuals responsible for developing and implementing... education, training, and skills to discharge these responsibilities. [63 FR 59682, Nov. 4, 1998] ...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.21 - Safety training and education. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety training and education. 1926.21 Section 1926.21... Provisions § 1926.21 Safety training and education. (a) General requirements. The Secretary shall, pursuant to section 107(f) of the Act, establish and supervise programs for the education and training of...

  11. Initiatives in the Education and Training of Young People. (United States)

    Lister, Alan, Ed.


    Eight articles on educational technology's application to youth education and training describe United Kingdom's Junior Army leadership skills training; educational technology within Youth Training Scheme (YTS); YTS hotel and catering industry initiatives; Coventry's computer based learning project; cross-cultural courseware transfer; mathematics…

  12. Integrated surgical academic training in the UK: a cross-sectional survey. (United States)

    Blencowe, Natalie S; Glasbey, James C; McElnay, Philip J; Bhangu, Aneel; Gokani, Vimal J; Harries, Rhiannon L


    This study aimed to explore variations in the provision of integrated academic surgical training across the UK. This is an online cross-sectional survey (consisting of 44 items with a range of free-text, binomial and 5-point Likert scale responses) developed by the Association of Surgeons in Training. A self-reported survey instrument was distributed to academic surgical trainees across the UK (n=276). 143 (51.9%) responses were received (81% male, median age: 34 years), spanning all UK regions and surgical specialties. Of the 143 trainees, 29 were core trainees (20.3%), 99 were specialty trainees (69.2%) and 15 (10.5%) described themselves as research fellows. The structure of academic training varied considerably, with under a third of trainees receiving guaranteed protected time for research. Despite this, however, 53.1% of the respondents reported to be satisfied with how their academic training was organised. Covering clinical duties during academic time occurred commonly (72.7%). Although most trainees (n=88, 61.5%) met with their academic supervisor at least once a month, six (4.2%) never had an academic supervisory meeting. Most trainees (n=90, 62.9%) occupied a full-time rota slot and only 9.1% (n=13) described their role as 'supernumerary'. Although 58.7% (n=84) of the trainees were satisfied with their clinical competence, 37.8% (n=54) felt that clinical time focused more on service provision than the acquisition of technical skills. 58 (40.6%) had experienced some form of negative sentiment relating to their status as an academic trainee. Integrated academic training presents unique challenges and opportunities within surgery. This survey has identified variation in the quality of current programmes, meaning that the future provision of integrated surgical academic training should be carefully considered. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  13. Academic requirements for Certificate of Completion of Training in surgical training: Consensus recommendations from the Association of Surgeons in Training/National Research Collaborative Consensus Group. (United States)

    Lee, Mathew J; Bhangu, A; Blencowe, Natalie S; Nepogodiev, D; Gokani, Vimal J; Harries, Rhiannon L; Akinfala, M; Ali, O; Allum, W; Bosanquet, D C; Boyce, K; Bradburn, M; Chapman, S J; Christopher, E; Coulter, I; Dean, B J F; Dickfos, M; El Boghdady, M; Elmasry, M; Fleming, S; Glasbey, J; Healy, C; Kasivisvanathan, V; Khan, K S; Kolias, A G; Lee, S M; Morton, D; O'Beirne, J; Sinclair, P; Sutton, P A


    Surgical trainees are expected to demonstrate academic achievement in order to obtain their certificate of completion of training (CCT). These standards are set by the Joint Committee on Surgical Training (JCST) and specialty advisory committees (SAC). The standards are not equivalent across all surgical specialties and recognise different achievements as evidence. They do not recognise changes in models of research and focus on outcomes rather than process. The Association of Surgeons in Training (ASiT) and National Research Collaborative (NRC) set out to develop progressive, consistent and flexible evidence set for academic requirements at CCT. A modified-Delphi approach was used. An expert group consisting of representatives from the ASiT and the NRC undertook iterative review of a document proposing changes to requirements. This was circulated amongst wider stakeholders. After ten iterations, an open meeting was held to discuss these proposals. Voting on statements was performed using a 5-point Likert Scale. Each statement was voted on twice, with ≥80% of votes in agreement meaning the statement was approved. The results of this vote were used to propose core and optional academic requirements for CCT. Online discussion concluded after ten rounds. At the consensus meeting, statements were voted on by 25 delegates from across surgical specialties and training-grades. The group strongly favoured acquisition of 'Good Clinical Practice' training and research methodology training as CCT requirements. The group agreed that higher degrees, publications in any author position (including collaborative authorship), recruiting patients to a study or multicentre audit and presentation at a national or international meeting could be used as evidence for the purpose of CCT. The group agreed on two essential 'core' requirements (GCP and methodology training) and two of a menu of four 'additional' requirements (publication with any authorship position, presentation

  14. Employability: Challenges for Education and Training Systems (United States)

    Perez, Elena Arjona; Garrouste, Christelle; Kozovska, Kornelia

    The recent crisis has taken its toll in terms of unemployment, especially among young people. This has revived the debate on the contribution of Education and Training (E&T) systems to the employability of young graduates. At European policy level, there is a growing interest in creating incentives for reforming E&T systems so as to make them more responsive to future labour market needs and short term adverse labour market conditions. One of the main challenges is finding valid measures for evaluating the contribution of E&T systems to employability, taking into account their diversity within the European Union. This paper presents an operational framework of analysis for employability and discusses some of the most important challenges related to the multidimensional nature of the employability concept, the lack of data for cross-country comparison and the difficulty of disentangling the role of education and training systems from other factors in evaluating labour market outcomes.

  15. Ecological education and environmental protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motiejuniene, E.


    One of important directions of teaching processes in Lithuania now is ecological education and environment protection training. The real possibility to involve scientists into students, teachers ecological education appeared since 1993 when scientific programme 'Ignalina NPP and the Environment' was launched. Scientists working at Drukshiai Ecological Station together with specialists from Pedagogical University and Institute of Pedagogy prepared teaching programmes, methodical aids. During 1993 - 1997 31 measures - ecological camps for schoolchildren and students as well as seminars and workshops for teachers were organized; 551 participants took part. (author)

  16. Train Like an Astronaut Educational Outreach (United States)

    Garcia, Yamil L.; Lloyd, Charles; Reeves, Katherine M.; Abadie, Laurie J.


    In an effort to reduce the incidence of childhood obesity, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), capitalizing on the theme of human spaceflight developed two educational outreach programs for children ages 8-12. To motivate young "fit explorers," the Train Like an Astronaut National (TLA) program and the Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut International Fitness Challenge (MX) were created. Based on the astronauts' physical training, these programs consist of activities developed by educators and experts in the areas of space life sciences and fitness. These Activities address components of physical fitness. The educational content hopes to promote students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. At the national level, in partnership with First Lady Michelle Obama's Let?s Move! Initiative, the TLA program consists of 10 physical and 2 educational activities. The program encourages families, schools, and communities to work collaboratively in order to reinforce in children and their families the importance of healthy lifestyle habits In contrast, the MX challenge is a cooperative outreach program involving numerous space agencies and other international partner institutions. During the six-week period, teams of students from around the world are challenged to improve their physical fitness and collectively accumulate points by completing 18 core activities. During the 2011 pilot year, a t otal of 137 teams and more than 4,000 students from 12 countries participated in the event. MX will be implemented within 24 countries during the 2012 challenge. It is projected that 7,000 children will "train like an astronaut".

  17. A computerized bioskills system for surgical skills training in total knee replacement. (United States)

    Conditt, M A; Noble, P C; Thompson, M T; Ismaily, S K; Moy, G J; Mathis, K B


    Although all agree that the results of total knee replacement (TKR) are primarily determined by surgical skill, there are few satisfactory alternatives to the 'apprenticeship' model of surgical training. A system capable of evaluating errors of instrument alignment in TKR has been developed and demonstrated. This system also makes it possible quantitatively to assess the source of errors in final component position and limb alignment. This study demonstrates the use of a computer-based system to analyse the surgical skills in TKR through detailed quantitative analysis of the technical accuracy of each step of the procedure. Twelve surgeons implanted a posterior-stabilized TKR in 12 fresh cadavers using the same set of surgical instruments. During each procedure, the position and orientation of the femur, tibia, each surgical instrument, and the trial components were measured with an infrared coordinate measurement system. Through analysis of these data, the sources and relative magnitudes of errors in position and alignment of each instrument were determined, as well as its contribution to the final limb alignment, component positioning and ligament balance. Perfect balancing of the flexion and extension gaps was uncommon (0/15). Under standardized loading, the opening of the joint laterally exceeded the opening medially by an average of approximately 4 mm in both extension (4.1 +/- 2.1 mm) and flexion (3.8 +/- 3.4 mm). In addition, the overall separation of the femur and the tibia was greater in flexion than extension by an average of 4.6 mm. The most significant errors occurred in locating the anterior/posterior position of the entry point in the distal femur (SD = 8.4 mm) and the correct rotational alignment of the tibial tray (SD = 13.2 degrees). On a case-by-case basis, the relative contributions of errors in individual instrument alignments to the final limb alignment and soft tissue balancing were identified. The results indicate that discrete steps in the

  18. Tele-surgical simulation system for training in the use of da Vinci surgery. (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Suzuki, Naoki; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Hattori, Asaki; Konishi, Kozo; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Hashizume, Makoto


    Laparoscopic surgery including robotic surgery allows the surgeon to be able to conduct minimally invasive surgery. A surgeon is required to master difficult skills for this surgery to compensate for the narrow field of view, limitation of work space, and the lack of depth sensation. To counteract these drawbacks, we have been developing a training simulation system that can allow surgeons to practice and master surgical procedures. In addition, our system aims to distribute a simulation program, to provide a means of collaboration between remote hospitals, and to be able to provide a means for guidance from an expert surgeon. In this paper, we would like to show the surgery simulation for da Vinci surgery, in particular a cholecystectomy. The integral parts of this system are a soft tissue model which is created by the sphere-filled method enabling real-time deformations based on a patient's data, force feedback devices known as a PHANToM and the Internet connection. By using this system a surgeon can perform surgical maneuvers such as pushing, grasping, and detachment in real-time manipulation. Moreover, using the broadband communication, we can perform the tele-surgical simulation for training.

  19. Astronomy Education and Teacher Training in Turkey (United States)

    Kirbiyik, Halil

    In this talk, education in astronomy and space sciences in schools in Turkey as well as activities to create awareness in these subjects will be discussed. A search done among youngsters(ages from 15 to 24) for measuring the scientific literacy showed that most attractive subjects to the Turkish younsters are “internet” and “astronomy”. This result led authorities to take necessary measures to fill the gap especially in teaching material such as books. Another attempt along this is to increase astronomy subjects in the school curricula. Besides TUBITAK National Observatory, universities and Turkish Astronomical Society are giving every efort to create public awareness of space activities and space sciences. As for the teacher training in astronomy and space sciences, much has been done but no success has come yet. Astronomy subjects, in schools, are generally taught not by astronomers but some other substitutes from other branches, such as physics and mathematics. Thus the Ministry of Education prefers training teachers in service. Nevertheless it must be stated that astronomers are pushing forward to formally have the right to train astronomers to become teachers to be hired by the Ministry of Education in schools.

  20. ACGME core competency training, mentorship, and research in surgical subspecialty fellowship programs. (United States)

    Francesca Monn, M; Wang, Ming-Hsien; Gilson, Marta M; Chen, Belinda; Kern, David; Gearhart, Susan L


    To determine the perceived effectiveness of surgical subspecialty training programs in teaching and assessing the 6 ACGME core competencies including research. Cross-sectional survey. ACGME approved training programs in pediatric urology and colorectal surgery. Program Directors and recent trainees (2007-2009). A total of 39 program directors (60%) and 57 trainees (64%) responded. Both program directors and recent trainees reported a higher degree of training and mentorship (75%) in patient care and medical knowledge than the other core competencies (peffective to a lesser degree. Specifically, in the areas of teaching residents and medical students and team building, program directors, compared with recent trainees, perceived training to be more effective, (p = 0.004, p = 0.04). Responses to questions assessing training in systems based practice ubiquitously identified a lack of training, particularly in financial matters of running a practice. Although effective training in research was perceived as lacking by recent trainees, 81% reported mentorship in this area. According to program directors and recent trainees, the most effective method of teaching was faculty supervision and feedback. Only 50% or less of the recent trainees reported mentorship in career planning, work-life balance, and job satisfaction. Not all 6 core competencies and research are effectively being taught in surgery subspecialty training programs and mentorship in areas outside of patient care and research is lacking. Emphasis should be placed on faculty supervision and feedback when designing methods to better incorporate all 6 core competencies, research, and mentorship. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Balancing the Demands of Education and Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sørensen, Jan Kahr

    value of a good set of academic qualifications does not entirely measure up to this, the insistence from the outside world on the importance of completing one’s education is manifest and associated with significant personal concerns, lower examinations results, stress, drop-out and mental breakdown......Balancing the Demands of Education and Training – A Qualitative Study on Young Male Football Talents’ Dual Careers. M. K. Christensena and J. K. Sørensenb a Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark b Department of Public Health – Sport Science, Aarhus...... University Workshop: Negotiating Athlete Identity in Career Transitions Abstract: Today’s young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from coming from the fields...

  2. A cross sectional study of surgical training among United Kingdom general practitioners with specialist interests in surgery. (United States)

    Ferguson, H J M; Fitzgerald, J E F; Reilly, J; Beamish, A J; Gokani, V J


    Increasing numbers of minor surgical procedures are being performed in the community. In the UK, general practitioners (family medicine physicians) with a specialist interest (GPwSI) in surgery frequently undertake them. This shift has caused decreases in available cases for junior surgeons to gain and consolidate operative skills. This study evaluated GPwSI's case-load, procedural training and perceptions of offering formalised operative training experience to surgical trainees. Prospective, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. A novel, 13-item, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to members of the Association of Surgeons in Primary Care (ASPC). A total 113 of 120 ASPC members completed the questionnaire, representing a 94% response rate. Respondents were general practitioners practising or intending to practice surgery in the community. Respondents performed a mean of 38 (range 5-150) surgical procedures per month in primary care. 37% (42/113) of respondents had previously been awarded Membership or Fellowship of a Surgical Royal College; 22% (25/113) had completed a surgical certificate or diploma or undertaken a course of less than 1 year duration. 41% (46/113) had no formal British surgical qualifications. All respondents believed that surgical training in primary care could be valuable for surgical trainees, and the majority (71/113, 63%) felt that both general practice and surgical trainees could benefit equally from such training. There is a significant volume of surgical procedures being undertaken in the community by general practitioners, with the capacity and appetite for training of prospective surgeons in this setting, providing appropriate standards are achieved and maintained, commensurate with current standards in secondary care. Surgical experience and training of GPwSI's in surgery is highly varied, and does not yet benefit from the quality assurance secondary care surgical training in the UK undergoes. The Royal Colleges of

  3. Prior experience in micro-surgery may improve the surgeon's performance in robotic surgical training. (United States)

    Perez, Manuela; Perrenot, Cyril; Tran, Nguyen; Hossu, Gabriela; Felblinger, Jacques; Hubert, Jacques


    Robotic surgery has witnessed a huge expansion. Robotic simulators have proved to be of major interest in training. Some authors have suggested that prior experience in micro-surgery could improve robotic surgery training. To test micro-surgery as a new approach in training, we proposed a prospective study comparing the surgical performance of micro-surgeons with that of general surgeons on a robotic simulator. 49 surgeons were enrolled; 11 in the micro-surgery group (MSG); 38 n the control group (CG). Performance was evaluated based on five dV-Trainer® exercises. MSG achieved better results for all exercises including exercises requiring visual evaluation of force feed-back, economy of motion, instrument force and position. These results show that experience in micro-surgery could significantly improve surgeons' abilities and their performance in robotic training. So, as micro-surgery practice is relatively cheap, it could be easily included in basic robotic surgery training. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Development and evaluation of a simulator-based laparoscopic training program for surgical novices. (United States)

    Nugent, Emmeline; Shirilla, Nicole; Hafeez, Adnan; O'Riordain, Diarmuid S; Traynor, Oscar; Harrison, Anthony M; Neary, Paul


    The use of simulation to train novice surgeons in laparoscopic skills is becoming increasingly popular. To maximize benefit from simulation, training needs to be delivered and assessed in a structured manner. This study aimed to define performance goals, demonstrate construct validity of the training program, and evaluate whether novice surgeons could reach the preset performance goals. Nine expert laparoscopic surgeons established performance goals for three basic modules of an augmented-reality laparoscopic simulator. The three laparoscopic modules were used by 40 novice surgeons and 40 surgical trainees (postgraduate years [PGYs] 1-4). The performance outcomes were analyzed across the different groups (novice, PGYs 1 and 2, PGYs 3 and 4, expert) to determine construct validity. Then 26 recruited novices trained on the three modules with the aim of reaching the performance goals. The results demonstrated a significant difference in performance between all levels of experience for time (p < 0.001), motion analysis (p < 0.001), and error score (p < 0.001), thus demonstrating construct validity. All 26 novice surgeons significantly improved in performance with repetition for the metrics of time (p < 0.001) and motion analysis (p < 0.001). For two of the modules, the proficiency goals were reached in fewer than 10 trials by 80% of the study participants. Basic skills in laparoscopic surgery can be learned and improved using proficiency-based simulation training. It is possible for novice surgeons to achieve predefined performance goals in a reasonable time frame.

  5. Surgical skills curricula in American College of Surgeons Accredited Education Institutes: An international survey. (United States)

    Ghaderi, Iman; Fitzgibbons, Shimae; Watanabe, Yusuke; Lachapelle, Alexander; Paige, John


    A clear understanding of simulation-based curricula in use at American College of Surgeons Accredited Education Institutes (ACS-AEIs) is lacking. A 25-question online survey was sent to ACS-AEIs. The response rate approached 60%. The most frequent specialties to use the ACS-AEIs are general surgery and obstetrics/gynecology (94%). Residents are the main target population for programming/training (96%). Elements of the ACS/Association of Program Directors in Surgery Surgical Skills Curriculum are used by 77% of responding ACS-AEIs. Only 49% of ACS-AEIs implement the entire curriculum and 96% have independently developed their own surgical skills curricula. "Home-grown" simulators have been designed at 71% of ACS-AEIs. Feasibility (80%), evidence of effectiveness (67%), and cost (60%) were reasons for curriculum adoption. All programs use operative assessment tools for resident performance, and 53% use Messick's unitary framework of validity. Most programs (88%) have financial support from their academic institute. Majority of ACS-AEIs had trainees evaluate their faculty instructors (90%), and the main form of such faculty evaluation was postcourse surveys (97%). This study provides specific information regarding simulation-based curricula at ACS-AEIs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Challenges of Teacher Training in Sex Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Preinfalk-Fernández


    Full Text Available This article identifies the existing gaps in sex education in the student population of the Center for Research in Teaching and Education of the National University of Costa Rica, and its purpose is to contribute to the decision-making process to improve training for these students. A questionnaire was applied, using a structured sample stratified by unequal clusters, to 242 regular undergraduate students. The margin of error was 1.5 % and the confidence level was 95%. Data was tabulated using the CSPRO software and analyzed with the R software. A focus group was also held with teachers in sexuality courses in order to reflect on the results of the questionnaire application. Data was analyzed through the Integral Sexuality Approach and suggests that students lack the information necessary to exercise healthy, safe, and violence-free sexuality. This condition leads them to high risk situations because of the rare or lack of contraceptive use and the practice of coitus interruptus and makes them experience fears and guilt when being sexually active. Students have low sexual autonomy, which makes them vulnerable to violent situations and gives them stereotypes and prejudices that lead them to discriminate others for their sexual orientation or to become victims. In general, they are unaware of their reproductive and sexual rights and, therefore, are not capable of demanding them. These indicators should warn teacher training institutions to improve and strengthen their sexual education processes.

  7. Initial education and training pathways for danish adult educators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella


    The contribution aims at mapping out initial education and training opportunities for Danish adult educators and to examine key structural features that characterise professionalisation processes in the field of adult education. The analysis draws on policy documents and available research...... on the topic. Part one identifies specific policies put forward by the Danish Government to enhance efficiency in the field of adult learning. Part two introduces the institutional shaping of the Danish AET system after extensive reform and identifies official requirements for the recruitment of teaching staff......, whenever available. In spite of a high degree of differentiation in terms of educational offer, when it comes to the identification of qualification criteria for the recruitment of teaching staff,  no specific pedagogical qualifications in teaching adults are officially required, but few exceptions. Part...

  8. Training considerations for the intracoelomic implantation of electronic tags in fish with a summary of common surgical errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Wagner, Glenn N.; Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.


    Training is a fundamental part of all scientific and technical disciplines. This is particularly true for all types of surgeons. For surgical procedures, a number of skills are necessary to reduce mistakes. Trainees must learn an extensive yet standardized set of problem-solving and technical skills to handle challenges as they arise. There are currently no guidelines or consistent training methods for those intending to implant electronic tags in fish; this is surprising, considering documented cases of negative consequences of fish surgeries and information from studies having empirically tested fish surgical techniques. Learning how to do fish surgery once is insufficient for ensuring the maintenance or improvement of surgical skill. Assessment of surgical skills is rarely incorporated into training, and is needed. Evaluation provides useful feedback that guides future learning, fosters habits of self-reflection and self-remediation, and promotes access to advanced training. Veterinary professionals should be involved in aspects of training to monitor basic surgical principles. We identified attributes related to knowledge, understanding, and skill that surgeons must demonstrate prior to performing fish surgery including a “hands-on” assessment using live fish. Included is a summary of common problems encountered by fish surgeons. We conclude by presenting core competencies that should be required as well as outlining a 3-day curriculum for training surgeons to conduct intracoelomic implantation of electronic tags. This curriculum could be offered through professional fisheries societies as professional development courses.

  9. Self-assessment in laparoscopic surgical skills training : Is it reliable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganni, S.; Chmarra, M.K.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Jakimowicz, J.J.


    Background: The concept of self-assessment has been widely acclaimed for its role in the professional development cycle and self-regulation. In the field of medical education, self-assessment has been most used to evaluate the cognitive knowledge of students. The complexity of training and

  10. The effect of limiting residents' work hours on their surgical training: a Canadian perspective. (United States)

    Romanchuk, Ken


    Restrictions in residents' work hours have been in place in Canada for roughly a decade, having been negotiated rather than imposed. The changes in residents' schedules that resulted are roughly equivalent to the limitation of 80 duty hours per week in the United States. When work-hours restrictions began, surgery faculty were worried that residents' experience would be compromised. But these fears have not materialized. Why? The author maintains there are many reasons. (1) Most surgical procedures are now faster, and lengthy inpatient care has diminished, all of which saves time. (2) Formerly difficult or risky procedures are now performed more frequently and safely, which increases residents' education about difficult conditions. (3) A variety of resources (e.g., skills-transfer courses, surgical simulators, etc.) are now available for residents to learn and evolve surgical techniques, and residents take advantage of these resources, being highly motivated to learn the best in the time available to them. (4) There have been positive changes in residents' education that have helped them become more efficient learners than before, with improved resources and skills for faster access to information. The author maintains that in his present surgery residency program, the residents still work extremely hard but are more protected from the unending demands for patient care. They have more time for orderly study and greater opportunities to develop skills other than technical ones. They are in a happier work setting, which the author strongly believes facilitates improved patient care.

  11. Integrating sustainability into Business Education teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina America


    Full Text Available Businesses are increasingly coming under scrutiny from stakeholders who expect them to report how they protect the environment, how they guarantee no human and labour violations in their value chain, and how they function on ethical business principles. Businesses are trying to adjust to these changing environments for the betterment of society and the planet while still concentrating on profit. The same awareness and inquiry would be expected from business education student teachers who teach business principles and business operations. This study, which was conducted at three universities, describes the perspectives and sustainability virtues of pre-service business education teachers who attended a workshop aimed at integrating sustainability in their teacher training curriculum. A qualitative framework was adopted using three methods: focus-group discussions, reflection based on a video recording and a critical analysis of the curriculum. Findings suggest that incremental shifts in critical self-awareness of business education pre-service teachers occurred. A business education and education for sustainability synthesis is recommended and provided as a conceptual framework in this study. This synthesis can be a useful place to start to elicit critical self-awareness when pre-service teachers have to deal with the complex mix of the five types of learning, namely disciplinary, situational, practical, fundamental and pedagogical learning.

  12. From theater to the world wide web--a new online era for surgical education.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D Peter


    Traditionally, surgical education has been confined to operating and lecture theaters. Access to the World Wide Web and services, such as YouTube and iTunes has expanded enormously. Each week throughout Ireland, nonconsultant hospital doctors work hard to create presentations for surgical teaching. Once presented, these valuable presentations are often never used again.

  13. Continuing education and training of preschool teachers for successful educational work


    Makovšek, Barbara


    The professional development of professional educators in education is a lifelong process which begins with the initial training of professionals and ends up with their retirement. Educators of preschool children have a very important role in this group. Quality professional development of professional educators depends on the quality of educational programs designed for them and skill providers. These training programs also include further education and training of educators for successful e...

  14. Less than full-time training in surgery: a cross-sectional study evaluating the accessibility and experiences of flexible training in the surgical trainee workforce. (United States)

    Harries, Rhiannon L; Gokani, Vimal J; Smitham, Peter; Fitzgerald, J Edward F


    Generational changes in lifestyle expectations, working environments and the feminisation of the medical workforce have seen an increased demand in postgraduate less than full-time training (LTFT). Despite this, concerns remain regarding access to, and information about, flexible training for surgeons. This study aimed to assess the opinions and experiences of LTFT for surgical trainees. Prospective, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. An electronic, self-administered questionnaire was distributed in the UK and Republic of Ireland through mailing lists via the Association of Surgeons in Training and British Orthopedic Trainee Association. Overall, 876 completed responses were received, representing all grades of trainee across all 10 surgical specialties. Median age was 33 years and 63.4% were female. Of those who had undertaken LTFT, 92.5% (148/160) were female. Most worked 60% of a full-time post (86/160, 53.8%). The reasons for either choosing or considering LTFT were childrearing (82.7%), caring for a dependent (12.6%) and sporting commitments (6.8%). Males were less likely to list childrearing than females (64.9% vs 87.6%; p<0.0001). Only 38% (60/160) found the application process easy and 53.8% (86/160) experienced undermining behaviour from workplace staff as a result of undertaking LTFT. Of all respondents, an additional 53.7% (385/716) would consider LTFT in future; 27.5% of which were male (106/385). Overall, only 9.9% of all respondents rated current LTFT information as adequate. Common sources of information were other trainees (47.3%), educational supervisors (20.6%) and local postgraduate school website (19.5%). Over half of surgical trainees working LTFT have experienced undermining behaviour as a result of their LTFT. Despite a reported need for LTFT in both genders, this remains difficult to organise, access to useful information is poor and negative attitudes among staff remain. Recommendations are made to provide improved support and

  15. Education and training: Key to sustainable infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Full text: Standards, legislation, regulations, policies and procedures may comprise the infrastructure of a radiation protection programme. But even the most carefully designed building remains a hollow shell until people take up residence and begin to marry form and function. Similarly, it takes people to put words into action. The availability of qualified personnel is vital to developing and sustaining a radiation protection infrastructure. For this reason, the IAEA makes it a top priority to develop the skills, knowledge and expertise of individuals across many disciplines: scientists, legislators and regulators, politicians and administrators, employees in facilities that use radioactive sources and materials, emergency response personnel, etc. Over the course of the Model Project, the IAEA applied various approaches to help strengthen personal capabilities - and thereby enable national capacities. Building on a long-standing programme developed in Argentina (and delivered in Spanish), the IAEA now offers post-graduate education courses (PGEC) on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources on a regular basis. This PGEC is available in Arabic (Syrian Arab Republic), English (South Africa and Greece), French (Morocco) and Russian (Belarus). Between 1999 and 2004, more than 370 individuals participated in post-graduate courses. In addition, some 7000 national specialists received radiation protection training through regional and interregional specialized training courses, fellowships, on-the-job training, and scientific visits. By adopting a 'train-the-trainer' approach, the IAEA helps to ensure that Member States become self-sufficient in this area as well. Many individuals who participate in training opportunities provided by the technical cooperation programme subsequently pass their new knowledge and expertise on to co-workers and other peers at the national level. One of the most practical ways the IAEA supports training and education is

  16. Identifying Gaps and Inconsistencies in Urogynecologic Surgical Training of Obstetrics and Gynecology Residents. (United States)

    Weber LeBrun, Emily E; Asumu, Hazel; Richardson, Anne M; Cooper, LouAnn A; Davis, John D

    This study aims to determine the expectations of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ObGyn) residency and Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery (FPMRS) fellowship program directors (FPDs) for the independent performance of urogynecologic procedures during residency and to compare these expectations with the Council on Resident Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology (CREOG) educational objectives. Two parallel, anonymous surveys were distributed simultaneously to all directors of accredited ObGyn residency and FPMRS fellowship programs in the United States. Respondents provided their own professional and program demographic information and indicated whether they expected their residents to independently perform 27 selected urogynecologic procedures. Among residency program directors (RPDs) and FPDs, the online survey response rate was 24.8% (n = 59) and 51.9% (n = 27), respectively. More RPDs expected residents to perform prolapse procedures with mesh, including laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy, all apical suspensions, mesh excisions, and cystotomy repairs, than FPDs. In addition, RPDs expected mastery of most urogynecologic procedures by the Post Graduate Year 3 level, whereas most FPDs did not expect independent performance of these procedures during residency at all. There were notable differences between RPDs' expectations and CREOG objectives regarding several surgical procedures. Whereas CREOG recommends independent performance of anterior and posterior repair, vaginal suspension, vaginal hysterectomy, and transobturator slings, a significant number of RPDs did not report expecting mastery of these procedures during residency. Approximately 30% of RPDs expected residents to perform open sacrocolpopexy and vesicovaginal fistula repair, whereas CREOG recommends only the understanding of these, without procedural mastery. Although community needs vary by region and setting, CREOG objectives serve as the standard for resident surgical education. This study highlights

  17. environmental education teacher training: a particpatory research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    organisations. Such co - ope r at i ve ventures hold the key t o the emergence of guidelines allowing for the e sta bl i sh r.1en t of a non - racial structure of environmental education teacher training. It is proposed, therefore, to visit selected en vir onmenta l. e d u c a t i on p r o g r a r.11:: e s r u n by u n i v e r s i t i e s , colleges ...

  18. Bioinformatics Education in Pathology Training: Current Scope and Future Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Clay


    Full Text Available Training anatomic and clinical pathology residents in the principles of bioinformatics is a challenging endeavor. Most residents receive little to no formal exposure to bioinformatics during medical education, and most of the pathology training is spent interpreting histopathology slides using light microscopy or focused on laboratory regulation, management, and interpretation of discrete laboratory data. At a minimum, residents should be familiar with data structure, data pipelines, data manipulation, and data regulations within clinical laboratories. Fellowship-level training should incorporate advanced principles unique to each subspecialty. Barriers to bioinformatics education include the clinical apprenticeship training model, ill-defined educational milestones, inadequate faculty expertise, and limited exposure during medical training. Online educational resources, case-based learning, and incorporation into molecular genomics education could serve as effective educational strategies. Overall, pathology bioinformatics training can be incorporated into pathology resident curricula, provided there is motivation to incorporate, institutional support, educational resources, and adequate faculty expertise.

  19. Impact of surgeon subspecialty training on surgical outcomes in open globe injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han IC


    Full Text Available Ian C Han,1 Sidharth Puri,1 Jiangxia Wang,2 Shameema Sikder1 1Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether subspecialty training of the initial treating surgeon affects visual acuity and surgical outcomes in patients with open globe injuries.Design: This study is a single-institution, retrospective case series.Methods: The charts of adult patients with open globe injuries requiring surgical repair at the Wilmer Eye Institute between July 1, 2007 and July 1, 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical findings at presentation were recorded, and details of initial repair and follow-up surgeries were analyzed. Differences in visual acuity and surgical outcomes were compared based on subspecialty training of the initial surgeon.Results: The charts of 282 adult patients were analyzed, and 193 eyes had at least 6 months of follow-up for analysis. Eighty-six eyes (44.6% required follow-up surgery within the first year, and 39 eyes (20.2% were enucleated. Eyes initially treated by a vitreoretinal (VR surgeon were 2.3 times (P=0.003 more likely to improve by one Ocular Trauma Score (OTS visual acuity category and 1.9 times (P=0.027 more likely to have at least one more follow-up surgery at 6 months compared to eyes treated by non-VR surgeons. Patients with more anterior injuries treated by a VR surgeon were more likely to improve by one OTS visual acuity category compared to those treated by non-VR surgeons (P=0.004 and 0.016 for Zones I and II, respectively. There was no difference in visual acuity outcomes for eyes with posterior injuries (P=0.515 for Zone III.Conclusion: Eyes initially treated by a VR surgeon are more likely to improve by one OTS visual acuity category than those initially treated by a non-VR surgeon. However, patients initially treated by a VR surgeon also undergo more

  20. Is there a place for a holistic approach in surgical training? (United States)

    Atayoglu, Timucin; Buchholz, Noor; Atayoglu, Ayten Guner; Caliskan, Mujgan


    The holistic approach in medicine is a framework that considers and treats all aspects of a patient's needs, as it relates to their health. The goal of such an approach is to prevent illness, and to maximise the well-being of individuals and families. Holistic medicine is also referred to as integrative, which has been interpreted by some professionals as the combination of evidence-based medicine and complementary medicine. The speciality of Family Medicine (FM) is often referred to as General Practice (GP), a terminology which emphasises the holistic nature of that discipline. Furthermore, GP/FM professional bodies in some countries have incorporated the holistic and integrative approach into curricula and guidelines for doctors in training, which reflects its acceptance as a component of medical training. However, despite this validation, and despite research showing the effectiveness of such strategies in enhancing the outcomes of surgery, a holistic framework or integrative approach has not been equally integrated into speciality training for would-be surgeons. We argue that it would be advisable to include holistic approaches into surgical training and help surgeons to recognise their role in the continuum of care.

  1. Perceptions of gender-based discrimination during surgical training and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne N. Bruce


    Full Text Available Background: Women represent 15% of practicing general surgeons. Gender-based discrimination has been implicated as discouraging women from surgery. We sought to determine women's perceptions of gender-based discrimination in the surgical training and working environment. Methods: Following IRB approval, we fielded a pilot survey measuring perceptions and impact of gender-based discrimination in medical school, residency training, and surgical practice. It was sent electronically to 1,065 individual members of the Association of Women Surgeons. Results: We received 334 responses from medical students, residents, and practicing physicians with a response rate of 31%. Eighty-seven percent experienced gender-based discrimination in medical school, 88% in residency, and 91% in practice. Perceived sources of gender-based discrimination included superiors, physician peers, clinical support staff, and patients, with 40% emanating from women and 60% from men. Conclusions: The majority of responses indicated perceived gender-based discrimination during medical school, residency, and practice. Gender-based discrimination comes from both sexes and has a significant impact on women surgeons.

  2. Hyper-Realistic, Team-Centered Fleet Surgical Team Training Provides Sustained Improvements in Performance. (United States)

    Hoang, Tuan N; Kang, Jeff; Siriratsivawong, Kris; LaPorta, Anthony; Heck, Amber; Ferraro, Jessica; Robinson, Douglas; Walsh, Jonathan


    The high-stress, fast-paced environment of combat casualty care relies on effective teamwork and communication which translates into quality patient care. A training course was developed for U.S. Navy Fleet Surgical Teams to address these aspects of patient care by emphasizing efficiency and appropriate patient care. An effective training course provides knowledge and skills to pass the course evaluation and sustain the knowledge and skills acquired over time. The course included classroom didactic hours, and hands-on simulation sessions. A pretest was administered before the course, a posttest upon completion, and a sustainment test 5 months following course completion. The evaluation process measured changes in patient time to disposition and critical errors made during patient care. Naval Base San Diego, with resuscitation and surgical simulations carried out within the shipboard medical spaces. United States Navy medical personnel including physicians of various specialties, corpsmen, nurses, and nurse anesthetists deploying aboard ships. Time to disposition improved significantly, 11 ± 3 minutes, from pretest to posttest, and critical errors improved by 4 ± 1 errors per encounter. From posttest to sustainment test, time to disposition increased by 3 ± 1, and critical errors decreased by 1 ± 1. This course showed value in improving teamwork and communication skills of participants, immediately upon completion of the course, and after 5 months had passed. Therefore, with ongoing sustainment activities within 6 months, this course can substantially improve trauma care provided by shipboard deployed Navy medical personnel to wounded service members. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Perceptions of gender-based discrimination during surgical training and practice. (United States)

    Bruce, Adrienne N; Battista, Alexis; Plankey, Michael W; Johnson, Lynt B; Marshall, M Blair


    Women represent 15% of practicing general surgeons. Gender-based discrimination has been implicated as discouraging women from surgery. We sought to determine women's perceptions of gender-based discrimination in the surgical training and working environment. Following IRB approval, we fielded a pilot survey measuring perceptions and impact of gender-based discrimination in medical school, residency training, and surgical practice. It was sent electronically to 1,065 individual members of the Association of Women Surgeons. We received 334 responses from medical students, residents, and practicing physicians with a response rate of 31%. Eighty-seven percent experienced gender-based discrimination in medical school, 88% in residency, and 91% in practice. Perceived sources of gender-based discrimination included superiors, physician peers, clinical support staff, and patients, with 40% emanating from women and 60% from men. The majority of responses indicated perceived gender-based discrimination during medical school, residency, and practice. Gender-based discrimination comes from both sexes and has a significant impact on women surgeons.

  4. Sensory Training and Special Education: Can Practice Make Perfect? (United States)

    Moore, David


    This article explores the use of sensory training with students with language impairments. It discusses the theoretical background of the training, methods used, and results. Controversial aspects of sensory training are discussed, along with ways in which the principles of training might be integrated into regular and special education. (Contains…

  5. The European Working Time Directive and the effects on training of surgical specialists (doctors in training): a position paper of the surgical disciplines of the countries of the EU. (United States)

    Benes, V


    Legislation launched with the EWTD was born as a "Protection of the clinical personnel against overwork for the benefit of Patients" (consumer protection and safety). It appeared that this legislation is in direct and severe conflict with former EU legislation to train competent surgical specialists. First experiences with the EWTD show far reaching and serious consequences on the training of surgical specialists as well as on medical care. There will be a reduction of about 30-35% of clinical and operative experience acquired during the usual 6 yrs of training, with many other negative aspects (see p. 7). All measures proposed so far to overcome the ensuing problems are unworkable. The training of competent surgical specialists as required by the Directive 93/16 EEC is no longer possible and serious problems with safe patient care will occur in the short term, if no political actions are taken. The surgical specialties, represented in the UEMS, provide a proposal for a working hour model consisting of 48 hrs working time (incl. service duties) plus additional 12 hrs reserved and protected for teaching and training. This model would adhere to the EWTD on the one hand, yet maintain the desired standard of training. This proposed exemption from the EWTD would be limited to the time of specialist training. We ask the responsible politicians to find a solution rapidly to prevent serious negative consequences. This motion is supported by the surgical specialties (neurosurgery, general surgery, orthopaedic surgery, paediatric surgery, cardio-thoracic surgery, vascular surgery, oto-rhino-laryngology, list not complete) of the member states of the EU, representing more than 80,000 surgical specialists.

  6. Contemporary pedagogy within surgical education websites: a review of the literature


    Jain B. Pillai; Reg Dennick


    Objectives: To investigate if current surgical web based education provides appropriate learning experiences, viewed through the frameworks of contemporary pedagogy. Methods: Using defined exclusion and inclusion criteria, we searched the medical literature for papers on surgical web education. We analysed the instructional designs and web utilities to uncover the pedagogical frameworks underpinning the teaching and learning experiences used. Results: Twenty five eligible studies were analyse...

  7. Educational implications for surgical telementoring: a current review with recommendations for future practice, policy, and research. (United States)

    Augestad, K M; Han, H; Paige, J; Ponsky, T; Schlachta, C M; Dunkin, B; Mellinger, J


    Surgical telementoring (ST) was introduced in the sixties, promoting videoconferencing to enhance surgical education across large distances. Widespread use of ST in the surgical community is lacking. Despite numerous surveys assessing ST, there remains a lack of high-level scientific evidence demonstrating its impact on mentorship and surgical education. Despite this, there is an ongoing paradigm shift involving remote presence technologies and their application to skill development and technique dissemination in the international surgical community. Factors facilitating this include improved access to ST technology, including ease of use and data transmission, and affordability. Several international research initiatives have commenced to strengthen the scientific foundation documenting the impact of ST in surgical education and performance. International experts on ST were invited to the SAGES Project Six Summit in August 2015. Two experts in surgical education prepared relevant questions for discussion and organized the meeting (JP and HH). The questions were open-ended, and the discussion continued until no new item appeared. The transcripts of interviews were recorded by a secretary from SAGES. In this paper, we present a summary of the work performed by the SAGES Project 6 Education Working Group. We summarize the existing evidence regarding education in ST, identify and detail conceptual educational frameworks that may be used during ST, and present a structured framework for an educational curriculum in ST. The educational impact and optimal curricular organization of ST programs are largely unexplored. We outline the critical components of a structured ST curriculum, including prerequisites, teaching modalities, and key curricular components. We also detail research strategies critical to its continued evolution as an educational tool, including randomized controlled trials, establishment of a quality registry, qualitative research, learning analytics, and

  8. Online education and training: well-founded pedagogy or state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is much enthusiasm for the use of new information and communications technologies (ICT) and online education and training (OET) in particular, in higher education. ICT is presented as a panacea for all contemporary education and training problems. But using ICT and OET is subject to similar practical and

  9. Training Teachers in Special Needs Education in Tanzania: A Long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the training of special education teachers in Tanzania. Specifically it aimed at providing in brief, the history and the challenges that Tanzania is facing in the training of special education teachers. Fifteen special education teachers, five females and ten males, were interviewed. The results showed that ...

  10. Consideration of Problem-Based Learning in Athletic Training Education (United States)

    Gillette, Cordial M.


    Context: Athletic training educators are faced with the tasks of assessing learning styles, preparing and delivering content, and assessing student learning. Within content delivery, some educators may subscribe to certain learning theories and teaching strategies. One teaching strategy that holds potential for athletic training education is…

  11. Education and training for implementation science: our interest in manuscripts describing education and training materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straus, S.E.; Sales, A.; Wensing, M.; Michie, S.; Kent, B.; Foy, R.


    Alongside the growth in interest in implementation science, there has been a marked increase in training programs, educational courses, degrees, and other offerings in implementation research and practice to meet the demand for this expertise. We believe that the science of capacity building has

  12. FUNCTIONAL TRAINING In the system of physical education students


    Білецька Вікторія Вікторівна; Усачов Юрій Олександрович; Семененко В.П.


    The article systematized means of functional training activities, especially their distribution in classes of different directions, and reasonably rational structure of various functional training applications lessons during physical education students to improve their physical fitness.

  13. ACOG Committee opinion no. 612: Abortion training and education. (United States)


    Access to safe abortion hinges upon the availability of trained abortion providers. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports education for students in health care fields as well as clinical training for residents and advanced practice clinicians in abortion care in order to increase the availability of trained abortion providers. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports the expansion of abortion education and an increase in the number and types of trained abortion providers in order to ensure women's access to safe abortions. Integrated medical education and universal opt-out training policies help to lessen the stigma of abortion provision and improve access by increasing the number of abortion providers. This Committee Opinion reviews the current status of abortion education, describes initiatives to ensure the availability of appropriate and up-to-date abortion training, and recommends efforts for integrating and improving abortion education in medical schools, residency programs, and advanced practice clinician training programs.

  14. ENETRAP: training and education in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeck, M.


    The development of a common European radiation protection and safety culture and, based on that, the mutual recognition of radiation protection courses and the acquired competencies of radiation protection experts (RPE) and officers (RPO) is becoming a real need. The ENETRAP project ('European Network for Education and Training in RAdiological Protection') aims at bringing together different ideas and approaches of education and training (E and T) in radiological protection (RP) in order to better integrate and harmonise national E and T activities on a European level. The project started in April 2005. 10 partners are involved in ENETRAP: SCK-CEN (coordinator), CEA-INSTN, FZK-FTU, BfS, ENEA, NRG, CIEMAT, HPA-RPD, UJF and UHI-NHC. These partners have years of experience with established E and T programmes and play an important role in the development of specific techniques such as e-learning or On-the-Job Training (OJT) related to RP. As a result of their fundamental scientific research, collaboration with industry and practical experience, the partners have a solid scientific knowledge of all aspects of RP and are ideally placed to transfer the know-how and estimate the needs in this field. The ENETRAP project aims at establishing a sustainable E and T infrastructure for RP as an essential component to combat the perceived decline in expertise and to ensure the continuation of the high level of RP knowledge. The main objectives of the ENETRAP project are (1) to better integrate existing E and T activities in the RP infrastructure of the European countries in order to combat the decline in both student numbers and teaching institutions, (2) to develop more harmonised approaches for E and T in RP in Europe, (3) to better integrate the national resources and capacities for E and T and (4) to provide the necessary competence and expertise for the continued safe use of radiation in industry, medicine and research. Any such infrastructure must ensure that provision is

  15. Coding and Billing in Surgical Education: A Systems-Based Practice Education Program. (United States)

    Ghaderi, Kimeya F; Schmidt, Scott T; Drolet, Brian C

    Despite increased emphasis on systems-based practice through the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies, few studies have examined what surgical residents know about coding and billing. We sought to create and measure the effectiveness of a multifaceted approach to improving resident knowledge and performance of documenting and coding outpatient encounters. We identified knowledge gaps and barriers to documentation and coding in the outpatient setting. We implemented a series of educational and workflow interventions with a group of 12 residents in a surgical clinic at a tertiary care center. To measure the effect of this program, we compared billing codes for 1 year before intervention (FY2012) to prospectively collected data from the postintervention period (FY2013). All related documentation and coding were verified by study-blinded auditors. Interventions took place at the outpatient surgical clinic at Rhode Island Hospital, a tertiary-care center. A cohort of 12 plastic surgery residents ranging from postgraduate year 2 through postgraduate year 6 participated in the interventional sequence. A total of 1285 patient encounters in the preintervention group were compared with 1170 encounters in the postintervention group. Using evaluation and management codes (E&M) as a measure of documentation and coding, we demonstrated a significant and durable increase in billing with supporting clinical documentation after the intervention. For established patient visits, the monthly average E&M code level increased from 2.14 to 3.05 (p patients the monthly average E&M level increased from 2.61 to 3.19 (p educational and workflow interventions, which improved resident coding and billing of outpatient clinic encounters. Using externally audited coding data, we demonstrate significantly increased rates of higher complexity E&M coding in a stable patient population based on improved documentation and billing awareness by the residents. Copyright

  16. Team Training (Training at Own Facility versus Individual Surgeon’s Training (Training at Trainer’s Facility When Implementing a New Surgical Technique: Example from the ONSTEP Inguinal Hernia Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Rosenberg


    Full Text Available Background. When implementing a new surgical technique, the best method for didactic learning has not been settled. There are basically two scenarios: the trainee goes to the teacher’s clinic and learns the new technique hands-on, or the teacher goes to the trainee’s clinic and performs the teaching there. Methods. An informal literature review was conducted to provide a basis for discussing pros and cons. We also wanted to discuss how many surgeons can be trained in a day and the importance of the demand for a new surgical procedure to ensure a high adoption rate and finally to apply these issues on a discussion of barriers for adoption of the new ONSTEP technique for inguinal hernia repair after initial training. Results and Conclusions. The optimal training method would include moving the teacher to the trainee’s department to obtain team-training effects simultaneous with surgical technical training of the trainee surgeon. The training should also include a theoretical presentation and discussion along with the practical training. Importantly, the training visit should probably be followed by a scheduled visit to clear misunderstandings and fine-tune the technique after an initial self-learning period.

  17. History and future of human cadaver preservation for surgical training: from formalin to saturated salt solution method. (United States)

    Hayashi, Shogo; Naito, Munekazu; Kawata, Shinichi; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Itoh, Masahiro


    Traditionally, surgical training meant on-the-job training with live patients in an operating room. However, due to advancing surgical techniques, such as minimally invasive surgery, and increasing safety demands during procedures, human cadavers have been used for surgical training. When considering the use of human cadavers for surgical training, one of the most important factors is their preservation. In this review, we summarize four preservation methods: fresh-frozen cadaver, formalin, Thiel's, and saturated salt solution methods. Fresh-frozen cadaver is currently the model that is closest to reality, but it also presents myriad problems, including the requirement of freezers for storage, limited work time because of rapid putrefaction, and risk of infection. Formalin is still used ubiquitously due to its low cost and wide availability, but it is not ideal because formaldehyde has an adverse health effect and formalin-embalmed cadavers do not exhibit many of the qualities of living organs. Thiel's method results in soft and flexible cadavers with almost natural colors, and Thiel-embalmed cadavers have been appraised widely in various medical disciplines. However, Thiel's method is relatively expensive and technically complicated. In addition, Thiel-embalmed cadavers have a limited dissection time. The saturated salt solution method is simple, carries a low risk of infection, and is relatively low cost. Although more research is needed, this method seems to be sufficiently useful for surgical training and has noteworthy features that expand the capability of clinical training. The saturated salt solution method will contribute to a wider use of cadavers for surgical training.

  18. Birmingham University and Teacher Training: Day Training College to Department of Education. (United States)

    Thomas, J. B.


    Traces the development of teacher education in Birmingham, England, from the Victorian period through the 1920s. Describes the transition of Mason College and the Birmingham Day Training College into the education department of Birmingham University. Discusses women's education, teacher training for men, student life, faculty, and curriculum. (DK)

  19. Education and Training on ISIS Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulon, F.; Badeau, G.; Lescop, B.; Wohleber, X. [French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission, Paris (France)


    In the frame of academic and vocational programs the National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology uses the ISIS research reactor as a major tool to ensure a practical and comprehensive understanding of the nuclear reactor physics, principles and operation. A large set of training courses have been developed on ISIS, optimising both the content of the courses and the pedagogical approach. Programs with duration ranging from 3 hours (introduction to reactor operation) to 24 hours (full program for the future operators of research reactors) are carried out on ISIS reactor. The reactor is operated about 350 hours/year for education and training, about 40 % of the courses being carried out in English. Thus, every year about 400 trainees attend training courses on ISIS reactor. We present here the ISIS research reactor and the practical courses that have been developed on ISIS reactor. Emphasis is given to the pedagogical method which is used to focus on the operational and safety aspects, both in normal and incidental operation. We will present the curricula of the academic and vocational courses in which the practical courses are integrated, the courses being targeted to a wide public, including operators of research reactors, engineers involved in the design and operation of nuclear reactors as well as staff of the regulatory body. We address the very positive impact of the courses on the development of the competences and skills of participants. Finally, we describe the Internet Reactor Laboratories (IRL) that are under development and will consist in broadcasting the training courses via internet to remote facilities or institutions.

  20. Education and Training on ISIS Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulon, F.; Badeau, G.; Lescop, B.; Wohleber, X.


    In the frame of academic and vocational programs the National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology uses the ISIS research reactor as a major tool to ensure a practical and comprehensive understanding of the nuclear reactor physics, principles and operation. A large set of training courses have been developed on ISIS, optimising both the content of the courses and the pedagogical approach. Programs with duration ranging from 3 hours (introduction to reactor operation) to 24 hours (full program for the future operators of research reactors) are carried out on ISIS reactor. The reactor is operated about 350 hours/year for education and training, about 40 % of the courses being carried out in English. Thus, every year about 400 trainees attend training courses on ISIS reactor. We present here the ISIS research reactor and the practical courses that have been developed on ISIS reactor. Emphasis is given to the pedagogical method which is used to focus on the operational and safety aspects, both in normal and incidental operation. We will present the curricula of the academic and vocational courses in which the practical courses are integrated, the courses being targeted to a wide public, including operators of research reactors, engineers involved in the design and operation of nuclear reactors as well as staff of the regulatory body. We address the very positive impact of the courses on the development of the competences and skills of participants. Finally, we describe the Internet Reactor Laboratories (IRL) that are under development and will consist in broadcasting the training courses via internet to remote facilities or institutions

  1. Impact of surgeon subspecialty training on surgical outcomes in open globe injuries. (United States)

    Han, Ian C; Puri, Sidharth; Wang, Jiangxia; Sikder, Shameema


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether subspecialty training of the initial treating surgeon affects visual acuity and surgical outcomes in patients with open globe injuries. This study is a single-institution, retrospective case series. The charts of adult patients with open globe injuries requiring surgical repair at the Wilmer Eye Institute between July 1, 2007 and July 1, 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical findings at presentation were recorded, and details of initial repair and follow-up surgeries were analyzed. Differences in visual acuity and surgical outcomes were compared based on subspecialty training of the initial surgeon. The charts of 282 adult patients were analyzed, and 193 eyes had at least 6 months of follow-up for analysis. Eighty-six eyes (44.6%) required follow-up surgery within the first year, and 39 eyes (20.2%) were enucleated. Eyes initially treated by a vitreoretinal (VR) surgeon were 2.3 times (P=0.003) more likely to improve by one Ocular Trauma Score (OTS) visual acuity category and 1.9 times (P=0.027) more likely to have at least one more follow-up surgery at 6 months compared to eyes treated by non-VR surgeons. Patients with more anterior injuries treated by a VR surgeon were more likely to improve by one OTS visual acuity category compared to those treated by non-VR surgeons (P=0.004 and 0.016 for Zones I and II, respectively). There was no difference in visual acuity outcomes for eyes with posterior injuries (P=0.515 for Zone III). Eyes initially treated by a VR surgeon are more likely to improve by one OTS visual acuity category than those initially treated by a non-VR surgeon. However, patients initially treated by a VR surgeon also undergo more follow-up surgical rehabilitation, and improvement in visual acuity is more likely for anterior (Zone I and II injuries) than posterior (Zone III) injuries.

  2. Effectiveness of setting numerical targets in the surgical training of residents: a trial to achieve an optimal balance. (United States)

    Komiya, Kiyoshi; Saito, Momoko; Sakurai, Yuika; Kojima, Hiromi; Takase, Kozo


    During the past 10 years, residency training in otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS) in Japan, especially at university hospitals, has emphasized subspecialization, resulting in insufficiencies in basic surgical techniques with an extreme bias toward acquiring subspecialty surgical case experience. To address this problem, we developed a target-oriented program intended to achieve a more balanced approach to surgical training and performed a 1-year trial of the program at the Jikei University School of Medicine. Fourteen residents with 1 to 4 years of ORL-HNS experience completed the trial. Each resident's competencies in six basic surgical procedures were assessed on the basis of the number of cases handled by the resident, and each resident's case selection bias after implementation of the target-oriented training was examined. The case selection bias in the trial group residents was reduced and their balance in case experience was shown to be improved in comparison with that in control group residents who were trained in the conventional way. In addition, opinion surveys of the participants and supervising otorhinolaryngologists (trainers) indicated that they felt that the new training system had been effective in improving the balance in case experience and improving motivation, and creating greater awareness of training goals and progress.

  3. The Training of Educational Personnel in Expressive Education. Pupil Personnel Services: Training Professionals to Anticipate the Challenges of the Future. (United States)

    Elman, Nancy; Gross, Susan

    This report presents the theoretical context and the actual organization of training in human development and the expressive media in the Counselor Education Program and an early child-training program. Chapter 1 includes a detailed discussion of the history and current status of expressive development in education. Expressive education responds…

  4. From theater to the world wide web--a new online era for surgical education. (United States)

    O'Leary, D Peter; Corrigan, Mark A; McHugh, Seamus M; Hill, A D; Redmond, H Paul


    Traditionally, surgical education has been confined to operating and lecture theaters. Access to the World Wide Web and services, such as YouTube and iTunes has expanded enormously. Each week throughout Ireland, nonconsultant hospital doctors work hard to create presentations for surgical teaching. Once presented, these valuable presentations are often never used again. We aimed to compile surgical presentations online and establish a new online surgical education tool. We also sought to measure the effect of this educational tool on surgical presentation quality. Surgical presentations from Cork University Hospital and Beaumont Hospital presented between January 2010 and April 2011 were uploaded to A YouTube channel and iTunes application were created. Web site hits were monitored. Quality of presentations was assessed by 4 independent senior surgical judges using a validated PowerPoint assessment form. Judges were randomly given 6 presentations; 3 presentations were pre-web site setup and 3 were post-web site setup. Once uploading commenced, presenters were informed. A total of 89 presentations have been uploaded to date. This includes 55 cases, 17 journal club, and 17 short bullet presentations. This has been associated with 46,037 web site page views. Establishment of the web site was associated with a significant improvement in the quality of presentations. Mean scores for pre- and post-web site group were 6.2 vs 7.7 out of 9 respectively, p = 0.037. This novel educational tool provides a unique method to enable surgical education become more accessible to trainees, while also improving the overall quality of surgical teaching PowerPoint presentations. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Innovative approach using interprofessional simulation to educate surgical residents in technical and nontechnical skills in high-risk clinical scenarios. (United States)

    Nicksa, Grace A; Anderson, Cristan; Fidler, Richard; Stewart, Lygia


    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies stress nontechnical skills that can be difficult to evaluate and teach to surgical residents. During emergencies, surgeons work in interprofessional teams and are required to perform certain procedures. To obtain proficiency in these skills, residents must be trained. To educate surgical residents in leadership, teamwork, effective communication, and infrequently performed emergency surgical procedures with the use of interprofessional simulations. SimMan 3GS was used to simulate high-risk clinical scenarios (15-20 minutes), followed by debriefings with real-time feedback (30 minutes). A modified Oxford Non-Technical Skills scale (score range, 1-4) was used to assess surgical resident performance during the first half of the academic year (July-December 2012) and the second half of the academic year (January-June 2013). Anonymous online surveys were used to solicit participant feedback. Simulations were conducted in the operating room, intensive care unit, emergency department, ward, and simulation center. A total of 43 surgical residents (postgraduate years [PGYs] 1 and 2) participated in interdisciplinary clinical scenarios, with other health care professionals (nursing, anesthesia, critical care, medicine, respiratory therapy, and pharmacy; mean number of nonsurgical participants/session: 4, range 0-9). Thirty seven surgical residents responded to the survey. Simulation of high-risk clinical scenarios: postoperative pulmonary embolus, pneumothorax, myocardial infarction, gastrointestinal bleeding, anaphylaxis with a difficult airway, and pulseless electrical activity arrest. Evaluation of resident skills: communication, leadership, teamwork, problem solving, situation awareness, and confidence in performing emergency procedures (eg, cricothyroidotomy). A total of 31 of 35 (89%) of the residents responding found the sessions useful. Additionally, 28 of 33 (85%) reported improved confidence

  6. Teaching surgery takes time: the impact of surgical education on time in the operating room (United States)

    Vinden, Christopher; Malthaner, Richard; McGee, Jacob; McClure, J. Andrew; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Liu, Kuan; Nash, Danielle M.; Welk, Blayne; Dubois, Luc


    Background It is generally accepted that surgical training is associated with increased surgical duration. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of this increase for common surgical procedures by comparing surgery duration in teaching and nonteaching hospitals. Methods This retrospective population-based cohort study included all adult residents of Ontario, Canada, who underwent 1 of 14 surgical procedures between 2002 and 2012. We used several linked administrative databases to identify the study cohort in addition to patient-, surgeon- and procedure-related variables. We determined surgery duration using anesthesiology billing records. Negative binomial regression was used to model the association between teaching versus nonteaching hospital status and surgery duration. Results Of the 713 573 surgical cases included in this study, 20.8% were performed in a teaching hospital. For each procedure, the mean surgery duration was significantly longer for teaching hospitals, with differences ranging from 5 to 62 minutes across individual procedures in unadjusted analyses (all p surgery duration, adjusting for patient-, surgeon- and procedure-related variables as well as the clustering of patients within surgeons and hospitals. Conclusion Our results show that a wide range of surgical procedures require significantly more time to perform in teaching than nonteaching hospitals. Given the magnitude of this difference, the impact of surgical training on health care costs and clinical outcomes should be a priority for future studies. PMID:27007088

  7. Systematic Review of Voluntary Participation in Simulation-Based Laparoscopic Skills Training: Motivators and Barriers for Surgical Trainee Attendance. (United States)

    Gostlow, Hannah; Marlow, Nicholas; Babidge, Wendy; Maddern, Guy

    To examine and report on evidence relating to surgical trainees' voluntary participation in simulation-based laparoscopic skills training. Specifically, the underlying motivators, enablers, and barriers faced by surgical trainees with regard to attending training sessions on a regular basis. A systematic search of the literature (PubMed; CINAHL; EMBASE; Cochrane Collaboration) was conducted between May and July 2015. Studies were included on whether they reported on surgical trainee attendance at voluntary, simulation-based laparoscopic skills training sessions, in addition to qualitative data regarding participant's perceived barriers and motivators influencing their decision to attend such training. Factors affecting a trainee's motivation were categorized as either intrinsic (internal) or extrinsic (external). Two randomised control trials and 7 case series' met our inclusion criteria. Included studies were small and generally poor quality. Overall, voluntary simulation-based laparoscopic skills training was not well attended. Intrinsic motivators included clearly defined personal performance goals and relevance to clinical practice. Extrinsic motivators included clinical responsibilities and available free time, simulator location close to clinical training, and setting obligatory assessments or mandated training sessions. The effect of each of these factors was variable, and largely dependent on the individual trainee. The greatest reported barrier to attending voluntary training was the lack of available free time. Although data quality is limited, it can be seen that providing unrestricted access to simulator equipment is not effective in motivating surgical trainees to voluntarily participate in simulation-based laparoscopic skills training. To successfully encourage participation, consideration needs to be given to the factors influencing motivation to attend training. Further research, including better designed randomised control trials and large

  8. Multimedia educational tools for cognitive surgical skill acquisition in open and laparoscopic colorectal surgery: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Shariff, U; Kullar, N; Haray, P N; Dorudi, S; Balasubramanian, S P


    Conventional teaching in surgical training programmes is constrained by time and cost, and has room for improvement. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a multimedia educational tool developed for an index colorectal surgical procedure (anterior resection) in teaching and assessment of cognitive skills and to evaluate its acceptability amongst general surgical trainees. Multimedia educational tools in open and laparoscopic anterior resection were developed by filming multiple operations which were edited into procedural steps and substeps and then integrated onto interactive navigational platforms using Adobe® Flash® Professional CS5 10.1. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on general surgical trainees to evaluate the effectiveness of online multimedia in comparison with conventional 'study day' teaching for the acquisition of cognitive skills. All trainees were assessed before and after the study period. Trainees in the multimedia group evaluated the tools by completing a survey. Fifty-nine trainees were randomized but 27% dropped out, leaving 43 trainees randomized to the multimedia group (n = 25) and study day group (n = 18) who were available for analysis. Posttest scores improved significantly in both groups (P multimedia group was not significantly different from the study day group (6.02 ± 5.12 and 5.31 ± 3.42, respectively; P = 0.61). Twenty-five trainees completed the evaluation survey and experienced an improvement in their decision making (67%) and in factual and anatomical knowledge (88%); 96% agreed that the multimedia tool was a useful additional educational resource. Multimedia tools are effective for the acquisition of cognitive skills in colorectal surgery and are well accepted as an educational resource. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Nuclear education and training: marriages that work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, H.D.


    Public Service Electric and Gas Company is meeting the education and training needs of its nuclear department operations, support, and services personnel through a variety of activities in association with institutions of higher education. Activities include credit or credit recommendation programs at the associates, undergraduate, and graduate degree level. The paper emphasizes the process of working with a local college in the development of a new degree program for submission through the State Board of Education. The development, review, evaluation, and approval process is detailed as well as lessons learned. Plans for further development of the program toward ABET accreditation are also described. Samples of the surveys conducted to determine employee interest in terms of academic area, academic level, offering strategies, etc. are presented. The process of soliciting program proposals from universities and colleges, the selection process, and implementation of the programs are also discussed. More briefly described is the preparation for credit recommendation process from regionally accredited groups. External degree programs, off-hours course presentations on-site for undergraduate and graduate credit, faculty extern, student intern, and co-op activities are also discussed

  10. Educational intervention about in-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest: knowledge of nursing professionals from medical-surgical units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Passoni dos Santos


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effect of an educational intervention about cardiorespiratory arrest in the theoretical knowledge of nursing professionals in medical-surgical hospitalization units. This is a quasi-experimental study, developed with professionals working in two admission units from a public university hospital in Paraná state. As an educational intervention, we conducted theoretical-practical training. We applied a questionnaire before and after training. We considered p values <0.05 as significant. Of the 47 professionals who worked in these units, 37 (78.72% participated in the pre-test and, 32 (68.09% in the post-test. We identified a female prevalence, aged between 31 and 45 years, who worked in their unit and had more than five years of professional training. The scores obtained after the educational intervention (post-test was statistically significant (p<0.0001, in comparison to the pre-test. The educational intervention positively collaborated with the theoretical knowledge of nursing professionals about cardiorespiratory arrest.

  11. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eika, Berit; Langebæk, Rikke; Jensen, A.L.


    The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... Skills); both courses were offered in multiple classes (with a total of 171 students in 2009 and 156 students in 2010). All classes in 2009 participated in the SSL stage of the Basic Surgical Skills course before performing live-animal surgery, and one class (28 students) in 2010 did not. Two validated...

  12. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions. (United States)

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P


    The advancement of perioperative medicine is leading to greater diversity in development of pre-surgical interventions, implemented to reduce patient surgical risk and enhance post-surgical recovery. Of these interventions, the prescription of pre-operative exercise training is gathering momentum as a realistic means for enhancing patient surgical outcome. Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function. Any exercise programme incorporated into the pre-operative pathway of care needs to be effective and time efficient in that any fitness gains are achievable in the limited period between the decision for surgery and operation (e.g. 4 weeks). Fortunately, there is a large volume of research describing effective and time-efficient exercise training programmes within the discipline of sports science. Accordingly, the objective of our commentary is to synthesise contemporary exercise training research, both from non-clinical and clinical populations, with the overarching aim of informing the development of effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise training programmes. The development of such exercise training programmes requires the careful consideration of several key principles, namely frequency, intensity, time, type and progression of exercise. Therefore, in light of more recent evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and time efficiency of high-intensity interval training-which involves brief bouts of intense exercise interspersed with longer recovery periods-the principles of exercise training programme design will be discussed mainly in the context of such high-intensity interval training programmes. Other issues pertinent to the development, implementation and evaluation of pre-operative exercise training programmes, such as individual exercise prescription, training session monitoring and potential

  13. Creation of an emergency surgery service concentrates resident training in general surgical procedures. (United States)

    Ahmed, Hesham M; Gale, Stephen C; Tinti, Meredith S; Shiroff, Adam M; Macias, Aitor C; Rhodes, Stancie C; Defreese, Marissa A; Gracias, Vicente H


    Emergency general surgery (EGS) is increasingly being provided by academic trauma surgeons in an acute care surgery model. Our tertiary care hospital recently changed from a model where all staff surgeons (private, subspecialty academic, and trauma academic) were assigned EGS call to one in which an emergency surgery service (ESS), staffed by academic trauma faculty, cares for all EGS patients. In the previous model, many surgeries were "not covered" by residents because of work-hour restrictions, conflicting needs, or private surgeon preference. The ESS was separate from the trauma service. We hypothesize that by creating a separate ESS, residents can accumulate needed and concentrated operative experience in a well-supervised academic environment. A prospectively accrued EGS database was retrospectively queried for the 18-month period: July 2010 to June 2011. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) databases were queried for operative numbers for our residency program and for national resident data for 2 years before and after creating the ESS. The ACGME operative requirements were tabulated from online sources. ACGME requirements were compared with surgical cases performed. During the 18-month period, 816 ESS operations were performed. Of these, 307 (38%) were laparoscopy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and appendectomy were most common (138 and 145, respectively) plus 24 additional laparoscopic surgeries. Each resident performed, on average, 34 basic laparoscopic cases during their 2-month rotation, which is 56% of their ACGME basic laparoscopic requirement. A diverse mixture of 70 other general surgical operations was recorded for the remaining 509 surgical cases, including reoperative surgery, complex laparoscopy, multispecialty procedures, and seldom-performed operations such as surgery for perforated ulcer disease. Before the ESS, the classes of 2008 and 2009 reported that only 48% and 50% of cases were performed at the main academic

  14. Education and training for implementation science: our interest in manuscripts describing education and training materials. (United States)

    Straus, Sharon E; Sales, Anne; Wensing, Michel; Michie, Susan; Kent, Bridie; Foy, Robbie


    Alongside the growth in interest in implementation science, there has been a marked increase in training programs, educational courses, degrees, and other offerings in implementation research and practice to meet the demand for this expertise. We believe that the science of capacity building has matured but that we can advance it further by shining light on excellent work in this area and by highlighting gaps for future research. At Implementation Science, we regularly receive manuscripts that describe or evaluate training materials, competencies, and competency development in implementation curricula. We are announcing a renewed interest in manuscripts in this area, with specifications described below.

  15. Contributions of the Department of Defense Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs to Training and Education: FY1999-FY2004 (United States)


    allows visual tracking, free-floating Magnetic Levitation ( Maglev ) haptic feedback with real surgical tools and sce- nario-based training that can be...Defense Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs to Training and Education: FY1999–FY2004 J.D...Department of Defense Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs to Training and Education: FY1999

  16. Towards distributed leadership in vocational education and training schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmans, M.H.C.F.; Runhaar, P.R.; Wesselink, R.; Mulder, M.


    Complex educational innovations in vocational education and training (VET) schools require teamwork and distributed leadership so that team members are enabled to contribute based on their expertise. The literature suggests that distributed leadership is affected by formal leaders’ and teachers’

  17. Workflow analysis of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in infant pigs- a model for surgical feedback and training. (United States)

    Krauss, Alexandra; Muensterer, Oliver J; Neumuth, Thomas; Wachowiak, Robin; Donaubauer, Bernd; Korb, Werner; Burgert, Oliver


    Many fields use workflow analysis to assess and improve performance of complex tasks. In pediatric endosurgery, workflow analysis may help optimize operative planning and motor skills by breaking down the procedure into particular phases, evaluating these steps individually, and supplying feedback to the surgeon. To develop a module of computer-based surgical workflow analysis for laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication(LNF) and to evaluate its applicability in an infant pig model. LNF was performed in 12 pigs (weight, 7-10 kg) by a single surgeon. Based on synchronized intra and extracorporal movie recordings, the surgical workflow was segmented into temporal operative phases(preparation, dissection, reconstruction and conclusion). During each stage, all actions were recorded in a virtual timeline using a customized workflow editor. Specific tasks, such as knot-tying, were evaluated in detail.Time necessary to perform these actions was compared throughout the study. While time required for the preparation decreased by more than 70% from 4577 to 1379 seconds,and the dissection phase decreased from 2359 to 399 seconds (pig 1 and 12, respectively), the other two phases remained relatively stable. Mean time to perform the entire suture and a 5-throw knot remained constant as well. Our workflow analysis model allows the quantitative evaluation of dynamic actions related to LNF.This data can be used to define average benchmark criteria for the procedures that comprise this operation. It thereby permits task-oriented refinement of surgical technique as well as monitoring the efficacy of training.Although preoperative preparation time decreased substantially, and dissection became faster, time required for the reconstruction and conclusion phases remained relatively constant for a surgeon with moderate experience.Likewise, knot-tying did not accelerate in this setting.S-117

  18. Education and training in the MEDICOM system. (United States)

    Marinos, G; Palamas, S; Vlachos, I; Panou-Diamandi, O; Kalivas, D; Koutsouris, D


    MEDICOM system is a world wide telematics application for electronic commerce of medical devices. It has been designed so as to provide the health care professionals with a central Internet access to up-to-date information about medical equipment from multiple manufacturers, in a particular easy and friendly way. Moreover, the Medicom system will serve the health care professionals' requirements for high-quality information about specific products in a form of multimedia presentations and that of a secure communication channel with the community of manufacturers, especially for post marketing surveillance. The system will provide the medical staff (physicians and technicians) with demonstrations of the operation procedures and the functioning of high-tech equipment in a form of virtual models. Moreover, through the medicom system the end users of medical devices can have access to on line libraries and participate in special newsgroups. This paper discusses the architectural structure of the MEDICOM system with emphasis to its educational and training functionality.

  19. Human Rights Education and Training for Professionals (United States)

    Andreopoulos, George


    Although human rights education (HRE) has a long history, it has only recently begun to realize its transformative potential. A critical catalyst in this process is the emerging global ethos of accountability. Within this context, HRE can play a crucial role in the construction of a universal culture of human rights, inspired by a shared commitment to a humane order and a belief that human beings have both the capacity and the responsibility to make a difference. In such an effort, the training of professionals is vital, especially of those professionals who can influence public debate on accountability and governance. Innovative HRE initiatives, characterized by a commitment to experiential learning and to international and regional cooperation among state and non-state actors, constitute a step in the right direction.

  20. Development and evaluation of cesarean section surgical training using computer-enhanced visual learning. (United States)

    York, Sloane L; Maizels, Max; Cohen, Elaine; Stoltz, Rachel Stork; Jamil, Adeel; McGaghie, William C; Gossett, Dana R


    Skilled performance of cesarean deliveries is essential in obstetrics and gynecology residency. A computer-enhanced visual learning module (CEVL Cesarean) was developed to teach cesarean deliveries. An online module presented cesarean deliveries as a series of components using text, audio, video and animation. First-year residents used CEVL Cesarean and were evaluated intra-operatively by trained raters, then provided feedback about surgical performance. Clinical outcomes were collected for approximately 50 cesarean deliveries for each resident. From 2010 to 2011, 12 first-year residents participated in the study. About 406 unique observed cesarean deliveries were analyzed. Procedures up to each resident's 70th case were analyzed by grouping cases in 10 s (cases 1-10 and 11-20), or deciles. Resident performance significantly improved by decile [χ(2)(6) = 47.56, p < 0.001]. When examining each resident's performance, surgical skill acquisition plateaued by cases 21-30. Procedural performance, independent of resident, also improved significantly by decile [χ(2)(6) = 186.95, p < 0.001], plateauing by decile 4 (cases 31-40). Throughout the observation period, operative time decreased by 3.84 min (p = 0.006). Pre-clinical teaching using computer-based modules for cesarean sections is feasible to develop. Novice surgeons required at least 30 procedures before performing the procedure competently. When residents performed competently, operative time and complications decreased.

  1. Difficult airway intubation simulation using Bonfils fiberscope and rigid fiberscope for surgical training. (United States)

    Dharmarajan, Harish; Liu, Yi-Chun Carol; Hippard, Helena Karlberg; Chandy, Binoy


    Pediatric otolaryngologists are frequently called to assist in difficult airway management in newborns with Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) who have microretrognathia, glossoptosis, and an anterior larynx. The Bonfils fiberscope (BF) is a curved rigid scope designed to provide superior visualization in the anterior larynx. (1) to assess whether BF provides an improvement in intubation success rate, time to intubation, or airway visualization as compared to rigid fiberscope (RF) in a difficult airway simulation setting and (2) to determine whether a training program for BF can improve time to intubation through practice trials. Six right-handed trainees completed five trials on each of the three following airway models using the BF and RF: normal anatomy, anterior larynx and PRS. The normal larynx model was intubated only with RF. Main outcome measures were the time needed for tracheal intubation and Cormack-Lehane classification (1-4). The majority of the intubation trials showed a statistically significant difference between first and last completion times (p Cormack-Lehane classification measures, laryngeal visualization by the BF was better than RF in the PRS manikin (p < .0022) while there was no significant difference in grade scores for the anterior larynx manikin (p < .45). All six trainees reported an improved visualization of the larynx with the BF compared to the RF for both the anterior larynx and PRS manikins; at the end of the trial runs, all participants noted an improvement in comfort level using the BF. The difficult airway simulation model is feasible for surgical training. BF adds superior visualization of the anterior larynx in PRS. Otolaryngology training programs may include BF as a supplemental tool in addition to RF as a part of the airway equipment training since there is significant improvement in time to intubation with consecutive practice trials and superior laryngeal visualization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Nuclear education and training: from concern to capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) first published in 2000 Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?, which highlighted significant issues in the availability of human resources for the nuclear industry. Ten years on, Nuclear Education and Training: From Concern to Capability considers what has changed in that time and finds that, while some countries have taken positive actions, in a number of others human resources could soon be facing serious challenges in coping with existing and potential new nuclear facilities. This is exacerbated by the increasing rate of retirement as the workforce ages. This report provides a qualitative characterisation of human resource needs and appraises instruments and programmes in nuclear education and training initiated by various stakeholders in different countries. In this context, it also examines the current and future uses of nuclear research facilities for education and training purposes. Regarding the nuclear training component of workforce competence, it outlines a job taxonomy which could be a basis for addressing the needs of workers across this sector. It presents the taxonomy as a way of enhancing mutual recognition and increasing consistency of education and training for both developed and developing countries. Contents: 1 - A decade of change: Background; The evolving environment; A key resource - a competent workforce; 2 - Review of nuclear education and associated facilities: Introduction; Education and training - progress over the last decade; Present use of research infrastructure for education and training in NEA member countries; 3 - Towards a blueprint for workforce development: The benefits of a competent nuclear workforce; Classifying competence; Analysis ; 4 - Ensuring capability - the recommendations: Nuclear human resource features and requirements; Ten years on - the developments; Approach to developing a common job taxonomy; 5 - Appendices: Recommendations from Nuclear Education and Training

  3. General surgery resident rotations in surgical critical care, trauma, and burns: what is optimal for residency training? (United States)

    Napolitano, Lena M; Biester, Thomas W; Jurkovich, Gregory J; Buyske, Jo; Malangoni, Mark A; Lewis, Frank R


    There are no specific Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education General Surgery Residency Program Requirements for rotations in surgical critical care (SCC), trauma, and burn. We sought to determine the experience of general surgery residents in SCC, trauma, and burn rotations. Data analysis of surgical rotations of American Board of Surgery general surgery resident applicants (n = 7,299) for the last 8 years (2006 to 2013, inclusive) was performed through electronic applications to the American Board of Surgery Qualifying Examination. Duration (months) spent in SCC, trauma, and burn rotations, and postgraduate year (PGY) level were examined. The total months in SCC, trauma and burn rotations was mean 10.2 and median 10.0 (SD 3.9 months), representing approximately 16.7% (10 of 60 months) of a general surgery resident's training. However, there was great variability (range 0 to 29 months). SCC rotation duration was mean 3.1 and median 3.0 months (SD 2, min to max: 0 to 15), trauma rotation duration was mean 6.3 and median 6.0 months (SD 3.5, min to max: 0 to 24), and burn rotation duration was mean 0.8 and median 1.0 months (SD 1.0, min to max: 0 to 6). Of the total mean 10.2 months duration, the longest exposure was 2 months as PGY-1, 3.4 months as PGY-2, 1.9 months as PGY-3, 2.2 months as PGY-4 and 1.1 months as PGY-5. PGY-5 residents spent a mean of 1 month in SCC, trauma, and burn rotations. PGY-4/5 residents spent the majority of this total time in trauma rotations, whereas junior residents (PGY-1 to 3) in SCC and trauma rotations. There is significant variability in total duration of SCC, trauma, and burn rotations and PGY level in US general surgery residency programs, which may result in significant variability in the fund of knowledge and clinical experience of the trainee completing general surgery residency training. As acute care surgery programs have begun to integrate emergency general surgery with SCC, trauma, and burn rotations

  4. Does rating the operation videos with a checklist score improve the effect of E-learning for bariatric surgical training? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    De La Garza, Javier Rodrigo; Kowalewski, Karl-Friedrich; Friedrich, Mirco; Schmidt, Mona Wanda; Bruckner, Thomas; Kenngott, Hannes Götz; Fischer, Lars; Müller-Stich, Beat-Peter; Nickel, Felix


    Laparoscopic training has become an important part of surgical education. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common bariatric procedure performed. Surgeons must be well trained prior to operating on a patient. Multimodality training is vital for bariatric surgery. E-learning with videos is a standard approach for training. The present study investigates whether scoring the operation videos with performance checklists improves learning effects and transfer to a simulated operation. This is a monocentric, two-arm, randomized controlled trial. The trainees are medical students from the University of Heidelberg in their clinical years with no prior laparoscopic experience. After a laparoscopic basic virtual reality (VR) training, 80 students are randomized into one of two arms in a 1:1 ratio to the checklist group (group A) and control group without a checklist (group B). After all students are given an introduction of the training center, VR trainer and laparoscopic instruments, they start with E-learning while watching explanations and videos of RYGB. Only group A will perform ratings with a modified Bariatric Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (BOSATS) scale checklist for all videos watched. Group B watches the same videos without rating. Both groups will then perform an RYGB in the VR trainer as a primary endpoint and small bowel suturing as an additional test in the box trainer for evaluation. This study aims to assess if E-learning and rating bariatric surgical videos with a modified BOSATS checklist will improve the learning curve for medical students in an RYGB VR performance. This study may help in future laparoscopic and bariatric training courses. German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS00010493 . Registered on 20 May 2016.

  5. National Cluster-Randomized Trial of Duty-Hour Flexibility in Surgical Training. (United States)

    Bilimoria, Karl Y; Chung, Jeanette W; Hedges, Larry V; Dahlke, Allison R; Love, Remi; Cohen, Mark E; Hoyt, David B; Yang, Anthony D; Tarpley, John L; Mellinger, John D; Mahvi, David M; Kelz, Rachel R; Ko, Clifford Y; Odell, David D; Stulberg, Jonah J; Lewis, Frank R


    Concerns persist regarding the effect of current surgical resident duty-hour policies on patient outcomes, resident education, and resident well-being. We conducted a national, cluster-randomized, pragmatic, noninferiority trial involving 117 general surgery residency programs in the United States (2014-2015 academic year). Programs were randomly assigned to current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty-hour policies (standard-policy group) or more flexible policies that waived rules on maximum shift lengths and time off between shifts (flexible-policy group). Outcomes included the 30-day rate of postoperative death or serious complications (primary outcome), other postoperative complications, and resident perceptions and satisfaction regarding their well-being, education, and patient care. In an analysis of data from 138,691 patients, flexible, less-restrictive duty-hour policies were not associated with an increased rate of death or serious complications (9.1% in the flexible-policy group and 9.0% in the standard-policy group, P=0.92; unadjusted odds ratio for the flexible-policy group, 0.96; 92% confidence interval, 0.87 to 1.06; P=0.44; noninferiority criteria satisfied) or of any secondary postoperative outcomes studied. Among 4330 residents, those in programs assigned to flexible policies did not report significantly greater dissatisfaction with overall education quality (11.0% in the flexible-policy group and 10.7% in the standard-policy group, P=0.86) or well-being (14.9% and 12.0%, respectively; P=0.10). Residents under flexible policies were less likely than those under standard policies to perceive negative effects of duty-hour policies on multiple aspects of patient safety, continuity of care, professionalism, and resident education but were more likely to perceive negative effects on personal activities. There were no significant differences between study groups in resident-reported perception of the effect of fatigue on

  6. The Use of Cloud Technology in Athletic Training Education (United States)

    Perkey, Dennis


    As technology advances and becomes more portable, athletic training educators (ATEs) have many options available to them. Whether attempting to streamline efforts in courses, or operate a more efficient athletic training education program, portable technology is becoming an important tool that will assist the ATE. One tool that allows more…

  7. Trainning of Special Education Teachers about Curriculum Development (United States)

    Ozcan, Deniz; Uzunboylu, Huseyin


    The aim of this study is to determine the needs of special education teachers about curriculum development, and to implement the constructivist approach to in-service training programme for special education teachers. Furthermore, this study seeks to evaluate the developed in-service training programme. The descriptive and experimental methods…

  8. New Migrants in the UK: Education, Training and Employment (United States)

    Phillimore, Jenny; Goodson, Lisa


    This study of the education, training and employment of asylum seekers and refugees in the UK is based on the academic and policy literature and empirical data from five major studies. It sets out the political context to seeking asylum in the UK, explores current policy and practice regarding the education, training and employment of new migrants…

  9. The vocational education and training system in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia; Wiborg, Susanne


    Analysis of developments in vocational education and training systems in Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Korea, Mexico, Morocco, the UK and the US.......Analysis of developments in vocational education and training systems in Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Korea, Mexico, Morocco, the UK and the US....

  10. Exploring Professional Development Practices for Vocational Education and Training Practitioners (United States)

    Williams, Kim


    This paper addresses the practice of professional development within the Vocational Education and Training (VET) arena. The study object was to gain the perceptions held by a selected group of VET educators in the tourism and hospitality sector of the professional teaching/training competencies required for effective practice. The study was…

  11. Towards More Effective Continuing Education and Training for Australian Workers (United States)

    Billett, Stephen; Choy, Sarojni; Dymock, Darryl; Smith, Ray; Henderson, Amanda; Tyler, Mark; Kelly, Ann


    This is the final report of a three-year research project that aimed to identify and evaluate the potential models and practices of learning support that might constitute a national approach to workers' continuing education and training. The identification of a national approach to continuing education and training is emerging as a priority for…

  12. The Education and Training of Entrepreneurs in Asia. (United States)

    Dana, Leo Paul


    Provides a survey of education and training of entrepreneurs in different contexts across Asia--India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore. Concludes that there are vast differences in definitions and approaches to entrepreneurship and that vocational education and training must be adapted to each context. (Contains 41 references.)…

  13. Evaluating a Special Education Training Programme in Nicaragua (United States)

    Delkamiller, Julie; Swain, Kristine D.; Ritzman, Mitzi J.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.


    This study examined a two-year special education and inclusive practices in-service training programme with a university in Nicaragua. Participants included 14 teachers from nine schools in Nicaragua. Participants' knowledge of special education concepts were evaluated as part of assessing the training modules. In addition, programme evaluation…

  14. 10 CFR 707.6 - Employee assistance, education, and training. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee assistance, education, and training. 707.6 Section 707.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.6 Employee assistance, education, and training. Contractor programs shall include the following or...

  15. "Taking Culture Seriously": Implications for Intercultural Education and Training (United States)

    Ogay, Tania; Edelmann, Doris


    Albeit indispensable to understanding human action, the concept of culture has suffered from excessive enthusiasm in the fields of intercultural education as well as in intercultural teacher training, leading too often to culturalist stances. These excesses of intercultural education and training as well as their contradictory message (between…

  16. Training the theatre arts teacher in Nigerian colleges of education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to identify and proffer solutions to the problems confronting the theatre arts teacher training in Nigerian colleges of education. It also advances the prospects of effective theatre arts teacher training in the educational sector and the society at large. In doing these, the researcher adopts the interview, focus ...

  17. Outlier experienced surgeon's performances impact on benchmark for technical surgical skills training. (United States)

    Gallagher, Anthony G; Henn, Patrick J; Neary, Paul C; Senagore, Anthony J; Marcello, Peter W; Bunting, Brendan P; Seymour, Neal E; Satava, Richard M


    Training in medicine must move to an outcome-based approach. A proficiency-based progression outcome approach to training relies on a quantitative estimation of experienced operator performance. We aimed to develop a method for dealing with atypical expert performances in the quantitative definition of surgical proficiency. In study one, 100 experienced laparoscopic surgeons' performances on virtual reality and box-trainer simulators were assessed for two similar laparoscopic tasks. In study two, 15 experienced surgeons and 16 trainee colorectal surgeons performed one simulated hand-assisted laparoscopic colorectal procedure. Performance scores of experienced surgeons in both studies were standardized (i.e. Z-scores) using the mean and standard deviations (SDs). Performances >1.96 SDs from the mean were excluded in proficiency definitions. In study one, 1-5% of surgeons' performances were excluded having performed significantly below their colleagues. Excluded surgeons made significantly fewer correct incisions (mean = 7 (SD = 2) versus 19.42 (SD = 4.6), P 4 SDs for time to complete the procedure and >6 SDs for path length. After their exclusions, experienced surgeons' performances were significantly better than trainees for path length: P = 0.031 and for time: P = 0.002. Objectively assessed atypical expert performances were few. Z-score standardization identified them and produced a more robust quantitative definition of proficiency. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. 40 Years of Surgical Education in Kenya; What Does the Future Hold?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research and lobbying governments and the society at large for change of policies to restore trust in the profession. These efforts led to the formation of external examination bodies independent of surgical societies and training institutions in the United States,. Australasia, and England. Although in Germany, there is no ...

  19. 3D Printed Models of Cleft Palate Pathology for Surgical Education


    Lioufas, Peter A.; Quayle, Michelle R.; Leong, James C.; McMenamin, Paul G.


    Objective: To explore the potential viability and limitations of 3D printed models of children with cleft palate deformity. Background: The advantages of 3D printed replicas of normal anatomical specimens have previously been described. The creation of 3D prints displaying patient-specific anatomical pathology for surgical planning and interventions is an emerging field. Here we explored the possibility of taking rare pediatric radiographic data sets to create 3D prints for surgical education...

  20. Education and training of medical physicists in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, V.; Vassileva, J.


    Full text: Medical radiology is chronologically the first and widest field of work of medical physicists. Therefore the education and training of medical radiological physicists is of big importance for both diagnostics and therapy. The education of medical radiological physicists in Bulgaria is organized in two levels: university and postgraduate, which is a good achievement of Bulgarian educational system. University education is in the framework of the M. Sc. program in Medical physics with a prevalent training in medical radiological physics. Three universities in the country have been carrying out this education since more than ten years. Postgraduate education covers specialties Medical Radiological Physics and Radiation Hygiene. It is organized by the Medical University but the training is opened also to specialists outside the health care system. The interests in both levels of education and training in Medical Physics is increasing with about 40 trainees in last years. The university and postgraduate education has good quality in theory but still inadequate in practical aspects. The continuous training and qualification of medical physicists has also difficulties; the main reasons are insufficient technical and financial resources as well as the lack of interest of the staff of the training centers. The responsibilities for education and training of medical physicists in radiology should be shared between physicists and physicians in the country

  1. Current Status of Simulation-Based Training in Graduate Medical Education. (United States)

    Willis, Ross E; Van Sickle, Kent R


    The use of simulation in Graduate Medical Education has evolved significantly over time, particularly during the past decade. The applications of simulation include introductory and basic technical skills, more advanced technical skills, and nontechnical skills, and simulation is gaining acceptance in high-stakes assessments. Simulation-based training has also brought about paradigm shifts in the medical and surgical education arenas and has borne new and exciting national and local consortia that will ensure that the scope and impact of simulation will continue to broaden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Strategies for the reduction of live animal use in microsurgical training and education. (United States)

    Schöffl, Harald; Froschauer, Stefan M; Dunst, Karin M; Hager, Dietmar; Kwasny, Oskar; Huemer, Georg M


    Education and training in microsurgical techniques have historically relied on the use of live animal models. Due to an increase in the numbers of microsurgical operations in recent times, the number of trainees in this highly-specialised surgical field has continued to grow. However, strict legislation, greater public awareness, and an increasing sensitivity toward the ethical aspects of scientific research and medical education, emphatically demand a significant reduction in the numbers of animals used in surgical and academic education. Hence, a growing number of articles are reporting on the use of alternatives to live animals in microsurgical education and training. In this review, we report on the current trends in the development and use of microsurgical training models, and on their potential to reduce the number of live animals used for this purpose. We also share our experiences in this field, resulting from our performance of numerous microsurgical courses each year, over more than ten years. The porcine heart, in microvascular surgery training, and the fresh chicken leg, in microneurosurgical and microvascular surgery training, are excellent models for the teaching of basic techniques to the microsurgical novice. Depending on the selected level of expertise of the trainee, these alternative models are capable of reducing the numbers of live animals used by 80-100%. For an even more enhanced, "closer-to-real-life" scenario, these non-animated vessels can be perfused by a pulsatile pump. Thus, it is currently possible to provide excellent and in-depth training in microsurgical techniques, even when the number of live animals used is reduced to a minimum. With these new and innovative techniques, trainees are able to learn and prepare themselves for the clinical situation, with the sacrifice of considerably fewer laboratory animals than would have occurred previously.

  3. ISIS Training Reactor: A Reactor Dedicated to Education and Training for Students and Professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulon, F.


    Conclusion: • INSTN strategy: complete theoretical courses by practical courses on the ISIS research reactor. • Training courses integrated both in Academic degree programs and continuing education. • 27 hours of training courses have been developed focusing on the practical and safety aspects of reactor operation. • The Education and Training activity became the main activity of ISIS reactor: 400 trainees/year; 360 hours/year; 40% in English. • Remote access to the Training courses: Internet Reactor Laboratory under development to be started from 2014 to broadcast training courses from ISIS reactor to guest institutions

  4. General educational disciplines practice-oriented training in intermediate vocational education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya G. Skorobogatova


    Full Text Available The article concerns crucial issues of practice-oriented training in Russia's intermediate vocational education, designates directions of general educational disciplines study in intermediate vocational education.

  5. Determining the need for team-based training in delirium management: A needs assessment of surgical healthcare professionals. (United States)

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Tehrani, Hedieh; Kacikanis, Anna; Tan, Adrienne; Hawa, Raed; Anderson, Ruthie; Okrainec, Allan; Abbey, Susan


    The high incidence of delirium in surgical units is a serious quality concern, given its impact on morbidity and mortality. While successful delirium management depends upon interdisciplinary care, training needs for surgical teams have not been studied. A needs assessment of surgical units was conducted to determine perceived comfort in managing delirium, and interprofessional training needs for team-based care. We administered a survey to 106 General Surgery healthcare professionals (69% response rate) with a focus on attitudes towards delirium and team management. Although most respondents identified delirium as important to patient outcomes, only 61% of healthcare professionals indicated that a team-based approach was always observed in practice. Less than half had a clear understanding of their role in delirium care, while just over half observed team communication of delirium care plans during handover. This is the first observation of clear gaps in perceived team performance in a General Surgery setting.

  6. Face validation of the Simbionix LAP Mentor virtual reality training module and its applicability in the surgical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayodeji, I. D.; Schijven, M.; Jakimowicz, J.; Greve, J. W.


    BACKGROUND: The goal of our study was to determine expert and referent face validity of the LAP Mentor, the first procedural virtual reality (VR) laparoscopy trainer. METHODS: In The Netherlands 49 surgeons and surgical trainees were given a hands-on introduction to the Simbionix LAP Mentor training

  7. Burr hole trepanation for chronic subdural hematomas: is surgical education safe? (United States)

    Maldaner, Nicolai; Sosnova, Marketa; Sarnthein, Johannes; Bozinov, Oliver; Regli, Luca; Stienen, Martin N


    There is a paucity of data concerning the safety and efficacy of surgical education for neurosurgical residents in the evacuation of chronic subdural hematomas (cSDH) by burr hole trepanation. This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on consecutive patients receiving burr hole trepanation for uni- or bilateral cSDH. Patients operated by a supervised neurosurgery resident (teaching cases) were compared to patients operated by a board-certified faculty neurosurgeon (BCFN; non-teaching cases). The primary endpoint was surgical revision for any reason until the last follow-up. The secondary endpoint was occurrence of any complication until the last follow-up. Clinical status, type of complications, mortality, length of surgery (LOS), and hospitalization (LOH) were tertiary endpoints. A total of n = 253 cases were analyzed, of which n = 217 (85.8%) were teaching and n = 36 (14.2%) non-teaching cases. The study groups were balanced in terms of age, sex, surgical risk (ASA score), and preoperative status (Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)). The cohort was followed for a mean of 242 days (standard deviation 302). In multivariate analysis, teaching cases were as likely as non-teaching cases to require revision surgery (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.27-1.59; p = 0.348) as well as to experience any complication until the last follow-up (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.37-1.67; p = 0.532). Mean LOS was about 10 min longer in teaching cases (53.0 ± 26.1 min vs. 43.5 ± 17.8 min; p = 0.036), but LOH was similar. There were no group differences in clinical status, mortality and type of complication at discharge, and the last follow-up. Burr hole trepanation for cSDH can be safely performed by supervised neurosurgical residents enrolled in a structured training program, without increasing the risk for revision surgery, perioperative complications, or worse outcome.

  8. Nuclear energy education and training in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In its continuing use of nuclear power, France faces numerous challenges, including the operation and maintenance of its existing array of reactors, waste management, the decommissioning of obsolete reactors, and research and development for future nuclear systems. All of these efforts must recognize and conform to international requirements. These activities mean that all participants in the French nuclear industry must continually update their approaches and skills, with respect to both domestic and worldwide nuclear power development. This requirement calls for the hiring and training of thousands of scientists and engineers each year in France and its partner or customer countries. Over the next ten years, domestic and international nuclear power activities in France will call for the recruitment of about 13,000 engineers with Master of Science or Ph.D. degrees, and 10,000 science technicians and operators with Bachelor of Science degrees. The chief employers will be EDF, AREVA, GDF-Suez, national agencies such as the Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs (ANDRA), sub-contractors, and R and D agencies such as the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), and the technical safety organization, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN). France has made a commitment to support countries that are ready to create the human, institutional, and technical conditions required to establish a civilian nuclear energy programme that meets all the requirements of safety, security, non-proliferation and environmental protection for present and future generations. These efforts are conducted through the France International Nuclear Agency (AFNI). In response to the need for competence-building in nuclear energy production, France now offers training opportunities in both French and English education programmes. Partnerships created by French nuclear energy participants and by AFNI can provide dedicated programmes

  9. What is new in training Special Education teachers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Michels


    Full Text Available Conveying along international conferences, the Brazilian educational policies have been basing themselves on the inclusive speech. To provide such with sustainability the training of special education teachers. Pursuing to contribute with that discussion, the present paper proposes reflections about initial and continuous training. Through some research that has been developed, we perceived that the core of teacher training for special education lies on the teachers of Specialized Complementary Educational Service (AEE, atendimento educa cional especializado. This service features specialized techniques and resources as a central point in the training. Even those actions that make reference to the relationship with the common class are linked to the transfer of those resources and techniques, not to the pedagogical discussion. Moreover, the current teacher training proposition does not break with the training model traditionally specified for that area. Such elements may lead us to consider that the training of teachers who work with students considered to be disabled is not centered in continuous training. Both that and the initial training do not feature the relationship between AEE and the common class as their central focus. Furthermore, on training there is a preponderance of a model that places the pedagogical in second place, in favor of the medical-psychological aspect. In summary, this proposition of training may signal that the proposal for inclusion in course in the country does not presuppose the acquisition of school knowledge by students with disabilities.

  10. A brief history of medical education and training in Australia. (United States)

    Geffen, Laurence


    Medical education and training in Australia comprises four phases: basic education, prevocational training, vocational training and continuing professional development. Between the 1860s and 1960s, eight medical schools were established in Australia, admitting school leavers to courses comprised of preclinical, paraclinical and clinical phases. Between the 1970s and the 1990s, two innovative new schools were established and all schools made major reforms to student selection, curricula and teaching, learning and assessment methods. Since 2000, student numbers expanded rapidly, both in existing medical schools and in eight new schools established to meet workforce demands, particularly in the rural sector. Prevocational training, first introduced as a compulsory internship year in the 1930s, has undergone reform and extension to subsequent years of junior doctor training through the agency of health departments and postgraduate medical education councils. Vocational training and continuing professional development, delivered by 15 specialist medical colleges, has evolved since the 1930s from a focus on specialist care of individual patients to include broader professional attributes required to manage complex health care systems. The Australian Medical Council began accreditation of basic medical education in 1985 and its remit now extends to all phases of medical education and training. With national governance of the entire system of medical education and training now achieved, mechanisms exist for flexible integration of all phases of medical education to meet the local and global challenges facing Australia's medical workforce.

  11. The role of educational technology in humanities teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De Prisco


    Full Text Available Teacher training, so much as that initial ongoing, and 'a very complex issue and is attributed to piu'argomenti distinct, but at the same time linked to each other: the basic training deifuturi teachers, updating subject content and to-date ', training in new teaching methods and continuous assessment dellaloro effectiveness, and the necessary openness to reality' social and typicality 'territorial where education and training facilities operate.

  12. Identifying gaps in the surgical training curriculum in Rwanda through evaluation of operative activity at a teaching hospital. (United States)

    Rickard, Jennifer L; Ntakiyiruta, Georges; Chu, Kathryn M


    To define the operations performed by surgical residents at a tertiary referral hospital in Rwanda to help guide development of the residency program. Cross-sectional study of all patients operated by surgical residents from October 2012 to September 2013. University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali [CHUK]), a public, tertiary referral hospital in Kigali, Rwanda. All patient data were entered into the operative database by surgical residents at CHUK. A total of 2833 cases were entered into the surgical database. Of them, 53 cases were excluded from further analysis because no surgical resident was listed as the primary or assistant surgeon, leaving 2780 cases for analysis. There were 2780 operations involving surgical residents. Of them, 51% of procedures were classified under general surgery, 38% orthopedics, 7% neurosurgery, and 4% urology. Emergency operations accounted for 64% of the procedures, with 56% of those being general surgery and 35% orthopedic. Further, 50% of all operations were trauma, with 71% of those orthopedic and 21% general surgery. Surgical faculty were involved in 45% of operations as either the primary or the assistant surgeons, while the remainder of operations did not involve surgical faculty. Residents were primary surgeons in 68% of procedures and assistant surgeons in 84% of procedures. The operative experience of surgery residents at CHUK primarily involves emergency and trauma procedures. Although this likely reflects the demographics of surgical care within Rwanda, more focus should be placed on elective procedures to ensure that surgical residents are broadly trained. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vocational Education and Training in the Republic of Ireland. Comparative Papers in Further Education. Number Eight. (United States)

    Marsh, Derek

    The current educational and training system in the Republic of Ireland is based on the classic economic model of educational planning. The Department of Education administers primary, secondary, and vocational education. Universities are controlled by the Higher Education Authority. The three levels of education are primary schools; secondary and…

  14. A Study of Social Networks for Maritime Education and Training


    Tomoki Takimoto; Masao Furusho


    This study analyzes the role played by social networks in maritime education and training. The objective of this study is to investigate the shortage of seafarers in maritime global transportation, as mentioned by the BIMCO. The authors divide the processes of maritime education and training into two categories: “Maritime educational institute” and “Maritime Company.” These are not systematically connected but are found in the processes between social networks; it has the social networks to b...

  15. Assessment of laparoscopic psychomotor skills in interns using the MIST Virtual Reality Simulator: a prerequisite for those considering surgical training? (United States)

    Cope, Daron H; Fenton-Lee, Douglas


    Selection for surgical training in Australia is currently based on assessment of a structured curriculum vitae, referral reports from selected clinicians and an interview. The formal assessment of laparoscopic psychomotor skill and ability to attain skills is not currently a prerequisite for selection. The aim of this study was to assess the innate psychomotor skills of interns and also to compare interns with an interest in pursuing a surgical career to interns with those with no interest in pursuing a surgical career. Twenty-two interns were given the opportunity to carry out tasks on the Minimal Invasive Surgical Trainer, Virtual Reality (Mentice, Gothenburg, Sweden) Simulator. The candidates were required to complete six tasks, repeated six times each. Scores for each task were calculated objectively by the simulator software. Demographic data were similar between the two groups. Although some candidates who were interested in pursuing a surgical career performed poorly on the simulator, there was no significant difference when comparing the two groups. The Minimal Invasive Surgical Trainer, Virtual Reality (Mentice) Simulator provides an objective and comparable assessment of laparoscopic psychomotor skills. We can conclude that interns have varying inherent ability as judged by the simulator and this does not seem to have an influence on their career selection. There was no significant difference in the scores between the two groups. Interns with and without inherent abilities have aspirations to pursue surgical careers and their aptitude does not seem to influence this decision. Surgical colleges could use psychomotor ability assessments to recruit candidates to pursue a career in surgery. Trainees needing closer monitoring and additional training could be identified early and guided to achieve competency.

  16. Activity analysis: measurement of the effectiveness of surgical training and operative technique. (United States)

    Shepherd, J. P.; Brickley, M.


    All surgical procedures are characterised by a sequence of steps and instrument changes. Although surgical efficiency and training in operative technique closely relate to this process, few studies have attempted to analyse it quantitatively. Because efficiency is particularly important in day surgery and lower third molar removal is a high-volume procedure, the need for which is responsible for particularly long waiting-lists in almost all UK health regions, this operation was selected for evaluation. A series of 80 consecutive procedures, carried out for 43 day-stay patients under general anaesthesia by seven junior staff (senior house officers and registrars: 39 procedures) and four senior staff (senior registrars and consultants: 41 procedures) were analysed. Median operating time for procedures which required retraction of periosteum was 9.5 min (range 2.7-23.3 min). Where these steps were necessary, median time for incision was 25 s (range 10-90 s); for retraction of periosteum, 79 s (range 5-340 s); for bone removal, 118 s (range 10-380 s); for tooth excision, 131 s (range 10-900 s); for debridement, 74 s (range 5-270 s); and for suture, 144 s (range 25-320 s). Junior surgeons could be differentiated from senior surgeons on the basis of omission, repetition and duration of these steps. Juniors omitted retraction of periosteum in 10% of procedures (seniors 23%) and suture in 13% (seniors 32%). Juniors repeated steps in 47% of operations; seniors, 14%. Junior surgeons took significantly more time than senior surgeons for incision, bone removal and tooth excision.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 PMID:1471840

  17. Postgraduate medical education and specialist training in Singapore. (United States)

    Chew, C H; Chee, Y C


    The Singapore Medical School celebrates its Centenary in 2005. This historical review is presented on Singapore's postgraduate medical education and specialist training programmes. The special informal role of the Alumni Association and its members during the early years and soon after World War II is highlighted. Postgraduate education and specialist training was more formalised only during the challenging years when Singapore became more autonomous and politically independent with the establishment of the Academy of Medicine, the School's postgraduate medical studies, the Singapore Medical Association, specialist societies and, more recently, the College of Family Physicians. Specialist training programmes and the process of specialist accreditation are also outlined. While Singapore has gone far towards developing a comprehensive programme of postgraduate medical education and specialist training, the process is still evolving and can be improved upon. As long as we keep pace with relevant and realistic strategies, the future for postgraduate medical training and specialist training should be assured.

  18. Manual on Cost-Effectiveness of Training Modalities in Population Education. Population Education Programme Service Series. (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This manual is the result of a regional training workshop on the cost-effectiveness of different training strategies in population education by Unesco in Kathmandu, Nepal, June 1-8, 1987. The purpose of the manual is to enable project staff to initiate studies to determine cost-effective training strategies in population growth control education.…

  19. Effects of a Brief Team Training Program on Surgical Teams' Nontechnical Skills: An Interrupted Time-Series Study. (United States)

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Harbeck, Emma; Kang, Evelyn; Steel, Catherine; Fairweather, Nicole; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Chaboyer, Wendy


    Up to 60% of adverse events in surgery are the result of poor communication and teamwork. Nontechnical skills in surgery (NOTSS) are critical to the success of surgery and patient safety. The study aim was to evaluate the effect of a brief team training intervention on teams' observed NOTSS. Pretest-posttest interrupted time-series design with statistical process control analysis was used to detect longitudinal changes in teams' NOTSS. We evaluated NOTSS using the revised NOTECHS weekly for 20 to 25 weeks before and after implementation of a team training program. We observed 179 surgical procedures with cardiac, vascular, upper gastrointestinal, and hepatobiliary teams. Mean posttest NOTECHS scores increased across teams, showing special cause variation. There were also significant before and after improvements in NOTECHS scores in respect to professional role and in the use of the Surgical Safety Checklist. Our results suggest associated improvements in teams' NOTSS after implementation of the team training program.

  20. Surgical Management and Reconstruction Training (SMART) Course for International Orthopedic Surgeons. (United States)

    Wu, Hao-Hua; Patel, Kushal R; Caldwell, Amber M; Coughlin, R Richard; Hansen, Scott L; Carey, Joseph N

    The burden of complex orthopedic trauma in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is exacerbated by soft-tissue injuries, which can often lead to amputations. This study's purpose was to create and evaluate the Surgical Management and Reconstruction Training (SMART) course to help orthopedic surgeons from LMICs manage soft-tissue defects and reduce the rate of amputations. In this prospective observational study, orthopedic surgeons from LMICs were recruited to attend a 2-day SMART course taught by plastic surgery faculty in San Francisco. Before the course, participants were asked to assess the burden of soft-tissue injury and amputation encountered at their respective sites of practice. A survey was then given immediately and 1-year postcourse to evaluate the quality of instructional materials and the course's effect in reducing the burden of amputation, respectively. Fifty-one practicing orthopedic surgeons from 25 countries attended the course. No participant reported previously attempting a flap reconstruction procedure to treat a soft-tissue defect. Before the course, participants cumulatively reported 580-970 amputations performed annually as a result of soft-tissue defects. Immediately after the course, participants rated the quality and effectiveness of training materials to be a mean of ≥4.4 on a Likert scale of 5 (Excellent) in all 14 instructional criteria. Of the 34 (66.7%) orthopedic surgeons who completed the 1-year postcourse survey, 34 (100%, P soft-tissue defects. Flap procedures prevented 116 patients from undergoing amputation; 554 (93.3%) of the cumulative 594 flaps performed by participants 1 year after the course were reported to be successful. Ninety-seven percent of course participants taught flap reconstruction techniques to colleagues or residents, and a self-reported estimate of 28 other surgeons undertook flap reconstruction as a result of information dissemination by 1 year postcourse. The SMART Course can give orthopedic surgeons

  1. Educational Program on Thorough Training of Japanese Communication Ability (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Shinya; Ohashi, Kazuhito; Totsuji, Hiroo

    “The Educational Program for Raising Creative Engineers by Thorough Training of Japanese Communication Ability” of Okayama University was adopted in 2004 as Support Program for Distinctive University Education (Characteristic Good Practice) by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. To educate the effective Japanese communication ability of the students, it is indispensable to write the large quantity compositions spending time sufficiently. This paper reports that the excellent educational effects can be achieved through the thorough training of Japanese communication ability.

  2. Identifying Opportunities for Virtual Reality Simulation in Surgical Education: A Review of the Proceedings from the Innovation, Design, and Emerging Alliances in Surgery (IDEAS) Conference: VR Surgery. (United States)

    Olasky, Jaisa; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Seymour, Neal E; Magee, J Harvey; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Lin, Ming C; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Brunt, L Michael; Schwaitzberg, Steven D; Cao, Caroline G L; De, Suvranu; Jones, Daniel B


    To conduct a review of the state of virtual reality (VR) simulation technology, to identify areas of surgical education that have the greatest potential to benefit from it, and to identify challenges to implementation. Simulation is an increasingly important part of surgical training. VR is a developing platform for using simulation to teach technical skills, behavioral skills, and entire procedures to trainees and practicing surgeons worldwide. Questions exist regarding the science behind the technology and most effective usage of VR simulation. A symposium was held to address these issues. Engineers, educators, and surgeons held a conference in November 2013 both to review the background science behind simulation technology and to create guidelines for its use in teaching and credentialing trainees and surgeons in practice. Several technologic challenges were identified that must be overcome in order for VR simulation to be useful in surgery. Specific areas of student, resident, and practicing surgeon training and testing that would likely benefit from VR were identified: technical skills, team training and decision-making skills, and patient safety, such as in use of electrosurgical equipment. VR simulation has the potential to become an essential piece of surgical education curriculum but depends heavily on the establishment of an agreed upon set of goals. Researchers and clinicians must collaborate to allocate funding toward projects that help achieve these goals. The recommendations outlined here should guide further study and implementation of VR simulation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Visual-spatial ability is more important than motivation for novices in surgical simulator training: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Schlickum, Marcus; Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li


    To investigate whether surgical simulation performance and previous video gaming experience would correlate with higher motivation to further train a specific simulator task and whether visual-spatial ability would rank higher in importance to surgical performance than the above. It was also examined whether or not motivation would correlate with a preference to choose a surgical specialty in the future and if simulator training would increase the interest in choosing that same work field. Motivation and general interest in surgery was measured pre- and post-training in 30 medical students at Karolinska Institutet who were tested in a laparoscopic surgical simulator in parallel with measurement of visual-spatial ability and self-estimated video gaming experience. Correlations between simulator performance metrics, visual-spatial ability and motivation were statistically analyzed using regression analysis. A good result in the first simulator trial correlated with higher self-determination index (r =-0.46, p=0.05) in male students. Visual-spatial ability was the most important underlying factor followed by intrinsic motivation score and finally video gaming experience (p=0.02, p=0.05, p=0.11) regarding simulator performance in male students. Simulator training increased interest in surgery when studying all subjects (p=0.01), male subjects (p=0.02) as well as subjects with low video gaming experience (p=0.02). This preliminary study highlights individual differences regarding the effect of simulator training on motivation that can be taken into account when designing simulator training curricula, although the sample size is quite small and findings should be interpreted carefully.

  4. Hands-free administration of subjective workload scales: acceptability in a surgical training environment. (United States)

    Carswell, C Melody; Lio, Cindy H; Grant, Russell; Klein, Martina I; Clarke, Duncan; Seales, W Brent; Strup, Stephen


    Subjective workload measures are usually administered in a visual-manual format, either electronically or by paper and pencil. However, vocal responses to spoken queries may sometimes be preferable, for example when experimental manipulations require continuous manual responding or when participants have certain sensory/motor impairments. In the present study, we evaluated the acceptability of the hands-free administration of two subjective workload questionnaires - the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and the Multiple Resources Questionnaire (MRQ) - in a surgical training environment where manual responding is often constrained. Sixty-four undergraduates performed fifteen 90-s trials of laparoscopic training tasks (five replications of 3 tasks - cannulation, ring transfer, and rope manipulation). Half of the participants provided workload ratings using a traditional paper-and-pencil version of the NASA-TLX and MRQ; the remainder used a vocal (hands-free) version of the questionnaires. A follow-up experiment extended the evaluation of the hands-free version to actual medical students in a Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) training facility. The NASA-TLX was scored in 2 ways - (1) the traditional procedure using participant-specific weights to combine its 6 subscales, and (2) a simplified procedure - the NASA Raw Task Load Index (NASA-RTLX) - using the unweighted mean of the subscale scores. Comparison of the scores obtained from the hands-free and written administration conditions yielded coefficients of equivalence of r=0.85 (NASA-TLX) and r=0.81 (NASA-RTLX). Equivalence estimates for the individual subscales ranged from r=0.78 ("mental demand") to r=0.31 ("effort"). Both administration formats and scoring methods were equally sensitive to task and repetition effects. For the MRQ, the coefficient of equivalence for the hands-free and written versions was r=0.96 when tested on undergraduates. However, the sensitivity of the hands-free MRQ to task demands (

  5. Education and Training Initiatives at the Central Methodist Church ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the theoretical framework of the Community Based Approach (CBA) to refugee education development, the article explains how the weekly refugee and School Council meetings served as forums for initiating education and training programmes and for important decisions that influenced the refugees' education and ...

  6. Bench model surgical skill training improves novice ability to multitask: a randomized controlled study. (United States)

    Grierson, Lawrence; Melnyk, Megan; Jowlett, Nathan; Backstein, David; Dubrowski, Adam


    Skills training in simulation laboratories is becoming increasingly common. However, the educational benefit of these laboratories remains unclear. This study examined whether such training enables better performance on the simultaneous execution of technical skill and knowledge retention. Twenty-four novice trainees completed the elliptical excision on baseline testing. Following baseline testing twelve of the novices completed a technical practice (simulation training group) session, while the other twelve did not (control group). One week later, all participants returned for dual-task follow up testing in which they performed the excision while listening to a didactic lesson on the staging and treatment of cutaneous melanoma. The dual-tasking during the post test was standardized, whereby excision sutures 3 and 5 were performed alone (single), and sutures 4 and 6 were performed concurrently with the didactic lecture (dual). Seven additional trainees also participated as controls that were randomized to listen to the didactic lesson alone (knowledge retention alone group). Knowledge retention was assessed by a multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ). Technical performance was evaluated with computer and expert-based measures. Time to complete the performance improved among both groups completing the elliptical excision on follow-up testing (pdidactic lesson testing (pdidactic lesson (ptechnical performance during periods of increased attention demands.

  7. Teaching facial fracture repair: A novel method of surgical skills training using three-dimensional biomodels. (United States)

    D'Souza, Neil; Mainprize, James; Edwards, Glenn; Binhammer, Paul; Antonyshyn, Oleh


    The facial fracture biomodel is a three-dimensional physical prototype of an actual facial fracture. The biomodel can be used as a novel teaching tool to facilitate technical skills training in fracture reduction and fixation, but more importantly, can help develop diagnostic and management competence. To introduce the 'facial fracture biomodel' as a teaching aid, and to provide preliminary evidence of its effectiveness in teaching residents the principles of panfacial fracture repair. Computer three-dimensional image processing and rapid prototyping were used to generate an accurate physical model of a panfacial fracture, mounted in a silicon 'soft tissue' base. Senior plastic surgery residents in their third, fourth and fifth years of training across Canada were invited to participate in a workshop using this biomodel to simulate panfacial fracture repair. A short didactic presentation outlining the 'patient's' clinical and radiological findings, and key principles of fracture repair, was given by a consultant plastic surgeon before the exercise. The residents completed a pre- and postbiomodel questionnaire soliciting information regarding background, diagnosis and management, and feedback. A total of 29 residents completed both pre- and postbiomodel questionnaires. Statistically significant results were found in the following areas: diagnosis of all fracture patterns (P=8.2×10(-7) [t test]), choice of incisions for adequate exposure (P=0.04 [t test]) and identifying sequence of repair (P=0.019 [χ(2) test]). Subjective evaluation of workshop effectiveness revealed a statistically significant increase in 'comfort level' only among third year trainees. Overall, positive feedback was reported among all participants. Biomodelling is a promising ancillary teaching aid that can assist in teaching residents technical skills, as well as how to assess and plan surgical repair.

  8. [Interest of surgical companionship during the training period of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy]. (United States)

    du Pouget, L; Nouhaud, F X; Blah, M; Defortescu, G; Ndangang, M; Grise, P; Pfister, C


    Study of the learning curve of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, evaluating intraoperative difficulties and postoperative complications according to Clavien-Dindo classification. Retrospective study of our first 157 consecutive patients treated with robot-assisted prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer between September 2011 and December 2014. Comparison of learning for each group of 50 procedures and then comparison between patients operated on by a pair of two seniors specially trained for robotic surgery and patients operated on by one mixed pair including a surgeon junior coached by one senior of the first group. Only postoperative complications decreased significantly from the 51st patient (P=0.04). The curves showing the evolution of the operative time decreased with a parallel trend between the two pairs, but with more variability in the mixed pair. There was no significant difference in terms of intraoperative difficulties (P=0.59), nor postoperative complications (P=0.56) mainly of grade 2. The blood loss, transfusion rate, duration of hospitalization and readmission rates did not differ. Lymph node dissection did not affect outcomes. For oncological results, the overall rate of positive surgical margins (R+) was 30.6 % in the initial pair against 24.2 % in the mixed group with no significant difference. Nevertheless, the subpopulation study objectified a R+ rate of 12.86 % for pT2 against 42.85 % for pT3. The early involvement of a junior surgeon who did not receive specific training, but benefiting from the guidance of a senior surgeon, did not compromise the results while allowing a faster learning curve with a rate of operative complications close to the one observed by the senior pair. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of an Educational Game to Set Up Surgical Instruments on the Mayo Stand or Back Table: Applied Research in Production Technology. (United States)

    Paim, Crislaine Pires Padilha; Goldmeier, Silvia


    Existing research suggests that digital games can be used effectively for educational purposes at any level of training. Perioperative nursing educators can use games to complement curricula, in guidance and staff development programs, to foster team collaboration, and to give support to critical thinking in nursing practice because it is a complex environment. To describe the process of developing an educational game to set up surgical instruments on the Mayo stand or back table as a resource to assist the instructor in surgical instrumentation training for students and nursing health professionals in continued education. The study was characterized by applied research in production technology. It included the phases of analysis and design, development, and evaluation. The objectives of the educational game were developed through Bloom's taxonomy. Parallel to the physical development of the educational game, a proposed model for the use of digital elements in educational game activities was applied to develop the game content. The development of the game called "Playing with Tweezers" was carried out in 3 phases and was evaluated by 15 participants, comprising students and professional experts in various areas of knowledge such as nursing, information technology, and education. An environment was created with an initial screen, menu buttons containing the rules of the game, and virtual tour modes for learning and assessment. The "digital" nursing student needs engagement, stimulation, reality, and entertainment, not just readings. "Playing with Tweezers" is an example of educational gaming as an innovative teaching strategy in nursing that encourages the strategy of involving the use of educational games to support theoretical or practical classroom teaching. Thus, the teacher does not work with only 1 type of teaching methodology, but with a combination of different methodologies. In addition, we cannot forget that skill training in an educational game does not

  10. Education and training in radioactive waste topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon Cabrera, S.; Marco Arboli, M.


    Tecnologically developed countries rely on nuclear fission as an important source for the production of electrical power. some of th epower plants in current generation will continue to be operated for at least 20 years, and there exist plans for the future. As a consequence, these countries take part in R and D projects oriented towards progress to be made in the management of radioactive waste, and particularly in the industrial implementation of technical solutions for the management of long-lived waste. The great experience of CIEMAT in this field has made it possible that different standard and re-creation training actions were carried out in the last years. At national level, these actions have covered both the question of reducing the impact of radioactive waste and the problem of its management. In the first subject, actions have been focused to the following aspects: Characterization of radioactive waste, where the present-day knowledge on efficient technologies of physicochemical and radiological characterization of low and medium activity waste are provided. Partitioning and Transmutation, where the development of new technologies like the Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and the climination by transmutation, that reduce the hazards associated with waste of high activity are shown. Decommissioning of nuclear ficilities, development of techniques which will allow to mange these wastes with minimum radioactive waste generation, using new techniques for the decontamination and cutting of contaminated materials that have to be immobilized. On the second subject Management of Radioactive Wastes, a doctorate course organised in collaboration with the Polytechnic University of Madrid, and sponsored by ENRESA. At the international level, CIEMAT usually takes part in training activities of the technical assistance programmes of the International Atomic Energy agency (IAEA). In particular, actions related to Safety assessment methodologies for near surface

  11. Nurse Level of Education, Quality of Care and Patient Safety in the Medical and Surgical Wards in Malaysian Private Hospitals: A Cross-sectional Study. (United States)

    Abdul Rahman, Hamzah; Jarrar, Mu'taman; Don, Mohammad Sobri


    Nursing knowledge and skills are required to sustain quality of care and patient safety. The numbers of nurses with Bachelor degrees in Malaysia are very limited. This study aims to predict the impact of nurse level of education on quality of care and patient safety in the medical and surgical wards in Malaysian private hospitals. A cross-sectional survey by questionnaire was conducted. A total 652 nurses working in the medical and surgical wards in 12 private hospitals were participated in the study. Multistage stratified simple random sampling performed to invite nurses working in small size (less than 100 beds), medium size (100-199 beds) and large size (over than 200) hospitals to participate in the study. This allowed nurses from all shifts to participate in this study. Nurses with higher education were not significantly associated with both quality of care and patient safety. However, a total 355 (60.9%) of respondents participated in this study were working in teaching hospitals. Teaching hospitals offer training for all newly appointed staff. They also provide general orientation programs and training to outline the policies, procedures of the nurses' roles and responsibilities. This made the variances between the Bachelor and Diploma nurses not significantly associated with the outcomes of care. Nursing educational level was not associated with the outcomes of care in Malaysian private hospitals. However, training programs and the general nursing orientation programs for nurses in Malaysia can help to upgrade the Diploma-level nurses. Training programs can increase their self confidence, knowledge, critical thinking ability and improve their interpersonal skills. So, it can be concluded that better education and training for a medical and surgical wards' nurses is required for satisfying client expectations and sustaining the outcomes of patient care.

  12. Vocational Education and Training in Kuwait: Vocational Education versus Values and Viewpoints (United States)

    Bilboe, Wendy


    Since the opening up of private universities and colleges in the Kuwait education system in the late 1990s, there has been an explosion of tertiary institutions (both domestic and international) established in the country, with many of them offering vocational education and training. The move towards vocational and educational training forms part…

  13. The potential of blended learning in education and training for advanced civilian and military trauma care. (United States)

    Sonesson, Linda; Boffard, Kenneth; Lundberg, Lars; Rydmark, Martin; Karlgren, Klas


    In the field of advanced care of the complex trauma patient, there is an emerging need for focused education and training. However, several hospitals do not support further education and training in this field, and the challenge of releasing time for physicians and nurses is well-known. Educational strategies using blended learning, which combines traditional classroom methods with modern computer-assisted methods and media, have not yet been widely used. This study analysed the educational challenges and areas for improvement, according to senior physicians and nurses, and investigated the potential use of blended learning. The setting was an international course, Definitive Surgical Trauma Care (DSTC) - Military Version, part of a programme which prepares health professionals for work during extreme conditions. The sample consisted of senior physicians and nurses, participating in the course in September 2015. A survey was completed, interviews were performed and a post-course survey was conducted 18 months later in March 2017. The most difficult aspect of learning how to manage the complex trauma patient, was the lack of real practice. Even though the respondents were knowledgeable in advanced trauma, they lacked personal experience in managing complex trauma cases. Cases presented during the course represented significantly greater complexity of injury compared to those usually seen in hospitals and during military deployment. The following educational challenges were identified from the study: (1) Lack of experience and knowledge of advanced trauma care. (2) Lack of the use of blended learning as support for education and training. (3) Limited time available for preparation and reflection in the education and training process. (4) Lack of support for such education and training from home hospitals. (5) The unfulfilled requirement for multidisciplinary team-training in the military medical environment. Educational strategies and methods, such as blended

  14. Teaching the surgical craft: Surgery residents perception of the operating theater educational environment in a tertiary institution in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Background: The transformation of a surgical trainee into a surgeon is strongly influenced by the quality of teaching in the operating theater. This study investigates the perceptions of residents about the educational environment of the operating theater and identifies variables that may improve the operating theater education of our trainees. Materials and Methods: Residents in the department of surgery anonymously evaluated teaching in the operating room using the operating theater education environment measure. The residents evaluated 33 variables that might have an impact on their surgical skills within the operating theater. The variables were grouped into four subscales; teaching and training, learning opportunities, operating theater atmosphere and workload/supervision/support. Differences between male and female residents and junior and senior registrars were assessed using Mann-Whitney test. Statistical analysis was completed with the statistics package for the social sciences version 17. Results: A total of 33 residents were participated in this study. Twenty nine (88% males and 4 (12% females. 30 (90% were junior registrars. The mean total score was 67.5%. Operating theater atmosphere subscale had the highest score of 79.2% while workload/supervision/support subscale had the least score of 48.3%. There were significant differences between male and female resident′s perception of workload/supervision/support P 0.05. Conclusion: This study has shown a satisfactory teaching environment based on the existing local realities of means, resources and tools and highlighted the need for improvement in workload/supervision/support in our institution. An acceptable learning environment in the operating theatre will produce surgeons that are technically competent to bridge the gap in the enormous unmet need for surgical care in Nigeria.

  15. Effects of implementation of an urgent surgical care service on subspecialty general surgery training (United States)

    Wood, Leanne; Buczkowski, Andrzej; Panton, Ormond M.N.; Sidhu, Ravi S.; Hameed, S. Morad


    Background In July 2007, a large Canadian teaching hospital realigned its general surgery services into elective general surgery subspecialty-based services (SUBS) and a new urgent surgical care (USC) service (also know in the literature as an acute care surgery service). The residents on SUBS had their number of on-call days reduced to enable them to focus on activities related to SUBS. Our aim was to examine the effect of the creation of the USC service on the educational experiences of SUBS residents. Methods We enrolled residents who were on SUBS for the 6 months before and after the introduction of the USC service. We collected data by use of a survey, WEB eVAL and recorded attendance at academic half days. Our 2 primary outcomes were residents’ attendance at ambulatory clinics and compliance with the reduction in the number of on-call days. Our secondary outcomes included residents’ time for independent study, attendance at academic half days, operative experience, attendance at multidisciplinary rounds and overall satisfaction with SUBS. Results Residents on SUBS had a decrease in the mean number of on-call days per resident per month from 6.28 to 1.84 (p = 0.006), an increase in mean attendance at academic half days from 65% to 87% (p = 0.028), at multidisciplinary rounds (p = 0.002) and at ambulatory clinics and an increase in independent reading time (p = 0.015), and they reported an improvement in their work environment. There was no change in the amount of time residents spent in the operating room or in their overall satisfaction with SUBS. Conclusion Residents’ education in the SUBS structure was positively affected by the creation of a USC service. Compliance with the readjustment of on-call duties was high and was identified as the single most significant factor in enabling residents to take full advantage of the unique educational opportunities available only while on SUBS. PMID:20334744

  16. Improving surgical site infection prevention practices through a multifaceted educational intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Owens, P


    As part of the National Clinical Programme on healthcare-associated infection prevention, a Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (RCPI) working group developed a quality improvement tool for prevention of surgical site infection (SS). We aimed to validate the effectiveness of an educational campaign, which utilises this quality improvement tool to prevent SSI in a tertiary hospital. Prior to the SSI educational campaign, surgical patients were prospectively audited and details of antibiotic administration recorded. Prophylactic antibiotic administration recommendations were delivered via poster and educational presentations. Post-intervention, the audit was repeated. 50 patients were audited pre-intervention, 45 post-intervention. Post-intervention, prophylaxis within 60 minutes prior to incision increased from 54% to 68% (p = 0.266). Appropriate postoperative prescribing improved from 71% to 92% (p = 0.075). A multifaceted educational program may be effective in changing SSI prevention practices.

  17. Simulation-based cutaneous surgical-skill training on a chicken-skin bench model in a medical undergraduate program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Denadai


    Full Text Available Background: Because of ethical and medico-legal aspects involved in the training of cutaneous surgical skills on living patients, human cadavers and living animals, it is necessary the search for alternative and effective forms of training simulation. Aims: To propose and describe an alternative methodology for teaching and learning the principles of cutaneous surgery in a medical undergraduate program by using a chicken-skin bench model. Materials and Methods: One instructor for every four students, teaching materials on cutaneous surgical skills, chicken trunks, wings, or thighs, a rigid platform support, needled threads, needle holders, surgical blades with scalpel handles, rat-tooth tweezers, scissors, and marking pens were necessary for training simulation. Results: A proposal for simulation-based training on incision, suture, biopsy, and on reconstruction techniques using a chicken-skin bench model distributed in several sessions and with increasing levels of difficultywas structured. Both feedback and objective evaluations always directed to individual students were also outlined. Conclusion: The teaching of a methodology for the principles of cutaneous surgery using a chicken-skin bench model versatile, portable, easy to assemble, and inexpensive is an alternative and complementary option to the armamentarium of methods based on other bench models described.

  18. Surgical handicraft: teaching and learning surgical skills. (United States)

    Barnes, R W


    Surgeons choose their profession with a strong desire to excel at manual therapeutic skills. Although we mime our mentors, we have often received the torch of technique in the absence of a systematic program to optimally develop our manual dexterity. The operating room is the ultimate arena to refine one's technical ability, but a surgical skills laboratory should assume increasing importance in introducing the trainee to the many nuances of the fine manual motor skills necessary for optimal surgical technique. Surgical educators should address the science of surgical handicraft in a manner similar to the science of preoperative and postoperative surgical principles that have been espoused over the past 40 years. Although it has been euphemistically said that "you can teach a monkey to operate," few of us have broken the process down into the basic elements to accomplish such a goal. In view of the increasing complexity of operations and equipment, the constraints on animal laboratories and teaching caseloads, and the mounting economic and medico-legal pressures, the development of optimal surgical skills should be a major objective of every surgical training program. By developing novel programs and scientifically evaluating the results of such endeavors, surgical faculties may find increased academic rewards for being a good teacher.

  19. Anti-Corruption Training and Education


    Boehm, Frédéric; Nell, Mathias


    Corruption has gained significant attention in development discourse and practice. While anticorruption (AC) training is identified as a useful approach to fostering the development of broadbased alliances for demanding reform and addressing demand side AC issues (in the public and private sector and in civil society), AC training is still very much in its infancy: AC training has not yet been mainstreamed into traditional development assistance (e.g. technical assistance); and also within de...

  20. Needs For Education And Training In Radiation Protection: Kenya Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, A.O.; Kalambuka, H.A.; Maina, D.M.; Onyatta, J.; Kioko, J.; Masinza, S.; Kamande, J.


    Many nations, Kenya inclusive, have insufficient number of trained personnel to deal with regulatory and technical radiation safety issues. The IAEA Basic safety standards and the 96/29 EURATOM Directive put emphasis on education and training. Both organizations as well as IRPA have been proactive on training and educational issues. The Eastern Africa Association for Radiation Protection (EAARP) in collaboration with some national institutions has also been involved in awareness creation and provision of training and education opportunities for users of radioactive sources as well as the general public on issues related to radiation protection. Experience so far indicates that public demand is high for information and education in this area. In this paper we have identified the educational needs in radiation protection in the region using the Kenyan experience. The paper has also enumerated the available educational and training infrastructures, the human resources, as well as the important stake holders and their roles if a sustainable education and training program were to be developed in the region

  1. Step-based cognitive virtual surgery simulation: an innovative approach to surgical education. (United States)

    Oliker, Aaron; Napier, Zachary; Deluccia, Nicolette; Qualter, John; Sculli, Frank; Smith, Brandon; Stern, Carrie; Flores, Roberto; Hazen, Alexes; McCarthy, Joseph


    BioDigital Systems, LLC in collaboration with New York University Langone Medical Center Department of Reconstructive Plastic Surgery has created a complex, real-time, step-based simulation platform for plastic surgery education. These simulators combine live surgical footage, interactive 3D visualization, text labels, and voiceover as well as a high-yield, expert-approved testing mode to create a comprehensive virtual educational environment for the plastic surgery resident or physician.

  2. Pedagogical Training and Research in Engineering Education (United States)

    Wankat, Phillip C.


    Ferment in engineering has focused increased attention on undergraduate engineering education, and has clarified the need for rigorous research in engineering education. This need has spawned the new research field of Engineering Education and greatly increased interest in earning Ph.D. degrees based on rigorous engineering education research.…

  3. Education vs. Training: A Military Perspective. (United States)

    Kime, Steve F.; Anderson, Clinton L.

    Civilian educators have long argued that the U.S. armed forces must be maintained as a reflection of society and that civilian education institutions must share responsibility in educating servicemembers. Political changes and technological advances have made education a strategic issue in structuring military forces for the third millennium. In…

  4. 40 years of surgical education in Kenya; what does the future hold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical education structure and systems worldwide have changed gradually to incorporate not only the traditional competencies of medical knowledge, patient care and technical skills but other non-technical skills of communication, systems based practice and professionalism. Until recently, it was anticipated that these ...

  5. 40 Years of Surgical Education in Kenya; What Does the Future Hold?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical education structure and systems worldwide have changed gradually to incorporate not only the traditional competencies of medical knowledge, patient care and technical skills but other non-technical skills of communication, systems based practice and professionalism. Until recently, it was anticipated that these ...

  6. Gamification in thoracic surgical education: Using competition to fuel performance. (United States)

    Mokadam, Nahush A; Lee, Richard; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Walker, Jennifer D; Cerfolio, Robert J; Hermsen, Joshua L; Baker, Craig J; Mark, Rebecca; Aloia, Lauren; Enter, Dan H; Carpenter, Andrea J; Moon, Marc R; Verrier, Edward D; Fann, James I


    In an effort to stimulate residents and trainers to increase their use of simulation training and the Thoracic Surgery Curriculum, a gamification strategy was developed in a friendly but competitive environment. "Top Gun." Low-fidelity simulators distributed annually were used for the technical competition. Baseline and final video assessments were performed, and 5 finalists were invited to compete in a live setting from 2013 to 2015. "Jeopardy." A screening examination was devised to test knowledge contained in the Thoracic Surgery Curriculum. The top 6 2-member teams were invited to compete in a live setting structured around the popular game show Jeopardy. "Top Gun." Over 3 years, there were 43 baseline and 34 final submissions. In all areas of assessment, there was demonstrable improvement. There was increasing evidence of simulation as seen by practice and ritualistic behavior. "Jeopardy." Sixty-eight individuals completed the screening examination, and 30 teams were formed. The largest representation came from the second-year residents in traditional programs. Contestants reported an average in-training examination percentile of 72.9. Finalists reported increased use of the Thoracic Surgery Curriculum by an average of 10 hours per week in preparation. The live competition was friendly, engaging, and spirited. This gamification approach focused on technical and cognitive skills, has been successfully implemented, and has encouraged the use of simulators and the Thoracic Surgery Curriculum. This framework may capitalize on the competitive nature of our trainees and can provide recognition of their achievements. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of nuclear education and training in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B.J.; Han, K.W.; Lee, E.J.


    Since the commercial operation of the first nuclear power plant in April 1978, Korea has achieved a rapid growth in nuclear power. In 2004, 19 nuclear power plants are currently in operation and 8 nuclear power plants are under construction. The installed nuclear capacity is 16,716MW. Also nuclear power generation reached 129,672GWh which are about 40% of the total electricity generation. Nuclear energy has been a backbone for Korea's economic growth over the past decades, and will continue to play role for the prosperity of next generation in this century. In this context, Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant and Advanced Power Reactor-1400 have been developed, and System-Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor for desalination of seawater, Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor and Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU are being developed. In parallel, a Radiation Technology R and D Center and a High Power Proton Accelerator Center are being established. Along with the progress of the nuclear energy program, the nuclear education and training has been progressed stepwise, i.e. overseas training, basic training, domestic nuclear human resource development, IAEA regional training, and global nuclear human resource development. Nuclear engineering education program started at Universities from 1958. In order to provide training courses for nuclear personnel, the Nuclear Training Center was established at KAERI in 1967. During the construction of the first nuclear power plant, basic training courses were conducted at NTC/KAERI. And specific training courses were conducted by the reactor suppliers in Korea and the supplier's countries. During this period, reactor operation license laws and the national technical qualification system (engineer, technician, craftsman) with a linkage to the national education system were established in 1970, 1975, respectively. When the utility (now the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Company) started operation of the first nuclear power plant in 1978, the

  8. Social Web in Teacher Education and Teacher Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, Marion


    Gruber, M. R. (2011). Social Web in Teacher Education and Teacher Training. Presentation at the Workshop "Het gebruik van digitale collecties leermaterialen". April, 21, 2011, Eindhoven, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit, Studiecentrum Eindhoven.

  9. Developing communication skills training in 5 educational programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annegrethe; Ringby, Betina

    Understanding the ability to communicate with patients as a central clinical skill, the importance of developing communication teaching in healthcare educations is obvious. Following the establishment of a room specially equipped for training communication skills in 2010, implementation...... of communication skills training in 5 healthcare educations at University College North Denmark has been a focus for a committed group of teachers. In order to encourage the implementation process, courses in facilitation has been offered to teachers from all five healthcare education programmes: nursing....... As a result of the combination of easy access to technical resources in the dedicated room and the opportunity to continuously develop the facilitation skills needed to train students, communication skills training has been integrated in the curriculum of all five healthcare educational programmes....

  10. Virtual Reality and Its Potential Application in Education and Training. (United States)

    Milheim, William D.


    An overview is provided of current trends in virtual reality research and development, including discussion of hardware, types of virtual reality, and potential problems with virtual reality. Implications for education and training are explored. (Author/JKP)

  11. CELSTEC Learning Labs: Mobile App Development for Education and Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus


    Specht, M. (2011). CELSTEC Learning Labs: Mobile App Development for Education and Training. Presentation given in Workshop at CELSTEC Learning Lab for Bluetea. February, 21, 2011, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  12. Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Hoogveld, Bert; Kirschner, Paul A.


    Stoyanov, S., Hoogveld, A. W. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands; EU Forlic project.

  13. The Role of Health Literacy in Professional Education and Training. (United States)

    Aldoory, Linda


    This chapter marks the territory and leadership potential found in research, practice and policy related to the role of health literacy in higher education and professional training. There is limited published work that has summarized the role and scope of health literacy in higher education and professional training. This chapter will provide a review of the research in the area, a description of some of the educational practices in health literacy, and a case example of how policy might influence the role of health literacy in professional higher education.

  14. [Hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgery and abdominal organ transplantation, a defined subspecialty, integrated within the surgical division: professional, operative and educational aspects]. (United States)

    Ben-Haim, Menahem; Nakache, Richard; Klausner, Joseph M


    EstabLishment of hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgery and abdominal organ transplantation as defined subspecialties of general surgery has been boosted over the Last decade. However, the affiliation (independent service vs. integration within the division of surgery), the training course (transplantation vs. surgical oncology) and the referral patterns are still controversial. Dedicated HPB and transplantation units were defined within the surgical division of the Tel Aviv Medical Center. The principles of operation included muttidisciplinary expert teams, unified and standard treatment protocols, exposure and involvement of all residents and attending surgeons of the division to patients, decision-making and perioperative care, peer review and periodic publication of clinical results. Between the years 2003-2007, 870 major HPB procedures were performed: 70 Liver transplants (9 from live donors), 100 organ procurements, 165 kidney and kidney-pancreas transplants (30% from Live donors), 250 hepatic resections of various types and indications, 35 complex biliary reconstructions and 250 pancreatectomies. The short- (morbidity and mortality) and long-term (survival and disease free survival) rates are compatible with the reported results from Centers of Excellence around the world. Operating HPB and transplantation surgery by trained experts and defined professional units, but within an academic surgical division, promotes the achievement of high volume and excellent results together with optimal exposure, education and training of the surgical residents.

  15. Web-based portfolios: a valuable tool for surgical education. (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine E; Tillou, Areti; Yeh, Michael W; Quach, Chi; Hiatt, Jonathan R; Hines, O Joe


    Our residency program developed and implemented an online portfolio system. In the present communication, we describe this system and provide an early analysis of its effect on competency-based performance and acceptance of the system by the residents. To measure competency-based performance, end-of-rotation global evaluations of residents by faculty completed before (n = 1488) and after (n = 697) implementation of the portfolio were compared. To assess acceptance, residents completed a 20-question survey. Practice-based learning and improvement improved following implementation of the portfolio system (P = 0.002). There was also a trend toward improvement in the remaining competencies. In the survey tool (response rate 69%), 95% of the residents agreed that the purpose and functions of the system had been explained to them, and 82% affirmed understanding of ways in which the system could help them, although fewer than half reported that their portfolio had aided in their development of the competencies. All residents appreciated the system's organizational capabilities, and 87% agreed that the portfolio was a useful educational tool. This web portfolio program is a valuable new instrument for both residents and administrators. Early analysis of its impact demonstrates a positive effect across all competencies, and survey analysis revealed that residents have a positive view of this new system. As the portfolio is further incorporated into the educational program, we believe that our residents will discover new tools to craft a career of genuine self-directed learning. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Peculiarities of Physical Education Teachers’ Professional Training: Foreign Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltyk Oleksandr


    Full Text Available The article deals with professional training of future teachers of physical education within the context of leading countries, namely the USA, Great Britain, China, Germany, France. The aforementioned countries are not just leaders in economical development; they are also leaders in sports. The analysis of literature resources allowed revealing a number of peculiarities, implementation of which in the process of professional training of teachers of physical education in Ukraine will have positive impact. They are reorientation of professional training, as well as future activity on health protection of students, individual physical development, skills development, big-scale implementation of health-improving systems, non-standard types of motor activity in educational process. This calls for improvement of medical knowledge, health fundamentals, disease prevention, and injury prevention. Increase of the role and duration of teaching practice and implementation of compulsory year-long training at future workplace are of great importance. Taking into account national traditions, historical experience of the development of physical culture in native land, and introduction of national types of motor activity to the curricula have positive effect. The division on two individual stages is common in professional training of teachers. The first one is primarily oriented on theoretical component of educational, while the second one emphasizes practical activity of a future teacher. Along with standardization, independence and autonomy of educational institutions in matters of professional training organization have positive effect in educational process. Governmental support, namely financing of physical training and sports and educational sphere, improvement of material and technical base, plays a key role in the process of professional training of future teacher of physical education.

  17. Global health training in US graduate psychiatric education. (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Fricchione, Gregory L; Walensky, Rochelle P; Ng, Courtney; Bangsberg, David R; Kerry, Vanessa B


    Global health training opportunities have figured prominently into medical students' residency program choices across a range of clinical specialties. To date, however, the national scope of global mental health education has not heretofore been systematically assessed. We therefore sought to characterize the distribution of global health training opportunities in US graduate psychiatric education. We examined the web pages of all US psychiatry residency training programs, along with search results from a systematic Google query designed to identify global health training opportunities. Of the 183 accredited US psychiatry residency programs, we identified 17 programs (9.3%) offering 28 global health training opportunities in 64 countries. Ten psychiatry residency programs offered their residents opportunities to participate in one or more elective-based rotations, eight offered research activities, and six offered extended field-based training. Most global health training opportunities occurred within the context of externally administered, institution-wide initiatives generally available to residents from a range of clinical specialties, rather than within internally administered departmental initiatives specifically tailored for psychiatry residents. There are relatively few global health training opportunities in US graduate psychiatric education. These activities have a clear role in enhancing mastery of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies, but important challenges related to program funding and evaluation remain.

  18. Agricultural education and training system capacity development for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    InnovATE (Innovation for Agricultural Training and Education) is a five year, demand-driven USAID-funded program with a mandate for capacity development in AET systems in ... Through innovATE's learn-design-train approach, the program has developed capacity through various activities in Sub- Saharan Africa (SSA).

  19. Vocational Education and Training in India: A Labour Market Perspective (United States)

    Agrawal, Tushar; Agrawal, Ankush


    Skill development has been a major policy agenda in several countries and there is a lot of emphasis on the promotion of vocational education and training (VET) programmes. This paper investigates the labour market outcomes of the vocationally trained population in India using the data from a nationally representative survey on employment and…

  20. Classroom instruction versus roadside training in traffic safety education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schagen, I; Rothengatter, J.A.


    This study compares the effectiveness of different approaches to training complex cognitive and psychomotor skills within the framework of road safety education for primary school children. A method involving roadside behavioral training, a classroom instruction method and a method combining these

  1. Nutrition Education. Michigan School Food Service Training Manual. (United States)

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    Inservice training should motivate school food workers to participate in children's nutrition education. The training lesson includes a series of service manager/director guidelines, information sheets, and an audiovisual aids list. Food staff nutrition lessons for classroom presentation to grades 4 to 6 cover the daily food guide, snacks,…

  2. Nuclear Education and Training Programs of Potential Interest to Utilities. (United States)

    Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC.

    This compilation of education and training programs related to nuclear applications in electric power generation covers programs conducted by nuclear reactor vendors, public utilities, universities, technical institutes, and community colleges, which were available in December 1968. Several training-program consultant services are also included.…

  3. IAEA education and training programme in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, J.L.F.; Lederman, L.


    This paper presents the IAEA education and training (E and T) programme in nuclear safety. A strategic planning for the programme implementation is described in terms of objectives, outputs and activities. A framework based on areas of competency and the level of depth of the training is presented as well as the main achievements to date. (author)

  4. Integrating GIS Education with Training: A Project-Oriented Approach. (United States)

    Chen, X. Mara


    Argues that hands-on, project-oriented teaching offers an ideal approach to integrating Geographical Information Systems (GIS) education and training. Presents a project-oriented GIS teaching experience as an instructional paradigm that can be used to ensure balance between conceptual GIS learning and software-based hands-on training in…

  5. International education: 20 years after implementation of a training program. (United States)

    Lee, S T


    Medical care in developing countries may be improved by various means. Advances in the medical education and training of specialists play an important role in improving health care systems. The results of the efforts of a neurosurgeon from North America who helped establish neurosurgical training in Taiwan are reported after a follow-up period of 20 years.

  6. Understanding Attrition in UK Maritime Education and Training (United States)

    Gekara, Victor


    The shipping industry worldwide is experiencing a shortage of trained and qualified officers to operate a rapidly expanding global merchant fleet. High cadet wastage in Maritime Education and Training (MET) institutions is an obstacle to skills replenishment in the UK. This paper examines the specificity of MET programmes with regard to the…

  7. Financial Information 2016: Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2017


    This publication provides financial information on the government-funded vocational education and training (VET) system in Australia. Reporting includes VET funds transacted through government accounts of the Australian and state and territory government departments and their controlled training organisation entities such as TAFE institutes and…

  8. Collecting "Total" Vocational Education and Training Activity. Position Paper (United States)

    Karmel, Tom


    In this position paper, NCVER's Managing Director, Dr Tom Karmel, argues that the submission of vocational education and training student data should be mandated as a condition of registration for all registered training organisations, including private providers. This will ensure a comprehensive data collection that gives a realistic view of…

  9. Incorporating Six Sigma Methodology Training into Chemical Engineering Education (United States)

    Dai, Lenore L.


    Six Sigma is a buzz term in today's technology and business world and there has been increasing interest to initiate Six Sigma training in college education. We have successfully incorporated Six Sigma methodology training into a traditional chemical engineering course, Engineering Experimentation, at Texas Tech University. The students have…

  10. Design and Development Issues for Educational Robotics Training Camps (United States)

    Ucgul, Memet; Cagiltay, Kursat


    The aim of this study is to explore critical design issues for educational robotics training camps and to describe how these factors should be implemented in the development of such camps. For this purpose, two robotics training camps were organized for elementary school students. The first camp had 30 children attendees, and the second had 22. As…

  11. Assessment of Clinical Education in the Alborz University of Medical Sciences from Surgical Technology and Anesthesiology Students’ Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bahrami Babaheidary


    Conclusion: Because of surgical technology and anesthesiology students needs to acquire clinical skills along with theoretical training, providing suitable clinical environment seems to be critical to achieve essential in-depth experience in professional aspects.

  12. ENS and FORATOM Education, Training and Knowledge Management Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janisz, E.


    Full text: The European Atomic Forum (FORATOM) and the European Nuclear Society (ENS) established in 2013 a joint Task Force dedicated to education, training and knowledge management (ETKM) issues in nuclear. The main purpose of the Task Force is to strengthen the link between the industry, research institutes and education and training stakeholders on the European level. Further to inform the European political institutions about the nuclear education and training activities undertaken by various stakeholders. The role of this paper is to present number of activities done in the framework of FORATOM and ENS Task Force and present the recommendations given by the E&T experts. The TF combines the expertise of Human Resources, Training and Education provided by the industry as well as universities and research institutes. The Task Force aims to play a role of a gateway for collaboration between different key players of the nuclear education, training and knowledge management field. Further TF is aiming as well to inform the European institutions about the actions and roles undertaken by ENS and FORATOM members in the area of education and training. (author

  13. Surgical approaches to complex vascular lesions: the use of virtual reality and stereoscopic analysis as a tool for resident and student education. (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Schmitt, Paul J; Sukul, Vishad; Prestigiacomo, Charles J


    Virtual reality training for complex tasks has been shown to be of benefit in fields involving highly technical and demanding skill sets. The use of a stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) virtual reality environment to teach a patient-specific analysis of the microsurgical treatment modalities of a complex basilar aneurysm is presented. Three different surgical approaches were evaluated in a virtual environment and then compared to elucidate the best surgical approach. These approaches were assessed with regard to the line-of-sight, skull base anatomy and visualisation of the relevant anatomy at the level of the basilar artery and surrounding structures. Overall, the stereoscopic 3D virtual reality environment with fusion of multimodality imaging affords an excellent teaching tool for residents and medical students to learn surgical approaches to vascular lesions. Future studies will assess the educational benefits of this modality and develop a series of metrics for student assessments.

  14. The role of simulation training in anesthesiology resident education. (United States)

    Yunoki, Kazuma; Sakai, Tetsuro


    An increasing number of reports indicate the efficacy of simulation training in anesthesiology resident education. Simulation education helps learners to acquire clinical skills in a safe learning environment without putting real patients at risk. This useful tool allows anesthesiology residents to obtain medical knowledge and both technical and non-technical skills. For faculty members, simulation-based settings provide the valuable opportunity to evaluate residents' performance in scenarios including airway management and regional, cardiac, and obstetric anesthesiology. However, it is still unclear what types of simulators should be used or how to incorporate simulation education effectively into education curriculums. Whether simulation training improves patient outcomes has not been fully determined. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the status of simulation in anesthesiology resident education, encourage more anesthesiologists to get involved in simulation education to propagate its influence, and stimulate future research directed toward improving resident education and patient outcomes.

  15. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman


    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in full-time vocational education and had no significant effects on part-time vocational education or participation in other types of work-related courses, though there appears to be considerable heterogeneity across states with respect to the strictness of educational policy and the strength of work incentives under welfare reform. In addition, we find evidence of heterogeneous effects by prior educational attainment. We find no evidence that the previously-observed negative effects of welfare reform on formal education (including college enrollment), which we replicated in this study, have been offset by increases in vocational education and training. PMID:22125356

  16. Lifelike Vascular Reperfusion of a Thiel-Embalmed Pig Model and Evaluation as a Surgical Training Tool. (United States)

    Willaert, Wouter; Tozzi, Francesca; Van Hoof, Tom; Ceelen, Wim; Pattyn, Piet; D''Herde, Katharina


    Vascular reperfusion of Thiel cadavers can aid surgical and anatomical instruction. This study investigated whether ideal embalming circumstances provide lifelike vascular flow, enabling surgical practice and enhancing anatomical reality. Pressure-controlled pump-driven administration of blue embalming solution was assessed directly postmortem in a pig model (n = 4). Investigation of subsequent pump-driven vascular injection of red paraffinum perliquidum (PP) included assessment of flow parameters, intracorporeal distribution, anatomical alterations, and feasibility for surgical training. The microscopic distribution of PP was analyzed in pump-embalmed pig and gravity-embalmed human small intestines. Embalming lasted 50-105 min, and maximum arterial pressure was 65 mm Hg. During embalming, the following consecutive alterations were observed: arterial filling, organ coloration, venous perfusion, and further tissue coloration during the next weeks. Most organs were adequately preserved. PP generated low arterial pressures (embalmed pig small intestines, PP flowed from artery to vein through the capillaries without extravasation. In contrast, arterioles were blocked in gravity-embalmed human tissues. In a pig model, immediate postmortem pressure-controlled pump embalming generates ideal circumstances for (micro)vascular reperfusion with PP, permitting lifelike anatomy instruction and surgical training. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Animal ethics and welfare education in wet-lab training can foster residents' ethical values toward life. (United States)

    Iki, Yuko; Ito, Takuya; Kudo, Katsuyoshi; Noda, Masafumi; Kanehira, Masahiko; Sueta, Teruko; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Kagaya, Yutaka; Okada, Yoshinori; Unno, Michiaki


    Live animals are used in surgical skills training in wet lab, which has undeniable effectiveness for the development of future surgeons. However, where such training is provided, animal welfare is a major consideration. Increasingly, institutions that offer wet-lab training are incorporating animal ethics and welfare-related content into their training courses, but the effectiveness of such animal ethics education has yet to be evaluated quantitatively. We investigated whether the animal ethics content of a training course affected trainees by measuring increase in ethical awareness using visual analog scale questionnaires before and after training. Our results demonstrated a significant and positive increase in awareness of animal ethics (significance level of 5%; 0.0380≤P≤0.0016).

  18. The Dutch vocational education and training system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, A.M.C.


    The Dutch educational system is highly stratified from secondary education onwards3, and this also applies to MBO. Each MBO course can be followed in two different learning pathways, called the vocationally educating learning pathway (beroepsopleidende leerweg: BOL) and the vocationally guiding

  19. Education system and teacher training in India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    elementary education, followed by secondary and higher secondary education of two years duration each. The entry ... which would later play an important role in his success at school work and also his personal life ... The academic qualification for the entry in to a college of education is a bachelor degree in any one of the ...

  20. Innovation in Pediatric Surgical Education for General Surgery Residents: A Mobile Web Resource. (United States)

    Rouch, Joshua D; Wagner, Justin P; Scott, Andrew; Sullins, Veronica F; Chen, David C; DeUgarte, Daniel A; Shew, Stephen B; Tillou, Areti; Dunn, James C Y; Lee, Steven L


    General surgery residents lack a standardized educational experience in pediatric surgery. We hypothesized that the development of a mobile educational interface would provide general surgery residents broader access to pediatric surgical education materials. We created an educational mobile website for general surgery residents rotating on pediatric surgery, which included a curriculum, multimedia resources, the Operative Performance Rating Scale (OPRS), and Twitter functionality. Residents were instructed to consult the curriculum. Residents and faculty posted media using the Twitter hashtag, #UCLAPedSurg, and following each surgical procedure reviewed performance via the OPRS. Site visits, Twitter posts, and OPRS submissions were quantified from September 2013 to July 2014. The pediatric surgery mobile website received 257 hits; 108 to the homepage, 107 to multimedia, 28 to the syllabus, and 19 to the OPRS. All eligible residents accessed the content. The Twitter hashtag, #UCLAPedSurg, was assigned to 20 posts; the overall audience reach was 85 individuals. Participants in the mobile OPRS included 11 general surgery residents and 4 pediatric surgery faculty. Pediatric surgical education resources and operative performance evaluations are effectively administered to general surgery residents via a structured mobile platform. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Student preparation and the power of visual input in veterinary surgical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Koch, Bodil Cathrine


    In recent years, veterinary educational institutions have implemented alternative teaching methods, including video demonstrations of surgical procedures. However, the power of the dynamic visual input from videos in relation to recollection of a surgical procedure has never been evaluated. The a...... but a significant association (p = .002) with educational input. Our results illustrate the power of a visual input and support prior findings that knowledge is constructed from multiple sources of information.......In recent years, veterinary educational institutions have implemented alternative teaching methods, including video demonstrations of surgical procedures. However, the power of the dynamic visual input from videos in relation to recollection of a surgical procedure has never been evaluated. The aim...... in a terminal pig lab. Preparation for the pig lab consisted of homework (textbook, online material, including videos), lecture, cadaver lab, and toy animal models in a skills lab. In the instructional video, a detail was used that was not described elsewhere. Results show that 60% of the students used a visual...

  2. National priorities and training of adult educators in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Perme


    Full Text Available Well-qualified educators are a vital factor for the quality of adult education, enhancing inclusion in lifelong learning, An increase in interest for non-formal adult education programmes has been recorded; however, the public funds for non-for- mal adult education regarding future activities have been reduced (Analysis ReNPIO 2005-2008, 2010. When dealing with adults with a lack of education, skills and vocational and professional competencies, more common in people at lower educational levels and in the groups that require special social care (adults with special needs, groups that are vulnerable and marginal in other ways, the Roma and members of other ethnic communities, etc. we tend to come across situational and dispositional obstacles. They represent the basic obstacles for successful inclusion in lifelong learning (EK, 2011, which is often a precondition for development of basic competencies. Adult education, with properly trained adult educators, is one of the key social mechanisms for reaching the goals, set in the EU strategic documents. We are faced with dilemmas and challenges, since our national legislation fails to adequately determine educational requirements, knowledge and competen- cies for adult educators (ZOFVI, 1996; ZIO, 1996; somewhat more specific is the national policy regarding education and training of educators for special, publicly recognized programmes in adult education and specific adult education activities (infrastructural activities, provision of information and guidance, autonomous learning, quality, etc.

  3. Saturated salt solution method: a useful cadaver embalming for surgical skills training. (United States)

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro


    This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST.

  4. Innovative training strategy for higher education: the photonics training platform at University of Bordeaux (United States)

    Vieules, Marie Bénédicte; Oberlé, Jean; Cormier, Eric


    The Photonics training platform of University of Bordeaux aims at renewing higher education offer by structuring training (initial and continuing) on a "sector-specific" approach. The initiative is organized around key professional sectors identified in collaboration with regional socio-economic partners as well as research and teaching teams from Bordeaux's higher education facilities. The training platform intends to improve the hiring potential of students through a better match between the initial training courses and the labor market needs and to develop lifelong training courses in the University of Bordeaux. It aims at organizing these courses according to an approach by field and to establish their position at national and international levels. The platform acts on three priority axes: training provision, national and international partnerships, pedagogical innovation as well as lifelong learning improvement. Its strategy is based on the latter priorities and consists in the development of the training offer on the application sectors in close connection with industrials and a significant involvement in internationalization. The Photonics training platform strives to become a collaborative lab of ideas to design innovative learning tools by revisiting teaching methods in relation with technological developments; create a community of education experts in the field of photonics to spread this key enabling technology around scientific thematic taught in university. This project provides resources available to all stakeholders for better efficiency in the design and management of training projects and will be engaged in a continuous improvement process to establish the continuity of projects and quality enhancement.

  5. Implementation of team training in medical education in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, H T; Østergaard, Ditte; Lippert, A


    In the field of medicine, team training aiming at improving team skills such as leadership, communication, co-operation, and followership at the individual and the team level seems to reduce risk of serious events and therefore increase patient safety. The preferred educational method for this type...... of this framework is illustrated by the present multiprofessional team training in advanced cardiac life support, trauma team training and neonatal resuscitation in Denmark. The challenges of addressing all aspects of team skills, the education of the facilitators, and establishment of evaluation strategies...

  6. Nuclear education, training and knowledge management in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeley, Phil; Slugen, Vladimir; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, Rita


    The situation in the nuclear education today is complex as it relates to nuclear technology for both peaceful and security applications. After more than 20 years period of depression in nuclear facility construction (significant mainly in Europe and USA), there is strong renewed interest in nuclear-generated electricity. Many factors have contributed to ''nuclear renaissance'' including concerns about possible climate changes due to carbon emissions. The Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) study in 2000, ''Nuclear Education and Training. Cause for Concern'', highlighted the necessity for a renaissance in nuclear education and training with some recommendations. The European Nuclear Energy Forum (ENEF) identified the nuclear education as one of highest risks in nuclear industry. The nuclear renaissance depends on the increased number of engineers properly educated in wide spectrum of nuclear disciplines. The world has responded. Networks have been established to respond to the necessity to maintain and perpetuate nuclear knowledge in order to provide a suitably qualified workforce for the future operation of nuclear power plants. The quality in Education, Training and Knowledge Management (ETKM) is strongly influenced and supported by development of nuclear research, exploitation of experimental and training facilities, existence of proper education and training networks, software tools, distance and e-learning and a variety of knowledge management activities. The projected global annual requirements for new nuclear engineers over the next 10 years will challenge existing academic and training institutions with respect to capacity and load factors on classrooms, laboratories and other facilities such as basic principles simulators. Additionally, the nuclear academic workforce may need to increase to meet the demand for educating/training the new industrial workforce and this will take time. Within the European context many of the programmes will continue through

  7. Improvement of Educational Equity & Teacher Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Educational improvement for equity and professional teacher development are crucial issues concerning the essential right all students have of a good education. Firstly the article proposes a contextual reflection on improvement, some considerations related to well known traditions in the field and particularly the social justice and its relationships and implication for educational politics, curriculum, teaching, teacher and community. Secondly, it claims for the coherence of teacher professional development to educational equity. Different analysis and proposals are outlined related to policies and tasks the public administration should undertake and some dimensions of teacher education are considered attending educational equity criteria. Professional learning communities are described and valued as a hypothetical framework in order to improve equity and teacher education relationships.

  8. CAEP 2016 Academic Symposium on Education Scholarship: Training our Future Clinician Educators in Emergency Medicine. (United States)

    Woods, Robert A; Artz, Jennifer D; Carrière, Benoit; Field, Simon; Huffman, James; Dong, Sandy L; Bhanji, Farhan; Yiu, Stella; Smith, Sheila; Mengual, Rose; Hicks, Chris; Frank, Jason


    To develop consensus recommendations for training future clinician educators (CEs) in emergency medicine (EM). A panel of EM education leaders was assembled from across Canada and met regularly by teleconference over the course of 1 year. Recommendations for CE training were drafted based on the panel's experience, a literature review, and a survey of current and past EM education leaders in Canada. Feedback was sought from attendees at the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) annual academic symposium. Recommendations were distributed to the society's Academic Section for further feedback and updated by a consensus of the expert panel. Recommendations were categorized for one of three audiences: 1) Future CEs; 2) Academic departments and divisions (AD&D) that support training to fulfill their education leadership goals; and 3) The CAEP Academic Section. Advanced medical education training is recommended for any emergency physician or resident who pursues an education leadership role. Individuals should seek out mentorship in making decisions about career opportunities and training options. AD&D should regularly perform a needs assessment of their future CE needs and identify and encourage potential individuals who fulfill education leadership roles. AD&D should develop training opportunities at their institution, provide support to complete this training, and advocate for the recognition of education scholarship in their institutional promotions process. The CAEP Academic Section should support mentorship of future CEs on a national scale. These recommendations serve as a framework for training and supporting the next generation of Canadian EM medical educators.

  9. Education and training of physicians for radiation emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Rita


    The project orders implied the development, testing, and evaluation of a curriculum for educating and training physicians in prehospital radiation accident management and the development of a master curriculum. Objectives were to develop, preserve, and enlarge medical competence concerning prehospital care of radiation accident patients. The project is expected to contribute to qualify emergency physicians challenged by scenarios related to radiological and nuclear hazards. The development and the content of the curriculum for educating and training physicians in prehospital radiation accident management are being described. The conduction and evaluation of two pilot training courses with a total of 40 participating physicians are being presented. Successful testing of the pilot courses proves the value of the curriculum developed. Self-contained courses can be performed according to the master curriculum and the respective master presentations. Moreover, single modules can be integrated in existing education and training programmes. Suggestions for the implementation and accreditation of the curriculum are being made. (orig.)

  10. Training Teachers Towards Responsibility in Future Education: Innovative Models. (United States)

    Butler-Arlosoff, Nava

    The importance of teacher education is stressed, and two models for teacher education in Israel, one for teachers of gifted children in an urban environment and the other for training teachers of culturally different children, are offered. The teachers of gifted children were provided with a theory and practice course, a workshop, and practical…

  11. VET in Schools 2016. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2017


    This publication presents information on VET in Schools, the vocational education and training (VET) undertaken by school students as part of their senior secondary certificate of education. The VET in Schools arrangement offers two main options: students can undertake school-based apprenticeships and traineeships; or they can take VET subjects…

  12. Vocational Education and Training in France. Second Edition. (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    The six chapters of this report provide an overview of the vocational education and training (VET) system in France. Chapter 1 contains general information, such as the political and administrative structures of the VET system, population statistics, and a profile of the French economy. Chapter 2 describes the education system and its evolution…

  13. National Observatory Report on Vocational Education and Training in Moldova. (United States)


    The state of vocational education and training (VET) in Moldova was examined. The study focused on the following topics: Moldova's socioeconomic conditions; Moldova's labor market; governance of VET; Moldova's VET system; and anticipation of skill needs and standards. Selected findings were as follows: (1) the educational share of state…

  14. Computer-aided voice training in higher education: participants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... multi cultural educational context presents unique problems and requires inventive teaching strategies. Computer-aided training offers objective visual feedback of the voice production that can be impl