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  1. Vacuum sealing and cooling as methods to preserve surgical specimens

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    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Engvad, Birte; Nielsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Recently, vacuum-based preservation of surgical specimens has been proposed as a safe alternative to formalin fixation at the surgical theater. The method seems feasible from a practical point of view, but no systematic study has examined the effect of vacuum sealing alone with respect to tissue...

  2. HER2 testing on core needle biopsy specimens from primary breast cancers: interobserver reproducibility and concordance with surgically resected specimens

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    Yamamoto Sohei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2 status based on core needle biopsy (CNB specimens is mandatory for identification of patients with primary breast cancer who will benefit from primary systemic therapy with trastuzumab. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of HER2 testing with CNB specimens from primary breast cancers in terms of interobserver reproducibility and comparison with surgically resected specimens. Methods A total of 100 pairs of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CNB and surgically resected specimens of invasive breast carcinomas were cut into sections. All 100 paired sections were subjected to HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry (IHC and 27 paired sections were subjected to that by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, the results being evaluated by three and two observers, respectively. Interobserver agreement levels in terms of judgment and the concordance of consensus scores between CNB samples and the corresponding surgically resected specimens were estimated as the percentage agreement and κ statistic. Results In CNB specimens, the percentage interobserver agreement of HER2 scoring by IHC was 76% (κ = 0.71 for 3 × 3 categories (0-1+ versus 2+ versus 3+ and 90% (κ = 0.80 for 2 × 2 categories (0-2+ versus 3+. These levels were close to the corresponding ones for the surgically resected specimens: 80% (κ = 0.77 for 3 × 3 categories and 92% (κ = 0.88 for 2 × 2 categories. Concordance of consensus for HER2 scores determined by IHC between CNB and the corresponding surgical specimens was 87% (κ = 0.77 for 3 × 3 categories, and 94% (κ = 0.83 for 2 × 2 categories. Among the 13 tumors showing discordance in the mean IHC scores between the CNB and surgical specimens, the results of consensus for FISH results were concordant in 11. The rate of successful FISH analysis and the FISH positivity rate in cases with a HER2 IHC score of

  3. HER2 testing on core needle biopsy specimens from primary breast cancers: interobserver reproducibility and concordance with surgically resected specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Hitoshi; Kurosumi, Masafumi; Umemura, Shinobu; Yamamoto, Sohei; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Osamura, Robert Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2) status based on core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens is mandatory for identification of patients with primary breast cancer who will benefit from primary systemic therapy with trastuzumab. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of HER2 testing with CNB specimens from primary breast cancers in terms of interobserver reproducibility and comparison with surgically resected specimens. A total of 100 pairs of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CNB and surgically resected specimens of invasive breast carcinomas were cut into sections. All 100 paired sections were subjected to HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and 27 paired sections were subjected to that by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the results being evaluated by three and two observers, respectively. Interobserver agreement levels in terms of judgment and the concordance of consensus scores between CNB samples and the corresponding surgically resected specimens were estimated as the percentage agreement and κ statistic. In CNB specimens, the percentage interobserver agreement of HER2 scoring by IHC was 76% (κ = 0.71) for 3 × 3 categories (0-1+ versus 2+ versus 3+) and 90% (κ = 0.80) for 2 × 2 categories (0-2+ versus 3+). These levels were close to the corresponding ones for the surgically resected specimens: 80% (κ = 0.77) for 3 × 3 categories and 92% (κ = 0.88) for 2 × 2 categories. Concordance of consensus for HER2 scores determined by IHC between CNB and the corresponding surgical specimens was 87% (κ = 0.77) for 3 × 3 categories, and 94% (κ = 0.83) for 2 × 2 categories. Among the 13 tumors showing discordance in the mean IHC scores between the CNB and surgical specimens, the results of consensus for FISH results were concordant in 11. The rate of successful FISH analysis and the FISH positivity rate in cases with a HER2 IHC score of 2+ differed among specimens processed at

  4. Breast surgical specimen radiographs: How reliable are they?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, P.D.; Sonoda, L.I.; Yamamoto, A.K.; Koo, B.; Soh, E.; Goud, A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiography of the excised surgical specimen following wire guided localisation of impalpable breast lesions is standard surgical practice. The aims of the study were to establish the reliability of the breast specimen radiograph (SR) in determining lesion excision and to determine whether the radiographic margin correlated with the histological margin. The clinical, imaging, SR and pathological details of 106 patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of breast cancer were retrospectively reviewed. The reliability of orientation was estimated and the appearance and distance from the mammographic abnormality to each radial margin were measured and correlated with surgical histological findings. The overall accuracy of the specimen radiograph in determining whether the mammographic lesion was present was 99%. The SR could be orientated 'very reliably' or 'reliably' in 80% of patients however in only 48% of patients did the closest margin on the SR correspond with the same nearest margin at final histology. A maximum measurement of 11 mm or more from the lesion to the specimen edge was associated with a 77% likelihood of having a clear final histological margin (taken as 5 mm or more) and if <11 mm a 58% chance of having involved final histological margins. There was however a wide overlap in the results with patients having an apparently wide SR margin but histologically involved margins and vice versa. The SR is reliable at determining whether the target lesion has been removed. The correlation of SR margin orientation and measurement with final histological measurement is however far less reliable.

  5. Herbarium specimens show contrasting phenological responses to Himalayan climate.

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    Hart, Robbie; Salick, Jan; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2014-07-22

    Responses by flowering plants to climate change are complex and only beginning to be understood. Through analyses of 10,295 herbarium specimens of Himalayan Rhododendron collected by plant hunters and botanists since 1884, we were able to separate these responses into significant components. We found a lack of directional change in mean flowering time over the past 45 y of rapid warming. However, over the full 125 y of collections, mean flowering time shows a significant response to year-to-year changes in temperature, and this response varies with season of warming. Mean flowering advances with annual warming (2.27 d earlier per 1 °C warming), and also is delayed with fall warming (2.54 d later per 1 °C warming). Annual warming may advance flowering through positive effects on overwintering bud formation, whereas fall warming may delay flowering through an impact on chilling requirements. The lack of a directional response suggests that contrasting phenological responses to temperature changes may obscure temperature sensitivity in plants. By drawing on large collections from multiple herbaria, made over more than a century, we show how these data may inform studies even of remote localities, and we highlight the increasing value of these and other natural history collections in understanding long-term change.

  6. Light Reflectance Spectroscopy to Detect Positive Surgical Margins on Prostate Cancer Specimens.

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    Morgan, Monica S C; Lay, Aaron H; Wang, Xinlong; Kapur, Payal; Ozayar, Asim; Sayah, Maryam; Zeng, Li; Liu, Hanli; Roehrborn, Claus G; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A

    2016-02-01

    Intraoperative frozen section analysis is not routinely performed to determine positive surgical margins at radical prostatectomy due to time requirements and unproven clinical usefulness. Light reflectance spectroscopy, which measures light intensity reflected or backscattered from tissues, can be applied to differentiate malignant from benign tissue. We used a novel light reflectance spectroscopy probe to evaluate positive surgical margins on ex vivo radical prostatectomy specimens and correlate its findings with pathological examination. Patients with intermediate to high risk disease undergoing radical prostatectomy were enrolled. Light reflectance spectroscopy was performed on suspected malignant and benign prostate capsule immediately following organ extraction. Each light reflectance spectroscopy at 530 to 830 nm was analyzed and correlated with pathological results. A regression model and forward sequential selection algorithm were developed for optimal feature selection. Eighty percent of light reflectance spectroscopy data were selected to train a logistic regression model, which was evaluated by the remaining 20% data. This was repeated 5 times to calculate averaged sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Light reflectance spectroscopy analysis was performed on 17 ex vivo prostate specimens, on which a total of 11 histologically positive and 22 negative surgical margins were measured. Two select features from 700 to 830 nm were identified as unique to malignant tissue. Cross-validation when performing the predictive model showed that the optical probe predicted positive surgical margins with 85% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 86% accuracy and an AUC of 0.95. Light reflectance spectroscopy can identify positive surgical margins accurately in fresh ex vivo radical prostatectomy specimens. Further study is required to determine whether such analysis may be used in real time to improve surgical decision making and decrease positive surgical margin rates

  7. Factors that impact turnaround time of surgical pathology specimens in an academic institution.

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    Patel, Samip; Smith, Jennifer B; Kurbatova, Ekaterina; Guarner, Jeannette

    2012-09-01

    Turnaround time of laboratory results is important for customer satisfaction. The College of American Pathologists' checklist requires an analytic turnaround time of 2 days or less for most routine cases and lets every hospital define what a routine specimen is. The objective of this study was to analyze which factors impact turnaround time of nonbiopsy surgical pathology specimens. We calculated the turnaround time from receipt to verification of results (adjusted for weekends and holidays) for all nonbiopsy surgical specimens during a 2-week period. Factors studied included tissue type, number of slides per case, decalcification, immunohistochemistry, consultations with other pathologists, and diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 713 specimens were analyzed, 551 (77%) were verified within 2 days and 162 (23%) in 3 days or more. Lung, gastrointestinal, breast, and genitourinary specimens showed the highest percentage of cases being signed out in over 3 days. Diagnosis of malignancy (including staging of the neoplasia), consultation with other pathologists, having had a frozen section, and use of immunohistochemical stains were significantly associated with increased turnaround time in univariate analysis. Decalcification was not associated with increased turnaround time. In multivariate analysis, consultation with other pathologists, use of immunohistochemistry, diagnosis of malignancy, and the number of slides studied continued to be significantly associated with prolonged turnaround time. Our findings suggest that diagnosis of malignancy is central to significantly prolonging the turnaround time for surgical pathology specimens, thus institutions that serve cancer centers will have longer turnaround time than those that do not. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Improved compliance with the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist is associated with reduced surgical specimen labelling errors.

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    Martis, Walston R; Hannam, Jacqueline A; Lee, Tracey; Merry, Alan F; Mitchell, Simon J

    2016-09-09

    A new approach to administering the surgical safety checklist (SSC) at our institution using wall-mounted charts for each SSC domain coupled with migrated leadership among operating room (OR) sub-teams, led to improved compliance with the Sign Out domain. Since surgical specimens are reviewed at Sign Out, we aimed to quantify any related change in surgical specimen labelling errors. Prospectively maintained error logs for surgical specimens sent to pathology were examined for the six months before and after introduction of the new SSC administration paradigm. We recorded errors made in the labelling or completion of the specimen pot and on the specimen laboratory request form. Total error rates were calculated from the number of errors divided by total number of specimens. Rates from the two periods were compared using a chi square test. There were 19 errors in 4,760 specimens (rate 3.99/1,000) and eight errors in 5,065 specimens (rate 1.58/1,000) before and after the change in SSC administration paradigm (P=0.0225). Improved compliance with administering the Sign Out domain of the SSC can reduce surgical specimen errors. This finding provides further evidence that OR teams should optimise compliance with the SSC.

  9. MR evaluation of postmenopausal ovarian size. Comparison with surgical specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joja, Ikuo; Ishida, Kana; Matsushita, Toshi; Mimura, Seiichi; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Akagi, Noriaki; Miyagi, Yasunari; Hara, Takeshi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    We investigated ovarian size after menopause using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and gross specimens obtained from patients with uterine cancer after menopause in whom normal ovaries were confirmed at the time of surgery. The relationships between size of ovarian long axis and age, the number of years since menopause, and age at menopause were statistically evaluated for 130 ovaries observed in short-axis T 2 -weighted MR images of the uterine corpus and in 147 ovarian gross specimens. No significant relationships were found between size of ovarian long axis and these 3 factors. When the sizes of the ovaries in MR images were compared with those in gross specimens, the latter were larger, with a statistically significant difference. Similarly, when the sizes of the ovaries observed or not observed in MR images were compared in gross specimens, the former were larger, with a statistically significant difference. These results indicate that the size of the ovarian long axis observed in MR images does not accurately reflect the true size of the long axis, but ovarian size strongly affects visualization of the ovaries in MR images after menopause. In addition, these results indicate that there are no significant relationships between ovarian size after menopause and age, the number of years since menopause, or age at menopause. (author)

  10. Risk Factors Associated with Discordant Ki-67 Levels between Preoperative Biopsy and Postoperative Surgical Specimens in Breast Cancers.

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    Hyung Sun Kim

    Full Text Available The Ki-67 labelling index is significant for the management of breast cancer. However, the concordance of Ki-67 expression between preoperative biopsy and postoperative surgical specimens has not been well evaluated. This study aimed to find the correlation in Ki-67 expression between biopsy and surgical specimens and to determine the clinicopathological risk factors associated with discordant values.Ki-67 levels were immunohistochemically measured using paired biopsy and surgical specimens in 310 breast cancer patients between 2008 and 2013. ΔKi-67 was calculated by postoperative Ki-67 minus preoperative levels. The outliers of ΔKi-67 were defined as [lower quartile of ΔKi-67-1.5 × interquartile range (IQR] or (upper quartile + 1.5 × IQR and were evaluated according to clinicopathological parameters by logistic regression analysis.The median preoperative and postoperative Ki-67 levels were 10 (IQR, 15 and 10 (IQR, 25, respectively. Correlation of Ki-67 levels between the two specimens indicated a moderately positive relationship (coefficient = 0.676. Of 310 patients, 44 (14.2% showed outliers of ΔKi-67 (range, ≤-20 or ≥28. A significant association with poor prognostic factors was found among these patients. Multivariate analysis determined that significant risk factors for outliers of ΔKi-67 were tumor size >1 cm, negative progesterone receptor (PR expression, grade III cancer, and age ≤35 years. Among 171 patients with luminal human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative tumors, breast cancer subtype according to preoperative or postoperative Ki-67 levels discordantly changed in 46 (26.9% patients and a significant proportion of patients with discordant cases had ≥1 risk factor.Ki-67 expression showed a substantial concordance between biopsy and surgical specimens. Extremely discordant Ki-67 levels may be associated with aggressive tumor biology. In patients with luminal subtype disease, clinical application of Ki-67

  11. Anterolateral Ligament of the Knee Shows Variable Anatomy in Pediatric Specimens.

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    Shea, Kevin G; Milewski, Matthew D; Cannamela, Peter C; Ganley, Theodore J; Fabricant, Peter D; Terhune, Elizabeth B; Styhl, Alexandra C; Anderson, Allen F; Polousky, John D

    2017-06-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction failure rates are highest in youth athletes. The role of the anterolateral ligament in rotational knee stability is of increasing interest, and several centers are exploring combined ACL and anterolateral ligament reconstruction for these young patients. Literature on the anterolateral ligament of the knee is sparse in regard to the pediatric population. A single study on specimens younger than age 5 years demonstrated the presence of the anterolateral ligament in only one of eight specimens; therefore, much about the prevalence and anatomy of the anterolateral ligament in pediatric specimens remains unknown. We sought to (1) investigate the presence or absence of the anterolateral ligament in prepubescent anatomic specimens; (2) describe the anatomic relationship of the anterolateral ligament to the lateral collateral ligament; and (3) describe the anatomic relationship between the anterolateral ligament and the physis. Fourteen skeletally immature knee specimens (median age, 8 years; range, 7-11 years) were dissected (12 male, two female specimens). The posterolateral structures were identified in all specimens, including the lateral collateral ligament and popliteus tendon. The presence or absence of the anterolateral ligament was documented in each specimen, along with origin, insertion, and dimensions, when applicable. The relationship of the anterolateral ligament origin to the lateral collateral ligament origin was recorded. The anterolateral ligament was identified in nine of 14 specimens. The tibial attachment point was consistently located in the same region on the proximal tibia, between the fibular head and Gerdy's tubercle; however, the femoral origin of the anterolateral ligament showed considerable variation with respect to the lateral collateral ligament origin. The median femoral origin of the anterolateral ligament was 10 mm (first interquartile 6 mm, third interquartile 13) distal to the distal

  12. Concordance of DNA methylation profiles between breast core biopsy and surgical excision specimens containing ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

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    Chen, Youdinghuan; Marotti, Jonathan D; Jenson, Erik G; Onega, Tracy L; Johnson, Kevin C; Christensen, Brock C

    2017-08-01

    The utility and reliability of assessing molecular biomarkers for translational applications on pre-operative core biopsy specimens assume consistency of molecular profiles with larger surgical specimens. Whether DNA methylation in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), measured in core biopsy and surgical specimens are similar, remains unclear. Here, we compared genome-scale DNA methylation measured in matched core biopsy and surgical specimens from DCIS, including specific DNA methylation biomarkers of subsequent invasive cancer. DNA was extracted from guided 2mm cores of formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens, bisulfite-modified, and measured on the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. DNA methylation profiles of core biopsies exhibited high concordance with matched surgical specimens. Within-subject variability in DNA methylation was significantly lower than between-subject variability (all Pcore biopsy and surgical specimens, 15%, and a pathway analysis of these CpGs indicated enrichment for genes related with wound healing. Our results indicate that DNA methylation measured in core biopsies are representative of the matched surgical specimens and suggest that DCIS biomarkers measured in core biopsies can inform clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Herbarium specimens, photographs, and field observations show Philadelphia area plants are responding to climate change.

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    Panchen, Zoe A; Primack, Richard B; Anisko, Tomasz; Lyons, Robert E

    2012-04-01

    The global climate is changing rapidly and is expected to continue changing in coming decades. Studying changes in plant flowering times during a historical period of warming temperatures gives us a way to examine the impacts of climate change and allows us to predict further changes in coming decades. The Greater Philadelphia region has a long and rich history of botanical study and documentation, with abundant herbarium specimens, field observations, and botanical photographs from the mid-1800s onward. These extensive records also provide an opportunity to validate methodologies employed by other climate change researchers at a different biogeographical area and with a different group of species. Data for 2539 flowering records from 1840 to 2010 were assessed to examine changes in flowering response over time and in relation to monthly minimum temperatures of 28 Piedmont species native to the Greater Philadelphia region. Regression analysis of the date of flowering with year or with temperature showed that, on average, the Greater Philadelphia species studied are flowering 16 d earlier over the 170-yr period and 2.7 d earlier per 1°C rise in monthly minimum temperature. Of the species studied, woody plants with short flowering duration are the best indicators of a warming climate. For monthly minimum temperatures, temperatures 1 or 2 mo prior to flowering are most significantly correlated with flowering time. Studies combining herbarium specimens, photographs, and field observations are an effective method for detecting the effects of climate change on flowering times.

  14. Microvascular injury of the peribiliary plexus associated with transarterial chemoembolization: a study of surgical specimens

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    Park, Won Kyu; Bae, Young Kyung; Hwang, Tae Yoon; Cho, Jae Ho; Chang, Jay Chun; Kim, Jae Woon; Jang, Han Won [College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-11-15

    We attempted to evaluate the relationship between transarteiral chemoembolization (TACE) and injury to the peribiliary plexus by evaluating the number of microvessels in peribiliary plexus of surgical specimen. Surgical specimens were obtained from 78 hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 22 patients with liver metastases. They were divided into 4 groups (Group 1; hepatocellular carcinoma without TACE [n=30], Group 2; hepatocellular carcinoma receiving preoperative TACE once [n=37], Group 3; hepatocellular carcinoma receiving preoperative TACE more than two times [n=11] and Group 4; metastatic carcinoma of the liver patients without a history of liver disease [n=22]). Immunohistochemical staining for factor VIII-related antigen was performed in all the specimens and the number of microvessels in the inner capillary layer and the outer venous layer of the bile duct (> 200 {mu} m in diameter) was counted. The mean numbers of microvessels in the inner capillary layer were 4.50, 4.08, 1.64 and 2.05, and those in the outer venous layer were 25.23, 20.00, 18.36 and 12.32 for the 4 groups, respectively. The number of microvessels in group 4 was statistically fewer than that of group 1 ({rho} < 0.01). In the hepatocellular carcinoma patients, the number of microvessels was decreased as the number of TACE sessions was increased. The number of microvessels in the peribiliary plexus is increased in chronic liver disease patients. It may be from the increased portal pressure and flow stagnation in the sinusoidal and portal venules. TACE can have an effect on microvascular injury of the peibiliary plexus, and this can be a cause of bile duct necrosis and biloma.

  15. Herbarium specimens show patterns of fruiting phenology in native and invasive plant species across New England.

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    Gallinat, Amanda S; Russo, Luca; Melaas, Eli K; Willis, Charles G; Primack, Richard B

    2018-01-01

    Patterns of fruiting phenology in temperate ecosystems are poorly understood, despite the ecological importance of fruiting for animal nutrition and seed dispersal. Herbarium specimens represent an under-utilized resource for investigating geographical and climatic factors affecting fruiting times within species, patterns in fruiting times among species, and differences between native and non-native invasive species. We examined over 15,000 herbarium specimens, collected and housed across New England, and found 3159 specimens with ripe fruits, collected from 1849-2013. We examined patterns in fruiting phenology among 37 native and 18 invasive woody plant species common to New England. We compared fruiting dates between native and invasive species, and analyzed how fruiting phenology varies with temperature, space, and time. Spring temperature and year explained a small but significant amount of the variation in fruiting dates. Accounting for the moderate phylogenetic signal in fruiting phenology, invasive species fruited 26 days later on average than native species, with significantly greater standard deviations. Herbarium specimens can be used to detect patterns in fruiting times among species. However, the amount of intraspecific variation in fruiting times explained by temporal, geographic, and climatic predictors is small, due to a combination of low temporal resolution of fruiting specimens and the protracted nature of fruiting. Later fruiting times in invasive species, combined with delays in autumn bird migrations in New England, may increase the likelihood that migratory birds will consume and disperse invasive seeds in New England later into the year. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  16. A Histomorphological Pattern Analysis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Lung Autopsy and Surgically Resected Specimens

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    Mamta Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tuberculosis (TB is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Many cases are diagnosed on autopsy and a subset of patients may require surgical intervention either due to the complication or sequelae of TB. Materials and Methods. 40 cases of resected lung specimens following surgery or autopsy in which a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis was made were included. Histopathological pattern analysis of pulmonary tuberculosis along with associated nonneoplastic changes and identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli was done. Results. The mean age of diagnosis was 41 years with male predominance (92.5%. Tuberculosis was suspected in only 12.1% of cases before death. Seven cases were operated upon due to associated complications or suspicion of malignancy. Tubercular consolidation was the most frequent pattern followed by miliary tuberculosis. The presence of necrotizing granulomas was seen in 33 cases (82.5%. Acid fast bacilli were seen in 57.5% cases on Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Conclusion. Histopathology remains one of the most important methods for diagnosing tuberculosis, especially in TB prevalent areas. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all respiratory diseases because of its varied clinical presentations and manifestations.

  17. Evaluation of conventional, dynamic contrast enhanced and diffusion weighted MRI for quantitative Crohn's disease assessment with histopathology of surgical specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielbeek, Jeroen A. W.; Ziech, Manon L. W.; Li, Zhang; Lavini, Cristina; Bipat, Shandra; Bemelman, Willem A.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Vos, Frans M.; Stoker, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    To prospectively compare conventional MRI sequences, dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with histopathology of surgical specimens in Crohn's disease. 3-T MR enterography was performed in consecutive Crohn's disease patients scheduled for surgery within 4 weeks.

  18. Recommendations for the reporting of surgically resected specimens of renal cell carcinoma: the Association of Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology.

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    Higgins, John P; McKenney, Jesse K; Brooks, James D; Argani, Pedram; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2009-04-01

    A checklist based approach to reporting the relevant pathologic details of renal cell carcinoma resection specimens improves the completeness of the report. Karyotypic evaluation of renal neoplasms has refined but also complicated their classification. The number of diagnostic possibilities has increased and the importance of distinguishing different tumor types has been underscored by dramatic variation in prognosis and the development of targeted therapies for specific subtypes. The increasing number of recognized renal neoplasms has implications for handling renal resection specimens. Furthermore, the prognostic significance of other features of renal neoplasms related to grade and stage has been demonstrated. This guideline for the handling of renal resection specimens will focus on problem areas in the evolving practice of diagnosis, grading, and staging of renal neoplasms. The accompanying checklist will serve to ensure that all necessary details of the renal resection specimen are included in the surgical pathology report.

  19. Processing of fallopian tube, ovary, and endometrial surgical pathology specimens: A survey of U.S. laboratory practices.

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    Samimi, Goli; Trabert, Britton; Duggan, Máire A; Robinson, Jennifer L; Coa, Kisha I; Waibel, Elizabeth; Garcia, Edna; Minasian, Lori M; Sherman, Mark E

    2018-03-01

    Many high-grade serous carcinomas initiate in fallopian tubes as serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), a microscopic lesion identified with specimen processing according to the Sectioning and Extensive Examination of the Fimbria protocol (SEE-Fim). Given that the tubal origin of these cancers was recently recognized, we conducted a survey of pathology practices to assess processing protocols that are applied to gynecologic surgical pathology specimens in clinical contexts in which finding STIC might have different implications. We distributed a survey electronically to the American Society for Clinical Pathology list-serve to determine practice patterns and compared results between practice types by chi-square (χ2) tests for categorical variables. Free text comments were qualitatively reviewed. Survey responses were received from 159 laboratories (72 academic, 87 non-academic), which reported diverse specimen volumes and percentage of gynecologic samples. Overall, 74.1% of laboratories reported performing SEE-Fim for risk-reducing surgical specimens (82.5% academic versus 65.7% non-academic, p STIC or early cancer precursors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients

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    Fei, Baowei; Lu, Guolan; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Hongzheng; Little, James V.; Patel, Mihir R.; Griffith, Christopher C.; El-Diery, Mark W.; Chen, Amy Y.

    2017-08-01

    A label-free, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) approach has been proposed for tumor margin assessment. HSI data, i.e., hypercube (x,y,λ), consist of a series of high-resolution images of the same field of view that are acquired at different wavelengths. Every pixel on an HSI image has an optical spectrum. In this pilot clinical study, a pipeline of a machine-learning-based quantification method for HSI data was implemented and evaluated in patient specimens. Spectral features from HSI data were used for the classification of cancer and normal tissue. Surgical tissue specimens were collected from 16 human patients who underwent head and neck (H&N) cancer surgery. HSI, autofluorescence images, and fluorescence images with 2-deoxy-2-[(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]-D-glucose (2-NBDG) and proflavine were acquired from each specimen. Digitized histologic slides were examined by an H&N pathologist. The HSI and classification method were able to distinguish between cancer and normal tissue from the oral cavity with an average accuracy of 90%±8%, sensitivity of 89%±9%, and specificity of 91%±6%. For tissue specimens from the thyroid, the method achieved an average accuracy of 94%±6%, sensitivity of 94%±6%, and specificity of 95%±6%. HSI outperformed autofluorescence imaging or fluorescence imaging with vital dye (2-NBDG or proflavine). This study demonstrated the feasibility of label-free, HSI for tumor margin assessment in surgical tissue specimens of H&N cancer patients. Further development of the HSI technology is warranted for its application in image-guided surgery.

  1. Diagnostic p53 immunostaining of endobiliary brush cytology: preoperative cytology compared with the surgical specimen

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    Tascilar, M.; Sturm, P. D.; Caspers, E.; Smit, M.; Polak, M. M.; Huibregtse, K.; Noorduyn, L. A.; Offerhaus, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    Endobiliary brush cytology is important in the distinction of malignant and benign causes of extrahepatic bile duct obstruction. The additional diagnostic value of p53 immunostaining on these cytology specimens was assessed. All patients with extrahepatic bile duct obstruction who underwent

  2. Lymph node retrieval in abdominoperineal surgical specimen is radiation time-dependent

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    Allal Abdelkarim S

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low yield of lymph nodes (LN in abdominoperineal resection (APR specimen has been associated with preoperative radiation therapy (XRT in population-based studies, which may preclude adequate staging of anorectal carcinomas. We hypothesized that the number of LN retrieved in APR specimen was correlated with the dose and the timing of pelvic irradiation. Patients and methods We performed a retrospective study of 102 patients who underwent APR in a single institution between 1980 and 2004. Pathological reports were reviewed and the number of lymph nodes retrieved in APR specimens was correlated with: 1 Preoperative radiation; 2 Dose of pelvic irradiation; and 3 Time interval between the end of XRT and surgery. Results There were 61 men and 41 women, with a median age of 66 (range 25–89 years. There were 12 patients operated for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA and 90 for rectal cancer. 83% and 46% of patients with anal and rectal cancer respectively underwent radical/neoadjuvant radiotherapy. The mean ± SD number of LN in APR specimen was 9.2 ± 5.9. The mean number of LN in APR specimen was significantly lower in patients who underwent preoperative XRT (8 ± 5.5 vs. 10.5 ± 6.1, Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.02. The mean number of LN was not significantly different after XRT in patients with SCCA than in patients with rectal cancer (6.2 ± 5.3 vs. 7.8 ± 5.3, p = 0.33. Finally, there was an inverse correlation between the yield of LN and the time elapsed between XRT and surgery (linear regression coefficient r = -0.32, p = 0.03. Conclusion Our data indicate that: 1 radiation therapy affects the yield of LN retrieval in APR specimen; 2 this impact is time-dependent. These findings have important implications with regard to anatomic-pathological staging of anal and rectal cancers and subsequent decision-making regarding adjuvant chemotherapy.

  3. Biobanking of fresh frozen tissue from clinical surgical specimens: transport logistics, sample selection, and histologic characterization.

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    Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Access to high-quality fresh frozen tissue is critical for translational cancer research and molecular -diagnostics. Here we describe a workflow for the collection of frozen solid tissue samples derived from fresh human patient specimens after surgery. The routines have been in operation at Uppsala University Hospital since 2001. We have integrated cryosection and histopathologic examination of each biobank sample into the biobank manual. In this way, even small, macroscopically ill-defined lesions can be -procured without a diagnostic hazard due to the removal of uncharacterized tissue from a clinical -specimen. Also, knowledge of the histomorphology of the frozen tissue sample - tumor cell content, stromal components, and presence of necrosis - is pivotal before entering a biobank case into costly molecular profiling studies.

  4. Recommendations for processing cardiovascular surgical pathology specimens: a consensus statement from the Standards and Definitions Committee of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology and the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, James R.; Basso, Cristina; Baandrup, Ulrik T.; Bruneval, Patrick; Butany, Jagdish; Gallagher, Patrick J.; Halushka, Marc K.; Miller, Dylan V.; Padera, Robert F.; Radio, Stanley J.; Sheppard, Mary N.; Suvarna, Kim; Tan, Carmela D.; Thiene, Gaetano; van der Wal, Allard C.; Veinot, John P.

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of molecular subclassification of diseases, much consideration should be given to the proper processing of cardiovascular surgical pathology specimens to maximize patient care. Such specimens include endomyocardial biopsies, cardiac myectomy specimens, cardiac apical core segments,

  5. Differentiation of Metastatic and Non-Metastatic Mesenteric Lymph Nodes by Strain Elastography in Surgical Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havre, R F; Leh, S M; Gilja, O H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate if strain elastography could differentiate between metastatic and non-metastatic mesenteric lymph nodes ex-vivo. Materials and Methods: 90 mesenteric lymph nodes were examined shortly after resection from 25 patients including 17 patients with colorectal cancer and 8...... patients with Crohn's disease. Ultrasound-based strain elastography was performed with a linear probe. Tissue hardness in lymph nodes was assessed using visual scales and measuring the strain ratio. B-mode characteristics were also recorded. Pathological diagnosis with grading of fibrosis served...... non-metastatic nodes, but the difference was not significant (65.5 vs. 55.0, p = 0.055). There was no difference between lymph nodes in Crohn's and non-metastatic cancer specimens. The metastatic lymph nodes were significantly more fibrotic than the non-metastatic lymph nodes by the ordinal fibrosis...

  6. A comparative study of computed tomography with surgical specimen in 32 cases of hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Noriyuki; Yamazaki, Satoru; Hukuda, Toyofumi

    1984-01-01

    We have been localizing pathological parathyroid glands by computed tomography(CT) since December '80. We reviewed 32 cases of surgically-treated hyperparathyroidism, in which 99 parathyroid glands were resected, each weight ranging from 20 to 3300 mg. Comparing the resected parathyroid glands with preoperative CT, we concluded as follows: 1) Pathological parathyroid glands were identified in 25 of the 32 cases (78 %). 2) In parathyroid glands weighing over 300mg, 60 from 64 glands (94 %) were identified by CT. 3) In secondary hyperaparathyroidism with radiologically proven subperiosteal resorption, pathologically-enlarged parathyroid glands were identified by CT in 22 from 23 cases (95%). CT was considered a useful diagnostic method in secondary hyperparathyroidism. 4) Experiencing 2 false-positive cases and one false-negative, which were ectopic cases, we concluded it necesary to use bolus-enhancement in localizing ectopic parathyroid glands. (author)

  7. Integration of Value Stream Map and Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis into Six Sigma Methodology to Improve Process of Surgical Specimen Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hui Hung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimen handling is a critical patient safety issue. Problematic handling process, such as misidentification (of patients, surgical site, and specimen counts, specimen loss, or improper specimen preparation can lead to serious patient harms and lawsuits. Value stream map (VSM is a tool used to find out non-value-added works, enhance the quality, and reduce the cost of the studied process. On the other hand, healthcare failure mode and effect analysis (HFMEA is now frequently employed to avoid possible medication errors in healthcare process. Both of them have a goal similar to Six Sigma methodology for process improvement. This study proposes a model that integrates VSM and HFMEA into the framework, which mainly consists of define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC, of Six Sigma. A Six Sigma project for improving the process of surgical specimen handling in a hospital was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  8. Integration of Value Stream Map and Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis into Six Sigma Methodology to Improve Process of Surgical Specimen Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Sheng-Hui; Wang, Pa-Chun; Lin, Hung-Chun; Chen, Hung-Ying; Su, Chao-Ton

    2015-01-01

    Specimen handling is a critical patient safety issue. Problematic handling process, such as misidentification (of patients, surgical site, and specimen counts), specimen loss, or improper specimen preparation can lead to serious patient harms and lawsuits. Value stream map (VSM) is a tool used to find out non-value-added works, enhance the quality, and reduce the cost of the studied process. On the other hand, healthcare failure mode and effect analysis (HFMEA) is now frequently employed to avoid possible medication errors in healthcare process. Both of them have a goal similar to Six Sigma methodology for process improvement. This study proposes a model that integrates VSM and HFMEA into the framework, which mainly consists of define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC), of Six Sigma. A Six Sigma project for improving the process of surgical specimen handling in a hospital was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  9. Epidemiologic evaluation ABCC and Nagasaki University School of Medicine autopsies and ABCC surgical specimens: Nagasaki 1950-59

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samther, T G; Hrubec, Zdenek; Brown, W J; Thomas, G D

    1962-08-22

    This epidemiologic evaluation covered autopsies performed at ABCC Nagasaki and at the Nagasaki University School of Medicine, as well as surgical pathology specimens examined at ABCC Nagasaki during 1950-59. The material was related to the ABCC Master Sample population. Bias was demonstrated with respect to symptom status, exposure, age, death certificate diagnosis, male occupations, and history of previous medical examinations at ABCC. In addition the ABCC autopsy series was found to be biased with regard to sex. Comparison with data from Hiroshima indicated similar bias which is possibly more pronounced in Hiroshima. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that at this time the material is not suitable for broad epidemiologic studies of clinically manifest disease. The material, however, does lend itself to a number of studies of clinically occult disease and other problems which were discussed. 19 references, 32 tables.

  10. Diagnosis and surgical outcomes of intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma showing normal facial nerve function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D W; Byeon, H K; Chung, H P; Choi, E C; Kim, S-H; Park, Y M

    2013-07-01

    The findings of intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma (FNS) using preoperative diagnostic tools, including ultrasonography (US)-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy, computed tomography (CT) scan, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were analyzed to determine if there are any useful findings that might suggest the presence of a lesion. Treatment guidelines are suggested. The medical records of 15 patients who were diagnosed with an intraparotid FNS were retrospectively analyzed. US and CT scans provide clinicians with only limited information; gadolinium enhanced T1-weighted images from MRI provide more specific findings. Tumors could be removed successfully with surgical exploration, preserving facial nerve function at the same time. Gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI showed more characteristic findings for the diagnosis of intraparotid FNS. Intraparotid FNS without facial palsy can be diagnosed with MRI preoperatively, and surgical exploration is a suitable treatment modality which can remove the tumor and preserve facial nerve function. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relation between small airways disease and parenchymal destruction in surgical lung specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, L N; Kramps, J A; Stijnen, T; Sterk, P J; Weening, J J; Dijkman, J H

    1990-01-01

    The relation between small airways disease and parenchymal destruction was investigated in lungs and lobes removed at surgery from 27 patients aged 15-70 years. Eight of the 27 patients were life-long non-smokers. The degree of small airways disease was assessed by semi-quantitative grading (SAD score) and by measuring diameter and wall thickness of membranous bronchioles. Parenchymal destruction was measured in three ways. Firstly, the number of alveolar attachments on membranous bronchioles per millimetre of circumference (AA/mm) was counted; the number of broken attachments was subtracted from the total AA/mm to give the numbers of intact attachments (normal AA/mm). Secondly, a point counting technique was used to give a destructive index (DI). Thirdly, the mean linear intercept (Lm) was determined. Total and normal AA/mm correlated negatively with the SAD score of membranous bronchioles (rs = -0.48 and -0.51) and with wall thickness (rs = -0.37 and -0.45) and DI correlated with wall thickness (rs = 0.5) and with the SAD score of respiratory bronchioles (rs = 0.53). Lm did not correlate with indices of small airway disease and total and normal AA/mm did not correlate with diameter. Multiple regression analyses showed that the correlation of total AA/mm with the SAD score of membranous and respiratory bronchioles and with wall thickness were not confounded by age or smoking. It is concluded that small airways disease is related to destruction of peribronchiolar alveoli, and it is postulated that small airways disease has a direct role in the causation of centrilobular emphysema. PMID:2315880

  12. Microbiology specimens obtained at the time of surgical lung biopsy for interstitial lung disease: clinical yield and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibla, Juan J; Brunelli, Alessandro; Allen, Mark S; Wigle, Dennis; Shen, Robert; Nichols, Francis; Deschamps, Claude; Cassivi, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    In efforts to obtain complete results, current practice in surgical lung biopsy (LB) for interstitial lung disease (ILD) recommends sending lung tissue samples for bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal, and viral cultures. This study assesses the value of this practice by evaluating the microbiology findings obtained from LB for ILD and their associated costs. A total of 296 consecutive patients (140 women, 156 men, median age=61 years) underwent LB for ILD from 2002 to 2009. All had lung tissue sent for microbiology examination. Microbiology results and resultant changes in patient management were analyzed retrospectively. A cost analysis was performed based upon nominal hospital charges adjusted on current inflation rates. Cost data included cultures, stains, smears, direct fluorescent antibody studies, and microbiologist consulting fees. As many as 25 patients (8.4%) underwent open LB and 271 (91.6%) underwent thoracoscopic LB. A total of 592 specimens were assessed (range 1-4 per patient). The most common pathologic diagnoses were idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in 122 (41.2%), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia in 31 (10.5%), and respiratory bronchiolitis ILD in 16 (5.4%). Microbiology testing was negative in 174 patients (58.8%). A total of 118 of 122 (96.7%) positive results were clinically considered to be contaminants and resulted in no change in clinical management. The most common contaminants were Propionibacterium acnes (38 patients; 31%) and Penicillium fungus (16 patients; 13%). In only four patients (1.4%), the organism cultured (Nocardia one, Histoplasma one, and Aspergillus fumigatus two) resulted in a change in clinical management. The cost of microbiology studies per specimen was $984 (€709), with a total cost for the study cohort being $582,000 (€420,000). The yield and impact on clinical management of microbiology specimens from LB for ILD is very low. Its routine use in LB is questionable. We suggest it should be limited to those cases of ILD with

  13. Making mock-FNA smears from fresh surgical pathology specimens to improve smear preparation technique and to create cytohistological correlation series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Mezei

    Full Text Available Fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology is a well-established diagnostic method based on the microscopic interpretation of often scant cytological material; therefore, experience, good technique and smear quality are equally important in obtaining satisfactory results.We studied the use of fresh surgical pathology specimens for making so-called mock-FNA smears with the potential of cytohistological correlation. Additionally, we studied how this process aids the improvement of preparation technique and smear quality.Cytological aspirates from 32 fresh biopsy specimens from various sites: lung (20, lymph nodes (6, and breast (6 were obtained, all with a clinical diagnosis of tumor. Aspiration was performed from grossly palpable tumors. 25 G needle and Cameco-type syringe holder was used with minimal or no suction.Unfixed surgical specimens provided sufficient cytological material that resulted in good quality smears. After standard processing of specimens into microscopic sections from paraffin embedded tissues, cytohistological case-series were created. No significant alteration was reported in tissue architecture on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections after the aspiration procedure. A gradual, but steady improvement was observed in smear quality just after a few preparations.Our study proved that surgical specimens may be used as a source of cytological material to create cytohistological correlation studies and also to improve FNA cytology skills. The use of very fine gauge needle (25 G, 0,6 mm diameter during the sampling process does not alter tissue architecture therefore the final histopathological diagnosis is not compromised. We conclude that by using fresh surgical specimens useful cytohistological collections can be created both as a teaching resource and as improving experience.

  14. Costs of disposable material in the operating room do not show high correlation with surgical time: Implications for hospital payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delo, Caroline; Leclercq, Pol; Martins, Dimitri; Pirson, Magali

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to analyze the variation of the surgical time and of disposable costs per surgical procedure and to analyze the association between disposable costs and the surgical time. The registration of data was done in an operating room of a 419 bed general hospital, over a period of three months (n = 1556 surgical procedures). Disposable material per procedure used was recorded through a barcode scanning method. The average cost (standard deviation) of disposable material is €183.66 (€183.44). The mean surgical time (standard deviation) is 96 min (63). Results have shown that the homogeneity of operating time and DM costs was quite good per surgical procedure. The correlation between the surgical time and DM costs is not high (r = 0.65). In a context of Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) based hospital payment, it is important that costs information systems are able to precisely calculate costs per case. Our results show that the correlation between surgical time and costs of disposable materials is not good. Therefore, empirical data or itemized lists should be used instead of surgical time as a cost driver for the allocation of costs of disposable materials to patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A semiautomatic CT-based ensemble segmentation of lung tumors: comparison with oncologists' delineations and with the surgical specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Velazquez, Emmanuel; Aerts, Hugo J W L; Gu, Yuhua; Goldgof, Dmitry B; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Dekker, Andre; Korn, René; Gillies, Robert J; Lambin, Philippe

    2012-11-01

    To assess the clinical relevance of a semiautomatic CT-based ensemble segmentation method, by comparing it to pathology and to CT/PET manual delineations by five independent radiation oncologists in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For 20 NSCLC patients (stages Ib-IIIb) the primary tumor was delineated manually on CT/PET scans by five independent radiation oncologists and segmented using a CT based semi-automatic tool. Tumor volume and overlap fractions between manual and semiautomatic-segmented volumes were compared. All measurements were correlated with the maximal diameter on macroscopic examination of the surgical specimen. Imaging data are available on www.cancerdata.org. High overlap fractions were observed between the semi-automatically segmented volumes and the intersection (92.5±9.0, mean±SD) and union (94.2±6.8) of the manual delineations. No statistically significant differences in tumor volume were observed between the semiautomatic segmentation (71.4±83.2 cm(3), mean±SD) and manual delineations (81.9±94.1 cm(3); p=0.57). The maximal tumor diameter of the semiautomatic-segmented tumor correlated strongly with the macroscopic diameter of the primary tumor (r=0.96). Semiautomatic segmentation of the primary tumor on CT demonstrated high agreement with CT/PET manual delineations and strongly correlated with the macroscopic diameter considered as the "gold standard". This method may be used routinely in clinical practice and could be employed as a starting point for treatment planning, target definition in multi-center clinical trials or for high throughput data mining research. This method is particularly suitable for peripherally located tumors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards real-time metabolic profiling of a biopsy specimen during a surgical operation by 1H high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotto Martial

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Providing information on cancerous tissue samples during a surgical operation can help surgeons delineate the limits of a tumoral invasion more reliably. Here, we describe the use of metabolic profiling of a colon biopsy specimen by high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to evaluate tumoral invasion during a simulated surgical operation. Case presentation Biopsy specimens (n = 9 originating from the excised right colon of a 66-year-old Caucasian women with an adenocarcinoma were automatically analyzed using a previously built statistical model. Conclusions Metabolic profiling results were in full agreement with those of a histopathological analysis. The time-response of the technique is sufficiently fast for it to be used effectively during a real operation (17 min/sample. Metabolic profiling has the potential to become a method to rapidly characterize cancerous biopsies in the operation theater.

  17. Survival curves after X-ray and heat treatments for melanoma cells derived directly from surgical specimens of tumours in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rofstad, E.K.; Wahl, A.; Tveit, K.M.; Monge, O.R.; Brustad, T.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray and heat survival curves were established for melanoma cells derived directly from surgical specimens of tumours in man by using the Courtenay soft agar colony assay. The plating efficiency for 11 of the 14 melanomas studied was sufficiently high (PE = 0.3-58%) to measure cell survival over at least two decades. Experiments repeated with cells stored in liquid nitrogen showed that the survival assay gave highly reproducible results. The melanomas exhibited individual and characteristic survival curves whether exposed to radiation or heat (43.5 0 C). The D 0 -values were in the ranges 0.63-1.66 Gy (X-rays) and 33-58 min (heat). The survival curves were similar to those reported previously for human melanoma xenografts. The radiation sensitivity of the cells was not correlated to the heat sensitivity. Since the melanomas appeared to be very heterogeneous in radiation response in vitro as melanomas are known to be clinically, it is suggested that melanomas may be suitable for prospective studies aimed at establishing whether clinical radioreponsiveness somehow is related to in vitro survival curve parameters. (orig.)

  18. The effect of preoperative therapy against advanced oral cancer. The pattern of residual cancer nests assessed with semiserial whole surgical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Histological change of advanced oral cancers following concurrent chemoradiotherapy was examined with semiserial whole surgical specimens. Subjects included six tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), two oral floor SCCs and three lower gingival SCCs, and all the tumors were preoperatively treated by the combination of radiotherapy and superselective intraarterial infusion of carboplatin (CBDCA) or oral administration of TS-1. Clinical effect was assessed as complete response (CR) in three cases, partial response (PR) in five, minor response (MR) in two and no change (NC) in two. The distribution of residual cancer nests was categorized as the superficially-located and deeply-located patterns. It was noteworthy that the pattern of residual cancer nests and the histological effect were different between sections even in the same tumors. Furthermore, a few viable cancer nests were observed exclusively in the advancing edge in tumors assessed as Grade 2b (Oboshi-Shimosata classification), where most of the cancer nests were degenerative or necrotic. This finding suggests that the extent of resection could not be reduced even in tumors that responded well to preoperative therapy. In the present cases, the histological effect of chemoradiotherapy was evaluated as Grade 4a in two cases, Grade 2b in four, Grade 2a in five and Grade 1 in one. Tumors of the PR showed a wide variation of histological evaluation from Grade 1 to Grade 4a, resulting in a discrepancy between the clinical and histological evaluations. (author)

  19. Successful Surgical Management of Retinopathy of Prematurity Showing Rapid Progression despite Extensive Retinal Photocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Salil S; Kulkarni, Sucheta R; Kamdar, Rushita R; Deshpande, Madan

    2015-01-01

    The management of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) can be challenging in preterm babies with a gestational age premature infant presented with "hybrid" zone 1 disease in the right eye and aggressive posterior ROP in the left eye. Both eyes were adequately treated with laser photocoagulation; however, the eyes deteriorated and progressed to stage 4 ROP. Both eyes eventually underwent intravitreal bevacizumab followed by lens sparing vitrectomy with good anatomical and visual outcome. Anticipation of progression despite laser photocoagulation in certain clinical scenarios, frequent follow-up and timely surgical intervention is paramount.

  20. Percutaneous computed tomography-guided core needle biopsy of soft tissue tumors: results and correlation with surgical specimen analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojniak, Rubens; Grigio, Henrique Ramos; Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Pinto, Paula Nicole Vieira; Tyng, Chiang J.; Cunha, Isabela Werneck da; Aguiar Junior, Samuel; Lopes, Ademar, E-mail: chojniak@uol.com.br [Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided core needle biopsy of soft tissue tumors in obtaining appropriate samples for histological analysis, and compare its diagnosis with the results of the surgical pathology as available. Materials and Methods: The authors reviewed medical records, imaging and histological reports of 262 patients with soft-tissue tumors submitted to CT-guided core needle biopsy in an oncologic reference center between 2003 and 2009. Results: Appropriate samples were obtained in 215 (82.1%) out of the 262 patients. The most prevalent tumors were sarcomas (38.6%), metastatic carcinomas (28.8%), benign mesenchymal tumors (20.5%) and lymphomas (9.3%). Histological grading was feasible in 92.8% of sarcoma patients, with the majority of them (77.9%) being classified as high grade tumors. Out of the total sample, 116 patients (44.3%) underwent surgical excision and diagnosis confirmation. Core biopsy demonstrated 94.6% accuracy in the identification of sarcomas, with 96.4% sensitivity and 89.5% specificity. A significant intermethod agreement about histological grading was observed between core biopsy and surgical resection (p < 0.001; kappa = 0.75). Conclusion: CT-guided core needle biopsy demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy in the evaluation of soft tissue tumors as well as in the histological grading of sarcomas, allowing an appropriate therapeutic planning (author)

  1. Risk management: correct patient and specimen identification in a surgical pathology laboratory. The experience of Infermi Hospital, Rimini, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbretti, G

    2010-06-01

    Because of its complex nature, surgical pathology practice is prone to error. In this report, we describe our methods for reducing error as much as possible during the pre-analytical and analytical phases. This was achieved by revising procedures, and by using computer technology and automation. Most mistakes are the result of human error in the identification and matching of patient and samples. To avoid faulty data interpretation, we employed a new comprehensive computer system that acquires all patient ID information directly from the hospital's database with a remote order entry; it also provides label and request forms via-Web where clinical information is required before sending the sample. Both patient and sample are identified directly and immediately at the site where the surgical procedures are performed. Barcode technology is used to input information at every step and automation is used for sample blocks and slides to avoid errors that occur when information is recorded or transferred by hand. Quality control checks occur at every step of the process to ensure that none of the steps are left to chance and that no phase is dependent on a single operator. The system also provides statistical analysis of errors so that new strategies can be implemented to avoid repetition. In addition, the staff receives frequent training on avoiding errors and new developments. The results have been shown promising results with a very low error rate (0.27%). None of these compromised patient health and all errors were detected before the release of the diagnosis report.

  2. Surgical specimen handover from the operating theatre to laboratory-Can we improve patient safety by learning from aviation and other high-risk organisations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Peter A; Brands, Marieke T; Caldwell, Lucy; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Turley, Nic; Foley, Susie; Rahimi, Siavash

    2018-02-01

    Essential communication between healthcare staff is considered one of the key requirements for both safety and quality care when patients are handed over from one clinical area to other. This is particularly important in environments such as the operating theatre and intensive care where mistakes can be devastating. Health care has learned from other high-risk organisations (HRO) such as aviation where the use of checklists and human factors awareness has virtually eliminated human error and mistakes. To our knowledge, little has been published around ways to improve pathology specimen handover following surgery, with pathology request forms often conveying the bare minimum of information to assist the laboratory staff. Furthermore, the request form might not warn staff about potential hazards. In this article, we provide a brief summary of the factors involved in human error and introduce a novel checklist that can be readily completed at the same time as the routine pathology request form. This additional measure enhances safety, can help to reduce processing and mislabelling errors and provides essential information in a structured way assisting both laboratory staff and pathologists when handling head and neck surgical specimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Birth and death of human β-cells in pancreas from cadaver donors, autopsies, surgical specimens, and islets transplanted into mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Francisco; Siniakowicz, Karolina; Jennifer-Hollister-Lock; Duran, Luisa; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Yamada, Takatsugu; Lei, Ji; Deng, Shaoping; Westermark, Gunilla T.; Markmann, James; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C.

    2013-01-01

    There is great interest in the potential of the human endocrine pancreas for regeneration by β-cell replication or neogenesis. Our aim was to explore this potential in adult human pancreases and in both islet and exocrine tissue transplanted into mice. The design was to examine pancreases obtained from cadaver donors, autopsies and fresh surgical specimens and compare these findings with those obtained from islet and duct tissue grafted into the kidney. Islets and exocrine tissue were transplanted into normoglycemic ICR/SCID mice and studied 4 and 14 wk later. β-cell replication as assessed by double staining for insulin and Ki67 was 0.22 ± 0.03 % at 4 wk and 0.13 ± 0.03 % at 14 wk. In contrast, no evidence of β-cell replication could be found in 11 cadaver donor and 10 autopsy pancreases. However, Ki67 staining of β-cells in frozen sections obtained at surgery was comparable to that found in transplanted islets. Evidence for neogenesis in transplanted pancreatic exocrine tissue was supported by finding β-cells within the duct epithelium, and the presence of cells double stained for insulin and cytokeratin 19 (CK19). However, β-cells within the ducts never constituted more than 1% of the CK19 positive cells. With confocal microscopy, 7 of 12 examined cells expressed both markers, consistent with a neogeneic process. Mice with grafts containing islet or exocrine tissue were treated with various combinations exendin-4, gastrin and epidermal growth factor; none increased β-cell replication or stimulated neogenesis. In summary, human β-cells replicate at a low level in islets transplanted into mice and in surgical pancreatic frozen sections but rarely in cadaver donor or autopsy pancreases. The absence of β-cell replication in many adult cadaver or autopsy pancreases could, in part, be an artifact of the postmortem state. Thus, it appears that adult human β-cells maintain a low level of turnover through replication and neogenesis. PMID:23321263

  4. Birth and death of human β-cells in pancreases from cadaver donors, autopsies, surgical specimens, and islets transplanted into mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Francisco; Siniakowicz, Karolina; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Duran, Luisa; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Yamada, Takatsugu; Lei, Ji; Deng, Shaoping; Westermark, Gunilla T; Markmann, James; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C

    2014-02-01

    There is great interest in the potential of the human endocrine pancreas for regeneration by β-cell replication or neogenesis. Our aim was to explore this potential in adult human pancreases and in both islet and exocrine tissue transplanted into mice. The design was to examine pancreases obtained from cadaver donors, autopsies, and fresh surgical specimens and compare these findings with those obtained from islet and duct tissue grafted into the kidney. Islets and exocrine tissue were transplanted into normoglycemic ICR-SCID mice and studied 4 and 14 weeks later. β-Cell replication, as assessed by double staining for insulin and Ki67, was 0.22 ± 0.03% at 4 weeks and 0.13 ± 0.03% at 14 weeks. In contrast, no evidence of β-cell replication could be found in 11 cadaver donor and 10 autopsy pancreases. However, Ki67 staining of β-cells in frozen sections obtained at surgery was comparable to that found in transplanted islets. Evidence for neogenesis in transplanted pancreatic exocrine tissue was supported by finding β-cells within the duct epithelium and the presence of cells double stained for insulin and cytokeratin 19 (CK19). However, β-cells within the ducts never constituted more than 1% of the CK19-positive cells. With confocal microscopy, 7 of 12 examined cells expressed both markers, consistent with a neogeneic process. Mice with grafts containing islet or exocrine tissue were treated with various combinations of exendin-4, gastrin, and epidermal growth factor; none increased β-cell replication or stimulated neogenesis. In summary, human β-cells replicate at a low level in islets transplanted into mice and in surgical pancreatic frozen sections, but rarely in cadaver donor or autopsy pancreases. The absence of β-cell replication in many adult cadaver or autopsy pancreases could, in part, be an artifact of the postmortem state. Thus, it appears that adult human β-cells maintain a low level of turnover through replication and neogenesis.

  5. Cystadenocarcinoma of the minor salivary gland arising in the upper lip: A surgical case of an inadequate cytology specimen hampering conclusive diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Yoshimura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cystadenocarcinoma (CAC of the salivary gland poses a diagnostic challenge to us, as this uncommon entity is extremely difficult to diagnose pre-operatively on an inadequate sample. However, markedly few papers have described the cytological features of CAC. An 82-year-old male presented with a history of a gradual increase in size and occasional mucous drainage from a swollen reddish nodule on the right upper lip. A retrospective examination of the cytological specimens from the drainage revealed a small number of clusters and scattered single cells of severely degenerated and mildly atypical epithelial cells with hyperchromatic dense nuclei and abundant clear cytoplasm, in a background of a large amount of mucinous material. We first interpreted this finding merely as the presence of atypical cells. However, a gross examination revealed a non-capsulated and relatively well-demarcated cystic lesion, grayish to whitish in color and measuring 13 × 9 mm in diameter, filled with mucin. A microscopic examination showed that the tumor had a central cystic cavity filled with mucinous material and was predominantly composed of the papillary proliferation of atypical columnar mucous epithelial cells with enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei, mixed with mitotic hot spots often projecting and melting into the mucinous cystic lumen, and focally involving the surrounding connective tissue. Therefore, we ultimately made a diagnosis of CAC of the minor salivary gland arising in the upper lip. Given the characteristic features of CAC, cytopathologists should be able to correctly diagnose this lesion based on multiple adequate fine needle aspiration samples.

  6. Molecular Auditing: An Evaluation of Unsuspected Tissue Specimen Misidentification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrick, Douglas J

    2018-06-18

    Context Specimen misidentification is the most significant error in laboratory medicine, potentially accounting for hundreds of millions of dollars in extra health care expenses and significant morbidity in patient populations in the United States alone. New technology allows the unequivocal documentation of specimen misidentification or contamination; however, the value of this technology currently depends on suspicion of the specimen integrity by a pathologist or other health care worker. Objective To test the hypothesis that there is a detectable incidence of unsuspected tissue specimen misidentification among cases submitted for routine surgical pathology examination. Design To test this hypothesis, we selected specimen pairs that were obtained at different times and/or different hospitals from the same patient, and compared their genotypes using standardized microsatellite markers used commonly for forensic human DNA comparison in order to identify unsuspected mismatches between the specimen pairs as a trial of "molecular auditing." We preferentially selected gastrointestinal, prostate, and skin biopsies because we estimated that these types of specimens had the greatest potential for misidentification. Results Of 972 specimen pairs, 1 showed an unexpected discordant genotype profile, indicating that 1 of the 2 specimens was misidentified. To date, we are unable to identify the etiology of the discordance. Conclusions These results demonstrate that, indeed, there is a low level of unsuspected tissue specimen misidentification, even in an environment with careful adherence to stringent quality assurance practices. This study demonstrates that molecular auditing of random, routine biopsy specimens can identify occult misidentified specimens, and may function as a useful quality indicator.

  7. EGFR Mutations in Surgically Resected Fresh Specimens from 697 Consecutive Chinese Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Relationships with Clinical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyang Lai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to reveal the true status of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC after lung resections. EGFR mutations of surgically resected fresh tumor samples from 697 Chinese NSCLC patients were analyzed by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS. Correlations between EGFR mutation hotspots and clinical features were also explored. Of the 697 NSCLC patients, 235 (33.7% patients had tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKIs sensitive EGFR mutations in 41 (14.5% of the 282 squamous carcinomas, 155 (52.9% of the 293 adenocarcinomas, 34 (39.5% of the 86 adenosquamous carcinomas, one (9.1% of the 11 large-cell carcinomas, 2 (11.1% of the 18 sarcomatoid carcinomas, and 2 (28.6% of the 7 mucoepidermoid carcinomas. TKIs sensitive EGFR mutations were more frequently found in female patients (p < 0.001, non-smokers (p = 0.047 and adenocarcinomas (p < 0.001. The rates of exon 19 deletion mutation (19-del, exon 21 L858R point mutation (L858R, exon 21 L861Q point mutation (L861Q, exon 18 G719X point mutations (G719X, including G719C, G719S, G719A were 43.4%, 48.1%, 1.7% and 6.8%, respectively. Exon 20 T790M point mutation (T790M was detected in 3 squamous carcinomas and 3 adenocarcinomas and exon 20 insertion mutation (20-ins was detected in 2 patients with adenocarcinoma. Our results show the rates of EGFR mutations are higher in all types of NSCLC in Chinese patients. 19-del and L858R are two of the more frequent mutations. EGFR mutation detection should be performed as a routine postoperative examination in Chinese NSCLC patients.

  8. Resective surgical approach shows a high performance in the management of advanced cases of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: a retrospective survey of 347 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Filippo; Vescovi, Paolo; Campisi, Giuseppina; Favia, Gianfranco; Gabriele, Mario; Gaeta, Giovanni Maria; Gennai, Stefano; Goia, Franco; Miccoli, Mario; Peluso, Franco; Scoletta, Matteo; Solazzo, Luigi; Colella, Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of the surgical treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in a large cohort. A retrospective cohort multicenter study was designed. Patients were enrolled if they were diagnosed with BRONJ and received operative treatment. Data on demographic, health status, perioperative, and surgical factors were collected retrospectively. The primary outcome variable was a change in BRONJ staging (improvement, worsening, or no change). Interventions were grouped by local debridement and resective surgery. Data were collected for other variables as cofactors. Univariate analysis and logistic regressions were then performed. Of the 347 BRONJ-affected subjects, 59% showed improvement, 30% showed no change, and 11% showed worsening. Improvement was observed in 49% of cases treated with local debridement and 68% of cases treated with resective surgery. Multivariate analysis indicated that maxillary location, resective surgery, and no additional corticosteroid treatment were associated with a positive outcome. Surgical treatment of BRONJ appeared to be more effective when resective procedures were performed. Nonetheless, other factors, such as the absence of symptoms and the types of drug administration, should be taken into account before clinical decisions are made. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Interventional Arm of the Flexibility In Duty-Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees Trial: First-Year Data Show Superior Quality In-Training Initiative Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmehdi, Issa; O'Neal, Cindy-Marie; Moon, Davis; MacNew, Heather; Senkowski, Christopher

    With the implementation of strict 80-hour work week in general surgery training, serious questions have been raised concerning the quality of surgical education and the ability of newly trained general surgeons to independently operate. Programs that were randomized to the interventional arm of the Flexibility In duty-hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial were able to decrease transitions and allow for better continuity by virtue of less constraints on duty-hour rules. Using National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Quality In-Training Initiative data along with duty-hour violations compared with old rules, it was hypothesized that quality of care would be improved and outcomes would be equivalent or better than the traditional duty-hour rules. It was also hypothesized that resident perception of compliance with duty hour would not change with implementation of new regulations based on FIRST trial. Flexible work hours were implemented on July 1, 2014. National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Quality In-Training Initiative information was reviewed from July 2014 to January 2015. Patient risk factors and outcomes were compared between institutional resident cases and the national cohort for comparison. Residents' duty-hour logs and violations during this period were compared to the 6-month period before the implementation of the FIRST trial. The annual Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education resident survey was used to assess the residents' perception of compliance with duty hours. With respect to the postoperative complications, the only statistically significant measures were higher prevalence of pneumonia (3.4% vs. 1.5%, p flexible duty hours. All other measures of postoperative surgical complications showed no difference. The total number of duty-hour violations decreased from 54 to 16. Had the institution not been part of the interventional arm of the FIRST trial, this number would have increased to 238. The residents

  10. Optimization of high grade glioma cell culture from surgical specimens for use in clinically relevant animal models and 3D immunochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbach, Laura A; Irtenkauf, Susan M; Lemke, Nancy W; Nelson, Kevin K; Berezovsky, Artem D; Carlton, Enoch T; Transou, Andrea D; Mikkelsen, Tom; deCarvalho, Ana C

    2014-01-07

    Glioblastomas, the most common and aggressive form of astrocytoma, are refractory to therapy, and molecularly heterogeneous. The ability to establish cell cultures that preserve the genomic profile of the parental tumors, for use in patient specific in vitro and in vivo models, has the potential to revolutionize the preclinical development of new treatments for glioblastoma tailored to the molecular characteristics of each tumor. Starting with fresh high grade astrocytoma tumors dissociated into single cells, we use the neurosphere assay as an enrichment method for cells presenting cancer stem cell phenotype, including expression of neural stem cell markers, long term self-renewal in vitro, and the ability to form orthotopic xenograft tumors. This method has been previously proposed, and is now in use by several investigators. Based on our experience of dissociating and culturing 125 glioblastoma specimens, we arrived at the detailed protocol we present here, suitable for routine neurosphere culturing of high grade astrocytomas and large scale expansion of tumorigenic cells for preclinical studies. We report on the efficiency of successful long term cultures using this protocol and suggest affordable alternatives for culturing dissociated glioblastoma cells that fail to grow as neurospheres. We also describe in detail a protocol for preserving the neurospheres 3D architecture for immunohistochemistry. Cell cultures enriched in CSCs, capable of generating orthotopic xenograft models that preserve the molecular signatures and heterogeneity of GBMs, are becoming increasingly popular for the study of the biology of GBMs and for the improved design of preclinical testing of potential therapies.

  11. Value and Limits of Routine Histology Alone or Combined with Glutamine Synthetase Immunostaining in the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Adenoma Subtypes on Surgical Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulette Bioulac-Sage

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry is a valid method to classify hepatocellular adenoma (HCA. The aim was to test the performance of routine histology combined to glutamine synthetase (GS staining to identify the 2 major HCA subtypes: HNF1α inactivated (H-HCA and inflammatory HCA (IHCA. 114 surgical cases, previously classified by immunohistochemistry, were analysed. Group A comprised 45 H-HCAs, 44 IHCAs, and 9 β-catenin-activated IHCAs (b-IHCA, and group B, 16 b-HCA and unclassified HCA (UHCA. Steatosis was the hallmark of H-HCA. IHCA and b-IHCA were mainly characterized by inflammation, thick arteries, and sinusoidal dilatation; b-IHCA could not be differentiated from IHCA by routine histology. Group B was identified by default. A control set (91 cases was analyzed using routine and GS stainings (without knowing immunohistochemical results. Among the 45 H-HCAs and 27 IHCAs, 40 and 24 were correctly classified, respectively. Among the 10 b-IHCAs, 4 were identified as such using additional GS. Eight of the 9 HCAs that were neither H-HCA nor IHCA were correctly classified. Conclusion. Routine histology allows to diagnose >85% of the 2 major HCA subtypes. GS is essential to identify b-HCA. This study demonstrates that a “palliative” diagnostic approach can be proposed, when the panel of specific antibodies is not available.

  12. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  13. The perioperative surgical home (PSH): a comprehensive review of US and non-US studies shows predominantly positive quality and cost outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Bita A; Zhang, Yichen; Cline, Kayla M; Menser, Terri; Miller, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    Policy Points: The perioperative surgical home (PSH) is complementary to the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) and defines methods for improving the patient experience and clinical outcomes, and controlling costs for the care of surgical patients. The PSH is a physician-led care delivery model that includes multi-specialty care teams and cost-efficient use of resources at all levels through a patient-centered, continuity of care delivery model with shared decision making. The PSH emphasizes "prehabilitation" of the patient before surgery, intraoperative optimization, improved return to function through follow-up, and effective transitions to home or post-acute care to reduce complications and readmissions. The evolving concept of more rigorously coordinated and integrated perioperative management, often referred to as the perioperative surgical home (PSH), parallels the well-known concept of a patient-centered medical home (PCMH), as they share a vision of improved clinical outcomes and reductions in cost of care through patient engagement and care coordination. Elements of the PSH and similar surgical care coordination models have been studied in the United States and other countries. This comprehensive review of peer-reviewed literature investigates the history and evolution of PSH and PSH-like models and summarizes the results of studies of PSH elements in the United States and in other countries. We reviewed more than 250 potentially relevant studies. At the conclusion of the selection process, our search had yielded a total of 152 peer-reviewed articles published between 1980 and 2013. The literature reports consistent and significant positive findings related to PSH initiatives. Both US and non-US studies stress the role of anesthesiologists in perioperative patient management. The PSH may have the greatest impact on preparing patients for surgery and ensuring their safe and effective transition to home or other postoperative rehabilitation. There appear

  14. Rotating specimen rack repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.E.; Rogers, P.J.; Nabor, W.G.; Bair, H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, an operator at the UCI TRIGA Reactor noticed difficulties with the rotation of the specimen rack. Investigations showed that the drive bearing in the rack had failed and allowed the bearings to enter the rack. After some time of operation in static mode it was decided that installation of a bearing substitute - a graphite sleeve - would be undertaken. Procedures were written and approved for removal of the rack, fabrication and installation of the sleeve, and re-installation of the rack. This paper describes these procedures in some detail. Detailed drawings of the necessary parts may be obtained from the authors

  15. Compared to controls, patients with ruptured aneurysm and surgical intervention show increase in symptoms of depression and lower cognitive performance, but their objective sleep is not affected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Zimmerer, Stefan; Kalak, Nadeem; Planta, Sandra Von; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, Katja; Müller, Andreas Albert; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2015-02-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) have impaired sleep and cognitive performance together with more difficulties in social and everyday life. Hypocortisolism has also been reported. However, a study assessing all dimensions between aSAH severity, objective and subjective sleep, cortisol secretion, cognitive performance and social and everyday life has not so far been performed. The aim of the present study was therefore two-fold: (1) to assess, in a sample of patients with aSAH, objective and subjective sleep, cognitive functioning, social skills and cortisol secretion concurrently, and (2) to compare patients on these variables with a control group. Twenty-one patients (17 females; mean age: 58.80 years) with ruptured aneurysm and surgical intervention and 21 (14 females; mean age: 58.90 years) age- and gender-matched controls took part in the study. Assessments covered objective sleep-EGG recordings, subjective sleep, salivary cortisol analysis, and psychological functioning including memory performance, mood, and emotion recognition. Compared to healthy controls, patients had lower scores for verbal memory performance and emotion recognition; they also reported more marked depressive symptoms and complained of poor sleep. However, no differences were found for objective sleep or cortisol secretion. Subjective and objective sleep, cortisol secretion and psychological functioning were unrelated. Findings indicate that patients with aSAH face psychological rather than physiological issues.

  16. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the Midwestern surgical experience with the diaphragm pacing stimulation system shows that general anesthesia can be safely performed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onders, Raymond P; Carlin, Arthur M; Elmo, MaryJo; Sivashankaran, Subhalakashmi; Katirji, Bashar; Schilz, Robert

    2009-03-01

    There is a paucity of literature concerning general anesthesia and surgery in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease). This report summarizes the largest series of surgical cases in ALS during multicenter prospective trials of the laparoscopic diaphragm pacing system (DPS) to delay respiratory failure. The overall strategy outlined includes the use of rapidly reversible short-acting analgesic and amnestic agents with no neuromuscular relaxants. Fifty-one patients were implanted from March 2005 to March 2008 at 2 sites. Age at implantation ranged from 42 to 73 years and the percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) ranged from 20% to 87%. On preoperative blood gases, Pco(2) was as high as 60. Using this protocol, there were no failures to extubate or 30-day mortalities. The DPS system increases the respiratory system compliance by decreasing posterior lobe atelectasis and can stimulate respirations at the end of each case. Laparoscopic surgery with general anesthesia can be safely performed in patients with ALS undergoing DPS.

  17. {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT to evaluate tumor, nodal disease, and gross tumor volume of oropharyngeal and oral cavity cancer: comparison with MR imaging and validation with surgical specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Oliver; Chambron-Pinho, Nicole; Sader, Rober [JW Goethe University, Department of Oromaxillofacial Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Middendorp, Markus [JW Goethe University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt (Germany); Mack, Martin; Vogl, Thomas J. [JW Goethe University, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Bisdas, Sotirios [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Neuroradiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of adding combined {sup 18}F-PET/CT to MRI for T and N staging of the oral and oropharyngeal cancer and calculation of the gross tumor volume (GTV) having histopathology as reference standard. PET/CT and MRI were performed in 66 patients with suspected oral and oropharyngeal cancer (41 primary tumors/25 recurrent tumors) and nodal disease (114 nodes). Statistical analysis included the McNemar test, sensitivity, specificity for the diagnostic modalities as well as regression analysis, and Bland-Altman graphs for calculated tumor volumes. There was no statistically significant difference between the two modalities compared to pathological findings regarding detection of disease (P{>=}0.72). The sensitivity/specificity for tumor detection were 100/80% and 96.72/60% for MRI and PET/CT, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity for nodal metastases were 88.46/75% and 83.81/73.91% for MRI and PET/CT, respectively. In 18% of cases, the MRI-based T staging resulted in an overestimation of the pathologic tumor stage. The corresponding rate for PET/CT was 22%. Regarding the treated necks, both modalities showed 100% sensitivity for detection of the recurrent lesions. In necks with histologically N0 staging, MRI and PET/CT gave 22% and 26% false positive findings, respectively. The mean tumor volume in the pathologic specimen was 16.6{+-}18.6 ml, the mean volume derived by the MR imaging was 17.6{+-}19.1 ml while the estimated by PET/CT volume was 18.8{+-}18.1 ml (P{<=}0.007 between the three methods). The Bland-Altman analysis showed a better agreement between PET/CT and MRI. The diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/CT in the local staging of oral cancer is not superior to MRI. (orig.)

  18. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT to evaluate tumor, nodal disease, and gross tumor volume of oropharyngeal and oral cavity cancer: comparison with MR imaging and validation with surgical specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Oliver; Chambron-Pinho, Nicole; Sader, Rober; Middendorp, Markus; Mack, Martin; Vogl, Thomas J.; Bisdas, Sotirios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of adding combined 18 F-PET/CT to MRI for T and N staging of the oral and oropharyngeal cancer and calculation of the gross tumor volume (GTV) having histopathology as reference standard. PET/CT and MRI were performed in 66 patients with suspected oral and oropharyngeal cancer (41 primary tumors/25 recurrent tumors) and nodal disease (114 nodes). Statistical analysis included the McNemar test, sensitivity, specificity for the diagnostic modalities as well as regression analysis, and Bland-Altman graphs for calculated tumor volumes. There was no statistically significant difference between the two modalities compared to pathological findings regarding detection of disease (P≥0.72). The sensitivity/specificity for tumor detection were 100/80% and 96.72/60% for MRI and PET/CT, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity for nodal metastases were 88.46/75% and 83.81/73.91% for MRI and PET/CT, respectively. In 18% of cases, the MRI-based T staging resulted in an overestimation of the pathologic tumor stage. The corresponding rate for PET/CT was 22%. Regarding the treated necks, both modalities showed 100% sensitivity for detection of the recurrent lesions. In necks with histologically N0 staging, MRI and PET/CT gave 22% and 26% false positive findings, respectively. The mean tumor volume in the pathologic specimen was 16.6±18.6 ml, the mean volume derived by the MR imaging was 17.6±19.1 ml while the estimated by PET/CT volume was 18.8±18.1 ml (P≤0.007 between the three methods). The Bland-Altman analysis showed a better agreement between PET/CT and MRI. The diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/CT in the local staging of oral cancer is not superior to MRI. (orig.)

  19. Laparoscopic specimen retrieval bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorgick, Noam

    2014-10-01

    Specimen retrieval bags have long been used in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery for contained removal of adnexal cysts and masses. More recently, the concerns regarding spread of malignant cells during mechanical morcellation of myoma have led to an additional use of specimen retrieval bags for contained "in-bag" morcellation. This review will discuss the indications for use retrieval bags in gynecologic endoscopy, and describe the different specimen bags available to date.

  20. Georeferencing Animal Specimen Datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, M.G.J.; Hensel, R.; Ceolin, D.; van der Meij, M.

    2014-01-01

    For biodiversity research, the field of study that is concerned with the richness of species of our planet, it is of the utmost importance that the location of an animal specimen find is known with high precision. Due to specimens often having been collected over the course of many years, their

  1. Attenuation measurements show that the presence of a TachoSil surgical patch will not compromise target irradiation in intra-operative electron radiation therapy or high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Sandra; Costa, Filipa; Pereira, Alexandre; Lencart, Joana; Dias, Anabela; Cunha, Luís; Sousa, Olga; Silva, José Pedro; Santos, Lúcio

    2015-01-09

    Surgery of locally advanced and/or recurrent rectal cancer can be complemented with intra-operative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) to deliver a single dose of radiation directly to the unresectable margins, while sparing nearby sensitive organs/structures. Haemorrhages may occur and can affect the dose distribution, leading to an incorrect target irradiation. The TachoSil (TS) surgical patch, when activated, creates a fibrin clot at the surgical site to achieve haemostasis. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of TS on the dose distribution, and ascertain whether it could be used in combination with IOERT. This characterization was extended to include high dose rate (HDR) intraoperative brachytherapy, which is sometimes used at other institutions instead of IOERT. CT images of the TS patch were acquired for initial characterization. Dosimetric measurements were performed in a water tank phantom, using a conventional LINAC with a hard-docking system of cylindrical applicators. Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curves were obtained, and measurements made at the depth of dose maximum for the three clinically used electron energies (6, 9 and 12MeV), first without any attenuator and then with the activated patch of TS completely covering the tip of the IOERT applicator. For HDR brachytherapy, a measurement setup was improvised using a solid water phantom and a Farmer ionization chamber. Our measurements show that the attenuation of a TachoSil patch is negligible, both for high energy electron beams (6 to 12MeV), and for a HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy source. Our results cannot be extrapolated to lower beam energies such as 50 kVp X-rays, which are sometimes used for breast IORT. The TachoSil surgical patch can be used in IORT procedures using 6MeV electron energies or higher, or HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy.

  2. Attenuation measurements show that the presence of a TachoSil surgical patch will not compromise target irradiation in intra-operative electron radiation therapy or high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, Sandra; Costa, Filipa; Pereira, Alexandre; Lencart, Joana; Dias, Anabela; Cunha, Luís; Sousa, Olga; Silva, José Pedro; Santos, Lúcio

    2015-01-01

    Surgery of locally advanced and/or recurrent rectal cancer can be complemented with intra-operative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) to deliver a single dose of radiation directly to the unresectable margins, while sparing nearby sensitive organs/structures. Haemorrhages may occur and can affect the dose distribution, leading to an incorrect target irradiation. The TachoSil (TS) surgical patch, when activated, creates a fibrin clot at the surgical site to achieve haemostasis. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of TS on the dose distribution, and ascertain whether it could be used in combination with IOERT. This characterization was extended to include high dose rate (HDR) intraoperative brachytherapy, which is sometimes used at other institutions instead of IOERT. CT images of the TS patch were acquired for initial characterization. Dosimetric measurements were performed in a water tank phantom, using a conventional LINAC with a hard-docking system of cylindrical applicators. Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curves were obtained, and measurements made at the depth of dose maximum for the three clinically used electron energies (6, 9 and 12MeV), first without any attenuator and then with the activated patch of TS completely covering the tip of the IOERT applicator. For HDR brachytherapy, a measurement setup was improvised using a solid water phantom and a Farmer ionization chamber. Our measurements show that the attenuation of a TachoSil patch is negligible, both for high energy electron beams (6 to 12MeV), and for a HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy source. Our results cannot be extrapolated to lower beam energies such as 50 kVp X-rays, which are sometimes used for breast IORT. The TachoSil surgical patch can be used in IORT procedures using 6MeV electron energies or higher, or HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy

  3. Clinical evaluation of a mobile digital specimen radiography system for intraoperative specimen verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingbing; Ebuoma, Lilian; Saksena, Mansi; Liu, Bob; Specht, Michelle; Rafferty, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Use of mobile digital specimen radiography systems expedites intraoperative verification of excised breast specimens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a such a system for verifying targets. A retrospective review included 100 consecutive pairs of breast specimen radiographs. Specimens were imaged in the operating room with a mobile digital specimen radiography system and then with a conventional digital mammography system in the radiology department. Two expert reviewers independently scored each image for image quality on a 3-point scale and confidence in target visualization on a 5-point scale. A target was considered confidently verified only if both reviewers declared the target to be confidently detected. The 100 specimens contained a total of 174 targets, including 85 clips (49%), 53 calcifications (30%), 35 masses (20%), and one architectural distortion (1%). Although a significantly higher percentage of mobile digital specimen radiographs were considered poor quality by at least one reviewer (25%) compared with conventional digital mammograms (1%), 169 targets (97%), were confidently verified with mobile specimen radiography; 172 targets (98%) were verified with conventional digital mammography. Three faint masses were not confidently verified with mobile specimen radiography, and conventional digital mammography was needed for confirmation. One faint mass and one architectural distortion were not confidently verified with either method. Mobile digital specimen radiography allows high diagnostic confidence for verification of target excision in breast specimens across target types, despite lower image quality. Substituting this modality for conventional digital mammography can eliminate delays associated with specimen transport, potentially decreasing surgical duration and increasing operating room throughput.

  4. Specimen size effects in Charpy impact testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.; Klueh, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Full-size , half-size, and third-size specimens from several different steels have been tested as part of an ongoing alloy development program. The smaller specimens permit more specimens to be made from small trail heats and are much more efficient for irradiation experiments. The results of several comparisons between the different specimen sizes have shown that the smaller specimens show qualitatively similar behavior to large specimens, although the upper-shelf energy level and ductile-to-ductile transition temperature are reduced. The upper-shelf energy levels from different specimen sizes can be compared by using a simple volume normalization method. The effect of specimen size and geometry on the ductile-to-ductile transition temperature is more difficult to predict, although the available data suggest a simple shift in the transition temperature due to specimen size changes.The relatively shallower notch used in smaller specimens alters the deformation pattern, and permits yielding to spread back to the notched surface as well as through to the back. This reduces the constraint and the peak stresses, and thus the initiation of cleavage is more difficult. A better understanding of the stress and strain distributions is needed. 19 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Surgical Assisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... instruction, including: Microbiology Pathophysiology Pharmacology Anatomy and physiology Medical terminology Curriculum . Course content includes: Advanced surgical anatomy Surgical microbiology Surgical pharmacology Anesthesia methods and agents Bioscience Ethical ...

  6. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    an environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3...... transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ......Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking...

  7. Preserve specimens for reproducibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krell, F.-T.; Klimeš, Petr; Rocha, L. A.; Fikáček, M.; Miller, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 539, č. 7628 (2016), s. 168 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : reproducibility * specimen * biodiversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v539/n7628/full/539168b.html

  8. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  9. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments

  10. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-02-09

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  11. Influence of surgical decompression on the expression of inflammatory and tissue repair biomarkers in periapical cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Janderson Teixeira; Dos Santos Antunes, Henrique; Armada, Luciana; Pires, Fábio Ramôa

    2017-12-01

    The biologic effects of surgical decompression on the epithelium and connective tissues of periapical cysts are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of tissue repair and inflammatory biomarkers in periapical cysts before and after surgical decompression. Nine specimens of periapical cysts treated with decompression before undergoing complete enucleation were immunohistochemically analyzed to investigate the expression of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, Ki-67, and epidermal growth factor receptor. Expression of the biomarkers was classified as positive, focal, or negative. Ki-67 immunoexpression was calculated as a cell proliferation index. The expression of the biomarkers was compared in the specimens from decompression and from the final surgical procedure. Computed tomography demonstrated that volume was reduced in all cysts after decompression. There were no differences in the immunoexpression of the proinflammatory and tissue repair biomarkers when comparing the specimens obtained before and after the decompression. Surgical decompression was efficient in reducing the volume of periapical cysts before complete enucleation. When comparing the specimens obtained from surgical decompression and from complete surgical removal, the immunohistochemical analysis did not show a decrease in proinflammatory biomarkers; neither did it show an increase in tissue repair biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of specimen adequacy on the assessment of renal allograft biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimen, S; Geldenhuys, L; Guler, S; Imamoglu, A; Molinari, M

    2016-01-01

    The Banff classification was introduced to achieve uniformity in the assessment of renal allograft biopsies. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of specimen adequacy on the Banff classification. All renal allograft biopsies obtained between July 2010 and June 2012 for suspicion of acute rejection were included. Pre-biopsy clinical data on suspected diagnosis and time from renal transplantation were provided to a nephropathologist who was blinded to the original pathological report. Second pathological readings were compared with the original to assess agreement stratified by specimen adequacy. Cohen's kappa test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analyses. Forty-nine specimens were reviewed. Among these specimens, 81.6% were classified as adequate, 6.12% as minimal, and 12.24% as unsatisfactory. The agreement analysis among the first and second readings revealed a kappa value of 0.97. Full agreement between readings was found in 75% of the adequate specimens, 66.7 and 50% for minimal and unsatisfactory specimens, respectively. There was no agreement between readings in 5% of the adequate specimens and 16.7% of the unsatisfactory specimens. For the entire sample full agreement was found in 71.4%, partial agreement in 20.4% and no agreement in 8.2% of the specimens. Statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test yielded a P value above 0.25 showing that - probably due to small sample size - the results were not statistically significant. Specimen adequacy may be a determinant of a diagnostic agreement in renal allograft specimen assessment. While additional studies including larger case numbers are required to further delineate the impact of specimen adequacy on the reliability of histopathological assessments, specimen quality must be considered during clinical decision making while dealing with biopsy reports based on minimal or unsatisfactory specimens.

  13. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  14. Method for thinning specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follstaedt, David M.; Moran, Michael P.

    2005-03-15

    A method for thinning (such as in grinding and polishing) a material surface using an instrument means for moving an article with a discontinuous surface with an abrasive material dispersed between the material surface and the discontinuous surface where the discontinuous surface of the moving article provides an efficient means for maintaining contact of the abrasive with the material surface. When used to dimple specimens for microscopy analysis, a wheel with a surface that has been modified to produce a uniform or random discontinuous surface significantly improves the speed of the dimpling process without loss of quality of finish.

  15. Development of fatigue life evaluation method using small specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Shuhei; Nishimura, Arata; Wakai, Eichi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Itoh, Takamoto; Hasegawa, Akira

    2013-01-01

    For developing the fatigue life evaluation method using small specimen, the effect of specimen size and shape on the fatigue life of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (F82H-IEA, F82H-BA07 and JLF-1) was investigated by the fatigue test at room temperature in air using round-bar and hourglass specimens with various specimen sizes (test section diameter: 0.85–10 mm). The round-bar specimen showed no specimen size and no specimen shape effects on the fatigue life, whereas the hourglass specimen showed no specimen size effect and obvious specimen shape effect on it. The shorter fatigue life of the hourglass specimen observed under low strain ranges could be attributed to the shorter micro-crack initiation life induced by the stress concentration dependent on the specimen shape. On the basis of this study, the small round-bar specimen was an acceptable candidate for evaluating the fatigue life using small specimen

  16. Surgical lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knulst, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The surgical light is an important tool for surgeons to create and maintain good visibility on the surgical task. Chapter 1 gives background to the field of (surgical) lighting and related terminology. Although the surgical light has been developed strongly since its introduction a long time ago,

  17. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1998-01-01

    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior

  18. Splitting tests on rock specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J D; Stagg, K G

    1970-01-01

    Splitting tests are described for a square-section sandstone specimens line loaded through steel or timber packings on the top face and supported on the bottom face either on similar packings (type A specimen) or directly on the lower platen plate of the testing machine (type B specimens). The stress distribution across the vertical central plane and the horizontal central plane were determined from a linear elastic finite element analysis for both types. Two solutions were obtained for the type B specimen: one assuming no friction between the base of the specimen and the platen plate and the other assuming no relative slip between the surfaces. Vertical and horizontal strains were measured at the center of the specimens for all loads up to failure.

  19. Janka hardness using nonstandard specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Marshall Begel; William Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Janka hardness determined on 1.5- by 3.5-in. specimens (2×4s) was found to be equivalent to that determined using the 2- by 2-in. specimen specified in ASTM D 143. Data are presented on the relationship between Janka hardness and the strength of clear wood. Analysis of historical data determined using standard specimens indicated no difference between side hardness...

  20. Surgical smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown.

  1. Specimen-specific modeling of hip fracture pattern and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azhar A; Cristofolini, Luca; Schileo, Enrico; Hu, Haixiang; Taddei, Fulvia; Kim, Raymond H; Rullkoetter, Paul J; Laz, Peter J

    2014-01-22

    Hip fracture remains a major health problem for the elderly. Clinical studies have assessed fracture risk based on bone quality in the aging population and cadaveric testing has quantified bone strength and fracture loads. Prior modeling has primarily focused on quantifying the strain distribution in bone as an indicator of fracture risk. Recent advances in the extended finite element method (XFEM) enable prediction of the initiation and propagation of cracks without requiring a priori knowledge of the crack path. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to predict femoral fracture in specimen-specific models using the XFEM approach, to perform one-to-one comparisons of predicted and in vitro fracture patterns, and to develop a framework to assess the mechanics and load transfer in the fractured femur when it is repaired with an osteosynthesis implant. Five specimen-specific femur models were developed from in vitro experiments under a simulated stance loading condition. Predicted fracture patterns closely matched the in vitro patterns; however, predictions of fracture load differed by approximately 50% due to sensitivity to local material properties. Specimen-specific intertrochanteric fractures were induced by subjecting the femur models to a sideways fall and repaired with a contemporary implant. Under a post-surgical stance loading, model-predicted load sharing between the implant and bone across the fracture surface varied from 59%:41% to 89%:11%, underscoring the importance of considering anatomic and fracture variability in the evaluation of implants. XFEM modeling shows potential as a macro-level analysis enabling fracture investigations of clinical cohorts, including at-risk groups, and the design of robust implants. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2012-01-01

    The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... and 28 students from 2010). Our results show that anxiety levels in veterinary students are significantly higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course (p...

  3. A simple method for the prevention of endometrial autolysis in hysterectomy specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Houghton, J P; Roddy, S; Carroll, S; McCluggage, W G

    2004-01-01

    Aims: Uteri are among the most common surgical pathology specimens. Assessment of the endometrium is often difficult because of pronounced tissue autolysis. This study describes a simple method to prevent endometrial autolysis and aid in interpretation of the endometrium.

  4. Design of specimen for weld residual stress simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Park, Jong Sun; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design a laboratory specimen for simulating residual stress of circumferential butt welding of pipe. Specimen type and method for residual stress generation were proposed based on the review of prior studies and parametric finite element simulation. To prove the proposed specimen type and loading method, the residual stress was generated using the designed specimen by applying proposed method and was measured. The measured residual stress using X-ray diffraction reasonably agreed with the results of finite element simulation considered in the specimen design. Comparison of residual strains measured at several locations of specimen and given by finite element simulation also showed good agreement. Therefore, it is indicated that the designed specimen can reasonably simulate the residual stress of circumferential butt welding of pipe

  5. Role of specimen US for predicting resection margin status in breast conserving therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetta, M; Telegrafo, M; Introna, T; Coi, L; Rella, L; Ranieri, V; Cirili, A; Stabile Ianora, A A; Angelelli, G

    2015-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of specimen ultrasound (US) for predicting resection margin status in women undergoing breast conserving therapy for US-detected cancer, having the histological findings as the reference standard. A total of 132 consecutive patients (age range, 34-87 years; mean, 51 years) underwent breast-conserving surgery for US-detected invasive breast cancer. All surgical specimens underwent US examination. The presence of lesion within the specimen and its distance from the specimen margins were assessed considering a threshold distance between the lesion and specimen margins of 10 mm. US findings were then compared with the pathological ones and specimen US. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) for predicting histological margin status were evaluated, having the histological findings as the reference standard. The histological examination detected invasive ductal carcinoma in 96/132 (73%) cases, invasive lobular carcinoma in 32/132 (24%), mucinous carcinoma in 4/132 (3%). The pathological margin analysis revealed 96/132 (73%) negative margins and 36 (27%) close/positive margins. US examination detected all 132 breast lesions within the surgical specimens. 110 (83%) negative margins and 22 (17%) positive margins were found on US. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, PPV and NPV of 44%, 94%, 80%, 73% and 82%, respectively, were found for specimen US. Specimen US represents a time and cost saving imaging tool for evaluating the presence of US detected-breast lesion within surgical specimen and for predicting the histological margin status.

  6. Screen-film specimen radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, S.J.; Hogan, J.; Schreck, B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the reproducibility and quality of biopsy specimen radiographs, a unique phototimed cabinet x-ray system is being developed. The system utilizes specially modified Kodal Min-R cassettes and will be compatible with current mammographic films. Tube voltages are in the 14-20-kVp range with 0.1-1.0-second exposure times. A top-hat type compression device is used (1) to compress the specimen to uniform thickness, (2) to measure the specimen thickness and determine optimum kVp, and (3) to superimpose a grid over the specimen for identification of objects of radiographic interest. The phototiming circuit developed specifically for this purpose will be described along with the modified Min-R cassette. Characteristics of the generator and cabinet will also be described. Tests will be performed on phantoms to evaluate the system limitations

  7. DNA extraction from herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drábková, Lenka Záveská

    2014-01-01

    With the expansion of molecular techniques, the historical collections have become widely used. Studying plant DNA using modern molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing plays an important role in understanding evolutionary relationships, identification through DNA barcoding, conservation status, and many other aspects of plant biology. Enormous herbarium collections are an important source of material especially for specimens from areas difficult to access or from taxa that are now extinct. The ability to utilize these specimens greatly enhances the research. However, the process of extracting DNA from herbarium specimens is often fraught with difficulty related to such variables as plant chemistry, drying method of the specimen, and chemical treatment of the specimen. Although many methods have been developed for extraction of DNA from herbarium specimens, the most frequently used are modified CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit protocols. Nine selected protocols in this chapter have been successfully used for high-quality DNA extraction from different kinds of plant herbarium tissues. These methods differ primarily with respect to their requirements for input material (from algae to vascular plants), type of the plant tissue (leaves with incrustations, sclerenchyma strands, mucilaginous tissues, needles, seeds), and further possible applications (PCR-based methods or microsatellites, AFLP).

  8. Surgical orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, Alexis M; Vitkus, Lauren

    2017-08-01

    The article reviews some commonly used orthodontic treatments as well as new strategies to assist in the correction of malocclusion. Many techniques are used in conjunction with surgical intervention and are a necessary compliment to orthognathic surgery. Basic knowledge of these practices will aid in the surgeon's ability to adequately treat the patient. Many orthodontists and surgeons are eliminating presurgical orthodontics to adopt a strategy of 'surgery first' orthodontics in orthognathic surgery. This has the benefit of immediate improvement in facial aesthetics and shorter treatment times. The advent of virtual surgical planning has helped facilitate the development of this new paradigm by making surgical planning faster and easier. Furthermore, using intraoperative surgical navigation is improving overall precision and outcomes. A variety of surgical and nonsurgical treatments may be employed in the treatment of malocclusion. It is important to be familiar with all options available and tailor the patient's treatment plan accordingly. Surgery-first orthodontics, intraoperative surgical navigation, virtual surgical planning, and 3D printing are evolving new techniques that are producing shorter treatment times and subsequently improving patient satisfaction without sacrificing long-term stability.

  9. Some recent innovations in small specimen testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odette, G.R.; He, M.; Gragg, D.; Klingensmith, D.; Lucas, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    New innovative small specimen test techniques are described. Finite element simulations show that combinations of cone indentation pile-up geometry and load-penetration depth relations can be used to determine both the yield stress and strain-hardening behavior of a material. Techniques for pre-cracking and testing sub-miniaturized fracture toughness bend bars, with dimensions of 1.65x1.65x9 mm 3 , or less, are described. The corresponding toughness-temperature curves have a very steep transition slope, primarily due to rapid loss of constraint, which has advantages in some experiments to characterize the effects of specified irradiation variables. As one example of using composite specimens, an approach to evaluating helium effects is proposed, involving diffusion bonding small wires of a 54 Fe-based ferritic-martensitic alloy to a surrounding fracture specimen composed of an elemental Fe-based alloy. Finally, we briefly outline some potential approaches to multipurpose specimens and test automation

  10. Uniaxial compression tests on diesel contaminated frozen silty soil specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenaf, D.; Stampli, N.; Bathurst, R.; Chapuis, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Results of a uniaxial, unconfined compression test on artificial diesel-contaminated and uncontaminated frozen silty soils are discussed. The testing program involved 59 specimens. The results show that for the same fluid content, diesel contamination reduced the strength of the frozen specimens by increasing the unfrozen water content. For example, in specimens containing 50 per cent diesel oil of the fluid content by weight the maximum strength was reduced by 95 per cent compared to the strength of an uncontaminated specimen. Diesel contamination was also shown to contribute to the slippage between soil particles by acting as a lubricant, thus accelerating the loss of compressive strength.13 refs., 18 figs

  11. Bireflectance imaging of coal and carbon specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C. [Department of Geology, 1259 Lincoln Drive, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 (United States); Glasspool, I.J.; Gibbins, J.R.; Seitz, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, Exhibition Road, London, SW7 2BX (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-10

    Although bireflectance measurements are routine, to date they have been limited to selected single point measurements. This study uses a 360{sup o} rotating polarizer in the incident light path combined with digital imaging to map the optical bireflectance of a polished specimen over the complete field of view, a system herein referred to as 'Bireflectance Imaging of Coal and Carbon Specimens' (BRICCS). True maximum reflectance maps and maps of polarizer angle for maximum reflectance (to identify co-ordered regions) are obtainable from the same data. A variety of coal, coke, char, graphite, and carbon/carbon specimens have been examined with the BRICCS system and the results demonstrate that the system can produce accurate maximum and apparent minimum reflectance, bireflectance, and extinction angle images. For example, flakes of natural graphite show no bireflectance along their long axis except in areas that have been strained. The images are maps showing the value of every pixel that has been calibrated by mineral reflectance standards. The maps are unique in that they show fields of view that cannot be seen by normal viewing through the microscope. For example, the bireflectance maps show the maximum difference between the maximum and apparent minimum reflectance for each of the million pixels at twenty orientations of the polarizer. (author)

  12. Thermal endurance tests on silicone rubber specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, C.

    1977-07-01

    Thermal endurance tests have been performed on a range of silicone rubber specimens at temperature above 300 0 C. It is suggested that the rubber mix A2426, the compound from which Wylfa sealing rings are manufactured, will fail at temperatures above 300 0 C within weeks. Hardness measurements show that this particular rubber performs in a similar manner to Walker's S.I.L./60. (author)

  13. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated From Surgical Site Infection of Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghotaslou, Reza; Beheshtirouy, Samad; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Asghari, Babak; Alizadeh, Naser; Toloue Ostadgavahi, Ali; Sorayaei Somesaraei, Vida; Memar, Mohammad Yousef

    2015-07-01

    Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are infections of incision or deep tissue at operation sites. These infections prolong hospitalization, delay wound healing, and increase the overall cost and morbidity. This study aimed to investigate anaerobic and aerobic bacteria prevalence in surgical site infections and determinate antibiotic susceptibility pattern in these isolates. One hundred SSIs specimens were obtained by needle aspiration from purulent material in depth of infected site. These specimens were cultured and incubated in both aerobic and anaerobic condition. For detection of antibiotic susceptibility pattern in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, we used disk diffusion, agar dilution, and E-test methods. A total of 194 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 samples of surgical sites. Predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from these specimens were the members of Enterobacteriaceae family (66, 34.03%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26, 13.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (24, 12.37%), Acinetobacter spp. (18, 9.28%), Enterococcus spp. (16, 8.24%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (14, 7.22%) and nonhemolytic streptococci (2, 1.03%). Bacteroides fragilis (26, 13.4%), and Clostridium perfringens (2, 1.03%) were isolated as anaerobic bacteria. The most resistant bacteria among anaerobic isolates were B. fragilis. All Gram-positive isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid while most of Enterobacteriaceae showed sensitivity to imipenem. Most SSIs specimens were polymicrobial and predominant anaerobic isolate was B. fragilis. Isolated aerobic and anaerobic strains showed high level of resistance to antibiotics.

  14. Surgical management of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quérat, C; Germain, N; Dumollard, J-M; Estour, B; Peoc'h, M; Prades, J-M

    2015-04-01

    Hyperthyroidism includes several clinical and histopathological situations. Surgery is commonly indicated after failure of medical treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze the indications and complications of surgery as well as endocrine results. Patients operated on for hyperthyroidism between 2004 and 2012 were included in a retrospective study. Total thyroidectomy was performed for Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter and amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis; patients with toxic nodule underwent hemithyroidectomy. Pathologic analysis assessed surgical specimens; postoperative complications and resolution of hyperthyroidism were noted. Two hundred patients from 15 to 83 years old were included. One hundred and eighty-eight underwent primary surgery and 12 were re-operated for recurrent goiter (6 with subtotal thyroidectomy for multinodular goiter 25 years previously; 6 with hemithyroidectomy for solitary nodule 15 years previously). Eighty-two patients suffered from toxic multinodular goiter, 78 from Graves' disease, 35 from solitary toxic nodules and 5 from amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis. Fourteen papillary carcinomas (including 11 papillary microcarcinomas) and 34 healthy parathyroid glands (17%) were identified in the pathological specimens. Postoperative complications comprised 4% permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (1 year follow-up), 9% hematoma requiring surgical revision, and 3% definitive hypocalcemia. Normalization of thyroid hormone levels was observed in 198 patients. Two recurrences occurred due to incomplete resection (1 case of Graves' disease and 1 intrathoracic toxic goiter that occurred respectively 18 and 5 months after resection). Postoperative complications were more frequent in multinodular goiter (23%) than in Graves' disease (13%) (ns: P>0.05). Surgical management of hyperthyroidism enables good endocrinal control if surgery is complete. Patients need to be fully informed of all possible postoperative complications

  15. Surgical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nivritti G; Cheng, Stephen W K; Wong, John

    2003-08-01

    Recent high-profile cases have heightened the need for a formal structure to monitor achievement and maintenance of surgical competence. Logbooks, morbidity and mortality meetings, videos and direct observation of operations using a checklist, motion analysis devices, and virtual reality simulators are effective tools for teaching and evaluating surgical skills. As the operating theater is also a place for training, there must be protocols and guidelines, including mandatory standards for supervision, to ensure that patient care is not compromised. Patients appreciate frank communication and honesty from surgeons regarding their expertise and level of competence. To ensure that surgical competence is maintained and keeps pace with technologic advances, professional registration bodies have been promoting programs for recertification. They evaluate performance in practice, professional standing, and commitment to ongoing education.

  16. Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Triantopoulou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts. The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm. This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation, the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins. Missed findings by imaging or pitfalls were recorded and we tried to explain all discrepancies between radiology evaluation and the histopathological findings. Radiologic-pathologic correlation is extremely important, adding crucial information on imaging limitations and enabling quality assessment of surgical specimens. The deep knowledge of different pancreatic tumors’ consistency and way of extension helps to improve radiologists’ diagnostic accuracy and minimize the radiological-surgical mismatching, preventing patients from unnecessary surgery.

  17. Surgical management of gynecomastia--a 10-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschin, A E; Bietry, D; Hüsler, R; Banic, A; Constantinescu, M

    2008-01-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as the benign enlargement of the male breast. Most studies on surgical treatment of gynecomastia show only small series and lack histopathology results. The aim of this study was to analyze the surgical approach in the treatment of gynecomastia and the related outcome over a 10-year period. All patients undergoing surgical gynecomastia corrections in our department between 1996 and 2006 were included for retrospective evaluation. The data were analyzed for etiology, stage of gynecomastia, surgical technique, complications, risk factors, and histological results. A total of 100 patients with 160 operations were included. Techniques included subcutaneous mastectomy alone or with additional hand-assisted liposuction, isolated liposuction, and formal breast reduction. Atypical histological findings were found in 3% of the patients (spindle-cell hemangioendothelioma, papilloma). The surgical revision rate among all patients was 7%. Body mass index and a weight of the resected specimen higher than 40 g were identified as significant risk factors for complications (p gynecomastia requires an individualized approach. Caution must be taken in performing large resections, which are associated with increased complication rates. Histological tissue analysis should be routinely performed in all true gynecomastia corrections, because histological results may reveal atypical cellular pathology.

  18. Surgical Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azarmehr, Iman; Stokbro, Kasper; Bell, R. Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review investigates the most common indications, treatments, and outcomes of surgical navigation (SN) published from 2010 to 2015. The evolution of SN and its application in oral and maxillofacial surgery have rapidly developed over recent years, and therapeutic indicatio...

  19. Surgical Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Horeman, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a surgical instrument for minimall-invasive surgery, comprising a handle, a shaft and an actuating part, characterised by a gastight cover surrounding the shaft, wherein the cover is provided with a coupler that has a feed- through opening with a loskable seal,

  20. Fracture toughness measurements with subsize disk compact specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Special fixtures and test methods are necessary to facilitate the fracture toughness testing of small disk compact specimens of irradiated candidate materials for first-wall fusion applications. New methods have been developed for both the unloading compliance and potential drop techniques of monitoring crack growth. Provisions have been made to allow the necessary probes and instrumentation to be installed remotely using manipulators for testing of irradiated specimens in a hot cell. Laboratory trials showed that both unloading compliance and potential drop gave useful results. Both techniques gave similar data, and predicted the final crack extension within allowable limits. The results from the small disk compact specimens were similar to results from conventional compact specimen 12.7 mm thick. However, the slopes of the J-R curves from the larger specimens were lower, suggesting that the smaller disk compact specimens may have lost some constraint due to their size. The testing shows that it should be possible to generate useful J-R curve fracture toughness data from the small disk compact specimens

  1. Fracture toughness measurements with subsize disk compact specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Special fixtures and test methods have been developed for testing small disk compact specimens (12.5 mm diam by 4.6 mm thick). Both unloading compliance and potential drop methods have been used to monitor crack extension during the J-integral resistance (J-R) curve testing. Provisions have been made to allow the necessary probes and instrumentation to be installed remotely using manipulators for testing of irradiated specimens in a hat cell. Laboratory trials showed that both unloading compliance and potential drop gave useful results. Both techniques gave similar data, and predicted the final crack extension within allowable limits. The results from the small disk compact specimens were similar to results from conventional compact specimens 12.7-mm thick. However, the slopes of the J-R curves from the larger specimens were lower, suggesting that the smaller disk compact specimens may have lost some constraint due to their size. The testing shows that it should be possible to generate useful J-R curve fracture toughness data from the small disk compact specimens

  2. Fabrication and testing of prestressed composite rotor blade spar specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleich, D.

    1974-01-01

    Prestressed composite spar specimens were fabricated and evaluated by crack propagation and ballistic penetration tests. The crack propagation tests on flawed specimens showed that the prestressed composite spar construction significantly suppresses crack growth. Damage from three high velocity 30 caliber projectile hits was confined to three small holes in the ballistic test specimen. No fragmentation or crack propagation was observed indicating good ballistic damage resistance. Rotor attachment approaches and improved structural performance configurations were identified. Design theory was verified by tests. The prestressed composite spar configuration consisted of a compressively prestressed high strength ARDEFORM 301 stainless steel liner overwrapped with pretensioned S-994 fiberglass.

  3. Echosonography and surgical therapy of facial skin tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Zoran U.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the 20 century, echosonography has been used in many medical specialties. In 1992 and 1993 highfrequencies echosonography was used in the examination of irritant and allergic skin lesions in order to examine the effects of different therapeuthical agents on the skin lesions [1-4]. Hoffmann used highfrequencies echosonography in the examination of healing of skin lesions [3]. By their incidence skin tumors are the largest group of newly discovered tumors, and their usual location is on the face [5-7]. By clinical examination it is not possible to precisely determine the depth of tumor border; therefore, the radically performed surgical excision is the only correct surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to estimate the results of preoperatively performed high frequencies echosonography in order to reduce the number of incorrectly performed surgical excisions of skin tumors. The group was composed of 40 patients with 45 tumors, who first underwent echosonographic diagnostic procedure (20 MHz, Hadsund electronic, Hadsund Technology, Denmark and then surgical excision; patients in control group (45 patients with 45 tumors were only subjected to surgical excision. Excised tumors were then pathohistologically analyzed, and measurements of tumor depth progression were performed. Margins of pathohistological specimen were controlled for the presence of tumor cells. Results of measurements of tumor depth obtained by echosonography and pathohistological measurements were compared. By Jate's modification of c2 test results regarding correct and incorrect surgical excision in patients and control group were compared. By linear regression analysis results of tumor depth obtained by echosonographic and pathohistologic examinations were compared. Hypoechogen zone echosonographic results were used like criteria for tumor expansion. Results of tumor depth measurements are presented in Table 1. Linear regression analysis showed (R = 0

  4. Collagen Quantification in Tissue Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentro, João Quintas; Capella-Monsonís, Héctor; Graceffa, Valeria; Wu, Zhuning; Mullen, Anne Maria; Raghunath, Michael; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I

    2017-01-01

    Collagen is the major extracellular protein in mammals. Accurate quantification of collagen is essential in the biomaterials (e.g., reproducible collagen scaffold fabrication), drug discovery (e.g., assessment of collagen in pathophysiologies, such as fibrosis), and tissue engineering (e.g., quantification of cell-synthesized collagen) fields. Although measuring hydroxyproline content is the most widely used method to quantify collagen in biological specimens, the process is very laborious. To this end, the Sircol™ Collagen Assay is widely used due to its inherent simplicity and convenience. However, this method leads to overestimation of collagen content due to the interaction of Sirius red with basic amino acids of non-collagenous proteins. Herein, we describe the addition of an ultrafiltration purification step in the process to accurately determine collagen content in tissues.

  5. Notch effects in uniaxial tension specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delph, T.J.

    1979-03-01

    Results of a literature survey on the effect of notches on the time-dependent failure of uniaxial tension specimens at elevated temperatures are presented. Particular attention is paid to the failure of notched specimens containing weldments

  6. Measurements and Counts for Notacanthidae Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic data were collected for specimens of deep-sea spiny eels (Notacanthidae) from the Hawaiian Ridge by Bruce C. Mundy. Specimens were collected off the north...

  7. Influence of specimen size on the creep of rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senseny, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    Triaxial compression creep data for Avery Island dome salt are analyzed to determine the influence of specimen size on creep deformation. Laboratory experiments were performed on 50- and 100-mm-diameter specimens in the temperature range from 25 to 200 0 C and the axial stress difference range from 2.5 to 31.0 MPa. The strain-vs-time data from each test are divided into transient and steady-state components. Results of statistical analysis of these data show that transient creep of the small specimens is a stronger function of stress, temperature, and time than is transient creep of the larger specimens. Analysis of the steady-state data show no size effect, however. 14 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  8. Prognostic significance of lymphovascular invasion in radical prostatectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, David S; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Lowrance, William T; Maschino, Alexandra C; Savage, Caroline J; Cronin, Angel M; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A

    2011-08-01

    Study Type - Prognosis (case series). 4. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The reported incidence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in radical prostatectomy specimens ranges from 5% to 53%. Although LVI has a strong and significant association with adverse clinicopathologic features, it has almost uniformly not been found to be a predictor of biochemical recurrence (BR) on multivariate analysis. This study confirms that LVI is associated with features of aggressive disease and is an independent predictor of BCR. Given that LVI may play a role in the metastatic process, it may be useful in clinical decision-making regarding adjuvant therapy for patients treated with RP. To determine whether lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens has prognostic significance. The study examined whether LVI is associated with clinicopathological characteristics and biochemical recurrence (BCR). LVI was evaluated based on routine pathology reports on 1298 patients treated with RP for clinically localized prostate cancer between 2004 and 2007. LVI was defined as the unequivocal presence of tumour cells within an endothelium-lined space. The association between LVI and clinicopathological features was assessed with univariate logistic regression. Cox regression was used to test the association between LVI and BCR. LVI was identified in 10% (129/1298) of patients. The presence of LVI increased with advancing pathological stage: 2% (20/820) in pT2N0 patients, 16% (58/363) in pT3N0 patients and 17% (2/12) in pT4N0 patients; and was highest in patients with pN1 disease (52%; 49/94). Univariate analysis showed an association between LVI and higher preoperative prostate-specific antigen levels and Gleason scores, and a greater likelihood of extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node metastasis and positive surgical margins (all P < 0.001). With a median follow-up of 27 months, LVI was significantly associated with an

  9. Histological evaluation of 400 cholecystectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A majority of gallbladder specimens show changes associated with chronic cholecystitis; however few harbour a highly lethal carcinoma. This study was conducted to review the significant histopathological findings encountered in gallbladder specimens received in our laboratory.Materials and Methods: Four hundred cholecystectomy specimens were studied over a period of five years (May, 2002 to April, 2007 received at department of pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India. Results: Gallstones and associated diseases were more common in women in the 4th to 5th decade as compared to men with M: F ratio of 1:1.33. Maximum number of patients (28.25% being 41 to 50 years old. Histopathologically, the most common diagnosis was chronic cholecystitis (66.75%, followed by chronic active cholecystitis (20.25%, acute cholecystitis (6%, gangrenous cholecystitis (2.25%,xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (0.50%, empyema (1%, mucocele (0.25%, choledochal cyst (0.25%, adenocarcinoma gallbladder (1.25% and  normal  gallbladders (1%.Conclusion: All lesions were found more frequently in women except chronic active cholecystitis. Gallstones were present in (80.25% cases, and significantly associated with various lesions (P value 0.009. Pigment stones were most common, followed by cholesterol stones and mixed stones. Adequate  sectioning  is  mandatory  in  all  cases  to  assess  epithelial changes arising from cholelithiasis and chronic cholecystitis as it has been known to progress to malignancy in some cases.

  10. Retained surgical sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Masashi; Kurono, Kenji; Iida, Akihiko; Suzuki, Hirochika; Hara, Masaki; Mizutani, Hirokazu; Ohba, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaru; Nakajima, Yoichiro.

    1993-01-01

    The CT, US, and MRI findings of confirmed retained surgical sponges were reviewed. The CT examinations in eight lesions demonstrated round or oval masses with heterogeneous internal structures. The US examinations in 5 lesions demonstrated low echogenic masses with high echogenic internal structures, which suggested retained surgical sponges. MR imagings in three lesions showed slightly high intensity comparable to that of muscles on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, suggesting fluid collections of high protein concentration. (author)

  11. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  12. SHOULD EVERY APPENDECECTOMY SPECIMEN BE SUBJECTED TO HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION? A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF HISTOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN APPENDICECTOMY SPECIMENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahanuma Shaik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Appendicitis is one of the commonest surgical emergencies with a lifetime risk of 7-8%. The appendicectomy specimens operated upon clinically-suspected appendicitis often appear normal on gross examination, but histopathological evaluation may reveal a diverse underlying pathology. Therefore, for accurate diagnosis, histopathological examination of all appendicectomy specimens is mandatory. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of 175 appendicectomy cases operated over a period of two years. The clinical data and histopathological reports were reviewed and various histopathological findings are categorised. RESULTS Out of the total 175 appendicectomies, 155 emergency appendicectomy cases were included in the study, while 20 cases of incidental appendicectomy were excluded. The peak incidence was found in the 2nd and 3rd decades with male predominance. Among the 155 specimens, 96.8% had histological features of appendicitis and 1.9% were normal appendix. The unusual histopathological findings were Carcinoid tumour and Enterobius vermicularis. CONCLUSION The definitive diagnoses of appendicitis as well as the unusual incidental findings that were missed intraoperatively are established by histopathological examination. The study supports the histological examination of all resected appendicectomy specimens.

  13. Development of Reconstitution Technology for Surveillance Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasushi Atago; Shunichi Hatano; Eiichiro Otsuka

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) has been carrying out the project titled 'Nuclear Power Plant Integrated Management Technology (PLIM)' consigned by Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) since 1996FY as a 10-years project. As one of the project themes, development of reconstitution technology for reactor pressure vessel (RPV/RV) surveillance specimens, which are installed in RPVs to monitor the neutron irradiation embrittlement on RPV/RV materials, is now on being carried out to deal with the long-term operation of nuclear power plants. The target of this theme is to establish the technical standard for applicability of reconstituted surveillance specimens including the reconstitution of the Charpy specimens and Compact Tension (CT) specimens. With the Charpy specimen reconstitution, application of 10 mm length inserts is used, which enables the conversion of tests from the LT-direction to the TL-direction. This paper presents the basic data from Charpy and CT specimens of RPV materials using the surveillance specimens obtained for un-irradiated materials including the following. 1) Reconstitution Technology of Charpy Specimens. a) The interaction between plastic zone and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). b) The effects of the possible deviations from the standard specimens for the reconstituted specimens. 2) Reconstitution Technology of CT specimens. a) The correlation between fracture toughness and plastic zone width. Because the project is now in progress, this paper describes the outline of the results obtained as of the end of 2000 FY. (authors)

  14. 10 CFR 26.159 - Assuring specimen security, chain of custody, and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other entity has reason to question the integrity and identity of the specimens, the specimens may not... identification numbers on the custody-and-control form; (iii) A specimen bottle seal is broken or shows evidence... of the shipping containers are inaccessible without breaking a tamper-evident seal. (g) Couriers...

  15. Rapid virtual hematoxylin and eosin histology of breast tissue specimens using a compact fluorescence nonlinear microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Lucas C; Giacomelli, Michael G; Yoshitake, Tadayuki; Vardeh, Hilde; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E; Connolly, James L; Sun, Chi-Kuang; Fujimoto, James G

    2018-01-01

    Up to 40% of patients undergoing breast conserving surgery for breast cancer require repeat surgeries due to close to or positive margins. The lengthy processing required for evaluating surgical margins by standard paraffin-embedded histology precludes its use during surgery and therefore, technologies for rapid evaluation of surgical pathology could improve the treatment of breast cancer by reducing the number of surgeries required. We demonstrate real-time histological evaluation of breast cancer surgical specimens by staining specimens with acridine orange (AO) and sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) analogously to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and then imaging the specimens with fluorescence nonlinear microscopy (NLM) using a compact femtosecond fiber laser. A video-rate computational light absorption model was used to produce realistic virtual H&E images of tissue in real time and in three dimensions. NLM imaging could be performed to depths of 100 μm below the tissue surface, which is important since many surgical specimens require subsurface evaluation due to contamination artifacts on the tissue surface from electrocautery, surgical ink, or debris from specimen handling. We validate this method by expert review of NLM images compared to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) H&E histology. Diagnostically important features such as normal terminal ductal lobular units, fibrous and adipose stromal parenchyma, inflammation, invasive carcinoma, and in situ lobular and ductal carcinoma were present in NLM images associated with pathologies identified on standard FFPE H&E histology. We demonstrate that AO and SR101 were extracted to undetectable levels after FFPE processing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) HER2 amplification status was unaffected by the NLM imaging protocol. This method potentially enables cost-effective, real-time histological guidance of surgical resections.

  16. Histopathologic analysis of appendectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shrestha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute appendicitis is one of the common conditions requiring emergency surgery. A retrospective study was performed to determine various histopathological diagnoses, their demographics and the rates of perforated appendicitis, negative appendectomy and incidental appendectomy. Materials and Methods: Histopathological records of resected appendices submitted to histopathology department Chitwan medical college teaching hospital over the period of 2 yrs from May, 2009 to April 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Out of 930 specimens of appendix, appendicitis accounted for 88.8% with peak age incidence in the age group of 11 to 30 yrs in both sexes. Histopathologic diagnoses included acute appendicitis (45.6%, acute suppurative (20.8%, gangrenous (16.3%, perforated (1.7%, resolving /recurrent/non specific chronic appendicitis (2.5%, acute eosinophilic appendicitis (1.2%, periappendicitis (0.2%, and carcinoid tumour (0.1%. Other important coexisting pathologies were parasitic infestation (0.2% and Meckel’s diverticulum (0.2%. Negative appendectomy rate was 10.8% and three times more common in females with peak occurrence in the age group of 21-30 yrs. There were 10 cases of acute appendicitis in incidental appendectomies (2.5%, 24 cases with 7 times more common in females of age group of 31- 60 yrs. Conclusion: There is a high incidence of appendicitis in adolescents and young adults in central south region of Nepal. Negative appendectomy is also very common in females. Incidental appendectomy in elderly females may have preventive value. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6025 JPN 2012; 2(3: 215-219

  17. Preliminary investigation of candidate specimens for the Egyptian environmental specimen bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawky, S.; Amer, H.; Schladot, J.D.; Ostapczuk, P.; Emons, H.; Abou El-Nour, F.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of establishing an environmental monitoring program related to environmental specimen banking in egypt, some candidate specimens from the aquatic environment (Fish muscle, fish liver; mussels) were investigated. The selection of specimens and sampling sites is described. Specimens are chemically characterised with respect to some major and trace elements and the results are compared with data obtained from comparable specimens collected in aquatic ecosystems of germany

  18. Corrosion testing of uranium silicide fuel specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourns, W.T.

    1968-09-01

    U 3 Si is the most promising high density natural uranium fuel for water-cooled power reactors. Power reactors fuelled with this material are expected to produce cheaper electricity than those fuelled with uranium dioxide. Corrosion tests in 300 o C water preceded extensive in-reactor performance tests of fuel elements and bundles. Proper heat-treatment of U-3.9 wt% Si gives a U 3 5i specimen which corrodes at less than 2 mg/cm 2 h in 300 o C water. This is an order of magnitude lower than the maximum corrosion rate tolerable in a water-cooled reactor. U 3 Si in a defected unbonded Zircaloy-2 sheath showed only a slow uniform sheath expansion in 300 o C water. All tests were done under isothermal conditions in an out-reactor loop. (author)

  19. Corrosion testing of uranium silicide fuel specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourns, W T

    1968-09-15

    U{sub 3}Si is the most promising high density natural uranium fuel for water-cooled power reactors. Power reactors fuelled with this material are expected to produce cheaper electricity than those fuelled with uranium dioxide. Corrosion tests in 300{sup o}C water preceded extensive in-reactor performance tests of fuel elements and bundles. Proper heat-treatment of U-3.9 wt% Si gives a U{sub 3}5i specimen which corrodes at less than 2 mg/cm{sup 2} h in 300{sup o}C water. This is an order of magnitude lower than the maximum corrosion rate tolerable in a water-cooled reactor. U{sub 3}Si in a defected unbonded Zircaloy-2 sheath showed only a slow uniform sheath expansion in 300{sup o}C water. All tests were done under isothermal conditions in an out-reactor loop. (author)

  20. Influence of thermal conditioning media on Charpy specimen test temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Swain, R.L.; Berggren, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact test is used extensively for determining the toughness of structural materials. Research programs in many technologies concerned with structural integrity perform such testing to obtain Charpy energy vs temperature curves. American Society for Testing and Materials Method E 23 includes rather strict requirements regarding determination and control of specimen test temperature. It specifies minimum soaking times dependent on the use of liquids or gases as the medium for thermally conditioning the specimen. The method also requires that impact of the specimen occur within 5 s removal from the conditioning medium. It does not, however, provide guidance regarding choice of conditioning media. This investigation was primarily conducted to investigate the changes in specimen temperature which occur when water is used for thermal conditioning. A standard CVN impact specimen of low-alloy steel was instrumented with surface-mounted and embedded thermocouples. Dependent on the media used, the specimen was heated or cooled to selected temperatures in the range -100 to 100 degree C using cold nitrogen gas, heated air, acetone and dry ice, methanol and dry ice, heated oil, or heated water. After temperature stabilization, the specimen was removed from the conditioning medium while the temperatures were recorded four times per second from all thermocouples using a data acquisition system and a computer. The results show that evaporative cooling causes significant changes in the specimen temperatures when water is used for conditioning. Conditioning in the other media did not result in such significant changes. The results demonstrate that, even within the guidelines of E 23, significant test temperature changes can occur which may substantially affect the Charpy impact test results if water is used for temperature conditioning. 7 refs., 11 figs

  1. Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantopoulou, Charikleia; Papaparaskeva, Kleo; Agalianos, Christos; Dervenis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    •The axial slicing technique offers many advantages in accurate estimation of tumors extend and staging.•Cross-sectional axial imaging is the best technique for accurate radiologic-pathologic correlation.•Correlation may explain any discrepancies between radiological and histopathological findings.•Pathology correlation may offer a better understanding of the missed findings by imaging or pitfalls The axial slicing technique offers many advantages in accurate estimation of tumors extend and staging. Cross-sectional axial imaging is the best technique for accurate radiologic-pathologic correlation. Correlation may explain any discrepancies between radiological and histopathological findings. Pathology correlation may offer a better understanding of the missed findings by imaging or pitfalls The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts). The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm). This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation), the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins

  2. [Surgical therapy of gynecomastia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, A; Leclère, F M; Vogt, P M; Steiert, A

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays surgical intervention is an essential part of the treatment of idiopathic gynecomastia. Choosing the right method is crucial and is based on the current status in the clinical and histological evaluation. Before finalizing the process of choosing a specific method a prior interdisciplinary evaluation of the patient is necessary to ascertain clear indications for a surgical intervention. Liposuction is one of the methods which have become popular in recent years. The advantages are the possible combination with traditional techniques, such as subcutaneous mastectomy or periareolar mastopexy. The main indication is for gynecomastia stage IIa/b and is justifiable due to the reduction in surgical complications and scarring. Furthermore this technique provides an excellent aesthetical outcome for the patient. A total of 162 patients suffering from gynecomastia stages I-III (according to Simon) were surgically treated between 2000 and 2010 and these cases were retrospectively evaluated. The results showed a decline in the use of a T-shaped incision in combination with subcutaneous mastectomy with periareolar tightening compared to an increase in the use of subcutaneous mastectomy in combination with liposuction. The excised tissue should always be sent for histological examination to make sure no malignant cells were present.

  3. Molecular classification of endometrial carcinoma on diagnostic specimens is highly concordant with final hysterectomy: Earlier prognostic information to guide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhouk, Aline; Hoang, Lien N; McConechy, Melissa K; Nakonechny, Quentin; Leo, Joyce; Cheng, Angela; Leung, Samuel; Yang, Winnie; Lum, Amy; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han; Soslow, Robert A; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake; McAlpine, Jessica N

    2016-10-01

    Categorization and risk stratification of endometrial carcinomas is inadequate; histomorphologic assessment shows considerable interobserver variability, and risk of metastases and recurrence can only be derived after surgical staging. We have developed a Proactive Molecular Risk classification tool for Endometrial cancers (ProMisE) that identifies four distinct prognostic subgroups. Our objective was to assess whether molecular classification could be performed on diagnostic endometrial specimens obtained prior to surgical staging and its concordance with molecular classification performed on the subsequent hysterectomy specimen. Sequencing of tumors for exonuclease domain mutations (EDMs) in POLE and immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair (MMR) proteins and p53 were applied to both pre- and post-staging archival specimens from 60 individuals to identify four molecular subgroups: MMR-D, POLE EDM, p53 wild type, p53 abn (abnormal). Three gynecologic subspecialty pathologists assigned histotype and grade to a subset of samples. Concordance of molecular and clinicopathologic subgroup assignments were determined, comparing biopsy/curetting to hysterectomy specimens. Complete molecular and pathologic categorization was achieved in 57 cases. Concordance metrics for pre- vs. post-staging endometrial samples categorized by ProMisE were highly favorable; average per ProMisE class sensitivity(0.9), specificity(0.96), PPV(0.9), NPV(0.96) and kappa statistic 0.86(95%CI, 0.72-0.93), indicating excellent agreement. We observed the highest level of concordance for 'p53 abn' tumors, the group associated with the worst prognosis. In contrast, grade and histotype assignment from original pathology reports pre- vs. post-staging showed only moderate levels of agreement (kappa=0.55 and 0.44 respectively); even with subspecialty pathology review only moderate levels of agreement were observed. Molecular classification can be achieved on diagnostic endometrial samples and accurately

  4. Fracture toughness measurements with subsize disk compact specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Special fixtures and test methods have been developed for testing small disk compact specimens (1.25 mm diam by 4.6 mm thick). Specimens of European type 316L austenitic stainless steel were irradiated to damage levels of about 3 dpa at nominal irradiation temperatures of either 90 or 250 C and tested over a temperature range from 20 to 250 C. Results show that irradiation to this dose level at these temperatures reduces the fracture toughness but the toughness remains quite high. The toughness decreases as the test temperature increases. Irradiation at 250 C is more damaging than at 90 C, causing larger decreases in the fracture toughness. The testing shows that it is possible to generate useful fracture toughness data with a small disk compact specimens

  5. 7 CFR 97.8 - Specimen requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen requirements. 97.8 Section 97.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... required by the examiner to furnish representative specimens of the variety, or its flower, fruit, or seeds...

  6. Patient safety in the clinical laboratory: a longitudinal analysis of specimen identification errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagar, Elizabeth A; Tamashiro, Lorraine; Yasin, Bushra; Hilborne, Lee; Bruckner, David A

    2006-11-01

    Patient safety is an increasingly visible and important mission for clinical laboratories. Attention to improving processes related to patient identification and specimen labeling is being paid by accreditation and regulatory organizations because errors in these areas that jeopardize patient safety are common and avoidable through improvement in the total testing process. To assess patient identification and specimen labeling improvement after multiple implementation projects using longitudinal statistical tools. Specimen errors were categorized by a multidisciplinary health care team. Patient identification errors were grouped into 3 categories: (1) specimen/requisition mismatch, (2) unlabeled specimens, and (3) mislabeled specimens. Specimens with these types of identification errors were compared preimplementation and postimplementation for 3 patient safety projects: (1) reorganization of phlebotomy (4 months); (2) introduction of an electronic event reporting system (10 months); and (3) activation of an automated processing system (14 months) for a 24-month period, using trend analysis and Student t test statistics. Of 16,632 total specimen errors, mislabeled specimens, requisition mismatches, and unlabeled specimens represented 1.0%, 6.3%, and 4.6% of errors, respectively. Student t test showed a significant decrease in the most serious error, mislabeled specimens (P patient safety projects. Trend analysis demonstrated decreases in all 3 error types for 26 months. Applying performance-improvement strategies that focus longitudinally on specimen labeling errors can significantly reduce errors, therefore improving patient safety. This is an important area in which laboratory professionals, working in interdisciplinary teams, can improve safety and outcomes of care.

  7. Recent advances on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Lobo, Raquel M.; Miranda, Carlos Alexandre J., E-mail: aandrade@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Charpy specimen reconstitution is widely used around the world as a tool to enhance or supplement surveillance programs of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The reconstitution technique consists in the incorporation of a small piece from a previously tested specimen into a compound specimen, allowing to increase the number of tests. This is especially important if the available materials is restricted and fracture mechanics parameter have to be determined. The reconstitution technique must fulfill some demands, among them tests results like the original standard specimens and the loaded material of the insert must not be influenced by the welding and machining procedure. It is known that reconstitution of Charpy specimens may affect the impact energy in a consequence of the constraint of plastic deformation by the hardened weldment and HAZ. This paper reviews some recent advances of the reconstitution technique and its applications. (author)

  8. Recent advances on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Lobo, Raquel M.; Miranda, Carlos Alexandre J.

    2017-01-01

    Charpy specimen reconstitution is widely used around the world as a tool to enhance or supplement surveillance programs of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The reconstitution technique consists in the incorporation of a small piece from a previously tested specimen into a compound specimen, allowing to increase the number of tests. This is especially important if the available materials is restricted and fracture mechanics parameter have to be determined. The reconstitution technique must fulfill some demands, among them tests results like the original standard specimens and the loaded material of the insert must not be influenced by the welding and machining procedure. It is known that reconstitution of Charpy specimens may affect the impact energy in a consequence of the constraint of plastic deformation by the hardened weldment and HAZ. This paper reviews some recent advances of the reconstitution technique and its applications. (author)

  9. LPTR irradiation of LLL vanadium tensile specimens and LLL Nb--1Zr tensile specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, S.C.; Rowe, C.L.

    1977-01-01

    The LPTR irradiation of 14 LLL vanadium tensile specimens and 14 LLL Nb-1Zr tensile specimens is described. Sample packaging, the irradiation schedule and neutron fluences for three energy ranges are given

  10. Surgical Skills Beyond Scientific Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    During the Great War, the French surgeon Alexis Carrel, in collaboration with the English chemist Henry Dakin, devised an antiseptic treatment for infected wounds. This paper focuses on Carrel's attempt to standardise knowledge of infected wounds and their treatment, and looks closely at the vision of surgical skill he espoused and its difference from those associated with the doctrines of scientific management. Examining contemporary claims that the Carrel-Dakin method increased rather than diminished demands on surgical work, this paper further shows how debates about antiseptic wound treatment opened up a critical space for considering the nature of skill as a vital dynamic in surgical innovation and practice.

  11. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1610 - Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack 3 Figure 3 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Holder Supported in Specimen Rack ER25MR08.002 ...

  12. Differential contributions of specimen types, culturing, and 16S rRNA sequencing in diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Heimann; Khalid, Vesal; Xu, Yijuan

    2018-01-01

    to variations in specimen sampling. In this prospective, multidisciplinary study of hip or knee prosthetic failures, we assessed the contributions of different specimen types, extended culture incubations, and 16S rRNA sequencing for diagnosing prosthetic joint infections (PJI). Project specimens included joint...... fluid (JF), bone biopsy specimens (BB), soft-tissue biopsy specimens (STB), and swabs (SW) from the prosthesis, collected in situ, and sonication fluid collected from prosthetic components (PC). Specimens were cultured for 6 (conventional) or 14 days, and 16S rRNA sequencing was performed at study...... completion. Of the 156 patients enrolled, 111 underwent 114 surgical revisions (cases) due to indications of either PJI (n = 43) or AF (n = 71). Conventional tissue biopsy cultures confirmed PJI in 28/43 (65%) cases and refuted AF in 3/71 (4%) cases; one case was not evaluable. Based on these results, minor...

  13. Occurrence of biflavones in leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V. Bahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform partition of methanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was submitted to different chromatographic procedures which afforded besides agathisflavone and taxifolin, the minor biflavones loniflavone, amentoflavone, 5'- hydroxyamentoflavone and podocarpusflavone A. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of NMR and MS data analysis. Besides, the content of biflavones of different specimens of C. pyramidalis, which are collected in different habitats of the Brazilian semi-arid region, was determinated by LC-APCI-MS analysis. These analysis demonstrated that only the specimens harvested in Bahia state showed collectively the presence of agathisflavone, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone and podocarpusflavone A.

  14. Monolithic integration of nanoscale tensile specimens and MEMS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kysar, Jeffrey W

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale materials often have stochastic material properties due to a random distribution of material defects and an insufficient number of defects to ensure a consistent average mechanical response. Current methods to measure the mechanical properties employ MEMS-based actuators. The nanoscale specimens are typically mounted manually onto the load platform, so the boundary conditions have random variations, complicating the experimental measurement of the intrinsic stochasticity of the material properties. Here we show methods for monolithic integration of a nanoscale specimen co-fabricated with the loading platform. The nanoscale specimen is gold with dimensions of ∼40 nm thickness, 350 ± 50 nm width, and 7 μm length and the loading platform is an interdigitated electrode electrostatic actuator. The experiment is performed in a scanning electron microscope and digital image correlation is employed to measure displacements to determine stress and strain. The ultimate tensile strength of the nanocrystalline nanoscale specimen approaches 1 GPa, consistent with measurements made by other nanometer scale sample characterization methods on other material samples at the nanometer scale, as well as gold samples at the nanometer scale. The batch-compatible microfabrication method can be used to create nominally identical nanoscale specimens and boundary conditions for a broad range of materials. (paper)

  15. JR-curves of wide plates and CT25 specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, D.; Wobst, K.; Krafka, H.

    1987-01-01

    In connection with the problem of the applicability of the characteristic specimen date - i.e. the initiation and stable crack propagation under maximal loads, together with the elastic-plastic material behaviour - to that of actual components, spot-check type beside tests were conducted using wide-plate central crack, central notch (CCT, CNT) and double external crack (DECT) samples. The material in question was an StE 460 steel. A comparison between the determined values shows that the assessed pressure vessel behaviour differs extensively to the values derived from the CCT and CNT specimens. The corresponding results obtained from the CT25 and DECT specimens vary only slightly in the region of interest and correspond to real vessel values. (orig./DG) [de

  16. Cerenkov and radioluminescence imaging of brain tumor specimens during neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello Enrico; Schiariti, Marco P.; Grana, Chiara M.; Ferrari, Mahila; Cremonesi, Marta; Boschi, Federico

    2016-05-01

    We presented the first example of Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) and radioluminescence imaging (RLI) of human tumor specimens. A patient with a brain meningioma localized in the left parietal region was injected with 166 MBq of Y90-DOTATOC the day before neurosurgery. The specimens of the tumor removed during surgery were imaged using both CLI and RLI using an optical imager prototype developed in our laboratory. The system is based on a cooled electron multiplied charge coupled device coupled with an f/0.95 17-mm C-mount lens. We showed for the first time the possibility of obtaining CLI and RLI images of fresh human brain tumor specimens removed during neurosurgery.

  17. Handling of biological specimens for electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, G.

    1987-01-01

    There are many different aspects of specimen preparation procedure which need to be considered in order to achieve good results. Whether using the scanning or transmission microscope, the initial handling procedures are very similar and are selected for the information required. Handling procedures and techniques described are: structural preservation; immuno-and histo-chemistry; x-ray microanalysis and autoradiography; dehydration and embedding; mounting and coating specimens for scanning electron microscopy; and sectioning of resin embedded material. With attention to detail and careful choice of the best available technique, excellent results should be obtainable whatever the specimen. 6 refs

  18. Evaluation of irradiated coating material specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Jin; Nam, Seok Woo; Cho, Lee Moon

    2007-12-01

    Evaluation result of irradiated coating material specimens - Coating material specimens radiated Gamma Energy(Co 60) in air condition. - Evaluation conditions was above 1 X 10 4 Gy/hr, and radiated TID 2.0 X 10 6 Gy. - The radiated coating material specimens, No Checking, Cracking, Flaking, Delamination, Peeling and Blistering. - Coating system at the Kori no. 1 and APR 1400 Nuclear power plant, evaluation of irradiated coating materials is in accordance with owner's requirement(2.0 X 10 6 Gy)

  19. A test specimen for characterizing the fracture energy of interfaces in composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, L.; Abbaschian, R.

    1993-01-01

    A sandwich-type chevron-notched specimen, which has a phase angle of loading near zero, is proposed to measure interfacial fracture energy arising mainly from chemical bonding. With the specimen configuration of this kind, the advantages from both sandwich test specimens and chevron-notched specimens can be combined to provide an easy and accurate test for the measurement of interfacial fracture energy. The validity of the specimen has been analyzed in terms of the mechanics of sandwich-type specimens and chevron-notched specimens, and demonstrated using the Al 2 O 3 /Nb bimaterial system. The results show that for a phase angle of loading around -7 degrees the Al 2 O 3 /Nb interface has a fracture energy of 9.3 ± 0.2 J/m 2 . 39 refs

  20. Tensile tests and metallography of brazed AISI 316L specimens after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, P.; Franconi, E.

    1994-01-01

    Stainless steel type 316L tensile specimens were vacuum brazed with three kinds of alloys: BNi-5, BNi-6, and BNi-7. The specimens were irradiated up to 0.7 dpa at 353 K in the High Flux Reactor at JRC Petten, the Netherlands. Tensile tests were performed at a constant displacement rate of 10 -3 s -1 at room temperature in the ECN hot cell facility. BNi-5 brazed specimens showed ductile behaviour. Necking and fractures were localized in the plate material. BNi-6 and BNi-7 brazed specimens failed brittle in the brazed zone. This was preceded by uniform deformation of the plate material. Tensile test results of irradiated specimens showed higher stresses due to radiation hardening and a reduction of the elongation of the plate material compared to the reference. SEM examination of the irradiated BNi-6 and BNi-7 fracture surfaces showed nonmetallic phases. These phases were not found in the reference specimens. ((orig.))

  1. 50 CFR 14.24 - Scientific specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS... international mail system. Provided, that this exception will not apply to any specimens or parts thereof taken...

  2. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  3. Specimen environments in thermal neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebula, D.J.

    1980-11-01

    This report is an attempt to collect into one place outline information concerning the techniques used and basic design of sample environment apparatus employed in neutron scattering experiments. Preliminary recommendations for the specimen environment programme of the SNS are presented. The general conclusion reached is that effort should be devoted towards improving reliability and efficiency of operation of specimen environment apparatus and developing systems which are robust and easy to use, rather than achieving performance at the limits of technology. (author)

  4. Thermal property testing technique on micro specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Tetsuya; Kishimoto, Isao; Taketoshi, Naoyuki

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at establishment of further development on some testing techniques on the nuclear advanced basic research accumulated by the National Research Laboratory of Metrology for ten years. For this purpose, a technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of less than 3 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness of micro specimen and technology to test heat diffusion ratio at micro area of less than 1 mm in area along cross section of less than 10 mm in diameter of column specimen were developed to contribute to common basic technology supporting the nuclear power field. As a result, as an element technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of the micro specimen, a specimen holding technique stably to hold a micro specimen with 3 mm in diameter could be developed. And, for testing the specific heat capacity by using the laser flush differential calorimetry, a technique to hold two specimen of 5 mm in diameter at their proximities was also developed. In addition, by promoting development of thermal property data base capable of storing thermal property data obtained in this study and with excellent workability in this 1998 fiscal year a data in/out-put program with graphical user interface could be prepared. (G.K.)

  5. Comparative study on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdiliau, B.; Decroix, G.-M.; Averty, X.; Wident, P.; Bienvenu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Welding processes are used to reconstitute previously tested Charpy specimens. → Stud welding is preferred for a quick installation, almost immediately operational. → Friction welding produces better quality welds, but requires a development effort. - Abstract: Reconstitution techniques are often used to allow material from previously fractured Charpy-V specimens to be reused for additional experiments. This paper presents a comparative experimental study of various reconstitution techniques and evaluates the feasibility of these methods for future use in shielded cells. The following techniques were investigated: arc stud welding, 6.0 kW CO 2 continuous wave laser welding, 4.5 kW YAG continuous wave laser welding and friction welding. Subsize Charpy specimens were reconstituted using a 400 W YAG pulsed wave laser. The best result was obtained with arc stud welding; the resilience of the reconstituted specimens and the load-displacement curves agreed well with the reference specimens, and the temperature elevation caused by the welding process was limited to the vicinity of the weld. Good results were also obtained with friction welding; this process led to the best quality welds. Laser welding seems to have affected the central part of the specimens, thus leading to different resilience values and load-displacement curves.

  6. Micro-surgical endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Vere, J; Ali, Z; Harris, I

    2014-02-01

    Non-surgical endodontic retreatment is the treatment of choice for endodontically treated teeth with recurrent or residual disease in the majority of cases. In some cases, surgical endodontic treatment is indicated. Successful micro-surgical endodontic treatment depends on the accuracy of diagnosis, appropriate case selection, the quality of the surgical skills, and the application of the most appropriate haemostatic agents and biomaterials. This article describes the armamentarium and technical procedures involved in performing micro-surgical endodontics to a high standard.

  7. Open surgical simulation--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jennifer; Khatib, Manaf; Bello, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Surgical simulation has benefited from a surge in interest over the last decade as a result of the increasing need for a change in the traditional apprentice model of teaching surgery. However, despite the recent interest in surgical simulation as an adjunct to surgical training, most of the literature focuses on laparoscopic, endovascular, and endoscopic surgical simulation with very few studies scrutinizing open surgical simulation and its benefit to surgical trainees. The aim of this review is to summarize the current standard of available open surgical simulators and to review the literature on the benefits of open surgical simulation. Open surgical simulators currently used include live animals, cadavers, bench models, virtual reality, and software-based computer simulators. In the current literature, there are 18 different studies (including 6 randomized controlled trials and 12 cohort studies) investigating the efficacy of open surgical simulation using live animal, bench, and cadaveric models in many surgical specialties including general, cardiac, trauma, vascular, urologic, and gynecologic surgery. The current open surgical simulation studies show, in general, a significant benefit of open surgical simulation in developing the surgical skills of surgical trainees. However, these studies have their limitations including a low number of participants, variable assessment standards, and a focus on short-term results often with no follow-up assessment. The skills needed for open surgical procedures are the essential basis that a surgical trainee needs to grasp before attempting more technical procedures such as laparoscopic procedures. In this current climate of medical practice with reduced hours of surgical exposure for trainees and where the patient's safety and outcome is key, open surgical simulation is a promising adjunct to modern surgical training, filling the void between surgeons being trained in a technique and a surgeon achieving fluency in that

  8. Imaging of concrete specimens using inverse synthetic aperture radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhim, Hong C.; Buyukozturk, Oral

    2000-01-01

    Radar Measurement results of laboratory size concrete specimens are presented in this paper. The purpose of this research work is to study various aspects of the radar method in an effort to develop an improved radar system for nondestructive testing of concrete structures. The radar system used for the study is an Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR), which is capable of transmitting microwaves at three different frequency ranges of 2-3.4, 3.4-5.8, and 8-12 GHz. Radar measurement setup is such that the radar is locates 14.4 m away from a concrete target to satisfy a far-field criterion. The concrete target is rotated for 20 degrees during the measurements for the generation of two-dimensional (cross-range) imagery. Concrete targets used for the measurements have the dimensions of 305 mm (width)x305 mm (height)x92 mm (thickness) with different inside configurations. Comparisons are made for dry and wet specimens, specimens with and without inclusions. Each specimen is made to model various situations that a concrete structure can have in reality. Results show that center frequency, frequency bandwidth, and polarization of the incident wave have different effects on identifying the thickness or inclusions inside concrete specimens. Results also suggest that a certain combination of measurement parameters is suitable for a specific application area. Thus, measurement parameters can be optimized for a specific problem. The findings are presented and discussed in details in the paper. Signal processing schemes implemented for imaging of the specimens are also discussed

  9. Histopathology findings in patients presenting with menorrhagia: A study of 100 hysterectomy specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawke, Nilima G.; Sawke, Gopal Krishna; Jain, Hanisha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Menorrhagia, by definition, is heavy cyclical blood loss in excess of 80 ml/month of menstrual period lasting longer than 7 days. There are many possible causes of heavy menstrual bleeding which include hormonal imbalance, fibroids, miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy, nonhormonal intrauterine device, adenomyosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and rarely uterine, ovarian, or cervical cancer. Treatment depends on the causes of the menorrhagia. Hysterectomy is one of the several surgical procedures as definitive treatment. Objective: To determine the histopathologic spectrum of lesions associated with menorrhagia in different age groups. Study Design: This prospective descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, People's College of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal. During the study period, 100 hysterectomy specimens were taken which were performed for the treatment of menorrhagia. Patients with menorrhagia in the age group of 30-50 years were selected after detailed history and fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Result: In our study, it was observed that maximum number of cases were in the age group of 41-50 years (n = 35) followed by the age group of 31-40 (n = 30). Out of 100 cases, 31% cases (n = 31) showed adenomyosis followed by leiomyomas 25% (n = 25), endometrial hyperplasia 23% (n = 23), and endometrial polyp 4% (n = 4). 11% cases (n = 11) showed dual pathology consisting of both adenomyosis and endometrial hyperplasia and 6% cases (n = 6) of leiomyoma with adenomyosis. Conclusion: Uterine adenomyosis and leiomyoma are the most common benign conditions found in hysterectomy specimens with peak incidence at 31-50 years. Patients having menorrhagia above 40 years should be screened for any endometrial pathology. Histopathology is mandatory for confirming diagnosis and the key to effective therapy and optimal outcome. PMID:26903755

  10. Histopathology findings in patients presenting with menorrhagia: A study of 100 hysterectomy specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima G Sawke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menorrhagia, by definition, is heavy cyclical blood loss in excess of 80 ml/month of menstrual period lasting longer than 7 days. There are many possible causes of heavy menstrual bleeding which include hormonal imbalance, fibroids, miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy, nonhormonal intrauterine device, adenomyosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and rarely uterine, ovarian, or cervical cancer. Treatment depends on the causes of the menorrhagia. Hysterectomy is one of the several surgical procedures as definitive treatment. Objective: To determine the histopathologic spectrum of lesions associated with menorrhagia in different age groups. Study Design: This prospective descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, People′s College of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal. During the study period, 100 hysterectomy specimens were taken which were performed for the treatment of menorrhagia. Patients with menorrhagia in the age group of 30-50 years were selected after detailed history and fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Result: In our study, it was observed that maximum number of cases were in the age group of 41-50 years (n = 35 followed by the age group of 31-40 (n = 30. Out of 100 cases, 31% cases (n = 31 showed adenomyosis followed by leiomyomas 25% (n = 25, endometrial hyperplasia 23% (n = 23, and endometrial polyp 4% (n = 4. 11% cases (n = 11 showed dual pathology consisting of both adenomyosis and endometrial hyperplasia and 6% cases (n = 6 of leiomyoma with adenomyosis. Conclusion: Uterine adenomyosis and leiomyoma are the most common benign conditions found in hysterectomy specimens with peak incidence at 31-50 years. Patients having menorrhagia above 40 years should be screened for any endometrial pathology. Histopathology is mandatory for confirming diagnosis and the key to effective therapy and optimal outcome.

  11. Clinicopathologic features of incidental prostatic adenocarcinoma in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuruskan Hakan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to review all features of incidentally discovered prostate adenocarcinoma in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer. Methods The medical charts of 300 male patients who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer between 1997 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 62 (range 51-75 years. Results Prostate adenocarcinoma was present in 60 (20% of 300 specimens. All were acinar adenocarcinoma. Of these, 40 (66.7% were located in peripheral zone, 20 (33.3% had pT2a tumor, 12 (20% had pT2b tumor, 22(36.7% had pT2c and, 6 (10% had pT3a tumor. Gleason score was 6 or less in 48 (80% patients. Surgical margins were negative in 54 (90% patients, and tumor volume was less than 0.5 cc in 23 (38.3% patients. Of the 60 incidentally detected cases of prostate adenocarcinoma 40 (66.7% were considered clinically significant. Conclusion Incidentally detected prostate adenocarcinoma is frequently observed in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens. The majority are clinically significant.

  12. Thick Concrete Specimen Construction, Testing, and Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoegh, Kyle [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Khazanovich, Lev [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    initial results are also presented along with a discussion of the preliminary findings. Comparative NDE of various defects in reinforced concrete specimens is a key component in identifying the most promising techniques and directing the research and development efforts needed to characterize concrete degradation in commercial NPPs. This requires access to the specimens for data collection using state-of-the-art technology. The construction of the specimen detailed in this report allows for an evaluation of how different NDE techniques may interact with the size and complexities of NPP concrete structures. These factors were taken into account when determining specimen size and features to ensure a realistic design. The lateral dimensions of the specimen were also chosen to mitigate unrealistic boundary effects that would not affect the results of field NPP concrete testing. Preliminary results show that, while the current methods are able to identify some of the deeper defects, improvements in data processing or hardware are necessary to be able to achieve the precision and reliability achieved in evaluating thinner and less heavily reinforced concrete structures.

  13. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther

    2005-01-01

    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2

  14. Comparative Tissue Proteomics of Microdissected Specimens Reveals Novel Candidate Biomarkers of Bladder Cancer*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Lun; Chung, Ting; Wu, Chih-Ching; Ng, Kwai-Fong; Yu, Jau-Song; Tsai, Cheng-Han; Chang, Yu-Sun; Liang, Ying; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ting

    2015-01-01

    More than 380,000 new cases of bladder cancer are diagnosed worldwide, accounting for ∼150,200 deaths each year. To discover potential biomarkers of bladder cancer, we employed a strategy combining laser microdissection, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling, and liquid chromatography-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) analysis to profile proteomic changes in fresh-frozen bladder tumor specimens. Cellular proteins from four pairs of surgically resected primary bladder cancer tumor and adjacent nontumorous tissue were extracted for use in two batches of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation experiments, which identified a total of 3220 proteins. A DAVID (database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery) analysis of dysregulated proteins revealed that the three top-ranking biological processes were extracellular matrix organization, extracellular structure organization, and oxidation-reduction. Biological processes including response to organic substances, response to metal ions, and response to inorganic substances were highlighted by up-expressed proteins in bladder cancer. Seven differentially expressed proteins were selected as potential bladder cancer biomarkers for further verification. Immunohistochemical analyses showed significantly elevated levels of three proteins—SLC3A2, STMN1, and TAGLN2—in tumor cells compared with noncancerous bladder epithelial cells, and suggested that TAGLN2 could be a useful tumor tissue marker for diagnosis (AUC = 0.999) and evaluating lymph node metastasis in bladder cancer patients. ELISA results revealed significantly increased urinary levels of both STMN1 and TAGLN2 in bladder cancer subgroups compared with control groups. In comparisons with age-matched hernia urine specimens, urinary TAGLN2 in bladder cancer samples showed the largest fold change (7.13-fold), with an area-under-the-curve value of 0.70 (p < 0.001, n = 205). Overall, TAGLN2 showed the most significant

  15. Sequencing historical specimens: successful preparation of small specimens with low amounts of degraded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproul, John S; Maddison, David R

    2017-11-01

    Despite advances that allow DNA sequencing of old museum specimens, sequencing small-bodied, historical specimens can be challenging and unreliable as many contain only small amounts of fragmented DNA. Dependable methods to sequence such specimens are especially critical if the specimens are unique. We attempt to sequence small-bodied (3-6 mm) historical specimens (including nomenclatural types) of beetles that have been housed, dried, in museums for 58-159 years, and for which few or no suitable replacement specimens exist. To better understand ideal approaches of sample preparation and produce preparation guidelines, we compared different library preparation protocols using low amounts of input DNA (1-10 ng). We also explored low-cost optimizations designed to improve library preparation efficiency and sequencing success of historical specimens with minimal DNA, such as enzymatic repair of DNA. We report successful sample preparation and sequencing for all historical specimens despite our low-input DNA approach. We provide a list of guidelines related to DNA repair, bead handling, reducing adapter dimers and library amplification. We present these guidelines to facilitate more economical use of valuable DNA and enable more consistent results in projects that aim to sequence challenging, irreplaceable historical specimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in thin semiconductor specimens for electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somodi, P.K.; Twitchett-Harrison, A.C.; Midgley, P.A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Kardynał, B.E. [Peter Grünberg Institute 9, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Barnes, C.H.W. [Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Dunin-Borkowski, R.E., E-mail: rafaldb@gmail.com [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute 5, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Two-dimensional finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in parallel-sided semiconductor specimens that contain p–n junctions are used to assess the effect of the electrical state of the surface of a thin specimen on projected potentials measured using off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope. For a specimen that is constrained to have an equipotential surface, the simulations show that the step in the projected potential across a p–n junction is always lower than would be predicted from the properties of the bulk device, but is relatively insensitive to the value of the surface state energy, especially for thicker specimens and higher dopant concentrations. The depletion width measured from the projected potential, however, has a complicated dependence on specimen thickness. The results of the simulations are of broader interest for understanding the influence of surfaces and interfaces on electrostatic potentials in nanoscale semiconductor devices. - Highlights: • Finite element simulations are performed to calculate electrostatic dopant potentials in TEM specimens that contain p–n junctions. • The effect of the electrical state of the specimen surface on the projected potential is assessed for equipotential specimen surfaces. • The step in projected potential is always found to be lower than the step in potential in the bulk device. • The step in projected potential is least sensitive to surface state energy for thicker specimens and higher dopant concentrations. • The depletion width measured from the projected potential has a complicated dependence on specimen thickness.

  17. Finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in thin semiconductor specimens for electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somodi, P.K.; Twitchett-Harrison, A.C.; Midgley, P.A.; Kardynał, B.E.; Barnes, C.H.W.; Dunin-Borkowski, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in parallel-sided semiconductor specimens that contain p–n junctions are used to assess the effect of the electrical state of the surface of a thin specimen on projected potentials measured using off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope. For a specimen that is constrained to have an equipotential surface, the simulations show that the step in the projected potential across a p–n junction is always lower than would be predicted from the properties of the bulk device, but is relatively insensitive to the value of the surface state energy, especially for thicker specimens and higher dopant concentrations. The depletion width measured from the projected potential, however, has a complicated dependence on specimen thickness. The results of the simulations are of broader interest for understanding the influence of surfaces and interfaces on electrostatic potentials in nanoscale semiconductor devices. - Highlights: • Finite element simulations are performed to calculate electrostatic dopant potentials in TEM specimens that contain p–n junctions. • The effect of the electrical state of the specimen surface on the projected potential is assessed for equipotential specimen surfaces. • The step in projected potential is always found to be lower than the step in potential in the bulk device. • The step in projected potential is least sensitive to surface state energy for thicker specimens and higher dopant concentrations. • The depletion width measured from the projected potential has a complicated dependence on specimen thickness

  18. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  19. Alcohol skin preparation causes surgical fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocos, B; Donaldson, L J

    2012-03-01

    Surgical fires are a rare but serious preventable safety risk in modern hospitals. Data from the US show that up to 650 surgical fires occur each year, with up to 5% causing death or serious harm. This study used the National Reporting and Learning Service (NRLS) database at the National Patient Safety Agency to explore whether spirit-based surgical skin preparation fluid contributes to the cause of surgical fires. The NRLS database was interrogated for all incidents of surgical fires reported between 1 March 2004 and 1 March 2011. Each report was scrutinised manually to discover the cause of the fire. Thirteen surgical fires were reported during the study period. Of these, 11 were found to be directly related to spirit-based surgical skin preparation or preparation soaked swabs and drapes. Despite manufacturer's instructions and warnings, surgical fires continue to occur. Guidance published in the UK and US states that spirit-based skin preparation solutions should continue to be used but sets out some precautions. It may be that fire risk should be included in pre-surgical World Health Organization checklists or in the surgical training curriculum. Surgical staff should be aware of the risk that spirit-based skin preparation fluids pose and should take action to minimise the chance of fire occurring.

  20. Comparison of gross anatomy test scores using traditional specimens vs. QuickTime Virtual Reality animated specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    movie modules. The comparison of the two sample group means of the examinations show that there was no difference in results between using QTVR movie modules to test gross anatomy knowledge versus using physical specimens. The results of this study are discussed to explain the benefits of using such computer based anatomy resources in gross anatomy assessments.

  1. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  2. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  4. Improvement of rotary specimen rack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batch, J.M.; Gietzen, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A redesign and verification test program has been completed on a new Rotary Specimen Rack ('Lazy Susan') design for the TRIGA Mark III. The purpose of the redesign was to solve a rotation problem which occurred at power levels of about 1 MW and above. The previous redesign effort on the Mark II-type lazy susan was made in 1967 when the bearing was changed to use stellite balls, spring-type separators and stainless-steel bearing races. An extensive test program at that time showed that the design gave excellent service under all anticipated operating conditions. Fifteen of these units have been installed in the past ten years and have been essentially trouble-free. Although the bearing design for the Mark III was very similar, the component layout was such that irradiation-induced heating with associated thermal expansion resulted in decreased bearing clearance and an increase in the required driving torque. The solution involved redesign and re-arrangement of the rack drive mechanism. A series of stringent operational proof tests were made under high temperature and temperature differential conditions which proved successful operation of the new design. The severe conditions under which these tests were performed uncovered further difficulties with the bearing and led to a re-evaluation of the bearing design. A new design was developed in which the spring separators were replaced by similar sized, cylindrical graphite spacers. The entire series of operational and life tests were repeated and the performance was outstanding. Acceptable wear characteristics of the spacers were verified and the bearing was noticeably smoother and quieter than with previous designs. A Mark III lazy susan of this new design was installed in a TRIGA about one year ago and operated at power levels up to 2 MW with excellent performance. The Mark II design has now been changed to incorporate the new drive and bearing design proven for the Mark III. (author)

  5. The Impact of Storage Times of Museum Insect Specimens on PCR Success: Case Study on Moth Collections in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARI SUTRISNO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Museum specimens are vast repositories of genetic information of interests to biological researchers. Since a new method in DNA extraction, a non destructive method, has been reported to be successful in extracting DNA of museum specimens even fossils without any morphological damages, using museum specimens as resources of genetic information for molecular studies is becoming popular recently. However, the PCR success depends on the quality of the specimens. To evaluate the impact of the storage times of museum specimens on PCR success, we conducted DNA extraction of 14 dry museum specimens of the moths collected from 1992 to 2010 by using a non destructive method. The results showed that the DNA specimens museum were fragmented into various sizes (100-1000 bp depend on the storage times. On the other hand, fresh specimens which were preserved within absolute ethanol were almost not fragmented. The specimens of < 6 years old (2005-2010 succeed to amplify in 650 bp amplicon but for some specimens of 7 years old (2 of 3 specimens resulted in a very weak amplification. These specimens, however, were able to amplify strongly in 300 bp amplicon. The results also showed that specimens of 1-19 years old were success to amplify in 100 bp amplicon.

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF ORGANISMS CAUSING SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS (SSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Murlidhar Gajbhiye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND CDC defines surgical site infection as ‘Infections related to operative procedure that occurs at or near surgical incision within 30 days of operative procedure or within one year if the implant is left in situ’. Surgical site infection (SSI is 3 rd most frequently reported nosocomial infection (12%-16% as per National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of organisms causing SSI. MATERIALS AND METHODS During a two year study period in a tertiary care hospital, 19,127 patients underwent surgeries in various surgical departments. Of these 517 (2.7% developed surgical site infection. The surgical wounds were classified by CDC & NNIS criteria into 4 classes. Two wound swabs were taken and processed by standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility along with testing of ESBLs, MBLs, AmpCβ lactamases was done for all isolates causing SSI. RESULTS Among 19,127 patients, 517 (2.7% developed SSI. It was highest in patients of perforation peritonitis (11.99%.Among 517 specimens, 340 (65.76% showed growth and 177 (34.23% were culture negative. E.coli (23.33% was the commonest organism isolated followed by Acinetobacter spp. (16%, Klebsiella spp. (15.66%, Pseudomonas spp. (15.33%, S. aureus (10.33%, S. epidermidis(7.3%, Proteus spp. (6.00% and Citrobacter spp. (2.66%.Staphylococcus spp. were 100 % sensitive to Vancomycin & Linezolid. (27.5% S. aureus were MRSA and (17.5% were Inducible Clindamycin resistant (ICR. Enterobacteriaceae isolates showed maximum sensitivity towards Imipenem, Piperacillin-Tazobactam and Amikacin. Klebsiella spp. (40.62%, E.coli (35.89%, Citrobacter spp. (33.33%, Proteus spp. (26.08% were ESBL producers. Klebsiella spp. (17.18%, E.coli (10.25%, Proteus spp. (11.11% and Citrobacter spp. (8.69% were AmpC producers. Acinetobacter spp. (28.57% was commonest MBL producer followed by Klebsiella spp. (20

  7. Development of piezoelectric ceramics driven fatigue testing machine for small specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Onishi, Y.; Nishino, T.

    2002-01-01

    A new fatigue testing machine with piezoelectric ceramics actuators was developed and a prototype was manufactured for high-cycle fatigue tests with small specimens. The machine has a simple mechanism and is compact. These features make it easy to set up and to maintain the machine in a hot cell. The excitation of the actuator can be transmitted to the specimen using a lever-type testing jig. More than 100 μm of displacement could be prescribed precisely to the specimen at a frequency of 50 Hz. This was sufficient performance for high-cycle bend fatigue tests on specimens irradiated at the SINQ target in Paul Scherrer Institute. The relationship of a displacement applied to the specimen and the strain of the necking part were obtained by experimental methods and by finite element method (FEM) calculations. Both results showed good agreement. This fact makes it possible to evaluate the strain of irradiated specimens by FEM simulations

  8. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  9. Design of four-point SENB specimens with stable crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeppe Bjørn; Kildegaard, Casper; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2018-01-01

    A four-point single-edge-notch-beam (SENB) test specimen loaded in displacement control (fixed grip) is proposed for studying crack deflection at bi-material interfaces. In order to ensure stable crack growth, a novel analytical model of the four-point SENB specimen in fixed grip is derived...... and compared with numerical models. Model results show that the specimen should be short and thick, and the start-crack length should be deep for the crack to propagate stable towards the bi-material interface. Observations from experimental tests of four-point SENB specimens with different start-crack lengths...

  10. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  11. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  12. Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... procedures performed to treat pelvic floor disorders with surgical mesh: Transvaginal mesh to treat POP Transabdominal mesh to treat ... address safety risks Final Order for Reclassification of Surgical Mesh for Transvaginal Pelvic Organ Prolapse Repair Final Order for Effective ...

  13. Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Feasibility and Validity of Prismatic Rock Specimen in SHPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental and numerical studies on the feasibility and validity of using prismatic rock specimens in split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB test. Firstly, the experimental tests are conducted to evaluate the stress and strain uniformity in the prismatic specimens during impact loading. The stress analysis at the ends of the specimen shows that stress equilibrium can be achieved after about three wave reflections in the specimen, and the balance can be well maintained for a certain time after peak stress. The strain analysis reveals that the prismatic specimen deforms uniformly during the dynamic loading period. Secondly, numerical simulation is performed to further verify the stress and strain uniformity in the prismatic specimen in SHPB test. It indicates that the stress equilibrium can be achieved in prismatic specimen despite a certain degree of stress concentration at the corners. The comparative experiments demonstrate that the change of specimen shape has no significant effect on dynamic responses and failure patterns of the specimen. Finally, a dynamic crack propagation test is presented to show the application of the present work in studying fracturing mechanisms under dynamic loading.

  14. Virus isolation: Specimen type and probable transmission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Virus isolation: Specimen type and probable transmission. Over 500 CHIK virus isolations were made. 4 from male Ae. Aegypti (?TOT). 6 from CSF (neurological involvement). 1 from a 4-day old child (transplacental transmission.

  15. [Safety management in pathology laboratory: from specimen handling to confirmation of reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Hiroshi; Nojima, Takayuki; Nakano, Mariko; Yamazaki, Michiko

    2011-03-01

    Medical errors in pathological diagnosis give a huge amount of physical and psychological damage to patients as well as medical staffs. We discussed here how to avoid medical errors in surgical pathology laboratory through our experience. Handling of surgical specimens and diagnosing process requires intensive labor and involves many steps. Each hospital reports many kinds of accidents or incidents, however, many laboratories share common problems and each process has its specific risk for the certain error. We analyzed the problems in each process and concentrated on avoiding misaccessioning, mislabeling, and misreporting. We have made several changes in our system, such as barcode labels, digital images of all specimens, putting specimens in embedding cassettes directly on the endoscopic biopsied specimens, and using a multitissue control block as controls in immunohistochemistry. Some problems are still left behind, but we have reduced the errors by decreasing the number of artificial operation as much as possible. A pathological system recognizing the status of read or unread the pathological reports by clinician are now underconstruction. We also discussed about quality assurance of diagnosis, cooperation with clinicians and other comedical staffs, and organization and method. In order to operate riskless work, it is important for all the medical staffs to have common awareness of the problems, keeping careful observations, and sharing all the information in common. Incorporation of an organizational management tool such as ISO 15189 and utilizing PDCA cycle is also helpful for safety management and quality improvement of the laboratory.

  16. MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone: correlation with surgical and pathologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Kyung Tai; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kang, Heung Sik

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on the T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were analyzed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings. The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the accessory navicular bones and synchondroses in all patients, and in the soft tissue in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients, as well as synchondrosis widening in 3 (17.6%) of the 17 patients. The MR images showed tendon pathology in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients with PTT dysfunction at surgery. The pathologic findings of 16 surgical specimens included areas of osteonecrosis with granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and destruction of the cartilage cap. The MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone are a persistent edema pattern in the accessory navicular bone and within the synchondrosis, indicating osteonecrosis, inflammation and destruction of the cartilage cap. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was clinically evident in most patients

  17. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  18. Simultaneous specimen and stage cleaning device for analytical electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    1996-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus are provided for cleaning both a specimen stage, a specimen and an interior of an analytical electron microscope (AEM). The apparatus for cleaning a specimen stage and specimen comprising a plasma chamber for containing a gas plasma and an air lock coupled to the plasma chamber for permitting passage of the specimen stage and specimen into the plasma chamber and maintaining an airtight chamber. The specimen stage and specimen are subjected to a reactive plasma gas that is either DC or RF excited. The apparatus can be mounted on the analytical electron microscope (AEM) for cleaning the interior of the microscope.

  19. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  20. Validation of full-field optical coherence tomography in distinguishing malignant and benign tissue in resected pancreatic cancer specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrinus van Manen

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. The minority of patients can undergo curative-intended surgical therapy due to progressive disease stage at time of diagnosis. Nonetheless, tumor involvement of surgical margins is seen in up to 70% of resections, being a strong negative prognostic factor. Real-time intraoperative imaging modalities may aid surgeons to obtain tumor-free resection margins. Full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT is a promising diagnostic tool using high-resolution white-light interference microscopy without tissue processing. Therefore, we composed an atlas of FF-OCT images of malignant and benign pancreatic tissue, and investigated the accuracy with which the pathologists could distinguish these.One hundred FF-OCT images were collected from specimens of 29 patients who underwent pancreatic resection for various indications between 2014 and 2016. One experienced gastrointestinal pathologist and one pathologist in training scored independently the FF-OCT images as malignant or benign blinded to the final pathology conclusion. Results were compared to those obtained with standard hematoxylin and eosin (H&E slides.Overall, combined test characteristics of both pathologists showed a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 74%, positive predictive value of 69%, negative predictive value of 79% and an overall accuracy of 73%. In the subset of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients, 97% of the FF-OCT images (n = 35 were interpreted as tumor by at least one pathologist. Moreover, normal pancreatic tissue was recognised in all cases by at least one pathologist. However, atrophy and fibrosis, serous cystadenoma and neuroendocrine tumors were more often wrongly scored, in 63%, 100% and 25% respectively.FF-OCT could distinguish normal pancreatic tissue from pathologic pancreatic tissue in both processed as non-processed specimens using architectural features. The accuracy in

  1. Cross-sectional examination of the damage zone in impacted specimens of carbon/epoxy and carbon/PEEK composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Magold, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    Drop weight impact testing was utilized to inflict damage on eight-ply bidirectional and unidirectional samples of carbon/epoxy and carbon/PEEK (polyetheretherketone) test specimens with impact energies ranging from 0.80 J to 1.76 J. The impacting tip was of a smaller diameter (4.2-mm) than those used in most previous studies, and the specimens were placed with a diamond wheel wafering saw through the impacted area perpendicular to the outer fibers. Photographs at 12 x magnification were taken of these cross-sections and examined. The results on the bidirectional samples show little damage until 1.13 J, at which point delaminations were seen in the epoxy specimens. The PEEK specimens showed less delamination than the epoxy specimens for a given impact energy level. The unidirectional specimens displayed more damage than the bidirectional samples for a given impact energy, with the PEEK specimens showing much less damage than the epoxy material.

  2. Emotions in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard

    2012-01-01

    A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources...... of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination...

  3. Three-dimensional surgical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia H C; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2010-09-01

    In this article, we discuss the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery, which allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3-dimensional surface models from cone-beam computed tomography, dynamic cephalometry, semiautomatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone, and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intraoperative guidance. The system provides further intraoperative assistance with a computer display showing jaw positions and 3-dimensional positioning guides updated in real time during the surgical procedure. The computer-aided surgery system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training, and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures before the surgery. Computer-aided surgery can make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of surgical skill with singular neurectomy using human cadaveric temporal bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, Georg; Kos, Izabel; Anderhuber, Friedrich; Guyot, Jean Phillippe; Fasel, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Profound anatomical knowledge and surgical experience are essential for safe otological surgery. The surgeon's learning curve is evaluated in performing Gacek's singular neurectomy on cadaveric specimens. One otological surgeon performed Gacek's approach on 96 halves of human heads embalmed according to Thiel's method, divided into four groups (24 halves per group) and evaluated them concurrent to the evaluation of an anatomist after a first surgical attempt. Successful operations were subdivided into "direct hits" of the osseous canal of the posterior ampullary nerve also known as the singular nerve and "indirect hits" with access to the posterior ampullary recess. Unsuccessful operations showed "no hit" of the nerve without lesion of the membranous labyrinth. "Indirect" or "no hits" were reinvestigated in a second attempt to evaluate possible reclassifications due to a learning process of the surgeon. The order of dissection, the rate of success and the changes of results in correlation with the numbers of dissected specimens were documented. The success rate significantly increased from 54.2% direct hits after the first group to 87.36% in the fourth group after the first attempt. Successful operations were performed in 86.5% after completion of the first attempt and 97.9% after the second attempt. The number of new allocations decreased from 11 cases in the first group of dissected specimens to zero in the fourth group. This paper strengthens the value of cadaveric training for surgeons and the crucial role of dissection of a large number of specimens in improvement of the surgeon's experience and success rate.

  5. Standard guide for preparation of metallographic specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 The primary objective of metallographic examinations is to reveal the constituents and structure of metals and their alloys by means of a light optical or scanning electron microscope. In special cases, the objective of the examination may require the development of less detail than in other cases but, under nearly all conditions, the proper selection and preparation of the specimen is of major importance. Because of the diversity in available equipment and the wide variety of problems encountered, the following text presents for the guidance of the metallographer only those practices which experience has shown are generally satisfactory; it cannot and does not describe the variations in technique required to solve individual specimen preparation problems. Note 1—For a more extensive description of various metallographic techniques, refer to Samuels, L. E., Metallographic Polishing by Mechanical Methods, American Society for Metals (ASM) Metals Park, OH, 3rd Ed., 1982; Petzow, G., Metallographic Etchin...

  6. Natural History Specimen Digitization: Challenges and Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vollmar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey on the challenges and concerns invovled with digitizing natural history specimens was circulated to curators, collections managers, and administrators in the natural history community in the Spring of 2009, with over 200 responses received. The overwhelming barrier to digitizing collections was a lack of funding, based on a limited number of sources, leaving institutions mostly responsible for providing the necessary support. The uneven digitization landscape leads to a patchy accumulation of records at varying qualities, and based on different priorities, ulitimately influencing the data's fitness for use. The survey also found that although the kind of specimens found in collections and their storage can be quite varible, there are many similar challenges when digitizing including imaging, automated text scanning and parsing, geo-referencing, etc. Thus, better communication between domains could foster knowledge on digitization leading to efficiencies that could be disseminated through documentation of best practices and training.

  7. The working procedure of human autopsy specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rusong; Liu Guodong

    2000-01-01

    In order to perform the Coordinated Research Program for the Reference Asian Man (phase 2): Ingestion and body content of trace elements of importance in Radiation Protection, study on elemental content in organs of normal Chinese has been worked by China Institute for Radiation Protection and Institute of Radiation Medicine - CAMS in recent two years. Sampling and sample collection of human tissues and the procedures of sample preparation of human autopsy specimens are enlisted

  8. Rapid and non-enzymatic in vitro retrieval of tumour cells from surgical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Mack

    Full Text Available The study of tumourigenesis commonly involves the use of established cell lines or single cell suspensions of primary tumours. Standard methods for the generation of short-term tumour cell cultures include the disintegration of tissue based on enzymatic and mechanical stress. Here, we describe a simple and rapid method for the preparation of single cells from primary carcinomas, which is independent of enzymatic treatment and feeder cells. Tumour biopsies are processed to 1 mm(3 cubes termed explants, which are cultured 1-3 days on agarose-coated well plates in specified medium. Through incisions generated in the explants, single cells are retrieved and collected from the culture supernatant and can be used for further analysis including in vitro and in vivo studies. Collected cells retain tumour-forming capacity in xenotransplantation assays, mimic the phenotype of the primary tumour, and facilitate the generation of cell lines.

  9. Digestive tumor bank protocol: from surgical specimens to genomic studies of digestive cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, I; Stroescu, C; Dumitrascu, T; Herlea, V; Paslaru, Liliana; Lazar, V; Boissin, H; Taieb, J; Horeanga, Ionela

    2006-01-01

    Cancer is a complex polygenic and multifactorial disease, resulting from successive dynamic changes in the genome of somatic cells and from the accumulation of molecular alterations in both tumour cells and host cells. For the majority of cancers, including many malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract, our current means of diagnosis and treatment of the tumors are grossly insufficient. In recent years the development of several gene expression profiling methods such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), differential display, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and DNA arrays, together with the sequencing of the human genome, has provided an opportunity to monitor and investigate the complete cascade of molecular events leading to tumor development and progression. Given the central role played by surgeons in the current management of patients with solid cancers, it is of paramount importance for them to know the principles characterizing this laboratory tools to critically assess the results originating from this biotechnology. We describe in this article the scientific partnership between Fundeni Clinical Institute Bucharest, Romania and RNtech Company, Paris, France for the development of a center of biological resources (Biobank) as well as the standardized protocol of working with the biological samples, the ongoing projects and the future perspectives.

  10. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report

  11. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since 1975....

  12. Correlation of clinical data with fallopian tube specimen immune cells and tissue culture capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramraj, Satish Kumar; Smith, Katie M; Janakiram, Naveena B; Toal, Coralee; Raman, Ankita; Benbrook, Doris Mangiaracina

    2018-06-01

    Human fallopian tube fimbria secretory epithelial cells (hFTSECs) are considered an origin of ovarian cancer and methods for their culture from fallopian tube specimens have been reported. Our objective was to determine whether characteristics of the donors or surgeries were associated with the capacities of fimbria specimens to generate hFTSEC cultures or their immune profiles. There were no surgical complications attributable to fallopian tube removal. Attempts to establish primary hFTSEC cultures were successful in 37 of 55 specimens (67%). Success rates did not differ significantly between specimens grouped by patient or surgery characteristics. Established cultures could be revived after cryopreservation and none became contaminated with microorganisms. Two cultures evaluated for long term growth senesced between passages 10 and 15. M1 macrophages were the predominant cell type, while all other immune cells were present at much lower percentages. IL-10 and TGF-β exhibited opposing trends with M1 and M2 macrophages. Plasma IL-10 levels exhibited significant positive correlation with patient age. In conclusion, fallopian tube fimbria specimens exhibit a pro-inflammatory phenotype and can be used to provide a source of hFTSECs that can be cultured for a limited time regardless of the donor patient age or race, or the type of surgery performed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Computer assisted surgical anatomy mapping : applications in surgical anatomy research, tailor-made surgery and presonalized teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L.A. Kerver (Anton)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis presents a novel anatomy mapping tool named Computer Assisted Surgical Anatomy Mapping (CASAM). It allows researchers to map complex anatomy of multiple specimens and compare their location and course. Renditions such as safe zones or danger zones can be visualized,

  14. Use of globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) to link herbarium specimen records to physical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gil; Sweeney, Patrick; Gilbert, Edward

    2018-02-01

    With the advent of the U.S. National Science Foundation's Advancing Digitization of Biodiversity Collections program and related worldwide digitization initiatives, the rate of herbarium specimen digitization in the United States has expanded exponentially. As the number of electronic herbarium records proliferates, the importance of linking these records to the physical specimens they represent as well as to related records from other sources will intensify. Although a rich and diverse literature has developed over the past decade that addresses the use of specimen identifiers for facilitating linking across the internet, few implementable guidelines or recommended practices for herbaria have been advanced. Here we review this literature with the express purpose of distilling a specific set of recommendations especially tailored to herbarium specimen digitization, curation, and management. We argue that associating globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) with physical herbarium specimens and including these identifiers in all electronic records about those specimens is essential to effective digital data curation. We also address practical applications for ensuring these associations.

  15. Development of fatigue life evaluation technique using miniature specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Shuhei; Nishimura, Arata; Fujiwara, Masaharu; Hisaka, Tomoaki

    2012-01-01

    To develop the fatigue life evaluation technique using miniature specimen, the investigation of the effect of specimen size and specimen shape on the fatigue life and the development of the fatigue testing machine, especially the extensometer, were carried out. The effect of specimen size on the fatigue life was almost negligible for the round-bar specimens. The shorter fatigue life at relatively low strain range conditions for the hourglass specimen that the standard specimen were observed. Therefore the miniature round-bar specimen was considered to be adequate for the fatigue life evaluation using small specimen. Several types of the extensometer system using a strain gauge and a laser has been developed for realizing the fatigue test of the miniature round-bar specimen at high temperature in vacuum. (author)

  16. Bone biopsy needles. Mechanical properties, needle design and specimen quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keulers, Annika; Penzkofer, T.; Cunha-Cruz, V.C.; Bruners, P.; Helmholtz Inst. fuer biomedizinische Technik, Aachen; Braunschweig, T.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Mahnken, A.; Helmholtz Inst. fuer biomedizinische Technik, Aachen

    2011-01-01

    To quantitatively analyze differences in mechanical properties, needle design including signs of wear, subjective handling and specimen quality of bone biopsy needles. Materials and Methods: In this study 19 different bone biopsy systems (total 38; 2 /type) were examined. With each biopsy needle five consecutive samples were obtained from vertebral bodies of swine. During puncture a force-torques sensor measured the mechanical properties and subjective handling was assessed. Before and after each biopsy the needles were investigated using a profile projector and signs of wear were recorded. Afterwards, a pathologist semi-quantitatively examined the specimen regarding sample quality. The overall evaluation considered mechanical properties, needle wear, subjective handling and sample quality. Differences were assessed for statistical significance using ANOVA and t-test. Results: Needle diameter (p = 0.003) as well as needle design (p = 0.008) affect the mechanical properties significantly. Franseen design is significantly superior to other needle designs. Besides, length reduction recorded by the profile projector, as a quality criterion showed notable distinctions in between the needle designs. Conclusion: Bone biopsy needles vary significantly in performance. Needle design has an important influence on mechanical properties, handling and specimen quality. Detailed knowledge of those parameters would improve selecting the appropriate bone biopsy needle. (orig.)

  17. Improved specimen reconstruction by Hilbert phase contrast tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bastian; Joos, Friederike; Schröder, Rasmus R

    2008-11-01

    The low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in images of unstained specimens recorded with conventional defocus phase contrast makes it difficult to interpret 3D volumes obtained by electron tomography (ET). The high defocus applied for conventional tilt series generates some phase contrast but leads to an incomplete transfer of object information. For tomography of biological weak-phase objects, optimal image contrast and subsequently an optimized SNR are essential for the reconstruction of details such as macromolecular assemblies at molecular resolution. The problem of low contrast can be partially solved by applying a Hilbert phase plate positioned in the back focal plane (BFP) of the objective lens while recording images in Gaussian focus. Images recorded with the Hilbert phase plate provide optimized positive phase contrast at low spatial frequencies, and the contrast transfer in principle extends to the information limit of the microscope. The antisymmetric Hilbert phase contrast (HPC) can be numerically converted into isotropic contrast, which is equivalent to the contrast obtained by a Zernike phase plate. Thus, in-focus HPC provides optimal structure factor information without limiting effects of the transfer function. In this article, we present the first electron tomograms of biological specimens reconstructed from Hilbert phase plate image series. We outline the technical implementation of the phase plate and demonstrate that the technique is routinely applicable for tomography. A comparison between conventional defocus tomograms and in-focus HPC volumes shows an enhanced SNR and an improved specimen visibility for in-focus Hilbert tomography.

  18. Surgical site infection rates following laparoscopic urological procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Arvin K; Srinivasan, Arun K; Cho, Jane; Sadek, Mostafa A; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2011-04-01

    Surgical site infections have been categorized by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as "never events". The incidence of surgical site infection following laparoscopic urological surgery and its risk factors are poorly defined. We evaluated surgical site infection following urological laparoscopic surgery and identified possible factors that may influence occurrence. Patients who underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic procedures during a 4-year period by a single laparoscopic surgeon were retrospectively reviewed. Surgical site infections were identified postoperatively and defined using the Centers for Disease Control criteria. Clinical parameters, comorbidities, smoking history, preoperative urinalysis and culture results as well as operative data were analyzed. Nonparametric testing using the Mann-Whitney U test, multivariable logistic regression and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. In 556 patients undergoing urological laparoscopic procedures 14 surgical site infections (2.5%) were identified at mean postoperative day 21.5. Of the 14 surgical site infections 10 (71.4%) were located at a specimen extraction site. Operative time, procedure type and increasing body mass index were significantly associated with the occurrence of surgical site infections (p = 0.007, p = 0.019, p = 0.038, respectively), whereas history of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.071) and intraoperative transfusion (p = 0.053) were found to trend toward significance. Age, gender, positive urine culture, steroid use, procedure type and smoking history were not significantly associated with surgical site infection. Body mass index and operative time remained significant predictors of surgical site infection on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Surgical site infection is an infrequent complication following laparoscopic surgery with the majority occurring at the specimen extraction site. Infection is associated with prolonged operative time and

  19. Alfredo Dugès' type specimens of amphibians and reptiles revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Villela, Oscar; Ríos-Muñoz, César A; Magaña-Cota, Gloria E; Quezadas-Tapia, Néstor L

    2016-03-14

    The type specimens of amphibians and reptiles of the Museo de Historia Natural Alfredo Dugès, at the University of Guanajuato (MADUG) were reviewed following Smith & Necker's (1943) summary. Owing to this collection's eventful history and its historical importance as the oldest herpetological collection in Mexico, a review of its conservation status was needed. After many years, the collection has received proper recognition at the University of Guanajuato with a portion of the herpetological types considered "Precious Assets" of the university. We found 34 type specimens pertaining to 18 taxa; six are additional specimens to those previously reported; six herpetological types are missing, including the body of the type of Adelophis copei. All specimens are in good to reasonable condition except for the type of Rhinocheilus antonii, which has dried out completely. All specimens are illustrated to show their condition.

  20. Wildlife specimen collection, preservation, and shipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. LeAnn; Dusek, Robert J.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Specimens are used to provide supporting information leading to the determination of the cause of disease or death in wildlife and for disease monitoring or surveillance. Commonly used specimens for wildlife disease investigations include intact carcasses, tissues from carcasses, euthanized or moribund animals, parasites, ingested food, feces, or environmental samples. Samples from live animals or the environment (e.g., contaminated feed) in the same vicinity as a mortality event also may be helpful. The type of specimen collected is determined by availability of samples and biological objectives. Multiple fresh, intact carcasses from affected species are the most useful in establishing a cause for a mortality event. Submission of entire carcasses allows observation of gross lesions and abnormalities, as well as disease testing of multiple tissues. Samples from live animals may be more appropriate when sick animals cannot be euthanized (e.g., threatened or endangered species) or for research and monitoring projects examining disease or agents circulating in apparently healthy animals or those not exhibiting clinical signs. Samples from live animals may include collections of blood, hair, feathers, feces, or ectoparasites, or samples obtained by swabbing lesions or orifices. Photographs and videos are useful additions for recording field and clinical signs and conveying conditions at the site. Collection of environmental samples (e.g., feces, water, feed, or soil) may be appropriate when animals cannot be captured for sampling or the disease agent may persist in the environment. If lethal collection is considered necessary, biologists should refer to the policies, procedures, and permit requirements of their institution/facility and the agency responsible for species management (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or State natural resource agency) prior to use in the field. If threatened or endangered species are found dead, or there is evidence of illegal take, field

  1. Bright field electron microscopy of biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, B.V.

    1976-01-01

    A preirradiation procedure is described which preserves negatively stained morphological features in bright field electron micrographs to a resolution of about 1.2 nm. Prior to microscopy the pre-irradiation dose (1.6 x 10 -3 C cm -2 ) is given at low electron optical magnification at five different areas on the grid (the centre plus four 'corners'). This pre-irradiation can be measured either with a Faraday cage or through controlled exposure-developing conditions. Uranyl formate stained T2 bacteriophages and stacked disk aggregates of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) protein served as test objects. A comparative study was performed on specimens using either the pre-irradiation procedure or direct irradiation by the 'minimum beam exposure' technique. Changes in the electron diffraction pattern of the stain-protein complex and the disappearance of certain morphological features in the specimens were both used in order to compare the pre-irradiation method with the direct exposure technique. After identical electron exposures the pre-irradiation approach gave a far better preservation of specimen morphology. Consequently this procedure gives the microscopist more time to select and focus appropriate areas for imaging before deteriorations take place. The investigation also suggested that microscopy should be carried out between 60,000 and 100,000 times magnification. Within this magnification range, it is possible to take advantage of the phase contrast transfer characteristics of the objective lens while the electron load on the object is kept at a moderate level. Using the pre-irradiation procedure special features of the T2 bacteriophage morphology could be established. (author)

  2. Detection of cervical precancerous lesions with Aptima HPV assays using SurePath preservative fluid specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Chernesky

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available SurePath specimens from women referred to colposcopy were treated with Aptima Transfer Solution (ATS before testing in Aptima HPV (AHPV and Aptima HPV 16, 18/45 (AHPV-GT assays. Untreated SurePath specimens were tested with the cobas HPV test. PreservCyt specimens were assessed for cytology and tested with AHPV. High-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesions served as the reference standard. Excellent agreement (95.5%; k=0.91 was observed for ATS-treated SurePath specimens between Tigris and Panther systems and between the PreservCyt and ATS-treated SurePath specimens (91.1%, k=0.81 with the AHPV assay on Tigris. Agreement between the AHPV and cobas assays with SurePath specimens was substantial (89.9%, k=0.80. AHPV sensitivity for CIN2+(n=147 was 91.2% for SurePath and PreservCyt. Cobas HPV sensitivity was 93.9% for SurePath specimens. AHPV testing of SurePath specimens was more specific (59.4% than cobas (54.7% (p<0.001. Detection and genotyping showed similar absolute and relative risks. ATS-treated SurePath specimens tested with AHPV and AHPV-GT assays showed similar performance with greater specificity than cobas HPV on SurePath specimens. Similar overall results were seen using a CIN3 disease endpoint. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, SurePath, PreservCyt, Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN2+, Aptima transfer solution (ATS

  3. Action Mechanism of Iridoid Compounds on Guinea-pig Right Atrium Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    齊藤, 久美子; 酒井 淳一; 堀田 芳弘

    2016-01-01

     We examined the actions of iridoid compounds (aucubin (Auc), geniposidic acid (GA)) and a noniridoid compound (chlorogenic acid (CA)) contained in Eucommia leaves [1] [2], which show blood pressure-lowering effects, on the heart using right atrial specimens isolated from guinea pigs. These 3 compounds showed negative inotropic effects (NIE) and negative chronotropic effects (NCE) at a final concentration of 10 -5 or 10 -4 M in an experiment using right atrial specimens. Furthermore, pretreat...

  4. Assessment of plastic flow and fracture properties with small specimens test techniques for IFMIF-designed specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaetig, P.; Campitelli, E.N.; Bonade, R.; Baluc, N.

    2005-01-01

    The primary mission of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is to generate a material database to be used for the design of various components, for the licensing and for the assessment of the safe operation of a demonstration fusion reactor. IFMIF is an accelerator-based high-energy neutron source whose irradiation volume is quite limited (0.5 l for the high fluence volume). This requires the use of small specimens to measure the irradiation-induced changes on the physical and mechanical properties of materials. In this paper, we developed finite element models to better analyze the results obtained with two different small specimen test techniques applied to the tempered martensitic steel F82H-mod. First, one model was used to reconstruct the load-deflection curves of small ball punch tests, which are usually used to extract standard tensile parameters. It was shown that a reasonable assessment of the overall plastic flow can be done with small ball punch tests. Second, we investigated the stress field sensitivity at a crack tip to the constitutive behavior, for a crack modeled in plane strain, small-scale yielding and fracture mode I conditions. Based upon a local criterion for cleavage, that appears to be the basis to account for the size and geometry effects on fracture toughness, we showed that the details of the constitutive properties play a key role in modeling the irradiation-induced fracture toughness changes. Consequently, we suggest that much more attention and efforts have to be paid in investigating the post-yield behavior of the irradiated specimens and, in order to reach this goal, we recommend the use of not only tensile specimens but also that of compression ones in the IFMIF irradiation matrices. (author)

  5. Deriving DICOM surgical extensions from surgical workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgert, O.; Neumuth, T.; Gessat, M.; Jacobs, S.; Lemke, H. U.

    2007-03-01

    The generation, storage, transfer, and representation of image data in radiology are standardized by DICOM. To cover the needs of image guided surgery or computer assisted surgery in general one needs to handle patient information besides image data. A large number of objects must be defined in DICOM to address the needs of surgery. We propose an analysis process based on Surgical Workflows that helps to identify these objects together with use cases and requirements motivating for their specification. As the first result we confirmed the need for the specification of representation and transfer of geometric models. The analysis of Surgical Workflows has shown that geometric models are widely used to represent planned procedure steps, surgical tools, anatomical structures, or prosthesis in the context of surgical planning, image guided surgery, augmented reality, and simulation. By now, the models are stored and transferred in several file formats bare of contextual information. The standardization of data types including contextual information and specifications for handling of geometric models allows a broader usage of such models. This paper explains the specification process leading to Geometry Mesh Service Object Pair classes. This process can be a template for the definition of further DICOM classes.

  6. Recognizing surgical patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, L.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, each year over 1700 patients die from preventable surgical errors. Numerous initiatives to improve surgical practice have had some impact, but problems persist. Despite the introduction of checklists and protocols, patient safety in surgery remains a continuing challenge. This is

  7. Surgical medical record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, S.

    2008-01-01

    A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15......A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15...

  8. Recent advances in FIB-TEM specimen preparation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Malis, T.; Dionne, S.

    2006-01-01

    Preparing high-quality transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens is of paramount importance in TEM studies. The development of the focused ion beam (FIB) microscope has greatly enhanced TEM specimen preparation capabilities. In recent years, various FIB-TEM foil preparation techniques have been developed. However, the currently available techniques fail to produce TEM specimens from fragile and ultra-fine specimens such as fine fibers. In this paper, the conventional FIB-TEM specimen preparation techniques are reviewed, and their advantages and shortcomings are compared. In addition, a new technique suitable to prepare TEM samples from ultra-fine specimens is demonstrated

  9. Computer vision applied to herbarium specimens of German trees: testing the future utility of the millions of herbarium specimen images for automated identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jakob; Merhof, Dorit; Renner, Susanne

    2016-11-16

    Global Plants, a collaborative between JSTOR and some 300 herbaria, now contains about 2.48 million high-resolution images of plant specimens, a number that continues to grow, and collections that are digitizing their specimens at high resolution are allocating considerable recourses to the maintenance of computer hardware (e.g., servers) and to acquiring digital storage space. We here apply machine learning, specifically the training of a Support-Vector-Machine, to classify specimen images into categories, ideally at the species level, using the 26 most common tree species in Germany as a test case. We designed an analysis pipeline and classification system consisting of segmentation, normalization, feature extraction, and classification steps and evaluated the system in two test sets, one with 26 species, the other with 17, in each case using 10 images per species of plants collected between 1820 and 1995, which simulates the empirical situation that most named species are represented in herbaria and databases, such as JSTOR, by few specimens. We achieved 73.21% accuracy of species assignments in the larger test set, and 84.88% in the smaller test set. The results of this first application of a computer vision algorithm trained on images of herbarium specimens shows that despite the problem of overlapping leaves, leaf-architectural features can be used to categorize specimens to species with good accuracy. Computer vision is poised to play a significant role in future rapid identification at least for frequently collected genera or species in the European flora.

  10. Post-ion beam induced degradation of copper layers in transmission electron microscopy specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, F.; Richard, O.; Bender, H.; Vandervorst, W.

    2015-11-01

    Copper containing transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens frequently show corrosion after focused ion beam (FIB) preparation. This paper reveals that the corrosion product is a Cu-S phase growing over the specimen surface. The layer is identified by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and lattice spacing indexing of power spectra patterns. The corrosion process is further studied by TEM on cone-shaped specimens, which are intentionally stored after FIB preparation with S flakes for short time. Furthermore, a protective method against corrosion is developed by varying the time in the FIB vacuum and the duration of a subsequent plasma cleaning.

  11. Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological specimens and organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji

    1995-02-01

    A novel three-dimensional x-ray imaging method has been developed by combining a phase-contrast x-ray imaging technique with x-ray computed tomography. This phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography (PCX-CT) provides sectional images of organic specimens that would produce absorption-contrast x-ray CT images with little contrast. Comparing PCX-CT images of rat cerebellum and cancerous rabbit liver specimens with corresponding absorption-contrast CT images shows that PCX-CT is much more sensitive to the internal structure of organic specimens.

  12. Full thickness crack arrest investigations on compact specimens and a heavy wide-plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Gillot, R.; Elenz, T.

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine the influence of specimen size and testing procedure on the crack arrest toughness K Ia at various temperatures, investigations were carried out on a wide-plate and compact specimens using a highly brittle material. Test interpretation included static as well as dynamic methods. The comparison of the measured K Ia -values shows good agreement although there is a distinct difference in specimen size. In general, the (static) ASTM test method yields a lower and thus conservative estimate of the crack arrest toughness K Ia . 14 refs., 27 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Effect of postoperative pain therapy on surgical outcome

    OpenAIRE

    MAJERIĆ KOGLER, VIŠNJA; BANDIĆ, DANIJELA; KOGLER, JANA; BEKAVAC MIŠAK, VILKA; SAKAN, SANJA

    2009-01-01

    Although efficient treatment of post-surgical pain is considered to be a pre-condition for a normal course of the post-surgical period, epidemiological and clinical research show that a significant number of patients still suffer intense pain after major surgery. Intense nociceptive somatic and visceral post-surgical pain has in the last ten years been considered the most important development of endocrine and neurohumoral disorders in the immediate post-surgical period, (the vital organ f...

  14. Surgical ethics: surgical virtue and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercler, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    The encounter between a patient and her surgeon is unique for several reasons. The surgeon inflicts pain upon a patient for the patient's own good. An operative intervention is irreducibly personal, such that the decisions about and performance of operations are inseparable from the idiosyncrasies of the individual surgeon. Furthermore, there is a chasm of knowledge between the patient and surgeon that is difficult to cross. Hence, training in the discipline of surgery includes the inculcation of certain virtues and practices to safeguard against abuses of this relationship and to make sure that the best interests of the patient are prioritized. The stories in this issue are evidence that in contemporary practice this is not quite enough, as surgeons reflect on instances they felt were ethically challenging. Common themes include the difficulty in communicating surgical uncertainty, patient-surgeon relationships, ethical issues in surgical training, and the impact of the technological imperative on caring for dying patients.

  15. Laparoscopic right-sided colonic resection with transluminal colonoscopic specimen extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Kutluturk, Koray; Yagci, Mehmet Ali; Ates, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the transcolonic extraction of the proximally resected colonic specimens by colonoscopic assistance at laparoscopic colonic surgery. METHODS: The diagnoses of our patients were Crohn’s disease, carcinoid of appendix and adenocarcinoma of cecum. We preferred laparoscopic total mesocolic resections. Colon and terminal ileum were divided with endoscopic staplers. A colonoscope was placed per anal and moved proximally in the colon till to reach the colonic closed end under the laparoscopic guidance. The stump of the colon was opened with laparoscopic scissors. A snare of colonoscope was released and the intraperitoneal complete free colonic specimen was grasped. Specimen was moved in to the colon with the help of the laparoscopic graspers and pulled gently through the large bowel and extracted through the anus. The open end of the colon was closed again and the ileal limb and the colon were anastomosed intracorporeally with a 60-mm laparoscopic stapler. The common enterotomy orifice was closed in two layers with a running intracorporeal suture. RESULTS: There were three patients with laparoscopic right-sided colonic resections and their specimens were intended to remove through the remnant colon by colonoscopy but the procedure failed in one patient (adenocarcinoma) due to a bulky mass and the specimen extraction was converted to transvaginal route. All the patients had prior abdominal surgeries and had related adhesions. The operating times were 210, 300 and 500 min. The lengths of the specimens were 13, 17 and 27 cm. In our cases, there were no superficial or deep surgical site infections or any other complications. The patients were discharged uneventfully within 4-5 d and they were asymptomatic after a mean 7.6 mo follow-up (ranged 4-12). As far as we know, there were only 12 cases reported yet on transcolonic extraction of the proximal colonic specimens by colonoscopic assistance after laparoscopic resections. With our cases, success rate of the

  16. A system for mapping radioactive specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britten, R.J.; Davidson, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    A system for mapping radioactive specimens comprises an avalanche counter, an encoder, pre-amplifier circuits, sample and hold circuits and a programmed computer. The parallel plate counter utilizes avalanche event counting over a large area with the ability to locate radioactive sources in two dimensions. When a beta ray, for example, enters a chamber, an ionization event occurs and the avalanche effect multiplies the event and results in charge collection on the anode surface for a limited period of time before the charge leaks away. The encoder comprises a symmetrical array of planar conductive surfaces separated from the anode by a dielectric material. The encoder couples charge currents, the amlitudes of which define the relative position of the ionization event. The amplitude of coupled current, delivered to pre-amplifiers, defines the location of the event. (author) 12 figs

  17. Application of small specimens to fracture mechanics characterization of irradiated pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, M.A.; Wallin, K.; McCabe, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, precracked Charpy V-notch (PCVN) specimens were used to characterize the fracture toughness of unirradiated and irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels in the transition region by means of three-point static bending. Fracture toughness at cleavage instability was calculated in terms of elastic-plastic K Jc values. A statistical size correction based upon weakest-link theory was performed. The concept of a master curve was applied to analyze fracture toughness properties. Initially, size-corrected PCVN data from A 533 grade B steel, designated HSST Plate O2, were used to position the master curve and a 5% tolerance bound for K Jc data. By converting PCVN data to IT compact specimen equivalent K Jc data, the same master curve and 5% tolerance bound curve were plotted against the Electric Power Research Institute valid linear-elastic K Jc database and the ASME lower bound K Ic curve. Comparison shows that the master curve positioned by testing several PCVN specimens describes very well the massive fracture toughness database of large specimens. These results give strong support to the validity of K Jc with respect to K Ic in general and to the applicability of PCVN specimens to measure fracture toughness of reactor vessel steels in particular. Finally, irradiated PCVN specimens of other materials were tested, and the results are compared to compact specimen data. The current results show that PCVNs demonstrate very good capacity for fracture toughness characterization of reactor pressure vessel steels. It provides an opportunity for direct measurement of fracture toughness of irradiated materials by means of precracking and testing Charpy specimens from surveillance capsules. However, size limits based on constraint theory restrict the operational test temperature range for K Jc data from PCVN specimens. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Proton irradiation effects on tensile and bend-fatigue properties of welded F82H specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, S., E-mail: saito.shigeru@jaea.go.j [JAEA Tokai, J-PARC Center, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Kikuchi, K.; Hamaguchi, D. [JAEA Tokai, J-PARC Center, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Usami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Nishino, Y.; Endo, S. [JAEA Tokai, Department of Hot Laboratories, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Kawai, M. [KEK, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305-0801 (Japan); Dai, Y. [PSI, Spallation Source Division, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-03-15

    In several institutes, research and development for an accelerator-driven transmutation system (ADS) have been progressed. Ferritic/martensitic (FM) steels are the candidate materials for the beam window of ADS. To evaluate of the mechanical properties of the irradiated materials, the post irradiation examination (PIE) work of the SINQ (Swiss spallation neutron source) target irradiation program (STIP) specimens was carried out at JAEA. In present study, the results of PIE on FM steel F82H and its welded joint have been reported. The present irradiation conditions of the specimens were as follows: proton energy was 580 MeV. Irradiation temperatures were ranged from 130 to 380 deg. C, and displacement damage level was ranged from 5.7 to 11.8 dpa. The results of tensile tests performed at 22 deg. C indicated that the irradiation hardening occurred with increasing the displacement damage up to 10.1 dpa at 320 deg. C irradiation. At higher dose (11.8 dpa) and higher temperature (380 deg. C), irradiation hardening was observed, but degradation of ductility was relaxed in F82H welded joint. In present study, all specimens kept its ductility after irradiation and fractured in ductile manner. The results on bend-fatigue tests showed that the fatigue life (N{sub f}) of F82H base metal irradiated up to 6.3 dpa was almost the same with that of unirradiated specimens. The N{sub f} of the specimens irradiated up to 9.1 dpa was smaller than that of unirradiated specimens. Though the number of specimen was limited, the N{sub f} of F82H EB (15 mm) and EB (3.3 mm) welded joints seemed to increase after irradiation and the fracture surfaces of the specimens showed transgranular morphology. While F82H TIG welded specimens were not fractured by 10{sup 7} cycles.

  19. Two cases of laparoscopic total colectomy with natural orifice specimen extraction and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogan, Ersin; Aktas, Aydin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Gonultas, Fatih; Sumer, Fatih

    2017-09-01

    We present two cases of natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) after laparoscopic total colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis (TC-IRA), and we also review all of the previously reported cases. Our aim was to focus on patient selection for NOSE after TC-IRA. The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were scanned. Demographic features, surgical indications, and techniques were analyzed. Basic calculations were used for statistical analysis. A total of 13 cases were detected in addition to our 2 cases. All of the specimens were removed through the natural orifices successfully. No case required a diverting ileostomy. No patients were converted to open surgery or to conventional laparoscopy. Complications were reported in three patients. Transanal extractions were performed in 12 cases (10 colonic inertia, 2 polyposis), and transvaginal extractions were performed in 3 cases (2 malignancy, 1 colonic inertia). Both transanal and transvaginal specimen extractions after laparoscopic TC-IRA can be preferred. However, transanal extraction seems to be feasible in cases of TC for benign disease with a limited mesenteric-omental resection. If the indication is a malignancy requiring a mesenteric-omental resection, a transvaginal route should be preferred for a voluminous specimen.

  20. 10 CFR 26.165 - Testing split specimens and retesting single specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (c), as applicable. If the specimen in Bottle A is free of any evidence of drugs or drug metabolites... suitable inquiry conducted under the provisions of § 26.63 or to any other inquiry or investigation... records must be provided to personnel conducting reviews, inquiries into allegations, or audits under the...

  1. A non-destructive DNA sampling technique for herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Lara D

    2017-01-01

    Herbarium specimens are an important source of DNA for plant research but current sampling methods require the removal of material for DNA extraction. This is undesirable for irreplaceable specimens such as rare species or type material. Here I present the first non-destructive sampling method for extracting DNA from herbarium specimens. DNA was successfully retrieved from robust leaves and/or stems of herbarium specimens up to 73 years old.

  2. Miniature tensile test specimens for fusion reactor irradiation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Three miniature sheet-type tensile specimens and a miniature rod-type specimen are being used to determine irradiated tensile properties for alloy development for fusion reactors. The tensile properties of type 316 stainless steel were determined with these different specimens, and the results were compared. Reasonably good agreement was observed. However, there were differences that led to recommendations on which specimens are preferred. 4 references, 9 figures, 6 tables

  3. Homemade specimen retrieval bag for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A solution in the time of fiscal crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, George; Fotiadis, Kyriakos; Panagiotou, Dimitrios; Faitatzidou, Afroditi; Kotzampassi, Katerina

    2015-05-01

    Due to the current economic crisis in Greece, major cutbacks on healthcare costs have been imposed, resulting in a shortage of surgical supplies, including laparoscopic materials. In an attempt to reduce costs, we developed a homemade specimen retrieval bag for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We used the polyethylene bag containing the catheter of a Redon drainage set. The bag was cut in half and pleated longitudinally; then, the gallbladder was placed in the bag and removed through the umbilicus with a grasping forceps. From September 2011 to June 2012, we used our homemade bag on 85 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. No rupture, accidental opening, or bile leak was observed. The learning curve was found to be five cases. Our homemade specimen retrieval bag seems to be a safe, effective, and easy tool for tissue extraction. Further studies need to be conducted to evaluate its full potential. © 2015 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Characterization of some biological specimens using TEM and SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Smith, Don W.

    2009-05-01

    The advent of novel techniques using the Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes improved observation on various biological specimens to characterize them. We studied some biological specimens using Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes. We followed negative staining technique with Phosphotungstic acid using bacterial culture of Bacillus subtilis. Negative staining is very convenient technique to view the structural morphology of different samples including bacteria, phage viruses and filaments in a cell. We could observe the bacterial cell wall and flagellum very well when trapped the negative stained biofilm from bacterial culture on a TEM grid. We cut ultra thin sections from the fixed root tips of Pisum sativum (Garden pea). Root tips were pre fixed with osmium tetroxide and post fixed with uranium acetate and placed in the BEEM capsule for block making. The ultrathin sections on the grid under TEM showed the granular chromatin in the nucleus. The protein bodies and large vacuoles with the storage materials were conspicuous. We followed fixation, critical point drying and sputter coating with gold to view the tissues with SEM after placing on stubs. SEM view of the leaf surface of a dangerous weed Tragia hispida showed the surface trichomes. These trichomes when break on touching releases poisonous content causing skin irritation. The cultured tissue from in vitro culture of Albizia lebbeck, a tree revealed the regenerative structures including leaf buds and stomata on the tissue surface. SEM and TEM allow investigating the minute details characteristic morphological features that can be used for classroom teaching.

  5. Discordance between location of positive cores in biopsy and location of positive surgical margin following radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Won; Park, Hyoung Keun; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Ham, Dong Yeub; Paick, Sung Hyun; Lho, Yong Soo; Choi, Woo Suk

    2015-10-01

    We compared location of positive cores in biopsy and location of positive surgical margin (PSM) following radical prostatectomy. This retrospective analysis included patients who were diagnosed as prostate cancer by standard 12-core transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy, and who have PSM after radical prostatectomy. After exclusion of number of biopsy cores location data, 46 patients with PSM were identified. Locations of PSM in pathologic specimen were reported as 6 difference sites (apex, base and lateral in both sides). Discordance of biopsy result and PSM was defined when no positive cores in biopsy was identified at the location of PSM. Most common location of PSM were right apex (n=21) and left apex (n=15). Multiple PSM was reported in 21 specimens (45.7%). In 32 specimens (69.6%) with PSM, one or more concordant positive biopsy cores were identified, but 14 specimens (28%) had no concordant biopsy cores at PSM location. When discordant rate was separated by locations of PSM, right apex PSM had highest rate of discordant (38%). The discordant group had significantly lower prostate volume and lower number of positive cores in biopsy than concordant group. This study showed that one fourth of PSM occurred at location where tumor was not detected at biopsy and that apex PSM had highest rate of discordant. Careful dissection to avoid PSM should be performed in every location, including where tumor was not identified in biopsy.

  6. Evaluation of pathological features of hepatocellular carcinoma by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: Comparison with pathology on resected specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Sadanobu; Kumada, Takashi; Toyoda, Hidenori; Ichikawa, Hideo; Kawachi, Toshiaki; Otobe, Katsuhiko; Hibi, Toshio; Takeshima, Kenji; Kiriyama, Seiki; Sone, Yasuhiro; Tanikawa, Makoto; Hisanaga, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Isogai, Masatoshi; Kaneoka, Yuji; Washizu, Junji

    2006-01-01

    Features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) observed by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) were compared to pathological features of corresponding resected HCC specimens, to evaluate the ability of CEUS to depict the pathological features of HCC. We investigated 50 HCC nodules that were treated by surgical resection. All nodules had been examined by CEUS with intravenous contrast agent (Levovist) before surgery. CEUS findings were divided into three phases for evaluation and classification of enhancement patterns: two vascular phases (arterial phase and portal venous phase) and the delayed phase. Pathological examination focused on differentiation and on the presence or absence of a tumor capsule, intratumoral septum, and intratumoral necrosis. All 21 nodules that showed a linear or annular vessel around the tumor margin in the arterial phase had capsular formation. Of the 27 nodules that showed heterogeneous perfusion in the portal venous phase, 21 (77.8%) had an intratumoral septum and 23 (85.2%) showed intratumoral necrosis. All nodules that were depicted as a defect with an unclear margin in the delayed phase were well-differentiated HCCs, whereas all nodules that were depicted as a defect with a clear margin were moderately or poorly differentiated HCCs. From our observations, the arterial, portal venous, and delayed phases of CEUS could reflect different pathological aspects of HCC. Some pathological characteristics of HCC might be evaluated preoperatively and non-invasively, by means of combined analysis of three phases of CEUS findings

  7. Carotenoids of Red, Brown, and Black Specimens of Plectropomus leopardus, the Coral Trout (Suziara in Japanese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi; Sato, Wataru; Nagai, Hidetada; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the carotenoids occurring in the integument of Plectropomus leopardus, the coral trout. For a red specimen, the major carotenoids included astaxanthin diester and monoester, as well as α-cryptoxanthin ester, tunaxanthin diester, adonixanthin diester, adonirubin ester, and adonirubin; for brown and black specimens, tunaxanthin diester was the main carotenoid. 1 H-NMR and MS spectral analyses showed that docosahexaenoic acid was the sole fatty acid esterified with xanthophylls in the coral trout.

  8. Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAli, Ahmad B; Griffin, Michelle F; Butler, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice.

  9. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decrease the inflammatory response Vasodilatation leads to better perfusion and ... Must NOT be allowed to come in contact with brain, meninges, eyes or .... project (SCIP): Evolution of National Quality Measure. Surgical. Infection 2008 ...

  10. Surgical Critical Care Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Surgical Critical Care Initiative (SC2i) is a USU research program established in October 2013 to develop, translate, and validate biology-driven critical care....

  11. Ambulatory Surgical Measures - Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Ambulatory Surgical Center Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program seeks to make care safer and more efficient through quality reporting. ASCs eligible for this...

  12. Surgical Management of Hemorrhoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhoids are common human afflictions known since the dawn of history. Surgical management of this condition has made tremendous progress from complex ligation and excision procedures in the past to simpler techniques that allow the patient to return to normal life within a short period. Newer techniques try to improve on the post-operative complications of older ones. The surgical options for the management of hemorrhoids today are many. Capturing all in a single article may be difficult if not impossible. The aim of this study therefore is to present in a concise form some of the common surgical options in current literature, highlighting some important post operative complications. Current literature is searched using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library. The conclusion is that even though there are many surgical options in the management of hemorrhoids today, most employ the ligature and excision technique with newer ones having reduced post operative pain and bleeding. PMID:22413048

  13. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a worldwide problem that has ... deep tissue is found on clinical examination, re-opening, histopathological or radiological investigation ..... Esposito S, Immune system and SSI, Journal of Chemotherapy, 2001.

  14. Surgical management of pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If these therapies fail, and with a thorough multidisciplinary approach involving carefully ... Generally, surgical pain management is divided into neuro- modulative .... 9 suggested. It is important to be sure that the underlying instability or.

  15. [Simulation in surgical training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, A; Schipper, J

    2017-01-01

    Patient safety during operations hinges on the surgeon's skills and abilities. However, surgical training has come under a variety of restrictions. To acquire dexterity with decreasingly "simple" cases, within the legislative time constraints and increasing expectations for surgical results is the future challenge. Are there alternatives to traditional master-apprentice learning? A literature review and analysis of the development, implementation, and evaluation of surgical simulation are presented. Simulation, using a variety of methods, most important physical and virtual (computer-generated) models, provides a safe environment to practice basic and advanced skills without endangering patients. These environments have specific strengths and weaknesses. Simulations can only serve to decrease the slope of learning curves, but cannot be a substitute for the real situation. Thus, they have to be an integral part of a comprehensive training curriculum. Our surgical societies have to take up that challenge to ensure the training of future generations.

  16. A curved beam test specimen for determining the interlaminar tensile strength of a laminated composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, Clement C.; Sumich, Mark; Chappell, David P.

    1991-01-01

    A curved beam type of test specimen is evaluated for use in determining the through-the-thickness strength of laminated composites. Two variations of a curved beam specimen configuration (semicircular and elliptical) were tested to failure using static and fatigue loads. The static failure load for the semicircular specimens was found to be highly sensitive to flaw content, with the specimens falling into two distinct groups. This result supports the use of proof testing for structural validation. Static design allowables are derived based on the Weibull distribution. Fatigue data indicates no measured increase in specimen compliance prior to final fracture. All static and fatigue failures at room temperature dry conditions occurred catastrophically. The elliptical specimens demonstrated unusually high failure strengths indicating the presence of phenomena requiring further study. Results are also included for specimens exposed to a wet environment showing a matrix strength degradation due to moisture content. Further testing is underway to evaluate a fatigue methodology for matrix dominated failures based on residual static strength (wearout).

  17. Yield of two consecutive sputum specimens for the effective diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R Islam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From long instances, it is debatable whether three sputum specimens are required for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB or TB can be diagnosed effectively using two consecutive sputum specimens. This study was set out to evaluate the significance of examining multiple sputum specimens in diagnosis of TB. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the acid-fast bacillus (AFB smear and culture results of three consecutive days' sputum specimens from 413 confirmed TB patients which were detected as part of a larger active case finding study in Dhaka Central Jail, the largest correctional facility in Bangladesh. RESULTS: AFB was detected from 81% (n = 334 patients, of which 89% (n = 297 were diagnosed from the first and additional 9% (n = 30 were from the second sputum specimen. M. tuberculosis growth was observed for 406 patients and 85% (n = 343 were obtained from the first sputum and additional 10% (n = 42 were from the second one. The third specimen didn't show significant additional diagnostic value for the detection of AFB by microscopy or growth of the M. tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded from our study results that examining two consecutive sputum specimens is sufficient enough for the effective diagnosis of TB. It can also decrease the laboratory workload and hence improve the quality of work in settings with high TB burden like Bangladesh.

  18. Yield of two consecutive sputum specimens for the effective diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad R; Khatun, Razia; Uddin, Mohammad Khaja Mafij; Khan, Md Siddiqur Rahman; Rahman, Md Toufiq; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Banu, Sayera

    2013-01-01

    From long instances, it is debatable whether three sputum specimens are required for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) or TB can be diagnosed effectively using two consecutive sputum specimens. This study was set out to evaluate the significance of examining multiple sputum specimens in diagnosis of TB. We retrospectively reviewed the acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear and culture results of three consecutive days' sputum specimens from 413 confirmed TB patients which were detected as part of a larger active case finding study in Dhaka Central Jail, the largest correctional facility in Bangladesh. AFB was detected from 81% (n = 334) patients, of which 89% (n = 297) were diagnosed from the first and additional 9% (n = 30) were from the second sputum specimen. M. tuberculosis growth was observed for 406 patients and 85% (n = 343) were obtained from the first sputum and additional 10% (n = 42) were from the second one. The third specimen didn't show significant additional diagnostic value for the detection of AFB by microscopy or growth of the M. tuberculosis. We concluded from our study results that examining two consecutive sputum specimens is sufficient enough for the effective diagnosis of TB. It can also decrease the laboratory workload and hence improve the quality of work in settings with high TB burden like Bangladesh.

  19. An investigation on the fatigue behavior of DCB specimen bonded with aluminum foam at Mode III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Cho, J. U. [Kongju University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Zhao, G [School of Aerospace, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian (China); Cho, C. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Aluminum foam with its excellent physical and mechanical characteristics is a lightweight metallic material used with good quality in vehicle bumpers, internal shock absorbers on planes, as materials for vessel joints etc. On the contrary, when aluminum foam is used without sufficient investigation, there is the likelihood of damage or destruction of the machine or mechanical structure, and in extreme case it may cause to human casualties. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of adhesive structures with aluminum foam for the closed-type aluminum foam used primarily as shock absorbers. The fatigue analyses of the DCB test specimens at mode III with aluminum foam are verified through a fatigue experiment. As the analysis results, test specimen models with the thicknesses (t) of 35 mm, 45 mm and 55 mm showed the peak load occurrence approximately after the progress from 0 to 50 cycles. And afterwards the load gradually decreased as the cycles increased. The peak loads for each DCB test specimens were ±0.80 kN for the specimen thickness(t) of 35 mm, ±0.98 kN for the specimen thickness(t) of 45 mm and ±1.18 kN for the specimen thickness(t) of 55 mm. It is also shown that the peak load occurring on the specimen increased as specimen thickness increased. These study results are compared with the specimen thickness of 35 mm model as the basis. When the specimen thickness is increased as much as 10 mm, the peak load is increased approximately 1.25 times. When the specimen thickness is also increased as much as 20 mm, the peak load is increased 1.5 times. The analysis data and the real experiment data showed similar results each other. Therefore, it can be thought that the analysis data is applicable in real field. And it is estimated that the mechanical characteristics of the DCB test specimen at mode III during the fatigue load conditions can be systematically and efficiently analyzed.

  20. Genomic treasure troves: complete genome sequencing of herbarium and insect museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Martijn; Erkens, Roy H J; van de Vossenberg, Bart; Wieringa, Jan J; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Stielow, Benjamin; Geml, József; Richardson, James E; Bakker, Freek T

    2013-01-01

    Unlocking the vast genomic diversity stored in natural history collections would create unprecedented opportunities for genome-scale evolutionary, phylogenetic, domestication and population genomic studies. Many researchers have been discouraged from using historical specimens in molecular studies because of both generally limited success of DNA extraction and the challenges associated with PCR-amplifying highly degraded DNA. In today's next-generation sequencing (NGS) world, opportunities and prospects for historical DNA have changed dramatically, as most NGS methods are actually designed for taking short fragmented DNA molecules as templates. Here we show that using a standard multiplex and paired-end Illumina sequencing approach, genome-scale sequence data can be generated reliably from dry-preserved plant, fungal and insect specimens collected up to 115 years ago, and with minimal destructive sampling. Using a reference-based assembly approach, we were able to produce the entire nuclear genome of a 43-year-old Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) herbarium specimen with high and uniform sequence coverage. Nuclear genome sequences of three fungal specimens of 22-82 years of age (Agaricus bisporus, Laccaria bicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus) were generated with 81.4-97.9% exome coverage. Complete organellar genome sequences were assembled for all specimens. Using de novo assembly we retrieved between 16.2-71.0% of coding sequence regions, and hence remain somewhat cautious about prospects for de novo genome assembly from historical specimens. Non-target sequence contaminations were observed in 2 of our insect museum specimens. We anticipate that future museum genomics projects will perhaps not generate entire genome sequences in all cases (our specimens contained relatively small and low-complexity genomes), but at least generating vital comparative genomic data for testing (phylo)genetic, demographic and genetic hypotheses, that become increasingly more horizontal

  1. Effect of sized and specimen geometry on the initiation and propagation of the ductile fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frund, J.M.; Marini, B.; Bethmont, M.

    1994-02-01

    Strength to the fracture of the pipe in PWR has to be justified with mechanical analyses. These tests are based on the strength to ductile fracture of steels which are tested in lab. The values of resistance to fracture are obtained through tensile tests on CT specimens (determination of J-R curves). The purpose of this study is to justify the sizes of the specimens which have to be used to characterize the strength to ductile fracture of steel in secondary pipes. Tests were conducted on 0,5T-CT, 1T-CT and 2T-CT specimens. Two materials with different suffer contents were studied. The test results show that the JO,2 values gotten from the different specimens are similar. But the strength to ductile fracture in 2T-CT specimens in lower than the one measured in 0,5t-CT and 1T-CT specimens. The surface of fracture of the different specimens displays splits perpendicular to the notch and parallel to the sheet surface. These splits are produced by the separation of the manganese sulfur inclusions. The effect notes on the J-R curves seems to be relevant to these splits. The reason why these splits might be responsible for a decrease of the tearing modulus are not clearly defined up to this point. The results which have been published show the importance of the geometry effects (presence or not of lateral notches...) and the loading mode on the strength to ductile fracture. We note that the curves determined from tests on CT specimens are conservative. A few preliminary studies showed that the geometry effects on resistance to fracture can be studied and explained by using local approach methods. The Rousselier modeling is useful to explain the behaviour of ferritic steels in ductile fracture. (authors). 20 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Specimen holder for an electron microscope and device and method for mounting a specimen in an electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, H.W.; Latenstein van Voorst, A.; Westra, C.; Hoveling, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    A specimen holder for an electron microscope, comprising a bar-shaped body provided adjacent one end with means for receiving a specimen, with means being present for screening the specimen from the environment at least temporarily in airtight and moisture-proof manner in a first position, which

  3. Post surgical complications from students' large animal surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of post surgical complications was conducted on records of students' Large Animal Surgical Laboratories in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (F.V.M.), Ahmadu Bello University (A.B.U), Zaria from 1989 to 1993. Three hundred and eleven surgical complications were recorded from five surgical ...

  4. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) for rapid assessment of breast excision specimens (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachtel, Elena F.; Johnson, Nicole B.; Huck, Amelia E.; Rice-Stitt, Travis L.; Vangel, Mark G.; Smith, Barbara L.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Kang, DongKyun

    2016-03-01

    Unacceptably large percentage (20-40%) of breast cancer lumpectomy patients are required to undergo multiple surgeries when positive margins are found upon post-operative histologic assessment. If the margin status can be determined during surgery, surgeon can resect additional tissues to achieve tumor-free margin, which will reduce the need for additional surgeries. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed reflectance confocal microscopy technology that has a potential to image the entire surgical margin within a short procedural time. Previously, SECM was shown to rapidly image a large area (10 mm by 10 mm) of human esophageal tissue within a short procedural time (15 seconds). When used in lumpectomy, SECM will be able to image the entire margin surface of ~30 cm2 in around 7.5 minutes. SECM images will then be used to determine margin status intra-operatively. In this paper, we present results from a study of testing accuracy of SECM for diagnosing malignant breast tissues. We have imaged freshly-excised breast specimens (N=46) with SECM. SECM images clearly visualized histomorphologic features associated with normal/benign and malignant breast tissues in a similar manner to histologic images. Diagnostic accuracy was tested by comparing SECM diagnoses made by three junior pathologists with corresponding histologic diagnoses made by a senior pathologist. SECM sensitivity and specificity were high, 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. Intra-observer agreement and inter-observer agreement were also high, 0.87 and 0.84, respectively. Results from this study showed that SECM has a potential to accurately determine margin status during breast cancer lumpectomy.

  5. Histopathological analysis of hysterectomy specimens: one year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Baral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Backgound: The uterus is prone to develop several non-neoplastic and neoplastic conditions during the life time of a woman. The aim of this study is to study the histopathological features of varied uterine lesions, their profile and distribution of different lesions in relation of age.Materials and Methods: This is a histopathological database analysis of hysterectomy specimen of one year 2011/12 in Patan Hospital. The variables studied were age and histopathological diagnosis. SPSS version 16 was used as an analytical tool.Results: A total of 3576 histopathology samples were received in this period. There were 1173 gynaecology samples during this period out of which 22% (261 cases were that of hysterectomy. Histopathology diagnosis showed Leiomyoma in 48.6% (127 cases, Adenomyosis was seen in 10.3% (27 cases, Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma was seen in 1.14% (3 cases.Conclusion: A large number of hysterectomy specimens had no significant findings. However, adenomyosis, leiomyomya and adenocarcinoma are also found which may be the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding. 

  6. Patient identification error among prostate needle core biopsy specimens--are we ready for a DNA time-out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, Eric J; Pfeifer, John D; Raab, Stephen S

    2007-10-01

    Patient identification errors in surgical pathology often involve switches of prostate or breast needle core biopsy specimens among patients. We assessed strategies for decreasing the occurrence of these uncommon and yet potentially catastrophic events. Root cause analyses were performed following 3 cases of patient identification error involving prostate needle core biopsy specimens. Patient identification errors in surgical pathology result from slips and lapses of automatic human action that may occur at numerous steps during pre-laboratory, laboratory and post-laboratory work flow processes. Patient identification errors among prostate needle biopsies may be difficult to entirely prevent through the optimization of work flow processes. A DNA time-out, whereby DNA polymorphic microsatellite analysis is used to confirm patient identification before radiation therapy or radical surgery, may eliminate patient identification errors among needle biopsies.

  7. Influence of specimen design on the deformation and failure of zircaloy cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, D.W.; Koss, D.A.; Motta, A.T.; Majumdar, S.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental as well as computational analyses have been used to examine the deformation and failure behavior of ring-stretch specimens of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes. The results show that, at least for plastically anisotropic unirradiated cladding, specimens with a small gauge length l to width w ratio (l/w ∼ 1) exhibit pronounced non-uniform deformation along their length. As a result, specimen necking occurs upon yielding when the specimen is fully plastic. Finite element analysis indicates a minimum l/w of 4 before a significant fraction of the gauge length deforms homogeneously. A brief examination of the contrasting deformation and failure behavior between uniaxial and plane-strain ring tension tests further supports the use of the latter geometry for determining cladding failure ductility data that are relevant to certain reactivity-initiated accident conditions

  8. Development of reconstitution method for surveillance specimens using surface activated joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Terumi; Kaihara, Shoichiro; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sato, Akira [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Onizawa, Kunio; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Masahide

    1996-03-01

    Evaluation of embrittlement of reactor vessel steel due to irradiation requires surveillance tests. However, many surveillance specimens are necessary for nuclear plants life extension. Therefore, a specimen reconstitution technique has become important to provide the many specimens for continued surveillance. A surface activated joining (SAJ) method has been developed to join various materials together at low temperatures with little deformation, and is useful to bond irradiated specimens. To assess the validity of this method, Charpy impact tests were carried out, and the characteristics caused by heating during joining were measured. The test results showed the Charpy impact values were almost the same as base materials, and surface activated joining reduced heat affected zone to less than 2 mm. (author).

  9. The pregnant female surgical resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifflette V

    2018-05-01

    with a child at home was the most difficult part. Conclusion: Our preliminary study shows that the programs surveyed were accommodating to the female surgical resident. Nevertheless, despite adequate support from their program and an overall positive experience, many residents indicated that they had a decline in their education and performance. Keywords: surgical resident, pregnant, medical education, maternity leave, graduate medical education

  10. Surgical care in the isolated military hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukish, J R; Gill, G G; McCoy, T R

    2001-01-01

    To maintain the health of service members and their families throughout the world, the Department of Defense has established several isolated military hospitals (IHs). The operational environment of IHs is such that illness and traumatic injury requiring surgical intervention is common. This study sought to examine the general and orthopedic surgical experience at an IH to determine whether surgical care could be provided in an effective and safe manner. All patients evaluated by the general and orthopedic surgeon at Guantanamo Bay Naval Hospital from October 1, 1998, to April 1, 1999, were included in this study. The following data were retrospectively reviewed: patient demographic data, diagnosis, initial and follow-up care, medical evacuation data, operative procedures, and complications. There were 336 patients who presented for surgical evaluation, resulting in 660 follow-up appointments during the study period. There were 31 medical evacuations (3 emergent). The surgical services performed 122 major operative procedures. There were 58 inpatient admissions. There was 1 death, and surgical complications occurred in 2 patients, for an overall morbidity and mortality of 1.4% and 0.7%, respectively. Our data show that an IH is capable of providing surgical care, including care for traumatic injuries, in a safe manner. This is the first study that provides objective evidence that general and orthopedic surgery at an IH can be provided within the standard of care.

  11. Influence of specimen type and reinforcement on measured tension-tension fatigue life of unidirectional GFRP laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korkiakoski, Samuli; Brøndsted, Povl; Sarlin, Essi

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that standardised tension-tension fatigue test specimens of unidirectional (UD) glass-fibre-reinforced plastics (GFRP) laminates tend to fail at end tabs. The true fatigue life is then underestimated. The first objective of this study was to find for UD GFRP laminates a test...... specimen that fails in the gauge section. The second objective was to compare fatigue performance of two laminates, one having a newly developed UD powder-bound fabric as a reinforcement and the other having a quasi-UD stitched non-crimp fabric as a reinforcement. In the first phase, a rectangular specimen...... in accordance with the ISO 527-5 standard and two slightly different dog-bone shaped specimens were evaluated by means of finite element modelling. Subsequent comparative fatigue tests were performed for the laminates with the three specimen types. The results showed that the test specimen type has...

  12. Deginerative changes of femoral articular cartilage in the knee : comparative study of specimen sonography and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju Youn; Hong, Sung Hwan; Sohn, Jin Hee; Wee, Young Hoon; Chang, Jun Dong; Park, Hong Seok; Lee, Eil Seoung; Kang Ik Won

    2001-01-01

    To determine the sonographic findings of degenerative change in femoral articular cartilage of the knee by comparative study of specimen sonography and pathology. We obtained 40 specimens of cartilage of the femur (20 medial and 20 lateral condylar) from 20 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee who had undergone total knee replacement. The specimens were placed in a saline-filled container and sonography was performed using a 10-MHz linear transducer. Sonographic abnormalities were evaluated at the cartilage surface, within the cartilage, and at the bone-cartilage interface, and were compared with the corresponding pathologic findings. In addition, cartilage thickness was measured at a representative portion of each femoral cartilage specimen and was compared with the thickness determined by sonography. 'Dot' lesions, irregularity or loss of the hyperechoic line, were demonstrated by sonography at the saline-cartilage interface of 14 cartilages. Pathologic examination showed that these findings corresponded to cleft, detachment, erosion, and degeneration. Irregularities in the hyperechoic line at the bone-cartilage interface were revealed by sonography in eight cartilages and were related to irregularity or loss of tidemark, downward displacement of the cartilage, and subchondral callus formation. Dot lesions, corresponding to cleft and degeneration, were noted within one cartilage. Cartilage thickness measured on specimen and by sonography showed no significant difference (p=0.446). Specimen sonography suggested that articular cartilage underwent degenerative histopathological change. Cartilage thickness measured by sonography exactly reflected real thickness

  13. An Inset CT Specimen for Evaluating Fracture in Small Samples of Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyazadehfar, M.; Nazari, A.; Kruzic, J.J.; Quinn, G.D.; Arola, D.

    2013-01-01

    In evaluations on the fracture behavior of hard tissues and many biomaterials, the volume of material available to study is not always sufficient to apply a standard method of practice. In the present study an inset Compact Tension (inset CT) specimen is described, which uses a small cube of material (approximately 2×2×2 mm3) that is molded within a secondary material to form the compact tension geometry. A generalized equation describing the Mode I stress intensity was developed for the specimen using the solutions from a finite element model that was defined over permissible crack lengths, variations in specimen geometry, and a range in elastic properties of the inset and mold materials. A validation of the generalized equation was performed using estimates for the fracture toughness of a commercial dental composite via the “inset CT” specimen and the standard geometry defined by ASTM E399. Results showed that the average fracture toughness obtained from the new specimen (1.23 ± 0.02 MPa•m0.5) was within 2% of that from the standard. Applications of the inset CT specimen are presented for experimental evaluations on the crack growth resistance of dental enamel and root dentin, including their fracture resistance curves. Potential errors in adopting this specimen are then discussed, including the effects of debonding between the inset and molding material on the estimated stress intensity distribution. Results of the investigation show that the inset CT specimen offers a viable approach for studying the fracture behavior of small volumes of structural materials. PMID:24268892

  14. Quantification of surgical blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcel H; Ingvertsen, Britt T; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Jensen, Asger L; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2006-06-01

    To compare gravimetric and colorimetric methods of quantifying surgical blood loss, and to determine if there is a correlation between preoperative hemostatic tests (buccal mucosa bleeding time [BMBT] and intraoperative blood loss). Prospective clinical study. Dogs (n=15) admitted for cutaneous tumor excision, orthopedic procedure, or exploratory laparotomy. Intraoperative blood loss was quantified by measuring irrigation fluid and weighing surgical sponges used for blood and fluid collection during surgery. Results of gravimetric measurements were then correlated to blood loss quantified using spectrophotometric analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) content. Hemostatic variables including BMBT were measured before surgery and compared with the calculated amount of blood loss. Blood loss quantified by gravimetric measurement showed a significant correlation with colorimetric determination of Hb content in surgical sponges and collected irrigation fluid (r=0.93, P<.0001). BMBT correlated weakly but significantly with intraoperative blood loss (r=0.56, P<.05). Quantifying intraoperative blood loss using spectrophotometric Hb analysis accurately assessed the amount of blood loss; however, it is a time-consuming procedure, primarily applicable as a research tool. Gravimetric evaluation of intraoperative blood loss was found to be an accurate method, which can be recommended for use in a clinical setting. Estimation of blood loss using a gravimetric method is accurate and applicable in the clinical setting and provides surgeons with a simple and objective tool to evaluate intraoperative blood loss.

  15. Surgical smoke and ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Dennis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrocautery, laser tissue ablation, and ultrasonic scalpel tissue dissection all generate a 'surgical smoke' containing ultrafine ( Methods To measure the amount of generated particulates in 'surgical smoke' during different surgical procedures and to quantify the particle number concentration for operation room personnel a condensation particle counter (CPC, model 3007, TSI Inc. was applied. Results Electro-cauterization and argon plasma tissue coagulation induced the production of very high number concentration (> 100000 cm-3 of particles in the diameter range of 10 nm to 1 μm. The peak concentration was confined to the immediate local surrounding of the production side. In the presence of a very efficient air conditioning system the increment and decrement of ultrafine particle occurrence was a matter of seconds, with accumulation of lower particle number concentrations in the operation room for only a few minutes. Conclusion Our investigation showed a short term very high exposure to ultrafine particles for surgeons and close assisting operating personnel – alternating with longer periods of low exposure.

  16. Surgical Approaches to the Oral Cavity Primary and Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Jatin P.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: A variety of surgical approaches used to treat primary oral cavity tumors are described to delineate the technique and rationale behind each treatment choice. Methods and Materials: Size, location, proximity to bone, lymph node status, histology, and prior treatment considerations are employed to determine the most appropriate surgical approach for primary oral cavity tumors. Results: Oncologic outcomes and physical function show the best results from surgical treatment of many primary oral cavity, but necessitates careful selection of surgical approach. Conclusion: Each surgical approach must be selected based upon relevant tumor, patient and physician factors

  17. Surgical Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Valdes, Daniel; Taner, Timucin; Nagorney, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In select patients, surgical treatment in the form of either resection or transplantation offers a curative option. The aims of this review are to (1) review the current American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases/European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines on the surgical management of HCC and (2) review the proposed changes to these guidelines and analyze the strength of evidence underlying these proposals. Three authors identified the most relevant publications in the literature on liver resection and transplantation for HCC and analyzed the strength of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) classification. In the United States, the liver allocation system provides priority for liver transplantation to patients with HCC within the Milan criteria. Current evidence suggests that liver transplantation may also be indicated in certain patient groups beyond Milan criteria, such as pediatric patients with large tumor burden or adult patients who are successfully downstaged. Patients with no underlying liver disease may also benefit from liver transplantation if the HCC is unresectable. In patients with no or minimal (compensated) liver disease and solitary HCC ≥2 cm, liver resection is warranted. If liver transplantation is not available or contraindicated, liver resection can be offered to patients with multinodular HCC, provided that the underlying liver disease is not decompensated. Many patients may benefit from surgical strategies adapted to local resources and policies (hepatitis B prevalence, organ availability, etc). Although current low-quality evidence shows better overall survival with aggressive surgical strategies, this approach is limited to select patients. Larger and well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the benefits and limits of such approach. PMID:28975836

  18. Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Duck Seok; Seo, Hang Seok; Min, Duck Kee; Koo, Dae Seo; Lee, Eun Pyo; Yang, Song Yeol

    1999-04-01

    Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods to perform efficient PIE is developed by analyzing the relation between requiring time of manufacturing specimen and manufacturing method in irradiated fuel rods. It takes within an hour to grind 1 mm of specimen thickness under 150 rpm in speed of grinding, 600 g gravity in force using no.120, no.240, no.320 of grinding paper. In case of no.400 of grinding paper, it takes more an hour to grind the same thickness as above. It takes up to a quarter to grind 80-130 μm in specimen thickness using no.400 of grinding paper. When grinding time goes beyond 15 minutes, the grinding thickness of specimen does not exist. The polishing of specimen with 150 Rpms in speed of grinding machine, 600 g gravity in force, 10 minutes in polishing time using diamond paste 15 μm on polishing cloths amounts to 50 μm in specimen thickness. In case of diamond paste 9 μm on polishing cloth, the polishing of specimen amounts to 20 μm. The polishing thickness of specimen with 15 minutes in polishing time using 6 μm, 3 μm, 1 μm, 1/4 μm does not exist. Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods will have application to the destructive examination of PIE. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  19. SURGICAL SITE INFECTION: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. M. Bonai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection or nosocomial infection (NI is one of the factors that increase the cost of maintaining patients in the health system, even in processes that should safely occur, such as hospital patients and performing simple and routine surgical procedures surgical centers and clinics leading to complications resulting from these infections that prolong hospital stay and promote pain and suffering to the patient, resulting in the defense of the quality of services and influencing negatively the hospitals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the factors that result in surgical site infection, with the purpose of better understanding of the subject and the possibility of preventive actions to better treatment outcome of the patient.

  20. Non-surgical therapy of Peyronie's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick L; Levine, Laurence A

    2008-01-01

    The present paper provides a review of the available non-surgical treatments for Peyronie's disease (PD). A review of published literature on oral, intralesional, external energy and iontophoresis therapies for PD was performed, and the published results of available treatment options reviewed. The authors recommendations for appropriate non-surgical management of PD are provided. Although there are many published reports that show the efficacy of non-surgical therapies for PD, there is a lack of large scale, multicenter controlled clinical trials, which makes treatment recommendations difficult. Careful review of the literature does suggest that there are treatment options that make scientific sense and appear to stabilize the disease process, reduce deformity, and improve function. Offering no treatment at all will encourage our patients to pursue alternative treatments, which might do harm, and misses the opportunity to do some good. Clearly further work is necessary to develop safe and effective non-surgical treatments for PD.

  1. High-Resolution Ultrasonography (US) of Appendiceal Specimens: Differentiation of Acute Non-perforated Appendicitis from Perforated Appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gyo Chang; Kim, Suk; Im, Han Hyeok; Lee, Sang Jin; Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Il Young [Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hae Kyung [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kui Hyang; Shin, Hyung Chul [Soonchunhyang University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    To analyze surgical specimens from patients with acute non-perforated and perforated appendicitis using high-resolution ultrasonography (US), and to correlate the US features with the pathologic findings. One hundred and six surgical appendix specimens obtained from patients with suspected acute appendicitis were evaluated. The following US features were evaluated for differentiating acute non-perforated appendicitis from perforated appendicitis: circumferential loss of the echogenic submucosal layer, disruption of the serosal layer, asymmetrical wall thickening, the sum of opposing walls {>=} 9 mm and the presence of appendicoliths. The sensitivity and specificity of the US findings for diagnosing perforated appendicitis were determined. All US features were detected significantly more often in the perforated appendicitis group of specimens. The disruption of the serosal layer was the most significant independent predictor of perforation (p < .001). The sensitivity for circumferential loss of the echogenic submucosal layer, disruption of the serosal layer, asymmetrical wall thickening, wall thickness {>=} 9 mm, and the presence of appendicoliths individually was 84.6%, 69.2%, 61.5%, 73.1% and 46.2%, respectively. The specificity for all of these findings was 86.3%, 98.7%, 95.0%, 85.0% and 85.0%, respectively. High-resolution US of appendiceal specimens was very useful for differentiating acute non-perforated from perforated appendicitis

  2. Investigation of Asphalt Mixture Creep Behavior Using Thin Beam Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zofka, Adam; Marasteanu, Mihai; Turos, Mugur

    2008-01-01

    The asphalt pavement layer consists of two or more lifts of compacted asphalt mixture; the top of the layer is also exposed to aging, a factor that significantly affects the mixture properties. The current testing specifications use rather thick specimens that cannot be used to investigate the gradual change in properties with pavement depth. This paper investigates the feasibility of using the 3-point bending test with thin asphalt mixture beams (127x12.7x6.35 mm) to determine the low-temperature creep compliance of the mixtures. Several theoretical and semi-empirical models, from the theory of composites, are reviewed and evaluated using numerical and experimental data. Preliminary results show that this method can be used for low-temperature mixture characterization but several crucial factors need further inspection and interpretation

  3. Spectrum of histological lesions in 185 consecutive prostatic specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal B

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty five consecutive prostate specimens were studied. The predominant lesion noted was benign prostatic hyperplasia (B.P.H. (92.97%. The incidence of carcinoma was low, (7.02%. Conditions which can mimic and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of carcinoma, like basal cell hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia and atrophy associated hyperplasia were noted in 10, 4 and 3 cases of B.P.H. respectively. None of these cases showed evidence of carcinoma. Corpora amylacea were noted in 38.91% of the cases of B.P.H. and were conspicuously absent in cases of carcinoma. Chronic prostatitis was frequently encountered (58% and metaplastic changes were seen in 11% of the cases.

  4. Signal processing methods for in-situ creep specimen monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guers, Manton J.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2018-04-01

    Previous work investigated using guided waves for monitoring creep deformation during accelerated life testing. The basic objective was to relate observed changes in the time-of-flight to changes in the environmental temperature and specimen gage length. The work presented in this paper investigated several signal processing strategies for possible application in the in-situ monitoring system. Signal processing methods for both group velocity (wave-packet envelope) and phase velocity (peak tracking) time-of-flight were considered. Although the Analytic Envelope found via the Hilbert transform is commonly applied for group velocity measurements, erratic behavior in the indicated time-of-flight was observed when this technique was applied to the in-situ data. The peak tracking strategies tested had generally linear trends, and tracking local minima in the raw waveform ultimately showed the most consistent results.

  5. Crashworthiness Analysis and Evaluation of Fuselage Section with Sub-floor Composite Sinusoidal Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Mou

    Full Text Available Abstract Crashworthiness is one of the main concerns in civil aviation safety particularly with regard to the increasing ratio of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP in aircraft primary structures. In order to generate dates for model validations, the mechanical properties of T700/3234 were obtained by material performance tests, and energy-absorbing results were gained by quasi-static crushing tests of composite sinusoidal specimens. The correctness of composite material model and single-layer finite element model of composite sinusoidal specimens were verified based on the simulation results and test results that were in good agreement. A typical civil aircraft fuselage section with composite sinusoidal specimens under cargo floor was suggested. The crashworthiness of finite element model of fuselage section was assessed by simulating the vertical drop test subjected to 7 m/s impact velocity, and the influences of different thickness of sub-floor composite sinusoidal specimens on crashworthiness of fuselage section were also analyzed. The simulation results show that the established finite element model can accurately simulate the crushing process of composite sinusoidal specimens; the failure process of fuselage section is more stable, and the safety of occupants can be effectively improved because of the smaller peak accelerations that was limited to human tolerance, a critical thickness of sub-floor composite sinusoidal specimens can restrict the magnitude of acceleration peaks, which has certain reference values for enhancing crashworthiness capabilities of fuselage section and improving the survivability of passengers.

  6. Improved quality of patient care through routine second review of histopathology specimens prior to multidisciplinary meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Chantal C H J; Burger, Gerard; Al-Janabi, Shaimaa; Willems, Stefan M; van Diest, Paul J; Jiwa, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Double reading may be a valuable tool for improving quality of patient care by identifying diagnostic errors before final sign-out, but standard double reading would significantly increase costs of pathology. We assessed the added value of intradepartmental routine double reading of histopathology specimens prior to multidisciplinary meetings. Diagnoses, treatment plans and prognoses of patients are often discussed at multidisciplinary meetings. As part of the daily routine, all pathology specimens to be discussed at upcoming multidisciplinary meetings undergo prior intradepartmental double reading. We identified all histopathology specimens from 2013 that underwent such double reading and determined major and minor discordance rates based on clinical relevance between the initial and consensus sign-out diagnoses. We included 6796 histopathology specimens that underwent double reading, representing approximately 8% of all histopathology cases at our institution in 2013. Double reading diagnoses were concordant in 6566 specimens (96.6%). Major and minor discordances were observed in 60 (0.9%) and 170 (2.5%) specimens, respectively. Urology specimens had significantly more discordances than other tissues of origin, Gleason grading of prostate cancer biopsies being the most frequent diagnostic problem. Furthermore, premalignant and malignant cases showed significantly higher discordance rates than the rest. The vast majority (90%) of discordances represented changes within the same diagnostic category (eg, malignant to malignant). Routine double reading of histopathology specimens prior to multidisciplinary meetings prevents diagnostic errors. It resulted in about 1% discordant diagnoses of potential clinical significance, indicating that second review is worthwhile in terms of patient safety and quality of patient care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Is active surveillance a safe alternative in the management of localized prostate cancer? Pathological features of radical prostatectomy specimens in potential candidates for active surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambrano Norman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectiveActive surveillance (AS has become an accepted alternative for patients with low risk prostate cancer. The purpose of AS is to defer definitive therapy in these patients to avoid treatment-related complications. Our aim was to determine the pathological features of the surgical specimen from potential AS candidates that underwent radical prostatectomy (RP.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed a group of patients submitted to RP who met criteria for AS: Gleason score (GS ≤ 3+3 = 6, PSA ≤ 10ng/mL, T1c - T2a, 6 in the RPS (GS 7 n = 49; GS 8 n = 3. Extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle and lymph node involvement was found in 6.1%, 3.1% and 1.2% of the specimens, respectively.ConclusionIn this study a significant proportion of potential candidates for AS showed features of aggressive and/or high-risk tumors in the RPS. Therefore, before considering a patient for an AS protocol, a proper and strict selection must be performed, and informed consent is crucial for these patients.

  8. Selection of oncoplastic surgical technique in Asian breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Sun Shin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Oncoplastic surgery is being increasingly performed in Korean women; however, unlike Westerners, Korean women usually have small to moderate-sized breasts. To achieve better outcomes in reconstructed breasts, several factors should be considered to determine the optimal surgical method. Methods A total of 108 patients who underwent oncoplastic surgery from January 2013 to December 2016 were retrospectively investigated. We used various methods, including glandular tissue reshaping, latissimus dorsi (LD flap transposition, and reduction oncoplasty, to restore the breast volume and symmetry. Results The mean weight of the tumor specimens was 40.46 g, and the ratio of the tumor specimen weight to breast volume was 0.12 g/mL in the patients who underwent glandular tissue reshaping (n=59. The corresponding values were 101.47 g and 0.14 g/mL, respectively, in the patients who underwent reduction oncoplasty (n=17, and 82.54 g and 0.20 g/mL, respectively, in those treated with an LD flap (n=32. Glandular tissue reshaping was mostly performed in the upper outer quadrant, and LD flap transposition was mostly performed in the lower inner quadrant. No major complications were noted. Most patients were satisfied with the aesthetic results. Conclusions We report satisfactory outcomes of oncoplastic surgical procedures in Korean patients. The results regarding specimen weight and the tumor-to-breast ratio of Asian patients will be a helpful reference point for determining the most appropriate oncoplastic surgical technique.

  9. Laboratory specimens and genetic privacy: evolution of legal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle Huckaby

    2013-03-01

    Although laboratory specimens are an important resource for biomedical research, controversy has arisen when research has been conducted without the knowledge or consent of the individuals who were the source of the specimens. This paper summarizes the most important litigation regarding the research use of laboratory specimens and traces the evolution of legal theory from property claims to claims related to genetic privacy interests. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  10. An Experimental Study of Shear-Dominated Failure in the 2013 Sandia Fracture Challenge Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deibler, Lisa Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reedlunn, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingraham, Mathew Duffy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, Shelley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report presents an experimental study motivated by results obtained during the 2013 Sandia Fracture Challenge. The challenge involved A286 steel, shear-dominated compression specimens whose load-deflection response contained a load maximum fol- lowed by significant displacement under decreasing load, ending with a catastrophic fracture. Blind numerical simulations deviated from the experiments well before the maximum load and did not predict the failure displacement. A series of new tests were conducted on specimens machined from the original A286 steel stock to learn more about the deformation and failure processes in the specimen and potentially improve future numerical simulations. The study consisted of several uniaxial tension tests to explore anisotropy in the material, and a set of new tests on the compression speci- men. In some compression specimen tests, stereo digital image correlation (DIC) was used to measure the surface strain fields local to the region of interest. In others, the compression specimen was loaded to a given displacement prior to failure, unloaded, sectioned, and imaged under the microscope to determine when material damage first appeared and how it spread. The experiments brought the following observations to light. The tensile tests revealed that the plastic response of the material is anisotropic. DIC during the shear- dominated compression tests showed that all three in-plane surface strain components had maxima in the order of 50% at the maximum load. Sectioning of the specimens revealed no signs of material damage at the point where simulations deviated from the experiments. Cracks and other damage did start to form approximately when the max- imum load was reached, and they grew as the load decreased, eventually culminating in catastrophic failure of the specimens. In addition to the steel specimens, a similar study was carried out for aluminum 7075-T651 specimens. These specimens achieved much lower loads and displacements

  11. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....

  12. Surgical manifestations of filariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrahmanyam M

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical manifestations of filariasis as seen in 150 cases over a period of three years in the department of Surgery, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha are reviewed. The genital manifestations are more common than the elephantiasis in this endemic zone.

  13. Improving surgical weekend handover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culwick, Caroline; Devine, Chris; Coombs, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Effective handovers are vital to patient safety and continuity of care, and this is recognised by several national bodies including the GMC. The existing model at Great Western Hospital (GWH) involved three general surgical teams and a urology team placing their printed patient lists, complete with weekend jobs, in a folder for the on-call team to collect at the weekend. We recognised a need to reduce time searching for patients, jobs and reviews, and to streamline weekend ward rounds. A unified weekend list ordering all surgical patients by ward and bed number was introduced. Discrepancies in the layout of each team's weekday list necessitated the design of a new weekday list to match the weekend list to facilitate the easy transfer of information between the two lists. A colour coding system was also used to highlight specific jobs. Prior to this improvement project only 7.1% of those polled were satisfied with the existing system, after a series of interventions satisfaction increased to 85.7%. The significant increase in overall satisfaction with surgical handover following the introduction of the unified weekend list is promising. Locating patients and identifying jobs is easier and weekend ward rounds can conducted in a more logical and timely fashion. It has also helped facilitate the transition to consultant ward rounds of all surgical inpatients at the weekends with promising feedback from a recent consultants meeting.

  14. [Surgical complications of colostomies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ameur, Hazem; Affes, Nejmeddine; Rejab, Haitham; Abid, Bassem; Boujelbene, Salah; Mzali, Rafik; Beyrouti, Mohamed Issam

    2014-07-01

    The colostomy may be terminal or lateral, temporary or permanent. It may have psychological, medical or surgical complications. reporting the incidence of surgical complications of colostomies, their therapeutic management and trying to identify risk factors for their occurrence. A retrospective study for a period of 5 years in general surgery department, Habib Bourguiba hospital, Sfax, including all patients operated with confection of a colostomy. Were then studied patients reoperated for stoma complication. Among the 268 patients who have had a colostomy, 19 patients (7%) developed surgical stoma complications. They had a mean age of 59 years, a sex ratio of 5.3 and a 1-ASA score in 42% of cases. It was a prolapse in 9 cases (reconfection of the colostomy: 6 cases, restoration of digestive continuity: 3 cases), a necrosis in 5 cases (reconfection of the colostomy), a plicature in 2 cases (reconfection of the colostomy) a peristomal abscess in 2 cases (reconfection of the colostomy: 1 case, restoration of digestive continuity: 1 case) and a strangulated parastomal hernia in 1 case (herniorrhaphy). The elective incision and the perineal disease were risk factors for the occurrence of prolapse stomial. Surgical complications of colostomies remain a rare event. Prolapse is the most common complication, and it is mainly related to elective approach. Reoperation is often required especially in cases of early complications, with usually uneventful postoperative course.

  15. Location specific in situ TEM straining specimens made using FIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.; Papin, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    A method has been devised and demonstrated for producing in situ straining specimens for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) from specific locations in a sample using a dual-beam focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. The specimen is removed from a polished surface in the FIB using normal methods and then attached to a pre-fabricated substrate in the form of a modified TEM tensile specimen. In this manner, specific features of the microstructure of a polished optical mount can be selected for in situ tensile straining. With the use of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), this technique could be extended to select specific orientations of the specimen as well

  16. Quantitative X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roomans, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Qualitative X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens requires an approach that is somewhat different from that used in the materials sciences. The first step is deconvolution and background subtraction on the obtained spectrum. The further treatment depends on the type of specimen: thin, thick, or semithick. For thin sections, the continuum method of quantitation is most often used, but it should be combined with an accurate correction for extraneous background. However, alternative methods to determine local mass should also be considered. In the analysis of biological bulk specimens, the ZAF-correction method appears to be less useful, primarily because of the uneven surface of biological specimens. The peak-to-local background model may be a more adequate method for thick specimens that are not mounted on a thick substrate. Quantitative X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens generally requires the use of standards that preferably should resemble the specimen in chemical and physical properties. Special problems in biological microanalysis include low count rates, specimen instability and mass loss, extraneous contributions to the spectrum, and preparative artifacts affecting quantitation. A relatively recent development in X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens is the quantitative determination of local water content

  17. Drone Transport of Microbes in Blood and Sputum Laboratory Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Street, Jeff; Carroll, Karen; Miller, Heather; Zhang, Sean X

    2016-10-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) could potentially be used to transport microbiological specimens. To examine the impact of UAVs on microbiological specimens, blood and sputum culture specimens were seeded with usual pathogens and flown in a UAV for 30 ± 2 min. Times to recovery, colony counts, morphologies, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identifications of the flown and stationary specimens were similar for all microbes studied. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. A Debonded Sandwich Specimen Under Mixed Mode Bending (MMB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2008-01-01

    Face/core interface crack propagation in sandwich specimens is analyzed. A thorough analysis of the typical failure modes in sandwich composites was performed in order to design the MMB specimen to promote face/core debond fracture. Displacement, compliance and energy release rate expressions...... for the MMB specimen were derived from a superposition analysis. An experimental verification of the methodology proposed was performed using MMB sandwich specimens with H100 PVC foam core and E-glass/polyester non-crimp quadro-axial [0/45/90/-45]s DBLT-850 faces. Different mixed mode loadings were applied...

  19. TEM specimen preparation of semiconductor-PMMA-metal interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangadurai, P.; Lumelsky, Yulia; Silverstein, Michael S.; Kaplan, Wayne D.

    2008-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) cross-section specimens of PMMA in contact with gold and Si were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) and compared with plan-view PMMA specimens prepared by a dip-coating technique. The specimens were characterized by TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). In the cross-section specimens, the thin films of PMMA were located in a Si-PMMA-Au multilayer. Different thicknesses of PMMA films were spin-coated on the Si substrates. The thickness of the TEM specimens prepared by FIB was estimated using EELS to be 0.65 of the plasmon mean-free-path. Along the PMMA-Au interface, Au particle diffusion into the PMMA was observed, and the size of the Au particles was in the range of 2-4 nm. Dip-coating of PMMA directly on Cu TEM grids resulted in thin specimens with a granular morphology, with a thickness of 0.58 of the plasmon mean-free-path. The dip-coated specimens were free from ion milling induced artifacts, and thus serve as control specimens for comparison with the cross-sectioned specimens prepared by FIB

  20. Application of da Vinci surgical robotic system in hepatobiliary surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jiahai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of minimally invasive surgery has brought a revolutionary change to surgery techniques, and endoscopic surgical robots, especially Da Vinci robotic surgical system, has further broaden the scope of minimally invasive surgery, which has been applied in a variety of surgical fields including hepatobiliary surgery. Today, the application of Da Vinci surgical robot can cover most of the operations in hepatobiliary surgery which has proved to be safe and practical. What’s more, many clinical studies in recent years have showed that Da Vinci surgical system is superior to traditional laparoscopy. This paper summarize the advantage and disadvantage of Da Vinci surgical system, and outlines the current status of and future perspectives on the robot-assisted hepatobiliary surgery based on the cases reports in recent years of the application of Da Vinci surgical robot.

  1. Surgical versus non-surgical management for pleural empyema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redden, Mark D; Chin, Tze Yang; van Driel, Mieke L

    2017-03-17

    thoracotomy versus tube thoracostomy and VATS versus tube thoracostomy. We pooled data for meta-analysis where appropriate. We performed a subgroup analysis for children along with a sensitivity analysis for studies that used fibrinolysis in non-surgical treatment arms.The comparison of open thoracotomy versus thoracostomy drainage included only one study in children, which reported no deaths in either treatment arm. However, the trial showed a statistically significant reduction in mean hospital stay of 5.90 days for those treated with primary thoracotomy. It also showed a statistically significant reduction in procedural complications for those treated with thoracotomy compared to thoracostomy drainage. We downgraded the quality of the evidence for length of hospital stay and procedural complications outcomes to moderate due to the small sample size.The comparison of VATS versus thoracostomy drainage included seven studies, which we pooled in a meta-analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in mortality or procedural complications between groups. This was true for both adults and children with or without fibrinolysis. However, mortality data were limited: one study reported one death in each treatment arm, and seven studies reported no deaths. There was a statistically significant reduction in mean length of hospital stay for those treated with VATS. The subgroup analysis showed the same result in adults, but there was insufficient evidence to estimate an effect for children. We could not perform a separate analysis for fibrinolysis for this outcome because all included studies used fibrinolysis in the non-surgical arms. We downgraded the quality of the evidence to low for mortality (due to wide confidence intervals and indirectness), and moderate for other outcomes in this comparison due to either high heterogeneity or wide confidence intervals. Our findings suggest there is no statistically significant difference in mortality between primary surgical and

  2. A new contrast agent for radiological and dissection studies of the arterial network of anatomic specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, A; Casoli, C; Farace, F; Mazzarello, V; De Luca, L; Rubino, C; Montella, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to propose a new contrast agent that can be easily applied both to CT and dissection studies to replace lead oxide based formulas for comparative anatomical analyses of the vascularisation of cadaveric specimens. The infusion material was an epoxy resin, especially modified by the addition of barium sulphate to enhance its radiopacity. The final copolymer was toxicologically safe. To test the properties of the new material, several cadaveric limb injections were performed. The injected specimens were both CT scanned to perform 3D vascular reconstructions and dissected by anatomical planes. There was a perfect correspondence between the image studies and the dissections: even the smallest arteries on CT scan can be identified on the specimen and vice versa. The properties of the epoxy allowed an easy dissection of the vessels. The new imaging techniques available today, such as CT scan, can evaluate the vascular anatomy in high detail and 3D. This new contrast agent may help realising detailed vascular studies comparing CT scan results with anatomical dissections. Moreover, it may be useful for teaching surgical skills in the field of plastic surgery.

  3. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity with natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkova, P; Gunka, I; Zonca, P; Dostalik, J; Ihnat, P

    2015-01-01

    An experience with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy using the natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) technique. Bariatric surgery is nowadays the only long term effective obesity treatment method. Twenty one consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with the use of natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) in the Surgical Clinic of Faculty Hospital Ostrava between May 2012 and August 2012. Inclusion criteria were the body mass index (BMI) higher than 35 kg/m2 or higher than 32 kg/m2 accompanied with relevant comorbidities. Among 21 patients in this series, there were three men (14.3%) and 18 women (85.7%). Their mean age was 40.9±10.2 years. Their mean preoperative BMI was 40.4±4.6 kg/m2. No patient had previous bariatric surgery, one patient had laparoscopic fundoplication. All operations were completed laparoscopically with no conversions to an open procedure. In two cases, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and the gallbladder was extracted along with the gastric specimen by transgastric approach. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a safe and effective bariatric procedure with low morbidity and mortality. Based on our initial experiences it could be an indication for NOSE with transgastric approach. Obese patients would benefit from this approach due to the elimination of wound complications (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 22).

  4. Histopathological Study of Splenectomy Specimens with Correlation with Age, Sex, and Cause of Splenectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Hiral Patel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spleen is mysterious organ. It can be troublesome specimen for surgical pathologist due to discordance between patient’s clinical condition and perceived finding. The weight of spleen is about 150 grams and lies beneath 9th to 12th thoracic rib in healthy adult and between fundus of stomach & diaphragm. It composed of red pulp (76-79% and white pulp (5-20% which are separated by marginal zone. A total of 100 cases were studied at histopathology section of our laboratory during the period of January 2015 to December 2015. The specimens were received in 10% neutral buffer formalin with duly filled request form. All specimens were examined macroscopically. After routine processing the sections were stained with routine haematoxylin and eosin stain. The most common age group to be affected is 3rd decade (29%, next was 4th decade (23% with slightly male predominance. Male: female ratio is 1.3:1. Most common cause for splenectomy was portal hypertension (33% followed by trauma (15%. Most common microscopic finding is fibrocongestive splenomegaly (68% which is correlated with clinical and radiological finding. In adult Portal hypertension as a hepatic cause and in paediatric age group thalassemia is the most common indication for splenectomy.

  5. Improving the quality of colon cancer surgery through a surgical education program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Nicholas P; Sutton, Kate M; Ingeholm, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated the importance of dissection in the correct tissue plane for the resection of colon cancer. We have previously shown that meticulous mesocolic plane surgery yields better outcomes and that the addition of central vascular ligation produces an oncologically superio...... specimen compared with standard techniques. We aimed to assess the effect of surgical education on the oncological quality of the resection specimen produced....

  6. [da Vinci surgical system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Gou; Ishikawa, Norihiro

    2014-07-01

    The da Vinci surgical system was developed by Intuitive Surgical Inc. in the United States as an endoscopic surgical device to assist remote control surgeries. In 1998, the Da Vinci system was first used for cardiothoracic procedures. Currently a combination of robot-assisted internal thoracic artery harvest together with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) through a mini-incision (ThoraCAB) or totally endoscopic procedures including anastomoses under robotic assistance (TECAB) are being conducted for the treatment of coronary artery diseases. With the recent advances in catheter interventions, hybrid procedures combining catheter intervention with ThoraCAB or TECAB are anticipated in the future.On the other hand, with the decrease in number of coronary artery bypass surgeries, the share of valvular surgeries is expected to increase in the future. Among them, mitral valvuloplasty for mitral regurgitation is anticipated to be conducted mainly by low-invasive procedures, represented by minimally invasive cardiac surgery( MICS) and robot-assisted surgery. Apart from the intrinsic good surgical view, robotic-assisted systems offer additional advantages of the availability of an amplified view and the easy to observe the mitral valve in the physiological position. Thus, robotic surgical surgeries that make complicated procedures easier are expected to accomplish further developments in the future. Furthermore, while the number of surgeries for atrial septal defects has decreased dramatically following the widespread use of Amplatzer septal occluder, robotic surgery may become a good indication for cases in which the Amplatzer device is not indicated. In Japan, clinical trial of the da Vinci robotic system for heart surgeries has been completed. Statutory approval of the da Vinci system for mitral regurgitation and atrial septal defects is anticipated in the next few years.

  7. Lung beta-adrenoceptors in pulmonary hypertension. A study of biopsy specimens in children with congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, A.A.; Liberato, M.H.; Brentani, M.M.; Aiello, V.D.; Riso, A.A.; Ebaid, M.

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of beta-adrenoceptors were analyzed using radioligand-binding techniques with 3H-dihydroalprenolol in lung specimens from 11 children with pulmonary hypertension (median age, three years) undergoing surgical repair of congenital heart defects and four pediatric control subjects (median age, five years) undergoing thoracotomy for removal of neoplasms or cysts. Scatchard analysis of 3H-DHA binding to lung membranes showed similar values of the dissociation constant in both groups (Kd = 0.72 +/- 0.22 nM in patients vs 1.22 +/- 0.22 nM in controls; p = NS). The receptor density was significantly increased in patients in comparison with controls, with respective values of 164 +/- 19 and 95 +/- 13 fmol/mg of protein (p less than 0.025), and correlated directly with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (r = 0.82; p less than 0.0005). No significant relationship was observed between receptor number and pulmonary arterial medial thickness. Thus, the increase in receptor density in these patients may be related to adaptative changes in cells other than vascular smooth muscle

  8. Significance of microscopic extention from 1162 esophageal carcinoma specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Zhu Shuchai; Han Chun; Zhang Xin; Xiao Aiqin; Ma Guoxin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the subclinical microscopic tumor extention along the long axis in 1162 specimens of esophageal carcinoma so as to help define the clinical target volume(CTV) according to the degree of microscopic extention(ME) for radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. Methods: 1162 resected esophageal carcinoma specimens originally located in the neck and thorax were studied with special reference to the correlation between upper and lower resection length from the tumor and positive microscopic margin. Another 52 resected esophageal carcinoma specimens were made into pathological giant sections: the actual resection length of upper and para-esophageal normal tissues was compared with that of the lower nor- mal tissues from the tumor, there by, the ratio of shrinkage was obtained and compared. Results: After fixation, microscopic positive margin ratio of the upper resection border in length ≤0.5 cm group was higher than that in length > 0.5 cm group (16.4% vs 4.1%, P=0.000). Microscopic positive margin ratio of the lower resection border in length ≤1.5 cm group was higher than that in length > 1.5 cm group( 8.1% vs 0.4%, P = 0.000). This showed that the positive margin ratio of the upper border was higher than that of the lower border in resection length > 1.5 cm group(3.5% vs 0.4%, P=0. 000). The actual length of upper and lower normal esophageal tissue after having been made into pathological giant sections in 52 patients, was 30% ± 14% and 44% ± 19% of that measured in the operation. Conclusions: Considering the shrinkage of the normal esophagus during fixation, a CTV margin of 2.0 cm along the upper long axis and 3.5 cm along the lower long axis should be chosen for radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma, according to the ratio of shrinkage. Ascending invasion proportion is higher than the descending invasion in that tumor. (authors)

  9. Disc degeneration: current surgical options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Schizas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain attributed to lumbar disc degeneration poses a serious challenge to physicians. Surgery may be indicated in selected cases following failure of appropriate conservative treatment. For decades, the only surgical option has been spinal fusion, but its results have been inconsistent. Some prospective trials show superiority over usual conservative measures while others fail to demonstrate its advantages. In an effort to improve results of fusion and to decrease the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, total disc replacement techniques have been introduced and studied extensively. Short-term results have shown superiority over some fusion techniques. Mid-term results however tend to show that this approach yields results equivalent to those of spinal fusion. Nucleus replacement has gained some popularity initially, but evidence on its efficacy is scarce. Dynamic stabilisation, a technique involving less rigid implants than in spinal fusion and performed without the need for bone grafting, represents another surgical option. Evidence again is lacking on its superiority over other surgical strategies and conservative measures. Insertion of interspinous devices posteriorly, aiming at redistributing loads and relieving pain, has been used as an adjunct to disc removal surgery for disc herniation. To date however, there is no clear evidence on their efficacy. Minimally invasive intradiscal thermocoagulation techniques have also been tried, but evidence of their effectiveness is questioned. Surgery using novel biological solutions may be the future of discogenic pain treatment. Collaboration between clinicians and basic scientists in this multidisciplinary field will undoubtedly shape the future of treating symptomatic disc degeneration.

  10. Advances in surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qingqiang; Yun, Lin; Roy, Manish; Shang, Dong

    2015-02-08

    The incidence of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is between 2 and 200 per 100,000 persons and shows an increasing trend year by year. India has the highest incidence of CP in the world at approximately 114 to 200 per 100,000 persons. The incidence of CP in China is approximately 13 per 100,000 persons. The aim of this review is to assist surgeons in managing patients with CP in surgical treatment. We conducted a PubMed search for "chronic pancreatitis" and "surgical treatment" and reviewed relevant articles. On the basis of our review of the literature, we found that CP cannot be completely cured. The purpose of surgical therapy for CP is to relieve symptoms, especially pain; to improve the patient's quality of life; and to treat complications. Decompression (drainage), resection, neuroablation and decompression combined with resection are commonly used methods for the surgical treatment of CP. Before developing a surgical regimen, surgeons should comprehensively evaluate the patient's clinical manifestations, auxiliary examination results and medical history to develop an individualized surgical treatment regimen.

  11. Application of subsize specimens in nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Kumar, A.S.; Cannon, N.S.; Hamilton, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is sponsoring a research effort through Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Missouri-Rolla to test a correlation for the upper shelf energy (USE) values obtained from the impact testing of subsize Charpy V-notch specimens to those obtained from the testing of full-size samples. The program involves the impact testing of unirradiated and irradiated full-, half-, and third-size Charpy V-notch specimens. To verify the applicability of the correlation on LWR materials, unirradiated and irradiated full-, half-, and third-size Charpy V-notch specimens of a commercial pressure vessel steel (ASTM A533 Grade B) will be tested. The correlation methodology is based on the partitioning of the USE into crack initiation and crack propagation energies. To accomplish this partition, both precracked and notched-only specimens will be used. Whereas the USE of notched-only specimens is the sum of both crack initiation and crack propagation energies, the USE of precracked specimens reflects only the crack propagation component. The difference in the USE of the two types of specimens represents a measure of the crack initiation energy. Normalizing the values of the crack initiation energy to the fracture volume of the sample produces similar values for the full-, half-, and third-size specimens. In addition, the ratios of the USE and the crack propagation energy are also in agreement for full-, half-, and third-size specimens. These two observations will be used to predict the USE of full-size specimens based on subsize USE data. This paper provides details of the program and presents results obtained from the application of the developed correlation methodology to the impact testing of the unirradiated full-, half-, and third-size A533 Grade B Charpy V-notch specimens

  12. Introducing 3-Dimensional Printing of a Human Anatomic Pathology Specimen: Potential Benefits for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Education and Anatomic Pathology Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Amr; Bennett, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing, a rapidly advancing technology, is widely applied in fields such as mechanical engineering and architecture. Three-dimensional printing has been introduced recently into medical practice in areas such as reconstructive surgery, as well as in clinical research. Three-dimensionally printed models of anatomic and autopsy pathology specimens can be used for demonstrating pathology entities to undergraduate medical, dental, and biomedical students, as well as for postgraduate training in examination of gross specimens for anatomic pathology residents and pathology assistants, aiding clinicopathological correlation at multidisciplinary team meetings, and guiding reconstructive surgical procedures. To apply 3D printing in anatomic pathology for teaching, training, and clinical correlation purposes. Multicolored 3D printing of human anatomic pathology specimens was achieved using a ZCorp 510 3D printer (3D Systems, Rock Hill, South Carolina) following creation of a 3D model using Autodesk 123D Catch software (Autodesk, Inc, San Francisco, California). Three-dimensionally printed models of anatomic pathology specimens created included pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple operation) and radical nephrectomy specimens. The models accurately depicted the topographic anatomy of selected specimens and illustrated the anatomic relation of excised lesions to adjacent normal tissues. Three-dimensional printing of human anatomic pathology specimens is achievable. Advances in 3D printing technology may further improve the quality of 3D printable anatomic pathology specimens.

  13. Comparison of fastsure tb dna and mgit 960 for the detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in clinical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Mirza, I.A.; Abbasi, S.A.; Ali, S.; Zia, F.; Ahmed, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of Fastsure TB DNA with fully automated MGIT 960 method for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) in clinical specimens. Study Design: Comparative cross sectional study. Methodology: After decontamination procedure, the clinical specimens were subjected to DNA extraction and amplification. Extracted DNA was separated in a separate tube provided with fastsure TB DNA kit and was then inserted into the cartridge provided and results were observed within 30 minutes. For Processing in MGIT 960, OADC and PANTA were added to the clinical specimens after decontamination and then the tubes were processed in MGIT 960. Results: A total of 80 specimens were tested by both MGIT 960 and fastsure TB DNA. On MGIT 960 system, 57 specimens showed growth of MTB while 23 were negative. On Fastsure TB DNA, 47 Specimens were tested as positive and 33 specimens showed negative result. Sensitivity and specificity of Fastsure TB DNA method was calculated to be 82.45 % and 100 % respectively, while positive and negative predictive values were 100 % and 69.69 % respectively. Conclusion: Fast sure TB DNA is a rapid and accurate method for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) from clinical specimens. (author)

  14. Bacteriological aspects implicated in abdominal surgical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israil, A M; Delcaru, C; Palade, R S; Chifiriuc, C; Iordache, C; Vasile, D; Grigoriu, M; Voiculescu, D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish the microbial etiology of abdominal surgical emergencies as well as the relationship between the bacterial etiology and the virulence factors produced by the respective isolated strains. 110 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 randomized clinical cases, operated during 2009-2010 in the First Surgical Clinic of the University Hospital of Bucharest. The clinical cases (sex ratio 52 M/48F aged between 22-85 years old) were classified into three risk groups, as related to their severity. The isolated strains were characterized by cultural, microscopic and biochemical methods. After identification, the bacterial strains were investigated for their virulence potential (adherence to abiotic surface and production of soluble virulence factors). The specimens were collected from different clinical pathologies: diffuse acute peritonitis, biliary duct infections, severe acute pancreatitis followed by septic processes etc. The 110 bacterial (72 aerobic and 38 anaerobic) strains were isolated only in 70 out of 100 cases. Out of these 70 cases, in 45 already submitted to pre-operatory empiric broad spectrum antibiotic therapy, there were isolated 74 strains, whereas in 25 cases without any treatment, there were isolated 36 strains. The etiology was either mono-specific or multi-specific (aerobic-anaerobic associations, especially in old persons). Out of the 30 negative culture cases, 16 were already submitted to pre-operatory parenteral empiric antibiotic therapy at the moment of specimen collection. The aerobic etiology was dominated by Enterobacteriaceae. The most frequent anaerobic species belonged to Clostridium, Peptococcus and Bacteroides genera. It is to be mentioned that the isolation of Bifidobacterium and Veillonella spp. in 11 (10%) severe cases of the studied abdominal surgical emergencies is pleading for the fact that in certain conditions, bacteria belonging usually to commensal gut flora can turn to pathogenic

  15. Paediatric Abdominal Surgical Emergencies in a General Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... organized for general surgeons undertaking paediatric surgical emergencies. More paediatric surgeons should be trained and more paediatric surgical units should established in the country. Key Words: Paediatric Abdominal Surgical Emergencies; Paediatric Surgeons, General Surgeons. Journal of College of Medicine ...

  16. [Specificity of the anaerobic bacterial infections in the surgical and orthopedic wards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierzkowska, Marta; Majewska, Anna; Sawicka-Grzelak, Anna; Młynarczyk, Andrzej; Ładomirska-Pestkowska, Katarzvna; Młynarczyk, Grazyna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution strictly anaerobic bacteria in the etiology of infections in patients on surgery and orthopedic wards. We examined 159 samples taken from patients hospitalized in surgical wards and 179 clinical specimens taken from orthopedic patients. Clinical strains of obligate anaerobes were identified by API 20A biochemical tests (ATB Expression, bioMerieux S.A., France). Susceptibility of the clinical strains was examined by ATB ANA (bioMerieux S.A., France) system. The MIC values were determined by the gradient diffusion method, Etest (AB BIODISK, Sweden i bioMerieux S.A., France). Gram-negative bacteria predominant in the samples taken from surgical patients, Most frequently we isolated rods of the genus Bacteroides (26%): B. fragilis, B. ovatus/B. thetaiotaomicron, and B. distasonis. In 44 samples (28%) we identified only anaerobic bacteria. Multibacterial isolations, with the participation of anaerobic and aerobic flora, dominated among patients in the study. Overall 238 strictly anaerobic bacteria were cultured from patients hospitalized in orthopedic wards. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 78%. The most frequently were isolated Peptostreptococcus (56%), Propionibacterium (10%) species. In this study all Bacteroides strains were resistant to penicillin G. Some species were resistant to clindamycin, as well. Overall 40% of Bacteroides strains taken from surgical and 50% isolated from orthopedic wards showed no sensitivity to this antibiotic. A similar phenomenon was observed among bacteria of the genus Prevotella. In samples taken from orthopedic patients we observed the predominance of Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. Some of them were part of the normal flora but they should not be excluded as an etiology agents of infection. The specimens taken from patients treated in surgical wards showed the presence of a mixed microflora, which included aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, primarily Gram-negative rods

  17. 46 CFR 57.06-4 - Production testing specimen requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WELDING AND BRAZING Production Tests § 57.06-4 Production testing specimen requirements. (a) For test... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production testing specimen requirements. 57.06-4... to welding shall not throw the finished test plate out of line by an angle of over 5°. (c) Where the...

  18. Structural analysis of 177-FA redesigned surveillance specimen holder tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, C.W.; Thoren, D.E.; Vames, G.J.; Harris, R.J.

    1976-08-01

    Because of in-service operational problems, the surveillance specimen holder tubes described in B and W topical report BAW-10051 have been redesigned. This report describes the new design and structural analysis for normal operation and upset loading conditions. The results of the analysis demonstrate the adequacy of the new surveillance specimen holder tubes for their design life of 40 years

  19. Feasibility Study of Laser Cutting for Fabrication of Tensile Specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y. G.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B.

    2015-01-01

    The specimen fabrication technique was established to machine the specimen from the irradiated materials. The wire cut EDM(electric discharge machine) was modified to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from irradiated components and fuel claddings. The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated components and claddings interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, zirconium oxide is protective against further corrosion as well as beneficial to mechanical strength for the tensile deformation of the cladding. Thus, it is important to fabricate the irradiated specimens without removal of oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated structural components and claddings. In the present study, laser cutting system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the feasibility of the laser cutting system was studied for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser beam machining system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the dimensions were compared for the feasibility of the laser cutting system. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer

  20. Feasibility Study of Laser Cutting for Fabrication of Tensile Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y. G.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The specimen fabrication technique was established to machine the specimen from the irradiated materials. The wire cut EDM(electric discharge machine) was modified to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from irradiated components and fuel claddings. The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated components and claddings interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, zirconium oxide is protective against further corrosion as well as beneficial to mechanical strength for the tensile deformation of the cladding. Thus, it is important to fabricate the irradiated specimens without removal of oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated structural components and claddings. In the present study, laser cutting system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the feasibility of the laser cutting system was studied for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser beam machining system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the dimensions were compared for the feasibility of the laser cutting system. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer.

  1. Design Analysis of the Mixed Mode Bending Sandwich Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2010-01-01

    A design analysis of the mixed mode bending (MMB) sandwich specimen for face–core interface fracture characterization is presented. An analysis of the competing failure modes in the foam cored sandwich specimens is performed in order to achieve face–core debond fracture prior to other failure modes...... for the chosen geometries and mixed mode loading conditions....

  2. Blood specimen labelling errors: Implications for nephrology nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duteau, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is the foundation of high-quality health care, as recognized both nationally and worldwide. Patient blood specimen identification is critical in ensuring the delivery of safe and appropriate care. The practice of nephrology nursing involves frequent patient blood specimen withdrawals to treat and monitor kidney disease. A critical review of the literature reveals that incorrect patient identification is one of the major causes of blood specimen labelling errors. Misidentified samples create a serious risk to patient safety leading to multiple specimen withdrawals, delay in diagnosis, misdiagnosis, incorrect treatment, transfusion reactions, increased length of stay and other negative patient outcomes. Barcode technology has been identified as a preferred method for positive patient identification leading to a definitive decrease in blood specimen labelling errors by as much as 83% (Askeland, et al., 2008). The use of a root cause analysis followed by an action plan is one approach to decreasing the occurrence of blood specimen labelling errors. This article will present a review of the evidence-based literature surrounding blood specimen labelling errors, followed by author recommendations for completing a root cause analysis and action plan. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) will be presented as one method to determine root cause, followed by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU) as a framework for implementation of strategies to reduce blood specimen labelling errors.

  3. On a specimen of Lumbricus terrestris, L. with bifurcated tail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1886-01-01

    In the last number of the »Annals and Magazine of Nat. History” (Dec. 1885), I find a notice of Prof. Jeffrey Bell about two Lumbrici with bifid hinder ends, one specimen belonging to L. terrestris, the other to L. foetidus; moreover he mentions a specimen, presenting a similar remarquable

  4. A cylindrical specimen holder for electron cryo-tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Colin M.; Löwe, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The use of slab-like flat specimens for electron cryo-tomography restricts the range of viewing angles that can be used. This leads to the “missing wedge” problem, which causes artefacts and anisotropic resolution in reconstructed tomograms. Cylindrical specimens provide a way to eliminate the problem, since they allow imaging from a full range of viewing angles around the tilt axis. Such specimens have been used before for tomography of radiation-insensitive samples at room temperature, but never for frozen-hydrated specimens. Here, we demonstrate the use of thin-walled carbon tubes as specimen holders, allowing the preparation of cylindrical frozen-hydrated samples of ribosomes, liposomes and whole bacterial cells. Images acquired from these cylinders have equal quality at all viewing angles, and the accessible tilt range is restricted only by the physical limits of the microscope. Tomographic reconstructions of these specimens demonstrate that the effects of the missing wedge are substantially reduced, and could be completely eliminated if a full tilt range was used. The overall quality of these tomograms is still lower than that obtained by existing methods, but improvements are likely in future. - Highlights: • The missing wedge is a serious problem for electron cryo-tomography. • Cylindrical specimens allow the missing wedge to be eliminated. • Carbon nanopipettes can be used as cylindrical holders for tomography of frozen-hydrated specimens. • Cryo-tomography of cylindrical biological samples demonstrates a reduction of deleterious effects associated with the missing wedge

  5. Thermal Cycling of Uranium Dioxide - Tungsten Cermet Fuel Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gripshover, P.J.; Peterson, J.H.

    1969-12-08

    In phase I tungsten clad cermet fuel specimens were thermal cycled, to study the effects of fuel loading, fuel particle size, stablized fuel, duplex coatings, and fabrication techniques on dimensional stability during thermal cycling. In phase II the best combination of the factors studies in phase I were combined in one specimen for evaluation.

  6. Diagnostic Efficiency in Digital Pathology: A Comparison of Optical Versus Digital Assessment in 510 Surgical Pathology Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Anne M; Gradecki, Sarah E; Horton, Bethany J; Blackwell, Rebecca; Moskaluk, Christopher A; Mandell, James W; Mills, Stacey E; Cathro, Helen P

    2018-01-01

    Prior work has shown that digital images and microscopic slides can be interpreted with comparable diagnostic accuracy. Although accuracy has been well-validated, the interpretative time for digital images has scarcely been studied and concerns about efficiency remain a major barrier to adoption. We investigated the efficiency of digital pathology when compared with glass slide interpretation in the diagnosis of surgical pathology biopsy and resection specimens. Slides were pulled from 510 surgical pathology cases from 5 organ systems (gastrointestinal, gynecologic, liver, bladder, and brain). Original diagnoses were independently confirmed by 2 validating pathologists. Diagnostic slides were scanned using the Philips IntelliSite Pathology Solution. Each case was assessed independently on digital and optical by 3 reading pathologists, with a ≥6 week washout period between modalities. Reading pathologists recorded assessment times for each modality; digital times included time to load the case. Diagnostic accuracy was determined based on whether a rendered diagnosis differed significantly from the original diagnosis. Statistical analysis was performed to assess for differences in interpretative times across modalities. All 3 reading pathologists showed comparable diagnostic accuracy across optical and digital modalities (mean major discordance rates with original diagnosis: 4.8% vs. 4.4%, respectively). Mean assessment times ranged from 1.2 to 9.1 seconds slower on digital versus optical. The slowest reader showed a significant learning effect during the course of the study so that digital assessment times decreased over time and were comparable with optical times by the end of the series. Organ site and specimen type did not significantly influence differences in interpretative times. In summary, digital image reading times compare favorably relative to glass slides across a variety of organ systems and specimen types. Mean increase in assessment time is 4

  7. Surgical camps: the Ugandan experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The planned visits were advertised locally and in the national media. Screening of the patients was done first by the local medical teams and later by the visiting surgical teams. The surgical teams were comprised of the following personnel:.

  8. Radical prostatectomy and positive surgical margins: tumor volume and Gleason score predicts cancer outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Roca, Ricardo L.R. Felts de; Fonseca, Francisco Paula da; Cunha, Isabela Werneck da; Bezerra, Stephania Martins

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: positive surgical margins (PSMs) are common adverse factors to predict the outcome of a patient submitted to radical prostatectomy (PR). However, not all of these men will follow with biochemical (BCR) or clinical (CR) recurrence. Relationship between PSMs with these recurrent events has to be correlated with other clinicopathological findings in order to recognize more aggressive tumors in order to recommend complementary treatment to these selected patients. Materials and methods: we retrospectively reviewed the outcome of 228 patients submitted to open retropubic RP between March 1991 and June 2008, where 161 had and 67 did not have PSMs. Minimum follow-up time was considered 2 years after surgery. BCR was considered when PSA ≥ 0.2 ng/ml. CR was determined when clinical evidence of tumor appeared. Chi-square test was used to correlate clinical and pathologic variables with PSMs. The estimated 5-year risk of BCR and CR in presence of PSMs was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared to log-rank tests. Results: from the total of 228 patients, 161 (71%) had PSMs, while 67 (29%) had negative surgical margins (NSMs). Prostatic circumferential margin was the most common (43.4%) site. Univariate analysis showed statistically significant (p < 0.001) associations between the presence of PSMs and BCR, but not with CR (p = 0.06). Among 161 patients with PSMs, 61 (37.8%) presented BCR, while 100 (62.8%) did not. Predicting progression-free survival for 5 years, BCR was correlated with pathological stage; Gleason score; pre-treatment PSA; tumor volume in specimen; capsular and perineural invasion; presence and number of PSMs. RC correlated only with angiolymphatic invasion and Gleason score. Considering univariate analyses the clinicopathological factors predicting BCR for 5 years, results statistically significant links with prostate weight; pre-treatment PSA; Gleason score; pathological stage; tumor volume; PSMs; capsular and perineural

  9. Radical prostatectomy and positive surgical margins: tumor volume and Gleason score predicts cancer outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Roca, Ricardo L.R. Felts de, E-mail: Ricardo@delarocaurologia.com.br [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Francisco Paula da, E-mail: fpf@uol.com.br [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Urologia. Dept. de Cirurgia Pelvica; Cunha, Isabela Werneck da; Bezerra, Stephania Martins, E-mail: iwerneck@gmail.com, E-mail: stephaniab@gmail.com [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: positive surgical margins (PSMs) are common adverse factors to predict the outcome of a patient submitted to radical prostatectomy (PR). However, not all of these men will follow with biochemical (BCR) or clinical (CR) recurrence. Relationship between PSMs with these recurrent events has to be correlated with other clinicopathological findings in order to recognize more aggressive tumors in order to recommend complementary treatment to these selected patients. Materials and methods: we retrospectively reviewed the outcome of 228 patients submitted to open retropubic RP between March 1991 and June 2008, where 161 had and 67 did not have PSMs. Minimum follow-up time was considered 2 years after surgery. BCR was considered when PSA {>=} 0.2 ng/ml. CR was determined when clinical evidence of tumor appeared. Chi-square test was used to correlate clinical and pathologic variables with PSMs. The estimated 5-year risk of BCR and CR in presence of PSMs was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared to log-rank tests. Results: from the total of 228 patients, 161 (71%) had PSMs, while 67 (29%) had negative surgical margins (NSMs). Prostatic circumferential margin was the most common (43.4%) site. Univariate analysis showed statistically significant (p < 0.001) associations between the presence of PSMs and BCR, but not with CR (p = 0.06). Among 161 patients with PSMs, 61 (37.8%) presented BCR, while 100 (62.8%) did not. Predicting progression-free survival for 5 years, BCR was correlated with pathological stage; Gleason score; pre-treatment PSA; tumor volume in specimen; capsular and perineural invasion; presence and number of PSMs. RC correlated only with angiolymphatic invasion and Gleason score. Considering univariate analyses the clinicopathological factors predicting BCR for 5 years, results statistically significant links with prostate weight; pre-treatment PSA; Gleason score; pathological stage; tumor volume; PSMs; capsular and perineural

  10. Improving surgical weekend handover

    OpenAIRE

    Culwick, Caroline; Devine, Chris; Coombs, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Effective handovers are vital to patient safety and continuity of care, and this is recognised by several national bodies including the GMC. The existing model at Great Western Hospital (GWH) involved three general surgical teams and a urology team placing their printed patient lists, complete with weekend jobs, in a folder for the on-call team to collect at the weekend. We recognised a need to reduce time searching for patients, jobs and reviews, and to streamline weekend ward rounds. A unif...

  11. Acquiring minimally invasive surgical skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hiemstra, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Many topics in surgical skills education have been implemented without a solid scientific basis. For that reason we have tried to find this scientific basis. We have focused on training and evaluation of minimally invasive surgical skills in a training setting and in practice in the operating room. This thesis has led to an enlarged insight in the organization of surgical skills training during residency training of surgical medical specialists.

  12. Robotic surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Or, Sharon; Nifong, L Wiley; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2013-01-01

    In July 2000, the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc) received Food and Drug Administration approval for intracardiac applications, and the first mitral valve repair was done at the East Carolina Heart Institute in May 2000. The system is now approved and used in many surgical specialties. With this disruptive technology and accepted use, surgeons and hospitals are seeking the most efficacious training pathway leading to safe use and responsible credentialing.One of the most important issues related to safe use is assembling the appropriate team of professionals involved with patient care. Moreover, proper patient selection and setting obtainable goals are also important.Creation and maintenance of a successful program are discussed in the article focusing on realistic goals. This begins with a partnership between surgeon leaders, hospital administrators, and industry support. Through this partnership, an appropriate training pathway and clinical pathway for success can be outlined. A timeline can then be created with periods of data analysis and adjustments as necessary. A successful program is attainable by following this pathway and attending to every detail along the journey.

  13. Surgical experts: born or made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadideen, Hazim; Alvand, Abtin; Saadeddin, Munir; Kneebone, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The concept of surgical expertise and the processes involved in its development are topical, and there is a constant drive to identify reliable measures of expert performance in surgery. This review explores the notion of whether surgical experts are "born" or "made", with reference to educational theory and pertinent literature. Peer-reviewed publications, books, and online resources on surgical education, expertise and training were reviewed. Important themes and aspects of expertise acquisition were identified in order to better understand the concept of a surgical expert. The definition of surgical expertise and several important aspects of its development are highlighted. Innate talent plays an important role, but is insufficient on its own to produce a surgical expert. Multiple theories that explore motor skill acquisition and memory are relevant, and Ericsson's theory of the development of competence followed by deliberate self-practice has been especially influential. Psychomotor and non-technical skills are necessary for progression in the current climate in light of our training curricula; surgical experts are adaptive experts who excel in these. The literature suggests that surgical expertise is reached through practice; surgical experts are made, not born. A deeper understanding of the nature of expert performance and its development will ensure that surgical education training programmes are of the highest possible quality. Surgical educators should aim to develop an expertise-based approach, with expert performance as the benchmark. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Surgical navigation with QR codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katanacho Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented work is an alternative to established measurement systems in surgical navigation. The system is based on camera based tracking of QR code markers. The application uses a single video camera, integrated in a surgical lamp, that captures the QR markers attached to surgical instruments and to the patient.

  15. Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research is a publication of the Surgical Research Society with main office in Zaria, Nigeria. Zaria is home to Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), a premier university in Nigeria. The aim of The Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research is to cover developments and advances in the broad field of ...

  16. Work domain constraints for modelling surgical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morineau, Thierry; Riffaud, Laurent; Morandi, Xavier; Villain, Jonathan; Jannin, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Three main approaches can be identified for modelling surgical performance: a competency-based approach, a task-based approach, both largely explored in the literature, and a less known work domain-based approach. The work domain-based approach first describes the work domain properties that constrain the agent's actions and shape the performance. This paper presents a work domain-based approach for modelling performance during cervical spine surgery, based on the idea that anatomical structures delineate the surgical performance. This model was evaluated through an analysis of junior and senior surgeons' actions. Twenty-four cervical spine surgeries performed by two junior and two senior surgeons were recorded in real time by an expert surgeon. According to a work domain-based model describing an optimal progression through anatomical structures, the degree of adjustment of each surgical procedure to a statistical polynomial function was assessed. Each surgical procedure showed a significant suitability with the model and regression coefficient values around 0.9. However, the surgeries performed by senior surgeons fitted this model significantly better than those performed by junior surgeons. Analysis of the relative frequencies of actions on anatomical structures showed that some specific anatomical structures discriminate senior from junior performances. The work domain-based modelling approach can provide an overall statistical indicator of surgical performance, but in particular, it can highlight specific points of interest among anatomical structures that the surgeons dwelled on according to their level of expertise.

  17. Enzymatic detection of formalin-fixed museum specimens for DNA analysis and enzymatic maceration of formalin-fixed specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Margrethe; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2016-01-01

    % ethanol. The method was subsequently tested on wild-living preserved specimens and an archived specimen. The protease enzyme used was SavinaseH 16 L, Type EX from Novozymes A/S. The enzymatic screening test demands only simple laboratory equipment. The method is useful for natural history collections...

  18. Ex vivo MRI evaluation of prostate cancer: Localization and margin status prediction of prostate cancer in fresh radical prostatectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidkamp, Jan; Hoogenboom, Martijn; Kovacs, Iringo E; Veltien, Andor; Maat, Arie; Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A; Fütterer, Jurgen J

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the ability of high field ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to localize prostate cancer (PCa) and to predict the margin status in fresh radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens using histology as the reference standard. This Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved study had written informed consent. Patients with biopsy-proved PCa and a diagnostic multiparametric 3T MRI examination of the prostate prior to undergoing RP were prospectively included. A custom-made container provided reference between the 7T ex vivo MRI obtained from fresh RP specimens and histological slicing. On ex vivo MRI, PCa was localized and the presence of positive surgical margins was determined in a double-reading session. These findings were compared with histological findings obtained from completely cut, whole-mount embedded, prostate specimens. In 12 RP specimens, histopathology revealed 36 PCa lesions, of which 17 (47%) and 20 (56%) were correlated with the ex vivo MRI in the first and second reading session, respectively. Nine of 12 (75%) index lesions were localized in the first session, in the second 10 of 12 (83%). Seven and 8 lesions of 11 lesions with Gleason score >6 and >0.5 cc were localized in the first and second session, respectively. In the first session none of the four histologically positive surgical margins (sensitivity 0%) and 9 of 13 negative margins (specificity 69%) were detected. In second session the sensitivity and specificity were 25% and 88%, respectively. Ex vivo MRI enabled accurate localization of PCa in fresh RP specimens, and the technique provided information on the margin status with high specificity. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:439-448. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. The Effect of Specimen Size on the Results of Concrete Adiabatic Temperature Rise Test with Commercially Available Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Jae Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, adiabatic temperature rise tests depending on binder type and adiabatic specimen volume were performed, and the maximum adiabatic temperature rises and the reaction factors for each mix proportion were analyzed and suggested. The results indicated that the early strength low heat blended cement mixture had the lowest maximum adiabatic temperature rise (Q∞ and the ternary blended cement mixture had the lowest reaction factor (r. Also, Q and r varied depending on the adiabatic specimen volume even when the tests were conducted with a calorimeter, which satisfies the recommendations for adiabatic conditions. Test results show a correlation: the measurements from the 50 L specimens were consistently higher than those from the 6 L specimens. However, the Q∞ and r values of the 30 L specimen were similar to those of the 50 L specimen. Based on the above correlation, the adiabatic temperature rise of the 50 L specimen could be predicted using the results of the 6 L and 30 L specimens. Therefore, it is thought that this correlation can be used for on-site concrete quality control and basic research.

  20. The Effect of Specimen Size on the Results of Concrete Adiabatic Temperature Rise Test with Commercially Available Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Jae; Bang, Jin Wook; Shin, Kyung Joon; Kim, Yun Yong

    2014-12-08

    In this study, adiabatic temperature rise tests depending on binder type and adiabatic specimen volume were performed, and the maximum adiabatic temperature rises and the reaction factors for each mix proportion were analyzed and suggested. The results indicated that the early strength low heat blended cement mixture had the lowest maximum adiabatic temperature rise ( Q ∞ ) and the ternary blended cement mixture had the lowest reaction factor ( r ). Also, Q and r varied depending on the adiabatic specimen volume even when the tests were conducted with a calorimeter, which satisfies the recommendations for adiabatic conditions. Test results show a correlation: the measurements from the 50 L specimens were consistently higher than those from the 6 L specimens. However, the Q ∞ and r values of the 30 L specimen were similar to those of the 50 L specimen. Based on the above correlation, the adiabatic temperature rise of the 50 L specimen could be predicted using the results of the 6 L and 30 L specimens. Therefore, it is thought that this correlation can be used for on-site concrete quality control and basic research.

  1. Surgical resection of late solitary locoregional gastric cancer recurrence in stomach bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanori; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Maejima, Kentaro; Komine, Osamu; Mizutani, Satoshi; Yoshino, Masanori; Bo, Hideki; Kitayama, Yasuhiko; Uchida, Eiji

    2012-07-01

    Late-onset and solitary recurrence of gastric signet ring cell (SRC) carcinoma is rare. We report a successful surgical resection of late solitary locoregional recurrence after curative gastrectomy for gastric SRC carcinoma. The patient underwent total gastrectomy for advanced gastric carcinoma at age 52. Seven years after the primary operation, he visited us again with sudden onset of abdominal pain and vomiting. We finally decided to perform an operation, based on a diagnosis of colon obstruction due to the recurrence of gastric cancer by clinical findings and instrumental examinations. The laparotomic intra-abdominal findings showed that the recurrent tumor existed in the region surrounded by the left diaphragm, colon of splenic flexure, and pancreas tail. There was no evidence of peritoneal dissemination, and peritoneal lavage fluid cytology was negative. We performed complete resection of the recurrent tumor with partial colectomy, distal pancreatectomy, and partial diaphragmectomy. Histological examination of the resected specimen revealed SRC carcinoma, identical in appearance to the previously resected gastric cancer. We confirmed that the intra-abdominal tumor was a locoregional gastric cancer recurrence in the stomach bed. The patient showed a long-term survival of 27 months after the second operation. In the absence of effective alternative treatment for recurrent gastric carcinoma, surgical options should be pursued, especially for late and solitary recurrence.

  2. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  3. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  4. Synchrotron radiation microprobe quantitative analysis method for biomedical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qing; Shao Hanru

    1994-01-01

    Relative changes of trace elemental content in biomedical specimens are obtained easily by means of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis (SXRFM). However, the accurate assignment of concentration on a g/g basis is difficult. Because it is necessary to know both the trace elemental content and the specimen mass in the irradiated volume simultaneously. the specimen mass is a function of the spatial position and can not be weighed. It is possible to measure the specimen mass indirectly by measuring the intensity of Compton scattered peak for normal XRF analysis using a X-ray tube with Mo anode, if the matrix was consisted of light elements and the specimen was a thin sample. The Compton peak is not presented in fluorescence spectrum for white light SXRFM analysis. The continuous background in the spectrum was resulted from the Compton scattering with a linear polarization X-ray source. Biomedical specimens for SXRFM analysis, for example biological section and human hair, are always a thin sample for high energy X-ray, and they consist of H,C,N and O etc. light elements, which implies a linear relationship between the specimen mass and the Compton scattering background in the high energy region of spectrum. By this way , it is possible to carry out measurement of concentration for SXRFM analysis

  5. Instrumented impact testing machine with reduced specimen oscillation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.; Rahka, K.; Wallin, K.

    1984-07-01

    Owing to small and inexpensive specimens the Charpy impact test is widely used in quality control and alloy development. Limitations in power reactor survellance capsules it is also widely used for safety analysis purposes. Instrumenting the tup and computerizing data acquisition, makes dynamic fracture mechanics data measurement possible and convenient. However, the dynamic effects (inertia forces, specimen oscillations) in the impact test cause inaccuracies in the recorded load-time diagram and hence diminish the reliability of the calculated dynamic fracture mechanics parameters. To decrease inaccuracies a new pendulum type of instrumented impact test apparatus has been developed and constructed in the Metals Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland. This tester is based on a new principle involving inverted test geometry. The purpose of the geometry inversion is to reduce inertia load and specimen oscillation effects. Further, the new impact tester has some other novel features: e.g. the available initia impact energy is about double compared to the conventional standard (300 J) impact tester allowing the use of larger (10 x 20 x 110 mm) bend specimens than normal Charpy specimens. Also, the rotation asix in the three point bending is nearly stationary making COD-measurements possible. An experimental test series is described in which the inertia effects and specimen oscillations are compared in the conventional and new impact tester utilizing Charpy V-notch specimens. Comparison of the two test geometries is also made with the aid of an analytical model using finite element method (FEM) analysis. (author)

  6. Macro and Microscopic Investigation on Fracture Specimen of Alloy 617 Base Metal and Weldment in Low Cycle Fatigue Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Jin; Dewa, Rando Tungga [Pukyung National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    This paper investigates macro- and microscopic fractography performed on fracture specimens from low cycle fatigue (LCF) testings through an Alloy 617 base metal and weldments. The weldment specimens were taken from gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) pad of Alloy 617. The aim of the present study is to investigate the macro- and microscopic aspects of the low cycle fatigue fracture mode and mechanism of Alloy 617 base metal and GTAWed weldment specimens. Fully axial total strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature with total strain ranges of 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5%. Macroscopic fracture surfaces of Alloy 617 base metal specimens showed a flat type normal to the fatigue loading direction, whereas the GTAWed weldment specimens were of a shear/star type. The fracture surfaces of both the base metal and weldment specimens revealed obvious fatigue striations at the crack propagation regime. In addition, the fatigue crack mechanism of the base metal showed a transgranular normal to fatigue loading direction; however, the GTAWed weldment specimens showed a transgranular at approximately 45° to the fatigue loading direction.

  7. Macro and Microscopic Investigation on Fracture Specimen of Alloy 617 Base Metal and Weldment in Low Cycle Fatigue Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Jin; Dewa, Rando Tungga; Kim, Won Gon

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates macro- and microscopic fractography performed on fracture specimens from low cycle fatigue (LCF) testings through an Alloy 617 base metal and weldments. The weldment specimens were taken from gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) pad of Alloy 617. The aim of the present study is to investigate the macro- and microscopic aspects of the low cycle fatigue fracture mode and mechanism of Alloy 617 base metal and GTAWed weldment specimens. Fully axial total strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature with total strain ranges of 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5%. Macroscopic fracture surfaces of Alloy 617 base metal specimens showed a flat type normal to the fatigue loading direction, whereas the GTAWed weldment specimens were of a shear/star type. The fracture surfaces of both the base metal and weldment specimens revealed obvious fatigue striations at the crack propagation regime. In addition, the fatigue crack mechanism of the base metal showed a transgranular normal to fatigue loading direction; however, the GTAWed weldment specimens showed a transgranular at approximately 45° to the fatigue loading direction

  8. Change of Charpy impact fracture behavior of precracked ferritic specimens due to thermal aging in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, W.L.

    1985-12-01

    A series of tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of sodium on the impact fracture behavior of precracked Charpy specimens made of HT-9 weldment. One set of samples was precracked prior to sodium aging and the other set was precracked after aging in sodium. Both set of specimens exhibited the same DBTT. Samples precracked prior to sodium exposure, however, showed a 40% reduction in the upper shelf energy (USE) as compared to the set precracked after aging. The results suggest that the fracture toughness of the material may be reduced if an existing crack was soaked in sodium at elevated temperature for a period of time

  9. An Experimental Study of the Fracture Coalescence Behaviour of Brittle Sandstone Specimens Containing Three Fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. Q.; Yang, D. S.; Jing, H. W.; Li, Y. H.; Wang, S. Y.

    2012-07-01

    To analyse the fracture coalescence behaviour of rock, rectangular prismatic sandstone specimens (80 × 160 × 30 mm in size) containing three fissures were tested under uniaxial compression. The strength and deformation behaviours of the specimens are first analysed by investigating the effects of the ligament angle β2 on the peak strength, peak strain and crack initiation stress of the specimens. To confirm the sequence of crack coalescence, a photographic monitoring technique is used throughout the entire period of deformation. Based on the results, the relationship between the real-time crack coalescence process and the axial stress-strain curve of brittle sandstone specimens is also developed, and this relationship can be used to evaluate the macroscopic deformation characteristics of pre-cracked rock. The equivalent strain evolution fields of the specimen, with α = β1 = 45° and β2 = 90°, are obtained using the digital image correlation technique and show good agreement with the experimental results of pre-cracked brittle sandstone. These experimental results are expected to improve the understanding of fracture mechanisms and be used in rock engineering with intermittent structures, such as deep underground excavated tunnels.

  10. Development of stress relaxation measurement by a small size C-ring specimen method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimanuki, Shizuka; Nakata, Kiyotomo; Kasahara, Shigeki; Kuniya, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    A stress relaxation measurement method has been developed by using C-ring specimens, and a specimen size effect has been evaluated taking radiation-induced stress relaxation into consideration. C-ring specimens were stressed by forcing a wedge in the gap. Giving an appropriate eccentric configuration in the half of the ring opposite the gap, the stress gradient along the circumference was eliminated in the section and the stress level could be varied by changing the gap spacing. The validity of the C-ring test method was confirmed by thermally stress relaxation experiments at annealing temperatures from 300 to 600degC for 1 min to 200 h in carbon steel: considerable stress relaxation could be measured for all levels of applied stress even at relatively low annealing temperatures. The relaxation results obtained from the C-ring test were in good agreement with those from a uniaxial tensile stress relaxation test. The smaller C-ring specimen with about 40 mm diameter, which is required for radiation-induced stress relaxation test, also showed adequate accuracy on stress relaxation at 600 to 830degC in stainless steel, compared with the large size C-ring specimen test. (author)

  11. Small Scale Yielding Correction of Constraint Loss in Small Sized Fracture Toughness Test Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Maan Won; Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Bong Sang; Hong, Jun Hwa

    2005-01-01

    Fracture toughness data in the ductile-brittle transition region of ferritic steels show scatter produced by local sampling effects and specimen geometry dependence which results from relaxation in crack tip constraint. The ASTM E1921 provides a standard test method to define the median toughness temperature curve, so called Master Curve, for the material corresponding to a 1T crack front length and also defines a reference temperature, T 0 , at which median toughness value is 100 MPam for a 1T size specimen. The ASTM E1921 procedures assume that high constraint, small scaling yielding (SSY) conditions prevail at fracture along the crack front. Violation of the SSY assumption occurs most often during tests of smaller specimens. Constraint loss in such cases leads to higher toughness values and thus lower T 0 values. When applied to a structure with low constraint geometry, the standard fracture toughness estimates may lead to strongly over-conservative estimates. A lot of efforts have been made to adjust the constraint effect. In this work, we applied a small-scale yielding correction (SSYC) to adjust the constraint loss of 1/3PCVN and PCVN specimens which are relatively smaller than 1T size specimen at the fracture toughness Master Curve test

  12. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Direct Tension Test for Cylindrical Concrete Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung J. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete cracking strength can be defined as the tensile strength of concrete subjected to pure tension stress. However, as it is difficult to apply direct tension load to concrete specimens, concrete cracking is usually quantified by the modulus of rupture for flexural members. In this study, a new direct tension test setup for cylindrical specimens (101.6 mm in diameter and 203.2 mm in height similar to those used in compression test is developed. Double steel plates are used to obtain uniform stress distributions. Finite element analysis for the proposed test setup is conducted. The uniformity of the stress distribution along the cylindrical specimen is examined and compared with rectangular cross section. Fuzzy image pattern recognition method is used to assess stress uniformity along the specimen. Moreover, the probability of cracking at different locations along the specimen is evaluated using probabilistic finite element analysis. The experimental and numerical results of the cracking location showed that gravity effect on fresh concrete during setting time might affect the distribution of concrete cracking strength along the height of the structural elements.

  13. Finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in thin semiconductor specimens for electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somodi, P K; Twitchett-Harrison, A C; Midgley, P A; Kardynał, B E; Barnes, C H W; Dunin-Borkowski, R E

    2013-11-01

    Two-dimensional finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in parallel-sided semiconductor specimens that contain p-n junctions are used to assess the effect of the electrical state of the surface of a thin specimen on projected potentials measured using off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope. For a specimen that is constrained to have an equipotential surface, the simulations show that the step in the projected potential across a p-n junction is always lower than would be predicted from the properties of the bulk device, but is relatively insensitive to the value of the surface state energy, especially for thicker specimens and higher dopant concentrations. The depletion width measured from the projected potential, however, has a complicated dependence on specimen thickness. The results of the simulations are of broader interest for understanding the influence of surfaces and interfaces on electrostatic potentials in nanoscale semiconductor devices. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Validatin of miniaturised tensile testing on DMLS TI6AL4V (ELI specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Zyl, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS is a relatively new technology that is developing rapidly. Since DMLS material is created by melting/solidifying tracks and layers from powder, even building geometry can influence the mechanical properties. To certify a material, the testing specimens must be designed and manufactured according to the appropriate standards. Miniaturised tensile DMLS samples could be a good alternative for express quality control, and could reduce the cost of DMLS-specific testing. In this study, as-built and stress-relieved miniaturised tensile DMLS Ti6Al4V (ELI specimens with different surface qualities were investigated. The fracture surfaces and mechanical properties of the mini-tensile specimens were analysed and compared with standard full-sized specimens also manufactured by DMLS. The obtained data showed the applicability of mini-tensile tests for the express analysis of DMLS objects if a correction factor is applied for the calculation of the load-bearing cross-section of the specimen.

  15. Final Report: Posttest Analysis of Omega II Optical Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newlander, C D; Fisher, J H

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary posttest analyses have been completed on optical specimens exposed during the Omega II test series conducted on 14 July 2006. The Omega Facility, located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester was used to produce X-ray environments through the interaction of intense pulsed laser radiation upon germanium-loaded silica aerogels. The optical specimen testing was supported by GH Systems through experiment design, pre- and post-test analyses, specimen acquisition, and overall technical experience. The test specimens were fabricated and characterized by Surface Optics Corporation (SOC), San Diego, CA and were simple protected gold coatings on silica substrates. Six test specimens were exposed, five filtered with thin beryllium foil filters, and one unfiltered which was exposed directly to the raw environment. The experimental objectives were: (1) demonstrate that tests of optical specimens could be performed at the Omega facility; (2) evaluate the use and survivability of beryllium foil filters as a function of thickness; (3) obtain damage data on optical specimens which ranged from no damage to damage; (4) correlate existing thermal response models with the damage data; (5) evaluate the use of the direct raw environment upon the specimen response and the ability/desirability to conduct sensitive optical specimen tests using the raw environment; and (6) initiate the development of a protocol for performing optical coatings/mirror tests. This report documents the activities performed by GH Systems in evaluating and using the environments provided by LLNL, the PUFFTFT analyses performed using those environments, and the calculated results compared to the observed and measured posttest data

  16. Thanatophoric dysplasia type II with encephalocele and aortic hypoplasia diagnosed in an anatomical specimen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jap-A-Joe, Simone M. E. A. A.; Oostra, Roelof-Jan; Maas, Mario; Stoker, Jaap; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.

    2003-01-01

    A hitherto unknown combination of congenital anomalies was found in an anatomical specimen of a female neonate. External examination and additional CT and MRI studies showed thanatophoric dysplasia type II with cloverleaf skull and concomitant parietal meningoencephalocele and hypoplasia of the

  17. 10 CFR 26.129 - Assuring specimen security, chain of custody, and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., licensee or other entity management shall ensure that corrective actions are taken. (ii) If there is reason... on the custody-and-control form; (iii) A specimen bottle seal is broken or shows evidence of... shipping containers are no longer accessible without breaking a tamper-evident seal. (h) Couriers, express...

  18. Study of patina formation on bronze specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.J.R. de; Lago, D.C.B.; Senna, L.F.; Miranda, L.R.M. de; D'Elia, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, bronze samples (94.059% Cu; 0.023% Zn; 0.077% Pb and 5.801% Sn, w/w) were exposed for 8 months to a marine atmosphere (splash zone) at Barra of Tijuca Beach, Rio de Janeiro. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to identify the composition of the corrosion products formed on the samples. The electrochemical properties were analyzed using potential and electrochemical impedance measurements. These analyses and measurements were obtained from periodically removed samples, and compared to those exposed to laboratory tests (total and alternating immersion) in 10 -2 mol L -1 NaCl solution. The corrosion potential results, allied to XRD analysis, showed that the chemical nature of the films obtained on the surface of the field test samples was very similar to that obtained in the alternating immersion test. The main products identified were cuprite and atacamite. However, the film formed during the total immersion (TI) test was primarily composed of cuprite with nantokite traces, which was not observed in either the field or in alternating tests. The electrochemical impedance measurements obtained in laboratory and field test samples showed the formation of films with a porous structure. The thermodynamic evaluation was also consistent with the corrosion products formed.

  19. Surgical stent for dental implant using cone beam CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyung Soo; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a surgical stent for dental implant procedure that can be easily applied and affordable by using cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). Aluminum, Teflon-PFA (perfluoroalkoxy), and acetal (polyoxymethylene plastic) were selected as materials for the surgical stent. Among these three materials, the appropriate material was chosen using the CBCT images. The surgical stent, which could be easily placed into an oral cavity, was designed with chosen material. CBCT images of the new surgical stent on mandible were obtained using Alphard-3030 dental CT system (Asahi Roentgen Co., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan). The point of insertion was prescribed on the surgical stent with the multiplanar reconstruction software of OnDemand3D (CyberMed Inc., Seoul, Korea). Guide holes were made at the point of insertion on the surgical stent using newly designed guide jig. CBCT scans was taken for the second time to verify the accuracy of the newly designed surgical stent. Teflon-PFA showed radiologically excellent image characteristics for the surgical stent. High accuracy and reproducibility of implantation were confirmed with the surgical stent. The newly designed surgical stent can lead to the accurate implantation and achieve the clinically predictable result.

  20. Assessment of surgeon fatigue by surgical simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuwairqi K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Khaled Tuwairqi,1 Jessica H Selter,2 Shameema Sikder3 1College of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 2Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 3Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: The impact of fatigue on surgical performance and its implications for patient care is a growing concern. While investigators have employed a number of different tools to measure the effect of fatigue on surgical performance, the use of the surgical simulator has been increasingly implemented for this purpose. The goal of this paper is to review the published literature to achieve a better understanding of evaluation of fatigue on performance as studied with surgical simulators. Methods: A PubMed and Cochrane search was conducted using the search terms “simulator”, “surgery”, and “fatigue”. In total, 50 papers were evaluated, and 20 studies were selected after application of exclusion criteria. Articles were excluded if they did not use the simulator to assess the impact of fatigue on surgeon performance. Systematic reviews and case reports were also excluded. Results: Surgeon fatigue led to a consistent decline in cognitive function in six studies. Technical skills were evaluated in 18 studies, and a detrimental impact was reported in nine studies, while the remaining nine studies showed either no change or positive results with regard to surgical skills after experience of fatigue. Two pharmacological intervention studies reversed the detrimental impact of fatigue on cognitive function, but no change or a worsening effect was recognized for technical skills. Conclusion: Simulators are increasingly being used to evaluate the impact of fatigue on the surgeon's performance. With regard to the impact of fatigue in this regard, studies have demonstrated a consistent decline in cognitive function and mixed outcomes for technical skills. Larger studies that relate the simulator's results to real surgical

  1. Role of specimen size upon the measured toughness of cellular solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulou, I; Tan, P J

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the mechanical properties of cellular solids depend critically upon the specimen size and that a 'sufficiently' large test specimen is needed to obtain representative bulk values. Notwithstanding, the fracture toughness of cellular solids is still measured experimentally based on standards, such as the ASTM E399 and E813, developed for solid materials that do not possess an intermediate, 'cell-level' length scale. Experimental data in the literature appears to show that the toughness of stochastic 3D foams is, also, size-dependent. This paper presents the results of a detailed finite element (FE) study that will quantify, and identify the physical origin of, the size-dependent effect. Three-point bending of a single-edge notched (or SEN(B)) specimen, with a 2D Voronoi micro-architecture, is modelled numerically to obtain estimates of fracture toughness which are compared to those obtained with a 'boundary-layer' analysis

  2. Face/core interface fracture characterization of mixed mode bending sandwich specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    and PVC H45, H100 and H250 foam core materials were evaluated. A methodology to perform precracking on fracture specimens in order to achieve a sharp and representative crack front is outlined. The mixed mode loading was controlled in the mixed mode bending (MMB) test rig by changing the loading......Debonding of the core from the face sheets is a critical failure mode in sandwich structures. This paper presents an experimental study on face/core debond fracture of foam core sandwich specimens under a wide range of mixed mode loading conditions. Sandwich beams with E‐glass fibre face sheets...... application point (lever arm distance). Finite element analysis was performed to determine the mode‐mixity at the crack tip. The results showed that the face/core interface fracture toughness increased with increased mode II loading. Post failure analysis of the fractured specimens revealed that the crack...

  3. Ultrastable gold substrates: Properties of a support for high-resolution electron cryomicroscopy of biological specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Christopher J.; Passmore, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) allows structure determination of a wide range of biological molecules and specimens. All-gold supports improve cryo-EM images by reducing radiation-induced motion and image blurring. Here we compare the mechanical and electrical properties of all-gold supports to amorphous carbon foils. Gold supports are more conductive, and have suspended foils that are not compressed by differential contraction when cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These measurements show how the choice of support material and geometry can reduce specimen movement by more than an order of magnitude during low-dose imaging. We provide methods for fabrication of all-gold supports and preparation of vitrified specimens. We also analyse illumination geometry for optimal collection of high resolution, low-dose data. Together, the support structures and methods herein can improve the resolution and quality of images from any electron cryomicroscope. PMID:26592474

  4. Post-deformation examination of specimens subjected to SCC testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Busby, Jeremy T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leonard, Keith J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report details the results of post-radiation and post-deformation characterizations performed during FY 2015–FY 2016 on a subset of specimens that had previously been irradiated at high displacement per atom (dpa) damage doses. The specimens, made of commercial austenitic stainless steels and alloys, were subjected to stress-corrosion cracking tests (constant extension rate testing and crack growth testing) at the University of Michigan under conditions typical of nuclear power plants. After testing, the specimens were returned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for further analysis and evaluation.

  5. The effect of specimen and flaw dimensions on fracture toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevalainen, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effect of the specimen size and geometry on fracture toughness has been investigated both by experimental tests and computational analyses. The methods for constraint description, namely T-stress, Q-parameter and Small-Scale Yielding Correction (SSYC) have been compared and applied for various geometries. A statistical treatment for the specimen thickness effect on cleavage fracture toughness has been investigated. Elliptical surface cracks were compared with straight-thickness cracks and a method for crack shape correction was presented. Based on the results, the differences in apparent fracture toughness values obtained from various specimen configurations can be better understood and taken into account

  6. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Medium-size specimens (glass-fibre beams bonded together by an adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking...... along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres...

  7. Radical prostatectomy: positive surgical margins matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Joshua J; Eastham, James A

    2013-10-01

    A positive surgical margin (PSM) in the radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen is associated with biochemical recurrence (BCR) and the need for adjuvant radiation therapy, and is a surrogate for surgical quality. We review the available data describing the identification, anatomy, and management of PSM after RP. A PubMed search (using English language as a filter) was performed to identify factors affecting PSMs and their management. PSMs are associated with an increased likelihood of BCR after RP. The most common location for a PSM is the apex, followed by the posterolateral edge of the prostate. The risk of recurrence in a patient with a PSM is associated with the location, length, and Gleason score of the PSM. The management of a patient with a PSM remains controversial, with some recommending adjuvant radiation therapy for all PSMs and others suggesting only salvage radiation therapy for men who experience BCR. PSMs are associated with an increased likelihood of BCR and often result in initiation of adjuvant treatment. Therefore, the goal of surgery should be to minimize the likelihood of a PSM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Contributions to environmental specimen banking. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.; Stoeppler, M.

    1986-03-01

    Long-term stability of Hg +2 and MeHgCl, and decomposition of MeHgCl under different conditions are investigated. Studies were done with acids and sodium hydroxide with and without adding different reagents at room temperature and higher temperatures with and without UV-light. The results show that in the absence of light MeHgCl does not decompose to Hg +2 even in the presence of 25% acids. MeHgCl is also not easily decomposed by heating in the presence of low acid concentrations. But with UV-light decomposition of MeHgCl to Hg +2 takes place immediately depending upon the intensity of UV-light. In the presence of SH-groups (L-cystein) partial stability and complexation of mercury was observed. (orig./PW) [de

  9. IgG4-positive cell infiltration in various cardiovascular disorders - results from histopathological analysis of surgical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourai, Ryoto; Kasashima, Satomi; Sohmiya, Koichi; Yamauchi, Yohei; Ozawa, Hideki; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Ogino, Yasuhiro; Katsumata, Takahiro; Daimon, Masahiro; Fujita, Shu-Ichi; Hoshiga, Masaaki; Ishizaka, Nobukazu

    2017-02-03

    The diagnosis of Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD), in general, depends on serum IgG4 concentrations and histopathological findings; therefore, diagnosis of IgG4-RD in cardiovascular organs/tissues is often difficult owing to the risk of tissue sampling. Prevalence of IgG4-positive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in 103 consecutive cardiovascular surgical samples from 98 patients with various cardiovascular diseases was analyzed immunohistochemically. The diagnoses of the enrolled patients included aortic aneurysm (abdominal, n = 8; thoracic, n = 9); aortic dissection (n = 20); aortic stenosis (n = 24), aortic regurgitation (n = 10), and mitral stenosis/regurgitation (n = 17). In total, 10 (9.7%) of the 103 specimens showed IgG4-positive cell infiltration with various intensities; five of these were aortic valve specimens from aortic stenosis, and IgG4-positive cell infiltration was present at >10 /HPF in three of them. In one aortic wall sample from an abdominal aortic aneurysm, various histopathological features of IgG4-RD, such as IgG4-positive cell infiltration, obliterating phlebitis, and storiform fibrosis, were observed. IgG4-positive cell infiltration was observed in 9.7% of the surgical cardiovascular specimens, mainly in the aortic valve from aortic stenosis and in the aortic wall from aortic aneurysm. Whether IgG4-positive cell infiltration has pathophysiological importance in the development or progression of cardiovascular diseases should be investigated in future studies.

  10. High inter-specimen variability of baseline data for the tibio-talar contact area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricali, Giovanni A; Bartels, Ward; Labey, Luc; Dereymaeker, Greta Ph E; Luyten, Frank P; Vander Sloten, Jos

    2009-01-01

    The tibio-talar contact area has been widely investigated to monitor biomechanical changes due to articular incongruities or an altered loading. This study aims to investigate for the first time in a systematic way the extent of the inter-specimen variability of the tibio-talar contact area, and its repercussions when analyzing data concerning this parameter. Ten specimens were loaded to record the tibio-talar contact characteristics by use of pressure sensitive film. The size of the talar dome area, the size of the (normalized) tibio-talar contact area, the position of the tibio-talar contact area, and the shape of the latter were determined and analyzed. Inter-specimen variability was expressed as the coefficient of variation and was calculated for the datasets of previous studies as well. The size of the tibio-talar contact area showed a very high inter-specimen variability, as is the case in previous studies. This high variability persisted when a normalized tibio-talar contact area was calculated. The shape of the tibio-talar contact area showed some basic characteristics, but a high variation in details could be observed. Every specimen can be considered to have its own "ankle print". By this variability, articular incongruities are expected to have a different effect on local biomechanical characteristics in every single individual. Therefore, every single case has to be evaluated and reported for significant changes. In case of modeling, this also underscores the need to use subject specific models fed by sets of parameters derived from a series of single specimens.

  11. Morphing methods to parameterize specimen-specific finite element model geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Ian A; Yang, Hongli; Roberts, Michael D; Downs, J Crawford

    2010-01-19

    Shape plays an important role in determining the biomechanical response of a structure. Specimen-specific finite element (FE) models have been developed to capture the details of the shape of biological structures and predict their biomechanics. Shape, however, can vary considerably across individuals or change due to aging or disease, and analysis of the sensitivity of specimen-specific models to these variations has proven challenging. An alternative to specimen-specific representation has been to develop generic models with simplified geometries whose shape is relatively easy to parameterize, and can therefore be readily used in sensitivity studies. Despite many successful applications, generic models are limited in that they cannot make predictions for individual specimens. We propose that it is possible to harness the detail available in specimen-specific models while leveraging the power of the parameterization techniques common in generic models. In this work we show that this can be accomplished by using morphing techniques to parameterize the geometry of specimen-specific FE models such that the model shape can be varied in a controlled and systematic way suitable for sensitivity analysis. We demonstrate three morphing techniques by using them on a model of the load-bearing tissues of the posterior pole of the eye. We show that using relatively straightforward procedures these morphing techniques can be combined, which allows the study of factor interactions. Finally, we illustrate that the techniques can be used in other systems by applying them to morph a femur. Morphing techniques provide an exciting new possibility for the analysis of the biomechanical role of shape, independently or in interaction with loading and material properties. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgical Space Suits Increase Particle and Microbiological Emission Rates in a Simulated Surgical Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaysegaran, Praveen; Knibbs, Luke D; Morawska, Lidia; Crawford, Ross W

    2018-05-01

    The role of space suits in the prevention of orthopedic prosthetic joint infection remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that space suits may in fact contribute to increased infection rates, with bioaerosol emissions from space suits identified as a potential cause. This study aimed to compare the particle and microbiological emission rates (PER and MER) of space suits and standard surgical clothing. A comparison of emission rates between space suits and standard surgical clothing was performed in a simulated surgical environment during 5 separate experiments. Particle counts were analyzed with 2 separate particle counters capable of detecting particles between 0.1 and 20 μm. An Andersen impactor was used to sample bacteria, with culture counts performed at 24 and 48 hours. Four experiments consistently showed statistically significant increases in both PER and MER when space suits are used compared with standard surgical clothing. One experiment showed inconsistent results, with a trend toward increases in both PER and MER when space suits are used compared with standard surgical clothing. Space suits cause increased PER and MER compared with standard surgical clothing. This finding provides mechanistic evidence to support the increased prosthetic joint infection rates observed in clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Duane vertical surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, M L; Gómez de Liaño, P; Merino, P; Franco, G

    2014-04-01

    We report 3 cases with a vertical incomitance in upgaze, narrowing of palpebral fissure, and pseudo-overaction of both inferior oblique muscles. Surgery consisted of an elevation of both lateral rectus muscles with an asymmetrical weakening. A satisfactory result was achieved in 2 cases, whereas a Lambda syndrome appeared in the other case. The surgical technique of upper-insertion with a recession of both lateral rectus muscles improved vertical incomitance in 2 of the 3 patients; however, a residual deviation remains in the majority of cases. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Urinary Bladder Leiomyosarcoma: Primary Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Slaoui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cases of bladder leiomyosarcoma represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial tumors. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for a high-grade bladder leiomyosarcoma with an ileal diversion. The patient recovered uneventfully and no surgical margins were verified in final pathology. Early follow-up at 3 months shows no signs of computed tomography recurrence and adequate adaptation to ileal diversion. Although bladder sarcomas were once thought to have a grim prognosis, recent studies suggest that adequate surgical treatment is able to achieve optimal cancer control outcomes.

  15. Surgical repair of idiopathic scrotal elephantiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharakis, Evangelos; Dudderidge, Tim; Zacharakis, Emmanouil; Ioannidis, Evangelos

    2008-02-01

    Scrotal lymphedema (scrotal elephantiasis) is uncommon outside of filariasis endemic regions. We present a case of a 65-year-old with idiopathic lymphedema of the scrotum and functional impairment of the penis. The patient underwent surgical excision of the edematous subcutaneous tissues and plastic reconstruction of his penis and scrotum. Three years later, the patient showed no signs of local recurrence, had complete restoration of urinary and sexual function and was extremely satisfied with the result. Surgical management was an effective strategy in the management of scrotal lymphedema in this case.

  16. Computer-Assisted Technique for Surgical Tooth Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosamuddin Hamza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. However, numerous extraction cases show a high level of difficulty in practice. This difficulty is usually related to inadequate visualization, improper instrumentation, or other factors related to the targeted tooth (e.g., ankyloses or presence of bony undercut. Methods. In this work, the author presents a new technique for surgical tooth extraction based on 3D imaging, computer planning, and a new concept of computer-assisted manufacturing. Results. The outcome of this work is a surgical guide made by 3D printing of plastics and CNC of metals (hybrid outcome. In addition, the conventional surgical cutting tools (surgical burs are modified with a number of stoppers adjusted to avoid any excessive drilling that could harm bone or other vital structures. Conclusion. The present outcome could provide a minimally invasive technique to overcome the routine complications facing dental surgeons in surgical extraction procedures.

  17. Failure mechanism of resistance-spot-welded specimens impacted on base material by bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The tests of bullet impact on the base material (BM of a simple specimen with a single resistance-spot-welded (RSW nugget of TRIP800 steel are performed to investigate the response of the RSW specimen to the ballistic debris impact on the RSW specimen. A one-stage gas gun is used to fire the bullets while a laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR is used to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the RSW specimen. The recovered RSW specimens are examined with the three-dimensional super depth digital microscope (SDDM and the scanning electro microscope (SEM. For the tests of small multiple-bullet impact, it is revealed that the wave train of the VISAR measured results and the detachment of the base material interfaces in the recovered RSW specimens are directly related to the reflection and refraction of the curved stress waves incoming to the interfaces and the free surfaces in the RSW specimens. The detachment of BM interfaces can lead to the impact failure of the RSW joints for the larger multiple-bullet impact at higher velocity, the mechanism of which is different from the case for normal incidence (spalling. For the tests of single large bullet impact, it is brought to light experimentally that the plastic strain concentration at the “notch tip” spurs either the crack near the RSW joint or the split of the nugget. The numerical simulation shows up the process of splitting the nugget: a crack initiates at the “notch tip”, propagates across the nugget interface and splits the nugget into two parts. It is indicated that the interaction between the stress waves and many interfaces/free surfaces in the RSW specimen under ballistic impact causes variable local stress triaxialities and stress Lode angles, which affects the deformation and fracture mechanism of the RSW specimen including stretching and shearing failure. It is shown that the impact failure of the RSW joints is a mixture of brittle

  18. Failure mechanism of resistance-spot-welded specimens impacted on base material by bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunlei; Ma, Bohan; Chen, Danian; Wang, Huanran; Ma, Dongfang

    2018-01-01

    The tests of bullet impact on the base material (BM) of a simple specimen with a single resistance-spot-welded (RSW) nugget of TRIP800 steel are performed to investigate the response of the RSW specimen to the ballistic debris impact on the RSW specimen. A one-stage gas gun is used to fire the bullets while a laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) is used to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the RSW specimen. The recovered RSW specimens are examined with the three-dimensional super depth digital microscope (SDDM) and the scanning electro microscope (SEM). For the tests of small multiple-bullet impact, it is revealed that the wave train of the VISAR measured results and the detachment of the base material interfaces in the recovered RSW specimens are directly related to the reflection and refraction of the curved stress waves incoming to the interfaces and the free surfaces in the RSW specimens. The detachment of BM interfaces can lead to the impact failure of the RSW joints for the larger multiple-bullet impact at higher velocity, the mechanism of which is different from the case for normal incidence (spalling). For the tests of single large bullet impact, it is brought to light experimentally that the plastic strain concentration at the "notch tip" spurs either the crack near the RSW joint or the split of the nugget. The numerical simulation shows up the process of splitting the nugget: a crack initiates at the "notch tip", propagates across the nugget interface and splits the nugget into two parts. It is indicated that the interaction between the stress waves and many interfaces/free surfaces in the RSW specimen under ballistic impact causes variable local stress triaxialities and stress Lode angles, which affects the deformation and fracture mechanism of the RSW specimen including stretching and shearing failure. It is shown that the impact failure of the RSW joints is a mixture of brittle fracture and ductile

  19. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  20. [Comparative effectiveness of surgical and non-surgical treatment for pediatric mandibular condylar fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Wang, Yanyi; Zhang, Lihai; Yao, Jun

    2010-12-01

    deviation was observed in 3 patients of 2 groups, respectively when gaping. The X-ray films showed healing of fracture and condylar remodeling at 3-6 months. Mandibular ramus were symmetric in cephalometry. Good effectiveness can be obtained by surgical or non-surgical treatment in pediatric mandibular condylar fractures. Considering the pediatric mandibular condyle having powerful healing and reconstructing potency and avoiding secondary injury on the temporomandibular joint from surgery, non-surgical treatment should be first selected for the pediatric mandibular condylar fractures in patients under 7 years.

  1. ARCTOS: a relational database relating specimens, specimen-based science, and archival documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Gordon H.; Ramotnik, Cindy A.; McDonald, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Data are preserved when they are perpetually discoverable, but even in the Information Age, discovery of legacy data appropriate to particular investigations is uncertain. Secure Internet storage is necessary but insufficient. Data can be discovered only when they are adequately described, and visibility increases markedly if the data are related to other data that are receiving usage. Such relationships can be built within (1) the framework of a relational database, or (1) they can be built among separate resources, within the framework of the Internet. Evolving primarily around biological collections, Arctos is a database that does both of these tasks. It includes data structures for a diversity of specimen attributes, essentially all collection-management tasks, plus literature citations, project descriptions, etc. As a centralized collaboration of several university museums, Arctos is an ideal environment for capitalizing on the many relationships that often exist between items in separate collections. Arctos is related to NIH’s DNA-sequence repository (GenBank) with record-to-record reciprocal linkages, and it serves data to several discipline-specific web portals, including the Global Biodiversity Information Network (GBIF). The University of Alaska Museum’s paleontological collection is Arctos’s recent extension beyond the constraints of neontology. With about 1.3 million cataloged items, additional collections are being added each year.

  2. Old Plants, New Tricks: Phenological Research Using Herbarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles G; Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Primack, Richard B; Davis, Charles C; Pearson, Katelin D; Gallinat, Amanda S; Yost, Jenn M; Nelson, Gil; Mazer, Susan J; Rossington, Natalie L; Sparks, Tim H; Soltis, Pamela S

    2017-07-01

    The timing of phenological events, such as leaf-out and flowering, strongly influence plant success and their study is vital to understanding how plants will respond to climate change. Phenological research, however, is often limited by the temporal, geographic, or phylogenetic scope of available data. Hundreds of millions of plant specimens in herbaria worldwide offer a potential solution to this problem, especially as digitization efforts drastically improve access to collections. Herbarium specimens represent snapshots of phenological events and have been reliably used to characterize phenological responses to climate. We review the current state of herbarium-based phenological research, identify potential biases and limitations in the collection, digitization, and interpretation of specimen data, and discuss future opportunities for phenological investigations using herbarium specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Validity of fracture toughness determined with small bend specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, K.; Rintamaa, R.; Valo, M.

    1994-02-01

    This report considers the validity of fracture toughness estimates obtained with small bend specimens in relation to fracture toughness estimates obtained with large specimens. The study is based upon the analysis and comparison of actual test results. The results prove the validity of the fracture toughness determined based upon small bend specimens, especially when the results are only used to determine the fracture toughness transition temperature T o . In this case the possible error is typically less than 5 deg C and at most 10 deg C. It can be concluded that small bend specimens are very suitable for the estimation of fracture toughness in the case of brittle fracture, provided the results are corrected for statistical size effects. (orig.). (20 refs., 17 figs.)

  4. Description of Specimens in the Marine Mammal Osteology Reference Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Marine Mammal Osteology Collection consists of approximately 2500 specimens (skulls...

  5. Elemental microanalysis of botanical specimens using the Melbourne Proton Microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolini, A.P.J.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1978-01-01

    A proton microprobe has been used to obtain the distribution of elements of various botanical specimens. This paper presents preliminary results obtained by the irradiation of certain organs of the wheat plant

  6. Replacement/Refurbishment of JSC/NASA POD Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Willard L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Special NDE certification process requires demonstration of NDE capability by test per NASA-STD-5009. This test is performed with fatigue cracked specimens containing very small cracks. The certification test results are usually based on binomial statistics and must meet a 90/95 Probability of Detection (POD). The assumption is that fatigue cracks are tightly closed, difficult to detect, and inspectors and processes passing such a test are well qualified for inspecting NASA fracture critical hardware. The JSC NDE laboratory has what may be the largest inventory that exists of such fatigue cracked NDE demonstration specimens. These specimens were produced by the hundreds in the late 1980s and early 1990s. None have been produced since that time and the condition and usability of the specimens are questionable.

  7. Tensile and Creep Testing of Sanicro 25 Using Miniature Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymáček, Petr; Jarý, Milan; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Kloc, Luboš

    2018-01-01

    Tensile and creep properties of new austenitic steel Sanicro 25 at room temperature and operating temperature 700 °C were investigated by testing on miniature specimens. The results were correlated with testing on conventional specimens. Very good agreement of results was obtained, namely in yield and ultimate strength, as well as short-term creep properties. Although the creep rupture time was found to be systematically shorter and creep ductility lower in the miniature test, the minimum creep rates were comparable. The analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed similar ductile fracture morphology for both specimen geometries. One exception was found in a small area near the miniature specimen edge that was cut by electro discharge machining, where an influence of the steel fracture behavior at elevated temperature was identified. PMID:29337867

  8. Molecular markers: Implications for cytopathology and specimen collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Paul A

    2015-08-01

    Cytologic specimens obtained through minimally invasive biopsy techniques are increasingly being used as principle diagnostic specimens for tumors arising in multiple sites. The number and scope of ancillary tests performed on these specimens have grown substantially over the past decade, including many molecular markers that not only can aid in formulating accurate and specific diagnoses but also can provide prognostic or therapeutic information to help direct clinical decisions. Thus, the cytopathologist needs to ensure that adequate material is collected and appropriately processed for the study of relevant molecular markers, many of which are specific to tumor site. This brief review covers considerations for effective cytologic specimen collection and processing to ensure diagnostic and testing success. In addition, a general overview is provided of molecular markers pertinent to tumors from a variety of sites. The recognition of these established and emerging molecular markers by cytopathologists is an important step toward realizing the promise of personalized medicine. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  9. Examination of the fatigue life under combined loading of specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtík F.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes experimental results under combined loading of specimens manufactured from common construction steel 11523. Specimens were gradually loaded by amplitude of the torque, then by combination of torque and tension prestress. The last set of specimens was loaded in combination of torque and inner overpressure. To obtain the required input values the stress-strain analysis of specimens by finite element method in software Ansys was performed within the last experiment. For evaluation of the results the Fuxa's criterion was applied. The performed experiments and their results embody a good agreement with bellow mentioned conjugated strength criterion. The experiments were performed on reconstructed testing machine equipped by pressure chamber.

  10. 46 CFR 54.05-5 - Toughness test specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shown in Figure 4 of the specification. Special attention is drawn to the fact that the Charpy Keyhole....090-inch. In preparing weld specimens for dropweight testing, weld reinforcement shall be ground flush...

  11. Tensile and Creep Testing of Sanicro 25 Using Miniature Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymáček, Petr; Jarý, Milan; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Kloc, Luboš

    2018-01-16

    Tensile and creep properties of new austenitic steel Sanicro 25 at room temperature and operating temperature 700 °C were investigated by testing on miniature specimens. The results were correlated with testing on conventional specimens. Very good agreement of results was obtained, namely in yield and ultimate strength, as well as short-term creep properties. Although the creep rupture time was found to be systematically shorter and creep ductility lower in the miniature test, the minimum creep rates were comparable. The analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed similar ductile fracture morphology for both specimen geometries. One exception was found in a small area near the miniature specimen edge that was cut by electro discharge machining, where an influence of the steel fracture behavior at elevated temperature was identified.

  12. A general mixed mode fracture mechanics test specimen: The DCB-specimen loaded with uneven bending moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jørgensen, K.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratiobetween the two applied moments, the full mode...... glass-fibre laminates was studied. The mixed mode fracture resistance increased with increasing crack length due to fibre bridging, eventually reaching asteady-state level (R-curve behaviour). The steady-state fracture toughness level increased with increasing tangential crack opening displacement....

  13. Biaxial Testing of 2195 Aluminum Lithium Alloy Using Cruciform Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W. M.; Pollock, W. D.; Dawicke, D. S.; Wagner, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A cruciform biaxial test specimen was used to test the effect of biaxial load on the yield of aluminum-lithium alloy 2195. Fifteen cruciform specimens were tested from 2 thicknesses of 2195-T8 plate, 0.45 in. and 1.75 in. These results were compared to the results from uniaxial tensile tests of the same alloy, and cruciform biaxial tests of aluminum alloy 2219-T87.

  14. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Notched Specimen Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtrey, Michael David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Richard Neil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Creep behavior of Alloy 617 has been extensively characterized to support the development of a draft Code Case to qualify Alloy 617 in Section III division 5 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This will allow use of Alloy 617 in construction of nuclear reactor components at elevated temperatures and longer periods of time (up to 950°C and 100,000 hours). Prior to actual use, additional concerns not considered in the ASME code need to be addressed. Code Cases are based largely on uniaxial testing of smooth gage specimens. In service conditions, components will generally be under multi axial loading. There is also the concern of the behavior at discontinuities, such as threaded components. To address the concerns of multi axial creep behavior and at geometric discontinuities, notched specimens have been designed to create conditions representative of the states that service components experience. Two general notch geometries have been used for these series of tests: U notch and V notch specimens. The notches produce a tri axial stress state, though not uniform across the specimen. Characterization of the creep behavior of the U notch specimens and the creep rupture behavior of the V notch specimens provides a good approximation of the behavior expected of actual components. Preliminary testing and analysis have been completed and are reported in this document. This includes results from V notch specimens tested at 900°C and 800°C. Failure occurred in the smooth gage section of the specimen rather than at the root of the notch, though some damage was present at the root of the notch, where initial stress was highest. This indicates notch strengthening behavior in this material at these temperatures.

  15. Intraoperative specimen radiography in patients with nonpalpable malignant breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmachtenberg, C.; Engelken, F.; Fischer, T.; Bick, U.; Poellinger, A.; Fallenberg, E.M. [Charite, Berlin (Germany). Radiology

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Specimen mammography of nonpalpable wire-localized breast lesions is the standard in breast-conserving surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of intraoperative 2-view specimen mammography in different cancer types. Materials and Methods: After ethics approval, 3 readers retrospectively evaluated margins on 266 2-view specimen radiographs. They determined the closest margin and the orientation. The results were correlated with the histopathology (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] and contingency coefficient [CC]) and compared (Wilcoxon test). Results: Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was present in 115 (43 %), IDC in 75 (28 %), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) in 57 (22 %) and rare cancers (CA) in 19 specimens (7 %). The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive value (P/NPV) of specimen mammography were 0.50/0.86 and 0.86/0.50 for CA, 0.42/0.68 and 0.48/0.63 for IDC, 0.36/0.81 and 0.69/0.51 for ILC, and 0.22/0.78 and 0.68/0.32 for IDC+DCIS. Readers correctly identified the orientation of the closest margin in at least one view in an average of 149 specimens (56 %). CCs were between 0.680 (IDC) and 0.912 (CA), suggesting a moderate correlation between radiographic and histological orientation. The correlations were worse for the radiographic and histological distances, with ICC ranging from 0.238 (ILC) to 0.475 (CA). The Wilcoxon test revealed overestimation of the radiographic margins compared to the histological ones for DCIS. Conclusion: Our results suggest that specimen radiography has relatively good overall specificity and good PPV, while the sensitivity and NPV are low for DCIS. A negative result on specimen radiography does not rule out histologically involved margins. (orig.)

  16. Thinning of specimens for examination under the electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, J.

    1982-01-01

    Heretofore specimens have been thinned to penetration for examination by electron microscopy techniques, by ion erosion techniques. A more rapid technique is disclosed employing a beam or beams comprised solely of neutral particles. In tests carried out using this technique the sputtering rate from a sample specimen has been shown to be several percentages greater using a neutral source than from an ion source with the same flux density. (author)

  17. Improved PID control for triaxial testing liquefied specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Using a frictionless triaxial apparatus, sand specimens can be tested at relatively high axial strains, even while liquefying. However, liquefying specimens have extremely nonlinear stiffness, thus standard PID control does not perform well. To maintain control over applied loads, the PID...... controller was modified to adapt to disturbed soil states. The proposed methods expand the scope of testing towards options which are otherwise inaccessible by triaxial testing....

  18. Design and construction of OGL-1 Specimen Transfer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kunio; Saruta, Tohru; Nabeya, Hideaki; Nakagaki, Shogo; Nishizaki, Tadashi.

    1977-11-01

    OGL-1 is the first high temperature gas in-pile loop in Japan, which is installed in JMTR of Oarai Research Establishment, JAERI. As the JMTR is the PWR type, specimens must be set in the loop with a remote control system ''OGL-1 Specimen Transfer System'' because of the needs for moisture prevention and radiation shielding. Described in this report are design philosophy, loop development, problems in construction, inspection and operation. (auth.)

  19. Detecting Rickettsia parkeri Infection from Eschar Swab Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Detecting Rickettsia parkeri Infection from Eschar Swab Specimens Todd Myers, Tahaniyat Lalani, Mike Dent, Ju Jiang, Patrick L. Daly, Jason D...Maguire, and Allen L. Richards The typical clinical presentation of several spotted fever group Rickettsia infections includes eschars. Clinical...diagnosis by using an eschar swab specimen from patients infected with Rickettsia parkeri. Until 2004, all confirmed cases of tick-borne spotted

  20. Special fracture mechanics specimens for multilayer plastic pipes testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutař, Pavel; Šestáková, Lucie; Knésl, Zdeněk; Nezbedová, E.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 8 (2009), s. 785-792 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/0279; GA ČR GC101/09/J027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Multilayer plastic pipes * C-type specimen * K-calibration * Fracture toughness * Slow crack growth * Non-homogenous specimens Subject RIV: JL - Material s Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2009

  1. Failed PCR of Ganoderma type specimens affects nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R R M; Lima, N

    2015-06-01

    The nomenclature of Ganoderma used as a Chinese medicine is debated. A group of researchers could not amplify the DNA of type specimens and concluded the DNA was degraded irreparably. New topotypes were used as the type specimens which was premature. The use of internal amplification controls is recommended to determine if other factors were involved as alternative explanations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intraoperative specimen radiography in patients with nonpalpable malignant breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmachtenberg, C; Engelken, F; Fischer, T; Bick, U; Poellinger, A; Fallenberg, E M

    2012-07-01

    Specimen mammography of nonpalpable wire-localized breast lesions is the standard in breast-conserving surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of intraoperative 2-view specimen mammography in different cancer types. After ethics approval, 3 readers retrospectively evaluated margins on 266 2-view specimen radiographs. They determined the closest margin and the orientation. The results were correlated with the histopathology (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] and contingency coefficient [CC]) and compared (Wilcoxon test). Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was present in 115 (43 %), IDC in 75 (28 %), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) in 57 (22 %) and rare cancers (CA) in 19 specimens (7 %). The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive value (P/NPV) of specimen mammography were 0.50/0.86 and 0.86/0.50 for CA, 0.42/0.68 and 0.48/0.63 for IDC, 0.36/0.81 and 0.69/0.51 for ILC, and 0.22/0.78 and 0.68/0.32 for IDC+DCIS. Readers correctly identified the orientation of the closest margin in at least one view in an average of 149 specimens (56 %). CCs were between 0.680 (IDC) and 0.912 (CA), suggesting a moderate correlation between radiographic and histological orientation. The correlations were worse for the radiographic and histological distances, with ICC ranging from 0.238 (ILC) to 0.475 (CA). The Wilcoxon test revealed overestimation of the radiographic margins compared to the histological ones for DCIS. Our results suggest that specimen radiography has relatively good overall specificity and good PPV, while the sensitivity and NPV are low for DCIS. A negative result on specimen radiography does not rule out histologically involved margins. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Intraoperative specimen radiography in patients with nonpalpable malignant breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmachtenberg, C.; Engelken, F.; Fischer, T.; Bick, U.; Poellinger, A.; Fallenberg, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Specimen mammography of nonpalpable wire-localized breast lesions is the standard in breast-conserving surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of intraoperative 2-view specimen mammography in different cancer types. Materials and Methods: After ethics approval, 3 readers retrospectively evaluated margins on 266 2-view specimen radiographs. They determined the closest margin and the orientation. The results were correlated with the histopathology (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] and contingency coefficient [CC]) and compared (Wilcoxon test). Results: Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was present in 115 (43 %), IDC in 75 (28 %), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) in 57 (22 %) and rare cancers (CA) in 19 specimens (7 %). The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive value (P/NPV) of specimen mammography were 0.50/0.86 and 0.86/0.50 for CA, 0.42/0.68 and 0.48/0.63 for IDC, 0.36/0.81 and 0.69/0.51 for ILC, and 0.22/0.78 and 0.68/0.32 for IDC+DCIS. Readers correctly identified the orientation of the closest margin in at least one view in an average of 149 specimens (56 %). CCs were between 0.680 (IDC) and 0.912 (CA), suggesting a moderate correlation between radiographic and histological orientation. The correlations were worse for the radiographic and histological distances, with ICC ranging from 0.238 (ILC) to 0.475 (CA). The Wilcoxon test revealed overestimation of the radiographic margins compared to the histological ones for DCIS. Conclusion: Our results suggest that specimen radiography has relatively good overall specificity and good PPV, while the sensitivity and NPV are low for DCIS. A negative result on specimen radiography does not rule out histologically involved margins. (orig.)

  4. In search of the rainbow: Colored inks in surgical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralekha Tampi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although surgical pathologists are aware of the multiple advantages that coloured inks contribute to surgical pathology practice, these coloured inks are not available in India and importing them is not a viable proposition. A systematic search for locally available coloring agents was done, and resulted in identifying specific shades within a popular set of children′s hobby colors of a particular brand. They retain their bright distinct colors on paraffin blocks and sections. These paints are available all over India, and are cheap, safe, and easy to use. Coloring gross specimen excision margins with different colors, adds precision to margin examination. It allows three-dimensional microscopic reconstruction of the tumor vis-a-vis its various neighboring anatomic structures. It allows postoperative comparison of tissue planes predicted by preoperative imaging. It maintains orientation of grossed and dissected specimens, enabling the pathologist to re-visit the grossed specimen, if required, and confidently allows further sampling if necessary. Aim: A systematic search for indigenous coloring agents was carried out, which included the dyes used in the histopathology laboratory, gelatin, commercially available paints, including acrylic paints and inks. Results: The study identified specific shades within a brand of acrylic colors that are easily available and simple to use, with good results on microscopic examination. Conclusion: Colored inks lend precision to margin examination. A set of easily procurable colors are available in our country, which are easy to use, with distinct bright colors, safe, and reliable.

  5. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  6. [Surgical treatment of gynecomastia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Târcoveanu, E; Lupaşcu, C; Vasilescu, A; Moldovanu, R; Ichim, Mihaela; Georgescu, St; Niculescu, D; Dănilă, N; Dimofte, G; Anton, Raluca; Crumpei, Felicia; Florea, Niculina; Ungureanu, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Gynecomastia describes a benign increase of the mammary gland in men. When medical treatment fails, the surgical procedure is the treatment of choice. There are two main surgical procedures: subdermal mastectomy and liposuction. To evaluate the results after surgical treatment (mastectomy) performed in a general surgery unit. We performed a retrospective study; all the patients operated for gynecomastia were reviewed. The clinical, imaging, biological, intraoperative and histological data were included into a MS Access database and statistical analyzed. From 1990-2007, 114 patients were admitted in the First Surgical Clinic Iaşi for gynecomastia. Only 12.6% from the patients were with bilateral gynecomastia. The mean age was 40.54 +/- 1.83 years old (range 12-84). Mean body mass was 26.72 +/- 0.46 kg/m2 (range 18.5-41), and about 20% from the patients had a BMI of over 30 kg/m2. We also noted that 46.5% were smokers. Simon classification was used for preoperative staging: 2.6% from the cases (N = 3) were included in stage I, 16.7% (N = 19) in stage IIa, 50% (N = 57) in stage IIb and 30.7% in stage III. The patients included in stages IIa and I are younger then the patients included in stage III (p = 0.024). Mastodynia was noted in 46 cases (40.4%). Ultrasound exam was performed in all the cases, and the larger diameter of the nodule measured was 3.75 +/- 0.18 cm (range 0.5-9.7). Only three cases were preoperatively treated with tamoxifen. Most of the cases were operated using general anesthesia (53.5%). Mastectomy was performed by peri-areolar (70.2%), elliptical (28.9%) or radial (0.9%) incisions. The subdermal mastectomy using peri-areolar approach was performed especially for the cases included in stages I, IIa and IIb--p gynecomastia in 6 cases; the other cases presented dilated ducts. We also noted intraductal papillary hyperplasia in 87 cases and chronic inflammation in 35 cases. The histological exam also revealed intraductal papilloma--9 cases, fibro

  7. Hydrogen embrittlement of titanium tested with fracture mechanics specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aho-Mantila, I.; Rahko, P.

    1990-11-01

    Titanium is one of the possible canister materials for spent nuclear fuel. The aim of this study is to determine whether the hydrogen embrittlement of titanium could be a possible deterioration mechanism of titanium canisters. This experimental study was preceded by a literature review and an experimental study on crack nucleation. Tests in this study were carried out with hydrogen charged fracture mechanics specimens. The studied hydrogen contents were as received, 100 ppm, 200 ppm, 500 ppm and 700 ppm and the types of the studied titanium were ASTM Grades 2 and 12. Test methods were slow tensile test (0.027 mm/h) and fatigue test (stress ratio 0.7 or 0.8 and frequency 5 Hz). According to the literature titanium may be embrittled by hydrogen at slow strain rates and cracking may occur under sustained load. In this study no evidence of hydrogen embrittlement was noticed in slow strain rate tension with bulk hydrogen contents up to 700 ppm. The fatigue tests of titanium Grades 2 and 12 containing 700 ppm hydrogen showed even slower crack growth compared to the as received condition. Very high hydrogen contents well in eccess of 700 ppm on the surface of titanium can, however, facilitate surface crack nucleation and crack growth, as shown in the previous study

  8. Effectiveness of core biopsy for screen-detected breast lesions under 10 mm: implications for surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshid, Gelareh; Downey, Peter; Pieterse, Steve; Gill, P Grantley

    2017-09-01

    Technical advances have improved the detection of small mammographic lesions. In the context of mammographic screening, accurate sampling of these lesions by percutaneous biopsy is crucial in limiting diagnostic surgical biopsies, many of which show benign results. Women undergoing core biopsy between January 1997 and December 2007 for core histology, 345 women (43.0%) were immediately cleared of malignancy and 300 (37.4%) were referred for definitive cancer treatment. A further 157 women (19.6%) required diagnostic surgical biopsy because of indefinite or inadequate core results or radiological-pathological discordance, and one woman (0.1%) needed further imaging in 12 months. The open biopsies were malignant in 46 (29.3%) cases. The positive predictive value of malignant core biopsy was 100%. The negative predictive value for benign core results was 97.7%, and the false-negative rate was 2.6%. The lesion could not be visualized after core biopsy in 5.1% of women and in 4.0% of women with malignant core biopsies excision specimens did not contain residual malignancy. Excessive delays in surgery because of complications of core biopsy were not reported. Even at this small size range, core biopsy evaluation of screen-detected breast lesions is highly effective and accurate. A lesion miss rate of 3.1% and under-representation of lesions on core samples highlight the continued need for multidisciplinary collaboration and selective use of diagnostic surgical biopsy. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. Surgical Instrument Sets for Special Operations Expeditionary Surgical Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Diane F; Sexton, Justin C; Benavides, Linda C; Benavides, Jerry M; Lundy, Jonathan B

    The deployment of surgical assets has been driven by mission demands throughout years of military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The transition to the highly expeditious Golden Hour Offset Surgical Transport Team (GHOST- T) now offers highly mobile surgical assets in nontraditional operating rooms; the content of the surgical instrument sets has also transformed to accommodate this change. The 102nd Forward Surgical Team (FST) was attached to Special Operations assigned to southern Afghanistan from June 2015 to March 2016. The focus was to decrease overall size and weight of FST instrument sets without decreasing surgical capability of the GHOST-T. Each instrument set was evaluated and modified to include essential instruments to perform damage control surgery. The overall number of main instrument sets was decreased from eight to four; simplified augmentation sets have been added, which expand the capabilities of any main set. The overall size was decreased by 40% and overall weight decreased by 58%. The cardiothoracic, thoracotomy, and emergency thoracotomy trays were condensed to thoracic set. The orthopedic and amputation sets were replaced with an augmentation set of a prepackaged orthopedic external fixator set). An augmentation set to the major or minor basic sets, specifically for vascular injuries, was created. Through the reorganization of conventional FST surgical instrument sets to maintain damage control capabilities and mobility, the 102nd GHOST-T reduced surgical equipment volume and weight, providing a lesson learned for future surgical teams operating in austere environments. 2017.

  10. Intraoperative digital specimen radiography in the treatment of nonpalpable breast lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicko Ferenc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. About a third of the breast lesions on mammography are clinically occult. The goals of surgical treatment are to locate, remove, and verify their presence in the removed breast tissue. Standard specimen mammography (SSM has been an official procedure for the latter, while intraoperative digital specimen radiography (IDSR was introduced recently. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of IDSR versus SSM and possible benefits regarding the duration of the procedures (operating room occupancy, availability of digital mammography for additional number of patients, surgeon productivity, and the quality of performed services. Methods. A retrospective chart review of 109 patients who underwent IDSR for nonpalpable breast lesions was performed between January 2014 and June 2016. We compared the difference in the duration of IDSR versus SSM procedure. We also observed the number of re-excisions and evaluated time-saving in the operating room workflow. Results. The average duration of surgery in the IDSR group of patients was 51 minutes, compared to 64 minutes in the SSM group. Every IDSR procedure saved 13 minutes over the standard SSM. That would allow another 28 procedures in the same time frame, with the same quality of service compared with SSM. In that way we increased productivity by 27.5%. Additional operation/surgery was needed for histologically involved surgical margins in three cases (2.75%. Conclusion. The use of new technology resulted in the rationalization of the operative room workflow and gave better productivity. More savings were obtained through the increase of digital mammography capacity for diagnostics, decrease of anesthesia duration, and better management of human resources. The number of “true” re-excisions, involving additional surgery, remained similar after introducing IDSR.

  11. A Novel Surgical Pre-suturing Technique for the Management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cannot be protruded beyond lower incisor teeth because of a short lingual ... suggests that surgical interventions are absolutely safe at any age including ... Surgical procedures indicated for ankyloglossia are highly predictable but shows poor ...

  12. Influence of Specimen Preparation and Test Methods on the Flexural Strength Results of Monolithic Zirconia Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Christine; Strickstrock, Monika; Roos, Malgorzata; Edelhoff, Daniel; Eichberger, Marlis; Zylla, Isabella-Maria; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-03-09

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx² (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods were applied: either dry polishing before sintering or wet polishing after sintering. Each subgroup included 40 specimens. The surface roughness was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a profilometer whereas monoclinic phase transformation was investigated with X-ray diffraction. The data were analyzed using a three-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with respect to the three factors: zirconia, specimen preparation, and test method. One-way ANOVA was conducted for the test method and zirconia factors within the combination of two other factors. A 2-parameter Weibull distribution assumption was applied to analyze the reliability under different testing conditions. In general, values measured using the 4-point test method presented the lowest flexural strength values. The flexural strength findings can be grouped in the following order: 4-point strength values than prepared before sintering. The Weibull moduli ranged from 5.1 to 16.5. Specimens polished before sintering showed higher surface roughness values than specimens polished after sintering. In contrast, no strong impact of the polishing procedures on the monoclinic surface layer was observed. No impact of zirconia material on flexural strength was found. The test method and the preparation method significantly influenced the flexural strength values.

  13. Quality assurance in head and neck surgical oncology: EORTC 24954 trial on larynx preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemans, C R; Tijink, B M; Langendijk, J A; Andry, G; Hamoir, M; Lefebvre, J L

    2013-09-01

    The Head and Neck Cancer Group (HNCG) of the EORTC conducted a quality assurance program in the EORTC 24954 trial on larynx preservation. In this multicentre study, patients with resectable advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx were randomly assigned for treatment with sequential or alternating chemoradiation. The need for a quality assurance program is the evaluation and prevention of differences in treatments between centres in this multidisciplinary study. The surgical subcommittee of the HNCG prepared a questionnaire, and clinical records of all patients were verified during audits of independent teams. Data relating institutional practices were collected during a face to face interview with members of the local team. 271 clinical records from the nine main contributing centres were reviewed. The main difference between centres was the time interval between first consultation and treatment initiation, with a mean of 45 days. On the pathology report the nodal involvement was described by level in 36% of the cases according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery classification. Extranodal spread was not always described in neck dissection specimens. The EORTC 24954 trial on larynx preservation was the first prospective trial with a quality assurance program in head and neck surgical oncology. The analysis shows similarities in practices, but also points out some important differences between centres. Operation reports were fairly complete, but uniformity in pathology reports should be improved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cost-effective framework for basic surgical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Deng-Jin; Wen, Chan; Yang, Ai-Jun; Zhu, Zhi-Li; Lei, Yan; Lan, Yang-Jun; Huang, Qing-Yuan; Hou, Xiao-Yu

    2013-06-01

    The importance of basic surgical skills is entirely agreed among surgical educators. However, restricted by ethical issues, finance etc, the basic surgical skills training is increasingly challenged. Increasing cost gives an impetus to the development of cost-effective training models to meet the trainees' acquisition of basic surgical skills. In this situation, a cost-effective training framework was formed in our department and introduced here. Each five students were assigned to a 'training unit'. The training was implemented weekly for 18 weeks. The framework consisted of an early, a transitional, an integrative stage and a surgical skills competition. Corresponding training modules were selected and assembled scientifically at each stage. The modules comprised campus intranet databases, sponge benchtop, nonliving animal tissue, local dissection specimens and simulating reality operations. The training outcomes used direct observation of procedural skills as an assessment tool. The training data of 50 trainees who were randomly selected in each year from 2006 to 2011 year, were retrospectively analysed. An excellent and good rate of the surgical skills is from 82 to 88%, but there is no significant difference among 6 years (P > 0.05). The skills scores of the contestants are markedly higher than those of non-contestants (P < 0.05). The average training cost per trainee is about $21.85-34.08. The present training framework is reliable, feasible, repeatable and cost-effective. The skills competition can promote to improve the surgical skills level of trainees. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  15. Track Detection Technique Using CR-39 for Determining Depleted Uranium in Biological Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murbat, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Track detecting technique using CR-39 track detector has been implemented for determining depleted uranium concentration in biological specimens (tissues, bones, and blood) of patients infected with cancer diseases. Results were compared with specimens of patients infected with conventional diseases (noncancerous). Specimens were collected from middle and south of Iraq have been contaminated with depleted uranium in the Gulf war in 1991. Results show that this technique is efficient for determining depleted uranium concentration in biological specimens. It was found that all studies samples determine for patients infected with cancer diseases contain a high concentration of depleted uranium (more than the international standard) comparing with noncancerous diseases. Moreover, it was found that persons infected with Leukemia show more sensitive to uranium concentrations to induce the diseases (66-202 ppb), while (116- 1910 ppb) concentrations were needed for inducing cancer diseases in organs and tissues. Result confirmed the correlation between cancerous diseases and the munitions made of depleted uranium used in the Gulf war in 1991 leads to contaminate the Iraqi environment and causes a high risk against people in Iraq.

  16. High strain rate mechanical response of buttress-grooved tensile specimens which have undergone environmental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirick, L.J.

    1976-07-01

    The purpose of the corrosion compatibility program was to identify the effect of corrosion on the mechanical performance of the buttress-grooved section of the 105-mm penetrator, a section which must sustain a load during launch. It is important that the environment not deteriorate the mechanical integrity of these grooves during long-term storage. Both coated and uncoated test specimens which simulate both geometrical shape and residual stress patterns were exposed to corrosive environments of moist air, distilled water, and salt water. Some of these tests also incorporated the galvanic coupling caused by the aluminum sabot. After exposure to the corrosive environments, the specimens were pulled on a high strain rate tensile machine which simulated launch conditions. Results show that the galvanic coupling due to the aluminum sabot caused no deterioration of mechanical properties. Results do indicate that the coating applied caused a significant reduction in the fracture load. There was a dichotomy in the results as affected by the environment. Uncoated test specimens showed no change in fracture load with increasing severity of corrosion environment, whereas the coated specimens indicated a trend of decreasing load-bearing ability with increasing corrosion

  17. Quantitative sensing of corroded steel rebar embedded in cement mortar specimens using ultrasonic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu Twumasi, Jones; Le, Viet; Tang, Qixiang; Yu, Tzuyang

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcing bars (rebars) is the primary cause for the deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. Traditional corrosion monitoring methods such as half-cell potential and linear polarization resistance can only detect the presence of corrosion but cannot quantify it. This study presents an experimental investigation of quantifying degree of corrosion of steel rebar inside cement mortar specimens using ultrasonic testing (UT). A UT device with two 54 kHz transducers was used to measure ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of cement mortar, uncorroded and corroded reinforced cement mortar specimens, utilizing the direct transmission method. The results obtained from the study show that UPV decreases linearly with increase in degree of corrosion and corrosion-induced cracks (surface cracks). With respect to quantifying the degree of corrosion, a model was developed by simultaneously fitting UPV and surface crack width measurements to a two-parameter linear model. The proposed model can be used for predicting the degree of corrosion of steel rebar embedded in cement mortar under similar conditions used in this study up to 3.03%. Furthermore, the modeling approach can be applied to corroded reinforced concrete specimens with additional modification. The findings from this study show that UT has the potential of quantifying the degree of corrosion inside reinforced cement mortar specimens.

  18. Evaluation of Intraosseous Fluid as an Alternative Biological Specimen in Postmortem Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Volk, Justin A; Moffat, Ellen; Williams, Chinyere M; Lynch, Kara L; Wu, Alan H B

    2018-04-01

    The postmortem redistribution phenomenon is an important factor in the interpretation of blood drug concentrations as a cause or factor in death. Intraosseous fluid (IOF) may serve as an alternative matrix for drug testing. Intraosseous fluid was collected from the left and right tibias and humerus of 29 decedents using the Arrow EZ-IO Intraosseous Vascular Access System. Standard autopsy specimens including blood were also collected at the same time during autopsy. Blood and IOF specimens were screened by immunoassay for opioids, fentanyl analogs, oxycodone, methadone, cocaine, methamphetamine, amphetamines, phencyclidine, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cannabinoids, using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Correlation between cardiac/central blood ELISA and IOF ELISA results was mostly 100% for drug targets. Further blood confirmation analysis was performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry also showed comparable correlation to IOF screen results. There was no significant difference between the IOF sites or sides of the body. This novel study supports the use of IOF as an alternative postmortem specimen for toxicological investigations as a potentially less-compromised tissue in decomposed or traumatized bodies. Preliminary data is provided for the screening of common drugs of abuse in IOF that may show to be subject to alternative rates of postmortem redistribution than to that of other biological specimens in future studies that quantitate IOF drug concentrations.

  19. Global curriculum in surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are, C; Berman, R S; Wyld, L; Cummings, C; Lecoq, C; Audisio, R A

    2016-06-01

    The significant global variations in surgical oncology training paradigms can have a detrimental effect on tackling the rising global cancer burden. While some variations in training are essential to account for the differences in types of cancer and biology, the fundamental principles of providing care to a cancer patient remain the same. The development of a global curriculum in surgical oncology with incorporated essential standards could be very useful in building an adequately trained surgical oncology workforce, which in turn could help in tackling the rising global cancer burden. The leaders of the Society of Surgical Oncology and European Society of Surgical Oncology convened a global curriculum committee to develop a global curriculum in surgical oncology. A global curriculum in surgical oncology was developed to incorporate the required domains considered to be essential in training a surgical oncologist. The curriculum was constructed in a modular fashion to permit flexibility to suit the needs of the different regions of the world. Similarly, recognizing the various sociocultural, financial and cultural influences across the world, the proposed curriculum is aspirational and not mandatory in intent. A global curriculum was developed which may be considered as a foundational scaffolding for training surgical oncologists worldwide. It is envisioned that this initial global curriculum will provide a flexible and modular scaffolding that can be tailored by individual countries or regions to train surgical oncologists in a way that is appropriate for practice in their local environment. Copyright © 2016 Society of Surgical Oncology, European Society of Surgical Oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. 3D printing from microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT) in human specimens: education and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelmerdine, Susan C; Simcock, Ian C; Hutchinson, John Ciaran; Aughwane, Rosalind; Melbourne, Andrew; Nikitichev, Daniil I; Ong, Ju-Ling; Borghi, Alessandro; Cole, Garrard; Kingham, Emilia; Calder, Alistair D; Capelli, Claudio; Akhtar, Aadam; Cook, Andrew C; Schievano, Silvia; David, Anna; Ourselin, Sebastian; Sebire, Neil J; Arthurs, Owen J

    2018-06-14

    Microfocus CT (micro-CT) is an imaging method that provides three-dimensional digital data sets with comparable resolution to light microscopy. Although it has traditionally been used for non-destructive testing in engineering, aerospace industries and in preclinical animal studies, new applications are rapidly becoming available in the clinical setting including post-mortem fetal imaging and pathological specimen analysis. Printing three-dimensional models from imaging data sets for educational purposes is well established in the medical literature, but typically using low resolution (0.7 mm voxel size) data acquired from CT or MR examinations. With higher resolution imaging (voxel sizes below 1 micron, printing of micro-CT imaged specimens can provide insight into craniofacial surgical applications, developmental cardiac anatomy, placental imaging, archaeological remains and high-resolution bone imaging. We conclude with other potential future usages of this emerging technique.

  1. A simple method for the prevention of endometrial autolysis in hysterectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, J P; Roddy, S; Carroll, S; McCluggage, W G

    2004-03-01

    Uteri are among the most common surgical pathology specimens. Assessment of the endometrium is often difficult because of pronounced tissue autolysis. This study describes a simple method to prevent endometrial autolysis and aid in interpretation of the endometrium. Sixty uteri were injected with formalin using a needle and syringe directed alongside a probe, which was inserted through the external cervical os into the endometrial cavity. Injection was performed on the same day as removal of the uterus. As controls, 60 uteri that were not injected with formalin were examined. The degree of endometrial autolysis was assessed on a four point scale (0-3), with a score of 0 representing no or minimal autolysis and a score of 3 representing extensive autolysis, such that histological interpretation of the endometrium was impossible. In the injected group, the number of cases with scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3 was 42, 13, four, and one, respectively. The corresponding values for the control group were 17, 23, eight, and 12, respectively. This was highly significant (p autolysis in uteri injected with formalin. The use of this simple procedure should be encouraged in hysterectomy specimens.

  2. Reliability of 46,XX results on miscarriage specimens: a review of 1,222 first-trimester miscarriage specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathi, Ruth B; Gustin, Stephanie L F; Keller, Jennifer; Maisenbacher, Melissa K; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Tao, Rosina; Demko, Zach

    2014-01-01

    To examine the rate of maternal contamination in miscarriage specimens. Retrospective review of 1,222 miscarriage specimens submitted for chromosome testing with detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC). Referral centers requesting genetic testing of miscarriage specimens at a single reference laboratory. Women with pregnancy loss who desire complete chromosome analysis of the pregnancy tissue. Analysis of miscarriage specimens using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray technology with bioinformatics program to detect maternal cell contamination. Chromosome content of miscarriages and incidence of 46,XX results due to MCC. Of the 1,222 samples analyzed, 592 had numeric chromosomal abnormalities, and 630 were normal 46,XX or 46,XY (456 and 187, respectively). In 269 of the 46,XX specimens, MCC with no embryonic component was found. With the exclusion of maternal 46,XX results, the chromosomal abnormality rate increased from 48% to 62%, and the ratio for XX to XY results dropped from 2.6 to 1.0. Over half of the normal 46,XX results in miscarriage specimens were due to MCC. The use of SNPs in MCC testing allows for precise identification of chromosomal abnormalities in miscarriage as well as MCC, improving the accuracy of products of conception testing. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. VEIL Surgical Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, S K; Nagaraja, H; Srivatsa, N

    2017-03-01

    Inguinal lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for metastatic nodal disease in cases of penile, urethral, vulval and vaginal cancers. Outcomes, including cure rates and overall and progression-free survivals, have progressively improved in these diseases with extending criteria to offer inguinal lymph node dissection for patients 'at-risk' for metastasis or loco-regional recurrence. Hence, despite declining incidence of advanced stages of these cancers, many patients will still need to undergo lymphadenectomy for optimal oncological outcomes. Inguinal node dissection is a morbid procedure with operative morbidity noted in almost two third of the patients. Video endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy (VEIL) was described and currently practiced with proven equivalent oncological outcomes. We describe our technique of VEIL using laparoscopic and robotic access as well as various new surgical strategies.

  4. Aggressive surgical management of craniopharyngiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manmohan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of craniopharyngiomas is challenging and despite advancements it continues to pose a challenge. Proponents of subtotal resection in conjunction with radiotherapy argue that this less aggressive approach can yield appropriate results with the lower morbidity. On the contrary, other argument is that gross total resection is superior. Though surgical management of craniopharyngioma is challenging due to its location and important surrounding neurovascular structures, optimal surgical results can be expected following radical surgical excision. Radical excision of craniopharyngiomas is associated with excellent long-term recurrence free survival. Radiation induced long-term complications can be altogether avoided by excising these tumors completely.

  5. Surgical treatment of parastomal hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basti, Z.; Mayer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Stoma construction is among standard surgical skills and is performed for many indications. Every stoma means huge impact on quality of life for patients even with great improvement in surgical technique and ostomy devices. All patients are very sensitive to complication of stoma and the most frequent complication is parastomal hernia. Incidence reported in literature is very high and unacceptable, it is 30-70%. Surgical approach is very demanding on technical equipment and experiences of surgeon. Authors focus on each surgical approach for treating this complication weather it´s using mesh or laparoscopic or open approach. (author)

  6. Elastic scattering spectroscopy findings in formalin-fixed oral squamous cell carcinoma specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinson, B.; Elmaaytah, M.; Jerjes, W.; Hopper, C.

    2005-11-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been shown to spread locally and infiltrate adjacent bone or via the lymphatic system to the cervical lymph nodes. This usually necessitates a surgical neck dissection and either a local or segmental resection for bone clearance. While histopathology remains the gold standard for tissue diagnosis, several new diagnostic techniques are being developed that rely on physical and biochemical changes that mirror or precede malignant changes within tissue. The aim of this study was to compare findings of Elastic Scattering Spectroscopy (ESS) with histopathology on formalin-fixed specimens of both neck lymph node dissections and de-calcified archival bone from patients with OSCC. We wished to see if this technique could be used as an adjunct or alternative to histopathology in defining cervical nodal involvement and if it could be used to identify bone resection margins positive for tumour. 130 lymph nodes were examined from 13 patients. The nodes were formalin-fixed, bivalved and examined by ESS. The intensity of the spectrum at 4 points was considered for comparison; at 360nm, 450nm, 630nm and 690nm. 341 spectra were taken from the mandibular specimens of 21 patients, of which 231 spectra were taken from histologically positive sites and the rest were normal. The nodes and bone specimens were then routinely processed with haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, examined histopathologically, and the results compared. Using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) as a statistical method, a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 68% was obtained for the neck nodes and a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 80% for the bone margins.

  7. Ultrasound and MRI predictors of surgical bowel resection in pediatric Crohn disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, Daniel G.; Conrad, Maire A.; Kelsen, Judith R.; Biko, David M.; Anupindi, Sudha A.; Ruchelli, Eduardo D.

    2017-01-01

    increased mean bowel wall thickness (9.1 mm vs. 7.2 mm for the nonsurgical group; P = 0.02), increased mean T2 ratio (4.6 vs. 3.6 for the nonsurgical group; P = 0.03), different enhancement patterns (P = 0.03), increased mesenteric edema (P = 0.001) and increased stricture formation (OR = 8.2; 95% CI: 1.8-36.4; P = 0.005). Nineteen of 22 ileocecectomy specimens showed severe inflammation and 21/22 showed severe fibrosis, with significant correlation between inflammation and fibrosis scores (ρ = 0.55; P = 0.008); however, correlation with imaging findings was limited by the uniformity of findings on histopathology. Children with terminal ileal Crohn disease requiring surgical bowel resection demonstrate more severe manifestations of imaging features traditionally associated with both active inflammation and chronic fibrosis than those managed medically on US and MRE, findings that are corroborated by histopathology. These features may potentially serve as imaging biomarkers indicating the necessity for surgical intervention. (orig.)

  8. Ultrasound and MRI predictors of surgical bowel resection in pediatric Crohn disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, Daniel G. [NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medicine, Division of Pediatric Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Conrad, Maire A.; Kelsen, Judith R. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Biko, David M.; Anupindi, Sudha A. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ruchelli, Eduardo D. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Anatomic Pathology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    increased mean bowel wall thickness (9.1 mm vs. 7.2 mm for the nonsurgical group; P = 0.02), increased mean T2 ratio (4.6 vs. 3.6 for the nonsurgical group; P = 0.03), different enhancement patterns (P = 0.03), increased mesenteric edema (P = 0.001) and increased stricture formation (OR = 8.2; 95% CI: 1.8-36.4; P = 0.005). Nineteen of 22 ileocecectomy specimens showed severe inflammation and 21/22 showed severe fibrosis, with significant correlation between inflammation and fibrosis scores (ρ = 0.55; P = 0.008); however, correlation with imaging findings was limited by the uniformity of findings on histopathology. Children with terminal ileal Crohn disease requiring surgical bowel resection demonstrate more severe manifestations of imaging features traditionally associated with both active inflammation and chronic fibrosis than those managed medically on US and MRE, findings that are corroborated by histopathology. These features may potentially serve as imaging biomarkers indicating the necessity for surgical intervention. (orig.)

  9. Ultrasound and MRI predictors of surgical bowel resection in pediatric Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Daniel G; Conrad, Maire A; Biko, David M; Ruchelli, Eduardo D; Kelsen, Judith R; Anupindi, Sudha A

    2017-01-01

    surgical group showed increased mean bowel wall thickness (9.1 mm vs. 7.2 mm for the nonsurgical group; P = 0.02), increased mean T2 ratio (4.6 vs. 3.6 for the nonsurgical group; P = 0.03), different enhancement patterns (P = 0.03), increased mesenteric edema (P = 0.001) and increased stricture formation (OR = 8.2; 95% CI: 1.8-36.4; P = 0.005). Nineteen of 22 ileocecectomy specimens showed severe inflammation and 21/22 showed severe fibrosis, with significant correlation between inflammation and fibrosis scores (ρ = 0.55; P = 0.008); however, correlation with imaging findings was limited by the uniformity of findings on histopathology. Children with terminal ileal Crohn disease requiring surgical bowel resection demonstrate more severe manifestations of imaging features traditionally associated with both active inflammation and chronic fibrosis than those managed medically on US and MRE, findings that are corroborated by histopathology. These features may potentially serve as imaging biomarkers indicating the necessity for surgical intervention.

  10. Effects of specimen size on the flexural strength and Weibull modulus of nuclear graphite IG-110, NBG-18, and PCEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Se-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Changes in flexural strength and Weibull modulus due to specimen size were investigated for three nuclear graphite grades, IG-110, NBG-18, and PCEA, using four-point-1/3 point (4-1/3) loading with specimens of three different sizes: 3.18 (Thickness) × 6.35 (Width) × 50.8 (Length), 6.50 (T) × 12.0 (W) × 52.0 (L), 18.0 (T) × 16.0 (W) × 64 (L) (mm) (total: 210 specimens). Results showed some specimen size effects were grade dependent: While NBG-18 (a) showed rather significant specimen size effects (37% difference between the 3 T and 18 T), the differences in IG-110 and PCEA were 7.6–15%. The maximum differences in flexural strength due to specimen size were larger in the PCEA and NBG-18 having larger sized coke particles (medium grain size: >300 μm) than the IG-110 with super fine coke particle size (25 μm). The Weibull modulus showed a data population dependency, in that it decreased with increasing numbers of data used for modulus determination. A good correlation between the fracture surface roughness and the flexural strength was confirmed

  11. AGC-2 Specimen Post Irradiation Data Package Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windes, William Enoch [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swank, W. David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rohrbaugh, David T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cottle, David L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report documents results of the post-irradiation examination material property testing of the creep, control, and piggyback specimens from the irradiation creep capsule Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC)-2 are reported. This is the second of a series of six irradiation test trains planned as part of the AGC experiment to fully characterize the neutron irradiation effects and radiation creep behavior of current nuclear graphite grades. The AGC-2 capsule was irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor at a nominal temperature of 600°C and to a peak dose of 5 dpa (displacements per atom). One-half of the creep specimens were subjected to mechanical stresses (an applied stress of either 13.8, 17.2, or 20.7 MPa) to induce irradiation creep. All post-irradiation testing and measurement results are reported with the exception of the irradiation mechanical strength testing, which is the last destructive testing stage of the irradiation testing program. Material property tests were conducted on specimens from 15 nuclear graphite grades using a similar loading configuration as the first AGC capsule (AGC-1) to provide easy comparison between the two capsules. However, AGC-2 contained an increased number of specimens (i.e., 487 total specimens irradiated) and replaced specimens of the minor grade 2020 with the newer grade 2114. The data reported include specimen dimensions for both stressed and unstressed specimens to establish the irradiation creep rates, mass and volume data necessary to derive density, elastic constants (Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio) from ultrasonic time-of-flight velocity measurements, Young’s modulus from the fundamental frequency of vibration, electrical resistivity, and thermal diffusivity and thermal expansion data from 100–500°C. No data outliers were determined after all measurements were completed. A brief statistical analysis was performed on the irradiated data and a limited comparison between

  12. Utility of bronchial lavage fluids for epithelial growth factor receptor mutation assay in lung cancer patients: Comparison between cell pellets, cell blocks and matching tissue specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, Shiho; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Nakata, Rie; Negishi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Shiina, Takayuki; Shigeto, Shohei; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Honda, Takayuki

    2018-01-01

    The detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations is necessary for the selection of suitable patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cytology specimens are known to be suitable for EGFR mutation detection, although tissue specimens should be prioritized; however, there are limited studies that examine the utility of bronchial lavage fluid (BLF) in mutation detection. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the utility of BLF specimens for the detection of EGFR mutations using a conventional quantitative EGFR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Initially, quantification cycle (Cq) values of cell pellets, cell-free supernatants and cell blocks obtained from three series of 1% EGFR mutation-positive lung cancer cell line samples were compared for mutation detection. In addition, PCR analysis of BLF specimens obtained from 77 consecutive NSCLC patients, detecting EGFR mutations was validated, and these results were compared with those for the corresponding formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens obtained by surgical resection or biopsy of 49 of these patients. The Cq values for mutation detection were significantly lower in the cell pellet group (average, 29.58) compared with the other groups, followed by those in cell-free supernatants (average, 34.15) and in cell blocks (average, 37.12) for all three series (P<0.05). Mutational status was successfully analyzed in 77 BLF specimens, and the results obtained were concordant with those of the 49 matching FFPE tissue specimens. Notably, EGFR mutations were even detected in 10 cytological specimens that contained insufficient tumor cells. EGFR mutation testing with BLF specimens is therefore a useful and reliable method, particularly when sufficient cancer cells are not obtained. PMID:29399190

  13. Small specimen technique for assessing mechanical properties of metallic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Morcelli, Aparecido E., E-mail: rmlobo@ipen.br, E-mail: morcelliae@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most promising techniques of small specimen test, which was originally applied in testing of irradiated materials in nuclear engineering. Then it was introduced to other fields as an almost nondestructive method to measure the local mechanical properties that are difficult to be obtained using conventional mechanical tests. Most studies to date are focused on metallic materials, although SPT applications are recently spreading to other materials. The small punch test (SPT) employs small-sized specimens (for example, samples measuring 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick). The specimen is firmly clamped between two circular dies and is bi-axially strained until failure into a circular hole using a hemispherical punch. The 'load-punch displacement' record can be used to estimate the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, the tensile elongation, and the temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Recently, some researchers are working on the use of miniature notched or pre-cracked specimens (denoted as p-SPT) to validate its geometry and dimensions for obtaining the fracture properties of metallic materials. In a first approach, the technique makes it possible to convert primary experimental data into conventional mechanical properties of a massive specimen. In this paper a comprehensive review of the different STP applications is presented with the aim of clarifying its usefulness. (author)

  14. Single specimen fracture toughness determination procedure using instrumented impact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1993-04-01

    In the study a new single specimen test method and testing facility for evaluating dynamic fracture toughness has been developed. The method is based on the application of a new pendulum type instrumented impact tester equipped with and optical crack mouth opening displacement (COD) extensometer. The fracture toughness measurement technique uses the Double Displacement Ratio (DDR) method, which is based on the assumption that the specimen is deformed as two rigid arms that rotate around an apparent centre of rotation. This apparent moves as the crack grows, and the ratio of COD versus specimen displacement changes. As a consequence the onset ductile crack initiation can be detected on the load-displacement curve. Thus, an energy-based fracture toughness can be calculated. In addition the testing apparatus can use specimens with the Double ligament size as compared with the standard Charpy specimen which makes the impact testing more appropriate from the fracture mechanics point of view. The novel features of the testing facility and the feasibility of the new DDR method has been verified by performing an extensive experimental and analytical study. (99 refs., 91 figs., 27 tabs.)

  15. An acceleration test for stress corrosion cracking using humped specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki; Fukumura, Takuya; Totsuka, Nobuo

    2003-01-01

    By using the humped specimen, which is processed by the humped die, in the slow strain rate technique (SSRT) test, fracture facet due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) can be observed in relatively short duration. Although the cold work and concentrated stress and strain caused by the characteristic shape of the specimen accelerate the SCC, to date these acceleration effects have not been examined quantitatively. In the present study, the acceleration effects of the humped specimen were examined through experiments and finite element analyses (FEA). The experiments investigated the SCC of alloy 600 in the primary water environment of a pressurized water reactor. SSRT tests were conducted using two kinds of humped specimen: one was annealed after hump processing in order to eliminate the cold work, and the other was hump processed after the annealing treatment. The work ratio caused by the hump processing and stress/strain conditions during SSRT test were evaluated by FEA. It was found that maximum work ratio of 30% is introduced by the hump processing and that the distribution of the work ratio is not uniform. Furthermore, the work ratio is influenced by the friction between the specimen and dies as well as by the shape of dies. It was revealed that not only the cold work but also the concentrated stress and strain during SSRT test accelerate the crack initiation and growth of the SCC. (author)

  16. Demonstration of Laser Cutting System for Tube Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y. G.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, H. M.; Ahn, S. B. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated fuel cladding and components interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, it was found that the mechanical testing data of the irradiated specimens with removal of oxide layer was less reliable than the specimens with oxide layer . The laser cutting system using Nd:YAG with fiber optic beam delivery has great potential in material processing applications of the irradiated fuel cladding and components due to non-contact process. Thus, the oxide layer doesn't interrupt the fabrication process during the laser cutting system. In the present study, the laser cutting system was designed to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding with and without oxide. The feasibility of the laser cutting system was demonstrated for the fabrication of various types of unirradiated specimens. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zirlo fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer. Based on the feasibility studies and demonstration, the design of the laser cutting machine for fully or partially automatic and remotely operable system will be proposed and made.

  17. Small specimen technique for assessing mechanical properties of metallic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Morcelli, Aparecido E.

    2017-01-01

    Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most promising techniques of small specimen test, which was originally applied in testing of irradiated materials in nuclear engineering. Then it was introduced to other fields as an almost nondestructive method to measure the local mechanical properties that are difficult to be obtained using conventional mechanical tests. Most studies to date are focused on metallic materials, although SPT applications are recently spreading to other materials. The small punch test (SPT) employs small-sized specimens (for example, samples measuring 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick). The specimen is firmly clamped between two circular dies and is bi-axially strained until failure into a circular hole using a hemispherical punch. The 'load-punch displacement' record can be used to estimate the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, the tensile elongation, and the temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Recently, some researchers are working on the use of miniature notched or pre-cracked specimens (denoted as p-SPT) to validate its geometry and dimensions for obtaining the fracture properties of metallic materials. In a first approach, the technique makes it possible to convert primary experimental data into conventional mechanical properties of a massive specimen. In this paper a comprehensive review of the different STP applications is presented with the aim of clarifying its usefulness. (author)

  18. Access to Specialized Surgical Care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY. January 2016 Volume 13 Issue 1 1. EDITORIAL. Access to Specialized Surgical Care. Saidi H. University of Nairobi. Correspondence to: Prof Hassan Saidi, P.O Box 30196-00100, Nairobi. Email: hsaid2ke@yahoo.com. Ann Afr Surg. 2016;13(1):1-2. The narrative of surgical disease in ...

  19. Surgical residency: A tenant's view

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'To sleep: perchance to dream', is the frequent mantra of the surgical resident. However, unlike. Hamlet, there is no ensuing speculation as to what dreams may come as there are seldom any!! Surgical residency has been both vilified and immortalized, but the fact remains that it is one of the most challenging, provocative ...

  20. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated

  1. Acquiring minimally invasive surgical skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Many topics in surgical skills education have been implemented without a solid scientific basis. For that reason we have tried to find this scientific basis. We have focused on training and evaluation of minimally invasive surgical skills in a training setting and in practice in the operating room.

  2. Friction Compensation in the Upsetting of Cylindrical Test Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Martins, P. A. F.; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript presents a combined numerical andexperimental methodology for determining the stress-straincurve of metallic materials from the measurements of forceand displacement obtained in the axial compression of cylindrical test specimens with friction between the specimens and the platens....... The methodology is based on minimizing the errorbetween the average surface pressure obtained from the experimental measurements of the force and displacement and thatobtained from the slab method of analysis of metal plasticity.Three different friction models based on Coulomb friction, the constant friction...... model or combined friction models are utilized .Experimental results obtained from cylindrical and Rastegaev test specimens with different lubricants combined with the experimental determination of friction by means of ring compression tests allows compensating the effect of friction...

  3. Thermal expansion of epoxy-fiberglass composite specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Bridgman, C.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal expansion behavior of three epoxy-fiberglass composite specimens was measured from 20 to 120 0 C (70 to 250 0 F) using a fused quartz push-rod dilatometer. Billets produced by vacuum impregnating layers of two types of fiberglass cloth with an epoxy resin were core-drilled to produce cylindrical specimens. These were used to study expansion perpendicular and parallel to the fiberglass layers. The dilatometer is held at a preselected temperature until steady-state is indicated by stable length and temperature data. Before testing the composite specimens, a reliability check of the dilatometer was performed using a copper secondary standard. This indicated thermal expansion coefficient (α) values within +-2% of expected values from 20 to 200 0 C

  4. Extraction of ultrashort DNA molecules from herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutaker, Rafal M; Reiter, Ella; Furtwängler, Anja; Schuenemann, Verena J; Burbano, Hernán A

    2017-02-01

    DNA extracted from herbarium specimens is highly fragmented; therefore, it is crucial to use extraction protocols that retrieve short DNA molecules. Improvements in extraction and DNA library preparation protocols for animal remains have allowed efficient retrieval of molecules shorter than 50 bp. Here, we applied these improvements to DNA extraction protocols for herbarium specimens and evaluated extraction performance by shotgun sequencing, which allows an accurate estimation of the distribution of DNA fragment lengths. Extraction with N-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB) buffer decreased median fragment length by 35% when compared with cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB); modifying the binding conditions of DNA to silica allowed for an additional decrease of 10%. We did not observe a further decrease in length for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) versus double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) library preparation methods. Our protocol enables the retrieval of ultrashort molecules from herbarium specimens, which will help to unlock the genetic information stored in herbaria.

  5. Strip specimen tests for pipeline materials and girth welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, William C. [Edison Welding Institute (EWI), Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Strip specimen testing of pipeline materials has been widely applied as a method of getting data relevant to the performance of pipelines under axial direction loading. Comparisons of strip specimen against smaller standard tests (round tensile bar, fracture toughness specimens, polished round bars) and against full-scale or large-scale testing will be explored. Data from early-generation pipe welds from the 1920's to the 1940's to the most recent materials for offshore reeled pipe will be used for examples. Strip samples can provide full thickness information to take account of varying material properties or imperfection distribution through the thickness. Strip samples can also accommodate measurement of effects of the original surface finish or weld surface shape. Strip samples have more design flexibility than standard tests, but must be designed to limit stress concentrations and effects of local bending. (author)

  6. Measurement of deformation field in CT specimen using laser speckle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Moon Chang; Kang, Ki Ju

    2001-01-01

    To obtain A 2 experimentally in the J-A 2 theory, deformation field on the lateral surface of a CT specimen was to be determined using laser speckle method. The crack growth was measured using direct current potential drop method and most procedure of experimental and data reduction was performed according to ASTM Standard E1737-96. Laser speckle images during crack propagation were monitored by two CCD cameras to cancel the effect of rotation and translation of the specimen. An algorithm to pursue displacement of a point from each image was developed and successfully used to measure A 2 continuously as the crack tip was propagated. The effects of specimen thickness on J-R curve and A 2 were explored

  7. The effect of specimen and flaw dimensions on fracture toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevalainen, M.J. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-06-01

    The effect of the specimen size and geometry on fracture toughness has been investigated both by experimental tests and computational analyses. The methods for constraint description, namely T-stress, Q-parameter and Small-Scale Yielding Correction (SSYC) have been compared and applied for various geometries. A statistical treatment for the specimen thickness effect on cleavage fracture toughness has been investigated. Elliptical surface cracks were compared with straight-thickness cracks and a method for crack shape correction was presented. Based on the results, the differences in apparent fracture toughness values obtained from various specimen configurations can be better understood and taken into account. 64 refs. The thesis includes also four previous publications by author.

  8. Strain Measurement System Developed for Biaxially Loaded Cruciform Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.

    2000-01-01

    A new extensometer system developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field measures test area strains along two orthogonal axes in flat cruciform specimens. This system incorporates standard axial contact extensometers to provide a cost-effective high-precision instrument. The device was validated for use by extensive testing of a stainless steel specimen, with specimen temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1100 F. In-plane loading conditions included several static biaxial load ratios, plus cyclic loadings of various waveform shapes, frequencies, magnitudes, and durations. The extensometer system measurements were compared with strain gauge data at room temperature and with calculated strain values for elevated-temperature measurements. All testing was performed in house in Glenn's Benchmark Test Facility in-plane biaxial load frame.

  9. Impregnation of soft biological specimens with thermosetting resins and elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hagens, G

    1979-06-01

    A new method for impregnation of biological specimens with thermosetting resins and elastomers is described. The method has the advantage that the original relief of the surface is retained. The impregnation is carried out by utilizing the difference between the high vapor tension of the intermedium (e.g., methylene chloride) and the low vapor tension of the solution to be polymerized. After impregnation, the specimen is subject to polymerization conditions without surrounding embedding material. The optical and mechanical properties can be selected by proper choice from various kinds of resins and different procedures, for example, by complete or incomplete impregnation. Acrylic resins, polyester resins, epoxy resins, polyurethanes and silicone rubber have been found suitable for the method. Excellent results have been obtained using transparent silicone rubber since after treatment the specimens are still flexible and resilient, and have retained their natural appearance.

  10. An analysis of forensic entomological specimens by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsa, R A; Ahmad, F M S; Marwi, M A; Zuha, R M; Omar, B

    2010-09-01

    This study reviews forensic entomological specimens analysed by the Department of Parasitology & Medical Entomology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for the year 2004. A total of 10 cases (6 males and 4 females) were observed for the entomological specimens. Various types of death scenes were obtained including indoor and outdoor area such as bushes field, rubbish dumping site, and aquatic areas. Identified fly species collected from the death sites were blow flies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Lucilia cuprina and unknown sarcophagid larvae, with Ch. megacephala being the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats. The post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation ranged from one to five days, based on the entomological specimens collected.

  11. Catalogue of test specimens for non-destructive examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    One of the key elements in assuring the integrity of reactor primary circuits is the availability of trustworthy non-destructive methods for detecting dangerous defects that may be present. Various approaches to making such examinations are being developed, including the use of ultrasonic and radiographic techniques. To demonstrate their capability and reliability, they must be tested on steel specimens reproducing the various types of faults which may arise in real primary circuit vessels and piping. Such specimens are costly to fabricate. It is therefore clearly desirable that existing specimens should be made accessible to as many organisations as possible for testing. This catalogue contains detailed Information on forty-odd deliberately flawed plates, blocks, vessels, etc. which have been produced in OECD countries, along with the name of a contact person to whom inquiries should be directed in each case

  12. PCA Based Stress Monitoring of Cylindrical Specimens Using PZTs and Guided Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabid Quiroga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since mechanical stress in structures affects issues such as strength, expected operational life and dimensional stability, a continuous stress monitoring scheme is necessary for a complete integrity assessment. Consequently, this paper proposes a stress monitoring scheme for cylindrical specimens, which are widely used in structures such as pipelines, wind turbines or bridges. The approach consists of tracking guided wave variations due to load changes, by comparing wave statistical patterns via Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Each load scenario is projected to the PCA space by means of a baseline model and represented using the Q-statistical indices. Experimental validation of the proposed methodology is conducted on two specimens: (i a 12.7 mm ( 1 / 2 ″ diameter, 0.4 m length, AISI 1020 steel rod, and (ii a 25.4 mm ( 1 ″ diameter, 6m length, schedule 40, A-106, hollow cylinder. Specimen 1 was subjected to axial loads, meanwhile specimen 2 to flexion. In both cases, simultaneous longitudinal and flexural guided waves were generated via piezoelectric devices (PZTs in a pitch-catch configuration. Experimental results show the feasibility of the approach and its potential use as in-situ continuous stress monitoring application.

  13. Analysis of the percentage voids of test and field specimens using computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braz, D.; Lopes, R.T.; Motta, L.M.G. da

    1999-01-01

    Computerized tomography has been an excellent tool of analysis of asphaltics mixtures, because it allows comparison of the quality and integrity of test and field specimens. It was required to detect and follow the evolution of cracks, when these mixtures were submitted to fatigue tests, and also helping to interpret the distribution of tensions and deformations which occur in the several types of solicitations imposed to the mixtures. Comparing the medium values of percentage voids obtained from tomographic images with the project's values, it can be observed that the values of test and field specimens for the wearing course are closer to the ones of the project than the ones of the binder. It can be verified that the wearing course specimens always present a distribution of the aggregate, and voids quite homogeneously in the whole profile of the sample, while the binder specimens show an accentuated differentiation of the same factors in the several heights of the sample. Therefore, when choosing a slice for tomography, these considerations should be taken into account

  14. Radiation damage relative to transmission electron microscopy of biological specimens at low temperature: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, R.M.; Taylor, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    When biological specimens are irradiated by the electron beam in the electron microscope, the specimen structure is damaged as a result of molecular excitation, ionization, and subsequent chemical reactions. The radiation damage that occurs in the normal process of electron microscopy is known to present severe limitations for imaging high resolution detail in biological specimens. The question of radiation damage at low temperatures has therefore been investigated with the view in mind of reducing somewhat the rate at which damage occurs. The radiation damage protection found for small molecule (anhydrous) organic compounds is generally rather limited or even non-existent. However, large molecule, hydrated materials show as much as a 10-fold reduction at low temperature in the rate at which radiation damage occurs, relative to the damage rate at room temperature. In the case of hydrated specimens, therefore, low temperature electron microscopy offers an important advantage as part of the overall effort required in obtaining high resolution images of complex biological structures. (author)

  15. Clinical relevance of DNA microarray analyses using archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadi, Al Muktafi; Wang, Dong-Yu; Youngson, Bruce J; Miller, Naomi; Boerner, Scott; Done, Susan J; Leong, Wey L

    2011-01-01

    The ability of gene profiling to predict treatment response and prognosis in breast cancers has been demonstrated in many studies using DNA microarray analyses on RNA from fresh frozen tumor specimens. In certain clinical and research situations, performing such analyses on archival formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) surgical specimens would be advantageous as large libraries of such specimens with long-term follow-up data are widely available. However, FFPE tissue processing can cause fragmentation and chemical modifications of the RNA. A number of recent technical advances have been reported to overcome these issues. Our current study evaluates whether or not the technology is ready for clinical applications. A modified RNA extraction method and a recent DNA microarray technique, cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension and ligation (DASL, Illumina Inc) were evaluated. The gene profiles generated from FFPE specimens were compared to those obtained from paired fresh fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) of 25 breast cancers of different clinical subtypes (based on ER and Her2/neu status). Selected RNA levels were validated using RT-qPCR, and two public databases were used to demonstrate the prognostic significance of the gene profiles generated from FFPE specimens. Compared to FNAB, RNA isolated from FFPE samples was relatively more degraded, nonetheless, over 80% of the RNA samples were deemed suitable for subsequent DASL assay. Despite a higher noise level, a set of genes from FFPE specimens correlated very well with the gene profiles obtained from FNAB, and could differentiate breast cancer subtypes. Expression levels of these genes were validated using RT-qPCR. Finally, for the first time we correlated gene expression profiles from FFPE samples to survival using two independent microarray databases. Specifically, over-expression of ANLN and KIF2C, and under-expression of MAPT strongly correlated with poor outcomes in breast cancer patients. We

  16. Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Rabbit Nasal Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit is the primary animal model used to investigate aspects of nasal surgery. Although several studies have used this model, none has provided a comprehensive analysis of the surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal fossae and septum. To describe and optimize the surgical anatomy and approach to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage. In an ex vivo animal study conducted at an academic medical center, preliminary cadaveric dissections were performed on rabbit head specimens to establish familiarity with relevant anatomy and rehearse various approaches. Live Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (3.5-4.0 kg) were used to further develop this surgical technique developed here. Access of the nasal vault was gained through a midline nasal dorsum incision and creation of an osteoplastic flap with a drill. Submucosal resection was performed with preservation of the mucoperichondrium. All rabbits were monitored daily for 4 weeks in the postoperative period for signs of infection, pain, and complications. The study was conducted from June 1, 2014, to December 1, 2014. Surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal vault and harvest septal cartilage. Four Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (Western Organ Rabbit Co), ranging in age from 9 to 12 months and weighing between 3.5 and 4.0 kg, were used in this study. Initial dissections demonstrated the feasibility of harvesting septal cartilage while preserving the mucoperichondrial envelope. Access to the nasal vault through this 3-osteotomy approach allowed for maximal exposure to the nasal cavity bilaterally while maintaining the integrity of the mucoperichondrium following septal cartilage harvest. The maximum amount of bulk, en bloc, cartilage harvested was 1.0 × 2.5 cm. Following surgical dissection, all animals maintained adequate airway patency and support to midface structures. Furthermore, all specimens preserved the integrity of the

  17. Gleason Score Correlation Between Prostate Biopsy and Radical Prostatectomy Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Öztürk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men and the second cause of cancer-related mortality. Prostate biopsy and the Gleason score guide treatment decisions in prostate cancer. Several studies have investigated the correlation between biopsy scores and radical prostatectomy specimen scores. We also evaluated the correlation of Gleason scores of these specimens in our patient series. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 468 men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer and underwent radical prostatectomy between 2008 and 2017. Patients’ age, prostate-specific antigen levels at diagnosis, and prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimen Gleason scores were recorded. Upgrading and downgrading were defined as increase or decrease of Gleason score of radical prostate specimen compared to Gleason score of prostate biopsy. Results: A total of 442 men diagnosed with prostate cancer were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 62.62±6.26 years (44-84 years and mean prostate specific antigen level was 9.01±6.84 ng/mL (1.09-49 ng/mL. Prostate biopsy Gleason score was 7 in 27 (6.1% men. Radical prostatectomy specimen Gleason score was 7 in 62 (14% men. Gleason correlation was highest in the 240 patients (71.6% with score <7 and was lowest in the 31 (38.75% patients with score =7. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the discordance rate between Gleason scores of prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens was 35.7%.

  18. Combined Surgical Treatment of Gynecomastia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanov Y.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of gynecomastia could present unique challenges for the plastic surgeon. Achieving a good balance between effectiveness of the selected approach and the satisfactory aesthetic outcome often is a difficult endeavor. Optimal surgical treatment involves a combination of liposuction and direct excision. In the present study the charts of 11 patients treated with suction-assisted liposuction and direct surgical excision were retrospectively reviewed; a special emphasis is placed on the surgical technique. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 11.6 months. No infection, hematoma, nipple-areola complex necrosis and nipple retraction was encountered in this series. The combined surgical treatment of gynecomastia has shown to be a reliable technique in both small and moderate breast enlargement including those with skin excess.

  19. Dataset of herbarium specimens of threatened vascular plants in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nualart, Neus; Ibáñez, Neus; Luque, Pere; Pedrol, Joan; Vilar, Lluís; Guàrdia, Roser

    2017-01-01

    This data paper describes a specimens' dataset of the Catalonian threatened vascular plants conserved in five public Catalonian herbaria (BC, BCN, HGI, HBIL and MTTE). Catalonia is an administrative region of Spain that includes large autochthon plants diversity and 199 taxa with IUCN threatened categories (EX, EW, RE, CR, EN and VU). This dataset includes 1,618 records collected from 17 th century to nowadays. For each specimen, the species name, locality indication, collection date, collector, ecology and revision label are recorded. More than 94% of the taxa are represented in the herbaria, which evidence the paper of the botanical collections as an essential source of occurrence data.

  20. Centrifuge-operated specimen staining method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Feeback, Daniel L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method of staining preselected, mounted specimens of either biological or nonbiological material enclosed within a staining chamber where the liquid staining reagents are applied and removed from the staining chamber using hypergravity as the propelling force. In the preferred embodiment, a spacecraft-operated centrifuge and method of diagnosing biological specimens while in orbit, characterized by hermetically sealing a shell assembly. The assembly contains slide stain apparatus with computer control therefor, the operative effect of which is to overcome microgravity, for example on board an International Space Station.

  1. Pseudolipomatosis in Endometrial Specimens Does Not Represent Uterine Perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Alexis

    2017-02-01

    Specimens of endometrial biopsies can sometimes present with an artifact within blood, composed of optically clear vacuoles mimicking adipose tissue, pseudolipomatosis. This artifact can be mistaken for adipose tissue and lead to an overdiagnosis of uterine perforation. We describe the case of pseudolipomatosis seen within the evacuated products of conception from a missed abortion. Areas of vacuolization in the blood clot mimicked adipose tissue. However, the vacuoles varied in size and did not contain adipocytes. Familiarity with this artifact will lead to avoidance of overdiagnosis of adipose tissue and uterine perforation in curettage specimens.

  2. Agreement for HPV genotyping detection between self-collected specimens on a FTA cartridge and clinician-collected specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yaoyao; Gravitt, Patti E; Howard, Roslyn; Eby, Yolanda J; Wang, Shaoming; Li, Belinda; Feng, Changyan; Qiao, You-Lin; Castle, Philip E

    2013-04-01

    The current method of transporting self-collected cervicovaginal specimen for HPV DNA testing relies on liquid based medium, which is challenging and expensive to transport. A novel, dry storage and transportation device, Whatman indicating FTA™ Elute Cartridge, avoids some of the pitfalls of liquid-based medium. This method has been shown to be comparable to liquid-based collection medium, but relative performance of self-collected (SC) and clinician-collected (CC) samples onto FTA cards has not been reported. The objective of this study is to compare the analytic performance of self- and clinician-collected samples onto FTA cartridges for the detection of carcinogenic HPV using Linear Array. There was a 91% agreement, 69% positive agreement, and kappa of 0.75 between the clinician-collected and self-collected specimens for detection of any carcinogenic HPV genotype. When the HPV results were categorized hierarchically according to cervical cancer risk, there was no difference in the distribution of the HPV results for the clinician- and self-collected specimens (p=0.7). This study concludes that FTA elute cartridge is a promising method of specimen transport for cervical cancer screening programs considering using self-collected specimen and HPV testing. Larger studies with clinical endpoints are now needed to assess the clinical performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A general mixed mode fracture mechanics test specimen: The DCB-specimen loaded with uneven bending moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, B.F.; Joergensen, K.; Oestergaard, R.C. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, T.K. [LM Glasfiber A/S, Lunderskov (Denmark)

    2004-03-01

    A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratio between the two applied moments, the full mode mixity range from pure mode I to pure mode II can be generated for the same specimen geometry. The specimen allows stable crack growth. In case of large scale crack bridging, mixed mode cohesive laws can be obtained by a J integral based approach. As a preliminary example, fracture of adhesive joints between two glass-fibre laminates was studied. The mixed mode fracture resistance increased with increasing crack length due to fibre cross over bridging, eventually reaching a steady-state level (R-curve behaviour). The steady-state fracture toughness level increased with increasing tangential crack opening displacement. Cohesive stresses were determined by a J integral approach. The deducted shear stress was found to be relative high ({approx} = 20 MPa) in comparison with the normal stress ({approx} = 1 MPa). (au)

  4. Agreement for HPV genotyping detection between self-collected specimens on a FTA cartridge and clinician-collected specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, YaoYao; Gravitt, Patti E.; Howard, Roslyn; Eby, Yolanda J.; Wang, Shaoming; Li, Belinda; Feng, Changyan; Qiao, You-Lin; Castle, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    The current method of transporting self-collected cervicovaginal specimen for HPV DNA testing relies on liquid based medium, which is challenging and expensive to transport. A novel, dry storage and transportation device, Whatman indicating FTA™ Elute Cartridge, avoids some of the pitfalls of liquid-based medium. This method has been shown to be comparable to liquid-based collection medium, but relative performance of self-collected (SC) and clinician-collected (CC) samples onto FTA cards has not been reported. The objective of this study is to compare the analytic performance of self- and clinician-collected samples onto FTA cartridges for the detection of carcinogenic HPV using Linear Array. There was a 91% agreement, 69% positive agreement, and kappa of 0.75 between the clinician-collected and self-collected specimens for detection of any carcinogenic HPV genotype. When the HPV results were categorized hierarchically according to cervical cancer risk, there was no difference in the distribution of the HPV results for the clinician- and self-collected specimens (p = 0.7). This study concludes that FTA elute cartridge is a promising method of specimen transport for cervical cancer screening programs considering using self-collected specimen and HPV testing. Larger studies with clinical endpoints are now needed to assess the clinical performance. PMID:23370404

  5. Output control of da Vinci surgical system's surgical graspers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul J; Schmidt, David E; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar

    2014-01-01

    The number of robot-assisted surgeries performed with the da Vinci surgical system has increased significantly over the past decade. The articulating movements of the robotic surgical grasper are controlled by grip controls at the master console. The user interface has been implicated as one contributing factor in surgical grasping errors. The goal of our study was to characterize and evaluate the user interface of the da Vinci surgical system in controlling surgical graspers. An angular manipulator with force sensors was used to increment the grip control angle as grasper output angles were measured. Input force at the grip control was simultaneously measured throughout the range of motion. Pressure film was used to assess the maximum grasping force achievable with the endoscopic grasping tool. The da Vinci robot's grip control angular input has a nonproportional relationship with the grasper instrument output. The grip control mechanism presents an intrinsic resistant force to the surgeon's fingertips and provides no haptic feedback. The da Vinci Maryland graspers are capable of applying up to 5.1 MPa of local pressure. The angular and force input at the grip control of the da Vinci robot's surgical graspers is nonproportional to the grasper instrument's output. Understanding the true relationship of the grip control input to grasper instrument output may help surgeons understand how to better control the surgical graspers and promote fewer grasping errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A multicenter study of using carbon nanoparticles to show sentinel lymph nodes in early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Zheng, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhangyuanzhu; Yu, Jiang; Deng, Zhenwei; Xue, Fangqing; Zheng, Yu; Chen, Feng; Shi, Hong; Chen, Gang; Lu, Jianping; Cai, Lisheng; Cai, Mingzhi; Xiang, Gao; Hong, Yunfeng; Chen, Wenbo; Li, Guoxin

    2016-04-01

    Lymph node metastasis occurs in approximately 10% of early gastric cancer. Preoperative or intra-operative identification of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer is crucial for surgical planning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using carbon nanoparticles to show sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in early gastric cancer. A multicenter study was performed between July 2012 and November 2014. Ninety-one patients with early gastric cancer identified by preoperative endoscopic ultrasonography were recruited. One milliliter carbon nanoparticles suspension, which is approved by Chinese Food and Drug Administration, was endoscopically injected into the submucosal layer at four points around the site of the primary tumor 6-12 h before surgery. Laparoscopic radical resection with D2 lymphadenectomy was performed. SLNs were defined as nodes that were black-dyed by carbon nanoparticles in greater omentum and lesser omentum near gastric cancer. Lymph node status and SLNs accuracy were confirmed by pathological analysis. All patients had black-dyed SLNs lying in greater omentum and/or lesser omentum. SLNs were easily found under laparoscopy. The mean number of SLNs was 4 (range 1-9). Carbon nanoparticles were around cancer in specimen. After pathological analysis, 10 patients (10.99%) had lymph node metastasis in 91 patients with early gastric cancer. SLNs were positive in 9 cases and negative in 82 cases. In pathology, carbon nanoparticles were seen in lymphatic vessels, lymphoid sinus, and macrophages in SLNs. When SLNs were positive, cancer cells were seen in lymph nodes. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of black-dyed SLNs in early gastric cancers were 90, 100, and 98.9 %, respectively. No patient had any side effects of carbon nanoparticles in this study. It is feasible to use carbon nanoparticles to show SLNs in early gastric cancer. Carbon nanoparticles suspension is safe for submucosal injection.

  7. Digital image analysis of HER2 immunohistochemistry in gastric- and oesophageal adenocarcinoma : a validation study on biopsies and surgical specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Timco; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Buikema, Henk J.; Smits, Maria M.; Louwen, Maarten; Hage, Mariska; Imholz, Alex L. T.; van der Vegt, Bert

    AimsTo test the validity of diagnostics incorporating digital image analysis (DIA) for human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) immunohistochemistry (IHC) in gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinomas, as an alternative to current standard diagnostics using manual scoring. Methods and resultsWe included 319

  8. The effect of a Lean quality improvement implementation program on surgical pathology specimen accessioning and gross preparation error frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maxwell L; Wilkerson, Trent; Grzybicki, Dana M; Raab, Stephen S

    2012-09-01

    Few reports have documented the effectiveness of Lean quality improvement in changing anatomic pathology patient safety. We used Lean methods of education; hoshin kanri goal setting and culture change; kaizen events; observation of work activities, hand-offs, and pathways; A3-problem solving, metric development, and measurement; and frontline work redesign in the accessioning and gross examination areas of an anatomic pathology laboratory. We compared the pre- and post-Lean implementation proportion of near-miss events and changes made in specific work processes. In the implementation phase, we documented 29 individual A3-root cause analyses. The pre- and postimplementation proportions of process- and operator-dependent near-miss events were 5.5 and 1.8 (P < .002) and 0.6 and 0.6, respectively. We conclude that through culture change and implementation of specific work process changes, Lean implementation may improve pathology patient safety.

  9. Analysis of Surgical Pathology Data in the HIRA Database: Emphasis on Current Status and Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-ju Byeon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Korea, medical institutions make claims for insurance reimbursement to the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA. Thus, HIRA databases reflect the general medical services that are provided in Korea. We conducted two pathology-related studies using a HIRA national patient sample (NPS data (selection probability, 0.03. First, we evaluated the current status of general pathologic examination in Korea. Second, we evaluated pathologic issues associated with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD. Methods: The sample data used in this study was HIRA-NPS-2013-0094. Results: In the NPS dataset, 163,372 pathologic examinations were performed in 103,528 patients during the year 2013. Considering sampling weight (33.3, it is estimated that 5,440,288 (163,372 × 33.3 pathologic examinations were performed. Internal medicine and general surgery were the most common departments requesting pathologic examinations. The region performing pathologic examinations were different according to type of medical institution. In total, 490 patients underwent ESD, and 43.4% (213/490 underwent ESD due to gastric carcinoma. The results of the ESD led to a change in disease code for 10.5% (29/277 of non-gastric carcinoma patients. In addition, 21 patients (4.3% underwent surgery following the ESD. The average period between ESD and surgery was 44 days. Conclusions: HIRA sample data provide the nation-wide landscape of specific procedure. However, in order to reduce the statistical error, further studies using entire HIRA data are needed.

  10. Prototyping for surgical and prosthetic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Santos, Murillo Rezende; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Moreno, Amália; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Haddad, Marcela Filié

    2011-05-01

    Techniques of rapid prototyping were introduced in the 1980s in the field of engineering for the fabrication of a solid model based on a computed file. After its introduction in the biomedical field, several applications were raised for the fabrication of models to ease surgical planning and simulation in implantology, neurosurgery, and orthopedics, as well as for the fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. Hence, the literature has described the evolution of rapid prototyping technique in health care, which allowed easier technique, improved surgical results, and fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. Accordingly, a literature review on MEDLINE (PubMed) database was conducted using the keywords rapid prototyping, surgical planning, and maxillofacial prostheses and based on articles published from 1981 to 2010. After reading the titles and abstracts of the articles, 50 studies were selected owing to their correlations with the aim of the current study. Several studies show that the prototypes have been used in different dental-medical areas such as maxillofacial and craniofacial surgery; implantology; neurosurgery; orthopedics; scaffolds of ceramic, polymeric, and metallic materials; and fabrication of personalized maxillofacial prostheses. Therefore, prototyping has been an indispensable tool in several studies and helpful for surgical planning and fabrication of prostheses and implants.

  11. On specimen killing in the era of conservation crisis - A quantitative case for modernizing taxonomy and biodiversity inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeber, Patrick O; Gardner, Charlie J; Lourenço, Wilson R; Wilmé, Lucienne

    2017-01-01

    For centuries taxonomy has relied on dead animal specimens, a practice that persists today despite the emergence of innovative biodiversity assessment methods. Taxonomists and conservationists are engaged in vigorous discussions over the necessity of killing animals for specimen sampling, but quantitative data on taxonomic trends and specimen sampling over time, which could inform these debates, are lacking. We interrogated a long-term research database documenting 2,723 land vertebrate and 419 invertebrate taxa from Madagascar, and their associated specimens conserved in the major natural history museums. We further compared specimen collection and species description rates for the birds, mammals and scorpions over the last two centuries, to identify trends and links to taxon descriptions. We located 15,364 specimens documenting endemic mammals and 11,666 specimens documenting endemic birds collected between 1820 and 2010. Most specimens were collected at the time of the Mission Zoologique Franco-Anglo-Américaine (MZFAA) in the 1930s and during the last two decades, with major differences according to the groups considered. The small mammal and bat collections date primarily from recent years, and are paralleled by the description of new species. Lemur specimens were collected during the MZFAA but the descriptions of new taxa are recent, with the type series limited to non-killed specimens. Bird specimens, particularly of non-passerines, are mainly from the time of the MZFAA. The passerines have also been intensely collected during the last two decades; the new material has been used to solve the phylogeny of the groups and only two new endemic taxa of passerine birds have been described over the last two decades. Our data show that specimen collection has been critical for advancing our understanding of the taxonomy of Madagascar's biodiversity at the onset of zoological work in Madagascar, but less so in recent decades. It is crucial to look for alternatives to

  12. Open core control software for surgical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Jumpei; Kozuka, Hiroaki; Kim, Hyung Wook; Takesue, Naoyuki; Vladimirov, B; Sakaguchi, Masamichi; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Chinzei, Kiyoyuki; Fujimoto, Hideo

    2010-05-01

    techniques for this purpose were introduced. Virtual fixture is well known technique as a "force guide" for supporting operators to perform precise manipulation by using a master-slave robot. The virtual fixture for precise and safety surgery was implemented on the system to demonstrate an idea of high-level collaboration between a surgical robot and a navigation system. The extension of virtual fixture is not a part of the Open Core Control system, however, the function such as virtual fixture cannot be realized without a tight collaboration between cutting-edge medical devices. By using the virtual fixture, operators can pre-define an accessible area on the navigation system, and the area information can be transferred to the robot. In this manner, the surgical console generates the reflection force when the operator tries to get out from the pre-defined accessible area during surgery. The Open Core Control software was implemented on a surgical master-slave robot and stable operation was observed in a motion test. The tip of the surgical robot was displayed on a navigation system by connecting the surgical robot with a 3D position sensor through the OpenIGTLink. The accessible area was pre-defined before the operation, and the virtual fixture was displayed as a "force guide" on the surgical console. In addition, the system showed stable performance in a duration test with network disturbance. In this paper, a design of the Open Core Control software for surgical robots and the implementation of virtual fixture were described. The Open Core Control software was implemented on a surgical robot system and showed stable performance in high-level collaboration works. The Open Core Control software is developed to be a widely used platform of surgical robots. Safety issues are essential for control software of these complex medical devices. It is important to follow the global specifications such as a FDA requirement "General Principles of Software Validation" or IEC62304. For

  13. Development of a semi-automated method for subspecialty case distribution and prediction of intraoperative consultations in surgical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul S Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many surgical pathology laboratories, operating room schedules are prospectively reviewed to determine specimen distribution to different subspecialty services and to predict the number and nature of potential intraoperative consultations for which prior medical records and slides require review. At our institution, such schedules were manually converted into easily interpretable, surgical pathology-friendly reports to facilitate these activities. This conversion, however, was time-consuming and arguably a non-value-added activity. Objective: Our goal was to develop a semi-automated method of generating these reports that improved their readability while taking less time to perform than the manual method. Materials and Methods: A dynamic Microsoft Excel workbook was developed to automatically convert published operating room schedules into different tabular formats. Based on the surgical procedure descriptions in the schedule, a list of linked keywords and phrases was utilized to sort cases by subspecialty and to predict potential intraoperative consultations. After two trial-and-optimization cycles, the method was incorporated into standard practice. Results: The workbook distributed cases to appropriate subspecialties and accurately predicted intraoperative requests. Users indicated that they spent 1-2 h fewer per day on this activity than before, and team members preferred the formatting of the newer reports. Comparison of the manual and semi-automatic predictions showed that the mean daily difference in predicted versus actual intraoperative consultations underwent no statistically significant changes before and after implementation for most subspecialties. Conclusions: A well-designed, lean, and simple information technology solution to determine subspecialty case distribution and prediction of intraoperative consultations in surgical pathology is approximately as accurate as the gold standard manual method and requires less

  14. Non-surgical management of extradural haematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tysvaer, A.T.; Oedegaard, H.

    1987-01-01

    The widespread use of computed tomographic (CT) scanning has shown that not all extradural haematomas require surgical evacuation. Eleven patients with epidural haematomas, 8-113 ml in volume, were treated successfully non-surgically. Seven were diagnosed later than four days after the head injury. The haematomas showed complete resolution over a period of 5-12 weeks. As some epidural haematomas have been shown to undergo considerable enlargement during the first weeks of treatment, conservative management of those greather than 35-40 ml initially is not advisable. In patients showing a decreasing level of consciousness and neurological deficits, even smaller haematomas must be evacuated. Extradural haematomas of the posterior fossa are high risk lesion and therefore unsuitable for conservative management

  15. Laser-driven planar impact of miniature specimens of HY-100 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, David J.; Robbins, David L.

    2002-01-01

    The deformation and fracture behavior of HY-100, a high-strength steel, under high strain-rate planar-impact conditions, has been studied with the Laser-Driven Miniflyer apparatus. Cold-rolled copper flyers 3 mm in diameter and either 50 or 100 microns thick have been laser-launched against HY-100 targets, 200 microns thick and nominally 10 mm square. The target specimens were sectioned from the 25-mm-thick HY-100 plate in three mutually perpendicular orientations, either parallel or perpendicular to the plate rolling direction. The back-surface response of the HY-100 targets was monitored with dual VISARs. The flyer velocity was varied to produce a range of behavior, from deformation at low velocities, to damage formation at intermediate velocities, and finally to complete spall failure at the highest velocities. The target specimens were sectioned after testing to examine the microstructure and failure processes of the deformed material. Spall strengths were calculated from the VISAR signals. The VISAR traces showed well-defined elastic precursors, which were similar for all orientations of the specimens. The spall strengths, as estimated from the magnitude of the pullback signal, were also similar for all three orientations. The spall strength increased as the flyer impact velocity increased, to values of about 4.6 GPa. Metallographic examination revealed that damage occurred at lower impact velocities in specimens loaded in the through-thickness direction of the plate, as compared to specimens oriented parallel to the plate thickness, but this difference was not reflected in the pull-back signal or the spall strengths

  16. Evaluation of specimen preparation techniques for micro-PIXE localisation of elements in hyperaccumulating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Siegele, Rainer; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Singh, Balwant; Ionescu, Mihail

    2008-01-01

    Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus, a rare Australian Ni-hyperaccumulating shrub and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana, an Australian naturalized As-hyperaccumulating fern are promising species for use in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the elemental distribution of the accumulated metal(loid)s, Ca and K in leaf or pinnule tissues of the two plant species. Samples were prepared by two contrasting specimen preparation techniques: freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and freeze-drying. The specimens were analysed to compare the suitability of each technique in preserving (i) the spatial elemental distribution and (ii) the tissue structure of the specimens. Further, the μ-PIXE results were compared with concentration of elements in the bulk tissue obtained by ICP-AES analysis. In H. floribundus subsp. floribundus, μ-PIXE analysis revealed Ni, Ca and K concentrations in freeze-dried leaf tissues were at par with bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps illustrated that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermal tissues (1% DW) and least concentration was found in spongy mesophyll tissues (0.53% DW). Conversely, elemental distribution maps of THF freeze-substituted tissues indicated significantly lower Ni, Ca and K concentrations than freeze-dried specimens and bulk tissue concentrations. Moreover, Ni concentrations were uniform across the whole specimen and no localisation was observed. In P. calomelanos var. austroamericana freeze-dried pinnule tissues, μ-PIXE revealed statistically similar As, Ca and K concentrations as compared to bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps showed that As localisation was relatively uniform across the whole specimen. Once again, THF freeze-substituted tissues revealed a significant loss of As compared to freeze-dried specimens and the concentrations obtained by bulk tissue analysis

  17. Prevention of Surgical Fires: A Certification Course for Healthcare Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Marquessa

    2015-08-01

    An estimated 550 to 650 surgical fires occur annually in the United States. Surgical fires may have severe consequences, including burns, disfigurement, long-term medical care, or death. This article introduces a potential certification program for the prevention of surgical fires. A pilot study was conducted with a convenience sample of 10 anesthesia providers who participated in the education module. The overall objective was to educate surgical team members and to prepare them to become certified in surgical fire prevention. On completion of the education module, participants completed the 50-question certification examination. The mean pretest score was 66%; none of the participants had enough correct responses (85%) to be considered competent in surgical fire prevention. The mean post- test score was 92.80%, with all participants answering at least 85% of questions correct. A paired-samples t test showed a statistically significant increase in knowledge: t (df = 9) = 11.40; P = .001. Results of the pilot study indicate that this course can remediate gaps in knowledge of surgical fire prevention for providers. Their poor performance on the pretest suggests that many providers may not receive sufficient instruction in surgical fire prevention.

  18. Comment: Characterization of Two Historic Smallpox Specimens from a Czech Museum

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Ashleigh F.; Duggan, Ana T.; Poinar, Hendrik N.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2017-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of two strains of variola virus (VARV) sampled from human smallpox specimens present in the Czech National Museum, Prague, were recently determined, with one of the sequences estimated to date to the mid-19th century. Using molecular clock methods, the authors of this study go on to infer that the currently available strains of VARV share an older common ancestor, at around 1350 AD, than some recent estimates based on other archival human samples. Herein, we show...

  19. Detection of micro calcifications in breast specimen by 4-fold DIMA direct magnification radiography compared to 1.5-fold conventional magnification radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunert, J.H.; Borchert, B.; Farber, A.; Gmelin, E.

    1999-01-01

    Aims of the study: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 4-fold magnification breast specimen radiography (direct magnification, DIMA) compared to conventional 1.5-fold magnification radiography in evaluating the presence of absence of carcinoma at the surgical margins by detection of microcalcification. Results: In 50 specimen 2821 (1305 within 3 mm distance to the margins) microcalcifications were detected with the DIMA mammography technique compared to 1608 (446) microcalcifications with the conventional technique. This increased detection rate by DIMA-magnetification radiography was accompanied by a decreased specificity in comparison to the conventional magnification radiography (33,3% DIMA versus 83,3% conventional) regarding the evaluation of presence or absence of carcinoma at the surgical margins. Differentiating the microcalcifications into calcifications belonging to the suspicious cluster and those that are located outside the cluster led to an increase in specificity (83,3% DIMA versus 100% conventional). Conclusions: The efficacy of breast specimens radiography in evaluating the presence or absence of carcinoma at the surgical margins by detection of microcalcification is not improved by 4-fold magnification radiography (direct magnification, DIMA) compared to conventional 1.5-fold magnification radiography due to an increase in false-positive results. Analysis of the attachement of the microcalcifications to the cluster can improve the specificity. (orig.) [de

  20. On three specimens of Lagenorhynchus albirostris Gray, 1846 (Mammalia, Cetacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1964-01-01

    Recently the Zoological Museum in Amsterdam came into possession of three specimens of the White-beaked Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus albirostris. As data on this species are rather scarce, it may be useful to publish a few notes on these animals. The first dolphin, a female, was caught in the North Sea

  1. Automatic grinding apparatus to control uniform specimen thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, Joseph S.

    1982-01-01

    This invention is directed to a new and improved grinding apparatus comprising (1) a movable grinding surface, (2) a specimen holder, (3) a displacing device for moving the holder and/or grinding surface toward one another, and (4) at least three devices for limiting displacement of the holder to the grinding surface.

  2. Finite strain analyses of deformations in polymer specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Analyses of the stress and strain state in test specimens or structural components made of polymer are discussed. This includes the Izod impact test, based on full 3D transient analyses. Also a long thin polymer tube under internal pressure has been studied, where instabilities develop, such as b...

  3. The effect of specimen thickness on the experimental and finite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    as a fracture parameter and the J-CTOD relation for the determination of critical ... fracture behaviour of EDD (0·06%C) steel sheets with CT specimens and using ... On the other hand, in the predominantly plane stress region, if the toughness value ..... (iii) Hardness measurement – The plastic zone size and shape is also ...

  4. 50 CFR 31.12 - Sale of wildlife specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sale of wildlife specimens. 31.12 Section 31.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDLIFE SPECIES MANAGEMENT Terms and Conditions of Wildlife...

  5. Biology, Ordinary and Higher Grades, Syllabuses and Specimen Question Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottish Certificate of Education Examination Board, Edinburgh.

    Included is the prescribed syllabus in biology for the Scottish Certificate of Education. In two separate sections, the syllabus topics and specimen questions for final examinations are explained. This syllabus is intended to present biology as knowledge about living organisms without making the conventional division between plants and animals.…

  6. Sample handling of clinical specimens for ultratrace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, R.

    1987-01-01

    Some simple logistics to an improved sample handling of clinical specimens are presented. This comprises clean room conditions, clean laboratory ware, ultra-pure reagents and good analytical practice. Sample handling procedures for blood, urine, soft tissues and pharmaceuticals are briefly discussed. (author) 26 refs

  7. Method of 10B determination in biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitina, R.G.; Frolova, E.I.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the methods of 10 B determination in biological specimens (blood, skin and tissues of rats). On the basis of investigations conducted there have been proposed films based on cellulose triacetate with optimal characteristics in terms of their possible utilization as solid detectors to record α-particles and recoil nuclei. The conditions of film staining are also discussed

  8. Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.; Dettinger, Lisa A.; Perry, Amanda; Rogers, Paul; Reynolds, Stanley M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, we surveyed 176 clinical laboratories in Pennsylvania regarding stool specimen testing practices for enteropathogens, including Campylobacter spp. Most (96.3%) routinely test for Campylobacter spp. In 17 (15.7%), a stool antigen test is the sole method for diagnosis. We recommend that laboratory practice guidelines for Campylobacter spp. testing be developed. PMID:22377086

  9. Evaluation of A-1 reactor heavy-water calandria specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.

    1976-01-01

    Container chains with surveillance specimens were placed in two special channels of the core peripheral part to test changes in mechanical properties due to reactor operation of caisson tube material. The specimens were made from the caisson tube material and placed by eight pieces on the outer surface of the containers. The first removed specimens were tested for corrosion losses, tensile strength, and fractured surfaces were then assessed. The changes in strength properties were found to be similar in both base material and welded joints. The corrosion film on surveillance specimens did not practically affect strength properties nor ductility. It was found that the Al-Mg-Si alloy used for the heavy water vessel caisson tubes following stabilization annealing was fully stable at operating temperatures of up to 100 degC. Slio.ht changes in properties can be attributed to the effect of a high neutron dose. Thus, the high radiation and temperature stability of the alloy was confirmed. (O.K.)

  10. Specimen rotation system of the WSU TRIGA-fueled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, Thomas A.

    1976-01-01

    The specimen rotation system presently in use at the WSU reactor has been designed to provide maximum utilization of the irradiation capabilities achieved through use of TRIGA-type fuel. This paper describes the system with particular emphasis on characteristics which are advantageous to experimenters. (author)

  11. Ion source for thinning of specimen in transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, K.; Rothe, R.

    1983-01-01

    Thinning of specimen for transmission electron microscopy is carried out by means of sputtering. Construction, design, and operation parameters of an ion source are presented. Because the plasma is produced by means of hollow cathode glow discharges, no special focusing system is used

  12. Polystyrene cryostat facilitates testing tensile specimens under liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogan, R. P.; Skalka, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight cryostat made of expanded polystyrene reduces eccentricity in a tensile system being tested under liquid nitrogen. The cryostat is attached directly to the tensile system by a special seal, reducing misalignment effects due to cryostat weight, and facilitates viewing and loading of the specimens.

  13. 21 CFR 864.3250 - Specimen transport and storage container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specimen transport and storage container. 864.3250 Section 864.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864...

  14. Fracture toughness evaluation of Eurofer'97 by testing small specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, M.; Fernandez, P.; Lapena, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Eurofer'97 is the structural reference material that will be tested in the ITER modules. Its metallurgical properties have been well characterized during the last years. However, more investigations related with the fracture toughness of this material are necessary because this property is one of the most important to design structural components and to study their integrity assessment. In the case of structural materials for fusion reactor the small specimen technology (SSTT) are being actively developed to investigate the fracture toughness among other mechanical properties. The use of small specimens is due to the small available irradiation volume of IFMIF and also due to the high fluence expected in the fusion reactor. The aim of this paper is to determine the fracture toughness of the Eurofer'97 steel by testing small specimens of different geometry in the ductile to brittle transition region, with the application of the Master Curve methodology, and to evaluate this method to assess the decrease in fracture toughness due to neutron irradiation. The tests and data analysis have been performed following the Master Curve approach included in the ASTM Standard E1921-05. Specimen size effect and comparison of the fracture toughness results with data available in the literature are also considered. (author)

  15. Characterization of Two Historic Smallpox Specimens from a Czech Museum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pajer, P.; Dresler, J.; Kabickova, H.; Píša, L.; Aganov, P.; Fucik, K.; Elleder, Daniel; Hron, Tomáš; Kuželka, V.; Velemínský, P.; Klimentová, J.; Fučíková, A.; Pejchal, J.; Hrabáková, Rita; Beneš, V.; Rausch, T.; Dundr, P.; Pilin, A.; Čabala, R.; Hubálek, Martin; Stříbrný, J.; Antwerpen, M.H.; Meyer, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2017), č. článku 200. ISSN 1999-4915 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : smallpox * variola virus * evolution * next generation suquencing * historic specimen * phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Virology; Virology (UZFG-Y); Virology (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 3.465, year: 2016

  16. Pathologic diagnoses of appendectomy specimens: a 10-year review.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study was performed to see the pattern of histopathologic diagnoses in appendectomy specimens, their demographics, and the rate of negative appendectomy. Materials and methods: Records of resected appendices with a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis submitted to histopathology department of ...

  17. [Apical resorption in pre-surgical orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasente, M; Merlini, C; Amelotti, C; Antonioli, M; Roghi, M

    1991-07-15

    Apical root resorption is a frequent phenomenon observed in pre-surgical orthodontic; the reason is double: we deal with adult patients and we often move the teeth in the opposite direction compared to the position obtained in previous inefficacious orthodontic treatments. Notwithstanding the amount of apical root resorption we couldn't record an hyper-mobility of the teeth and a long term evaluation of occlusal stability didn't show any significant change.

  18. An electronic specimen collection protocol schema (eSCPS). Document architecture for specimen management and the exchange of specimen collection protocols between biobanking information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, O; Semjonow, A; Oezguer, E; Herden, J; Akbarov, I; Tok, A; Engelmann, U; Wille, S

    2014-01-01

    The integrity of collection protocols in biobanking is essential for a high-quality sample preparation process. However, there is not currently a well-defined universal method for integrating collection protocols in the biobanking information system (BIMS). Therefore, an electronic schema of the collection protocol that is based on Extensible Markup Language (XML) is required to maintain the integrity and enable the exchange of collection protocols. The development and implementation of an electronic specimen collection protocol schema (eSCPS) was performed at two institutions (Muenster and Cologne) in three stages. First, we analyzed the infrastructure that was already established at both the biorepository and the hospital information systems of these institutions and determined the requirements for the sufficient preparation of specimens and documentation. Second, we designed an eSCPS according to these requirements. Finally, a prospective study was conducted to implement and evaluate the novel schema in the current BIMS. We designed an eSCPS that provides all of the relevant information about collection protocols. Ten electronic collection protocols were generated using the supplementary Protocol Editor tool, and these protocols were successfully implemented in the existing BIMS. Moreover, an electronic list of collection protocols for the current studies being performed at each institution was included, new collection protocols were added, and the existing protocols were redesigned to be modifiable. The documentation time was significantly reduced after implementing the eSCPS (5 ± 2 min vs. 7 ± 3 min; p = 0.0002). The eSCPS improves the integrity and facilitates the exchange of specimen collection protocols in the existing open-source BIMS.

  19. Optimized positioning of autonomous surgical lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, Jörn; Weller, Rene; Kikinis, Ron; Oldhafer, Karl-Jürgen; Lipp, Michael J.; Zachmann, Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    We consider the problem of finding automatically optimal positions of surgical lamps throughout the whole surgical procedure, where we assume that future lamps could be robotized. We propose a two-tiered optimization technique for the real-time autonomous positioning of those robotized surgical lamps. Typically, finding optimal positions for surgical lamps is a multi-dimensional problem with several, in part conflicting, objectives, such as optimal lighting conditions at every point in time while minimizing the movement of the lamps in order to avoid distractions of the surgeon. Consequently, we use multi-objective optimization (MOO) to find optimal positions in real-time during the entire surgery. Due to the conflicting objectives, there is usually not a single optimal solution for such kinds of problems, but a set of solutions that realizes a Pareto-front. When our algorithm selects a solution from this set it additionally has to consider the individual preferences of the surgeon. This is a highly non-trivial task because the relationship between the solution and the parameters is not obvious. We have developed a novel meta-optimization that considers exactly this challenge. It delivers an easy to understand set of presets for the parameters and allows a balance between the lamp movement and lamp obstruction. This metaoptimization can be pre-computed for different kinds of operations and it then used by our online optimization for the selection of the appropriate Pareto solution. Both optimization approaches use data obtained by a depth camera that captures the surgical site but also the environment around the operating table. We have evaluated our algorithms with data recorded during a real open abdominal surgery. It is available for use for scientific purposes. The results show that our meta-optimization produces viable parameter sets for different parts of an intervention even when trained on a small portion of it.

  20. [Surgical treatment of gynecomastia: an algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, A; Scholz, T; Diedrichson, J; Liebau, J

    2013-04-01

    Gynecomastia is a persistent benign uni- or bilateral enlargement of the male breast ranging from small to excessive findings with marked skin redundancy. In this paper we introduce an algorithm to facilitate the selection of the appropriate surgical technique according to the presented morphological aspects. The records of 118 patients (217 breasts) with gynecomastia from 01/2009 to 08/2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The authors conducted three different surgical techniques depending on four severity grades. The outcome parameters complication rate, patient satisfaction with the aesthetic result, nipple sensitivity and the need to re-operate were observed and related to the employed technique. In 167 (77%) breasts with moderate breast enlargement without skin redundancy (Grade I-IIa by Simon's classification) a subcutaneous semicircular periareolar mastectomy was performed in combination with water-jet assisted liposuction. In 40 (18%) breasts with skin redundancy (Grade IIb) a circumferential mastopexy was performed additionally. An inferior pedicled mammaplasty was used in 10 (5%) severe cases (Grade III). Complication rate was 4.1%. Surgical corrections were necessary in 17 breasts (7.8%). The patient survey revealed a high satisfaction level: 88% of the patients rated the aesthetic results as "very good" or "good", nipple sensitivity was rated as "very good" or "good" by 83%. Surgical treatment of gynecomastia should ensure minimal scarring while respecting the aesthetic unit. The selection of the appropriate surgical method depends on the severity grade, the presence of skin redundancy and the volume of the male breast glandular tissue. The presented algorithm rarely leads to complications, is simple to perform and shows a high satisfaction rate and a preservation of the nipple sensitivity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. How to open the treasure chest? Optimising DNA extraction from herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkinen, Tiina; Staats, Martijn; Richardson, James E; Cowan, Robyn S; Bakker, Freek T

    2012-01-01

    Herbarium collections are potentially an enormous resource for DNA studies, but the use of herbarium specimens in molecular studies has thus far been slowed down by difficulty in obtaining amplifiable DNA. Here we compare a set of commercially available DNA extraction protocols and their performance in terms of DNA purity and yield, and PCR amplification success as measured by using three differentially sized markers, the rbcL barcoding marker (cpDNA), the LEAFY exon 3 (nrDNA), and the trnL((UAA)) P6 loop (cpDNA). Results reveal large differences between extraction methods, where DNA purity rather than yield is shown to be strongly correlated with PCR success. Amplicon size shows similarly strong correlation with PCR success, with the shortest fragment showing the highest success rate (78%, P6 loop, 10-143 base pairs (bp)) and the largest fragment the lowest success (10%, rbcL, 670 bp). The effect of specimen preparation method on PCR success was also tested. Results show that drying method strongly affects PCR success, especially the availability of fragments longer than 250 bp, where longer fragments are more available for PCR amplification in air dried material compared to alcohol dried specimens. Results from our study indicate that projects relying on poor-quality starting material such as herbarium or scat samples should focus on extracting pure DNA and aim to amplify short target regions (herbarium samples available into barcoding initiatives and other molecular studies.

  2. Instant Transport Media for Biopsied Soft Tissue Specimens: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankargouda Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Formalin, a traditionally preferred fixative in the field of pathology, has restricted usage in private settings. Since its toxicity violates the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations, an eco-friendly alternative would be the need of the hour. Hence an instant media which is economical and nontoxic and enables easy transport of biopsied soft tissue specimens in its original state is of vital importance. Materials and Methods. Commercially available fresh goat buccal mucosa specimens were sliced into smaller bits of equal dimensions and placed in six different containers containing 20% honey, 30% jaggery, milk, and ice for 1 hr, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours each with formalin as a positive control. After the set time interval, the specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for 24 hours followed by routine processing and staining. The histologic interpretations were a blinded procedure and evaluated by two experts. Results were statistically analysed. Results. 30% jaggery proved to be an ideal transport media showing high quality preservation after 24 hours. 20% honey and ice showed optimal tissue preservation up to 6 hours following which quality deteriorated. Tissues transported in milk showed poor preservation. Conclusion. 30% jaggery can be endorsed in routine histopathological analysis as a transport media.

  3. Surgical therapy in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C P; Dennison, A R; Garcea, G

    2012-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas which causes chronic pain, as well as exocrine and endocrine failure in the majority of patients, together producing social and domestic upheaval and a very poor quality of life. At least half of patients will require surgical intervention at some stage in their disease, primarily for the treatment of persistent pain. Available data have now confirmed that surgical intervention may produce superior results to conservative and endoscopic treatment. Comprehensive individual patient assessment is crucial to optimal surgical management, however, in order to determine which morphological disease variant (large duct disease, distal stricture with focal disease, expanded head or small duct/minimal change disease) is present in the individual patient, as a wide and differing range of surgical approaches are possible depending upon the specific abnormality within the gland. This review comprehensively assesses the evidence for these differing approaches to surgical intervention in chronic pancreatitis. Surgical drainage procedures should be limited to a small number of patients with a dilated duct and no pancreatic head mass. Similarly, a small population presenting with a focal stricture and tail only disease may be successfully treated by distal pancreatectomy. Long-term results of both of these procedure types are poor, however. More impressive results have been yielded for the surgical treatment of the expanded head, for which a range of surgical options now exist. Evidence from level I studies and a recent meta-analysis suggests that duodenum-preserving resections offer benefits compared to pancreaticoduodenectomy, though the results of the ongoing, multicentre ChroPac trial are awaited to confirm this. Further data are also needed to determine which of the duodenum-preserving procedures provides optimal results. In relation to small duct/minimal change disease total pancreatectomy represents the only

  4. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices... microbiological specimen collection and transport device is a specimen collecting chamber intended for medical...

  5. Thermal analysis on the specimens for low irradiation temperature below 100degC in the HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Kim, Bong-Goo; Lee, Byung-Chul; Kim, Tae-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    A capsule has been used for an irradiation test of various nuclear materials in the research reactor, HANARO. As a part of the research reactor development project with a plate type fuel, the irradiation tests of beryllium, zircaloy-4 and graphite materials using the capsule will be carried out to obtain the mechanical characteristics at low temperatures below 100degC with 30 MW reactor power. In this study, in order to obtain the preliminary design data of the capsule with various specimens and the temperature of specimens, a thermal analysis is performed by using an ANSYS program. The finite element models for the cross section of the capsule containing the specimen are generated, and the temperatures are evaluated. The analysis results show that most specimens meet the irradiation target temperature. However, some canned graphite specimens have a slightly high temperature, and the gap size has a significant effect on the specimen temperature. Based on those results a detailed design and analysis of the capsule will be completed this year. (author)

  6. CGH and SNP array using DNA extracted from fixed cytogenetic preparations and long-term refrigerated bone marrow specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKinnon Ruth N

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of nucleic acids is limited by the availability of archival specimens and the quality and amount of the extracted material. Archived cytogenetic preparations are stored in many laboratories and are a potential source of total genomic DNA for array karyotyping and other applications. Array CGH using DNA from fixed cytogenetic preparations has been described, but it is not known whether it can be used for SNP arrays. Diagnostic bone marrow specimens taken during the assessment of hematological malignancies are also a potential source of DNA, but it is generally assumed that DNA must be extracted, or the specimen frozen, within a day or two of collection, to obtain DNA suitable for further analysis. We have assessed DNA extracted from these materials for both SNP array and array CGH. Results We show that both SNP array and array CGH can be performed on genomic DNA extracted from cytogenetic specimens stored in Carnoy's fixative, and from bone marrow which has been stored unfrozen, at 4°C, for at least 36 days. We describe a procedure for extracting a usable concentration of total genomic DNA from cytogenetic suspensions of low cellularity. Conclusions The ability to use these archival specimens for DNA-based analysis increases the potential for retrospective genetic analysis of clinical specimens. Fixed cytogenetic preparations and long-term refrigerated bone marrow both provide DNA suitable for array karyotyping, and may be suitable for a wider range of analytical procedures.

  7. Change of the mode of failure by interface friction and width-to-height ratio of coal specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Rashed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bumps in coal mines have been recognized as a major hazard for many years. These sudden and violent failures around mine openings have compromised safety, ventilation and access to mine workings. Previous studies showed that the violence of coal specimen failure depends on both the interface friction and width-to-height (W/H ratio of coal specimen. The mode of failure for a uniaxially loaded coal specimen or a coal pillar is a combination of both shear failure along the interface and compressive failure in the coal. The shear failure along the interface triggered the compressive failure in coal. The compressive failure of a coal specimen or a coal pillar can be controlled by changing its W/H ratio. As the W/H ratio increases, the ultimate strength increases. Hence, with a proper combination of interface friction and the W/H ratio of pillar or coal specimen, the mode of failure will change from sudden violent failure which is brittle failure to non-violent failure which is ductile failure. The main objective of this paper is to determine at what W/H ratio and interface friction the mode of failure changes from violent to non-violent. In this research, coal specimens of W/H ratio ranging from 1 to 10 were uniaxially tested under two interface frictions of 0.1 and 0.25, and the results are presented and discussed.

  8. Surgical anatomy and histology of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle for blepharoptosis correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Boban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The detailed knowledge of the architecture of the upper eyelid is very important in numerous upper eyelid corrective surgeries. The article deals with the detailed anatomy of the major components of the upper lid, which are commonly seen in surgical practice. Methods. This study was conducted on 19 human cadavers (12 adults and 7 infants without pathologic changes in the orbital region and eyelids. Anatomic microdissection of the contents of the orbita was performed bilaterally on 12 orbits from 6 unfixed cadavers (3 male and 3 female. Micromorphologic investigations of the orbital tissue were performed on 8 en bloc excised and formalin-fixed orbits of infant cadavers. Specimens were fixed according to the Duvernoy method. An intra-arterial injection of 5% mixture of melt formalin and black ink was administered into the carotid arterial system. Using routine fixation, decalcination, dehydration, illumination, impregnation and molding procedures in paraplast, specimens were prepared for cross-sections. Results. The measurement of the muscle length and diameter in situ in 6 nonfixed cadavers (12 orbits showed an average length of the levator palpbrae superioris (LPS muscle body of the 42.0 ± 1.41 mm on the right, and 40.3 ± 1.63 mm on the left side. In all the cases, the LPS had blood supply from 4 different arterial systems: the lacrimal, supratrochlear, and supraorbital artery and muscle branches of the ophthalmic artery. The LPS muscle in all the specimens was supplied by the superior medial branch of the oculomotor nerve. The connective tissue associated with the LPS muscle contains two transverse ligaments: the superior (Whitnall’s and intermuscular transverse ligaments (ITL. The orbital septum in all the specimens originated from the arcus marginalis of the frontal bone, and consisted of two layers - the superficial and the inner layer. In addition, a detailed histological analysis revealed that the upper eyelid

  9. Surgical anatomy and histology of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle for blepharoptosis correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, Boban; Novaković, Marijan; Milisavljević, Milan; Milićević, Sasa; Maliković, Aleksandar

    2013-12-01

    The detailed knowledge of the architecture of the upper eyelid is very important in numerous upper eyelid corrective surgeries. The article deals with the detailed anatomy of the major components of the upper lid, which are commonly seen in surgical practice. This study was conducted on 19 human cadavers (12 adults and 7 infants) without pathologic changes in the orbital region and eyelids. Anatomic microdissection of the contents of the orbita was performed bilaterally on 12 orbits from 6 unfixed cadavers (3 male and 3 female). Micromorphologic investigations of the orbital tissue were performed on 8 en bloc excised and formalin-fixed orbits of infant cadavers. Specimens were fixed according to the Duvernoy method. An intra-arterial injection of 5% mixture of melt formalin and black ink was administered into the carotid arterial system. Using routine fixation, decalcination, dehydration, illumination, impregnation and molding procedures in paraplast, specimens were prepared for cross-sections. The measurement of the muscle length and diameter in situ in 6 nonfixed cadavers (12 orbits) showed an average length of the levator palpbrae superioris (LPS) muscle body of the 42.0 +/- 1.41 mm on the right, and 40.3 +/- 1.63 mm on the left side. In all the cases, the LPS had blood supply from 4 different arterial systems: the lacrimal, supratrochlear, and supraorbital artery and muscle branches of the ophthalmic artery. The LPS muscle in all the specimens was supplied by the superior medial branch of the oculomotor nerve. The connective tissue associated with the LPS muscle contains two transverse ligaments: the superior (Whitnall's) and intermuscular transverse ligaments (ITL). The orbital septum in all the specimens originated from the arcus marginalis of the frontal bone, and consisted of two layers--the superficial and the inner layer. In addition, a detailed histological analysis revealed that the upper eyelid's crease was formed by the conjoined fascia including the

  10. 3D volume reconstruction from serial breast specimen radiographs for mapping between histology and 3D whole specimen imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertzanidou, T.; Hipwell, J.H.; Reis, S.; Hawkes, D.J.; Ehteshami Bejnordi, B.; Dalmis, M.U.; Vreemann, S.; Platel, B.; Laak, J.A. van der; Karssemeijer, N.; Hermsen, M.; Bult, P.; Mann, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: In breast imaging, radiological in vivo images, such as x-ray mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are used for tumor detection, diagnosis, and size determination. After excision, the specimen is typically sliced into slabs and a small subset is sampled. Histopathological

  11. Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens and Their Susceptibility Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Selected Referral Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walelign Dessie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in hospitals is becoming a challenge for surgeons to treat hospital acquired infections. Objective. To determine bacterial pathogens and drug susceptibility isolated from surgical site infections at St. Paul Specialized Hospital Millennium Medical College and Yekatit 12 Referral Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 on 107 surgical site infected patients. Wound specimens were collected using sterile cotton swab and processed as per standard operative procedures in appropriate culture media; and susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Result. From a total of 107 swabs collected, 90 (84.1% were culture positive and 104 organisms were isolated. E. coli (24 (23.1% was the most common organism isolated followed by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter species (23 (22.1%. More than 58 (75% of the Gram negative isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (resistance ≥ 5 drugs. Pan-antibiotic resistance was noted among 8 (34.8% Acinetobacter species and 3 (12.5% E. coli. This calls for abstinence from antibiotic abuse. Conclusion. Gram negative bacteria were the most important isolates accounting for 76 (73.1%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, cephazoline, and tetracycline showed resistance while gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were relatively effective antimicrobials.

  12. ANAESTHESIA FOR OPHTHALMIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review factors influencing the choice of anaesthesia for ophthalmic surgical procedures. ... as risk associated with general anaesthesia (8) they are more .... Wilson ME, Pandey SK, Thakur J. Paediatric cataract blindness in the ...

  13. uniportal vats for surgical repair

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-23

    Mar 23, 2017 ... aDepartamet of Pediatric Surgery, Hospital Teresa Herrera, Complejo Hospitalario. Universitario de A ... Advances in anesthesia, neonatal intensive, surgical, and cardiac care have ... First, these patients are at risk of airway ...

  14. Spinal surgery: non surgical complications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    surgical procedure). Arterial cannulation ... Acute retinal necrosis syndrome after epidural corticos- teroid injections ... prevented, or respond to early recognition and treatment. ..... drugs should only be administered if there are no alternatives.

  15. Patient-specific surgical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Luc; Marescaux, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Technological innovations of the twentieth century have provided medicine and surgery with new tools for education and therapy definition. Thus, by combining Medical Imaging and Virtual Reality, patient-specific applications providing preoperative surgical simulation have become possible.

  16. Applicability of the Modified Ritchie-Knott-Rice Failure Criterion to Examine the Feasibility of Miniaturized Charpy Type SE(B Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Meshii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined whether the modified Ritchie-Knott-Rice (RKR failure criterion can be applied to examine the feasibility of miniaturized Charpy type SE(B specimens of thickness-to-width ratio B/W=1. The modified RKR failure criterion considered in this paper is the (4δt,σ22c criterion which predicts the onset of cleavage fracture when the midplane crack-opening stress measured at a distance equal to four times the crack-tip opening displacement, denoted as σ22d, exceeds a critical stress σ22c. Specimens with B values of 25, 10, 3, and 2 mm (denoted as 25t, 10t, 3t, and 2t specimens, resp. manufactured with 0.55% carbon steel were tested at 20°C. The results showed that the modified RKR criterion could appropriately predict the occurrence of cleavage fracture accompanied by negligibly small stable crack extension (denoted as KJc fracture naturally for the 25t and 10t specimens. The modified RKR criterion could also predict that KJc fracture does not occur for the 2t specimen. The σ22c obtained from specimens for the 25t and 10t specimens exhibited only a small difference, indicating that the Jc obtained from the 10t specimens can be used to predict the Jc that will be obtained with the 25t specimens.

  17. Surgical management of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kim C; Hunt, Steven R

    2013-02-01

    Although medical management can control symptoms in a recurring incurable disease, such as Crohn's disease, surgical management is reserved for disease complications or those problems refractory to medical management. In this article, we cover general principles for the surgical management of Crohn's disease, ranging from skin tags, abscesses, fistulae, and stenoses to small bowel and extraintestinal disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated negative consequences (lengthy placement, impaired wound healing around bulky knots, and the effect of unsightly knots on cosmetics). A study in 9 dogs found that celiotomy closure was easily achiev...

  19. Evolution of surgical skills training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kurt E; Bell, Robert L; Duffy, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Surgical training is changing: one hundred years of tradition is being challenged by legal and ethical concerns for patient safety, work hours restrictions, the cost of operating room time, and complications. Surgical simulation and skills training offers an opportunity to teach and practice advanced skills outside of the operating room environment before attempting them on living patients. Simulation training can be as straight forward as using real instruments and video equipment to manipulate simulated “tissue” in a box trainer. More advanced, virtual reality simulators are now available and ready for widespread use. Early systems have demonstrated their effectiveness and discriminative ability. Newer systems enable the development of comprehensive curricula and full procedural simulations. The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education’s (ACGME) has mandated the development of novel methods of training and evaluation. Surgical organizations are calling for methods to ensure the maintenance of skills, advance surgical training, and to credential surgeons as technically competent. Simulators in their current form have been demonstrated to improve the operating room performance of surgical residents. Development of standardized training curricula remains an urgent and important agenda, particularly for minimal invasive surgery. An innovative and progressive approach, borrowing experiences from the field of aviation, can provide the foundation for the next century of surgical training, ensuring the quality of the product. As the technology develops, the way we practice will continue to evolve, to the benefit of physicians and patients. PMID:16718842

  20. Photographs and herbarium specimens as tools to document phenological changes in response to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Rushing, Abraham J; Primack, Richard B; Primack, Daniel; Mukunda, Sharda

    2006-11-01

    Global warming is affecting natural systems across the world. Of the biological responses to warming, changes in the timing of phenological events such as flowering are among the most sensitive. Despite the recognized importance of phenological changes, the limited number of long-term records of phenological events has restricted research on the topic in most areas of the world. In a previous study in Boston (American Journal of Botany 91: 1260-1264), we used herbarium specimens and one season of field observations to show that plants flowered earlier as the climate warmed over the past 100 yr. In our new study, we found that two extra years of data did not strengthen the explanatory power of the analysis. Analysis of herbarium specimens without any field data yielded results similar to analyses that included field observations. In addition, we found that photographs of cultivated and wild plants in Massachusetts, data similar to that contained in herbarium specimens, show changes in flowering times that closely match independent data on the same species in the same locations. Dated photographs of plants in flower represent a new resource to extend the range of species and localities addressed in global-warming research.