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Sample records for surgical specimen measured

  1. Breast surgical specimen radiographs: How reliable are they?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, P.D.; Sonoda, L.I.; Yamamoto, A.K.; Koo, B.; Soh, E.; Goud, A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiography of the excised surgical specimen following wire guided localisation of impalpable breast lesions is standard surgical practice. The aims of the study were to establish the reliability of the breast specimen radiograph (SR) in determining lesion excision and to determine whether the radiographic margin correlated with the histological margin. The clinical, imaging, SR and pathological details of 106 patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of breast cancer were retrospectively reviewed. The reliability of orientation was estimated and the appearance and distance from the mammographic abnormality to each radial margin were measured and correlated with surgical histological findings. The overall accuracy of the specimen radiograph in determining whether the mammographic lesion was present was 99%. The SR could be orientated 'very reliably' or 'reliably' in 80% of patients however in only 48% of patients did the closest margin on the SR correspond with the same nearest margin at final histology. A maximum measurement of 11 mm or more from the lesion to the specimen edge was associated with a 77% likelihood of having a clear final histological margin (taken as 5 mm or more) and if <11 mm a 58% chance of having involved final histological margins. There was however a wide overlap in the results with patients having an apparently wide SR margin but histologically involved margins and vice versa. The SR is reliable at determining whether the target lesion has been removed. The correlation of SR margin orientation and measurement with final histological measurement is however far less reliable.

  2. Vacuum sealing and cooling as methods to preserve surgical specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Engvad, Birte; Nielsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Recently, vacuum-based preservation of surgical specimens has been proposed as a safe alternative to formalin fixation at the surgical theater. The method seems feasible from a practical point of view, but no systematic study has examined the effect of vacuum sealing alone with respect to tissue...

  3. Concordance of DNA methylation profiles between breast core biopsy and surgical excision specimens containing ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

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    Chen, Youdinghuan; Marotti, Jonathan D; Jenson, Erik G; Onega, Tracy L; Johnson, Kevin C; Christensen, Brock C

    2017-08-01

    The utility and reliability of assessing molecular biomarkers for translational applications on pre-operative core biopsy specimens assume consistency of molecular profiles with larger surgical specimens. Whether DNA methylation in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), measured in core biopsy and surgical specimens are similar, remains unclear. Here, we compared genome-scale DNA methylation measured in matched core biopsy and surgical specimens from DCIS, including specific DNA methylation biomarkers of subsequent invasive cancer. DNA was extracted from guided 2mm cores of formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens, bisulfite-modified, and measured on the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. DNA methylation profiles of core biopsies exhibited high concordance with matched surgical specimens. Within-subject variability in DNA methylation was significantly lower than between-subject variability (all Pcore biopsy and surgical specimens, 15%, and a pathway analysis of these CpGs indicated enrichment for genes related with wound healing. Our results indicate that DNA methylation measured in core biopsies are representative of the matched surgical specimens and suggest that DCIS biomarkers measured in core biopsies can inform clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Light Reflectance Spectroscopy to Detect Positive Surgical Margins on Prostate Cancer Specimens.

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    Morgan, Monica S C; Lay, Aaron H; Wang, Xinlong; Kapur, Payal; Ozayar, Asim; Sayah, Maryam; Zeng, Li; Liu, Hanli; Roehrborn, Claus G; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A

    2016-02-01

    Intraoperative frozen section analysis is not routinely performed to determine positive surgical margins at radical prostatectomy due to time requirements and unproven clinical usefulness. Light reflectance spectroscopy, which measures light intensity reflected or backscattered from tissues, can be applied to differentiate malignant from benign tissue. We used a novel light reflectance spectroscopy probe to evaluate positive surgical margins on ex vivo radical prostatectomy specimens and correlate its findings with pathological examination. Patients with intermediate to high risk disease undergoing radical prostatectomy were enrolled. Light reflectance spectroscopy was performed on suspected malignant and benign prostate capsule immediately following organ extraction. Each light reflectance spectroscopy at 530 to 830 nm was analyzed and correlated with pathological results. A regression model and forward sequential selection algorithm were developed for optimal feature selection. Eighty percent of light reflectance spectroscopy data were selected to train a logistic regression model, which was evaluated by the remaining 20% data. This was repeated 5 times to calculate averaged sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Light reflectance spectroscopy analysis was performed on 17 ex vivo prostate specimens, on which a total of 11 histologically positive and 22 negative surgical margins were measured. Two select features from 700 to 830 nm were identified as unique to malignant tissue. Cross-validation when performing the predictive model showed that the optical probe predicted positive surgical margins with 85% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 86% accuracy and an AUC of 0.95. Light reflectance spectroscopy can identify positive surgical margins accurately in fresh ex vivo radical prostatectomy specimens. Further study is required to determine whether such analysis may be used in real time to improve surgical decision making and decrease positive surgical margin rates

  5. Measurements of the cesium 137 concentration in surgical specimens of gynaecologic tumours and mother's milk, amniotic fluid, and in umbilical cords, 6 years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerwenka, K.F.; Heuss, F.; Teherani, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    In the present study, the cesium 137 content in various human tissues was examined 6 years after the Chernobyl reactor catastrophe. The measurements were performed with a gamma-ray spectrometer by means of a germanium/lithium detector. The median of cesium 137 was 20 mBq/ml in mother's milk. 60 mBq/ml in amniotic fluid, 105 mBq/g in umbilical cords. 51 mBq/g in ovarian tumours, and 140 mBq/g in mammary carcinomas. These values lay far below the permissible limit values of 528 mBq/ml or 528 mBq/g for persons not exposed to radiation. The problems of determining the upper limit were also discussed, and it was ascertained that despite the favorably low values recorded in this study a residual risk to health cannot be absolutely precluded in the light of present-day knowledge. (authors)

  6. HER2 testing on core needle biopsy specimens from primary breast cancers: interobserver reproducibility and concordance with surgically resected specimens

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    Yamamoto Sohei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2 status based on core needle biopsy (CNB specimens is mandatory for identification of patients with primary breast cancer who will benefit from primary systemic therapy with trastuzumab. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of HER2 testing with CNB specimens from primary breast cancers in terms of interobserver reproducibility and comparison with surgically resected specimens. Methods A total of 100 pairs of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CNB and surgically resected specimens of invasive breast carcinomas were cut into sections. All 100 paired sections were subjected to HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry (IHC and 27 paired sections were subjected to that by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, the results being evaluated by three and two observers, respectively. Interobserver agreement levels in terms of judgment and the concordance of consensus scores between CNB samples and the corresponding surgically resected specimens were estimated as the percentage agreement and κ statistic. Results In CNB specimens, the percentage interobserver agreement of HER2 scoring by IHC was 76% (κ = 0.71 for 3 × 3 categories (0-1+ versus 2+ versus 3+ and 90% (κ = 0.80 for 2 × 2 categories (0-2+ versus 3+. These levels were close to the corresponding ones for the surgically resected specimens: 80% (κ = 0.77 for 3 × 3 categories and 92% (κ = 0.88 for 2 × 2 categories. Concordance of consensus for HER2 scores determined by IHC between CNB and the corresponding surgical specimens was 87% (κ = 0.77 for 3 × 3 categories, and 94% (κ = 0.83 for 2 × 2 categories. Among the 13 tumors showing discordance in the mean IHC scores between the CNB and surgical specimens, the results of consensus for FISH results were concordant in 11. The rate of successful FISH analysis and the FISH positivity rate in cases with a HER2 IHC score of

  7. HER2 testing on core needle biopsy specimens from primary breast cancers: interobserver reproducibility and concordance with surgically resected specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Hitoshi; Kurosumi, Masafumi; Umemura, Shinobu; Yamamoto, Sohei; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Osamura, Robert Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2) status based on core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens is mandatory for identification of patients with primary breast cancer who will benefit from primary systemic therapy with trastuzumab. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of HER2 testing with CNB specimens from primary breast cancers in terms of interobserver reproducibility and comparison with surgically resected specimens. A total of 100 pairs of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CNB and surgically resected specimens of invasive breast carcinomas were cut into sections. All 100 paired sections were subjected to HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and 27 paired sections were subjected to that by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the results being evaluated by three and two observers, respectively. Interobserver agreement levels in terms of judgment and the concordance of consensus scores between CNB samples and the corresponding surgically resected specimens were estimated as the percentage agreement and κ statistic. In CNB specimens, the percentage interobserver agreement of HER2 scoring by IHC was 76% (κ = 0.71) for 3 × 3 categories (0-1+ versus 2+ versus 3+) and 90% (κ = 0.80) for 2 × 2 categories (0-2+ versus 3+). These levels were close to the corresponding ones for the surgically resected specimens: 80% (κ = 0.77) for 3 × 3 categories and 92% (κ = 0.88) for 2 × 2 categories. Concordance of consensus for HER2 scores determined by IHC between CNB and the corresponding surgical specimens was 87% (κ = 0.77) for 3 × 3 categories, and 94% (κ = 0.83) for 2 × 2 categories. Among the 13 tumors showing discordance in the mean IHC scores between the CNB and surgical specimens, the results of consensus for FISH results were concordant in 11. The rate of successful FISH analysis and the FISH positivity rate in cases with a HER2 IHC score of 2+ differed among specimens processed at

  8. Improved compliance with the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist is associated with reduced surgical specimen labelling errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Walston R; Hannam, Jacqueline A; Lee, Tracey; Merry, Alan F; Mitchell, Simon J

    2016-09-09

    A new approach to administering the surgical safety checklist (SSC) at our institution using wall-mounted charts for each SSC domain coupled with migrated leadership among operating room (OR) sub-teams, led to improved compliance with the Sign Out domain. Since surgical specimens are reviewed at Sign Out, we aimed to quantify any related change in surgical specimen labelling errors. Prospectively maintained error logs for surgical specimens sent to pathology were examined for the six months before and after introduction of the new SSC administration paradigm. We recorded errors made in the labelling or completion of the specimen pot and on the specimen laboratory request form. Total error rates were calculated from the number of errors divided by total number of specimens. Rates from the two periods were compared using a chi square test. There were 19 errors in 4,760 specimens (rate 3.99/1,000) and eight errors in 5,065 specimens (rate 1.58/1,000) before and after the change in SSC administration paradigm (P=0.0225). Improved compliance with administering the Sign Out domain of the SSC can reduce surgical specimen errors. This finding provides further evidence that OR teams should optimise compliance with the SSC.

  9. MR evaluation of postmenopausal ovarian size. Comparison with surgical specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joja, Ikuo; Ishida, Kana; Matsushita, Toshi; Mimura, Seiichi; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Akagi, Noriaki; Miyagi, Yasunari; Hara, Takeshi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    We investigated ovarian size after menopause using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and gross specimens obtained from patients with uterine cancer after menopause in whom normal ovaries were confirmed at the time of surgery. The relationships between size of ovarian long axis and age, the number of years since menopause, and age at menopause were statistically evaluated for 130 ovaries observed in short-axis T 2 -weighted MR images of the uterine corpus and in 147 ovarian gross specimens. No significant relationships were found between size of ovarian long axis and these 3 factors. When the sizes of the ovaries in MR images were compared with those in gross specimens, the latter were larger, with a statistically significant difference. Similarly, when the sizes of the ovaries observed or not observed in MR images were compared in gross specimens, the former were larger, with a statistically significant difference. These results indicate that the size of the ovarian long axis observed in MR images does not accurately reflect the true size of the long axis, but ovarian size strongly affects visualization of the ovaries in MR images after menopause. In addition, these results indicate that there are no significant relationships between ovarian size after menopause and age, the number of years since menopause, or age at menopause. (author)

  10. Measurements and Counts for Notacanthidae Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic data were collected for specimens of deep-sea spiny eels (Notacanthidae) from the Hawaiian Ridge by Bruce C. Mundy. Specimens were collected off the north...

  11. Ambulatory Surgical Measures - Facility

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    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Ambulatory Surgical Center Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program seeks to make care safer and more efficient through quality reporting. ASCs eligible for this...

  12. Risk Factors Associated with Discordant Ki-67 Levels between Preoperative Biopsy and Postoperative Surgical Specimens in Breast Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Sun Kim

    Full Text Available The Ki-67 labelling index is significant for the management of breast cancer. However, the concordance of Ki-67 expression between preoperative biopsy and postoperative surgical specimens has not been well evaluated. This study aimed to find the correlation in Ki-67 expression between biopsy and surgical specimens and to determine the clinicopathological risk factors associated with discordant values.Ki-67 levels were immunohistochemically measured using paired biopsy and surgical specimens in 310 breast cancer patients between 2008 and 2013. ΔKi-67 was calculated by postoperative Ki-67 minus preoperative levels. The outliers of ΔKi-67 were defined as [lower quartile of ΔKi-67-1.5 × interquartile range (IQR] or (upper quartile + 1.5 × IQR and were evaluated according to clinicopathological parameters by logistic regression analysis.The median preoperative and postoperative Ki-67 levels were 10 (IQR, 15 and 10 (IQR, 25, respectively. Correlation of Ki-67 levels between the two specimens indicated a moderately positive relationship (coefficient = 0.676. Of 310 patients, 44 (14.2% showed outliers of ΔKi-67 (range, ≤-20 or ≥28. A significant association with poor prognostic factors was found among these patients. Multivariate analysis determined that significant risk factors for outliers of ΔKi-67 were tumor size >1 cm, negative progesterone receptor (PR expression, grade III cancer, and age ≤35 years. Among 171 patients with luminal human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative tumors, breast cancer subtype according to preoperative or postoperative Ki-67 levels discordantly changed in 46 (26.9% patients and a significant proportion of patients with discordant cases had ≥1 risk factor.Ki-67 expression showed a substantial concordance between biopsy and surgical specimens. Extremely discordant Ki-67 levels may be associated with aggressive tumor biology. In patients with luminal subtype disease, clinical application of Ki-67

  13. Factors that impact turnaround time of surgical pathology specimens in an academic institution.

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    Patel, Samip; Smith, Jennifer B; Kurbatova, Ekaterina; Guarner, Jeannette

    2012-09-01

    Turnaround time of laboratory results is important for customer satisfaction. The College of American Pathologists' checklist requires an analytic turnaround time of 2 days or less for most routine cases and lets every hospital define what a routine specimen is. The objective of this study was to analyze which factors impact turnaround time of nonbiopsy surgical pathology specimens. We calculated the turnaround time from receipt to verification of results (adjusted for weekends and holidays) for all nonbiopsy surgical specimens during a 2-week period. Factors studied included tissue type, number of slides per case, decalcification, immunohistochemistry, consultations with other pathologists, and diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 713 specimens were analyzed, 551 (77%) were verified within 2 days and 162 (23%) in 3 days or more. Lung, gastrointestinal, breast, and genitourinary specimens showed the highest percentage of cases being signed out in over 3 days. Diagnosis of malignancy (including staging of the neoplasia), consultation with other pathologists, having had a frozen section, and use of immunohistochemical stains were significantly associated with increased turnaround time in univariate analysis. Decalcification was not associated with increased turnaround time. In multivariate analysis, consultation with other pathologists, use of immunohistochemistry, diagnosis of malignancy, and the number of slides studied continued to be significantly associated with prolonged turnaround time. Our findings suggest that diagnosis of malignancy is central to significantly prolonging the turnaround time for surgical pathology specimens, thus institutions that serve cancer centers will have longer turnaround time than those that do not. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Integration of Value Stream Map and Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis into Six Sigma Methodology to Improve Process of Surgical Specimen Handling

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    Sheng-Hui Hung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimen handling is a critical patient safety issue. Problematic handling process, such as misidentification (of patients, surgical site, and specimen counts, specimen loss, or improper specimen preparation can lead to serious patient harms and lawsuits. Value stream map (VSM is a tool used to find out non-value-added works, enhance the quality, and reduce the cost of the studied process. On the other hand, healthcare failure mode and effect analysis (HFMEA is now frequently employed to avoid possible medication errors in healthcare process. Both of them have a goal similar to Six Sigma methodology for process improvement. This study proposes a model that integrates VSM and HFMEA into the framework, which mainly consists of define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC, of Six Sigma. A Six Sigma project for improving the process of surgical specimen handling in a hospital was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  15. Integration of Value Stream Map and Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis into Six Sigma Methodology to Improve Process of Surgical Specimen Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Sheng-Hui; Wang, Pa-Chun; Lin, Hung-Chun; Chen, Hung-Ying; Su, Chao-Ton

    2015-01-01

    Specimen handling is a critical patient safety issue. Problematic handling process, such as misidentification (of patients, surgical site, and specimen counts), specimen loss, or improper specimen preparation can lead to serious patient harms and lawsuits. Value stream map (VSM) is a tool used to find out non-value-added works, enhance the quality, and reduce the cost of the studied process. On the other hand, healthcare failure mode and effect analysis (HFMEA) is now frequently employed to avoid possible medication errors in healthcare process. Both of them have a goal similar to Six Sigma methodology for process improvement. This study proposes a model that integrates VSM and HFMEA into the framework, which mainly consists of define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC), of Six Sigma. A Six Sigma project for improving the process of surgical specimen handling in a hospital was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  16. Strain Measurement System Developed for Biaxially Loaded Cruciform Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.

    2000-01-01

    A new extensometer system developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field measures test area strains along two orthogonal axes in flat cruciform specimens. This system incorporates standard axial contact extensometers to provide a cost-effective high-precision instrument. The device was validated for use by extensive testing of a stainless steel specimen, with specimen temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1100 F. In-plane loading conditions included several static biaxial load ratios, plus cyclic loadings of various waveform shapes, frequencies, magnitudes, and durations. The extensometer system measurements were compared with strain gauge data at room temperature and with calculated strain values for elevated-temperature measurements. All testing was performed in house in Glenn's Benchmark Test Facility in-plane biaxial load frame.

  17. Microvascular injury of the peribiliary plexus associated with transarterial chemoembolization: a study of surgical specimens

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    Park, Won Kyu; Bae, Young Kyung; Hwang, Tae Yoon; Cho, Jae Ho; Chang, Jay Chun; Kim, Jae Woon; Jang, Han Won [College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-11-15

    We attempted to evaluate the relationship between transarteiral chemoembolization (TACE) and injury to the peribiliary plexus by evaluating the number of microvessels in peribiliary plexus of surgical specimen. Surgical specimens were obtained from 78 hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 22 patients with liver metastases. They were divided into 4 groups (Group 1; hepatocellular carcinoma without TACE [n=30], Group 2; hepatocellular carcinoma receiving preoperative TACE once [n=37], Group 3; hepatocellular carcinoma receiving preoperative TACE more than two times [n=11] and Group 4; metastatic carcinoma of the liver patients without a history of liver disease [n=22]). Immunohistochemical staining for factor VIII-related antigen was performed in all the specimens and the number of microvessels in the inner capillary layer and the outer venous layer of the bile duct (> 200 {mu} m in diameter) was counted. The mean numbers of microvessels in the inner capillary layer were 4.50, 4.08, 1.64 and 2.05, and those in the outer venous layer were 25.23, 20.00, 18.36 and 12.32 for the 4 groups, respectively. The number of microvessels in group 4 was statistically fewer than that of group 1 ({rho} < 0.01). In the hepatocellular carcinoma patients, the number of microvessels was decreased as the number of TACE sessions was increased. The number of microvessels in the peribiliary plexus is increased in chronic liver disease patients. It may be from the increased portal pressure and flow stagnation in the sinusoidal and portal venules. TACE can have an effect on microvascular injury of the peibiliary plexus, and this can be a cause of bile duct necrosis and biloma.

  18. Measurement of deformation field in CT specimen using laser speckle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Moon Chang; Kang, Ki Ju

    2001-01-01

    To obtain A 2 experimentally in the J-A 2 theory, deformation field on the lateral surface of a CT specimen was to be determined using laser speckle method. The crack growth was measured using direct current potential drop method and most procedure of experimental and data reduction was performed according to ASTM Standard E1737-96. Laser speckle images during crack propagation were monitored by two CCD cameras to cancel the effect of rotation and translation of the specimen. An algorithm to pursue displacement of a point from each image was developed and successfully used to measure A 2 continuously as the crack tip was propagated. The effects of specimen thickness on J-R curve and A 2 were explored

  19. A Histomorphological Pattern Analysis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Lung Autopsy and Surgically Resected Specimens

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    Mamta Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tuberculosis (TB is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Many cases are diagnosed on autopsy and a subset of patients may require surgical intervention either due to the complication or sequelae of TB. Materials and Methods. 40 cases of resected lung specimens following surgery or autopsy in which a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis was made were included. Histopathological pattern analysis of pulmonary tuberculosis along with associated nonneoplastic changes and identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli was done. Results. The mean age of diagnosis was 41 years with male predominance (92.5%. Tuberculosis was suspected in only 12.1% of cases before death. Seven cases were operated upon due to associated complications or suspicion of malignancy. Tubercular consolidation was the most frequent pattern followed by miliary tuberculosis. The presence of necrotizing granulomas was seen in 33 cases (82.5%. Acid fast bacilli were seen in 57.5% cases on Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Conclusion. Histopathology remains one of the most important methods for diagnosing tuberculosis, especially in TB prevalent areas. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all respiratory diseases because of its varied clinical presentations and manifestations.

  20. Evaluation of conventional, dynamic contrast enhanced and diffusion weighted MRI for quantitative Crohn's disease assessment with histopathology of surgical specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielbeek, Jeroen A. W.; Ziech, Manon L. W.; Li, Zhang; Lavini, Cristina; Bipat, Shandra; Bemelman, Willem A.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Vos, Frans M.; Stoker, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    To prospectively compare conventional MRI sequences, dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with histopathology of surgical specimens in Crohn's disease. 3-T MR enterography was performed in consecutive Crohn's disease patients scheduled for surgery within 4 weeks.

  1. Recommendations for the reporting of surgically resected specimens of renal cell carcinoma: the Association of Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P; McKenney, Jesse K; Brooks, James D; Argani, Pedram; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2009-04-01

    A checklist based approach to reporting the relevant pathologic details of renal cell carcinoma resection specimens improves the completeness of the report. Karyotypic evaluation of renal neoplasms has refined but also complicated their classification. The number of diagnostic possibilities has increased and the importance of distinguishing different tumor types has been underscored by dramatic variation in prognosis and the development of targeted therapies for specific subtypes. The increasing number of recognized renal neoplasms has implications for handling renal resection specimens. Furthermore, the prognostic significance of other features of renal neoplasms related to grade and stage has been demonstrated. This guideline for the handling of renal resection specimens will focus on problem areas in the evolving practice of diagnosis, grading, and staging of renal neoplasms. The accompanying checklist will serve to ensure that all necessary details of the renal resection specimen are included in the surgical pathology report.

  2. Differentiation of Metastatic and Non-Metastatic Mesenteric Lymph Nodes by Strain Elastography in Surgical Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havre, R F; Leh, S M; Gilja, O H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate if strain elastography could differentiate between metastatic and non-metastatic mesenteric lymph nodes ex-vivo. Materials and Methods: 90 mesenteric lymph nodes were examined shortly after resection from 25 patients including 17 patients with colorectal cancer and 8...... patients with Crohn's disease. Ultrasound-based strain elastography was performed with a linear probe. Tissue hardness in lymph nodes was assessed using visual scales and measuring the strain ratio. B-mode characteristics were also recorded. Pathological diagnosis with grading of fibrosis served...... non-metastatic nodes, but the difference was not significant (65.5 vs. 55.0, p = 0.055). There was no difference between lymph nodes in Crohn's and non-metastatic cancer specimens. The metastatic lymph nodes were significantly more fibrotic than the non-metastatic lymph nodes by the ordinal fibrosis...

  3. Processing of fallopian tube, ovary, and endometrial surgical pathology specimens: A survey of U.S. laboratory practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Goli; Trabert, Britton; Duggan, Máire A; Robinson, Jennifer L; Coa, Kisha I; Waibel, Elizabeth; Garcia, Edna; Minasian, Lori M; Sherman, Mark E

    2018-03-01

    Many high-grade serous carcinomas initiate in fallopian tubes as serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), a microscopic lesion identified with specimen processing according to the Sectioning and Extensive Examination of the Fimbria protocol (SEE-Fim). Given that the tubal origin of these cancers was recently recognized, we conducted a survey of pathology practices to assess processing protocols that are applied to gynecologic surgical pathology specimens in clinical contexts in which finding STIC might have different implications. We distributed a survey electronically to the American Society for Clinical Pathology list-serve to determine practice patterns and compared results between practice types by chi-square (χ2) tests for categorical variables. Free text comments were qualitatively reviewed. Survey responses were received from 159 laboratories (72 academic, 87 non-academic), which reported diverse specimen volumes and percentage of gynecologic samples. Overall, 74.1% of laboratories reported performing SEE-Fim for risk-reducing surgical specimens (82.5% academic versus 65.7% non-academic, p STIC or early cancer precursors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Fracture toughness measurements with subsize disk compact specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Special fixtures and test methods are necessary to facilitate the fracture toughness testing of small disk compact specimens of irradiated candidate materials for first-wall fusion applications. New methods have been developed for both the unloading compliance and potential drop techniques of monitoring crack growth. Provisions have been made to allow the necessary probes and instrumentation to be installed remotely using manipulators for testing of irradiated specimens in a hot cell. Laboratory trials showed that both unloading compliance and potential drop gave useful results. Both techniques gave similar data, and predicted the final crack extension within allowable limits. The results from the small disk compact specimens were similar to results from conventional compact specimen 12.7 mm thick. However, the slopes of the J-R curves from the larger specimens were lower, suggesting that the smaller disk compact specimens may have lost some constraint due to their size. The testing shows that it should be possible to generate useful J-R curve fracture toughness data from the small disk compact specimens

  5. Fracture toughness measurements with subsize disk compact specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Special fixtures and test methods have been developed for testing small disk compact specimens (12.5 mm diam by 4.6 mm thick). Both unloading compliance and potential drop methods have been used to monitor crack extension during the J-integral resistance (J-R) curve testing. Provisions have been made to allow the necessary probes and instrumentation to be installed remotely using manipulators for testing of irradiated specimens in a hat cell. Laboratory trials showed that both unloading compliance and potential drop gave useful results. Both techniques gave similar data, and predicted the final crack extension within allowable limits. The results from the small disk compact specimens were similar to results from conventional compact specimens 12.7-mm thick. However, the slopes of the J-R curves from the larger specimens were lower, suggesting that the smaller disk compact specimens may have lost some constraint due to their size. The testing shows that it should be possible to generate useful J-R curve fracture toughness data from the small disk compact specimens

  6. Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Baowei; Lu, Guolan; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Hongzheng; Little, James V.; Patel, Mihir R.; Griffith, Christopher C.; El-Diery, Mark W.; Chen, Amy Y.

    2017-08-01

    A label-free, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) approach has been proposed for tumor margin assessment. HSI data, i.e., hypercube (x,y,λ), consist of a series of high-resolution images of the same field of view that are acquired at different wavelengths. Every pixel on an HSI image has an optical spectrum. In this pilot clinical study, a pipeline of a machine-learning-based quantification method for HSI data was implemented and evaluated in patient specimens. Spectral features from HSI data were used for the classification of cancer and normal tissue. Surgical tissue specimens were collected from 16 human patients who underwent head and neck (H&N) cancer surgery. HSI, autofluorescence images, and fluorescence images with 2-deoxy-2-[(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]-D-glucose (2-NBDG) and proflavine were acquired from each specimen. Digitized histologic slides were examined by an H&N pathologist. The HSI and classification method were able to distinguish between cancer and normal tissue from the oral cavity with an average accuracy of 90%±8%, sensitivity of 89%±9%, and specificity of 91%±6%. For tissue specimens from the thyroid, the method achieved an average accuracy of 94%±6%, sensitivity of 94%±6%, and specificity of 95%±6%. HSI outperformed autofluorescence imaging or fluorescence imaging with vital dye (2-NBDG or proflavine). This study demonstrated the feasibility of label-free, HSI for tumor margin assessment in surgical tissue specimens of H&N cancer patients. Further development of the HSI technology is warranted for its application in image-guided surgery.

  7. Fracture toughness measurements with subsize disk compact specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Special fixtures and test methods have been developed for testing small disk compact specimens (1.25 mm diam by 4.6 mm thick). Specimens of European type 316L austenitic stainless steel were irradiated to damage levels of about 3 dpa at nominal irradiation temperatures of either 90 or 250 C and tested over a temperature range from 20 to 250 C. Results show that irradiation to this dose level at these temperatures reduces the fracture toughness but the toughness remains quite high. The toughness decreases as the test temperature increases. Irradiation at 250 C is more damaging than at 90 C, causing larger decreases in the fracture toughness. The testing shows that it is possible to generate useful fracture toughness data with a small disk compact specimens

  8. Diagnostic p53 immunostaining of endobiliary brush cytology: preoperative cytology compared with the surgical specimen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tascilar, M.; Sturm, P. D.; Caspers, E.; Smit, M.; Polak, M. M.; Huibregtse, K.; Noorduyn, L. A.; Offerhaus, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    Endobiliary brush cytology is important in the distinction of malignant and benign causes of extrahepatic bile duct obstruction. The additional diagnostic value of p53 immunostaining on these cytology specimens was assessed. All patients with extrahepatic bile duct obstruction who underwent

  9. Lymph node retrieval in abdominoperineal surgical specimen is radiation time-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allal Abdelkarim S

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low yield of lymph nodes (LN in abdominoperineal resection (APR specimen has been associated with preoperative radiation therapy (XRT in population-based studies, which may preclude adequate staging of anorectal carcinomas. We hypothesized that the number of LN retrieved in APR specimen was correlated with the dose and the timing of pelvic irradiation. Patients and methods We performed a retrospective study of 102 patients who underwent APR in a single institution between 1980 and 2004. Pathological reports were reviewed and the number of lymph nodes retrieved in APR specimens was correlated with: 1 Preoperative radiation; 2 Dose of pelvic irradiation; and 3 Time interval between the end of XRT and surgery. Results There were 61 men and 41 women, with a median age of 66 (range 25–89 years. There were 12 patients operated for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA and 90 for rectal cancer. 83% and 46% of patients with anal and rectal cancer respectively underwent radical/neoadjuvant radiotherapy. The mean ± SD number of LN in APR specimen was 9.2 ± 5.9. The mean number of LN in APR specimen was significantly lower in patients who underwent preoperative XRT (8 ± 5.5 vs. 10.5 ± 6.1, Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.02. The mean number of LN was not significantly different after XRT in patients with SCCA than in patients with rectal cancer (6.2 ± 5.3 vs. 7.8 ± 5.3, p = 0.33. Finally, there was an inverse correlation between the yield of LN and the time elapsed between XRT and surgery (linear regression coefficient r = -0.32, p = 0.03. Conclusion Our data indicate that: 1 radiation therapy affects the yield of LN retrieval in APR specimen; 2 this impact is time-dependent. These findings have important implications with regard to anatomic-pathological staging of anal and rectal cancers and subsequent decision-making regarding adjuvant chemotherapy.

  10. A semiautomatic CT-based ensemble segmentation of lung tumors: comparison with oncologists' delineations and with the surgical specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Velazquez, Emmanuel; Aerts, Hugo J W L; Gu, Yuhua; Goldgof, Dmitry B; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Dekker, Andre; Korn, René; Gillies, Robert J; Lambin, Philippe

    2012-11-01

    To assess the clinical relevance of a semiautomatic CT-based ensemble segmentation method, by comparing it to pathology and to CT/PET manual delineations by five independent radiation oncologists in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For 20 NSCLC patients (stages Ib-IIIb) the primary tumor was delineated manually on CT/PET scans by five independent radiation oncologists and segmented using a CT based semi-automatic tool. Tumor volume and overlap fractions between manual and semiautomatic-segmented volumes were compared. All measurements were correlated with the maximal diameter on macroscopic examination of the surgical specimen. Imaging data are available on www.cancerdata.org. High overlap fractions were observed between the semi-automatically segmented volumes and the intersection (92.5±9.0, mean±SD) and union (94.2±6.8) of the manual delineations. No statistically significant differences in tumor volume were observed between the semiautomatic segmentation (71.4±83.2 cm(3), mean±SD) and manual delineations (81.9±94.1 cm(3); p=0.57). The maximal tumor diameter of the semiautomatic-segmented tumor correlated strongly with the macroscopic diameter of the primary tumor (r=0.96). Semiautomatic segmentation of the primary tumor on CT demonstrated high agreement with CT/PET manual delineations and strongly correlated with the macroscopic diameter considered as the "gold standard". This method may be used routinely in clinical practice and could be employed as a starting point for treatment planning, target definition in multi-center clinical trials or for high throughput data mining research. This method is particularly suitable for peripherally located tumors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biobanking of fresh frozen tissue from clinical surgical specimens: transport logistics, sample selection, and histologic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Access to high-quality fresh frozen tissue is critical for translational cancer research and molecular -diagnostics. Here we describe a workflow for the collection of frozen solid tissue samples derived from fresh human patient specimens after surgery. The routines have been in operation at Uppsala University Hospital since 2001. We have integrated cryosection and histopathologic examination of each biobank sample into the biobank manual. In this way, even small, macroscopically ill-defined lesions can be -procured without a diagnostic hazard due to the removal of uncharacterized tissue from a clinical -specimen. Also, knowledge of the histomorphology of the frozen tissue sample - tumor cell content, stromal components, and presence of necrosis - is pivotal before entering a biobank case into costly molecular profiling studies.

  12. Measuring ERCC1 protein expression in cancer specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David Hersi; Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Fogh, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Platinum chemotherapy remains part of standard therapies in the management of a variety of cancers. Severe side effects and a high degree of resistance to platinum drugs have led numerous researchers to search for predictive biomarkers, which could aid in identifying patients that are the most......, the specificity of antibody 4F9 was tested by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Scoring guidelines to aid in the evaluation of ERCC1 tumor expression were developed and evaluated in archival formalin-fixed paraffin embedded colorectal cancer specimens. Antibody 4F9 was found...... to be specific by all methods applied and it was possible to evaluate the ERCC1 expression in the majority (85%) of colorectal cancer tumor specimens....

  13. Recommendations for processing cardiovascular surgical pathology specimens: a consensus statement from the Standards and Definitions Committee of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology and the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, James R.; Basso, Cristina; Baandrup, Ulrik T.; Bruneval, Patrick; Butany, Jagdish; Gallagher, Patrick J.; Halushka, Marc K.; Miller, Dylan V.; Padera, Robert F.; Radio, Stanley J.; Sheppard, Mary N.; Suvarna, Kim; Tan, Carmela D.; Thiene, Gaetano; van der Wal, Allard C.; Veinot, John P.

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of molecular subclassification of diseases, much consideration should be given to the proper processing of cardiovascular surgical pathology specimens to maximize patient care. Such specimens include endomyocardial biopsies, cardiac myectomy specimens, cardiac apical core segments,

  14. Effect of ultraviolet light on creatinine measurement in jaundiced specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, J.A.; D'Souza, R.

    1986-01-01

    During initial evaluation of a creatinine method using the RA-1000 analyser, experiments with addition of bilirubin indicated negligible interference. However the finding of a 'zero' creatinine value in an extremely jaundiced specimen prompted to re-examine the method. In contrast to earlier findings with normal plasma containing added bilirubin, the authors found that plasma from moderately or severely jaundiced patients gave creatinine values lower than those obtained with a reference method. Since bilirubin has been implicated in the interference, the authors studied the effect of destroying bilirubin with ultraviolet light to see if this provided a practical solution to the problem. (Auth.)

  15. A comparative study of computed tomography with surgical specimen in 32 cases of hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Noriyuki; Yamazaki, Satoru; Hukuda, Toyofumi

    1984-01-01

    We have been localizing pathological parathyroid glands by computed tomography(CT) since December '80. We reviewed 32 cases of surgically-treated hyperparathyroidism, in which 99 parathyroid glands were resected, each weight ranging from 20 to 3300 mg. Comparing the resected parathyroid glands with preoperative CT, we concluded as follows: 1) Pathological parathyroid glands were identified in 25 of the 32 cases (78 %). 2) In parathyroid glands weighing over 300mg, 60 from 64 glands (94 %) were identified by CT. 3) In secondary hyperaparathyroidism with radiologically proven subperiosteal resorption, pathologically-enlarged parathyroid glands were identified by CT in 22 from 23 cases (95%). CT was considered a useful diagnostic method in secondary hyperparathyroidism. 4) Experiencing 2 false-positive cases and one false-negative, which were ectopic cases, we concluded it necesary to use bolus-enhancement in localizing ectopic parathyroid glands. (author)

  16. Epidemiologic evaluation ABCC and Nagasaki University School of Medicine autopsies and ABCC surgical specimens: Nagasaki 1950-59

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samther, T G; Hrubec, Zdenek; Brown, W J; Thomas, G D

    1962-08-22

    This epidemiologic evaluation covered autopsies performed at ABCC Nagasaki and at the Nagasaki University School of Medicine, as well as surgical pathology specimens examined at ABCC Nagasaki during 1950-59. The material was related to the ABCC Master Sample population. Bias was demonstrated with respect to symptom status, exposure, age, death certificate diagnosis, male occupations, and history of previous medical examinations at ABCC. In addition the ABCC autopsy series was found to be biased with regard to sex. Comparison with data from Hiroshima indicated similar bias which is possibly more pronounced in Hiroshima. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that at this time the material is not suitable for broad epidemiologic studies of clinically manifest disease. The material, however, does lend itself to a number of studies of clinically occult disease and other problems which were discussed. 19 references, 32 tables.

  17. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Small, Highly Insulating Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the measurement of thermal conductivity combines the following capabilities: 1) measurements of very small specimens; 2) measurements of specimens with thermal conductivity on the same order of that as air; and, 3) the ability to use air as a reference material. Care is taken to ensure that the heat flow through the test specimen is essentially one-dimensional. No attempt is made to use heated guards to minimize the flow of heat from the hot plate to the surroundings. Results indicate that since large correction factors must be applied to account for guard imperfections when specimen dimensions are small, simply measuring and correcting for heat from the heater disc that does not flow into the specimen is preferable.

  18. Use of miniature tensile specimen and video extensometer for measurement of mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Kundan; Pooleery, Arun; Madhusoodanan, K.

    2014-08-01

    Miniaturisation of the tensile test specimen below the sub-size level poses various challenges, such as conformity of specimen to various acceptance criteria as per standard test specimen, aspect ratio, minimum number of grains required in a gauge cross-section, fabrication for uniformity in metrological values, etc. Apart from these, measurement of strain over a very limited available space on the test specimen is another practical challenge. Despite these limitations, miniature specimen testing is increasingly being used worldwide these days. The driving forces behind increasing use of miniature test techniques are new material development, assuring fitness of component after in-service-inspection, low dose of radiation exposure due to smaller dimensions of test specimens etc. However, the evaluation of mechanical properties from a miniature tensile test has a greater advantage over the other miniature novel test techniques, such as small punch test, ABI, miniature fatigue and impact tests etc., as it is a direct method of measurement of mechanical properties. This report covers various aspects of miniature tensile test methodologies, which include geometrical design of specimen having gauge length of 3-5 mm, fabrication, development of special fixtures for gripping the test specimens, and use of optical method for strain measurement. The geometrical design of the specimen and its behaviour over application of tensile load has been established using FEM analysis. A good agreement between conventional and miniature test results exemplifies the potential of the miniature tensile test technique. (author)

  19. Defect Depth Measurement of Straight Pipe Specimen Using Shearography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ho Seob; Kim, Kyung Suk

    2012-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, wall thinning defect of straight pipe occur the enormous loss in life evaluation and safety evaluation. To use non-destructive technique, we measure deformation, vibration, defect evaluation. But, this techniques are a weak that is the measurement of the wide area is difficult and the time is caught long. In the secondary side of nuclear power plants mostly used steel pipe, artificiality wall thinning defect make in the side and different thickness make to the each other, wall thinning defect part of deformation measure by using shearography. In addition, optical measurement through deformation, vibration, defect evaluation evaluate pipe and thickness defects of pressure vessel is to evaluate quantitatively. By shearography interferometry to measure the pipe's internal wall thinning defect and the variation of pressure use the proposed technique, the quantitative defect is to evaluate the thickness of the surplus. The amount of deformation use thickness of surplus prediction of the actual thickness defect and approximately 7 percent error by ensure reliability. According to pressure the amount of deformation and the thickness of the surplus through DB construction, nuclear power plant pipe use wall thinning part soundness evaluation. In this study, pressure vessel of thickness defect measure proposed nuclear pipe of wall thinning defect prediction and integrity assessment technology development. As a basic research defected theory and experiment, pressure vessel of advanced stability and soundness and maintainability is expected to contribute foundation establishment

  20. Small specimen measurements of dynamic fracture toughness of heavy section steels for nuclear pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Iwadate, T.; Suzuki, K.

    1987-01-01

    This study presents the dynamic fracture toughness properties (KId) of 12 heats of RPV steels measured using small specimens and analysed based on the current research. The correlation between the KId test and other engineering small specimen tests such as Charpy test and drop weight test are also discussed and a method to predict the KId value is presented. (orig./HP)

  1. Optimization of Poly-(Methylphenylsilylene) Specimens for Cathodoluminescence Measurement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Petr; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Schauer, F.; Autrata, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 9, Sup. 3 (2003), s. 156 - 157 ISSN 1431-9276. [MC 2003. Dresden, 07.09.2003-12.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0518 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913; CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : cathodoluminescence measurement * CL emission * light guide Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2003

  2. Relation between small airways disease and parenchymal destruction in surgical lung specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, L N; Kramps, J A; Stijnen, T; Sterk, P J; Weening, J J; Dijkman, J H

    1990-01-01

    The relation between small airways disease and parenchymal destruction was investigated in lungs and lobes removed at surgery from 27 patients aged 15-70 years. Eight of the 27 patients were life-long non-smokers. The degree of small airways disease was assessed by semi-quantitative grading (SAD score) and by measuring diameter and wall thickness of membranous bronchioles. Parenchymal destruction was measured in three ways. Firstly, the number of alveolar attachments on membranous bronchioles per millimetre of circumference (AA/mm) was counted; the number of broken attachments was subtracted from the total AA/mm to give the numbers of intact attachments (normal AA/mm). Secondly, a point counting technique was used to give a destructive index (DI). Thirdly, the mean linear intercept (Lm) was determined. Total and normal AA/mm correlated negatively with the SAD score of membranous bronchioles (rs = -0.48 and -0.51) and with wall thickness (rs = -0.37 and -0.45) and DI correlated with wall thickness (rs = 0.5) and with the SAD score of respiratory bronchioles (rs = 0.53). Lm did not correlate with indices of small airway disease and total and normal AA/mm did not correlate with diameter. Multiple regression analyses showed that the correlation of total AA/mm with the SAD score of membranous and respiratory bronchioles and with wall thickness were not confounded by age or smoking. It is concluded that small airways disease is related to destruction of peribronchiolar alveoli, and it is postulated that small airways disease has a direct role in the causation of centrilobular emphysema. PMID:2315880

  3. Microbiology specimens obtained at the time of surgical lung biopsy for interstitial lung disease: clinical yield and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibla, Juan J; Brunelli, Alessandro; Allen, Mark S; Wigle, Dennis; Shen, Robert; Nichols, Francis; Deschamps, Claude; Cassivi, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    In efforts to obtain complete results, current practice in surgical lung biopsy (LB) for interstitial lung disease (ILD) recommends sending lung tissue samples for bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal, and viral cultures. This study assesses the value of this practice by evaluating the microbiology findings obtained from LB for ILD and their associated costs. A total of 296 consecutive patients (140 women, 156 men, median age=61 years) underwent LB for ILD from 2002 to 2009. All had lung tissue sent for microbiology examination. Microbiology results and resultant changes in patient management were analyzed retrospectively. A cost analysis was performed based upon nominal hospital charges adjusted on current inflation rates. Cost data included cultures, stains, smears, direct fluorescent antibody studies, and microbiologist consulting fees. As many as 25 patients (8.4%) underwent open LB and 271 (91.6%) underwent thoracoscopic LB. A total of 592 specimens were assessed (range 1-4 per patient). The most common pathologic diagnoses were idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in 122 (41.2%), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia in 31 (10.5%), and respiratory bronchiolitis ILD in 16 (5.4%). Microbiology testing was negative in 174 patients (58.8%). A total of 118 of 122 (96.7%) positive results were clinically considered to be contaminants and resulted in no change in clinical management. The most common contaminants were Propionibacterium acnes (38 patients; 31%) and Penicillium fungus (16 patients; 13%). In only four patients (1.4%), the organism cultured (Nocardia one, Histoplasma one, and Aspergillus fumigatus two) resulted in a change in clinical management. The cost of microbiology studies per specimen was $984 (€709), with a total cost for the study cohort being $582,000 (€420,000). The yield and impact on clinical management of microbiology specimens from LB for ILD is very low. Its routine use in LB is questionable. We suggest it should be limited to those cases of ILD with

  4. Surgical specimen handover from the operating theatre to laboratory-Can we improve patient safety by learning from aviation and other high-risk organisations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Peter A; Brands, Marieke T; Caldwell, Lucy; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Turley, Nic; Foley, Susie; Rahimi, Siavash

    2018-02-01

    Essential communication between healthcare staff is considered one of the key requirements for both safety and quality care when patients are handed over from one clinical area to other. This is particularly important in environments such as the operating theatre and intensive care where mistakes can be devastating. Health care has learned from other high-risk organisations (HRO) such as aviation where the use of checklists and human factors awareness has virtually eliminated human error and mistakes. To our knowledge, little has been published around ways to improve pathology specimen handover following surgery, with pathology request forms often conveying the bare minimum of information to assist the laboratory staff. Furthermore, the request form might not warn staff about potential hazards. In this article, we provide a brief summary of the factors involved in human error and introduce a novel checklist that can be readily completed at the same time as the routine pathology request form. This additional measure enhances safety, can help to reduce processing and mislabelling errors and provides essential information in a structured way assisting both laboratory staff and pathologists when handling head and neck surgical specimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Comparison of measurement results between cervical pedicle specimens and CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangjian; Li Hua; Liu Haiyan; Gao Zhenping

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the difference between the measurement results of the cervical pedicle specimens and CT image, and provide the basis for clinical cervical screw internal fixation operation. Methods: Twenty-seven Chinese adult cadaver cervical specimens including C3 to C7 vertebrae were measured by a digital calipers and CT image, containing pedicle height (PH, PH'), pedicle width(PW, PW'), total pedicle length (TL, TL') and two pedicle lengths(PL1, PL2; PL1', PL2'). The results of specimens and CT image were compared. Results: Different cervical vertebra in the same side of specimens or CT images, PW (PW'): C3, C4< C5, C6 (P<0.05), C5, C6< C7 (P<0.01); PH (PH'): there were no significant differences; TL, PL1, PL2 (TL', PL1', PL2'): there were no marked differences. In the same cervical vertebra of the specimens or CT images, PW (PW')< PH (PH') (P<0.01), PL1 (PL1') < PL2 (PL2') (P<0.01). Conclusion: The results of measurement by CT images are not markedly different from that of specimens. CT image measurement is available before cervical screw internal fixation operation. (authors)

  6. Making mock-FNA smears from fresh surgical pathology specimens to improve smear preparation technique and to create cytohistological correlation series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Mezei

    Full Text Available Fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology is a well-established diagnostic method based on the microscopic interpretation of often scant cytological material; therefore, experience, good technique and smear quality are equally important in obtaining satisfactory results.We studied the use of fresh surgical pathology specimens for making so-called mock-FNA smears with the potential of cytohistological correlation. Additionally, we studied how this process aids the improvement of preparation technique and smear quality.Cytological aspirates from 32 fresh biopsy specimens from various sites: lung (20, lymph nodes (6, and breast (6 were obtained, all with a clinical diagnosis of tumor. Aspiration was performed from grossly palpable tumors. 25 G needle and Cameco-type syringe holder was used with minimal or no suction.Unfixed surgical specimens provided sufficient cytological material that resulted in good quality smears. After standard processing of specimens into microscopic sections from paraffin embedded tissues, cytohistological case-series were created. No significant alteration was reported in tissue architecture on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections after the aspiration procedure. A gradual, but steady improvement was observed in smear quality just after a few preparations.Our study proved that surgical specimens may be used as a source of cytological material to create cytohistological correlation studies and also to improve FNA cytology skills. The use of very fine gauge needle (25 G, 0,6 mm diameter during the sampling process does not alter tissue architecture therefore the final histopathological diagnosis is not compromised. We conclude that by using fresh surgical specimens useful cytohistological collections can be created both as a teaching resource and as improving experience.

  7. Development of stress relaxation measurement by a small size C-ring specimen method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimanuki, Shizuka; Nakata, Kiyotomo; Kasahara, Shigeki; Kuniya, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    A stress relaxation measurement method has been developed by using C-ring specimens, and a specimen size effect has been evaluated taking radiation-induced stress relaxation into consideration. C-ring specimens were stressed by forcing a wedge in the gap. Giving an appropriate eccentric configuration in the half of the ring opposite the gap, the stress gradient along the circumference was eliminated in the section and the stress level could be varied by changing the gap spacing. The validity of the C-ring test method was confirmed by thermally stress relaxation experiments at annealing temperatures from 300 to 600degC for 1 min to 200 h in carbon steel: considerable stress relaxation could be measured for all levels of applied stress even at relatively low annealing temperatures. The relaxation results obtained from the C-ring test were in good agreement with those from a uniaxial tensile stress relaxation test. The smaller C-ring specimen with about 40 mm diameter, which is required for radiation-induced stress relaxation test, also showed adequate accuracy on stress relaxation at 600 to 830degC in stainless steel, compared with the large size C-ring specimen test. (author)

  8. Towards real-time metabolic profiling of a biopsy specimen during a surgical operation by 1H high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotto Martial

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Providing information on cancerous tissue samples during a surgical operation can help surgeons delineate the limits of a tumoral invasion more reliably. Here, we describe the use of metabolic profiling of a colon biopsy specimen by high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to evaluate tumoral invasion during a simulated surgical operation. Case presentation Biopsy specimens (n = 9 originating from the excised right colon of a 66-year-old Caucasian women with an adenocarcinoma were automatically analyzed using a previously built statistical model. Conclusions Metabolic profiling results were in full agreement with those of a histopathological analysis. The time-response of the technique is sufficiently fast for it to be used effectively during a real operation (17 min/sample. Metabolic profiling has the potential to become a method to rapidly characterize cancerous biopsies in the operation theater.

  9. Use of 'MICROPROFILOMETER-2' in precise measurements of diameters of irradiated rod-type cylindrical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuprienko, M.V.; Dvoretsky, V.G.; Kubasov, E.V.; Rabinovich, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the basic principles of profilometer design, the imposed requirements and some problems emerged in their bringing into practice. Installation designed and made at SSC RF RIAR to precisely measure diameters of rod-type specimens is described. Some results of metrological certification of this installation are given. (author)

  10. A J Integral Approach for Measuring Cohesive Laws Using a Modified DCB Sandwich Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Berggreen, Christian; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2007-01-01

    mode mixities. The sandwich specimen consists of glass fiber faces and Divinycell H200 foam core. Arbitrary stiffening of the sandwich specimen with steel bars adhered to the faces reduces rotations and ensures that the method is useable for a wide range of materials. The J integral is employed...... and the opening of the pre-crack tip is recorded by a commercial digital photogrammetry measurement system. Cohesive laws are extracted by differentiating J with respect to the normal and tangential opening of the pre-crack tip. Some results are presented and discussed....

  11. Role of specimen size upon the measured toughness of cellular solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulou, I; Tan, P J

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the mechanical properties of cellular solids depend critically upon the specimen size and that a 'sufficiently' large test specimen is needed to obtain representative bulk values. Notwithstanding, the fracture toughness of cellular solids is still measured experimentally based on standards, such as the ASTM E399 and E813, developed for solid materials that do not possess an intermediate, 'cell-level' length scale. Experimental data in the literature appears to show that the toughness of stochastic 3D foams is, also, size-dependent. This paper presents the results of a detailed finite element (FE) study that will quantify, and identify the physical origin of, the size-dependent effect. Three-point bending of a single-edge notched (or SEN(B)) specimen, with a 2D Voronoi micro-architecture, is modelled numerically to obtain estimates of fracture toughness which are compared to those obtained with a 'boundary-layer' analysis

  12. Survival curves after X-ray and heat treatments for melanoma cells derived directly from surgical specimens of tumours in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rofstad, E.K.; Wahl, A.; Tveit, K.M.; Monge, O.R.; Brustad, T.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray and heat survival curves were established for melanoma cells derived directly from surgical specimens of tumours in man by using the Courtenay soft agar colony assay. The plating efficiency for 11 of the 14 melanomas studied was sufficiently high (PE = 0.3-58%) to measure cell survival over at least two decades. Experiments repeated with cells stored in liquid nitrogen showed that the survival assay gave highly reproducible results. The melanomas exhibited individual and characteristic survival curves whether exposed to radiation or heat (43.5 0 C). The D 0 -values were in the ranges 0.63-1.66 Gy (X-rays) and 33-58 min (heat). The survival curves were similar to those reported previously for human melanoma xenografts. The radiation sensitivity of the cells was not correlated to the heat sensitivity. Since the melanomas appeared to be very heterogeneous in radiation response in vitro as melanomas are known to be clinically, it is suggested that melanomas may be suitable for prospective studies aimed at establishing whether clinical radioreponsiveness somehow is related to in vitro survival curve parameters. (orig.)

  13. 3D geometry measurement of hot cylindric specimen using structured light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, Lorenz; Beermann, Rüdiger; Pösch, Andreas; Reithmeier, Eduard; Kästner, Markus

    2017-06-01

    We present a fringe projection system to measure glowing hot hybrid components in between production processes. For this a high power green light projector, based on TI DLP technology, is used to create the highest possible contrast between fringes on the red glowing specimen. It has a resolution of 1140 x 912 pixels with a maximum frame rate of 120 images per second for fast measurement. We use a green bandpass filter (525 nm) on the camera lens to block unwanted incoming radiation from the specimen caused by self-emission. Commercial measurement standards are not calibrated for temperatures other than 20° C, so they cannot be used to validate measurement data at the required temperatures of up to 1000°C since thermal expansion invalidates the geometry specification from the calibration data sheet. In our first development we use a uniformly heated pipe made of stainless steel as a dummy specimen to examine the measured geometry data. A pyrometer measures the temperature of the pipe so the expansion can be easily calculated using the thermal expansion coefficient. Different impact and triangulation angles are investigated to identify the effects of hot ambient air on the measurement. The impact of the induced refractive index gradient is examined to check the need for pre-processing steps in the measurement routine.

  14. Method for independent strain and temperature measurement in polymeric tensile test specimen using embedded FBG sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; McGugan, Malcolm; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    to calculate independently the strain and temperature are presented in the article, together with a measurement resolution study. This multi-parameter measurement method was applied to an epoxy tensile specimen, tested in a unidirectional tensile test machine with a temperature controlled cabinet. A full......A novel method to obtain independent strain and temperature measurements using embedded Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) in polymeric tensile test specimens is presented in this paper. The FBG strain and temperature cross-sensitivity was decoupled using two single mode FBG sensors, which were embedded...... of temperature, from 40 C to -10 C. The consistency of the expected theoretical results with the calibration procedure and the experimental validation shows that this proposed method is applicable to measure accurate strain and temperature in polymers during static or fatigue tensile testing. Two different...

  15. Measurement of the Young's modulus of thin or flexible specimen with digital-image correlation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lianyun; Hou, Zhende; Qin, Yuwen

    2002-05-01

    Because some composite material, thin film material, and biomaterial, are very thin and some of them are flexible, the classical methods for measuring their Young's moduli, by mounting extensometers on specimens, are not available. A bi-image method based on image correlation for measuring Young's moduli is developed in this paper. The measuring precision achieved is one order enhanced with general digital image correlation or called single image method. By this way, the Young's modulus of a SS301 stainless steel thin tape, with thickness 0.067mm, is measured, and the moduli of polyester fiber films, a kind of flexible sheet with thickness 0.25 mm, are also measured.

  16. Model Equation for Acoustic Nonlinear Measurement of Dispersive Specimens at High Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Kushibiki, Junichi; Zou, Wei

    2006-10-01

    We present a theoretical model for acoustic nonlinearity measurement of dispersive specimens at high frequency. The nonlinear Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation governs the nonlinear propagation in the SiO2/specimen/SiO2 multi-layer medium. The dispersion effect is considered in a special manner by introducing the frequency-dependant sound velocity in the KZK equation. Simple analytic solutions are derived by applying the superposition technique of Gaussian beams. The solutions are used to correct the diffraction and dispersion effects in the measurement of acoustic nonlinearity of cottonseed oil in the frequency range of 33-96 MHz. Regarding two different ultrasonic devices, the accuracies of the measurements are improved to ±2.0% and ±1.3% in comparison with ±9.8% and ±2.9% obtained from the previous plane wave model.

  17. Measurement on the density resolution of industrial computerized tomography by using disc specimen with holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y.; Gao, D.; Zhang, W.; Xia, Z.; Yang, C.

    2004-01-01

    Several ways mainly used for measuring the density resolution of industrial computerized tomography (ICT) are briefly introduced. Based on the equivalent conversion between volume variation and density variation, a kind of disc specimen with holes is designed to measure the density resolution of ICT. In this experiment, a kind of high quality polymethyl methacylate (PMMA) is selected to make specimens with diameter of 250mm, in which six sets of holes with diameter separately 0.5mm, 1.0mm, 1.5mm, 2.0mm, 2.5mm, and 3.0mm are distributed in the radial directions with interval of 60 o between two neighboring sets, and in the same set, the distances of holes departing the center of the specimen are respectively 20mm, 40mm, 60mm, 80mm, and 100mm. The experiment shows that the method is sensitive, simple, flexible, and practical. About 0.2% density resolution of region of interest (ROI) with diameter 20mm can be verified, the relationship between CT value of ROI and its position can be obtained, and at the same time the spatial resolution of ICT can be measured in high quality. (author)

  18. Irradiation temperature measurement of the reactor pressure vessel surveillance specimen in the programmes of radiation degradation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupca, L.; Stanc, S.; Simor, S.

    2001-01-01

    The information's about the special system of irradiation temperature measurement, used for reactor pressure vessel surveillance specimen, which are placed in reactor thermal shielding canals are presented in the paper. The system was designed and realized in the frame of Extended Surveillance Specimen Programme for NPP V-2 Jaslovske Bohunice and Modern Surveillance Specimen Programme for NPP Mochovce. Base design aspects, technical parameters of realization and results of measurement on the two units in Bohunice and Mochovce NPPs are presented too. (Authors)

  19. Evaluation of adherence to measures for the prevention of surgical site infections by the surgical team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOBJECTIVEEvaluate pre- and intraoperative practices adopted by medical and nursing teams for the prevention of surgical infections.METHODA prospective study carried out in the period of April to May 2013, in a surgical center of a university hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais.RESULTS18 surgeries were followed and 214 surgical gloves were analyzed, of which 23 (10.7% had postoperative glove perforation detected, with 52.2% being perceived by users. Hair removal was performed on 27.7% of patients in the operating room, with the use of blades in 80% of the cases. Antibiotic prophylaxis was administered to 81.8% of patients up to 60 minutes prior to surgical incision. An average of nine professionals were present during surgery and the surgery room door remained open in 94.4% of the procedures.CONCLUSIONPartial adhesion to the recommended measures was identified, reaffirming a need for greater attention to these critical steps/actions in order to prevent surgical site infection.

  20. Measurement of specimen-induced aberrations of biological samples using phase stepping interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertner, M; Booth, M J; Neil, M A A; Wilson, T

    2004-01-01

    Confocal or multiphoton microscopes, which deliver optical sections and three-dimensional (3D) images of thick specimens, are widely used in biology. These techniques, however, are sensitive to aberrations that may originate from the refractive index structure of the specimen itself. The aberrations cause reduced signal intensity and the 3D resolution of the instrument is compromised. It has been suggested to correct for aberrations in confocal microscopes using adaptive optics. In order to define the design specifications for such adaptive optics systems, one has to know the amount of aberrations present for typical applications such as with biological samples. We have built a phase stepping interferometer microscope that directly measures the aberration of the wavefront. The modal content of the wavefront is extracted by employing Zernike mode decomposition. Results for typical biological specimens are presented. It was found for all samples investigated that higher order Zernike modes give only a small contribution to the overall aberration. Therefore, these higher order modes can be neglected in future adaptive optics sensing and correction schemes implemented into confocal or multiphoton microscopes, leading to more efficient designs.

  1. Percutaneous computed tomography-guided core needle biopsy of soft tissue tumors: results and correlation with surgical specimen analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojniak, Rubens; Grigio, Henrique Ramos; Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Pinto, Paula Nicole Vieira; Tyng, Chiang J.; Cunha, Isabela Werneck da; Aguiar Junior, Samuel; Lopes, Ademar, E-mail: chojniak@uol.com.br [Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided core needle biopsy of soft tissue tumors in obtaining appropriate samples for histological analysis, and compare its diagnosis with the results of the surgical pathology as available. Materials and Methods: The authors reviewed medical records, imaging and histological reports of 262 patients with soft-tissue tumors submitted to CT-guided core needle biopsy in an oncologic reference center between 2003 and 2009. Results: Appropriate samples were obtained in 215 (82.1%) out of the 262 patients. The most prevalent tumors were sarcomas (38.6%), metastatic carcinomas (28.8%), benign mesenchymal tumors (20.5%) and lymphomas (9.3%). Histological grading was feasible in 92.8% of sarcoma patients, with the majority of them (77.9%) being classified as high grade tumors. Out of the total sample, 116 patients (44.3%) underwent surgical excision and diagnosis confirmation. Core biopsy demonstrated 94.6% accuracy in the identification of sarcomas, with 96.4% sensitivity and 89.5% specificity. A significant intermethod agreement about histological grading was observed between core biopsy and surgical resection (p < 0.001; kappa = 0.75). Conclusion: CT-guided core needle biopsy demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy in the evaluation of soft tissue tumors as well as in the histological grading of sarcomas, allowing an appropriate therapeutic planning (author)

  2. Epithelium percentage estimation facilitates epithelial quantitative protein measurement in tissue specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Toghi Eshghi, Shadi; Bova, George Steven; Li, Qing Kay; Li, Xingde; Zhang, Hui

    2013-12-01

    The rapid advancement of high-throughput tools for quantitative measurement of proteins has demonstrated the potential for the identification of proteins associated with cancer. However, the quantitative results on cancer tissue specimens are usually confounded by tissue heterogeneity, e.g. regions with cancer usually have significantly higher epithelium content yet lower stromal content. It is therefore necessary to develop a tool to facilitate the interpretation of the results of protein measurements in tissue specimens. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and cathepsin L (CTSL) are two epithelial proteins whose expressions in normal and tumorous prostate tissues were confirmed by measuring staining intensity with immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The expressions of these proteins were measured by ELISA in protein extracts from OCT embedded frozen prostate tissues. To eliminate the influence of tissue heterogeneity on epithelial protein quantification measured by ELISA, a color-based segmentation method was developed in-house for estimation of epithelium content using H&E histology slides from the same prostate tissues and the estimated epithelium percentage was used to normalize the ELISA results. The epithelium contents of the same slides were also estimated by a pathologist and used to normalize the ELISA results. The computer based results were compared with the pathologist's reading. We found that both EpCAM and CTSL levels, measured by ELISA assays itself, were greatly affected by epithelium content in the tissue specimens. Without adjusting for epithelium percentage, both EpCAM and CTSL levels appeared significantly higher in tumor tissues than normal tissues with a p value less than 0.001. However, after normalization by the epithelium percentage, ELISA measurements of both EpCAM and CTSL were in agreement with IHC staining results, showing a significant increase only in EpCAM with no difference in CTSL expression in cancer tissues. These results

  3. Risk management: correct patient and specimen identification in a surgical pathology laboratory. The experience of Infermi Hospital, Rimini, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbretti, G

    2010-06-01

    Because of its complex nature, surgical pathology practice is prone to error. In this report, we describe our methods for reducing error as much as possible during the pre-analytical and analytical phases. This was achieved by revising procedures, and by using computer technology and automation. Most mistakes are the result of human error in the identification and matching of patient and samples. To avoid faulty data interpretation, we employed a new comprehensive computer system that acquires all patient ID information directly from the hospital's database with a remote order entry; it also provides label and request forms via-Web where clinical information is required before sending the sample. Both patient and sample are identified directly and immediately at the site where the surgical procedures are performed. Barcode technology is used to input information at every step and automation is used for sample blocks and slides to avoid errors that occur when information is recorded or transferred by hand. Quality control checks occur at every step of the process to ensure that none of the steps are left to chance and that no phase is dependent on a single operator. The system also provides statistical analysis of errors so that new strategies can be implemented to avoid repetition. In addition, the staff receives frequent training on avoiding errors and new developments. The results have been shown promising results with a very low error rate (0.27%). None of these compromised patient health and all errors were detected before the release of the diagnosis report.

  4. Reactor Materials Program electrochemical potential measurements by ORNL with unirradiated and irradiated stainless steel specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, E.W.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    Effect of irradiation of stainless steel on electrochemical potential (ECP) was investigated by measurements in dilute HNO 3 and H 2 O 2 solutions, conditions simulating reactor moderator. The electrodes were made from unirradiated/irradiated, unsensitized/sensitized specimens from R-reactor piping. Results were inconclusive because of budgetary restrictions. The dose rate may have been too small to produce a significant radiolytic effect. Neither the earlier CERT corrosion susceptibility tests nor the present ECP measurements showed a pronounced effect of irradiation on susceptibility of the stainless steel to IGSCC; this is confirmed by the absence in the stainless steel of the SRS reactor tanks (except for the C Reactor tank knuckle area)

  5. Reactor Materials Program electrochemical potential measurements by ORNL with unirradiated and irradiated stainless steel specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, E.W.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    Effect of irradiation of stainless steel on electrochemical potential (ECP) was investigated by measurements in dilute HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solutions, conditions simulating reactor moderator. The electrodes were made from unirradiated/irradiated, unsensitized/sensitized specimens from R-reactor piping. Results were inconclusive because of budgetary restrictions. The dose rate may have been too small to produce a significant radiolytic effect. Neither the earlier CERT corrosion susceptibility tests nor the present ECP measurements showed a pronounced effect of irradiation on susceptibility of the stainless steel to IGSCC; this is confirmed by the absence in the stainless steel of the SRS reactor tanks (except for the C Reactor tank knuckle area).

  6. Measuring the surgical 'learning curve': methods, variables and competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nuzhath; Abboudi, Hamid; Khan, Mohammed Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran

    2014-03-01

    To describe how learning curves are measured and what procedural variables are used to establish a 'learning curve' (LC). To assess whether LCs are a valuable measure of competency. A review of the surgical literature pertaining to LCs was conducted using the Medline and OVID databases. Variables should be fully defined and when possible, patient-specific variables should be used. Trainee's prior experience and level of supervision should be quantified; the case mix and complexity should ideally be constant. Logistic regression may be used to control for confounding variables. Ideally, a learning plateau should reach a predefined/expert-derived competency level, which should be fully defined. When the group splitting method is used, smaller cohorts should be used in order to narrow the range of the LC. Simulation technology and competence-based objective assessments may be used in training and assessment in LC studies. Measuring the surgical LC has potential benefits for patient safety and surgical education. However, standardisation in the methods and variables used to measure LCs is required. Confounding variables, such as participant's prior experience, case mix, difficulty of procedures and level of supervision, should be controlled. Competency and expert performance should be fully defined. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  7. Neutron diffraction measurements for the determination of residual stresses in MMC tensile and fatigue specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiori, F.; Girardin, E.; Giuliani, A.

    2000-01-01

    have been performed at RISO (Roskilde, DK) and HMI-BENSC (Berlin, D), for the determination of residual stress in AA2124 + 17% SiCp and AA359 + 20% SiCp specimens, submitted to tensile and fatigue tests. For each of the investigated samples, the macrostress has been separated from the elastic......, residual stresses are present in both the matrix and the particles microstructure, prior to any macroscopic loading. They vary with the temperature and with the type and level of loading imposed to the material, having a strong influence on the mechanical behaviour of MMCs. Neutron diffraction measurements...... and thermal mismatch microstresses. The results show that, in general, the main contribution to the stress state of both matrix and reinforcement is given by the thermal microstresses, already existing due to heat treatment prior to mechanical tests. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Simultaneous specimen current and time-dependent cathodoluminescence measurements on gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, E. M., E-mail: e.campo@bangor.ac.uk; Hopkins, L. [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL57 1UT (United Kingdom); Pophristic, M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of the Science, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Ferguson, I. T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Time-dependent cathodoluminescence (CL) and specimen current (SC) are monitored to evaluate trapping behavior and evolution of charge storage. Examination of CL and SC suggests that the near band edge emission in GaN is reduced primarily by the activation of traps upon irradiation, and Gallium vacancies are prime candidates. At the steady state, measurement of the stored charge by empiric-analytical methods suggests that all available traps within the interaction volume have been filled, and that additional charge is being stored interstitially, necessarily beyond the interaction volume. Once established, the space charge region is responsible for the steady state CL emission and, prior to build up, it is responsible for the generation of diffusion currents. Since the non-recombination effects resulting from diffusion currents that develop early on are analogous to those leading to device failure upon aging, this study is fundamental toward a holistic insight into optical properties in GaN.

  9. Use of the strength ratio for pre-cracked Charpy specimens for the measuring, of the dynamic toughness of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.C.; Darwish, F.A.I.

    1981-01-01

    The specimen strength ratio (R sub(sb)) determined for precraked Charpy specimens fractured in dynamic bending was correlated with plane strain fracture toughness (K sub(Id)) obtained through valid measurements of the J-integral at the moment of fracture initiation in various microstructures of the AISI 4140 steel. The results indicate a linear relationship between K sub(Id) and R sub(sb) for the microstructures considered in this work. The range of validity of this linear correlation is presented and discussed in terms of the ASTM E399 specimen size criterion. (Author) [pt

  10. Experimental technologies comparison for strain measurement of a composite main landing gear bay specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscardi, Massimo; Arena, Maurizio; Ciminello, Monica; Guida, Michele; Meola, Carosena; Cerreta, Pietro

    2018-03-01

    The development of advanced monitoring system for strain measurements on aeronautical components remain an important target both when related to the optimization of the lead-time and cost for part validation, allowing earlier entry into service, and when related to the implementation of advanced health monitoring systems dedicated to the in-service parameters verification and early stage detection of structural problems. The paper deals with the experimental testing of a composite samples set of the main landing gear bay for a CS-25 category aircraft, realized through an innovative design and production process. The test have represented a good opportunity for direct comparison of different strain measurement techniques: Strain Gauges (SG) and Fibers Bragg Grating (FBG) have been used as well as non-contact techniques, specifically the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Infrared (IR) thermography applied where possible in order to highlight possible hot-spot during the tests. The crucial points identification on the specimens has been supported by means of advanced finite element simulations, aimed to assessment of the structural strength and deformation as well as to ensure the best performance and the global safety of the whole experimental campaign.

  11. The effect of a Lean quality improvement implementation program on surgical pathology specimen accessioning and gross preparation error frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maxwell L; Wilkerson, Trent; Grzybicki, Dana M; Raab, Stephen S

    2012-09-01

    Few reports have documented the effectiveness of Lean quality improvement in changing anatomic pathology patient safety. We used Lean methods of education; hoshin kanri goal setting and culture change; kaizen events; observation of work activities, hand-offs, and pathways; A3-problem solving, metric development, and measurement; and frontline work redesign in the accessioning and gross examination areas of an anatomic pathology laboratory. We compared the pre- and post-Lean implementation proportion of near-miss events and changes made in specific work processes. In the implementation phase, we documented 29 individual A3-root cause analyses. The pre- and postimplementation proportions of process- and operator-dependent near-miss events were 5.5 and 1.8 (P < .002) and 0.6 and 0.6, respectively. We conclude that through culture change and implementation of specific work process changes, Lean implementation may improve pathology patient safety.

  12. Quality measurement affecting surgical practice: Utility versus utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Leonard R; von Holzen, Urs W; Minarich, Michael J; Hardy, Ashley N; Beachy, Wilbur A; Franger, M Susan; Schwarz, Roderich E

    2018-03-01

    The Triple Aim: improving healthcare quality, cost and patient experience has resulted in massive healthcare "quality" measurement. For many surgeons the origins, intent and strengths of this measurement barrage seems nebulous-though their shortcomings are noticeable. This article reviews the major organizations and programs (namely the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services) driving the somewhat burdensome healthcare quality climate. The success of this top-down approach is mixed, and far from convincing. We contend that the current programs disproportionately reflect the definitions of quality from (and the interests of) the national payer perspective; rather than a more balanced representation of all stakeholders interests-most importantly, patients' beneficence. The result is an environment more like performance management than one of valid quality assessment. Suggestions for a more meaningful construction of surgical quality measurement are offered, as well as a strategy to describe surgical quality from all of the stakeholders' perspectives. Our hope is to entice surgeons to engage in institution level quality improvement initiatives that promise utility and are less utopian than what is currently present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of high time-resolution laser flash equipment for thermal diffusivity measurements using miniature-size specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, Tatsuo; Namba, Chusei; Kosuda, Michinori; Maeda, Yukio.

    1994-01-01

    For measurements of thermal diffusivity of miniature-size specimens heavily irradiated by neutrons, a new Q-switched laser-flash instrument was developed. In the present instrument the time-resolution was improved to 0.1 ms by using a laser-pulse width of 25 ns. The realization of high time-resolution made it possible to measure the thermal diffusivity of thin specimens. It is expected that copper of 0.7 mm thick, and SUS 304 of 0.1 mm could be used for the measurements. In case of ATJ graphite, 0.5 mm thick specimen could be used for the reliable measurement in the temperature range of 300-1300 K. (author)

  14. Measurement of temperature fields in specimens of quartz ceramic during surface ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, G. A.; Pasichnyi, V. V.; Suzdal'Tsev, E. I.; Tsyganenko, V. S.

    1989-08-01

    The authors propose a method of mounting thermocouples and have obtained temperature fields within specimens of pure and doped quartz ceramic. The linearity of the dependenceΔ * = fleft( {sqrt tau } right) for deep isotherms has been proved experimentally.

  15. Fatigue life determination by damage measuring in SAE 8620 specimens steel subjected to multiaxial experiments in neutral and corrosive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luiz L. da; Filho, Nelson do N.A.; Gomes, Paulo de T.V.; Rabello, Emerson G.; Mansur, Tanius R.

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is the fail phenomenon of a material subjected to cyclic loads. This phenomenon affects any component under loads (forces, temperatures, etc.) that changes in time. When there is a combined load, originating multiaxial fatigue, which is the most of the real loads, worst is the situation. Before the component fail, the fatigue phenomenon produces damages to its material and this is a cumulative process that could not be reduced. In the continuum mechanic context, material damage is defined as a parameter that reduces the component resistance and this could cause its fail. The process of damage measuring by changes in electrical resistance is used in this work, and from experimental results of SAE 8620 steel specimens subjected to multiaxial fatigue in corrosive and neutral environment, the remaining specimen time life could be determined. Each specimen has its initial electrical resistance measured and after a certain number of fatigue cycles stopping points, its electrical resistance was measured again. In order to study multiaxial fatigue in specimens, a machine that induces simultaneously bending and torsional loads in the specimen was developed. Air at the temperature range of 18 deg C and 20 deg C was considered neutral environment. The corrosive environment was a NaCl solution with a concentration of 3,5% in weigh. The experimental results showed that the measuring fatigue damage using the changes in electrical resistance is efficient and that is possible to estimate the effect of a corrosive environment in the fatigue damage. (author)

  16. In-situ measurement of the strain distribution in a tensile specimen by using a digital speckle pattern interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Cha, Hyung-Ki; Kim, Young-Suk; Cheong, Yong-Moo

    2010-01-01

    Less sensitivity to environmental vibrations is essential for industrial applications of a digital speckle pattern interferometer (DSPI) to measure micro deformations. In this paper, a robust DSPI using single fringe to mechanical vibrations is designed for measuring the strain distribution of a tensile specimen. This system adopts a noise-immune signal processing algorithm to acquire a 3D strain distribution image. To acquire an accurate strain distribution for a tensile-specimen, locally-averaged and directionally-oriented filters operating in the frequency domain are used. This system uses a path-independent least-squares phase-unwrapping algorithm to acquire the 3D shape of the strain distribution. As for the initial experiments to measure the strain distribution of a tensile specimen in a vibration field, this system demonstrated a feasibility for industrial applications by providing reliable strain data.

  17. Material Stress Fringe Constant Measurement of Specimen under Pure Bending Load by Use of Photoelastic Phase Shifting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guan Yong; Kim, Myung Soo; Baek, Tae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    In a photoelastic experiment, it is necessary to know the material stress fringe constant of the photoelastic specimen to determine the stresses from the measured isochromatic fringe orders. The material stress fringe constant can be obtained using a simple tension specimen and/or a circular disk under diametric compression. In these methods, there is generally a need to apply numerous loads to the specimen in response to the relationship of the fringe order. Then, the least squares method is used to obtain the material constant. In this paper, the fringe orders that appear on a four-point bending specimen are used to determine the fringe constant. This method requires four photoelastic fringes obtained from a circular polariscope by rotating the analyzer to 0, π/4, π/2, and 3π/4 radians. Using the four-point bending specimen to determine the material stress fringe constant has an advantage because measurements can be made at different locations by applying a constant load. The stress fringe constant measured with this method is within the range suggested by the manufacturer of the photoelastic material

  18. Measuring Error Identification and Recovery Skills in Surgical Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternbach, Joel M; Wang, Kevin; El Khoury, Rym; Teitelbaum, Ezra N; Meyerson, Shari L

    2017-02-01

    Although error identification and recovery skills are essential for the safe practice of surgery, they have not traditionally been taught or evaluated in residency training. This study validates a method for assessing error identification and recovery skills in surgical residents using a thoracoscopic lobectomy simulator. We developed a 5-station, simulator-based examination containing the most commonly encountered cognitive and technical errors occurring during division of the superior pulmonary vein for left upper lobectomy. Successful completion of each station requires identification and correction of these errors. Examinations were video recorded and scored in a blinded fashion using an examination-specific rating instrument evaluating task performance as well as error identification and recovery skills. Evidence of validity was collected in the categories of content, response process, internal structure, and relationship to other variables. Fifteen general surgical residents (9 interns and 6 third-year residents) completed the examination. Interrater reliability was high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.78 between 4 trained raters. Station scores ranged from 64% to 84% correct. All stations adequately discriminated between high- and low-performing residents, with discrimination ranging from 0.35 to 0.65. The overall examination score was significantly higher for intermediate residents than for interns (mean, 74 versus 64 of 90 possible; p = 0.03). The described simulator-based examination with embedded errors and its accompanying assessment tool can be used to measure error identification and recovery skills in surgical residents. This examination provides a valid method for comparing teaching strategies designed to improve error recognition and recovery to enhance patient safety. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of preoperative therapy against advanced oral cancer. The pattern of residual cancer nests assessed with semiserial whole surgical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Histological change of advanced oral cancers following concurrent chemoradiotherapy was examined with semiserial whole surgical specimens. Subjects included six tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), two oral floor SCCs and three lower gingival SCCs, and all the tumors were preoperatively treated by the combination of radiotherapy and superselective intraarterial infusion of carboplatin (CBDCA) or oral administration of TS-1. Clinical effect was assessed as complete response (CR) in three cases, partial response (PR) in five, minor response (MR) in two and no change (NC) in two. The distribution of residual cancer nests was categorized as the superficially-located and deeply-located patterns. It was noteworthy that the pattern of residual cancer nests and the histological effect were different between sections even in the same tumors. Furthermore, a few viable cancer nests were observed exclusively in the advancing edge in tumors assessed as Grade 2b (Oboshi-Shimosata classification), where most of the cancer nests were degenerative or necrotic. This finding suggests that the extent of resection could not be reduced even in tumors that responded well to preoperative therapy. In the present cases, the histological effect of chemoradiotherapy was evaluated as Grade 4a in two cases, Grade 2b in four, Grade 2a in five and Grade 1 in one. Tumors of the PR showed a wide variation of histological evaluation from Grade 1 to Grade 4a, resulting in a discrepancy between the clinical and histological evaluations. (author)

  20. Measurement and accompanying numerical simulation of fast crack propagation in modified DCB specimens made of Araldit B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckl, H.

    1991-06-01

    Numerical simulations of fracture-mechanical experiments with the aim of determining the stress intensity factor and its relation to the fracture velocity from the measured data of the crack length are problematic with the conventional DCB specimen loaded through wedge and bolt namely because of the not clearly definable limiting conditions. Experiments were therefore carried out with modified DCB specimens made of ARALDIT B, with the loading wedge pressed directly into the crack mouth. In the case of suitable specimen dimensions, K I already in the initial phase of crack propagation before arrival of the first reflected waves covers a great part of the relevant range. Numerical simulations agree well with the shadow-optical measurements in this phase. A specimen variant with T-shaped extension at the counterbearing is suitable especially for crack arrest investigations, since high fracture velocities and brief crack jump lengths can be combined in tests with this specimen. The constant member in the series development of the stress distribution at the crack tip according to Williams determines the directional stability of the crack. The theories established by Cotterell, Schindler, Streit and Finnie are discussed by means of the kinking cracks observed during some experiments. (orig.) [de

  1. Comparison of refractometry and biuret assay for measurement of total protein concentration in canine abdominal and pleural fluid specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Alexandra; Funk, Deborah; Neiger, Reto

    2016-04-01

    To compare total protein (TP) concentrations in canine pleural and abdominal fluid specimens as measured by refractometry and biuret assay. Diagnostic test evaluation. Data regarding 92 pleural and 148 abdominal fluid specimens from dogs with various diseases. TP concentrations in fluid specimens as measured by refractometry and biuret assay were recorded. Strength of association between sets of measurements was assessed by Spearman rank correlations and Bland-Altman plots. Optimal concentration cutoff for diagnostic discrimination between exudate and nonexudate was identified by construction of receiver operating characteristic curves. Median TP concentration in pleural fluid specimens was 2.7 g/dL (range, 0.3 to 4.8 g/dL) for refractometry and 2.9 g/dL (range, 0.7 to 5.8 g/dL) for biuret assay. Median TP concentration in abdominal fluid specimens was 3.5 g/dL (range, 0.1 to 6.0 g/dL) for refractometry and 3.5 g/dL (range, 0.6 to 5.7 g/dL) for biuret assay. Correlation was significant between refractometric and biuret results for pleural (ρ = 0.921) and abdominal (ρ = 0.908) fluid. Bland-Altman plots revealed bias of -0.18 g/dL for pleural fluid and -0.03 g/dL for abdominal fluid for refractometry versus biuret assay. With a TP concentration of ≥ 3 g/dL used to distinguish exudate from nonexudate, sensitivity of refractometry was 77% for pleural fluid and 80% for abdominal fluid. Specificity was 100% and 94%, respectively. Refractometry yielded acceptable results for measurement of TP concentration in canine pleural and abdominal fluid specimens, providing a more rapid and convenient method than biuret assay.

  2. Study of deformation evolution during failure of rock specimens using laser-based vibration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, I. Yu.; Kulkov, A. S.; Makarov, P. V.; Tunda, V. A.; Krasnoveikin, V. A.; Eremin, M. O.; Bakeev, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyze experimental data on the dynamic response of the marble specimen in uniaxial compression. To make it we use the methods of mathematical statistics. The lateral surface velocity evolution obtained by the laser Doppler vibrometer represents the data for analysis. The registered data were regarded as a time series that reflects deformation evolution of the specimen loaded up to failure. The revealed changes in statistical parameters were considered as precursors of failure. It is shown that before failure the deformation response is autocorrelated and reflects the states of dynamic chaos and self-organized criticality.

  3. Birth and death of human β-cells in pancreas from cadaver donors, autopsies, surgical specimens, and islets transplanted into mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Francisco; Siniakowicz, Karolina; Jennifer-Hollister-Lock; Duran, Luisa; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Yamada, Takatsugu; Lei, Ji; Deng, Shaoping; Westermark, Gunilla T.; Markmann, James; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C.

    2013-01-01

    There is great interest in the potential of the human endocrine pancreas for regeneration by β-cell replication or neogenesis. Our aim was to explore this potential in adult human pancreases and in both islet and exocrine tissue transplanted into mice. The design was to examine pancreases obtained from cadaver donors, autopsies and fresh surgical specimens and compare these findings with those obtained from islet and duct tissue grafted into the kidney. Islets and exocrine tissue were transplanted into normoglycemic ICR/SCID mice and studied 4 and 14 wk later. β-cell replication as assessed by double staining for insulin and Ki67 was 0.22 ± 0.03 % at 4 wk and 0.13 ± 0.03 % at 14 wk. In contrast, no evidence of β-cell replication could be found in 11 cadaver donor and 10 autopsy pancreases. However, Ki67 staining of β-cells in frozen sections obtained at surgery was comparable to that found in transplanted islets. Evidence for neogenesis in transplanted pancreatic exocrine tissue was supported by finding β-cells within the duct epithelium, and the presence of cells double stained for insulin and cytokeratin 19 (CK19). However, β-cells within the ducts never constituted more than 1% of the CK19 positive cells. With confocal microscopy, 7 of 12 examined cells expressed both markers, consistent with a neogeneic process. Mice with grafts containing islet or exocrine tissue were treated with various combinations exendin-4, gastrin and epidermal growth factor; none increased β-cell replication or stimulated neogenesis. In summary, human β-cells replicate at a low level in islets transplanted into mice and in surgical pancreatic frozen sections but rarely in cadaver donor or autopsy pancreases. The absence of β-cell replication in many adult cadaver or autopsy pancreases could, in part, be an artifact of the postmortem state. Thus, it appears that adult human β-cells maintain a low level of turnover through replication and neogenesis. PMID:23321263

  4. Birth and death of human β-cells in pancreases from cadaver donors, autopsies, surgical specimens, and islets transplanted into mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Francisco; Siniakowicz, Karolina; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Duran, Luisa; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Yamada, Takatsugu; Lei, Ji; Deng, Shaoping; Westermark, Gunilla T; Markmann, James; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C

    2014-02-01

    There is great interest in the potential of the human endocrine pancreas for regeneration by β-cell replication or neogenesis. Our aim was to explore this potential in adult human pancreases and in both islet and exocrine tissue transplanted into mice. The design was to examine pancreases obtained from cadaver donors, autopsies, and fresh surgical specimens and compare these findings with those obtained from islet and duct tissue grafted into the kidney. Islets and exocrine tissue were transplanted into normoglycemic ICR-SCID mice and studied 4 and 14 weeks later. β-Cell replication, as assessed by double staining for insulin and Ki67, was 0.22 ± 0.03% at 4 weeks and 0.13 ± 0.03% at 14 weeks. In contrast, no evidence of β-cell replication could be found in 11 cadaver donor and 10 autopsy pancreases. However, Ki67 staining of β-cells in frozen sections obtained at surgery was comparable to that found in transplanted islets. Evidence for neogenesis in transplanted pancreatic exocrine tissue was supported by finding β-cells within the duct epithelium and the presence of cells double stained for insulin and cytokeratin 19 (CK19). However, β-cells within the ducts never constituted more than 1% of the CK19-positive cells. With confocal microscopy, 7 of 12 examined cells expressed both markers, consistent with a neogeneic process. Mice with grafts containing islet or exocrine tissue were treated with various combinations of exendin-4, gastrin, and epidermal growth factor; none increased β-cell replication or stimulated neogenesis. In summary, human β-cells replicate at a low level in islets transplanted into mice and in surgical pancreatic frozen sections, but rarely in cadaver donor or autopsy pancreases. The absence of β-cell replication in many adult cadaver or autopsy pancreases could, in part, be an artifact of the postmortem state. Thus, it appears that adult human β-cells maintain a low level of turnover through replication and neogenesis.

  5. Development of a strain measurement method for non-plane specimens by means of computer picture processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Akira; Soneda, Naoki; Yagawa, Genki; Miyoshi, Akio.

    1988-01-01

    Integrity Tests of the Fast Breeder Reactor components are often conducted at an elevated temperature, say 550deg C. Since high-temperature strain measurement using special strain gauges is costly and unappropriate for large and repeated strains, the authors have developed an optical strain measurement method and system based on computer picture processing and the triangulation principle. The present method enables us to measure the strain in specimen with curved surfaces. Its operation is also easy, because of the automatic distinction of marks from noises. The verification tests with a plate specimen and a cylindrical one are performed under elevated temperatures. The results show that the present method is very suitable to the tests under elevated temperatures and that the measurement error of strain is within 0.2 % (2000μ), which is reasonable considering the limitation of hardware. (author)

  6. Prostate volume measurement by TRUS using heights obtained by transaxial and midsagittal scaning: comparison with specimen volume following radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Bung Bin; Kim, Jae Kyun; Choi, Sung Hoon; Noh, Han Na; Ji, Eun Kyung; Cho, Kyoung Sik

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, when measuring prostate volume by TRUS, whether height is more accurately determined by transaxial or midsagittal scanning. Sixteen patients who between March 1995 and March 1998 underwent both preoperative TRUS and radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer were included in this study. Using prolate ellipse volume calculation (height x length x width x π/6), TRUS prostate volume was determined, and was compared with the measured volume of the specimen. Prostate volume measured by TRUS, regardless of whether height was determined transaxially or midsagittally, correlated closely with real specimen volume. When height was measured in one of these planes, a paired t test revealed no significant difference between TRUS prostate volume and real specimen volume (p = .411 and p = .740, respectively), nor were there significant differences between the findings of transaxial and midsagittal scanning (p = .570). A paired sample test, however, indicated that TRUS prostate volumes determined transaxially showed a higher correlation coefficient (0.833) and a lower standard deviation (9.04) than those determined midsagittally (0.714 and 11.48, respectively). Prostate volume measured by TRUS closely correlates with real prostate volume. Furthermore, we suggest that when measuring prostate volume in this way, height is more accurately determined by transaxial than by midsagittal scanning

  7. Miniature Precracked Charpy Specimens for Measuring the Master Curve Reference Temperature of RPV Steels at Impact Loading Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; Scibetta, M.; Puzzolante, L.

    2008-10-15

    In the framework of the 2006 Convention, we investigated the applicability of fatigue precracked miniature Charpy specimens of KLST type (MPCC - B = 3 mm, W = 4 mm and L = 27 mm) for impact toughness measurements, using the well-characterized JRQ RPV steel. In the ductile to-brittle transition region, MPCC tests analyzed using the Master Curve approach and compared to data previously obtained from PCC specimens had shown a more ductile behavior and therefore un conservative results. In the investigation presented in this report, two additional RPV steels have been used to compare the performance of impact-tested MPCC and PCC specimens in the transition regime: the low-toughness JSPS steel and the high-toughness 20MnMoNi55 steel. The results obtained (excellent agreement for 20MnMoNi55 and considerable differences between T0 values for JSPS) are contradictory and do not presently allow qualifying the MPCC specimens as a reliable alternative to PCC samples for impact toughness measurements.

  8. Computer-aided, single-specimen controlled bending test for fracture-kinetics measurement in ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovik, V.G.; Chushko, V.M.; Kovalev, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    Fracture testing of ceramics by using controlled crack growth is proposed to allow study of crack-kinetics behavior under a given loading history. A computer-aided, real-time data acquisition system improves the quality of crack-growth parameters obtained in a simple, single-specimen bend test. Several ceramic materials were tested in the present study: aluminum nitride as a linear-elastic material; and alumina and yttria-stabilized zirconia, both representative of ceramics with microstructure-dependent nonlinear fracture properties. Ambiguities in the crack-growth diagrams are discussed to show the importance of accounting for crack-growth history in correctly describing nonequilibrium fracture behavior

  9. The measuring technique developed to evaluate the thermal diffusivity of the multi-layered thin film specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tse-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the thermal diffusivities of the Al, Si and ITO films deposited on the SUS304 steel substrate are evaluated via the present technique. Before applying this technique, the temperature for the thin film of the multi-layered specimen is developed theoretically for the one- dimensional steady heat conduction in response to amplitude and frequency of the periodically oscillating temperature imposed by a peltier placed beneath the specimen's substrate. By the thermal-electrical data processing system excluding the lock-in amplifier, the temperature frequency a3 has been proved first to be independent of the electrical voltage applied to the peltier and the contact position of the thermocouples. The experimental data of phase difference for three kinds of specimen are regressed well by a straight line with a slope. Then, the thermal diffusivity of the thin film is thus determined if the slope value and the film- thickness are available. In the present arrangements for the thermocouples, two thermal diffusivity values are quite close each other and valid for every kind of specimen. This technique can provide an efficient, low-cost method for the thermal diffusivity measurements of thin films.

  10. Accuracy of surgical wound drainage measurements: an analysis and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Brian; Nizzero, Danielle; Zhang, Chunxiao; van Zyl, Natasha; Ting, Jeannette

    2015-05-01

    Surgical drain tube readings can influence the clinical management of the post-operative patient. The accuracy of these readings has not been documented in the current literature and this experimental study aims to address this paucity. Aliquots (10, 25, 40 and 90 mL) of black tea solution prepared to mimic haemoserous fluid were injected into UnoVac, RedoVac and Jackson-Pratt drain tubes. Nursing and medical staff from a tertiary hospital were asked to estimate drain volumes by direct observation; analysis of variance was performed on the results and significance level was set at 0.05. Doctors and nurses are equally accurate in estimating drain tube volumes. Jackson-Pratt systems were found to be the most accurate for intermediate volumes of 25 and 40 mL. For extreme of volumes (both high and low), all drainage systems were inaccurate. This study suggests that for intermediate volumes (25 and 40 mL), Jackson-Pratt is the drainage system of choice. The accuracy of volume measurement is diminished at the extremes of drain volumes; emptying of drainage systems is recommended to avoid overfilling of drainage systems. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  11. Thermal neutron flux measurements in the rotary specimen rack of the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rose Mary G. do Prado; Rodrigues, Rogério R.; Souza, Luiz Claudio A., E-mail: souzarm@cdtn.br, E-mail: rrr@cdtn.br, E-mail: lcas@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The thermal neutron flux in the rotary specimen rack of the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor at the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, Brazil, has been measured by the neutron activation method, using bare and cadmium covered gold foils. Those foils were irradiated in the rotary specimen rack with the reactor at 100 kW. The reactor core configuration has 63 fuel elements, composed of 59 original aluminum-clad elements and 4 stainless steel-clad fuel elements. The gamma activities of the foils were measured using Ge spectrometer. The perturbations of the thermal neutron flux caused by the introduction of an absorbing foil into the medium were considered in order to obtain accurate determination of the flux. The thermal neutron flux obtained was 7.4 x 10{sup 11} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. (author)

  12. Effect of out-of-plane specimen movement on strain measurement using digital-image-correlation-based video measurement in 2D and 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poling, Joel; Desai, Niranjan; Fischer, Gregor

    2018-01-01

    This study determined the effect of specimen out-of-plane movement relative to the sensor, on the accuracy of strains measured made applying 2D and 3D measurement approaches employing the state-of-the-art digital-image-correlation (DIC)-based tool iMETRUM. DIC provides a convenient and inexpensive...

  13. Estimation of stress distribution in ferromagnetic tensile specimens using low cost eddy current stress measurement system and BP neural network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Li

    Full Text Available Estimation of the stress distribution in ferromagnetic components is very important for evaluating the working status of mechanical equipment and implementing preventive maintenance. Eddy current testing technology is a promising method in this field because of its advantages of safety, no need of coupling agent, etc. In order to reduce the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and obtain the stress distribution in ferromagnetic materials without scanning, a low cost eddy current stress measurement system based on Archimedes spiral planar coil was established, and a method based on BP neural network to obtain the stress distribution using the stress of several discrete test points was proposed. To verify the performance of the developed test system and the validity of the proposed method, experiment was implemented using structural steel (Q235 specimens. Standard curves of sensors at each test point were achieved, the calibrated data were used to establish the BP neural network model for approximating the stress variation on the specimen surface, and the stress distribution curve of the specimen was obtained by interpolating with the established model. The results show that there is a good linear relationship between the change of signal modulus and the stress in most elastic range of the specimen, and the established system can detect the change in stress with a theoretical average sensitivity of -0.4228 mV/MPa. The obtained stress distribution curve is well consonant with the theoretical analysis result. At last, possible causes and improving methods of problems appeared in the results were discussed. This research has important significance for reducing the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and advancing the engineering application of eddy current stress testing.

  14. Estimation of stress distribution in ferromagnetic tensile specimens using low cost eddy current stress measurement system and BP neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Weimin; Zeng, Weiqin; Chen, Guolong; Qiu, Zhongchao; Cao, Xinyuan; Gao, Xuanyi

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of the stress distribution in ferromagnetic components is very important for evaluating the working status of mechanical equipment and implementing preventive maintenance. Eddy current testing technology is a promising method in this field because of its advantages of safety, no need of coupling agent, etc. In order to reduce the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and obtain the stress distribution in ferromagnetic materials without scanning, a low cost eddy current stress measurement system based on Archimedes spiral planar coil was established, and a method based on BP neural network to obtain the stress distribution using the stress of several discrete test points was proposed. To verify the performance of the developed test system and the validity of the proposed method, experiment was implemented using structural steel (Q235) specimens. Standard curves of sensors at each test point were achieved, the calibrated data were used to establish the BP neural network model for approximating the stress variation on the specimen surface, and the stress distribution curve of the specimen was obtained by interpolating with the established model. The results show that there is a good linear relationship between the change of signal modulus and the stress in most elastic range of the specimen, and the established system can detect the change in stress with a theoretical average sensitivity of -0.4228 mV/MPa. The obtained stress distribution curve is well consonant with the theoretical analysis result. At last, possible causes and improving methods of problems appeared in the results were discussed. This research has important significance for reducing the cost of eddy current stress measurement system, and advancing the engineering application of eddy current stress testing.

  15. Investigation of PVC physical ageing in field test specimens using ultrasonic and dielectric measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demcenko, A.; Ravanan, M.; Visser, Roy; Loendersloot, Richard; Akkerman, Remko

    2013-01-01

    Physical ageing in PVC is studied using two techniques: a) non-linear ultrasonic measurements based on the non-collinear wave interaction theory and b) dielectric measurements. The ultrasonic measurement results are compared with dielectric measurement results. The comparison shows that the used

  16. Technology development on analysis program for measuring fracture toughness of irradiated specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Akira; Takada, Fumiki

    2007-03-01

    The fracture toughness which represents resistance for brittle or ductile fracture is one of the most important material property concerning linear and non-linear fracture mechanics analyses. In order to respond to needs of collecting data relating to fracture toughness of pressure vessel and austenitic stainless steels, fracture toughness test for irradiated materials has been performed in JMTR hot laboratory. On the other hand, there has been no computer program for analysis of fracture toughness using the test data obtained from the test apparatus installed in the hot cell. Therefore, only load-displacement data have been provided to users to calculate fracture toughness of irradiated materials. Recently, request of analysis of fracture toughness have been increased. Thus a computer program, which calculates the amount of the crack extension, the compliance and the fracture toughness from the data acquired from the test apparatus installed in the hot cell, has been developed. In the program unloading elastic compliance method is applied based on ASTM E1820-01. Through the above development, the request for the fracture toughness analysis can be satisfied and the fracture toughness of irradiated test specimens can be provided to users. (author)

  17. Development of a penetration friction apparatus (PFA) to measure the frictional performance of surgical suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gangqiang; Ren, Tianhui; Lette, Walter; Zeng, Xiangqiong; van der Heide, Emile

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays there is a wide variety of surgical sutures available in the market. Surgical sutures have different sizes, structures, materials and coatings, whereas they are being used for various surgeries. The frictional performances of surgical sutures have been found to play a vital role in their functionality. The high friction force of surgical sutures in the suturing process may cause inflammation and pain to the person, leading to a longer recovery time, and the second trauma of soft or fragile tissue. Thus, the investigation into the frictional performance of surgical suture is essential. Despite the unquestionable fact, little is actually known on the friction performances of surgical suture-tissue due to the lack of appropriate test equipment. This study presents a new penetration friction apparatus (PFA) that allowed for the evaluation of the friction performances of various surgical needles and sutures during the suturing process, under different contact conditions. It considered the deformation of tissue and can realize the puncture force measurements of surgical needles as well as the friction force of surgical sutures. The developed PFA could accurately evaluate and understand the frictional behaviour of surgical suture-tissue in the simulating clinical conditions. The forces measured by the PFA showed the same trend as that reported in literatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement and prediction of residual stress in a bead-on-plate weld benchmark specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficquet, X.; Smith, D.J.; Truman, C.E.; Kingston, E.J.; Dennis, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents measurements and predictions of the residual stresses generated by laying a single weld bead on a flat, austenitic stainless steel plate. The residual stress field that is created is strongly three-dimensional and is considered representative of that found in a repair weld. Through-thickness measurements are made using the deep hole drilling technique, and near-surface measurements are made using incremental centre hole drilling. Measurements are compared to predictions at the same locations made using finite element analysis incorporating an advanced, non-linear kinematic hardening model. The work was conducted as part of an European round robin exercise, coordinated as part of the NeT network. Overall, there was broad agreement between measurements and predictions, but there were notable differences

  19. Measurements of T1 and T2 over time in formalin-fixed human whole-brain specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovi, M.; Ericsson, A.

    1992-01-01

    T1 and T2 were measured in 5 formalin-fixed human whole-brain specimens as a function of time. Gray matter/white matter contrast reversal was observed around the 4th day and was considered to be due to the greater decrease in T1 in gray than in white matter. A possible explanation for this is that the decomposition of the myelin phospholipid structure by formalin somewhat counteracts the general reductive effect of the fixation procedure on relaxation times. (orig.)

  20. Cystadenocarcinoma of the minor salivary gland arising in the upper lip: A surgical case of an inadequate cytology specimen hampering conclusive diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Yoshimura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cystadenocarcinoma (CAC of the salivary gland poses a diagnostic challenge to us, as this uncommon entity is extremely difficult to diagnose pre-operatively on an inadequate sample. However, markedly few papers have described the cytological features of CAC. An 82-year-old male presented with a history of a gradual increase in size and occasional mucous drainage from a swollen reddish nodule on the right upper lip. A retrospective examination of the cytological specimens from the drainage revealed a small number of clusters and scattered single cells of severely degenerated and mildly atypical epithelial cells with hyperchromatic dense nuclei and abundant clear cytoplasm, in a background of a large amount of mucinous material. We first interpreted this finding merely as the presence of atypical cells. However, a gross examination revealed a non-capsulated and relatively well-demarcated cystic lesion, grayish to whitish in color and measuring 13 × 9 mm in diameter, filled with mucin. A microscopic examination showed that the tumor had a central cystic cavity filled with mucinous material and was predominantly composed of the papillary proliferation of atypical columnar mucous epithelial cells with enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei, mixed with mitotic hot spots often projecting and melting into the mucinous cystic lumen, and focally involving the surrounding connective tissue. Therefore, we ultimately made a diagnosis of CAC of the minor salivary gland arising in the upper lip. Given the characteristic features of CAC, cytopathologists should be able to correctly diagnose this lesion based on multiple adequate fine needle aspiration samples.

  1. Comparison of immersion density and improved microstructural characterization methods for measuring swelling in small irradiated disk specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, T.; Suzuki, M.; Hishinuma, A.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The procedure of obtaining microstructural data from reactor-irradiated specimens has been carefully checked for accuracy by comparison of swelling data obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of cavities with density-change data measured using the Precision Densitometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Comparison of data measured by both methods on duplicate or, in some cases, on the same specimen has shown some appreciable discrepancies for US/Japan collaborative experiments irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The contamination spot separation (CSS) method was used in the past to determine the thickness of a TEM foil. Recent work has revealed an appreciable error in this method that can result in an overestimation of the foil thickness. This error causes lower swelling values to be measured by TEM microstructural observation relative to the Precision Densitometer. An improved method is proposed for determining the foil thickness by the CSS method, which includes a correction for the systematic overestimation of foil thickness. (orig.)

  2. A new microscope optics for laser dark-field illumination applied to high precision two dimensional measurement of specimen displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Naoki; Kamimura, Shinji

    2008-02-01

    With conventional light microscopy, precision in the measurement of the displacement of a specimen depends on the signal-to-noise ratio when we measure the light intensity of magnified images. This implies that, for the improvement of precision, getting brighter images and reducing background light noise are both inevitably required. For this purpose, we developed a new optics for laser dark-field illumination. For the microscopy, we used a laser beam and a pair of axicons (conical lenses) to get an optimal condition for dark-field observations. The optics was applied to measuring two dimensional microbead displacements with subnanometer precision. The bandwidth of our detection system overall was 10 kHz. Over most of this bandwidth, the observed noise level was as small as 0.1 nm/radicalHz.

  3. Variation in Surgical Quality Measure Adherence within Hospital Referral Regions: Do Publicly Reported Surgical Quality Measures Distinguish among Hospitals That Patients Are Likely to Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Kyan C; Dai, Feng; Gilbertsen, Todd A; Schonberger, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether surgical quality measures that Medicare publicly reports provide a basis for patients to choose a hospital from within their geographic region. Data Source The Department of Health and Human Services' public reporting website, Medicare Claims Processing Manual Baltimore, MD CMS http://www.medicare.gov/hospitalcompare. Study Design We identified hospitals (n = 2,953) reporting adherence rates to the quality measures intended to reduce surgical site infections (Surgical Care Improvement Project, 1–3) in 2012. We defined regions within which patients were likely to compare hospitals using the hospital referral regions (HRRs) from the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care Project. We described distributions of reported SCIP adherence within each HRR, including medians, interquartile ranges (IQRs), skewness, and outliers. Principal Findings Ninety-seven percent of HRRs had median SCIP-1 scores ≥95 percent. In 93 percent of HRRs, half of the hospitals in the HRR were within 5 percent of the median hospital's score. In 62 percent of HRRs, hospitals were skewed toward the higher rates (negative skewness). Seven percent of HRRs demonstrated positive skewness. Only 1 percent had a positive outlier. SCIP-2 and SCIP-3 demonstrated similar distributions. Conclusions Publicly reported quality measures for surgical site infection prevention do not distinguish the majority of hospitals that patients are likely to choose from when selecting a surgical provider. More studies are needed to improve public reporting's ability to positively impact patient decision making. PMID:24611578

  4. Measurement of the yield and tensile strengths of neutron-irradiated and post-irradiation recovered vessel steels with notched specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiente, A.

    1996-01-01

    Tensile circumferentially notched bars are examined as test specimens for measuring the yield and tensile strengths of nuclear pressure vessel steels under several conditions of irradiation and temperature that a vessel can experience during its service life, including recovery post-irradiation treatment. For all the vessel steels, notch geometries and conditions explored, it has been found that notched specimens fail by plastic collapse, and simple formulae have been derived that allow the yield and tensile strengths to be determined from the yielding and plastic collapse load of a notched specimen. Values measured in this way show good agreement with those measured by the standard tensile test method. (orig.)

  5. Effects of five hindfoot arthrodeses on foot and ankle motion: Measurements in cadaver specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Chen, Yanxi; Qiang, Minfei; Hao, Yini

    2016-01-01

    Single, double, and triple hindfoot arthrodeses are used to correct hindfoot deformities and relieve chronic pain. However, joint fusion may lead to dysfunction in adjacent articular surfaces. We compared range of motion in adjacent joints before and after arthrodesis to determine the effects of each procedure on joint motion. The theory of moment of couple, bending moment and balanced loading was applied to each of 16 fresh cadaver feet to induce dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, internal rotation, external rotation, inversion, and eversion. Range of motion was measured with a 3-axis coordinate measuring machine in a control foot and in feet after subtalar, talonavicular, calcaneocuboid, double, or triple arthrodesis. All arthrodeses restricted mainly internal-external rotation and inversion-eversion. The restriction in a double arthrodesis was more than that in a single arthrodesis, but that in a calcaneocuboid arthrodesis was relatively low. After triple arthrodeses, the restriction on dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements was substantial, and internal-external rotation and inversion-eversion were almost lost. Considering that different arthrodesis procedures cause complex, three-dimensional hindfoot motion reductions, we recommend talonavicular or calcaneocuboid arthrodesis for patients with well-preserved functions of plantarflexion/dorsiflexion before operation, subtalar or calcaneocuboid arthrodesis for patients with well-preserved abduction/adduction, and talonavicular arthrodesis for patients with well-preserved eversion/inversion. PMID:27752084

  6. Evaluation of DC electric field distribution of PPLP specimen based on the measurement of electrical conductivity in LN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon; Cho, Jeon-Wook; Ryoo, Hee-Suk; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2013-11-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been paid much attention due to its high efficiency and high current transportation capability, and it is also regarded as eco-friendly power cable for the next generation. Especially for DC HTS cable, it has more sustainable and stable properties compared to AC HTS cable due to the absence of AC loss in DC HTS cable. Recently, DC HTS cable has been investigated competitively all over the world, and one of the key components of DC HTS cable to be developed is a cable joint box considering HVDC environment. In order to achieve the optimum insulation design of the joint box, analysis of DC electric field distribution of the joint box is a fundamental process to develop DC HTS cable. Generally, AC electric field distribution depends on relative permittivity of dielectric materials but in case of DC, electrical conductivity of dielectric material is a dominant factor which determines electric field distribution. In this study, in order to evaluate DC electric field characteristics of the joint box for DC HTS cable, polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) specimen has been prepared and its DC electric field distribution was analyzed based on the measurement of electrical conductivity of PPLP in liquid nitrogen (LN2). Electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN2 has not been reported yet but it should be measured for DC electric field analysis. The experimental works for measuring electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN2 were presented in this paper. Based on the experimental works, DC electric field distribution of PPLP specimen was fully analyzed considering the steady state and the transient state of DC. Consequently, it was possible to determine the electric field distribution characteristics considering different DC applying stages including DC switching on, DC switching off and polarity reversal conditions.

  7. Quantitative measurement of mean inner potential and specimen thickness from high-resolution off-axis electron holograms of ultra-thin layered WSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Florian, E-mail: f.winkler@fz-juelich.de [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Peter Grünberg Institute 5 (PGI-5), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Tavabi, Amir H. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Peter Grünberg Institute 5 (PGI-5), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Barthel, Juri [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Gemeinschaftslabor für Elektronenmikroskopie (GFE), RWTH Aachen University, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Duchamp, Martial [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Peter Grünberg Institute 5 (PGI-5), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Yucelen, Emrah [FEI Company, Achtseweg Noord 5, Eindhoven 5600 KA (Netherlands); Borghardt, Sven; Kardynal, Beata E. [Peter Grünberg Institute 9 (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); and others

    2017-07-15

    The phase and amplitude of the electron wavefunction that has passed through ultra-thin flakes of WSe{sub 2} is measured from high-resolution off-axis electron holograms. Both the experimental measurements and corresponding computer simulations are used to show that, as a result of dynamical diffraction, the spatially averaged phase does not increase linearly with specimen thickness close to an [001] zone axis orientation even when the specimen has a thickness of only a few layers. It is then not possible to infer the local specimen thickness of the WSe{sub 2} from either the phase or the amplitude alone. Instead, we show that the combined analysis of phase and amplitude from experimental measurements and simulations allows an accurate determination of the local specimen thickness. The relationship between phase and projected potential is shown to be approximately linear for extremely thin specimens that are tilted by several degrees in certain directions from the [001] zone axis. A knowledge of the specimen thickness then allows the electrostatic potential to be determined from the measured phase. By using this combined approach, we determine a value for the mean inner potential of WSe{sub 2} of 18.9±0.8 V, which is 12% lower than the value calculated from neutral atom scattering factors. - Highlights: • Quantitative analysis of high resolution electron holograms of WSe{sub 2}. • Local specimen thickness determination and estimation of tilt angle. • Mean inner potential evaluation of WSe2 avoiding dynamical diffraction.

  8. Network analysis of surgical innovation: Measuring value and the virality of diffusion in robotic surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Garas

    Full Text Available Existing surgical innovation frameworks suffer from a unifying limitation, their qualitative nature. A rigorous approach to measuring surgical innovation is needed that extends beyond detecting simply publication, citation, and patent counts and instead uncovers an implementation-based value from the structure of the entire adoption cascades produced over time by diffusion processes. Based on the principles of evidence-based medicine and existing surgical regulatory frameworks, the surgical innovation funnel is described. This illustrates the different stages through which innovation in surgery typically progresses. The aim is to propose a novel and quantitative network-based framework that will permit modeling and visualizing innovation diffusion cascades in surgery and measuring virality and value of innovations.Network analysis of constructed citation networks of all articles concerned with robotic surgery (n = 13,240, Scopus® was performed (1974-2014. The virality of each cascade was measured as was innovation value (measured by the innovation index derived from the evidence-based stage occupied by the corresponding seed article in the surgical innovation funnel. The network-based surgical innovation metrics were also validated against real world big data (National Inpatient Sample-NIS®.Rankings of surgical innovation across specialties by cascade size and structural virality (structural depth and width were found to correlate closely with the ranking by innovation value (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = 0.758 (p = 0.01, 0.782 (p = 0.008, 0.624 (p = 0.05, respectively which in turn matches the ranking based on real world big data from the NIS® (Spearman's coefficient = 0.673;p = 0.033.Network analysis offers unique new opportunities for understanding, modeling and measuring surgical innovation, and ultimately for assessing and comparing generative value between different specialties. The novel surgical innovation metrics

  9. Network analysis of surgical innovation: Measuring value and the virality of diffusion in robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garas, George; Cingolani, Isabella; Panzarasa, Pietro; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2017-01-01

    Existing surgical innovation frameworks suffer from a unifying limitation, their qualitative nature. A rigorous approach to measuring surgical innovation is needed that extends beyond detecting simply publication, citation, and patent counts and instead uncovers an implementation-based value from the structure of the entire adoption cascades produced over time by diffusion processes. Based on the principles of evidence-based medicine and existing surgical regulatory frameworks, the surgical innovation funnel is described. This illustrates the different stages through which innovation in surgery typically progresses. The aim is to propose a novel and quantitative network-based framework that will permit modeling and visualizing innovation diffusion cascades in surgery and measuring virality and value of innovations. Network analysis of constructed citation networks of all articles concerned with robotic surgery (n = 13,240, Scopus®) was performed (1974-2014). The virality of each cascade was measured as was innovation value (measured by the innovation index) derived from the evidence-based stage occupied by the corresponding seed article in the surgical innovation funnel. The network-based surgical innovation metrics were also validated against real world big data (National Inpatient Sample-NIS®). Rankings of surgical innovation across specialties by cascade size and structural virality (structural depth and width) were found to correlate closely with the ranking by innovation value (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = 0.758 (p = 0.01), 0.782 (p = 0.008), 0.624 (p = 0.05), respectively) which in turn matches the ranking based on real world big data from the NIS® (Spearman's coefficient = 0.673;p = 0.033). Network analysis offers unique new opportunities for understanding, modeling and measuring surgical innovation, and ultimately for assessing and comparing generative value between different specialties. The novel surgical innovation metrics developed may

  10. Numerical study and pilot evaluation of experimental data measured on specimen loaded by bending and wedge splitting forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Seitl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fracture mechanical properties of silicate based materials are determined from various fracture mechanicals tests, e.g. three- or four- point bending test, wedge splitting test, modified compact tension test etc. For evaluation of the parameters, knowledge about the calibration and compliance functions is required. Therefore, in this paper, the compliance and calibration curves for a novel test geometry based on combination of the wedge splitting test and three-point bending test are introduced. These selected variants exhibit significantly various stress state conditions at the crack tip, or, more generally, in the whole specimen ligament. The calibration and compliance curves are compared and used for evaluation of the data from pilot experimental measurement.

  11. Influence of specimen type and reinforcement on measured tension-tension fatigue life of unidirectional GFRP laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korkiakoski, Samuli; Brøndsted, Povl; Sarlin, Essi

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that standardised tension-tension fatigue test specimens of unidirectional (UD) glass-fibre-reinforced plastics (GFRP) laminates tend to fail at end tabs. The true fatigue life is then underestimated. The first objective of this study was to find for UD GFRP laminates a test...... specimen that fails in the gauge section. The second objective was to compare fatigue performance of two laminates, one having a newly developed UD powder-bound fabric as a reinforcement and the other having a quasi-UD stitched non-crimp fabric as a reinforcement. In the first phase, a rectangular specimen...... in accordance with the ISO 527-5 standard and two slightly different dog-bone shaped specimens were evaluated by means of finite element modelling. Subsequent comparative fatigue tests were performed for the laminates with the three specimen types. The results showed that the test specimen type has...

  12. Evaluation of DC electric field distribution of PPLP specimen based on the measurement of electrical conductivity in LN2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon; Cho, Jeon-Wook; Ryoo, Hee-Suk; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN 2 was successfully measured. •Based on the measured value of PPLP, DC field analysis was performed. •The electric field distribution was altered according to the DC applying stages. •The maximum electric field was observed during polarity reversal situation. •DC field analysis is important to determine the optimum design of DC HTS devices. -- Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been paid much attention due to its high efficiency and high current transportation capability, and it is also regarded as eco-friendly power cable for the next generation. Especially for DC HTS cable, it has more sustainable and stable properties compared to AC HTS cable due to the absence of AC loss in DC HTS cable. Recently, DC HTS cable has been investigated competitively all over the world, and one of the key components of DC HTS cable to be developed is a cable joint box considering HVDC environment. In order to achieve the optimum insulation design of the joint box, analysis of DC electric field distribution of the joint box is a fundamental process to develop DC HTS cable. Generally, AC electric field distribution depends on relative permittivity of dielectric materials but in case of DC, electrical conductivity of dielectric material is a dominant factor which determines electric field distribution. In this study, in order to evaluate DC electric field characteristics of the joint box for DC HTS cable, polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) specimen has been prepared and its DC electric field distribution was analyzed based on the measurement of electrical conductivity of PPLP in liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ). Electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN 2 has not been reported yet but it should be measured for DC electric field analysis. The experimental works for measuring electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN 2 were presented in this paper. Based on the experimental works, DC electric field distribution of

  13. Quantitative measurement of mean inner potential and specimen thickness from high-resolution off-axis electron holograms of ultra-thin layered WSe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Florian; Tavabi, Amir H; Barthel, Juri; Duchamp, Martial; Yucelen, Emrah; Borghardt, Sven; Kardynal, Beata E; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E

    2017-07-01

    The phase and amplitude of the electron wavefunction that has passed through ultra-thin flakes of WSe 2 is measured from high-resolution off-axis electron holograms. Both the experimental measurements and corresponding computer simulations are used to show that, as a result of dynamical diffraction, the spatially averaged phase does not increase linearly with specimen thickness close to an [001] zone axis orientation even when the specimen has a thickness of only a few layers. It is then not possible to infer the local specimen thickness of the WSe 2 from either the phase or the amplitude alone. Instead, we show that the combined analysis of phase and amplitude from experimental measurements and simulations allows an accurate determination of the local specimen thickness. The relationship between phase and projected potential is shown to be approximately linear for extremely thin specimens that are tilted by several degrees in certain directions from the [001] zone axis. A knowledge of the specimen thickness then allows the electrostatic potential to be determined from the measured phase. By using this combined approach, we determine a value for the mean inner potential of WSe 2 of 18.9±0.8V, which is 12% lower than the value calculated from neutral atom scattering factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. SU-F-J-07: Evaluating the Adequacy of Biopsy Specimens for Genetic Signature Assessment by Measuring the Metabolic Activity in Specimens Obtained Under 18F-FDG PET/CT Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanchon, L; Russell, J; Dogan, S; Carlin, S; Pinker-Domenig, K; Yorke, E; Schmidtlein, C. Ross; Fujisawa, S; Manova-Todorova, K; Zanzonico, P; Deasy, J O; Humm, J L; Solomon, S; Kirov, A S [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Genetic profiling of biopsied tissue is the basis for personalized cancer therapy. However biopsied materials may not contain sufficient amounts of DNA needed for analysis. We propose a method to determine the adequacy of specimens for performing genetic profiling by quantifying metabolic activity. Methods: We measured the response of two radiation detectors to the activity contained in the minimum amount of tumor cells needed for genetic profiling in biopsy specimens obtained under 2-deoxy-2-({sup 18}F)fluoro-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) PET/CT guidance. The expected tumor cell concentration in biopsy specimens was evaluated from the amount of DNA needed (∼100 µg) and the number of pathology sections typically used for the analysis. The average {sup 18}F-FDG uptake per cell was measured by incubating KPC-4662 pancreatic tumor cells and HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma tumor cells in {sup 18}F-FDG containing solution (activity concentrations between 0.0122 and 1.51 MBq/mL and glucose concentrations of 3.1 and 1 g/L) for 1 to 1.75 hours and then measuring the activity of a known number of cells. Measurements of surrogate specimens obtained using 18G needle biopsies of gels containing these cells in expected concentrations (∼10{sup 4} µL{sup −1}) were performed using an autoradiography CCD based device (up to 20 min exposure) and a scintillation well counter (∼1 min measurements) about 3 and 5 hours after the end of incubation respectively. Results: At start of autoradiography there were between 0.16 and 1.5 {sup 18}F-FDG molecules/cell and between 1.14 and 5.43×10{sup 7} {sup 18}F-FDG molecules/mL. For the scintillation well counter, sample to minimum-detectable-count rate ratios were greater than 7 and the counting error was less than 25% for ≤80 s measurement times. Images of the samples were identifiable on the autoradiograph for ∼10 min and longer exposure times. Conclusion: Scintillation well counter measurements and CCD based

  15. [Protective measures in laparoscopic resection for upper or mid rectal cancer and sigmoid colon cancer with transrectal specimen extraction surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuangang; Zhou, Zhuqing; Han, Junyi; Lu, Bin; Gao, Wei; Zhu, Zhe; Jiang, Qixin; Ji, Fang; Du, Tao

    2017-10-25

    To introduce the use of a self-made specimen protective sleeve in laparoscopic resection for upper or mid rectal cancer and sigmoid colon cancer with transrectal specimen extraction surgery and the improvement of implantation method, so as to avoid and reduce bacterial contamination and tumor cell dissemination in abdominal cavity. During June 2015 and May 2017, 48 cases of high located rectal or sigmoid colon cancer were operated laparoscopically with natural orifices specimen extraction surgery (NOSES) using a self-made specimen protecting sleeve. Operation indication: (1) Rectum and sigmoid colon cancer with the distance of more than 6 cm from tumor inferior margin to dentate line. (2) The maximum diameter of intestine together with mesangial and tumor <7 cm by intraoperative judgment. (3) No anal and distal rectal surgery, no anorectal stenosis or lack of expansion capacity caused by trauma. (4) No ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease or radiation proctitis. After transecting the rectum, the specimen protective sleeve was inserted through the right lower 12 mm main Trocar (This sleeve was tailored from the laparoscopic protective sleeve produced by China 3L Corporation, which was intercepted with 25-35 cm from one end of the sleeve according to the length of distal rectal retention. One end was ligated and the other was open with a ligature band. About 5 ml paraffin oil was used to rinse and lubricate during the operation). The rectal stump retained 7-8 cm in abdominal cavity. The transanal ligation part of the protective sleeve was cut off, then the stapler nail seat was inserted and specimen was pull out through the sleeve and rectum. There were 30 males and 18 females. The average age was (64.5±14.1) years, the BMI was (25.4±3.9) kg/m 2 , the tumor diameter was (3.3±1.1) cm, the maximum diameter of specimen was (5.4±1.5) cm and the length of specimen was (18.6±4.3) cm. Among these 48 cases, specimens of 36 patients were pulled out through inside of the

  16. Optimization of high grade glioma cell culture from surgical specimens for use in clinically relevant animal models and 3D immunochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbach, Laura A; Irtenkauf, Susan M; Lemke, Nancy W; Nelson, Kevin K; Berezovsky, Artem D; Carlton, Enoch T; Transou, Andrea D; Mikkelsen, Tom; deCarvalho, Ana C

    2014-01-07

    Glioblastomas, the most common and aggressive form of astrocytoma, are refractory to therapy, and molecularly heterogeneous. The ability to establish cell cultures that preserve the genomic profile of the parental tumors, for use in patient specific in vitro and in vivo models, has the potential to revolutionize the preclinical development of new treatments for glioblastoma tailored to the molecular characteristics of each tumor. Starting with fresh high grade astrocytoma tumors dissociated into single cells, we use the neurosphere assay as an enrichment method for cells presenting cancer stem cell phenotype, including expression of neural stem cell markers, long term self-renewal in vitro, and the ability to form orthotopic xenograft tumors. This method has been previously proposed, and is now in use by several investigators. Based on our experience of dissociating and culturing 125 glioblastoma specimens, we arrived at the detailed protocol we present here, suitable for routine neurosphere culturing of high grade astrocytomas and large scale expansion of tumorigenic cells for preclinical studies. We report on the efficiency of successful long term cultures using this protocol and suggest affordable alternatives for culturing dissociated glioblastoma cells that fail to grow as neurospheres. We also describe in detail a protocol for preserving the neurospheres 3D architecture for immunohistochemistry. Cell cultures enriched in CSCs, capable of generating orthotopic xenograft models that preserve the molecular signatures and heterogeneity of GBMs, are becoming increasingly popular for the study of the biology of GBMs and for the improved design of preclinical testing of potential therapies.

  17. Value and Limits of Routine Histology Alone or Combined with Glutamine Synthetase Immunostaining in the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Adenoma Subtypes on Surgical Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulette Bioulac-Sage

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry is a valid method to classify hepatocellular adenoma (HCA. The aim was to test the performance of routine histology combined to glutamine synthetase (GS staining to identify the 2 major HCA subtypes: HNF1α inactivated (H-HCA and inflammatory HCA (IHCA. 114 surgical cases, previously classified by immunohistochemistry, were analysed. Group A comprised 45 H-HCAs, 44 IHCAs, and 9 β-catenin-activated IHCAs (b-IHCA, and group B, 16 b-HCA and unclassified HCA (UHCA. Steatosis was the hallmark of H-HCA. IHCA and b-IHCA were mainly characterized by inflammation, thick arteries, and sinusoidal dilatation; b-IHCA could not be differentiated from IHCA by routine histology. Group B was identified by default. A control set (91 cases was analyzed using routine and GS stainings (without knowing immunohistochemical results. Among the 45 H-HCAs and 27 IHCAs, 40 and 24 were correctly classified, respectively. Among the 10 b-IHCAs, 4 were identified as such using additional GS. Eight of the 9 HCAs that were neither H-HCA nor IHCA were correctly classified. Conclusion. Routine histology allows to diagnose >85% of the 2 major HCA subtypes. GS is essential to identify b-HCA. This study demonstrates that a “palliative” diagnostic approach can be proposed, when the panel of specific antibodies is not available.

  18. EGFR Mutations in Surgically Resected Fresh Specimens from 697 Consecutive Chinese Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Relationships with Clinical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyang Lai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to reveal the true status of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC after lung resections. EGFR mutations of surgically resected fresh tumor samples from 697 Chinese NSCLC patients were analyzed by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS. Correlations between EGFR mutation hotspots and clinical features were also explored. Of the 697 NSCLC patients, 235 (33.7% patients had tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKIs sensitive EGFR mutations in 41 (14.5% of the 282 squamous carcinomas, 155 (52.9% of the 293 adenocarcinomas, 34 (39.5% of the 86 adenosquamous carcinomas, one (9.1% of the 11 large-cell carcinomas, 2 (11.1% of the 18 sarcomatoid carcinomas, and 2 (28.6% of the 7 mucoepidermoid carcinomas. TKIs sensitive EGFR mutations were more frequently found in female patients (p < 0.001, non-smokers (p = 0.047 and adenocarcinomas (p < 0.001. The rates of exon 19 deletion mutation (19-del, exon 21 L858R point mutation (L858R, exon 21 L861Q point mutation (L861Q, exon 18 G719X point mutations (G719X, including G719C, G719S, G719A were 43.4%, 48.1%, 1.7% and 6.8%, respectively. Exon 20 T790M point mutation (T790M was detected in 3 squamous carcinomas and 3 adenocarcinomas and exon 20 insertion mutation (20-ins was detected in 2 patients with adenocarcinoma. Our results show the rates of EGFR mutations are higher in all types of NSCLC in Chinese patients. 19-del and L858R are two of the more frequent mutations. EGFR mutation detection should be performed as a routine postoperative examination in Chinese NSCLC patients.

  19. The measurement of power losses at high magnetic field densities or at small cross-section of test specimen using the averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gorican, V; Hamler, A; Nakata, T

    2000-01-01

    It is difficult to achieve sufficient accuracy of power loss measurement at high magnetic field densities where the magnetic field strength gets more and more distorted, or in cases where the influence of noise increases (small specimen cross section). The influence of averaging on the accuracy of power loss measurement was studied on the cast amorphous magnetic material Metglas 2605-TCA. The results show that the accuracy of power loss measurements can be improved by using the averaging of data acquisition points.

  20. Comparison measure of natural radioactivity in environment specimen using HPGe and NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Li Tiantuo; Ma Wenyan; Di Yuming; Guo Huiping; Wu Yuelei

    2000-01-01

    The author reports the comparison results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of soil specimen from an uranium diggings with HPGe and NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer. Relative method and athwart matrix method are used to analyze natural radioactive nuclide contents in samples of soil. The results are compared and are proven to be in accordance with each other

  1. Evaluating Robotic Surgical Skills Performance Under Distractive Environment Using Objective and Subjective Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Irene H; LaGrange, Chad A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2016-02-01

    Distractions are recognized as a significant factor affecting performance in safety critical domains. Although operating rooms are generally full of distractions, the effect of distractions on robot-assisted surgical (RAS) performance is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the effect of distractions on RAS performance using both objective and subjective measures. Fifteen participants performed a knot-tying task using the da Vinci Surgical System and were exposed to 3 distractions: (1) passive distraction entailed listening to noise with a constant heart rate, (2) active distraction included listening to noise and acknowledging a change of random heart rate from 60 to 120 bpm, and (3) interactive distraction consisted of answering math questions. The objective kinematics of the surgical instrument tips were used to evaluate performance. Electromyography (EMG) of the forearm and hand muscles of the participants were collected. The median EMG frequency (EMG(fmed)) and the EMG envelope (EMG(env)) were analyzed. NASA Task Load Index and Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery score were used to evaluate the subjective performance. One-way repeated analysis of variance was applied to examine the effects of distraction on skills performance. Spearman's correlations were conducted to compare objective and subjective measures. Significant distraction effect was found for all objective kinematics measures (P < .05). There were significant distraction effects for EMG measures (EMG(env), P < .004; EMG(fmed), P = .031). Significant distraction effects were also found for subjective measurements. Distraction impairs surgical skills performance and increases muscle work. Understanding how the surgeons cope with distractions is important in developing surgical education. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Measurement of blood flow through surgical anastomosis using the radioactive microsphere technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, S.J.; Delgado, G.; Butterfield, A.; Dritschilo, A.; Harbert, J.

    1985-10-01

    Two different radioactive microspheres ( U Ce and UWSc) were used to measure blood flow to an area of the large intestine in dogs before and after a surgical resection was performed with surgical staples. The healing of an anastomosis is theoretically related to the blood flow to the anastomotic site. Blood flow studies were conducted in three dogs using this technique. The average blood flow preoperatively was 0.558 mL/minute per gram and 1.04 mL/minute per gram postoperatively. These results indicate a statistically significant increase in blood flow at the anastomotic site six days after anastomosis when compared with the blood flow to the same area before any surgical procedures.

  3. Measurement of blood flow through surgical anastomosis using the radioactive microsphere technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, S.J.; Delgado, G.; Butterfield, A.; Dritschilo, A.; Harbert, J.

    1985-01-01

    Two different radioactive microspheres ( 141 Ce and 46 Sc) were used to measure blood flow to an area of the large intestine in dogs before and after a surgical resection was performed with surgical staples. The healing of an anastomosis is theoretically related to the blood flow to the anastomotic site. Blood flow studies were conducted in three dogs using this technique. The average blood flow preoperatively was 0.558 mL/minute per gram and 1.04 mL/minute per gram postoperatively. These results indicate a statistically significant increase in blood flow at the anastomotic site six days after anastomosis when compared with the blood flow to the same area before any surgical procedures

  4. Use of Performance Measures to Evaluate, Document Competence and Deterioration of Advanced Surgical Skills Exposure for Trauma (ASSET) Surgical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Sharon Henry1, Stacy Shackelford4. 1Shock Trauma Anesthesiology Research, University of Maryland Baltimore; 2The Alfred Hospital and Swinburne...Bethesda USA, The Alfred Hospital and Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia • 6) THE ASSETS OF ASSET: IMPROVING SURGICAL PERFROMANCE...ACTIVITY 820 CHANDLER STREET FORT DETRICK MD 21702-5014 January 15, 2015 SUBJECT: BA 150077- "Refreshing Combat Surgical Skills for Vascular Control

  5. Use of miniaturized compact tension specimens for fracture toughness measurements in the upper shelf regime. Electrabel/Tractebel-SCK-CEN Convention 2004 Task 1.1.4/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucon, E.; Scibetta, M.; Chaouadi, R.; Walle, E. van

    2005-04-01

    In the nuclear field, the importance of direct fracture toughness measurements on RPV materials has been nowadays widely recognized, as opposed to Charpy-based estimations. However, sample dimensions have to be kept small in order to optimize the use of available material (often in the form of previously broken Charpy specimens) or, in the case of new irradiations, make effective use of the limited space available inside irradiation facilities. One of the most appealing geometries for fracture toughness measurements is the miniature Compact Tension specimen, MC(T), which has the following dimensions: B = 4.15 mm, W = 8.3 mm, cross section 10 x 10 mm 2 . Four MC(T) specimens can be machined out of a broken half Charpy, and in the case of irradiation ten MC(T) samples occupy approximately the same volume as a full-size Charpy specimen. The MC(T) geometry was already successfully applied and qualified for fracture toughness assessments in the ductile-to-brittle transition regime, using the Master Curve method (ASTM E1921-03). A further, comprehensive investigation is presented in this report, aimed at assessing the applicability of MC(T) specimens to measure fracture toughness in fully ductile (upper shelf) conditions. In this study, 18 1TC(T) and 20 MC(T) specimens have been tested at different temperatures from three RPV steels and one low-alloy C-Mn steel. The results obtained clearly show that MC(T) samples exhibit lower fracture toughness properties, both in terms of initiation of ductile tearing (according to various test standards) and resistance to ductile crack propagation (J-R curve). The reduction of tearing resistance might be attributed to work hardening prevailing over loss of constraint in the uncracked ligament in a side-grooved specimen, or to the inadequacy of J-integral to represent ductile crack extension in very small specimens. Both arguments will have to be verified with further investigations. (author)

  6. CT- and MRI-based volumetry of resected liver specimen: Comparison to intraoperative volume and weight measurements and calculation of conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlo, C.; Reiner, C.S.; Stolzmann, P.; Breitenstein, S.; Marincek, B.; Weishaupt, D.; Frauenfelder, T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare virtual volume to intraoperative volume and weight measurements of resected liver specimen and calculate appropriate conversion factors to reach better correlation. Methods: Preoperative (CT-group, n = 30; MRI-group, n = 30) and postoperative MRI (n = 60) imaging was performed in 60 patients undergoing partial liver resection. Intraoperative volume and weight of the resected liver specimen was measured. Virtual volume measurements were performed by two readers (R1,R2) using dedicated software. Conversion factors were calculated. Results: Mean intraoperative resection weight/volume: CT: 855 g/852 mL; MRI: 872 g/860 mL. Virtual resection volume: CT: 960 mL(R1), 982 mL(R2); MRI: 1112 mL(R1), 1115 mL(R2). Strong positive correlation for both readers between intraoperative and virtual measurements, mean of both readers: CT: R = 0.88(volume), R = 0.89(weight); MRI: R = 0.95(volume), R = 0.92(weight). Conversion factors: 0.85(CT), 0.78(MRI). Conclusion: CT- or MRI-based volumetry of resected liver specimen is accurate and recommended for preoperative planning. A conversion of the result is necessary to improve intraoperative and virtual measurement correlation. We found 0.85 for CT- and 0.78 for MRI-based volumetry the most appropriate conversion factors.

  7. Estimation of Surface Temperature and Heat Flux by Inverse Heat Transfer Methods Using Internal Temperatures Measured While Radiantly Heating a Carbon/Carbon Specimen up to 1920 F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Michelle; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Glass, David

    2015-01-01

    The ability to solve the heat conduction equation is needed when designing materials to be used on vehicles exposed to extremely high temperatures; e.g. vehicles used for atmospheric entry or hypersonic flight. When using test and flight data, computational methods such as finite difference schemes may be used to solve for both the direct heat conduction problem, i.e., solving between internal temperature measurements, and the inverse heat conduction problem, i.e., using the direct solution to march forward in space to the surface of the material to estimate both surface temperature and heat flux. The completed research first discusses the methods used in developing a computational code to solve both the direct and inverse heat transfer problems using one dimensional, centered, implicit finite volume schemes and one dimensional, centered, explicit space marching techniques. The developed code assumed the boundary conditions to be specified time varying temperatures and also considered temperature dependent thermal properties. The completed research then discusses the results of analyzing temperature data measured while radiantly heating a carbon/carbon specimen up to 1920 F. The temperature was measured using thermocouple (TC) plugs (small carbon/carbon material specimens) with four embedded TC plugs inserted into the larger carbon/carbon specimen. The purpose of analyzing the test data was to estimate the surface heat flux and temperature values from the internal temperature measurements using direct and inverse heat transfer methods, thus aiding in the thermal and structural design and analysis of high temperature vehicles.

  8. Measuring patient participation in surgical treatment decision-making from healthcare professionals' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggland, Liv-Helen; Mikkelsen, Aslaug; Øgaard, Torvald; Hausken, Kjell

    2014-02-01

    To develop, empirical test, and validate an instrument measuring patient participation in surgical treatment decision-making from healthcare professionals' perspective. Since the advent of New Public Management in many Western countries, patient participation in healthcare decision-making has been considered to be a best practice. A common notion is that well-educated and well-informed public want to choose their own treatments and providers and want to ask questions about the quality of their health services. Survey. A self-report-measuring instrument was designed and administered to 620 healthcare professionals. Items were developed, validated and tested by 451 nurses and physicians working in six surgical wards in a University Hospital in Norway. A 16-item scale with the following four dimensions was developed: information dissemination, formulation of options, integration of information and control. Factor analysis procedures and reliability testing were performed. A one-way, between-groups analysis of variance was conducted to compare doctors' and nurses' opinions on four dimensions of patient participation in surgical treatment decision-making. This article shows that patient participation in surgical treatment decision-making can be measured by a 16-item scale and four distinct dimensions. The analysis demonstrated a reasonable level of construct validity and reliability. Nurses and physicians have a positive attitude towards patient participation overall, but the two groups differ in the extent to which they accept the idea of patient participation in treatment decision-making. The instrument can be a tool for managers and healthcare professionals in the implementation of patient participation in clinical practice. Data from the instrument can be useful to identify health services being provided and what areas that could strengthen patient participation. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Functional outcome measures in a surgical model of hip osteoarthritis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Dianne; Johnson, Stephen; Hash, Jonathan; Olson, Steven A; Estes, Bradley T; Moutos, Franklin T; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Guilak, Farshid

    2016-12-01

    The hip is one of the most common sites of osteoarthritis in the body, second only to the knee in prevalence. However, current animal models of hip osteoarthritis have not been assessed using many of the functional outcome measures used in orthopaedics, a characteristic that could increase their utility in the evaluation of therapeutic interventions. The canine hip shares similarities with the human hip, and functional outcome measures are well documented in veterinary medicine, providing a baseline for pre-clinical evaluation of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a surgical model of hip osteoarthritis in a large laboratory animal model and to evaluate functional and end-point outcome measures. Seven dogs were subjected to partial surgical debridement of cartilage from one femoral head. Pre- and postoperative pain and functional scores, gait analysis, radiographs, accelerometry, goniometry and limb circumference were evaluated through a 20-week recovery period, followed by histological evaluation of cartilage and synovium. Animals developed histological and radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis, which was correlated with measurable functional impairment. For example, Mankin scores in operated limbs were positively correlated to radiographic scores but negatively correlated to range of motion, limb circumference and 20-week peak vertical force. This study demonstrates that multiple relevant functional outcome measures can be used successfully in a large laboratory animal model of hip osteoarthritis. These measures could be used to evaluate relative efficacy of therapeutic interventions relevant to human clinical care.

  10. Can virtual reality be used to measure and train surgical skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Paul; Farrell, Martin J

    2002-04-15

    The quantitative literature on the use of virtual environments to measure and train a variety of surgical skills is critically reviewed. We selected works from the years 1995-2000. Theoretical perspectives, such as those of Saltzman (1979), Bernstein (1967) and Schmidt (1975) and techniques, such as hierarchical task analysis, are presented and contrasted with the largely atheoretical approach of the practitioners of virtual surgery. It is concluded that the quantitative work discussed provides few findings of value to practising surgeons. This may be due in part to the lack of consideration paid to fundamental issues in the learning of motor skills, such as whether motor skills learning is most effective with varying training conditions and the distinction between purely motoric aspects and knowledge of procedures. Possible ways forward for surgical training are outlined. It is suggested that the theoretical perspectives and techniques available in the area of motor behaviour should be incorporated into future experimental studies of surgery in virtual environments.

  11. Splitting tests on rock specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J D; Stagg, K G

    1970-01-01

    Splitting tests are described for a square-section sandstone specimens line loaded through steel or timber packings on the top face and supported on the bottom face either on similar packings (type A specimen) or directly on the lower platen plate of the testing machine (type B specimens). The stress distribution across the vertical central plane and the horizontal central plane were determined from a linear elastic finite element analysis for both types. Two solutions were obtained for the type B specimen: one assuming no friction between the base of the specimen and the platen plate and the other assuming no relative slip between the surfaces. Vertical and horizontal strains were measured at the center of the specimens for all loads up to failure.

  12. Changes in measured size of atherosclerotic plaque calcifications in dual-energy CT of ex vivo carotid endarterectomy specimens: effect of monochromatic keV image reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannelli, Lorenzo; Mitsumori, Lee M.; Ferguson, Marina; Xu, Dongxiang; Chu, Baocheng; Branch, Kelley R.; Shuman, William P.; Yuan, Chun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the size of the calcifications measured on the different keV images to a histological standard. Five ex vivo carotid endarterectomy (CEA) specimens were imaged with a dual-energy CT. CT images were reconstructed at different monochromatic spectral energies (40, 60, 77, 80, 100, 120, 140 keV). Cross-sectional area of the plaque calcifications present on each CT image was measured. The histological calcium areas on each corresponding CEA specimen were traced manually on digitised images of Toluidine Blue/Basic Fuchsin stained plastic sections. The CT images and corresponding histology sections were matched. The CT-derived calcium areas on each keV image were compared to the calcified area measurements by histology. A total of 107 histology sections were matched to corresponding CT images. The average calcified area per section by histology was 7.6 ± 7 mm 2 (range 0-26.4 mm 2 ). There was no significant difference between the calcified areas measured by histology and those measured on CT-virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) reconstructed images at 77 keV (P = 0.08), 80 keV (P = 0.20) and 100 keV (P = 0.14). Calcium area measured on the 80 keV image set was most comparable to the amount of calcium measured by histology. (orig.)

  13. [Usefullness of intraoperatory parathyroid hormone measurement in surgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiols, Gabriel; Catalán, Roberto; Alasà, Cristian; Baena, Juan Antonio; Fort, José Manuel; Gémar, Enrique; Mesa, Jordi

    2003-09-13

    Surgical neck exploration of the 4 parathyroid glands is quite an aggressive procedure for most patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to a parathyroid adenoma. Intraoperatory measurement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) seems to be a useful tool for the management of these cases, allowing the use of minimally invasive surgical techniques with a lower morbidity. Our aims was to assess the usefulness of PTH intraoperatory measurement for the surgical management of PHPT. We studied 27 consecutive patients, diagnosed with PHPT secondary to parathyroid adenoma. Localization studies included neck ultrasonography and Tc-MIBI scintigraphy. PTH at the stage of anesthesia induction as well as 5 and 10 minutes after the removal of the adenoma was determined. A PTH decrement greater than 50% at 10 minutes was considered as curative. PTH was measured by an immunoluminometric method (Advantage, Nichols). In all cases, calcium levels were normal 24 hours after the operation, and therefore all them were considered as cured. PTH levels decreased more than 50% in all patients. In one case, PTH levels remained high after the exeresis of a preoperatively localized lesion. The pathologic study confirmed that it was a normal parathyroid gland. We then continued the surgical exploration which eventually allowed us to find a contralateral adenoma. A further PTH measurement showed an over 50% decrease. Therefore, PTH was predictive of surgical success in all 28 measurements. Intraoperatory determination of PTH is useful for the surgical management of PHPT and it could allow the use of minimally invasive surgical techniques.

  14. Assessment of Educational Environment of Surgical Theatre at a Teaching Hospital of a Saudi University: Using Surgical Theatre Educational Environment Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Faisal Al-Qahtani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was aimed to determine how medical interns perceive the important factors of the learning environment the surgical theatre at the teaching hospital of the medical school, University of Dammam (UoD. The study also investigated the relationships between the learning environment and academic achievements. Finally, it determined the role and significance of gender on the above perceptions and relationships.Methods: The Surgical Theatre Educational Environment Measure (STEEM was used to identify the perceptions of interns on the most important factors prevalent in the surgical theatre as an educational environment. STEEM was administered to all interns during the period of June-September 2009. Ninety-one out of 145 students completed the questionnaire representing a response rate of 63%. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 17.Results: The STEEM was shown to be internally consistent for the assessment of the overall educational environment in the surgical theatre of UoD. The overall STEEM mean score was 110. For male and female students, the mean scores were 114 and 107 respectively. There were statistically significant gender differences in the perceptions of "learning opportunities" and "teaching and training". Females rated these subscales lower than males. There were no significant associations between academic achievements and perceptions of the educational environment.Conclusion: The interns perceived the learning environment of the surgical theatre as less than satisfactory. In comparison with the males; the perception of the females was less positive, particularly in the areas of learning opportunities, and teaching and training. The study also revealed some other problematic areas in the learning environment of surgical theatre of the teaching hospital of UoD. The results imply that there is much room for improvement. They also indicate that

  15. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  16. Application of a uniform anatomic grading system to measure disease severity in eight emergency general surgical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Marie L; Agarwal, Suresh; Muskat, Peter; Ross, Steven; Savage, Stephanie; Schuster, Kevin; Tominaga, Gail T; Shafi, Shahid

    2014-11-01

    Emergent general surgical diseases encompass a broad spectrum of anatomy and pathophysiology, creating challenges for outcomes assessment, research, and surgical training. The goal of this study was to measure anatomic disease severity for eight emergent general surgical diseases using the uniform grading system of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST). The Committee on Patient Assessment and Outcomes of AAST applied the previously developed uniform grading system to eight emergent general surgical diseases using a consensus of experts. It was then reviewed and approved by the Board of Managers of AAST. Severity grades for eight commonly encountered emergent general surgical conditions were created: breast abscess, esophageal perforation, infectious colitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, perirectal abscess, pleural space infections, soft tissue infections, and surgical site infections. The range of grades from I through V, reflect progression from mild disease, limited to within the organ itself, to widespread severe disease. This article provides a uniform grading system for measuring anatomic severity of eight emergent general surgical diseases. Consistent adoption of these grades could improve standardization for quality assurance, outcomes research, and surgical training.

  17. Development of a penetration friction apparatus (PFA) to measure the frictional performance of surgical suture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Gangqiang; Ren, Tianhui; Lette, Walter; Zeng, Xiangqiong; van der Heide, Emile

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays there is a wide variety of surgical sutures available in the market. Surgical sutures have different sizes, structures, materials and coatings, whereas they are being used for various surgeries. The frictional performances of surgical sutures have been found to play a vital role in their

  18. Design and fabrication of a dead weight equipment to perform creep measurements on highly irradiated beryllium specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scibetta, M.; Pellettieri, A.; Wouters, P.; Leenaerts, A.; Verpoucke, G.

    2005-01-01

    Beryllium is an important material to be used in the blanket of fusion reactors. It acts as a neutron multiplier that allows tritium production. In order to use this material effectively, some data on creep and swelling behaviour are needed. This paper describes preliminary microstructural investigations and the qualification of a creep set-up that will be used to measure creep of highly irradiated beryllium from the BR2 research reactor matrix. (Author)

  19. Objective Measurement of Clinical Competency in Surgical Education Using Electrodermal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Jacob A; Bukoski, Alex D; Doty, Jennifer; Bennett, Bethany J; Crane, Megan; Barnes, Stephen L

    Within the realm of surgical education, there is a need for objective means to determine surgical competence and resident readiness to operate independently. We propose a novel, objective method of assessing resident confidence and clinical competence based on measurement of electrodermal activity (EDA) during live surgical procedures. We hypothesized that with progressive training, EDA responses to the stress of performing surgery would exhibit decline, elucidating an objective correlate of clinical competence. EDA was measured using galvanic skin response sensors worn by residents performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy on sequential live human patients over an 8-month period. Baseline, phasic (peak) and tonic EDA responses were measured as a fractional change from baseline. University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, an academic tertiary care facility. Fourteen categorical general surgery residents and 5 faculty surgeons were voluntarily enrolled and participated through completion. Tonic fractional change (FC TONIC ) was highest in PGY3 residents compared with postgraduate year (PGY) 1 and 2 residents (7.199 vs. 2.100, p = 0.004, 95% CI: 8.58-1.61 and PGY4 and 5 residents (7.199 vs. 2.079, p = 0.002, 95% CI: 8.38-0.29). Phasic fractional change in EDA (FC PHASIC ) exhibited a progressive decline across resident training levels, with PGY1 and 2 residents having the highest response, and faculty displaying the lowest FC PHASIC responses. Statistical differences were seen between FC PHASIC faculty and PGY4 and 5 (3.596 vs. 6.180, p = 0.004, 95% CI: 0.80-4.36), PGY4 and 5, and PGY3 (6.180 vs. 15.998, p = 0.003, 95% CI: 3.33-16.3), as well as among all residents and faculty (13.057 vs. 3.596, p = 0.004, 95% CI: 15.8-3.1). Phasic EDA changes decrease with increasing clinical competence. For those participants with the lowest and highest levels of competence, tonic EDA changes are minimal. Tonic EDA changes follow an inverse-U shape with differing levels of clinical

  20. Economic modeling of surgical disease: a measure of public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlew, D Scott

    2013-07-01

    The measurement of the burden of disease and the interventions that address that burden can be done in various units. Reducing these measures to the common denominator of economic units (i.e., currency) enables comparison with other health entities, interventions, and even other fields. Economic assessment is complex, however, because of the multifactorial components of what constitutes health and what constitutes health interventions, as well as the coupling of those data to economic means. To perform economic modeling in a meaningful manner, it is necessary to: (1) define the health problem to be addressed; (2) define the intervention to be assessed; (3) define a measure of the effect of the health entity with and without the intervention (which includes defining the counterfactual); and (4) determine the appropriate method of converting the health effect to economics. This paper discusses technical aspects of how economic modeling can be done both of disease entities and of interventions. Two examples of economic modeling applied to surgical problems are then given.

  1. Screen-film specimen radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, S.J.; Hogan, J.; Schreck, B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the reproducibility and quality of biopsy specimen radiographs, a unique phototimed cabinet x-ray system is being developed. The system utilizes specially modified Kodal Min-R cassettes and will be compatible with current mammographic films. Tube voltages are in the 14-20-kVp range with 0.1-1.0-second exposure times. A top-hat type compression device is used (1) to compress the specimen to uniform thickness, (2) to measure the specimen thickness and determine optimum kVp, and (3) to superimpose a grid over the specimen for identification of objects of radiographic interest. The phototiming circuit developed specifically for this purpose will be described along with the modified Min-R cassette. Characteristics of the generator and cabinet will also be described. Tests will be performed on phantoms to evaluate the system limitations

  2. Evaluation of DC electric field distribution of PPLP specimen based on the measurement of electrical conductivity in LN{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon [Hanyang University, 408-2, 4th Engineering Bldg, Sa 3-dong, Sangrok-gu, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jeon-Wook; Ryoo, Hee-Suk [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, Gyungnam 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bang-Wook, E-mail: bangwook@hanyang.ac.kr [Hanyang University, 408-2, 4th Engineering Bldg, Sa 3-dong, Sangrok-gu, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN{sub 2} was successfully measured. •Based on the measured value of PPLP, DC field analysis was performed. •The electric field distribution was altered according to the DC applying stages. •The maximum electric field was observed during polarity reversal situation. •DC field analysis is important to determine the optimum design of DC HTS devices. -- Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been paid much attention due to its high efficiency and high current transportation capability, and it is also regarded as eco-friendly power cable for the next generation. Especially for DC HTS cable, it has more sustainable and stable properties compared to AC HTS cable due to the absence of AC loss in DC HTS cable. Recently, DC HTS cable has been investigated competitively all over the world, and one of the key components of DC HTS cable to be developed is a cable joint box considering HVDC environment. In order to achieve the optimum insulation design of the joint box, analysis of DC electric field distribution of the joint box is a fundamental process to develop DC HTS cable. Generally, AC electric field distribution depends on relative permittivity of dielectric materials but in case of DC, electrical conductivity of dielectric material is a dominant factor which determines electric field distribution. In this study, in order to evaluate DC electric field characteristics of the joint box for DC HTS cable, polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) specimen has been prepared and its DC electric field distribution was analyzed based on the measurement of electrical conductivity of PPLP in liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}). Electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN{sub 2} has not been reported yet but it should be measured for DC electric field analysis. The experimental works for measuring electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN{sub 2} were presented in this paper. Based on the experimental works, DC electric

  3. Decision Dissonance: Evaluating an Approach to Measuring the Quality of Surgical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Floyd J.; Gallagher, Patricia M.; Drake, Keith M.; Sepucha, Karen R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Good decision making has been increasingly cited as a core component of good medical care, and shared decision making is one means of achieving high decision quality. If it is to be a standard, good measures and protocols are needed for assessing the quality of decisions. Consistency with patient goals and concerns is one defining characteristic of a good decision. A new method for evaluating decision quality for major surgical decisions was examined, and a methodology for collecting the needed data was developed. Methods For a national probability sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries who had a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), a lumpectomy or a mastectomy for breast cancer, or surgery for prostate cancer during the last half of 2008, a mail survey of selected patients was carried out about one year after the procedures. Patients’ goals and concerns, knowledge, key aspects of interactions with clinicians, and feelings about the decisions were assessed. A Decision Dissonance Score was created that measured the extent to which patient ratings of goals ran counter to the treatment received. The construct and predictive validity of the Decision Dissonance Score was then assessed. Results When data were averaged across all four procedures, patients with more knowledge and those who reported more involvement reported significantly lower Decision Dissonance Scores. Patients with lower Decision Dissonance Scores also reported more confidence in their decisions and feeling more positively about how the treatment turned out, and they were more likely to say that they would make the same decision again. Conclusions Surveying discharged surgery patients is a feasible way to evaluate decision making, and Decision Dissonance appears to be a promising approach to validly measuring decision quality. PMID:23516764

  4. Laparoscopic specimen retrieval bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorgick, Noam

    2014-10-01

    Specimen retrieval bags have long been used in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery for contained removal of adnexal cysts and masses. More recently, the concerns regarding spread of malignant cells during mechanical morcellation of myoma have led to an additional use of specimen retrieval bags for contained "in-bag" morcellation. This review will discuss the indications for use retrieval bags in gynecologic endoscopy, and describe the different specimen bags available to date.

  5. Development and validation of a surgical workload measure: the surgery task load index (SURG-TLX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark R; Poolton, Jamie M; Malhotra, Neha; Ngo, Karen; Bright, Elizabeth; Masters, Rich S W

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a multidimensional, surgery-specific workload measure (the SURG-TLX), and to determine its utility in providing diagnostic information about the impact of various sources of stress on the perceived demands of trained surgical operators. As a wide range of stressors have been identified for surgeons in the operating room, the current approach of considering stress as a unidimensional construct may not only limit the degree to which underlying mechanisms may be understood but also the degree to which training interventions may be successfully matched to particular sources of stress. The dimensions of the SURG-TLX were based on two current multidimensional workload measures and developed via focus group discussion. The six dimensions were defined as mental demands, physical demands, temporal demands, task complexity, situational stress, and distractions. Thirty novices were trained on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) peg transfer task and then completed the task under various conditions designed to manipulate the degree and source of stress experienced: task novelty, physical fatigue, time pressure, evaluation apprehension, multitasking, and distraction. The results were supportive of the discriminant sensitivity of the SURG-TLX to different sources of stress. The sub-factors loaded on the relevant stressors as hypothesized, although the evaluation pressure manipulation was not strong enough to cause a significant rise in situational stress. The present study provides support for the validity of the SURG-TLX instrument and also highlights the importance of considering how different stressors may load surgeons. Implications for categorizing the difficulty of certain procedures, the implementation of new technology in the operating room (man-machine interface issues), and the targeting of stress training strategies to the sources of demand are discussed. Modifications to the scale to enhance

  6. Measuring Nontechnical Aspects of Surgical Clinician Development in an Otolaryngology Residency Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jennifer J; Cunningham, Michael J; Emerick, Kevin G; Gray, Stacey T

    2016-05-01

    Surgical competency requires sound clinical judgment, a systematic diagnostic approach, and integration of a wide variety of nontechnical skills. This more complex aspect of clinician development has traditionally been difficult to measure through standard assessment methods. This study was conducted to use the Clinical Practice Instrument (CPI) to measure nontechnical diagnostic and management skills during otolaryngology residency training; to determine whether there is demonstrable change in these skills between residents who are in postgraduate years (PGYs) 2, 4, and 5; and to evaluate whether results vary according to subspecialty topic or method of administration. Prospective study using the CPI, an instrument with previously established internal consistency, reproducibility, interrater reliability, discriminant validity, and responsiveness to change, in an otolaryngology residency training program. The CPI was used to evaluate progression in residents' ability to evaluate, diagnose, and manage case-based clinical scenarios. A total of 248 evaluations were performed in 45 otolaryngology resident trainees at regular intervals. Analysis of variance with nesting and postestimation pairwise comparisons were used to evaluate total and domain scores according to training level, subspecialty topic, and method of administration. Longitudinal residency educational initiative. Assessment with the CPI during PGYs 2, 4, and 5 of residency. Among the 45 otolaryngology residents (248 CPI administrations), there were a mean (SD) of 5 (3) administrations (range, 1-4) during their training. Total scores were significantly different among PGY levels of training, with lower scores seen in the PGY-2 level (44 [16]) compared with the PGY-4 (64 [13]) or PGY-5 level (69 [13]) (P otolaryngology (mean [SD], 72 [14]) than in subspecialties (range, 55 [12], P = .003, to 56 [19], P < .001). Neither administering the examination with an electronic scoring system, rather than a

  7. Detection limits of nuclear radiation and radioactivity measurements. Digital, non-selective measurements on untreated specimens. Draft. Nachweisgrenzen bei Kernstrahlungs- und Radioaktivitaetsmessungen. Digitale, nichtselektive Messungen ohne Probenbehandlung. Entwurf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The standard applies to nuclear radiation measurements where the number of pulses is recorded directly, considering exclusively the statistical character of radioactive decay and pulse counting, with the measuring time being short with regard to the half-life of radionuclides, and instrument dead-times being neglectible. The standard is intended to define suitable characteristics allowing an evaluation of detection efficiency. Two criteria are explained for given error probabilities: the sensitivity limit which allows a decision to be made as to whether the pulses recorded include values contributed by the sample; the detection limit which permits an evaluation of the measuring method in terms of suitability to the measuring goals. (orig./HP).

  8. Georeferencing Animal Specimen Datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, M.G.J.; Hensel, R.; Ceolin, D.; van der Meij, M.

    2014-01-01

    For biodiversity research, the field of study that is concerned with the richness of species of our planet, it is of the utmost importance that the location of an animal specimen find is known with high precision. Due to specimens often having been collected over the course of many years, their

  9. Measuring the Burden of Surgical Disease Averted by Emergency and Essential Surgical Care in a District Hospital in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Matthew A R; Guest, Glenn D; Mamadi, Perista; Seta, Westin; Yaubihi, Noel; Karawiga, Grace; Naidi, Billy; Watters, David A K

    2017-03-01

    Timely access to emergency and essential surgical care (EESC) and anaesthesia in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) prevents premature death, minimises lifelong disability and reduces their economic impact on families and communities. Papua New Guinea is one of the poorest countries in the Pacific region, and provides much of its surgical care at a district hospital level. We aimed to evaluate the surgical capacity of a district hospital in PNG and estimate the effectiveness of surgical interventions provided. We performed a prospective study to calculate the number of DALYs averted for 465 patients treated with surgical care over a 3-month period (Sep-Nov 2013) in Alotau Hospital, Milne Bay Province, PNG (pop 210,000). Data were also collected on infrastructure, workforce, interventions provided and equipment available using the World Health Organization's Integrated Management of Emergency and Essential Surgical Care Toolkit, a survey to assess EESC and surgical capacity. We also performed a retrospective one-year audit of surgical, obstetric and anaesthetic care to provide context with regards to annual disease burden treated and surgical activity. EESC was provided by 11 Surgeons/Anaesthetists/Obstetricians (SAO) providers, equating to 5.7 per 100,000 population (including 4 nurse anaesthetists). They performed 783/100,000 procedures annually. Over the 3-month prospective study period, 4954 DALYs were averted by 465 surgical interventions, 52 % of which were elective. This equates to 18,330 DALYs averted annually or, approximately 18 % of the published but estimated disease burden in the Province in the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study. The overall peri-operative mortality rate was 1.29 %, with 0.41 % for elective procedures and 2.25 % for emergencies. Much of the burden of surgical disease in Papua New Guinea presenting to Alotau General Hospital serving Milne Bay Province can be effectively treated by a small team providing emergency and

  10. Design of measurement system for Doppler broadening profiles of annihilation radiations as a function of controlled specimen temperature and its applications for a study of metals in the thermal equilibrium state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Kawano, Takao.

    1992-01-01

    The measurement system for Doppler broadening profiles of annihilation radiation was developed. This system reads out data for energies of γ-rays from an analog to digital converter and those for specimen temperature from a digital-voltmeter coupled to a thermocouple. These two types of digital-quantities were stored in a memory matrix of 512 channels (energy) x 128 channels (temperature) x 4 byte (count). For this purpose, a memory board of 256 kbyte with 32-dynamic RAMs (64 kbits) was used. The data acquisition was controlled by a microcomputer. Temperature of the specimen was controlled by a programmable temperature controller, thus it can be varied in a desired way. This was useful for measurements in repeated temperature cycles. A sample heater with a compact size was developed in order to obtain a homogeneous temperature distribution in the specimen. Application of this system for a study of thermal vacancies in Al-dilute alloys was also shown. (author)

  11. Intraoperative measurement of parathyroid hormone: A Copernican revolution in the surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioviale, Maria Concetta; Damiano, Giuseppe; Altomare, Roberta; Maione, Carolina; Buscemi, Salvatore; Buscemi, Giuseppe; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

    2016-04-01

    Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) monitoring in the setting of the operating room represents a valuable example of the rationale use of the laboratory diagnostic in a patient-oriented approach. Rapid intraoperative PTH (ioPTH) assay is a valid tool for an accurate evaluation of the success of parathyroid surgery. The reliability of the user-friendly portable systems as well as the collaboration between operators and surgical staff allow the one-site monitoring of the ioPTH decrements on the course of the surgical management of hyperparathyroidism. The rapid answer provided by an effective decrement of PTH during parathyroidectomy contributes dramatically to the efficacy of parathyroid surgery and the reduction of the number of re-operations. Therefore the dose of ioPTH is a valid and reliable support for the success of the intervention of parathyroidectomy at controlled costs. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of a surgical rehearsal platform and improvement in aneurysm clipping measures: results of a prospective, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, A Jessey; Pace, Jonathan R; Singer, Justin; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Hoffer, Alan; Selman, Warren R; Bambakidis, Nicholas C

    2017-03-01

    . CONCLUSIONS Preoperative rehearsal with SRP increased efficiency and safety in aneurysm microsurgery as demonstrated by the statistically significant improvement in time per clip used. Although the rest of the outcomes did not demonstrate statistically significant between-group differences, the fact that the SRP group showed improvement in mean values for all measures studied suggests that preoperative rehearsal may increase the efficiency and safety of aneurysm microsurgery. Future studies aimed at improving patient outcome and safety during surgical clipping of aneurysms will be needed to keep pace with the quickly advancing endovascular field.

  13. Reversible hydronephrosis in the rat: a new surgical technique assessed by radioisotopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flam, T.; Venot, A.; Bariety, J.

    1984-01-01

    A new technique for experimental reversible hydronephrosis in the rat was developed. A noninvasive radioisotopic investigation, using Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid, permitted sequential assessment of the separate renal function at different stages of the study. After 1 week of unilateral ureteral obstruction, reversibility was obtained by the removal of the obstructive device. Ten days after the obstruction release, the ipsilateral kidney had returned to 71 per cent of its preligation uptake value. Histological findings demonstrated the reversibility of the surgical obstruction

  14. Measurement of fractional x-ray absorption for radiation attenuating surgical gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagalakshmi, B.; Sawant, S.G.; Nair, C.P.R.; Joshi, V.D.

    2000-01-01

    It is essential to make use of lead gloves having 0.25 mm lead equivalence only for routine x-ray screening as stipulated by International Commission on Radiological Protection. Such surgical gloves which provide attenuation to the extent of one half value thickness for low energy are very useful for the present trend of special x-ray examinations which are on the increase

  15. Clinical evaluation of a mobile digital specimen radiography system for intraoperative specimen verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingbing; Ebuoma, Lilian; Saksena, Mansi; Liu, Bob; Specht, Michelle; Rafferty, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Use of mobile digital specimen radiography systems expedites intraoperative verification of excised breast specimens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a such a system for verifying targets. A retrospective review included 100 consecutive pairs of breast specimen radiographs. Specimens were imaged in the operating room with a mobile digital specimen radiography system and then with a conventional digital mammography system in the radiology department. Two expert reviewers independently scored each image for image quality on a 3-point scale and confidence in target visualization on a 5-point scale. A target was considered confidently verified only if both reviewers declared the target to be confidently detected. The 100 specimens contained a total of 174 targets, including 85 clips (49%), 53 calcifications (30%), 35 masses (20%), and one architectural distortion (1%). Although a significantly higher percentage of mobile digital specimen radiographs were considered poor quality by at least one reviewer (25%) compared with conventional digital mammograms (1%), 169 targets (97%), were confidently verified with mobile specimen radiography; 172 targets (98%) were verified with conventional digital mammography. Three faint masses were not confidently verified with mobile specimen radiography, and conventional digital mammography was needed for confirmation. One faint mass and one architectural distortion were not confidently verified with either method. Mobile digital specimen radiography allows high diagnostic confidence for verification of target excision in breast specimens across target types, despite lower image quality. Substituting this modality for conventional digital mammography can eliminate delays associated with specimen transport, potentially decreasing surgical duration and increasing operating room throughput.

  16. Rapid determination of resistance to antibiotics in surgical clinical practice based on the measurement of radioactive carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alant, O.; Jaszsagi-Nagy, E.; Lendvay, J.; Schmidt, M.

    1978-01-01

    For the objective choice of an antibiotic a method is needed which is capable of giving informations with an essentially shorter time delay than that of the conventional bacteriological tests i.e. practically in a few hours concerning the sensitivity to the tested antibiotic of the pathogen germ cultured from the sample withdrawn from the patient under surgical treatment. The new measurement method is based on the incubation of the test material in an adequate medium containing glucose labelled with C-14 as only sugar source. The amount of the formed 14 CO 2 is proportional to the multiplication rate of the bacterium. Experience observed with 312 surgical patients indicated that the sensitivity to an antibiotic agent can be determined in 4-6 hours from the septic intergrowth or from the discharge obtained during the surgical action and in the case of chronical diseases the successfulness of the treatment with the antibiotic can be established precisely. The equipment needed for the tests is simple and the measurements can be carried out readily in hospital laboratories. (P.J.)

  17. Surgical Assisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... instruction, including: Microbiology Pathophysiology Pharmacology Anatomy and physiology Medical terminology Curriculum . Course content includes: Advanced surgical anatomy Surgical microbiology Surgical pharmacology Anesthesia methods and agents Bioscience Ethical ...

  18. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    an environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3...... transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ......Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking...

  19. Value of volume measurements in evaluating abdominal aortic aneurysms growth rate and need for surgical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos, E-mail: kontopodisn@yahoo.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion (Greece); Metaxa, Eleni, E-mail: emmetaxa@gmail.com [Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Papaharilaou, Yannis, E-mail: yannisp@iacm.forth.gr [Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Georgakarakos, Efstratios, E-mail: efstratiosgeorg@gmail.com [Vascular Surgery Department, “Demokritus” University of Thrace Medical School, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Tsetis, Dimitris, E-mail: tsetis@med.uoc.gr [Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiology, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Ioannou, Christos V., E-mail: ioannou@med.uoc.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion (Greece)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To examine whether indices other than the traditionally used abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) maximum diameter, such as AAA volume, intraluminal thrombus (ILT) thickness and ILT volume, may be superior to evaluate aneurismal enlargement. Materials and methods: Thirty-four small AAAs (initially presenting a maximum diameter <5.5 cm which is the threshold for surgical repair) with an initial and a follow-up CT were examined. Median increase and percentile annual change of these variables was calculated. Correlation between growth rates as determined by the new indices under evaluation and those of maximum diameter were assessed. AAAs were divided according to outcome (surveillance vs. elective repair after follow-up which is based on the maximum diameter criterion) and according to growth rate (high vs. low) based on four indices. Contingency between groups of high/low growth rate regarding each of the four indices on one hand and those regarding need for surgical repair on the other was assessed. Results: A strong correlation between growth rates of maximum diameter and those of AAA and ILT volumes could be established. Evaluation of contingency between groups of outcome and those of growth rate revealed significant associations only for AAA and ILT volumes. Subsequently AAAs with a rapid volumetric increase over time had a likelihood ratio of 10 to be operated compared to those with a slower enlargement. Regarding increase of maximum diameter, likelihood ratio between AAAs with rapid and those with slow expansion was only 3. Conclusion: Growth rate of aneurysms regarding 3Dimensional indices of AAA and ILT volumes is significantly associated with the need for surgical intervention while the same does not hold for growth rates determined by 2Dimensional indices of maximum diameter and ILT thickness.

  20. Value of volume measurements in evaluating abdominal aortic aneurysms growth rate and need for surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Metaxa, Eleni; Papaharilaou, Yannis; Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Tsetis, Dimitris; Ioannou, Christos V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether indices other than the traditionally used abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) maximum diameter, such as AAA volume, intraluminal thrombus (ILT) thickness and ILT volume, may be superior to evaluate aneurismal enlargement. Materials and methods: Thirty-four small AAAs (initially presenting a maximum diameter <5.5 cm which is the threshold for surgical repair) with an initial and a follow-up CT were examined. Median increase and percentile annual change of these variables was calculated. Correlation between growth rates as determined by the new indices under evaluation and those of maximum diameter were assessed. AAAs were divided according to outcome (surveillance vs. elective repair after follow-up which is based on the maximum diameter criterion) and according to growth rate (high vs. low) based on four indices. Contingency between groups of high/low growth rate regarding each of the four indices on one hand and those regarding need for surgical repair on the other was assessed. Results: A strong correlation between growth rates of maximum diameter and those of AAA and ILT volumes could be established. Evaluation of contingency between groups of outcome and those of growth rate revealed significant associations only for AAA and ILT volumes. Subsequently AAAs with a rapid volumetric increase over time had a likelihood ratio of 10 to be operated compared to those with a slower enlargement. Regarding increase of maximum diameter, likelihood ratio between AAAs with rapid and those with slow expansion was only 3. Conclusion: Growth rate of aneurysms regarding 3Dimensional indices of AAA and ILT volumes is significantly associated with the need for surgical intervention while the same does not hold for growth rates determined by 2Dimensional indices of maximum diameter and ILT thickness

  1. Burnout is Associated With Emotional Intelligence but not Traditional Job Performance Measurements in Surgical Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, Kevin D; Hollis, Robert H; Goss, Lauren; Morris, Melanie S; Porterfield, John R; Chu, Daniel I

    2018-02-23

    To evaluate whether burnout was associated with emotional intelligence and job performance in surgical residents. General surgery residents at a single institution were surveyed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and trait EI questionnaire (TEIQ-SF). Burnout was defined as scoring in 2 of the 3 following domains; Emotional Exhaustion (high), Depersonalization (high), and Personal Accomplishment (low). Job performance was evaluated using faculty evaluations of clinical competency-based surgical milestones and standardized test scores including the American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE) and the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 3. USMLE Step 1 and USMLE Step 2, which were taken prior to residency training, were included to examine possible associations of burnout with USMLE examinations. Statistical comparison was made using Pearson correlation and simple linear regression adjusting for PGY level. This study was conducted at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) general surgery residency program. All current and incoming general surgery residents at UAB were invited to participate in this study. Forty residents participated in the survey (response rate 77%). Ten residents, evenly distributed from incoming residents to PGY-4, had burnout (25%). Mean global EI was lower in residents with burnout versus those without burnout (3.71 vs 3.9, p = 0.02). Of the 4 facets of EI, mean self-control values were lower in residents with burnout versus those without burnout (3.3 vs 4.06, p burnout was associated with global EI, with the strongest correlation being with personal accomplishment (r = 0.64; p burnout did not have significantly different mean scores for USMLE Step 1 (229 vs 237, p = 0.12), Step 2 (248 vs 251, p = 0.56), Step 3 (223 vs 222, p = 0.97), or ABSITE percentile (44.6 vs 58, p = 0.33) compared to residents without burnout. Personal accomplishment was associated with ABSITE percentile scores (r = 0.35; p = 0

  2. Discrete-choice experiment to measure patient preferences for the surgical management of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkeld, G; Solomon, M; Butow, P; Short, L

    2005-06-01

    Establishing trust between a patient and his or her surgeon is of paramount importance. The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of the 'attributes of trust' between surgeon and patient with colorectal cancer. A discrete-choice questionnaire was conducted with 60 men and 43 women who had completed primary treatment for colorectal cancer in two teaching hospitals in Sydney, Australia. Forty-seven of the 103 patients based their choice of surgical management on a single attribute and the remainder were willing to trade between different attributes. In order of importance, patients based their choice of surgical management on specialty training (beta coefficient = 0.83), surgeon's communication (beta = 0.82), type of hospital (beta = 0.72) and who decides treatment (beta = 0.01). Patients who were vigilant in their decision-making style and those who did not have tertiary education were more likely to change their preferences in the repeat interview. Clinicians may have a better chance of meeting a patient's expectations about the process of care if they assess the patient's desire for knowledge and give those who do not have tertiary education more time to assimilate information about their treatment. Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Preserve specimens for reproducibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krell, F.-T.; Klimeš, Petr; Rocha, L. A.; Fikáček, M.; Miller, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 539, č. 7628 (2016), s. 168 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : reproducibility * specimen * biodiversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v539/n7628/full/539168b.html

  4. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  5. {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT to evaluate tumor, nodal disease, and gross tumor volume of oropharyngeal and oral cavity cancer: comparison with MR imaging and validation with surgical specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Oliver; Chambron-Pinho, Nicole; Sader, Rober [JW Goethe University, Department of Oromaxillofacial Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Middendorp, Markus [JW Goethe University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt (Germany); Mack, Martin; Vogl, Thomas J. [JW Goethe University, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Bisdas, Sotirios [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Neuroradiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of adding combined {sup 18}F-PET/CT to MRI for T and N staging of the oral and oropharyngeal cancer and calculation of the gross tumor volume (GTV) having histopathology as reference standard. PET/CT and MRI were performed in 66 patients with suspected oral and oropharyngeal cancer (41 primary tumors/25 recurrent tumors) and nodal disease (114 nodes). Statistical analysis included the McNemar test, sensitivity, specificity for the diagnostic modalities as well as regression analysis, and Bland-Altman graphs for calculated tumor volumes. There was no statistically significant difference between the two modalities compared to pathological findings regarding detection of disease (P{>=}0.72). The sensitivity/specificity for tumor detection were 100/80% and 96.72/60% for MRI and PET/CT, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity for nodal metastases were 88.46/75% and 83.81/73.91% for MRI and PET/CT, respectively. In 18% of cases, the MRI-based T staging resulted in an overestimation of the pathologic tumor stage. The corresponding rate for PET/CT was 22%. Regarding the treated necks, both modalities showed 100% sensitivity for detection of the recurrent lesions. In necks with histologically N0 staging, MRI and PET/CT gave 22% and 26% false positive findings, respectively. The mean tumor volume in the pathologic specimen was 16.6{+-}18.6 ml, the mean volume derived by the MR imaging was 17.6{+-}19.1 ml while the estimated by PET/CT volume was 18.8{+-}18.1 ml (P{<=}0.007 between the three methods). The Bland-Altman analysis showed a better agreement between PET/CT and MRI. The diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/CT in the local staging of oral cancer is not superior to MRI. (orig.)

  6. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT to evaluate tumor, nodal disease, and gross tumor volume of oropharyngeal and oral cavity cancer: comparison with MR imaging and validation with surgical specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Oliver; Chambron-Pinho, Nicole; Sader, Rober; Middendorp, Markus; Mack, Martin; Vogl, Thomas J.; Bisdas, Sotirios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of adding combined 18 F-PET/CT to MRI for T and N staging of the oral and oropharyngeal cancer and calculation of the gross tumor volume (GTV) having histopathology as reference standard. PET/CT and MRI were performed in 66 patients with suspected oral and oropharyngeal cancer (41 primary tumors/25 recurrent tumors) and nodal disease (114 nodes). Statistical analysis included the McNemar test, sensitivity, specificity for the diagnostic modalities as well as regression analysis, and Bland-Altman graphs for calculated tumor volumes. There was no statistically significant difference between the two modalities compared to pathological findings regarding detection of disease (P≥0.72). The sensitivity/specificity for tumor detection were 100/80% and 96.72/60% for MRI and PET/CT, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity for nodal metastases were 88.46/75% and 83.81/73.91% for MRI and PET/CT, respectively. In 18% of cases, the MRI-based T staging resulted in an overestimation of the pathologic tumor stage. The corresponding rate for PET/CT was 22%. Regarding the treated necks, both modalities showed 100% sensitivity for detection of the recurrent lesions. In necks with histologically N0 staging, MRI and PET/CT gave 22% and 26% false positive findings, respectively. The mean tumor volume in the pathologic specimen was 16.6±18.6 ml, the mean volume derived by the MR imaging was 17.6±19.1 ml while the estimated by PET/CT volume was 18.8±18.1 ml (P≤0.007 between the three methods). The Bland-Altman analysis showed a better agreement between PET/CT and MRI. The diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/CT in the local staging of oral cancer is not superior to MRI. (orig.)

  7. Molecular Auditing: An Evaluation of Unsuspected Tissue Specimen Misidentification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrick, Douglas J

    2018-06-18

    Context Specimen misidentification is the most significant error in laboratory medicine, potentially accounting for hundreds of millions of dollars in extra health care expenses and significant morbidity in patient populations in the United States alone. New technology allows the unequivocal documentation of specimen misidentification or contamination; however, the value of this technology currently depends on suspicion of the specimen integrity by a pathologist or other health care worker. Objective To test the hypothesis that there is a detectable incidence of unsuspected tissue specimen misidentification among cases submitted for routine surgical pathology examination. Design To test this hypothesis, we selected specimen pairs that were obtained at different times and/or different hospitals from the same patient, and compared their genotypes using standardized microsatellite markers used commonly for forensic human DNA comparison in order to identify unsuspected mismatches between the specimen pairs as a trial of "molecular auditing." We preferentially selected gastrointestinal, prostate, and skin biopsies because we estimated that these types of specimens had the greatest potential for misidentification. Results Of 972 specimen pairs, 1 showed an unexpected discordant genotype profile, indicating that 1 of the 2 specimens was misidentified. To date, we are unable to identify the etiology of the discordance. Conclusions These results demonstrate that, indeed, there is a low level of unsuspected tissue specimen misidentification, even in an environment with careful adherence to stringent quality assurance practices. This study demonstrates that molecular auditing of random, routine biopsy specimens can identify occult misidentified specimens, and may function as a useful quality indicator.

  8. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments

  9. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-02-09

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  10. DRG migration: A novel measure of inefficient surgical care in a value-based world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Byron D; Mehta, Hemalkumar B; Sieloff, Eric; Shan, Yong; Senagore, Anthony J

    2018-03-01

    Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) migration, DRG 331 to 330, is defined by the assignment to a higher cost DRG due only to post admission comorbidity or complications (CC). We assessed the 5% national Medicare data set (2011-2014) for colectomy (DRG's 331/330), excluding present on admission CC's and selecting patients with one or more CC's post-admission to define the impact on payments, cost, and length of stay (LOS). The incidence of DRG migration was 14.2%. This was associated with statistically significant increases in payments, hospital cost, and LOS compared to DRG 331 patients. When DRG migration rate was extrapolated to the entire at risk population, the results were an increase of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) cost by $98 million, hospital cost by $418 million, and excess hospital days equaling 68,669 days. These negative outcomes represent potentially unnecessary variations in the processes of care, and therefore a unique economic concept defining inefficient surgical care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of video review of resident laparoscopic surgical skills measured by self- and external assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Almario, Gabriel E; Kirk, Katherine; Guerrero, Veronica T; Jeong, Kwonho; Kim, Sara; Hamad, Giselle G

    2016-02-01

    Video review of surgical skills is an educational modality that allows trainees to reflect on self-performance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether resident and attending assessments of a resident's laparoscopic performance differ and whether video review changes assessments. Third-year surgery residents were invited to participate. Elective laparoscopic procedures were video recorded. The Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills evaluation was completed immediately after the procedure and again 7 to 10 days later by both resident and attending. Scores were compared using t tests. Nine residents participated and 76 video reviews were completed. Residents scored themselves significantly lower than the faculty scores both before and after video review. Resident scores did not change significantly after video review. Attending and resident self-assessment of laparoscopic skills differs and subsequent video review does not significantly affect Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills scores. Further studies should evaluate the impact of video review combined with verbal feedback on skill acquisition and assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of preventative and other surgical measures on hypocalcemia following bilateral thyroid surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antakia, Ramez; Edafe, Ovie; Uttley, Lesley; Balasubramanian, Saba P

    2015-01-01

    A variety of measures have been proposed to reduce the incidence of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of preventive and other surgical measures on post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia as reported in the literature. Comprehensive searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were performed, and the quality of included papers was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool or a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The results of all included studies were summarized, and meta-analyses were performed where appropriate. Thirty-nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 37 observational studies were included. Measures studied included hemostatic techniques, extent of thyroidectomy and central neck dissection, surgical approach, calcium/vitamin D/thiazide diuretic supplements, parathyroid gland autotransplantation (PGAT) and intraoperative parathyroid gland (PG) identification, truncal ligation of inferior thyroid artery (ITA), preoperative magnesium infusion, and use of magnification loupes and Surgicel. Measures associated with significantly lower rates of transient hypocalcemia in meta-analysis were postoperative calcium and vitamin D supplementation compared to either calcium supplements alone (odds ratio (OR) 0.66; p=0.04) or no supplements (OR 0.34; p=0.007), and bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy (BST) compared to Hartley Dunhill (HD) procedure (OR 0.35; p=0.01). Meta-analyses did not demonstrate any measure to be significantly associated with a reduction in permanent hypocalcemia. This review identified postoperative calcium and vitamin D supplementation and bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy (over HD) as being effective in prevention of transient hypocalcemia. However, the majority of RCTs were of low quality, primarily due to a lack of blinding. The wide variability in study design, definitions of hypocalcemia, and methods of assessment prevented meaningful summation of results for

  13. Effective cataract surgical coverage: An indicator for measuring quality-of-care in the context of Universal Health Coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Ramke

    Full Text Available To define and demonstrate effective cataract surgical coverage (eCSC, a candidate UHC indicator that combines a coverage measure (cataract surgical coverage, CSC with quality (post-operative visual outcome.All Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB surveys with datasets on the online RAAB Repository on April 1 2016 were downloaded. The most recent study from each country was included. By country, cataract surgical outcome (CSOGood, 6/18 or better; CSOPoor, worse than 6/60, CSC (operated cataract as a proportion of operable plus operated cataract and eCSC (operated cataract and a good outcome as a proportion of operable plus operated cataract were calculated. The association between CSC and CSO was assessed by linear regression. Gender inequality in CSC and eCSC was calculated.Datasets from 20 countries were included (2005-2013; 67,337 participants; 5,474 cataract surgeries. Median CSC was 53.7% (inter-quartile range[IQR] 46.1-66.6%, CSOGood was 58.9% (IQR 53.7-67.6% and CSOPoor was 17.7% (IQR 11.3-21.1%. Coverage and quality of cataract surgery were moderately associated-every 1% CSC increase was associated with a 0.46% CSOGood increase and 0.28% CSOPoor decrease. Median eCSC was 36.7% (IQR 30.2-50.6%, approximately one-third lower than the median CSC. Women tended to fare worse than men, and gender inequality was slightly higher for eCSC (4.6% IQR 0.5-7.1% than for CSC (median 2.3% IQR -1.5-11.6%.eCSC allows monitoring of quality in conjunction with coverage of cataract surgery. In the surveys analysed, on average 36.7% of people who could benefit from cataract surgery had undergone surgery and obtained a good visual outcome.

  14. Developing a tool to measure pharmacoeconomic outcomes of post-surgical pain management interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Deborah S; Smalarz, Amy; Haas, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    Financial pressures have limited the ability of providers to use medication that may improve clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. New interventions are often fraught with resistance from individual cost centers. A value realization tool (VRT) is essential for separate cost centers to communicate and comprehend the overall financial and clinical implications of post-surgical pain management medication interventions (PSMI). The goal was to describe development of a VRT. An evaluation of common in-patient PSMI approaches, impacts, and costs was performed. A multidisciplinary task force guided development of the VRT to ensure appropriate representation and relevance to clinical practice. The main outcome was an Excel-based tool that communicates the overall cost/benefit of PSMI for the post-operative patient encounter. The VRT aggregated input data on costs, clinical impact, and nursing burden of PSMI assessment and monitoring into two high-level outcome reports: Overall Cost Impact and Nurse & Patient Impact. Costs included PSMI specific medication, equipment, professional placement, labor, overall/opioid-related adverse events, re-admissions, and length of stay. Nursing impact included level of practice interference, job satisfaction, and patient care metrics. Patient impact included pain scores, opioid use, PACU time, and satisfaction. Reference data was provided for individual institutions that may not collect all variables included in the VRT. The VRT is a valuable way for administrators to assess PSMI cost/benefits and for individual cost centers to see the overall value of individual interventions. The user-friendly, decision-support tool allows the end-user to use built-in referenced or personalized outcome data, increasing relevance to their institutions. This broad picture could facilitate communication across cost centers and evidence-based decisions for appropriate use and impacts of PSMI.

  15. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  16. Acute changes in clinical breast measurements following bra removal: Implications for surgical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Scurr

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Internipple distance and breast projection can be measured first following bra removal, followed by sternal notch to nipple distance, any measures associated with the vertical nipple position should be made more than 6 min after bra removal. These guidelines have implications for breast surgery, particularly for unilateral reconstruction based on the residual breast position.

  17. Rotating specimen rack repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.E.; Rogers, P.J.; Nabor, W.G.; Bair, H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, an operator at the UCI TRIGA Reactor noticed difficulties with the rotation of the specimen rack. Investigations showed that the drive bearing in the rack had failed and allowed the bearings to enter the rack. After some time of operation in static mode it was decided that installation of a bearing substitute - a graphite sleeve - would be undertaken. Procedures were written and approved for removal of the rack, fabrication and installation of the sleeve, and re-installation of the rack. This paper describes these procedures in some detail. Detailed drawings of the necessary parts may be obtained from the authors

  18. Method for thinning specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follstaedt, David M.; Moran, Michael P.

    2005-03-15

    A method for thinning (such as in grinding and polishing) a material surface using an instrument means for moving an article with a discontinuous surface with an abrasive material dispersed between the material surface and the discontinuous surface where the discontinuous surface of the moving article provides an efficient means for maintaining contact of the abrasive with the material surface. When used to dimple specimens for microscopy analysis, a wheel with a surface that has been modified to produce a uniform or random discontinuous surface significantly improves the speed of the dimpling process without loss of quality of finish.

  19. Functional outcome measures in a surgical model of hip osteoarthritis in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Dianne; Johnson, Stephen; Hash, Jonathan; Olson, Steven A.; Estes, Bradley T.; Moutos, Franklin T.; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.; Guilak, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Background The hip is one of the most common sites of osteoarthritis in the body, second only to the knee in prevalence. However, current animal models of hip osteoarthritis have not been assessed using many of the functional outcome measures used in orthopaedics, a characteristic that could increase their utility in the evaluation of therapeutic interventions. The canine hip shares similarities with the human hip, and functional outcome measures are well documented in veterinary medicine, pr...

  20. Measurement of breast volume is a useful supplement to select candidates for surgical breast reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikander, Peder; Drejøe, Jennifer Berg; Lumholt, Pavia

    2014-01-01

    for breast reduction surgery, thus establishing a standard decision basis that can be shared by surgeons and departments to secure patients fair and equal treatment opportunities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 427 patients who were referred to three Danish public hospitals with breast hypertrophy...... in the period from January 2007 to March 2011 were included prospectively in the study. The patients' subjective complaints, height, weight and standard breast measurements were registered as well as the decision for or against surgery. Breast volume was measured using transparent plastic cups. RESULTS: Cut......-off values for breast volume were calculated based on whether or not the patients were offered reduction surgery. Most patients (93%) with a breast volume below 800 cc were not offered surgery, while most with a volume exceeding 900 cc were offered surgery (94%). In the grey zone between 800 and 900 cc...

  1. Comparative evaluation of cone-beam computed tomography versus direct surgical measurements in the diagnosis of mandibular molar furcation involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Padmanabhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Periodontists frequently experience inconvenience in accurate assessment and treatment of furcation areas affected by periodontal disease. Furcation involvement (FI most commonly affects the mandibular molars. Diagnosis of furcation-involved teeth is mainly by the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, furcation entrance probing, and intraoral periapical radiographs. Three-dimensional imaging has provided advantage to the clinician in assessment of bone morphology. Thus, the present study aimed to compare the diagnostic efficacy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT as against direct intrasurgical measurements of furcation defects in mandibular molars. Subjects and Methods: Study population included 14 patients with 25 mandibular molar furcation sites. CBCT was performed to measure height, width, and depth of furcation defects of mandibular molars with Grade II and Grade III FI. Intrasurgical measurements of the FI were assessed during periodontal flap surgery in indicated teeth which were compared with CBCT measurements. Statistical analysis was done using paired t-test and Bland–Altman plot. Results: The CBCT versus intrasurgical furcation measurements were 2.18 ± 0.86 mm and 2.30 ± 0.89 mm for furcation height, 1.87 ± 0.52 mm and 1.84 ± 0.49 mm for furcation width, and 3.81 ± 1.37 mm and 4.05 ± 1.49 mm for furcation depth, respectively. Results showed that there was no statistical significance between the measured parameters, indicating that the two methods were statistically similar. Conclusion: Accuracy of assessment of mandibular molar FI by CBCT was comparable to that of direct surgical measurements. These findings indicate that CBCT is an excellent adjunctive diagnostic tool in periodontal treatment planning.

  2. Measures and time points relevant for post-surgical follow-up in patients with inflammatory arthritis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tägil Magnus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatic diseases commonly affect joints and other structures in the hand. Surgery is a traditional way to treat hand problems in inflammatory rheumatic diseases with the purposes of pain relief, restore function and prevent progression. There are numerous measures to choose from, and a combination of outcome measures is recommended. This study evaluated if instruments commonly used in rheumatologic clinical practice are suitable to measure outcome of hand surgery and to identify time points relevant for follow-up. Methods Thirty-one patients (median age 56 years, median disease duration 15 years with inflammatory rheumatic disease and need for post-surgical occupational therapy intervention formed this pilot study group. Hand function was assessed regarding grip strength (Grippit, pain (VAS, range of motion (ROM (Signals of Functional Impairment (SOFI and grip ability (Grip Ability Test (GAT. Activities of daily life (ADL were assessed by means of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome (DASH and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM. The instruments were evaluated by responsiveness and feasibility; follow-up points were 0, 3, 6 and 12 months. Results All instruments showed significant change at one or more follow-up points. Satisfaction with activities (COPM showed the best responsiveness (SMR>0.8, while ROM measured with SOFI had low responsiveness at most follow-up time points. The responsiveness of the instruments was stable between 6 and 12 month follow-up which imply that 6 month is an appropriate time for evaluating short-term effect of hand surgery in rheumatic diseases. Conclusion We suggest a core set of instruments measuring pain, grip strength, grip ability, perceived symptoms and self-defined daily activities. This study has shown that VAS pain, the Grippit instrument, GAT, DASH symptom scale and COPM are suitable outcome instruments for hand surgery, while SOFI may be a more insensitive

  3. Surgical lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knulst, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The surgical light is an important tool for surgeons to create and maintain good visibility on the surgical task. Chapter 1 gives background to the field of (surgical) lighting and related terminology. Although the surgical light has been developed strongly since its introduction a long time ago,

  4. Input and output for surgical simulation: devices to measure tissue properties in vivo and a haptic interface for laparoscopy simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottensmeyer, M P; Ben-Ur, E; Salisbury, J K

    2000-01-01

    Current efforts in surgical simulation very often focus on creating realistic graphical feedback, but neglect some or all tactile and force (haptic) feedback that a surgeon would normally receive. Simulations that do include haptic feedback do not typically use real tissue compliance properties, favoring estimates and user feedback to determine realism. When tissue compliance data are used, there are virtually no in vivo property measurements to draw upon. Together with the Center for Innovative Minimally Invasive Therapy at the Massachusetts General Hospital, the Haptics Group is developing tools to introduce more comprehensive haptic feedback in laparoscopy simulators and to provide biological tissue material property data for our software simulation. The platform for providing haptic feedback is a PHANToM Haptic Interface, produced by SensAble Technologies, Inc. Our devices supplement the PHANToM to provide for grasping and optionally, for the roll axis of the tool. Together with feedback from the PHANToM, which provides the pitch, yaw and thrust axes of a typical laparoscopy tool, we can recreate all of the haptic sensations experienced during laparoscopy. The devices integrate real laparoscopy toolhandles and a compliant torso model to complete the set of visual and tactile sensations. Biological tissues are known to exhibit non-linear mechanical properties, and change their properties dramatically when removed from a living organism. To measure the properties in vivo, two devices are being developed. The first is a small displacement, 1-D indenter. It will measure the linear tissue compliance (stiffness and damping) over a wide range of frequencies. These data will be used as inputs to a finite element or other model. The second device will be able to deflect tissues in 3-D over a larger range, so that the non-linearities due to changes in the tissue geometry will be measured. This will allow us to validate the performance of the model on large tissue

  5. In vivo motion and force measurement of surgical needle intervention during prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podder, Tarun; Clark, Douglas; Sherman, Jason; Fuller, Dave; Messing, Edward; Rubens, Deborah; Strang, John; Brasacchio, Ralph; Liao, Lydia; Ng, W.-S.; Yu Yan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present needle insertion forces and motion trajectories measured during actual brachytherapy needle insertion while implanting radioactive seeds in the prostate glands of 20 different patients. The needle motion was captured using ultrasound images and a 6 degree-of-freedom electromagnetic-based position sensor. Needle velocity was computed from the position information and the corresponding time stamps. From in vivo data we found the maximum needle insertion forces to be about 15.6 and 8.9 N for 17 gauge (1.47 mm) and 18 gauge (1.27 mm) needles, respectively. Part of this difference in insertion forces is due to the needle size difference (17G and 18G) and the other part is due to the difference in tissue properties that are specific to the individual patient. Some transverse forces were observed, which are attributed to several factors such as tissue heterogeneity, organ movement, human factors in surgery, and the interaction between the template and the needle. However, theses insertion forces are significantly responsible for needle deviation from the desired trajectory and target movement. Therefore, a proper selection of needle and modulated velocity (translational and rotational) may reduce the tissue deformation and target movement by reducing insertion forces and thereby improve the seed delivery accuracy. The knowledge gleaned from this study promises to be useful for not only designing mechanical/robotic systems but also developing a predictive deformation model of the prostate and real-time adaptive controlling of the needle

  6. Quantifying team cooperation through intrinsic multi-scale measures: respiratory and cardiac synchronization in choir singers and surgical teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemakom, Apit; Powezka, Katarzyna; Goverdovsky, Valentin; Jaffer, Usman; Mandic, Danilo P

    2017-12-01

    A highly localized data-association measure, termed intrinsic synchrosqueezing transform (ISC), is proposed for the analysis of coupled nonlinear and non-stationary multivariate signals. This is achieved based on a combination of noise-assisted multivariate empirical mode decomposition and short-time Fourier transform-based univariate and multivariate synchrosqueezing transforms. It is shown that the ISC outperforms six other combinations of algorithms in estimating degrees of synchrony in synthetic linear and nonlinear bivariate signals. Its advantage is further illustrated in the precise identification of the synchronized respiratory and heart rate variability frequencies among a subset of bass singers of a professional choir, where it distinctly exhibits better performance than the continuous wavelet transform-based ISC. We also introduce an extension to the intrinsic phase synchrony (IPS) measure, referred to as nested intrinsic phase synchrony (N-IPS), for the empirical quantification of physically meaningful and straightforward-to-interpret trends in phase synchrony. The N-IPS is employed to reveal physically meaningful variations in the levels of cooperation in choir singing and performing a surgical procedure. Both the proposed techniques successfully reveal degrees of synchronization of the physiological signals in two different aspects: (i) precise localization of synchrony in time and frequency (ISC), and (ii) large-scale analysis for the empirical quantification of physically meaningful trends in synchrony (N-IPS).

  7. Design of specimen for weld residual stress simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Park, Jong Sun; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design a laboratory specimen for simulating residual stress of circumferential butt welding of pipe. Specimen type and method for residual stress generation were proposed based on the review of prior studies and parametric finite element simulation. To prove the proposed specimen type and loading method, the residual stress was generated using the designed specimen by applying proposed method and was measured. The measured residual stress using X-ray diffraction reasonably agreed with the results of finite element simulation considered in the specimen design. Comparison of residual strains measured at several locations of specimen and given by finite element simulation also showed good agreement. Therefore, it is indicated that the designed specimen can reasonably simulate the residual stress of circumferential butt welding of pipe

  8. Collagen Quantification in Tissue Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentro, João Quintas; Capella-Monsonís, Héctor; Graceffa, Valeria; Wu, Zhuning; Mullen, Anne Maria; Raghunath, Michael; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I

    2017-01-01

    Collagen is the major extracellular protein in mammals. Accurate quantification of collagen is essential in the biomaterials (e.g., reproducible collagen scaffold fabrication), drug discovery (e.g., assessment of collagen in pathophysiologies, such as fibrosis), and tissue engineering (e.g., quantification of cell-synthesized collagen) fields. Although measuring hydroxyproline content is the most widely used method to quantify collagen in biological specimens, the process is very laborious. To this end, the Sircol™ Collagen Assay is widely used due to its inherent simplicity and convenience. However, this method leads to overestimation of collagen content due to the interaction of Sirius red with basic amino acids of non-collagenous proteins. Herein, we describe the addition of an ultrafiltration purification step in the process to accurately determine collagen content in tissues.

  9. Prospective Study of the Surgical Techniques Used in Primary Rhinoplasty on the Caucasian Nose and Comparison of the Preoperative and Postoperative Anthropometric Nose Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf; Freitas, Renato da Silva; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Macedo Filho, Evaldo Dacheux; Mocellin, Marcos; Fagundes, Marina Serrato Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The knowledge and study of surgical techniques and anthropometric measurements of the nose make possible a qualitative and quantitative analysis of surgical results. Objective Study the main technique used in rhinoplasty on Caucasian noses and compare preoperative and postoperative anthropometric measurements of the nose. Methods A prospective study with 170 patients was performed at a private hospital. Data were collected using the Electronic System Integrated of Protocols software (Sistema Integrado de Protocolos Eletrônicos, SINPE©). The surgical techniques used in the nasal dorsum and tip were evaluated. Preoperative and 12-month follow-up photos as well as the measurements compared with the ideal aesthetic standard of a Caucasian nose were analyzed objectively. Student t test and standard deviation test were applied. Results There was a predominance of endonasal access (94.4%). The most common dorsum technique was hump removal (33.33%), and the predominance of sutures (24.76%) was observed on the nasal tip, with the lateral intercrural the most frequent (32.39%). Comparison between preoperative and postoperative photos found statistically significant alterations on the anthropometric measurements of the noses. Conclusion The main surgical techniques on Caucasian noses were evaluated, and a great variety was found. The evaluation of anthropometric measurements of the nose proved the efficiency of the performed procedures. PMID:25992149

  10. Prospective Study of the Surgical Techniques Used in Primary Rhinoplasty on the Caucasian Nose and Comparison of the Preoperative and Postoperative Anthropometric Nose Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The knowledge and study of surgical techniques and anthropometric measurements of the nose make possible a qualitative and quantitative analysis of surgical results. Objective Study the main technique used in rhinoplasty on Caucasian noses and compare preoperative and postoperative anthropometric measurements of the nose. Methods A prospective study with 170 patients was performed at a private hospital. Data were collected using the Electronic System Integrated of Protocols software (Sistema Integrado de Protocolos Eletrônicos, SINPE©. The surgical techniques used in the nasal dorsum and tip were evaluated. Preoperative and 12-month follow-up photos as well as the measurements compared with the ideal aesthetic standard of a Caucasian nose were analyzed objectively. Student t test and standard deviation test were applied. Results There was a predominance of endonasal access (94.4%. The most common dorsum technique was hump removal (33.33%, and the predominance of sutures (24.76% was observed on the nasal tip, with the lateral intercrural the most frequent (32.39%. Comparison between preoperative and postoperative photos found statistically significant alterations on the anthropometric measurements of the noses. Conclusion The main surgical techniques on Caucasian noses were evaluated, and a great variety was found. The evaluation of anthropometric measurements of the nose proved the efficiency of the performed procedures.

  11. The impact of secondary-task type on the sensitivity of reaction-time based measurement of cognitive load for novices learning surgical skills using simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, David; Haji, Faizal; Shewaga, Rob; Kapralos, Bill; Dubrowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Interest in the measurement of cognitive load (CL) in simulation-based education has grown in recent years. In this paper we present two pilot experiments comparing the sensitivity of two reaction time based secondary task measures of CL. The results suggest that simple reaction time measures are sensitive enough to detect changes in CL experienced by novice learners in the initial stages of simulation-based surgical skills training.

  12. Janka hardness using nonstandard specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Marshall Begel; William Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Janka hardness determined on 1.5- by 3.5-in. specimens (2×4s) was found to be equivalent to that determined using the 2- by 2-in. specimen specified in ASTM D 143. Data are presented on the relationship between Janka hardness and the strength of clear wood. Analysis of historical data determined using standard specimens indicated no difference between side hardness...

  13. What Is the Best Way to Measure Surgical Quality? Comparing the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program versus Traditional Morbidity and Mortality Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jacques X; Song, Diana; Bedford, Julie; Bucevska, Marija; Courtemanche, Douglas J; Arneja, Jugpal S

    2016-04-01

    Morbidity and mortality conferences have played a traditional role in tracking complications. Recently, the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatrics (ACS NSQIP-P) has gained popularity as a risk-adjusted means of addressing quality assurance. The purpose of this article is to report an analysis of the two methodologies used within pediatric plastic surgery to determine the best way to manage quality. ACS NSQIP-P and morbidity and mortality data were extracted for 2012 and 2013 at a quaternary care institution. Overall complication rates were compared statistically, segregated by type and severity, followed by a subset comparison of ACS NSQIP-P-eligible cases only. Concordance and discordance rates between the two methodologies were determined. One thousand two hundred sixty-one operations were performed in the study period. Only 51.4 percent of cases were ACS NSQIP-P eligible. The overall complication rates of ACS NSQIP-P (6.62 percent) and morbidity and mortality conferences (6.11 percent) were similar (p = 0.662). Comparing for only ACS NSQIP-P-eligible cases also yielded a similar rate (6.62 percent versus 5.71 percent; p = 0.503). Although different complications are tracked, the concordance rate for morbidity and mortality and ACS NSQIP-P was 35.1 percent and 32.5 percent, respectively. The ACS NSQIP-P database is able to accurately track complication rates similarly to morbidity and mortality conferences, although it samples only half of all procedures. Although both systems offer value, limitations exist, such as differences in definitions and purpose. Because of the rigor of the ACS NSQIP-P, we recommend that it be expanded to include currently excluded cases and an extension of the study interval.

  14. Surgical smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown.

  15. Estimating the population distribution of usual 24-hour sodium excretion from timed urine void specimens using a statistical approach accounting for correlated measurement errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yih; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Chen, Te-Ching; Loria, Catherine M; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Liu, Kiang; Sempos, Christopher T; Perrine, Cria G; Cogswell, Mary E

    2015-05-01

    High US sodium intake and national reduction efforts necessitate developing a feasible and valid monitoring method across the distribution of low-to-high sodium intake. We examined a statistical approach using timed urine voids to estimate the population distribution of usual 24-h sodium excretion. A sample of 407 adults, aged 18-39 y (54% female, 48% black), collected each void in a separate container for 24 h; 133 repeated the procedure 4-11 d later. Four timed voids (morning, afternoon, evening, overnight) were selected from each 24-h collection. We developed gender-specific equations to calibrate total sodium excreted in each of the one-void (e.g., morning) and combined two-void (e.g., morning + afternoon) urines to 24-h sodium excretion. The calibrated sodium excretions were used to estimate the population distribution of usual 24-h sodium excretion. Participants were then randomly assigned to modeling (n = 160) or validation (n = 247) groups to examine the bias in estimated population percentiles. Median bias in predicting selected percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th) of usual 24-h sodium excretion with one-void urines ranged from -367 to 284 mg (-7.7 to 12.2% of the observed usual excretions) for men and -604 to 486 mg (-14.6 to 23.7%) for women, and with two-void urines from -338 to 263 mg (-6.9 to 10.4%) and -166 to 153 mg (-4.1 to 8.1%), respectively. Four of the 6 two-void urine combinations produced no significant bias in predicting selected percentiles. Our approach to estimate the population usual 24-h sodium excretion, which uses calibrated timed-void sodium to account for day-to-day variation and covariance between measurement errors, produced percentile estimates with relatively low biases across low-to-high sodium excretions. This may provide a low-burden, low-cost alternative to 24-h collections in monitoring population sodium intake among healthy young adults and merits further investigation in other population subgroups. © 2015 American

  16. In situ measurement and modeling of biomechanical response of human cadaveric soft tissues for physics-based surgical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yi-Je; Deo, Dhanannjay; Singh, Tejinder P; Jones, Daniel B; De, Suvranu

    2009-06-01

    Development of a laparoscopic surgery simulator that delivers high-fidelity visual and haptic (force) feedback, based on the physical models of soft tissues, requires the use of empirical data on the mechanical behavior of intra-abdominal organs under the action of external forces. As experiments on live human patients present significant risks, the use of cadavers presents an alternative. We present techniques of measuring and modeling the mechanical response of human cadaveric tissue for the purpose of developing a realistic model. The major contribution of this paper is the development of physics-based models of soft tissues that range from linear elastic models to nonlinear viscoelastic models which are efficient for application within the framework of a real-time surgery simulator. To investigate the in situ mechanical, static, and dynamic properties of intra-abdominal organs, we have developed a high-precision instrument by retrofitting a robotic device from Sensable Technologies (position resolution of 0.03 mm) with a six-axis Nano 17 force-torque sensor from ATI Industrial Automation (force resolution of 1/1,280 N along each axis), and used it to apply precise displacement stimuli and record the force response of liver and stomach of ten fresh human cadavers. The mean elastic modulus of liver and stomach is estimated as 5.9359 kPa and 1.9119 kPa, respectively over the range of indentation depths tested. We have also obtained the parameters of a quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) model to represent the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of the cadaver stomach and liver over a range of indentation depths and speeds. The models are found to have an excellent goodness of fit (with R (2) > 0.99). The data and models presented in this paper together with additional ones based on the principles presented in this paper would result in realistic physics-based surgical simulators.

  17. A simple method for the prevention of endometrial autolysis in hysterectomy specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Houghton, J P; Roddy, S; Carroll, S; McCluggage, W G

    2004-01-01

    Aims: Uteri are among the most common surgical pathology specimens. Assessment of the endometrium is often difficult because of pronounced tissue autolysis. This study describes a simple method to prevent endometrial autolysis and aid in interpretation of the endometrium.

  18. Role of specimen US for predicting resection margin status in breast conserving therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetta, M; Telegrafo, M; Introna, T; Coi, L; Rella, L; Ranieri, V; Cirili, A; Stabile Ianora, A A; Angelelli, G

    2015-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of specimen ultrasound (US) for predicting resection margin status in women undergoing breast conserving therapy for US-detected cancer, having the histological findings as the reference standard. A total of 132 consecutive patients (age range, 34-87 years; mean, 51 years) underwent breast-conserving surgery for US-detected invasive breast cancer. All surgical specimens underwent US examination. The presence of lesion within the specimen and its distance from the specimen margins were assessed considering a threshold distance between the lesion and specimen margins of 10 mm. US findings were then compared with the pathological ones and specimen US. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) for predicting histological margin status were evaluated, having the histological findings as the reference standard. The histological examination detected invasive ductal carcinoma in 96/132 (73%) cases, invasive lobular carcinoma in 32/132 (24%), mucinous carcinoma in 4/132 (3%). The pathological margin analysis revealed 96/132 (73%) negative margins and 36 (27%) close/positive margins. US examination detected all 132 breast lesions within the surgical specimens. 110 (83%) negative margins and 22 (17%) positive margins were found on US. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, PPV and NPV of 44%, 94%, 80%, 73% and 82%, respectively, were found for specimen US. Specimen US represents a time and cost saving imaging tool for evaluating the presence of US detected-breast lesion within surgical specimen and for predicting the histological margin status.

  19. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decrease the inflammatory response Vasodilatation leads to better perfusion and ... Must NOT be allowed to come in contact with brain, meninges, eyes or .... project (SCIP): Evolution of National Quality Measure. Surgical. Infection 2008 ...

  20. DNA extraction from herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drábková, Lenka Záveská

    2014-01-01

    With the expansion of molecular techniques, the historical collections have become widely used. Studying plant DNA using modern molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing plays an important role in understanding evolutionary relationships, identification through DNA barcoding, conservation status, and many other aspects of plant biology. Enormous herbarium collections are an important source of material especially for specimens from areas difficult to access or from taxa that are now extinct. The ability to utilize these specimens greatly enhances the research. However, the process of extracting DNA from herbarium specimens is often fraught with difficulty related to such variables as plant chemistry, drying method of the specimen, and chemical treatment of the specimen. Although many methods have been developed for extraction of DNA from herbarium specimens, the most frequently used are modified CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit protocols. Nine selected protocols in this chapter have been successfully used for high-quality DNA extraction from different kinds of plant herbarium tissues. These methods differ primarily with respect to their requirements for input material (from algae to vascular plants), type of the plant tissue (leaves with incrustations, sclerenchyma strands, mucilaginous tissues, needles, seeds), and further possible applications (PCR-based methods or microsatellites, AFLP).

  1. Surgical navigation with QR codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katanacho Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented work is an alternative to established measurement systems in surgical navigation. The system is based on camera based tracking of QR code markers. The application uses a single video camera, integrated in a surgical lamp, that captures the QR markers attached to surgical instruments and to the patient.

  2. Surgical orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, Alexis M; Vitkus, Lauren

    2017-08-01

    The article reviews some commonly used orthodontic treatments as well as new strategies to assist in the correction of malocclusion. Many techniques are used in conjunction with surgical intervention and are a necessary compliment to orthognathic surgery. Basic knowledge of these practices will aid in the surgeon's ability to adequately treat the patient. Many orthodontists and surgeons are eliminating presurgical orthodontics to adopt a strategy of 'surgery first' orthodontics in orthognathic surgery. This has the benefit of immediate improvement in facial aesthetics and shorter treatment times. The advent of virtual surgical planning has helped facilitate the development of this new paradigm by making surgical planning faster and easier. Furthermore, using intraoperative surgical navigation is improving overall precision and outcomes. A variety of surgical and nonsurgical treatments may be employed in the treatment of malocclusion. It is important to be familiar with all options available and tailor the patient's treatment plan accordingly. Surgery-first orthodontics, intraoperative surgical navigation, virtual surgical planning, and 3D printing are evolving new techniques that are producing shorter treatment times and subsequently improving patient satisfaction without sacrificing long-term stability.

  3. Thermal endurance tests on silicone rubber specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, C.

    1977-07-01

    Thermal endurance tests have been performed on a range of silicone rubber specimens at temperature above 300 0 C. It is suggested that the rubber mix A2426, the compound from which Wylfa sealing rings are manufactured, will fail at temperatures above 300 0 C within weeks. Hardness measurements show that this particular rubber performs in a similar manner to Walker's S.I.L./60. (author)

  4. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  5. 73. Surgical site infection after CABG: Root cause analysis and quality measures recommendation SSI quality improvement project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arifi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surgical site infection (SSI, is a preventable and devastating complication with significant morbidity after cardiac surgery. The reported SSI rate at our center, ranging from 3.4% to 11.2% (2007–2013. This rate is considered to be above the standardized rate recommended by the NHSN. Quality improvement project team to address the issue of SSI, (SCIP, where formed by the medical administration late 2014. The aim of the study was to identify SSI risk factors at our cardiac surgical unit, using evidence based practices while taking a local approach to problem solving. We performed Root Cause Analysis (RCA, and we applied other quality improvement tools to identify the area for potential improvement. Data include a Process Map of the pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative factors that might contribute to SSI risk. We prospectively used the RCA form to investigate all the stages of the patient process map (pre, intra op, and post operatively. The data included the Patient related factors, the sterilization and the hygiene practice in the operating room, and the operating room traffic, and the compliance to the bundle of care. Figure represent the “Fishbone” diagram of the possible causes of SSI after cardiac surgery in our unit. Demographic features of patients with SSI were as follows: mean age-65 years; female 83%; time to infection (mean 101 days; range 1–36 days;. The root cause analysis identified a significant weakness in the compliance to the bundle of care to prevent SSI. Furthermore, the patient flow, the operating theatre cleaning and traffic was also identified as a contributing factor to SSI. Surgical site infection after cardiac surgery is a preventable complication. The application of the evidence based practice and structured way of thinking in problem solving, will help identify the potential risk factors. Focusing on solving the right patient process and visually represents the problem will help identifying the

  6. Validation of Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Computer Adaptive Tests (CATs) in the Surgical Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alpesh A; Dodwad, Shah-Nawaz M; Boody, Barrett S; Bhatt, Surabhi; Savage, Jason W; Hsu, Wellington K; Rothrock, Nan E

    2018-03-19

    Prospective, cohort study. Demonstrate validity of PROMIS physical function, pain interference, and pain behavior computer adaptive tests (CATs) in surgically treated lumbar stenosis patients. There has been increasing attention given to patient reported outcomes associated with spinal interventions. Historical patient outcome measures have inadequate validation, demonstrate floor/ceiling effects, and infrequently used due to time constraints. PROMIS is an adaptive, responsive NIH assessment tool that measures patient-reported health status. 98 consecutive patients were surgically treated for lumbar spinal stenosis and were assessed using PROMIS CATs, ODI, ZCQ and SF-12. Prior lumbar surgery, history of scoliosis, cancer, trauma, or infection were excluded. Completion time, preoperative assessment, 6 week and 3 month postoperative scores were collected. At baseline, 49%, 79%, and 81% of patients had PROMIS PB, PI, and PF scores greater than 1 SD worse than the general population. 50.6% were categorized as severely disabled, crippled, or bed bound by ODI. PROMIS CATs demonstrated convergent validity through moderate to high correlations with legacy measures (r = 0.35-0.73). PROMIS CATs demonstrated known groups validity when stratified by ODI levels of disability. ODI improvements of at least 10 points on average had changes in PROMIS scores in the expected direction (PI = -12.98, PB = -9.74, PF = 7.53). PROMIS CATs demonstrated comparable responsiveness to change when evaluated against legacy measures. PROMIS PB and PI decreased 6.66 and 9.62 and PROMIS PF increased 6.8 points between baseline and 3-months post-op (p validity, known groups validity, and responsiveness for surgically treated patients with lumbar stenosis to detect change over time and are more efficient than legacy instruments. 2.

  7. A comparative study of colour and perfusion between two different post surgical scars. Do the laser Doppler imager and the colorimeter measure the same features of a scar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermans, J F; Peeters, W J; Dikmans, R; Serroyen, J; van der Hulst, R R J W; Van den Kerckhove, E

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different located post surgical scars on both perfusion and redness. The pattern of change and correlation between perfusion and redness of post surgical scars is also examined. In this study, we measured redness and perfusion of the abdominal and breast scar of 24 women undergoing breast reconstruction with Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Free Flap surgery with the Minolta Chromameter CR-400/410 and the Moor Instruments laser Doppler imager 12IR, respectively, at different intervals post-operatively. The laser Doppler imager gives significantly higher values for the abdominal compared with the breast scar. There was no consistent correlation found between perfusion and redness at the different test moments for both locations. The scores of both parameters were significantly associated after 9 months follow-up for both locations. Scars closed with higher mechanical force show higher perfusion and prolonged activity; and more redness is associated with more perfusion for both post surgical scars. Nevertheless, there was no consistent correlation found between these parameters making the laser Doppler imager and the Colorimeter still non-replaceable instruments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Bireflectance imaging of coal and carbon specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C. [Department of Geology, 1259 Lincoln Drive, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 (United States); Glasspool, I.J.; Gibbins, J.R.; Seitz, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, Exhibition Road, London, SW7 2BX (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-10

    Although bireflectance measurements are routine, to date they have been limited to selected single point measurements. This study uses a 360{sup o} rotating polarizer in the incident light path combined with digital imaging to map the optical bireflectance of a polished specimen over the complete field of view, a system herein referred to as 'Bireflectance Imaging of Coal and Carbon Specimens' (BRICCS). True maximum reflectance maps and maps of polarizer angle for maximum reflectance (to identify co-ordered regions) are obtainable from the same data. A variety of coal, coke, char, graphite, and carbon/carbon specimens have been examined with the BRICCS system and the results demonstrate that the system can produce accurate maximum and apparent minimum reflectance, bireflectance, and extinction angle images. For example, flakes of natural graphite show no bireflectance along their long axis except in areas that have been strained. The images are maps showing the value of every pixel that has been calibrated by mineral reflectance standards. The maps are unique in that they show fields of view that cannot be seen by normal viewing through the microscope. For example, the bireflectance maps show the maximum difference between the maximum and apparent minimum reflectance for each of the million pixels at twenty orientations of the polarizer. (author)

  9. Measuring surgical outcomes in neurosurgery: implementation, analysis, and auditing a prospective series of more than 5000 procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosopoulos, Philip V; Ringer, Andrew J; McPherson, Christopher M; Warnick, Ronald E; Kuntz, Charles; Zuccarello, Mario; Tew, John M

    2012-11-01

    Health care reform debate includes discussions regarding outcomes of surgical interventions. Yet quality of medical care, when judged as a health outcome, is difficult to define because of impediments affecting accuracy in data collection, analysis, and reporting. In this prospective study, the authors report the outcomes for neurosurgical treatment based on point-of-care interactions recorded in the electronic medical record (EMR). The authors' neurosurgery practice collected outcome data for 19 physicians and ancillary personnel using the EMR. Data were analyzed for 5361 consecutive surgical cases, either elective or emergency procedures, performed during 2009 at multiple hospitals, offices, and an ambulatory spine surgery center. Main outcomes included complications, length of stay (LOS), and discharge disposition for all patients and for certain frequently performed procedures. Physicians, nurses, and other medical staff used validated scales to record the hospital LOS, complications, disposition at discharge, and return to work. Of the 5361 surgical procedures performed, two-thirds were spinal procedures and one-third were cranial procedures. Organization-wide compliance with reporting rates of major complications improved throughout the year, from 80.7% in the first quarter to 90.3% in the fourth quarter. Auditing showed that rates of unreported complications decreased from 11% in the first quarter to 4% in the fourth quarter. Complication data were available for 4593 procedures (85.7%); of these, no complications were reported in 4367 (95.1%). Discharge dispositions reported were home in 86.2%, rehabilitation center in 8.9%, and nursing home in 2.5%. Major complications included culture-proven infection in 0.61%, CSF leak in 0.89%, reoperation within the same hospitalization in 0.38%, and new neurological deficits in 0.77%. For the commonly performed procedures, the median hospital LOS was 3 days for craniotomy for aneurysm or intraaxial tumor and less than

  10. Surgical management of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quérat, C; Germain, N; Dumollard, J-M; Estour, B; Peoc'h, M; Prades, J-M

    2015-04-01

    Hyperthyroidism includes several clinical and histopathological situations. Surgery is commonly indicated after failure of medical treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze the indications and complications of surgery as well as endocrine results. Patients operated on for hyperthyroidism between 2004 and 2012 were included in a retrospective study. Total thyroidectomy was performed for Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter and amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis; patients with toxic nodule underwent hemithyroidectomy. Pathologic analysis assessed surgical specimens; postoperative complications and resolution of hyperthyroidism were noted. Two hundred patients from 15 to 83 years old were included. One hundred and eighty-eight underwent primary surgery and 12 were re-operated for recurrent goiter (6 with subtotal thyroidectomy for multinodular goiter 25 years previously; 6 with hemithyroidectomy for solitary nodule 15 years previously). Eighty-two patients suffered from toxic multinodular goiter, 78 from Graves' disease, 35 from solitary toxic nodules and 5 from amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis. Fourteen papillary carcinomas (including 11 papillary microcarcinomas) and 34 healthy parathyroid glands (17%) were identified in the pathological specimens. Postoperative complications comprised 4% permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (1 year follow-up), 9% hematoma requiring surgical revision, and 3% definitive hypocalcemia. Normalization of thyroid hormone levels was observed in 198 patients. Two recurrences occurred due to incomplete resection (1 case of Graves' disease and 1 intrathoracic toxic goiter that occurred respectively 18 and 5 months after resection). Postoperative complications were more frequent in multinodular goiter (23%) than in Graves' disease (13%) (ns: P>0.05). Surgical management of hyperthyroidism enables good endocrinal control if surgery is complete. Patients need to be fully informed of all possible postoperative complications

  11. Surgical experts: born or made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadideen, Hazim; Alvand, Abtin; Saadeddin, Munir; Kneebone, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The concept of surgical expertise and the processes involved in its development are topical, and there is a constant drive to identify reliable measures of expert performance in surgery. This review explores the notion of whether surgical experts are "born" or "made", with reference to educational theory and pertinent literature. Peer-reviewed publications, books, and online resources on surgical education, expertise and training were reviewed. Important themes and aspects of expertise acquisition were identified in order to better understand the concept of a surgical expert. The definition of surgical expertise and several important aspects of its development are highlighted. Innate talent plays an important role, but is insufficient on its own to produce a surgical expert. Multiple theories that explore motor skill acquisition and memory are relevant, and Ericsson's theory of the development of competence followed by deliberate self-practice has been especially influential. Psychomotor and non-technical skills are necessary for progression in the current climate in light of our training curricula; surgical experts are adaptive experts who excel in these. The literature suggests that surgical expertise is reached through practice; surgical experts are made, not born. A deeper understanding of the nature of expert performance and its development will ensure that surgical education training programmes are of the highest possible quality. Surgical educators should aim to develop an expertise-based approach, with expert performance as the benchmark. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Grips for testing of electrical characteristics of a specimen under a mechanical load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Timothy; Loyola, Bryan

    2018-04-24

    Various technologies to facilitate coupled electrical and mechanical measurement of conductive materials are disclosed herein. A gripping device simultaneously holds a specimen in place and causes contact to be made between the specimen and a plurality of electrodes connected to an electrical measuring device. An electrical characteristic of the specimen is then measured while a mechanical load is applied to the specimen, and a relationship between the mechanical load and changes in the electrical characteristic can be identified.

  13. Surgical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nivritti G; Cheng, Stephen W K; Wong, John

    2003-08-01

    Recent high-profile cases have heightened the need for a formal structure to monitor achievement and maintenance of surgical competence. Logbooks, morbidity and mortality meetings, videos and direct observation of operations using a checklist, motion analysis devices, and virtual reality simulators are effective tools for teaching and evaluating surgical skills. As the operating theater is also a place for training, there must be protocols and guidelines, including mandatory standards for supervision, to ensure that patient care is not compromised. Patients appreciate frank communication and honesty from surgeons regarding their expertise and level of competence. To ensure that surgical competence is maintained and keeps pace with technologic advances, professional registration bodies have been promoting programs for recertification. They evaluate performance in practice, professional standing, and commitment to ongoing education.

  14. Application of subsize specimens in nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Kumar, A.S.; Cannon, N.S.; Hamilton, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is sponsoring a research effort through Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Missouri-Rolla to test a correlation for the upper shelf energy (USE) values obtained from the impact testing of subsize Charpy V-notch specimens to those obtained from the testing of full-size samples. The program involves the impact testing of unirradiated and irradiated full-, half-, and third-size Charpy V-notch specimens. To verify the applicability of the correlation on LWR materials, unirradiated and irradiated full-, half-, and third-size Charpy V-notch specimens of a commercial pressure vessel steel (ASTM A533 Grade B) will be tested. The correlation methodology is based on the partitioning of the USE into crack initiation and crack propagation energies. To accomplish this partition, both precracked and notched-only specimens will be used. Whereas the USE of notched-only specimens is the sum of both crack initiation and crack propagation energies, the USE of precracked specimens reflects only the crack propagation component. The difference in the USE of the two types of specimens represents a measure of the crack initiation energy. Normalizing the values of the crack initiation energy to the fracture volume of the sample produces similar values for the full-, half-, and third-size specimens. In addition, the ratios of the USE and the crack propagation energy are also in agreement for full-, half-, and third-size specimens. These two observations will be used to predict the USE of full-size specimens based on subsize USE data. This paper provides details of the program and presents results obtained from the application of the developed correlation methodology to the impact testing of the unirradiated full-, half-, and third-size A533 Grade B Charpy V-notch specimens

  15. Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Triantopoulou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts. The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm. This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation, the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins. Missed findings by imaging or pitfalls were recorded and we tried to explain all discrepancies between radiology evaluation and the histopathological findings. Radiologic-pathologic correlation is extremely important, adding crucial information on imaging limitations and enabling quality assessment of surgical specimens. The deep knowledge of different pancreatic tumors’ consistency and way of extension helps to improve radiologists’ diagnostic accuracy and minimize the radiological-surgical mismatching, preventing patients from unnecessary surgery.

  16. Synchrotron radiation microprobe quantitative analysis method for biomedical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qing; Shao Hanru

    1994-01-01

    Relative changes of trace elemental content in biomedical specimens are obtained easily by means of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis (SXRFM). However, the accurate assignment of concentration on a g/g basis is difficult. Because it is necessary to know both the trace elemental content and the specimen mass in the irradiated volume simultaneously. the specimen mass is a function of the spatial position and can not be weighed. It is possible to measure the specimen mass indirectly by measuring the intensity of Compton scattered peak for normal XRF analysis using a X-ray tube with Mo anode, if the matrix was consisted of light elements and the specimen was a thin sample. The Compton peak is not presented in fluorescence spectrum for white light SXRFM analysis. The continuous background in the spectrum was resulted from the Compton scattering with a linear polarization X-ray source. Biomedical specimens for SXRFM analysis, for example biological section and human hair, are always a thin sample for high energy X-ray, and they consist of H,C,N and O etc. light elements, which implies a linear relationship between the specimen mass and the Compton scattering background in the high energy region of spectrum. By this way , it is possible to carry out measurement of concentration for SXRFM analysis

  17. Surgical Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azarmehr, Iman; Stokbro, Kasper; Bell, R. Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review investigates the most common indications, treatments, and outcomes of surgical navigation (SN) published from 2010 to 2015. The evolution of SN and its application in oral and maxillofacial surgery have rapidly developed over recent years, and therapeutic indicatio...

  18. Surgical Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Horeman, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a surgical instrument for minimall-invasive surgery, comprising a handle, a shaft and an actuating part, characterised by a gastight cover surrounding the shaft, wherein the cover is provided with a coupler that has a feed- through opening with a loskable seal,

  19. Prognostic value of tumor burden measurement using the number of tumors in non-surgical patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao; Wroblewski, Kristen; Pu, Yonglin

    2012-01-01

    Background: No study to test the feasibility and prognostic value of the number of primary tumors, the number of positive lymph nodes, and the total number of tumors in the whole body as tumor burden measurements on FDG PET/CT imaging has been reported. Purpose: To determine whether the number of tumors seen in 18F-FDG PET scans can be a prognostic factor in non-surgical patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Material and Methods: One hundred and forty patients with histologically proven NSCLC and baseline 18F-FDG PET scan before therapy were identified in this retrospective analysis. The total number of tumors (TTn) in the whole body, the number of primary tumors (Tn), positive lymph nodes (Nn), and distant metastases (Mn), along with the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the tumors were measured. Inter-observer variability of the total number of tumors, counted by two radiologists, was assessed. Survival analyses were performed to determine the prognostic value of the number of tumors. Results: Concordance correlation coefficients for the TTn, Tn, Nn, and Mn were all greater than 0.85. TTn and Nn were strong prognostic factors of NSCLC patients' overall survival (OS). In univariate Cox regression models, gender, stage, TTn, Nn, and Mn were statistically significant factors (P = 0.016, 0.032, 4. Conclusion: Measuring the number of tumors on FDG PET imaging is easy to perform with minimal inter-observer variability. The total number of tumors and number of nodal metastases, as metabolic tumor burden measurements in 18F-FDG PET/CT, are prognostic markers independent of clinical stage, age, gender, and SUV measurement in non-surgical patients with NSCLC

  20. Echosonography and surgical therapy of facial skin tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Zoran U.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the 20 century, echosonography has been used in many medical specialties. In 1992 and 1993 highfrequencies echosonography was used in the examination of irritant and allergic skin lesions in order to examine the effects of different therapeuthical agents on the skin lesions [1-4]. Hoffmann used highfrequencies echosonography in the examination of healing of skin lesions [3]. By their incidence skin tumors are the largest group of newly discovered tumors, and their usual location is on the face [5-7]. By clinical examination it is not possible to precisely determine the depth of tumor border; therefore, the radically performed surgical excision is the only correct surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to estimate the results of preoperatively performed high frequencies echosonography in order to reduce the number of incorrectly performed surgical excisions of skin tumors. The group was composed of 40 patients with 45 tumors, who first underwent echosonographic diagnostic procedure (20 MHz, Hadsund electronic, Hadsund Technology, Denmark and then surgical excision; patients in control group (45 patients with 45 tumors were only subjected to surgical excision. Excised tumors were then pathohistologically analyzed, and measurements of tumor depth progression were performed. Margins of pathohistological specimen were controlled for the presence of tumor cells. Results of measurements of tumor depth obtained by echosonography and pathohistological measurements were compared. By Jate's modification of c2 test results regarding correct and incorrect surgical excision in patients and control group were compared. By linear regression analysis results of tumor depth obtained by echosonographic and pathohistologic examinations were compared. Hypoechogen zone echosonographic results were used like criteria for tumor expansion. Results of tumor depth measurements are presented in Table 1. Linear regression analysis showed (R = 0

  1. Instrumented impact testing machine with reduced specimen oscillation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.; Rahka, K.; Wallin, K.

    1984-07-01

    Owing to small and inexpensive specimens the Charpy impact test is widely used in quality control and alloy development. Limitations in power reactor survellance capsules it is also widely used for safety analysis purposes. Instrumenting the tup and computerizing data acquisition, makes dynamic fracture mechanics data measurement possible and convenient. However, the dynamic effects (inertia forces, specimen oscillations) in the impact test cause inaccuracies in the recorded load-time diagram and hence diminish the reliability of the calculated dynamic fracture mechanics parameters. To decrease inaccuracies a new pendulum type of instrumented impact test apparatus has been developed and constructed in the Metals Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland. This tester is based on a new principle involving inverted test geometry. The purpose of the geometry inversion is to reduce inertia load and specimen oscillation effects. Further, the new impact tester has some other novel features: e.g. the available initia impact energy is about double compared to the conventional standard (300 J) impact tester allowing the use of larger (10 x 20 x 110 mm) bend specimens than normal Charpy specimens. Also, the rotation asix in the three point bending is nearly stationary making COD-measurements possible. An experimental test series is described in which the inertia effects and specimen oscillations are compared in the conventional and new impact tester utilizing Charpy V-notch specimens. Comparison of the two test geometries is also made with the aid of an analytical model using finite element method (FEM) analysis. (author)

  2. Notch effects in uniaxial tension specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delph, T.J.

    1979-03-01

    Results of a literature survey on the effect of notches on the time-dependent failure of uniaxial tension specimens at elevated temperatures are presented. Particular attention is paid to the failure of notched specimens containing weldments

  3. Bright field electron microscopy of biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, B.V.

    1976-01-01

    A preirradiation procedure is described which preserves negatively stained morphological features in bright field electron micrographs to a resolution of about 1.2 nm. Prior to microscopy the pre-irradiation dose (1.6 x 10 -3 C cm -2 ) is given at low electron optical magnification at five different areas on the grid (the centre plus four 'corners'). This pre-irradiation can be measured either with a Faraday cage or through controlled exposure-developing conditions. Uranyl formate stained T2 bacteriophages and stacked disk aggregates of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) protein served as test objects. A comparative study was performed on specimens using either the pre-irradiation procedure or direct irradiation by the 'minimum beam exposure' technique. Changes in the electron diffraction pattern of the stain-protein complex and the disappearance of certain morphological features in the specimens were both used in order to compare the pre-irradiation method with the direct exposure technique. After identical electron exposures the pre-irradiation approach gave a far better preservation of specimen morphology. Consequently this procedure gives the microscopist more time to select and focus appropriate areas for imaging before deteriorations take place. The investigation also suggested that microscopy should be carried out between 60,000 and 100,000 times magnification. Within this magnification range, it is possible to take advantage of the phase contrast transfer characteristics of the objective lens while the electron load on the object is kept at a moderate level. Using the pre-irradiation procedure special features of the T2 bacteriophage morphology could be established. (author)

  4. Final Report: Posttest Analysis of Omega II Optical Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newlander, C D; Fisher, J H

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary posttest analyses have been completed on optical specimens exposed during the Omega II test series conducted on 14 July 2006. The Omega Facility, located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester was used to produce X-ray environments through the interaction of intense pulsed laser radiation upon germanium-loaded silica aerogels. The optical specimen testing was supported by GH Systems through experiment design, pre- and post-test analyses, specimen acquisition, and overall technical experience. The test specimens were fabricated and characterized by Surface Optics Corporation (SOC), San Diego, CA and were simple protected gold coatings on silica substrates. Six test specimens were exposed, five filtered with thin beryllium foil filters, and one unfiltered which was exposed directly to the raw environment. The experimental objectives were: (1) demonstrate that tests of optical specimens could be performed at the Omega facility; (2) evaluate the use and survivability of beryllium foil filters as a function of thickness; (3) obtain damage data on optical specimens which ranged from no damage to damage; (4) correlate existing thermal response models with the damage data; (5) evaluate the use of the direct raw environment upon the specimen response and the ability/desirability to conduct sensitive optical specimen tests using the raw environment; and (6) initiate the development of a protocol for performing optical coatings/mirror tests. This report documents the activities performed by GH Systems in evaluating and using the environments provided by LLNL, the PUFFTFT analyses performed using those environments, and the calculated results compared to the observed and measured posttest data

  5. SHOULD EVERY APPENDECECTOMY SPECIMEN BE SUBJECTED TO HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION? A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF HISTOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN APPENDICECTOMY SPECIMENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahanuma Shaik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Appendicitis is one of the commonest surgical emergencies with a lifetime risk of 7-8%. The appendicectomy specimens operated upon clinically-suspected appendicitis often appear normal on gross examination, but histopathological evaluation may reveal a diverse underlying pathology. Therefore, for accurate diagnosis, histopathological examination of all appendicectomy specimens is mandatory. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of 175 appendicectomy cases operated over a period of two years. The clinical data and histopathological reports were reviewed and various histopathological findings are categorised. RESULTS Out of the total 175 appendicectomies, 155 emergency appendicectomy cases were included in the study, while 20 cases of incidental appendicectomy were excluded. The peak incidence was found in the 2nd and 3rd decades with male predominance. Among the 155 specimens, 96.8% had histological features of appendicitis and 1.9% were normal appendix. The unusual histopathological findings were Carcinoid tumour and Enterobius vermicularis. CONCLUSION The definitive diagnoses of appendicitis as well as the unusual incidental findings that were missed intraoperatively are established by histopathological examination. The study supports the histological examination of all resected appendicectomy specimens.

  6. Development of Reconstitution Technology for Surveillance Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasushi Atago; Shunichi Hatano; Eiichiro Otsuka

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) has been carrying out the project titled 'Nuclear Power Plant Integrated Management Technology (PLIM)' consigned by Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) since 1996FY as a 10-years project. As one of the project themes, development of reconstitution technology for reactor pressure vessel (RPV/RV) surveillance specimens, which are installed in RPVs to monitor the neutron irradiation embrittlement on RPV/RV materials, is now on being carried out to deal with the long-term operation of nuclear power plants. The target of this theme is to establish the technical standard for applicability of reconstituted surveillance specimens including the reconstitution of the Charpy specimens and Compact Tension (CT) specimens. With the Charpy specimen reconstitution, application of 10 mm length inserts is used, which enables the conversion of tests from the LT-direction to the TL-direction. This paper presents the basic data from Charpy and CT specimens of RPV materials using the surveillance specimens obtained for un-irradiated materials including the following. 1) Reconstitution Technology of Charpy Specimens. a) The interaction between plastic zone and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). b) The effects of the possible deviations from the standard specimens for the reconstituted specimens. 2) Reconstitution Technology of CT specimens. a) The correlation between fracture toughness and plastic zone width. Because the project is now in progress, this paper describes the outline of the results obtained as of the end of 2000 FY. (authors)

  7. Risk Assessment of Abdominal Wall Thickness Measured on Pre-Operative Computerized Tomography for Incisional Surgical Site Infection after Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongyoo, Assanee; Chatthamrak, Putipan; Sriussadaporn, Ekkapak; Limpavitayaporn, Palin; Mingmalairak, Chatchai

    2015-07-01

    The surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication of abdominal operation. It relates to increased hospital stay, increased healthcare cost, and decreased patient's quality of life. Obesity, usually defined by BMI, is known as one of the risks of SSI. However, the thickness of subcutaneous layers of abdominal wall might be an important local factor affecting the rate of SSI after the abdominal operations. The objective of this study is to assess the importance of the abdominal wall thickness on incisional SSI rate. The subjects of the present study were patients who had undergone major abdominal operations at Thammasat University Hospital between June 2013 and May 2014, and had been investigated with CT scans before their operations. The demographic data and clinical information of these patients were recorded. The thickness ofsubcutaneous fatty tissue from skin down to the most superficial layer of abdominal wall muscle at the surgical site was measured on CT images. The wound infectious complication was reviewed and categorized as superficial and deep incisional SSIfollowing the definition from Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines. The significance ofeach potentialfactors on SSI rates was determined separately with student t-test for quantitative data and χ2-test for categorical data. Then all factors, which had p operative CTscans. Post-operative SSI was 25.2% (35/139), superficial and deep types in 27 and 8 patients, respectively. The comparison of abdominal wall thickness between patients with and without infection was significantly different (20.0 ± 8.4 mm and 16.0 ± 7.2 mm, respectively). When the thickness at 20 mm was used as the cut-off value, 43 of 139 patients had abdominal wall thickness ≥ 20 mm. The incidence of SSI of the thickness ±20 mm group was 37.2% (16/43) and of the less thickness group was 19.8% (19/96), with p operation. However, only abdominal wall thickness and wound classification were still significant

  8. Monolithic integration of nanoscale tensile specimens and MEMS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kysar, Jeffrey W

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale materials often have stochastic material properties due to a random distribution of material defects and an insufficient number of defects to ensure a consistent average mechanical response. Current methods to measure the mechanical properties employ MEMS-based actuators. The nanoscale specimens are typically mounted manually onto the load platform, so the boundary conditions have random variations, complicating the experimental measurement of the intrinsic stochasticity of the material properties. Here we show methods for monolithic integration of a nanoscale specimen co-fabricated with the loading platform. The nanoscale specimen is gold with dimensions of ∼40 nm thickness, 350 ± 50 nm width, and 7 μm length and the loading platform is an interdigitated electrode electrostatic actuator. The experiment is performed in a scanning electron microscope and digital image correlation is employed to measure displacements to determine stress and strain. The ultimate tensile strength of the nanocrystalline nanoscale specimen approaches 1 GPa, consistent with measurements made by other nanometer scale sample characterization methods on other material samples at the nanometer scale, as well as gold samples at the nanometer scale. The batch-compatible microfabrication method can be used to create nominally identical nanoscale specimens and boundary conditions for a broad range of materials. (paper)

  9. Risk-adjusted morbidity in teaching hospitals correlates with reported levels of communication and collaboration on surgical teams but not with scale measures of teamwork climate, safety climate, or working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Daniel L; Henderson, William G; Mosca, Cecilia L; Khuri, Shukri F; Mentzer, Robert M

    2007-12-01

    Since the Institute of Medicine patient safety reports, a number of survey-based measures of organizational climate safety factors (OCSFs) have been developed. The goal of this study was to measure the impact of OCSFs on risk-adjusted surgical morbidity and mortality. Surveys were administered to staff on general/vascular surgery services during a year. Surveys included multiitem scales measuring OCSFs. Additionally, perceived levels of communication and collaboration with coworkers were assessed. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was used to assess risk-adjusted morbidity and mortality. Correlations between outcomes and OCSFs were calculated and between outcomes and communication/collaboration with attending and resident doctors, nurses, and other providers. Fifty-two sites participated in the survey: 44 Veterans Affairs and 8 academic medical centers. A total of 6,083 surveys were returned, for a response rate of 52%. The OCSF measures of teamwork climate, safety climate, working conditions, recognition of stress effects, job satisfaction, and burnout demonstrated internal validity but did not correlate with risk-adjusted outcomes. Reported levels of communication/collaboration with attending and resident doctors correlated with risk-adjusted morbidity. Survey-based teamwork, safety climate, and working conditions scales are not confirmed to measure organizational factors that influence risk-adjusted surgical outcomes. Reported communication/collaboration with attending and resident doctors on surgical services influenced patient morbidity. This suggests the importance of doctors' coordination and decision-making roles on surgical teams in providing high-quality and safe care. We propose risk-adjusted morbidity as an effective measure of surgical patient safety.

  10. Rapid virtual hematoxylin and eosin histology of breast tissue specimens using a compact fluorescence nonlinear microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Lucas C; Giacomelli, Michael G; Yoshitake, Tadayuki; Vardeh, Hilde; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly E; Connolly, James L; Sun, Chi-Kuang; Fujimoto, James G

    2018-01-01

    Up to 40% of patients undergoing breast conserving surgery for breast cancer require repeat surgeries due to close to or positive margins. The lengthy processing required for evaluating surgical margins by standard paraffin-embedded histology precludes its use during surgery and therefore, technologies for rapid evaluation of surgical pathology could improve the treatment of breast cancer by reducing the number of surgeries required. We demonstrate real-time histological evaluation of breast cancer surgical specimens by staining specimens with acridine orange (AO) and sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) analogously to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and then imaging the specimens with fluorescence nonlinear microscopy (NLM) using a compact femtosecond fiber laser. A video-rate computational light absorption model was used to produce realistic virtual H&E images of tissue in real time and in three dimensions. NLM imaging could be performed to depths of 100 μm below the tissue surface, which is important since many surgical specimens require subsurface evaluation due to contamination artifacts on the tissue surface from electrocautery, surgical ink, or debris from specimen handling. We validate this method by expert review of NLM images compared to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) H&E histology. Diagnostically important features such as normal terminal ductal lobular units, fibrous and adipose stromal parenchyma, inflammation, invasive carcinoma, and in situ lobular and ductal carcinoma were present in NLM images associated with pathologies identified on standard FFPE H&E histology. We demonstrate that AO and SR101 were extracted to undetectable levels after FFPE processing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) HER2 amplification status was unaffected by the NLM imaging protocol. This method potentially enables cost-effective, real-time histological guidance of surgical resections.

  11. Histopathologic analysis of appendectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shrestha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute appendicitis is one of the common conditions requiring emergency surgery. A retrospective study was performed to determine various histopathological diagnoses, their demographics and the rates of perforated appendicitis, negative appendectomy and incidental appendectomy. Materials and Methods: Histopathological records of resected appendices submitted to histopathology department Chitwan medical college teaching hospital over the period of 2 yrs from May, 2009 to April 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Out of 930 specimens of appendix, appendicitis accounted for 88.8% with peak age incidence in the age group of 11 to 30 yrs in both sexes. Histopathologic diagnoses included acute appendicitis (45.6%, acute suppurative (20.8%, gangrenous (16.3%, perforated (1.7%, resolving /recurrent/non specific chronic appendicitis (2.5%, acute eosinophilic appendicitis (1.2%, periappendicitis (0.2%, and carcinoid tumour (0.1%. Other important coexisting pathologies were parasitic infestation (0.2% and Meckel’s diverticulum (0.2%. Negative appendectomy rate was 10.8% and three times more common in females with peak occurrence in the age group of 21-30 yrs. There were 10 cases of acute appendicitis in incidental appendectomies (2.5%, 24 cases with 7 times more common in females of age group of 31- 60 yrs. Conclusion: There is a high incidence of appendicitis in adolescents and young adults in central south region of Nepal. Negative appendectomy is also very common in females. Incidental appendectomy in elderly females may have preventive value. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6025 JPN 2012; 2(3: 215-219

  12. Specimen size effects in Charpy impact testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.; Klueh, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Full-size , half-size, and third-size specimens from several different steels have been tested as part of an ongoing alloy development program. The smaller specimens permit more specimens to be made from small trail heats and are much more efficient for irradiation experiments. The results of several comparisons between the different specimen sizes have shown that the smaller specimens show qualitatively similar behavior to large specimens, although the upper-shelf energy level and ductile-to-ductile transition temperature are reduced. The upper-shelf energy levels from different specimen sizes can be compared by using a simple volume normalization method. The effect of specimen size and geometry on the ductile-to-ductile transition temperature is more difficult to predict, although the available data suggest a simple shift in the transition temperature due to specimen size changes.The relatively shallower notch used in smaller specimens alters the deformation pattern, and permits yielding to spread back to the notched surface as well as through to the back. This reduces the constraint and the peak stresses, and thus the initiation of cleavage is more difficult. A better understanding of the stress and strain distributions is needed. 19 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Imaging of concrete specimens using inverse synthetic aperture radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhim, Hong C.; Buyukozturk, Oral

    2000-01-01

    Radar Measurement results of laboratory size concrete specimens are presented in this paper. The purpose of this research work is to study various aspects of the radar method in an effort to develop an improved radar system for nondestructive testing of concrete structures. The radar system used for the study is an Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR), which is capable of transmitting microwaves at three different frequency ranges of 2-3.4, 3.4-5.8, and 8-12 GHz. Radar measurement setup is such that the radar is locates 14.4 m away from a concrete target to satisfy a far-field criterion. The concrete target is rotated for 20 degrees during the measurements for the generation of two-dimensional (cross-range) imagery. Concrete targets used for the measurements have the dimensions of 305 mm (width)x305 mm (height)x92 mm (thickness) with different inside configurations. Comparisons are made for dry and wet specimens, specimens with and without inclusions. Each specimen is made to model various situations that a concrete structure can have in reality. Results show that center frequency, frequency bandwidth, and polarization of the incident wave have different effects on identifying the thickness or inclusions inside concrete specimens. Results also suggest that a certain combination of measurement parameters is suitable for a specific application area. Thus, measurement parameters can be optimized for a specific problem. The findings are presented and discussed in details in the paper. Signal processing schemes implemented for imaging of the specimens are also discussed

  14. Preliminary investigation of candidate specimens for the Egyptian environmental specimen bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawky, S.; Amer, H.; Schladot, J.D.; Ostapczuk, P.; Emons, H.; Abou El-Nour, F.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of establishing an environmental monitoring program related to environmental specimen banking in egypt, some candidate specimens from the aquatic environment (Fish muscle, fish liver; mussels) were investigated. The selection of specimens and sampling sites is described. Specimens are chemically characterised with respect to some major and trace elements and the results are compared with data obtained from comparable specimens collected in aquatic ecosystems of germany

  15. Noninvasive, near infrared spectroscopic-measured muscle pH and PO2 indicate tissue perfusion for cardiac surgical patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Babs R.; Idwasi, Patrick O.; Balaguer, Jorge; Levin, Steven; Simsir, Sinan A.; Vander Salm, Thomas J.; Collette, Helen; Heard, Stephen O.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether near infrared spectroscopic measurement of tissue pH and Po2 has sufficient accuracy to assess variation in tissue perfusion resulting from changes in blood pressure and metabolic demand during cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: Eighteen elective cardiac surgical patients. INTERVENTION: Cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A near infrared spectroscopic fiber optic probe was placed over the hypothenar eminence. Reference Po2 and pH sensors were inserted in the abductor digiti minimi (V). Data were collected every 30 secs during surgery and for 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass. Calibration equations developed from one third of the data were used with the remaining data to investigate sensitivity of the near infrared spectroscopic measurement to physiologic changes resulting from cardiopulmonary bypass. Near infrared spectroscopic and reference pH and Po2 measurements were compared for each subject using standard error of prediction. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 at baseline were compared with values during cardiopulmonary bypass just before rewarming commenced (hypotensive, hypothermic), after rewarming (hypotensive, normothermic) just before discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass, and at 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass (normotensive, normothermic) using mixed-model analysis of variance. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 were well correlated with the invasive measurement of pH (R2 =.84) and Po2 (R 2 =.66) with an average standard error of prediction of 0.022 +/- 0.008 pH units and 6 +/- 3 mm Hg, respectively. The average difference between the invasive and near infrared spectroscopic measurement was near zero for both the pH and Po2 measurements. Near infrared spectroscopic Po2 significantly decreased 50% on initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass and remained depressed throughout the bypass and

  16. Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantopoulou, Charikleia; Papaparaskeva, Kleo; Agalianos, Christos; Dervenis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    •The axial slicing technique offers many advantages in accurate estimation of tumors extend and staging.•Cross-sectional axial imaging is the best technique for accurate radiologic-pathologic correlation.•Correlation may explain any discrepancies between radiological and histopathological findings.•Pathology correlation may offer a better understanding of the missed findings by imaging or pitfalls The axial slicing technique offers many advantages in accurate estimation of tumors extend and staging. Cross-sectional axial imaging is the best technique for accurate radiologic-pathologic correlation. Correlation may explain any discrepancies between radiological and histopathological findings. Pathology correlation may offer a better understanding of the missed findings by imaging or pitfalls The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts). The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm). This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation), the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins

  17. Friction Compensation in the Upsetting of Cylindrical Test Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Martins, P. A. F.; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript presents a combined numerical andexperimental methodology for determining the stress-straincurve of metallic materials from the measurements of forceand displacement obtained in the axial compression of cylindrical test specimens with friction between the specimens and the platens....... The methodology is based on minimizing the errorbetween the average surface pressure obtained from the experimental measurements of the force and displacement and thatobtained from the slab method of analysis of metal plasticity.Three different friction models based on Coulomb friction, the constant friction...... model or combined friction models are utilized .Experimental results obtained from cylindrical and Rastegaev test specimens with different lubricants combined with the experimental determination of friction by means of ring compression tests allows compensating the effect of friction...

  18. A test specimen for characterizing the fracture energy of interfaces in composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, L.; Abbaschian, R.

    1993-01-01

    A sandwich-type chevron-notched specimen, which has a phase angle of loading near zero, is proposed to measure interfacial fracture energy arising mainly from chemical bonding. With the specimen configuration of this kind, the advantages from both sandwich test specimens and chevron-notched specimens can be combined to provide an easy and accurate test for the measurement of interfacial fracture energy. The validity of the specimen has been analyzed in terms of the mechanics of sandwich-type specimens and chevron-notched specimens, and demonstrated using the Al 2 O 3 /Nb bimaterial system. The results show that for a phase angle of loading around -7 degrees the Al 2 O 3 /Nb interface has a fracture energy of 9.3 ± 0.2 J/m 2 . 39 refs

  19. Output control of da Vinci surgical system's surgical graspers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul J; Schmidt, David E; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar

    2014-01-01

    The number of robot-assisted surgeries performed with the da Vinci surgical system has increased significantly over the past decade. The articulating movements of the robotic surgical grasper are controlled by grip controls at the master console. The user interface has been implicated as one contributing factor in surgical grasping errors. The goal of our study was to characterize and evaluate the user interface of the da Vinci surgical system in controlling surgical graspers. An angular manipulator with force sensors was used to increment the grip control angle as grasper output angles were measured. Input force at the grip control was simultaneously measured throughout the range of motion. Pressure film was used to assess the maximum grasping force achievable with the endoscopic grasping tool. The da Vinci robot's grip control angular input has a nonproportional relationship with the grasper instrument output. The grip control mechanism presents an intrinsic resistant force to the surgeon's fingertips and provides no haptic feedback. The da Vinci Maryland graspers are capable of applying up to 5.1 MPa of local pressure. The angular and force input at the grip control of the da Vinci robot's surgical graspers is nonproportional to the grasper instrument's output. Understanding the true relationship of the grip control input to grasper instrument output may help surgeons understand how to better control the surgical graspers and promote fewer grasping errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Small specimen technique for assessing mechanical properties of metallic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Morcelli, Aparecido E., E-mail: rmlobo@ipen.br, E-mail: morcelliae@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most promising techniques of small specimen test, which was originally applied in testing of irradiated materials in nuclear engineering. Then it was introduced to other fields as an almost nondestructive method to measure the local mechanical properties that are difficult to be obtained using conventional mechanical tests. Most studies to date are focused on metallic materials, although SPT applications are recently spreading to other materials. The small punch test (SPT) employs small-sized specimens (for example, samples measuring 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick). The specimen is firmly clamped between two circular dies and is bi-axially strained until failure into a circular hole using a hemispherical punch. The 'load-punch displacement' record can be used to estimate the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, the tensile elongation, and the temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Recently, some researchers are working on the use of miniature notched or pre-cracked specimens (denoted as p-SPT) to validate its geometry and dimensions for obtaining the fracture properties of metallic materials. In a first approach, the technique makes it possible to convert primary experimental data into conventional mechanical properties of a massive specimen. In this paper a comprehensive review of the different STP applications is presented with the aim of clarifying its usefulness. (author)

  1. Small specimen technique for assessing mechanical properties of metallic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Raquel M.; Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Morcelli, Aparecido E.

    2017-01-01

    Small Punch Test (SPT) is one of the most promising techniques of small specimen test, which was originally applied in testing of irradiated materials in nuclear engineering. Then it was introduced to other fields as an almost nondestructive method to measure the local mechanical properties that are difficult to be obtained using conventional mechanical tests. Most studies to date are focused on metallic materials, although SPT applications are recently spreading to other materials. The small punch test (SPT) employs small-sized specimens (for example, samples measuring 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick). The specimen is firmly clamped between two circular dies and is bi-axially strained until failure into a circular hole using a hemispherical punch. The 'load-punch displacement' record can be used to estimate the yield strength, the ultimate tensile strength, the tensile elongation, and the temperature of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Recently, some researchers are working on the use of miniature notched or pre-cracked specimens (denoted as p-SPT) to validate its geometry and dimensions for obtaining the fracture properties of metallic materials. In a first approach, the technique makes it possible to convert primary experimental data into conventional mechanical properties of a massive specimen. In this paper a comprehensive review of the different STP applications is presented with the aim of clarifying its usefulness. (author)

  2. Specimen preparation of irradiated materials for examination in the atom probe field ion microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    The atom probe field ion microscope (APFIM) requires specimens in the form of ultrasharp needles. Basic protective measures used to reduce exposure druing specimen preparation are discussed. The low-level radioactive specimen blanks may be made using a two-stage electropolishing process using a thin layer of electrolyte floating on a denser inert liquid; this produces a necked region and eventually two specimens from each single blank. The amount of material handled may also be reduced using a micropolishing technique to repolish blunt or fractured specimens. Control of contamination and possible spills is discussed

  3. AGC-2 Specimen Post Irradiation Data Package Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windes, William Enoch [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swank, W. David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rohrbaugh, David T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cottle, David L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report documents results of the post-irradiation examination material property testing of the creep, control, and piggyback specimens from the irradiation creep capsule Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC)-2 are reported. This is the second of a series of six irradiation test trains planned as part of the AGC experiment to fully characterize the neutron irradiation effects and radiation creep behavior of current nuclear graphite grades. The AGC-2 capsule was irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor at a nominal temperature of 600°C and to a peak dose of 5 dpa (displacements per atom). One-half of the creep specimens were subjected to mechanical stresses (an applied stress of either 13.8, 17.2, or 20.7 MPa) to induce irradiation creep. All post-irradiation testing and measurement results are reported with the exception of the irradiation mechanical strength testing, which is the last destructive testing stage of the irradiation testing program. Material property tests were conducted on specimens from 15 nuclear graphite grades using a similar loading configuration as the first AGC capsule (AGC-1) to provide easy comparison between the two capsules. However, AGC-2 contained an increased number of specimens (i.e., 487 total specimens irradiated) and replaced specimens of the minor grade 2020 with the newer grade 2114. The data reported include specimen dimensions for both stressed and unstressed specimens to establish the irradiation creep rates, mass and volume data necessary to derive density, elastic constants (Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio) from ultrasonic time-of-flight velocity measurements, Young’s modulus from the fundamental frequency of vibration, electrical resistivity, and thermal diffusivity and thermal expansion data from 100–500°C. No data outliers were determined after all measurements were completed. A brief statistical analysis was performed on the irradiated data and a limited comparison between

  4. Single center outcomes after reconstructive surgical correction of adult acquired buried penis: measurements of erectile function, depression, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, James; Larsen, Stephen; Yu, Michelle; Levine, Laurence A

    2014-04-01

    Management of adult acquired buried penis is a troublesome situation for both patient and surgeon. The buried penis has been associated with significant erectile and voiding dysfunction, depression, and overall poor quality of life (QOL). To identify outcomes following reconstructive surgery with release of buried penis, escutcheonectomy, and circumcision with or without skin grafting. We retrospectively identified 11 patients treated by a single surgeon between 2007 and 2011, patient ages were 44-69; complete data review was available on all 11. Validated European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 15 QOL, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) surveys assessed patient QOL, depression, and erectile function pre- and postoperatively. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 48.8 (42.4-64.6). Mean operative time was 191 minutes (139-272). Mean length of stay was 2.1 days. Ten of 11 patients required phallic skin grafting. There was one perioperative complication resulting in respiratory failure and overnight stay in the intensive care unit. Wound complications were seen in 2/11 patients, and 1 needed surgical debridement for superficial wound infection. Skin graft take was seen in 100% of the patients. Ninety-one percent of patients noted significant improvement in voiding postoperatively. Ninety-one percent of patients reported significant erectile dysfunction preoperatively. Subsequently, IIEF scores improved post surgery by an average of 7.7 points. Clinical depression was noted to be present in 7/11 patients preoperatively and 2/11 postoperatively based on CES-D surveys. QOL improved significantly in 10/11 compared with preoperative baseline; however, many patients noted significant difficulties based on their weight and other comorbidities. Management of adult acquired buried penis is a challenging, yet correctable problem. In our series it appears that by using established surgical

  5. 7 CFR 97.8 - Specimen requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen requirements. 97.8 Section 97.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... required by the examiner to furnish representative specimens of the variety, or its flower, fruit, or seeds...

  6. Recent advances on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Lobo, Raquel M.; Miranda, Carlos Alexandre J., E-mail: aandrade@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Charpy specimen reconstitution is widely used around the world as a tool to enhance or supplement surveillance programs of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The reconstitution technique consists in the incorporation of a small piece from a previously tested specimen into a compound specimen, allowing to increase the number of tests. This is especially important if the available materials is restricted and fracture mechanics parameter have to be determined. The reconstitution technique must fulfill some demands, among them tests results like the original standard specimens and the loaded material of the insert must not be influenced by the welding and machining procedure. It is known that reconstitution of Charpy specimens may affect the impact energy in a consequence of the constraint of plastic deformation by the hardened weldment and HAZ. This paper reviews some recent advances of the reconstitution technique and its applications. (author)

  7. Recent advances on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Lobo, Raquel M.; Miranda, Carlos Alexandre J.

    2017-01-01

    Charpy specimen reconstitution is widely used around the world as a tool to enhance or supplement surveillance programs of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The reconstitution technique consists in the incorporation of a small piece from a previously tested specimen into a compound specimen, allowing to increase the number of tests. This is especially important if the available materials is restricted and fracture mechanics parameter have to be determined. The reconstitution technique must fulfill some demands, among them tests results like the original standard specimens and the loaded material of the insert must not be influenced by the welding and machining procedure. It is known that reconstitution of Charpy specimens may affect the impact energy in a consequence of the constraint of plastic deformation by the hardened weldment and HAZ. This paper reviews some recent advances of the reconstitution technique and its applications. (author)

  8. The effect of specimen thickness on the experimental and finite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    as a fracture parameter and the J-CTOD relation for the determination of critical ... fracture behaviour of EDD (0·06%C) steel sheets with CT specimens and using ... On the other hand, in the predominantly plane stress region, if the toughness value ..... (iii) Hardness measurement – The plastic zone size and shape is also ...

  9. LPTR irradiation of LLL vanadium tensile specimens and LLL Nb--1Zr tensile specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, S.C.; Rowe, C.L.

    1977-01-01

    The LPTR irradiation of 14 LLL vanadium tensile specimens and 14 LLL Nb-1Zr tensile specimens is described. Sample packaging, the irradiation schedule and neutron fluences for three energy ranges are given

  10. Single specimen fracture toughness determination procedure using instrumented impact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1993-04-01

    In the study a new single specimen test method and testing facility for evaluating dynamic fracture toughness has been developed. The method is based on the application of a new pendulum type instrumented impact tester equipped with and optical crack mouth opening displacement (COD) extensometer. The fracture toughness measurement technique uses the Double Displacement Ratio (DDR) method, which is based on the assumption that the specimen is deformed as two rigid arms that rotate around an apparent centre of rotation. This apparent moves as the crack grows, and the ratio of COD versus specimen displacement changes. As a consequence the onset ductile crack initiation can be detected on the load-displacement curve. Thus, an energy-based fracture toughness can be calculated. In addition the testing apparatus can use specimens with the Double ligament size as compared with the standard Charpy specimen which makes the impact testing more appropriate from the fracture mechanics point of view. The novel features of the testing facility and the feasibility of the new DDR method has been verified by performing an extensive experimental and analytical study. (99 refs., 91 figs., 27 tabs.)

  11. Thermal expansion of epoxy-fiberglass composite specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Bridgman, C.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal expansion behavior of three epoxy-fiberglass composite specimens was measured from 20 to 120 0 C (70 to 250 0 F) using a fused quartz push-rod dilatometer. Billets produced by vacuum impregnating layers of two types of fiberglass cloth with an epoxy resin were core-drilled to produce cylindrical specimens. These were used to study expansion perpendicular and parallel to the fiberglass layers. The dilatometer is held at a preselected temperature until steady-state is indicated by stable length and temperature data. Before testing the composite specimens, a reliability check of the dilatometer was performed using a copper secondary standard. This indicated thermal expansion coefficient (α) values within +-2% of expected values from 20 to 200 0 C

  12. Strip specimen tests for pipeline materials and girth welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, William C. [Edison Welding Institute (EWI), Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Strip specimen testing of pipeline materials has been widely applied as a method of getting data relevant to the performance of pipelines under axial direction loading. Comparisons of strip specimen against smaller standard tests (round tensile bar, fracture toughness specimens, polished round bars) and against full-scale or large-scale testing will be explored. Data from early-generation pipe welds from the 1920's to the 1940's to the most recent materials for offshore reeled pipe will be used for examples. Strip samples can provide full thickness information to take account of varying material properties or imperfection distribution through the thickness. Strip samples can also accommodate measurement of effects of the original surface finish or weld surface shape. Strip samples have more design flexibility than standard tests, but must be designed to limit stress concentrations and effects of local bending. (author)

  13. Methods and devices for small specimen testing at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jitsukawa, Shiro; Kizaki, Minoru; Umino, Akira; Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Hishinuma, Akimichi

    1993-01-01

    Devices for a punch test on annular notched specimens, small punch (SP) tests, and miniaturized tension tests in hot cells were developed. A micro-manipulator to handle small specimens and an electro-discharge machine (EDM) to extract miniaturized tension specimens and annular notched specimens from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disks were also fabricated. These devices were designed and made for remote operation in hot cells. Preliminary tests to evaluate the applicability of test methods were carried out. Correlation between SP test results and tensile properties was not strong. Miniaturized tensile results were reasonably similar to the results with larger specimens. The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) by the punch test on annular notched specimens was higher than that obtained from the SP test. However, materials dependence of the DBTT was different from that measured by standard Charpy V-notch (CVN) tests. This may be due to a specimen size effect

  14. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1610 - Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack 3 Figure 3 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Holder Supported in Specimen Rack ER25MR08.002 ...

  15. Finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in thin semiconductor specimens for electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somodi, P.K.; Twitchett-Harrison, A.C.; Midgley, P.A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Kardynał, B.E. [Peter Grünberg Institute 9, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Barnes, C.H.W. [Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Dunin-Borkowski, R.E., E-mail: rafaldb@gmail.com [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute 5, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Two-dimensional finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in parallel-sided semiconductor specimens that contain p–n junctions are used to assess the effect of the electrical state of the surface of a thin specimen on projected potentials measured using off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope. For a specimen that is constrained to have an equipotential surface, the simulations show that the step in the projected potential across a p–n junction is always lower than would be predicted from the properties of the bulk device, but is relatively insensitive to the value of the surface state energy, especially for thicker specimens and higher dopant concentrations. The depletion width measured from the projected potential, however, has a complicated dependence on specimen thickness. The results of the simulations are of broader interest for understanding the influence of surfaces and interfaces on electrostatic potentials in nanoscale semiconductor devices. - Highlights: • Finite element simulations are performed to calculate electrostatic dopant potentials in TEM specimens that contain p–n junctions. • The effect of the electrical state of the specimen surface on the projected potential is assessed for equipotential specimen surfaces. • The step in projected potential is always found to be lower than the step in potential in the bulk device. • The step in projected potential is least sensitive to surface state energy for thicker specimens and higher dopant concentrations. • The depletion width measured from the projected potential has a complicated dependence on specimen thickness.

  16. Finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in thin semiconductor specimens for electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somodi, P.K.; Twitchett-Harrison, A.C.; Midgley, P.A.; Kardynał, B.E.; Barnes, C.H.W.; Dunin-Borkowski, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in parallel-sided semiconductor specimens that contain p–n junctions are used to assess the effect of the electrical state of the surface of a thin specimen on projected potentials measured using off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope. For a specimen that is constrained to have an equipotential surface, the simulations show that the step in the projected potential across a p–n junction is always lower than would be predicted from the properties of the bulk device, but is relatively insensitive to the value of the surface state energy, especially for thicker specimens and higher dopant concentrations. The depletion width measured from the projected potential, however, has a complicated dependence on specimen thickness. The results of the simulations are of broader interest for understanding the influence of surfaces and interfaces on electrostatic potentials in nanoscale semiconductor devices. - Highlights: • Finite element simulations are performed to calculate electrostatic dopant potentials in TEM specimens that contain p–n junctions. • The effect of the electrical state of the specimen surface on the projected potential is assessed for equipotential specimen surfaces. • The step in projected potential is always found to be lower than the step in potential in the bulk device. • The step in projected potential is least sensitive to surface state energy for thicker specimens and higher dopant concentrations. • The depletion width measured from the projected potential has a complicated dependence on specimen thickness

  17. Differential contributions of specimen types, culturing, and 16S rRNA sequencing in diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Heimann; Khalid, Vesal; Xu, Yijuan

    2018-01-01

    to variations in specimen sampling. In this prospective, multidisciplinary study of hip or knee prosthetic failures, we assessed the contributions of different specimen types, extended culture incubations, and 16S rRNA sequencing for diagnosing prosthetic joint infections (PJI). Project specimens included joint...... fluid (JF), bone biopsy specimens (BB), soft-tissue biopsy specimens (STB), and swabs (SW) from the prosthesis, collected in situ, and sonication fluid collected from prosthetic components (PC). Specimens were cultured for 6 (conventional) or 14 days, and 16S rRNA sequencing was performed at study...... completion. Of the 156 patients enrolled, 111 underwent 114 surgical revisions (cases) due to indications of either PJI (n = 43) or AF (n = 71). Conventional tissue biopsy cultures confirmed PJI in 28/43 (65%) cases and refuted AF in 3/71 (4%) cases; one case was not evaluable. Based on these results, minor...

  18. Handling of biological specimens for electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, G.

    1987-01-01

    There are many different aspects of specimen preparation procedure which need to be considered in order to achieve good results. Whether using the scanning or transmission microscope, the initial handling procedures are very similar and are selected for the information required. Handling procedures and techniques described are: structural preservation; immuno-and histo-chemistry; x-ray microanalysis and autoradiography; dehydration and embedding; mounting and coating specimens for scanning electron microscopy; and sectioning of resin embedded material. With attention to detail and careful choice of the best available technique, excellent results should be obtainable whatever the specimen. 6 refs

  19. Evaluation of irradiated coating material specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Jin; Nam, Seok Woo; Cho, Lee Moon

    2007-12-01

    Evaluation result of irradiated coating material specimens - Coating material specimens radiated Gamma Energy(Co 60) in air condition. - Evaluation conditions was above 1 X 10 4 Gy/hr, and radiated TID 2.0 X 10 6 Gy. - The radiated coating material specimens, No Checking, Cracking, Flaking, Delamination, Peeling and Blistering. - Coating system at the Kori no. 1 and APR 1400 Nuclear power plant, evaluation of irradiated coating materials is in accordance with owner's requirement(2.0 X 10 6 Gy)

  20. Nuclear microscopy of biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, F.; Grime, G.W.; Brook, A.J.; Gadd, G.M.; Perry, C.C.; Pearce, R.B.; Turnau, K.; Watkinson, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in technology have enabled the scanning proton microprobe to scan at submicron spatial resolution on a routine basis. The use of the powerful combination of techniques PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission), nuclear (or Rutherford) backscattering (RBS), and secondary electron detection operating at this resolution will open up new areas in many scientific disciplines. This paper describes some of the work carried out in the biological sciences over the last year, using the Oxford SPM facility. Collaborations with biological scientists have drawn attention to the wealth of information that can be derived when these techniques are applied to micro-organisms, cells and plant tissue. Briefly described here are investigations into the uptake of heavy metals by the alga Pandorina morum, the structure of the diatom Stephanopyxis turris, the presence of various types of crystal structures within the cells of Spirogyra, the heavy metal uptake of a mycorrhizal fungus present in the bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) root, the role of sphagnum moss in the absorption of inorganic elements, the measurement of heavy metals in environmentally-adapted cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the elemental distribution in the growing tip of a spore from the plant Equisetum arvense, with special emphasis placed on the visual interpretation of the elemental and secondary-electron maps provided by the nuclear microscopical techniques. (orig.)

  1. Ultrasonic absorption in solid specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwabessy, P.J. W.; Stewart, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a project to measure the absorption of high frequency (50 - 500 kHz) sonar signals in warm sea-water, a laboratory apparatus has been constructed and tested against room temperature distilled water and various solutions of MgSO 4 (chemical relaxation of MgSO 4 is the major contribution to absorption below 200 kHz). The technique involves monitoring the decay of an acoustic signal for different sizes of vessels of water suspended in an evacuated chamber. So far, all containing vessels used have been spherical in shape. Extrapolation of the results to infinite volume yields the absorption due to the water alone. In order to accommodate variations in temperature and pressure, and to make the system more robust (e.g. for ship deck usage), it is desirable to employ stainless steel vessels. However, it was found that the quality of the data was greatly improved when pyrex glass spheres were used. The stainless steel spheres were manufactured by welding together mechanically spun hemispheres. The linear frequency dependence characteristic of acoustic absorption in solids was observed (in contrast to the quadratic frequency dependence of acoustic absorption in water), and the acoustic absorption was found to depend strongly on the thermal history of the steel

  2. Thick Concrete Specimen Construction, Testing, and Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoegh, Kyle [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Khazanovich, Lev [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations. A preliminary report detailed some of the challenges associated with thick reinforced concrete sections and prioritized conceptual designs of specimens that could be fabricated to represent NPP concrete structures for using in NDE evaluation comparisons. This led to the construction of the concrete specimen presented in this report, which has sufficient reinforcement density and cross-sectional size to represent an NPP containment wall. Details on how a suitably thick concrete specimen was constructed are presented, including the construction materials, final nominal design schematic, as well as formwork and rigging required to safely meet the desired dimensions of the concrete structure. The report also details the type and methods of forming the concrete specimen as well as information on how the rebar and simulated defects were embedded. Details on how the resulting specimen was transported, safely anchored, and marked to allow access for systematic comparative NDE testing of defects in a representative NPP containment wall concrete specimen are also given. Data collection using the MIRA Ultrasonic NDE equipment and

  3. 50 CFR 14.24 - Scientific specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS... international mail system. Provided, that this exception will not apply to any specimens or parts thereof taken...

  4. Impact of specimen adequacy on the assessment of renal allograft biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimen, S; Geldenhuys, L; Guler, S; Imamoglu, A; Molinari, M

    2016-01-01

    The Banff classification was introduced to achieve uniformity in the assessment of renal allograft biopsies. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of specimen adequacy on the Banff classification. All renal allograft biopsies obtained between July 2010 and June 2012 for suspicion of acute rejection were included. Pre-biopsy clinical data on suspected diagnosis and time from renal transplantation were provided to a nephropathologist who was blinded to the original pathological report. Second pathological readings were compared with the original to assess agreement stratified by specimen adequacy. Cohen's kappa test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analyses. Forty-nine specimens were reviewed. Among these specimens, 81.6% were classified as adequate, 6.12% as minimal, and 12.24% as unsatisfactory. The agreement analysis among the first and second readings revealed a kappa value of 0.97. Full agreement between readings was found in 75% of the adequate specimens, 66.7 and 50% for minimal and unsatisfactory specimens, respectively. There was no agreement between readings in 5% of the adequate specimens and 16.7% of the unsatisfactory specimens. For the entire sample full agreement was found in 71.4%, partial agreement in 20.4% and no agreement in 8.2% of the specimens. Statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test yielded a P value above 0.25 showing that - probably due to small sample size - the results were not statistically significant. Specimen adequacy may be a determinant of a diagnostic agreement in renal allograft specimen assessment. While additional studies including larger case numbers are required to further delineate the impact of specimen adequacy on the reliability of histopathological assessments, specimen quality must be considered during clinical decision making while dealing with biopsy reports based on minimal or unsatisfactory specimens.

  5. Specimen environments in thermal neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebula, D.J.

    1980-11-01

    This report is an attempt to collect into one place outline information concerning the techniques used and basic design of sample environment apparatus employed in neutron scattering experiments. Preliminary recommendations for the specimen environment programme of the SNS are presented. The general conclusion reached is that effort should be devoted towards improving reliability and efficiency of operation of specimen environment apparatus and developing systems which are robust and easy to use, rather than achieving performance at the limits of technology. (author)

  6. Thermal property testing technique on micro specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Tetsuya; Kishimoto, Isao; Taketoshi, Naoyuki

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at establishment of further development on some testing techniques on the nuclear advanced basic research accumulated by the National Research Laboratory of Metrology for ten years. For this purpose, a technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of less than 3 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness of micro specimen and technology to test heat diffusion ratio at micro area of less than 1 mm in area along cross section of less than 10 mm in diameter of column specimen were developed to contribute to common basic technology supporting the nuclear power field. As a result, as an element technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of the micro specimen, a specimen holding technique stably to hold a micro specimen with 3 mm in diameter could be developed. And, for testing the specific heat capacity by using the laser flush differential calorimetry, a technique to hold two specimen of 5 mm in diameter at their proximities was also developed. In addition, by promoting development of thermal property data base capable of storing thermal property data obtained in this study and with excellent workability in this 1998 fiscal year a data in/out-put program with graphical user interface could be prepared. (G.K.)

  7. Comparative study on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdiliau, B.; Decroix, G.-M.; Averty, X.; Wident, P.; Bienvenu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Welding processes are used to reconstitute previously tested Charpy specimens. → Stud welding is preferred for a quick installation, almost immediately operational. → Friction welding produces better quality welds, but requires a development effort. - Abstract: Reconstitution techniques are often used to allow material from previously fractured Charpy-V specimens to be reused for additional experiments. This paper presents a comparative experimental study of various reconstitution techniques and evaluates the feasibility of these methods for future use in shielded cells. The following techniques were investigated: arc stud welding, 6.0 kW CO 2 continuous wave laser welding, 4.5 kW YAG continuous wave laser welding and friction welding. Subsize Charpy specimens were reconstituted using a 400 W YAG pulsed wave laser. The best result was obtained with arc stud welding; the resilience of the reconstituted specimens and the load-displacement curves agreed well with the reference specimens, and the temperature elevation caused by the welding process was limited to the vicinity of the weld. Good results were also obtained with friction welding; this process led to the best quality welds. Laser welding seems to have affected the central part of the specimens, thus leading to different resilience values and load-displacement curves.

  8. Micro-surgical endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Vere, J; Ali, Z; Harris, I

    2014-02-01

    Non-surgical endodontic retreatment is the treatment of choice for endodontically treated teeth with recurrent or residual disease in the majority of cases. In some cases, surgical endodontic treatment is indicated. Successful micro-surgical endodontic treatment depends on the accuracy of diagnosis, appropriate case selection, the quality of the surgical skills, and the application of the most appropriate haemostatic agents and biomaterials. This article describes the armamentarium and technical procedures involved in performing micro-surgical endodontics to a high standard.

  9. Study of amended reports to evaluate and improve surgical pathology processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Frederick A; Varney, Ruan C; Zarbo, Richard J

    2011-09-01

    : Amended surgical pathology reports record defects in the process of transforming tissue specimens into diagnostic information. : Systematic study of amended reports tests 2 hypotheses: (a) that tracking amendment frequencies and the distribution of amendment types reveals relevant aspects of quality in surgical pathology's daily transformation of specimens into diagnoses and (b) that such tracking measures the effect, or lack of effect, of efforts to improve surgical pathology processes. : We applied a binary definition of altered reports as either amendments or addenda and a taxonomy of defects that caused amendments as misidentifications, specimen defects, misinterpretations, and report defects. During the introduction of a LEAN process improvement approach-the Henry Ford Productions System-we followed trends in amendment rates and defect fractions to (a) evaluate specific interventions, (b) sort case-by-case root causes of misidentifications, specimen defects, and misinterpretations, and (c) audit the ongoing accuracy of the classification of changed reports. LEAN is the management and production system of the Toyota Motor Corporation that promotes continuous improvement; it considers wasted resources expended for purposes other than creating value for end customers and targets such expenditures for elimination. : Introduction of real-time editing of amendments saw annual amendment rates increase from 4.8/1000 to 10.1/1000 and then decrease in an incremental manner to 5.6/1000 as Henry Ford Productions System-specific interventions were introduced. Before introduction of HFPS interventions, about a fifth of the amendments were due to misidentifications, a 10th were due to specimen defects, a quarter due to misinterpretation, and almost half were due to report defects. During the period of the initial application of HFPS, the fraction of amendments due to misidentifications decreased as those due to report defects increased, in a statistically linked manner. As

  10. Clinicopathologic features of incidental prostatic adenocarcinoma in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuruskan Hakan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to review all features of incidentally discovered prostate adenocarcinoma in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer. Methods The medical charts of 300 male patients who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer between 1997 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 62 (range 51-75 years. Results Prostate adenocarcinoma was present in 60 (20% of 300 specimens. All were acinar adenocarcinoma. Of these, 40 (66.7% were located in peripheral zone, 20 (33.3% had pT2a tumor, 12 (20% had pT2b tumor, 22(36.7% had pT2c and, 6 (10% had pT3a tumor. Gleason score was 6 or less in 48 (80% patients. Surgical margins were negative in 54 (90% patients, and tumor volume was less than 0.5 cc in 23 (38.3% patients. Of the 60 incidentally detected cases of prostate adenocarcinoma 40 (66.7% were considered clinically significant. Conclusion Incidentally detected prostate adenocarcinoma is frequently observed in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens. The majority are clinically significant.

  11. Analytical Validation of a Highly Quantitative, Sensitive, Accurate, and Reproducible Assay (HERmark® for the Measurement of HER2 Total Protein and HER2 Homodimers in FFPE Breast Cancer Tumor Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Larson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the results of the analytical validation of assays that measure HER2 total protein (H2T and HER2 homodimer (H2D expression in Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE breast cancer tumors as well as cell line controls. The assays are based on the VeraTag technology platform and are commercially available through a central CAP-accredited clinical reference laboratory. The accuracy of H2T measurements spans a broad dynamic range (2-3 logs as evaluated by comparison with cross-validating technologies. The measurement of H2T expression demonstrates a sensitivity that is approximately 7–10 times greater than conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC (HercepTest. The HERmark assay is a quantitative assay that sensitively and reproducibly measures continuous H2T and H2D protein expression levels and therefore may have the potential to stratify patients more accurately with respect to response to HER2-targeted therapies than current methods which rely on semiquantitative protein measurements (IHC or on indirect assessments of gene amplification (FISH.

  12. Specimen-specific modeling of hip fracture pattern and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azhar A; Cristofolini, Luca; Schileo, Enrico; Hu, Haixiang; Taddei, Fulvia; Kim, Raymond H; Rullkoetter, Paul J; Laz, Peter J

    2014-01-22

    Hip fracture remains a major health problem for the elderly. Clinical studies have assessed fracture risk based on bone quality in the aging population and cadaveric testing has quantified bone strength and fracture loads. Prior modeling has primarily focused on quantifying the strain distribution in bone as an indicator of fracture risk. Recent advances in the extended finite element method (XFEM) enable prediction of the initiation and propagation of cracks without requiring a priori knowledge of the crack path. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to predict femoral fracture in specimen-specific models using the XFEM approach, to perform one-to-one comparisons of predicted and in vitro fracture patterns, and to develop a framework to assess the mechanics and load transfer in the fractured femur when it is repaired with an osteosynthesis implant. Five specimen-specific femur models were developed from in vitro experiments under a simulated stance loading condition. Predicted fracture patterns closely matched the in vitro patterns; however, predictions of fracture load differed by approximately 50% due to sensitivity to local material properties. Specimen-specific intertrochanteric fractures were induced by subjecting the femur models to a sideways fall and repaired with a contemporary implant. Under a post-surgical stance loading, model-predicted load sharing between the implant and bone across the fracture surface varied from 59%:41% to 89%:11%, underscoring the importance of considering anatomic and fracture variability in the evaluation of implants. XFEM modeling shows potential as a macro-level analysis enabling fracture investigations of clinical cohorts, including at-risk groups, and the design of robust implants. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther

    2005-01-01

    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2

  14. Sequencing historical specimens: successful preparation of small specimens with low amounts of degraded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproul, John S; Maddison, David R

    2017-11-01

    Despite advances that allow DNA sequencing of old museum specimens, sequencing small-bodied, historical specimens can be challenging and unreliable as many contain only small amounts of fragmented DNA. Dependable methods to sequence such specimens are especially critical if the specimens are unique. We attempt to sequence small-bodied (3-6 mm) historical specimens (including nomenclatural types) of beetles that have been housed, dried, in museums for 58-159 years, and for which few or no suitable replacement specimens exist. To better understand ideal approaches of sample preparation and produce preparation guidelines, we compared different library preparation protocols using low amounts of input DNA (1-10 ng). We also explored low-cost optimizations designed to improve library preparation efficiency and sequencing success of historical specimens with minimal DNA, such as enzymatic repair of DNA. We report successful sample preparation and sequencing for all historical specimens despite our low-input DNA approach. We provide a list of guidelines related to DNA repair, bead handling, reducing adapter dimers and library amplification. We present these guidelines to facilitate more economical use of valuable DNA and enable more consistent results in projects that aim to sequence challenging, irreplaceable historical specimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Pooling Bio-Specimens in the Presence of Measurement Error and Non-Linearity in Dose-Response: Simulation Study in the Context of a Birth Cohort Investigating Risk Factors for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn Heavner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the potential effects of pooling on power, false positive rate (FPR, and bias of the estimated associations between hypothetical environmental exposures and dichotomous autism spectrum disorders (ASD status. Simulated birth cohorts in which ASD outcome was assumed to have been ascertained with uncertainty were created. We investigated the impact on the power of the analysis (using logistic regression to detect true associations with exposure (X1 and the FPR for a non-causal correlate of exposure (X2, r = 0.7 for a dichotomized ASD measure when the pool size, sample size, degree of measurement error variance in exposure, strength of the true association, and shape of the exposure-response curve varied. We found that there was minimal change (bias in the measures of association for the main effect (X1. There is some loss of power but there is less chance of detecting a false positive result for pooled compared to individual level models. The number of pools had more effect on the power and FPR than the overall sample size. This study supports the use of pooling to reduce laboratory costs while maintaining statistical efficiency in scenarios similar to the simulated prospective risk-enriched ASD cohort.

  16. Quantitative optical fluorescence microprobe measurements of stresses around indentations in Al2O3 and Al2O3/SiC nanocomposites: The influence of depth resolution and specimen translucency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Sheng; Todd, R.I.

    2011-01-01

    Residual stresses around 1 kg Vickers indentations in Al 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 /SiC nanocomposites were measured using high-resolution Cr 3+ fluorescence microscopy. Experiments and modelling showed that the use of non-confocal microscopes can lead to significant underestimation of the surface stress in Al 2 O 3 because of the sampling of subsurface regions where the stresses are lower. The nanocomposites were less sensitive to the depth resolution of the microscope because their strong absorption limited the depth from which fluorescent radiation was collected. The use of confocal microscope settings allowed accurate measurements to be made and the indentation stresses were found to be very similar in Al 2 O 3 and the Al 2 O 3 /SiC nanocomposites. The stresses measured were significantly different from the predictions of the Yoffe model for indentation stresses. This was because of indentation cracking, which is not accounted for in the model. Cracking was also considered to be important in determining the plastic zone size in ceramics, which is much smaller relative to the indentation size than in metals.

  17. Additional Prognostic Value of SUVmax Measured by F-18 FDG PET/CT over Biological Marker Expressions in Surgically Resected Cervical Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Man Soo; Kim, Seong-Jang; Pak, Kyoungjune; Lee, Chang Hun

    2015-01-01

    We compared the prognostic ability of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and various biological marker expressions to predict recurrence in patients with surgically resected cervical cancer. A retrospective review identified 60 patients with cervical cancer who received [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) at the time of the diagnosis of cancer. The SUVmax, expressions of carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and known prognostic factors were investigated. The median follow-up time was 22.2 months (range 3.4-43.1 months). Using univariate analyses, the stage (stage II, p = 0.0066), SUVmax (> 6, p = 0.027), parametrial involvement (p value than biological marker expression in patients with surgically resected cervical cancer. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  18. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  19. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  20. Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... procedures performed to treat pelvic floor disorders with surgical mesh: Transvaginal mesh to treat POP Transabdominal mesh to treat ... address safety risks Final Order for Reclassification of Surgical Mesh for Transvaginal Pelvic Organ Prolapse Repair Final Order for Effective ...

  1. Bacterial migration through punctured surgical gloves under real surgical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidecke Claus-Dieter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to confirm recent results from a previous study focussing on the development of a method to measure the bacterial translocation through puncture holes in surgical gloves under real surgical conditions. Methods An established method was applied to detect bacterial migration from the operating site through the punctured glove. Biogel™ double-gloving surgical gloves were used during visceral surgeries over a 6-month period. A modified Gaschen-bag method was used to retrieve organisms from the inner glove, and thus-obtained bacteria were compared with micro-organisms detected by an intra-operative swab. Results In 20 consecutive procedures, 194 gloves (98 outer gloves, 96 inner gloves were examined. The rate of micro-perforations of the outer surgical glove was 10% with a median wearing time of 100 minutes (range: 20-175 minutes. Perforations occurred in 81% on the non-dominant hand, with the index finger most frequently (25% punctured. In six cases, bacterial migration could be demonstrated microbiologically. In 5% (5/98 of outer gloves and in 1% (1/96 of the inner gloves, bacterial migration through micro-perforations was observed. For gloves with detected micro-perforations (n = 10 outer layers, the calculated migration was 50% (n = 5. The minimum wearing time was 62 minutes, with a calculated median wearing time of 71 minutes. Conclusions This study confirms previous results that bacterial migration through unnoticed micro-perforations in surgical gloves does occur under real practical surgical conditions. Undetected perforation of surgical gloves occurs frequently. Bacterial migration from the patient through micro-perforations on the hand of surgeons was confirmed, limiting the protective barrier function of gloves if worn over longer periods.

  2. Virus isolation: Specimen type and probable transmission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Virus isolation: Specimen type and probable transmission. Over 500 CHIK virus isolations were made. 4 from male Ae. Aegypti (?TOT). 6 from CSF (neurological involvement). 1 from a 4-day old child (transplacental transmission.

  3. Some recent innovations in small specimen testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odette, G.R.; He, M.; Gragg, D.; Klingensmith, D.; Lucas, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    New innovative small specimen test techniques are described. Finite element simulations show that combinations of cone indentation pile-up geometry and load-penetration depth relations can be used to determine both the yield stress and strain-hardening behavior of a material. Techniques for pre-cracking and testing sub-miniaturized fracture toughness bend bars, with dimensions of 1.65x1.65x9 mm 3 , or less, are described. The corresponding toughness-temperature curves have a very steep transition slope, primarily due to rapid loss of constraint, which has advantages in some experiments to characterize the effects of specified irradiation variables. As one example of using composite specimens, an approach to evaluating helium effects is proposed, involving diffusion bonding small wires of a 54 Fe-based ferritic-martensitic alloy to a surrounding fracture specimen composed of an elemental Fe-based alloy. Finally, we briefly outline some potential approaches to multipurpose specimens and test automation

  4. Residual stress state in pipe cut ring specimens for fracture toughness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damjanovic, Darko [J.J. Strossmayer Univ. of Osijek, Slavonski Brod (Croatia). Mechanical Engineering Faculty; Kozak, Drazan [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. for Mechanical Design; Marsoner, Stefan [Materials Center, Leoben (Austria).; Gubeljak, Nenad [Maribor Univ. (Slovenia). Chair of Mechanics

    2017-07-01

    Thin-walled pipes are not suitable for measuring fracture toughness parameters of vital importance because longitudinal crack failure is the most common failure mode in pipes. This is due to the impossibility to manufacture standard specimens for measuring fracture toughness, such as SENB or CT specimens, from the thin wall of the pipe. Previous works noticed this problem, but until now, a good and convenient solution has not been found or developed. To overcome this problem, very good alternative solution was proposed, the so-called pipe ring notched bend specimen (PRNB) [1-5]. Until now, only the idealized geometry PRNB specimen is analyzed, i. e., a specimen which is not cut out from an actual pipe but produced from steel plate. Based on that, residual stresses are neglected along with the imperfections in geometry (elliptical and eccentricity). The aim of this research is to estimate the residual stress state(s) in real pipes used in the boiler industry produced by hot rolling technique. These types of pipes are delivered only in normalized condition, but not stress relieved. Therefore, there are residual stresses present due to the manufacturing technique, but also due to uneven cooling after the production process. Within this paper, residual stresses are estimated by three methods: the incremental hole drilling method (IHMD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the splitting method (SM). Knowing the residual stress state in the ring specimen, it is possible to assess their impact on fracture toughness measured on the corresponding PRNB specimen(s).

  5. Residual stress state in pipe cut ring specimens for fracture toughness testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damjanovic, Darko; Kozak, Drazan; Marsoner, Stefan; Gubeljak, Nenad

    2017-01-01

    Thin-walled pipes are not suitable for measuring fracture toughness parameters of vital importance because longitudinal crack failure is the most common failure mode in pipes. This is due to the impossibility to manufacture standard specimens for measuring fracture toughness, such as SENB or CT specimens, from the thin wall of the pipe. Previous works noticed this problem, but until now, a good and convenient solution has not been found or developed. To overcome this problem, very good alternative solution was proposed, the so-called pipe ring notched bend specimen (PRNB) [1-5]. Until now, only the idealized geometry PRNB specimen is analyzed, i. e., a specimen which is not cut out from an actual pipe but produced from steel plate. Based on that, residual stresses are neglected along with the imperfections in geometry (elliptical and eccentricity). The aim of this research is to estimate the residual stress state(s) in real pipes used in the boiler industry produced by hot rolling technique. These types of pipes are delivered only in normalized condition, but not stress relieved. Therefore, there are residual stresses present due to the manufacturing technique, but also due to uneven cooling after the production process. Within this paper, residual stresses are estimated by three methods: the incremental hole drilling method (IHMD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the splitting method (SM). Knowing the residual stress state in the ring specimen, it is possible to assess their impact on fracture toughness measured on the corresponding PRNB specimen(s).

  6. [Safety management in pathology laboratory: from specimen handling to confirmation of reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Hiroshi; Nojima, Takayuki; Nakano, Mariko; Yamazaki, Michiko

    2011-03-01

    Medical errors in pathological diagnosis give a huge amount of physical and psychological damage to patients as well as medical staffs. We discussed here how to avoid medical errors in surgical pathology laboratory through our experience. Handling of surgical specimens and diagnosing process requires intensive labor and involves many steps. Each hospital reports many kinds of accidents or incidents, however, many laboratories share common problems and each process has its specific risk for the certain error. We analyzed the problems in each process and concentrated on avoiding misaccessioning, mislabeling, and misreporting. We have made several changes in our system, such as barcode labels, digital images of all specimens, putting specimens in embedding cassettes directly on the endoscopic biopsied specimens, and using a multitissue control block as controls in immunohistochemistry. Some problems are still left behind, but we have reduced the errors by decreasing the number of artificial operation as much as possible. A pathological system recognizing the status of read or unread the pathological reports by clinician are now underconstruction. We also discussed about quality assurance of diagnosis, cooperation with clinicians and other comedical staffs, and organization and method. In order to operate riskless work, it is important for all the medical staffs to have common awareness of the problems, keeping careful observations, and sharing all the information in common. Incorporation of an organizational management tool such as ISO 15189 and utilizing PDCA cycle is also helpful for safety management and quality improvement of the laboratory.

  7. Simultaneous specimen and stage cleaning device for analytical electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    1996-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus are provided for cleaning both a specimen stage, a specimen and an interior of an analytical electron microscope (AEM). The apparatus for cleaning a specimen stage and specimen comprising a plasma chamber for containing a gas plasma and an air lock coupled to the plasma chamber for permitting passage of the specimen stage and specimen into the plasma chamber and maintaining an airtight chamber. The specimen stage and specimen are subjected to a reactive plasma gas that is either DC or RF excited. The apparatus can be mounted on the analytical electron microscope (AEM) for cleaning the interior of the microscope.

  8. Fracture toughness of Charpy-size compound specimens and its application in engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.P.; Shi, Y.W.

    1994-01-01

    The use of a pre-cracked Charpy-size specimen with a side-groove to evaluate the fracture toughness of materials has been researched and considered. This method not only satisfies the demand for small-size specimens in surveillance tests of fracture toughness but also avoids using complicated physical methods to monitor the initial conditions of crack propagation. For most materials this method has solved the problem in which the small-size specimen did not satisfy the valid conditions of a fracture toughness measurement. In order to obtain more information from neutron-irradiated sample specimens and raise the reliability of fracture toughness surveillance tests, it has been considered more important to repeatedly exploit the broken Charpy-size specimen tested in the surveillance test, and to make it renewable. In this work, on the renewing design and utilization of Charpy-size specimens, nine data on fracture toughness can be obtained from one pre-cracked side-grooved Charpy-size specimen, while at present usually only one to three data on fracture toughness can be obtained from one Charpy-size specimen. Thus, it is found that the new method would improve the reliability of fracture toughness surveillance testing and evaluation. In addition, some factors that affect the optimum design of pre-cracked deep side-groove Charpy-size compound specimens have also been discussed. (author)

  9. Study of Biological Pigments by Single Specimen Derivative Spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jack M.

    1970-01-01

    The single specimen derivative (SSD) method provides an absolute absorption spectrum of a substance in the absence of a suitable reference. Both a reference and a measuring monochromatic beam pass through a single sample, and the specimen itself acts as its own reference. The two monochromatic beams maintain a fixed wavelength difference upon scanning, and the difference in absorbance of the two beams is determined. Thus, the resulting spectrum represents the first derivative of the conventional type absorption spectrum. Tissues and cell fractions have been examined at room and liquid N2 temperature and chromophoric molecules such as the mitochondrial cytochromes and blood pigments have been detectable in low concentrations. In the case of isolated cellular components, the observed effects of substrates and inhibitors confirm similar studies by conventional spectrophotometry. The extension of the SSD concept to the microscopic level has permitted the study of the tissue compartmentalization and function of cytochromes and other pigments within layered tissue. PMID:4392452

  10. Miniature specimen technology for postirradiation fatigue crack growth testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mervyn, D.A.; Ermi, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Current magnetic fusion reactor design concepts require that the fatigue behavior of candidate first wall materials be characterized. Fatigue crack growth may, in fact, be the design limiting factor in these cyclic reactor concepts given the inevitable presence of crack-like flaws in fabricated sheet structures. Miniature specimen technology has been developed to provide the large data base necessary to characterize irradiation effects on the fatigue crack growth behavior. An electrical potential method of measuring crack growth rates is employed on miniature center-cracked-tension specimens (1.27 cm x 2.54 cm x 0.061 cm). Results of a baseline study on 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steel, which was tested in an in-cell prototypic fatigue machine, are presented. The miniature fatigue machine is designed for low cost, on-line, real time testing of irradiated fusion candidate alloys. It will enable large scale characterization and development of candidate first wall alloys

  11. Sequence Capture and Phylogenetic Utility of Genomic Ultraconserved Elements Obtained from Pinned Insect Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie B Blaimer

    Full Text Available Obtaining sequence data from historical museum specimens has been a growing research interest, invigorated by next-generation sequencing methods that allow inputs of highly degraded DNA. We applied a target enrichment and next-generation sequencing protocol to generate ultraconserved elements (UCEs from 51 large carpenter bee specimens (genus Xylocopa, representing 25 species with specimen ages ranging from 2-121 years. We measured the correlation between specimen age and DNA yield (pre- and post-library preparation DNA concentration and several UCE sequence capture statistics (raw read count, UCE reads on target, UCE mean contig length and UCE locus count with linear regression models. We performed piecewise regression to test for specific breakpoints in the relationship of specimen age and DNA yield and sequence capture variables. Additionally, we compared UCE data from newer and older specimens of the same species and reconstructed their phylogeny in order to confirm the validity of our data. We recovered 6-972 UCE loci from samples with pre-library DNA concentrations ranging from 0.06-9.8 ng/μL. All investigated DNA yield and sequence capture variables were significantly but only moderately negatively correlated with specimen age. Specimens of age 20 years or less had significantly higher pre- and post-library concentrations, UCE contig lengths, and locus counts compared to specimens older than 20 years. We found breakpoints in our data indicating a decrease of the initial detrimental effect of specimen age on pre- and post-library DNA concentration and UCE contig length starting around 21-39 years after preservation. Our phylogenetic results confirmed the integrity of our data, giving preliminary insights into relationships within Xylocopa. We consider the effect of additional factors not measured in this study on our age-related sequence capture results, such as DNA fragmentation and preservation method, and discuss the promise of the UCE

  12. Attenuation measurements show that the presence of a TachoSil surgical patch will not compromise target irradiation in intra-operative electron radiation therapy or high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Sandra; Costa, Filipa; Pereira, Alexandre; Lencart, Joana; Dias, Anabela; Cunha, Luís; Sousa, Olga; Silva, José Pedro; Santos, Lúcio

    2015-01-09

    Surgery of locally advanced and/or recurrent rectal cancer can be complemented with intra-operative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) to deliver a single dose of radiation directly to the unresectable margins, while sparing nearby sensitive organs/structures. Haemorrhages may occur and can affect the dose distribution, leading to an incorrect target irradiation. The TachoSil (TS) surgical patch, when activated, creates a fibrin clot at the surgical site to achieve haemostasis. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of TS on the dose distribution, and ascertain whether it could be used in combination with IOERT. This characterization was extended to include high dose rate (HDR) intraoperative brachytherapy, which is sometimes used at other institutions instead of IOERT. CT images of the TS patch were acquired for initial characterization. Dosimetric measurements were performed in a water tank phantom, using a conventional LINAC with a hard-docking system of cylindrical applicators. Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curves were obtained, and measurements made at the depth of dose maximum for the three clinically used electron energies (6, 9 and 12MeV), first without any attenuator and then with the activated patch of TS completely covering the tip of the IOERT applicator. For HDR brachytherapy, a measurement setup was improvised using a solid water phantom and a Farmer ionization chamber. Our measurements show that the attenuation of a TachoSil patch is negligible, both for high energy electron beams (6 to 12MeV), and for a HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy source. Our results cannot be extrapolated to lower beam energies such as 50 kVp X-rays, which are sometimes used for breast IORT. The TachoSil surgical patch can be used in IORT procedures using 6MeV electron energies or higher, or HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy.

  13. Attenuation measurements show that the presence of a TachoSil surgical patch will not compromise target irradiation in intra-operative electron radiation therapy or high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, Sandra; Costa, Filipa; Pereira, Alexandre; Lencart, Joana; Dias, Anabela; Cunha, Luís; Sousa, Olga; Silva, José Pedro; Santos, Lúcio

    2015-01-01

    Surgery of locally advanced and/or recurrent rectal cancer can be complemented with intra-operative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) to deliver a single dose of radiation directly to the unresectable margins, while sparing nearby sensitive organs/structures. Haemorrhages may occur and can affect the dose distribution, leading to an incorrect target irradiation. The TachoSil (TS) surgical patch, when activated, creates a fibrin clot at the surgical site to achieve haemostasis. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of TS on the dose distribution, and ascertain whether it could be used in combination with IOERT. This characterization was extended to include high dose rate (HDR) intraoperative brachytherapy, which is sometimes used at other institutions instead of IOERT. CT images of the TS patch were acquired for initial characterization. Dosimetric measurements were performed in a water tank phantom, using a conventional LINAC with a hard-docking system of cylindrical applicators. Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curves were obtained, and measurements made at the depth of dose maximum for the three clinically used electron energies (6, 9 and 12MeV), first without any attenuator and then with the activated patch of TS completely covering the tip of the IOERT applicator. For HDR brachytherapy, a measurement setup was improvised using a solid water phantom and a Farmer ionization chamber. Our measurements show that the attenuation of a TachoSil patch is negligible, both for high energy electron beams (6 to 12MeV), and for a HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy source. Our results cannot be extrapolated to lower beam energies such as 50 kVp X-rays, which are sometimes used for breast IORT. The TachoSil surgical patch can be used in IORT procedures using 6MeV electron energies or higher, or HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy

  14. The effects of surgical lengthening of hamstring muscles in children with cerebral palsy--the consequences of pre-operative muscle length measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laracca, Ettore; Stewart, Caroline; Postans, Neil; Roberts, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Children with cerebral palsy often undergo multiple orthopaedic surgical procedures in a single episode. Evidence of the effectiveness of individual components within the overall package is sparse. The introduction of musculoskeletal modelling in Oswestry has led to a more conservative management approach being taken with hamstring muscles for children walking in a degree of crouch. Muscles which were shown to be of at least normal length at initial contact were not surgically lengthened, as would have been the case previously. A retrospective review of 30 such patients was therefore possible, comparing 15 patients treated before the policy change who had their hamstrings lengthened with 15 treated after who did not. All patients had pre and post operative gait assessments and significant changes were observed for each group separately and for the two groups when compared. The comparison revealed that preserving the hamstrings does tend to reduce, and therefore normalize, the dynamic muscle length. Examination of the two patient groups separately, however, reveals a more complex picture with more global gait improvements seen when the hamstrings were lengthened. No absolute recommendation can be made to inform the clinical management of all children with normal to long hamstring muscles during gait. The final decision of whether to include a hamstring lengthening will need to take into account the characteristics of the individual child. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ASTM international symposium on small specimen test techniques and their applications to pressure vessel annealing and plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Heinisch, H.L.; Kumar, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Miniature sheet-type tensile specimens are currently being used in a variety of radiation damage studies conducted in a number of different reactors. Although these specimens are very small, they have proven successful in addressing issues encountered in both thermal reactors and anticipated fusion reactors. This paper reviews the results of a number of recent studies that illustrate the range of applicability of these small specimens. When combined with other types of specimens and other types of measurements made prior to tensile testing, miniature tensile specimens have been found to serve as very useful tools for application to both fundamental studies and alloy screening studies

  16. Standard guide for preparation of metallographic specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 The primary objective of metallographic examinations is to reveal the constituents and structure of metals and their alloys by means of a light optical or scanning electron microscope. In special cases, the objective of the examination may require the development of less detail than in other cases but, under nearly all conditions, the proper selection and preparation of the specimen is of major importance. Because of the diversity in available equipment and the wide variety of problems encountered, the following text presents for the guidance of the metallographer only those practices which experience has shown are generally satisfactory; it cannot and does not describe the variations in technique required to solve individual specimen preparation problems. Note 1—For a more extensive description of various metallographic techniques, refer to Samuels, L. E., Metallographic Polishing by Mechanical Methods, American Society for Metals (ASM) Metals Park, OH, 3rd Ed., 1982; Petzow, G., Metallographic Etchin...

  17. Natural History Specimen Digitization: Challenges and Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vollmar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey on the challenges and concerns invovled with digitizing natural history specimens was circulated to curators, collections managers, and administrators in the natural history community in the Spring of 2009, with over 200 responses received. The overwhelming barrier to digitizing collections was a lack of funding, based on a limited number of sources, leaving institutions mostly responsible for providing the necessary support. The uneven digitization landscape leads to a patchy accumulation of records at varying qualities, and based on different priorities, ulitimately influencing the data's fitness for use. The survey also found that although the kind of specimens found in collections and their storage can be quite varible, there are many similar challenges when digitizing including imaging, automated text scanning and parsing, geo-referencing, etc. Thus, better communication between domains could foster knowledge on digitization leading to efficiencies that could be disseminated through documentation of best practices and training.

  18. [Surgical treatment of gynecomastia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Târcoveanu, E; Lupaşcu, C; Vasilescu, A; Moldovanu, R; Ichim, Mihaela; Georgescu, St; Niculescu, D; Dănilă, N; Dimofte, G; Anton, Raluca; Crumpei, Felicia; Florea, Niculina; Ungureanu, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Gynecomastia describes a benign increase of the mammary gland in men. When medical treatment fails, the surgical procedure is the treatment of choice. There are two main surgical procedures: subdermal mastectomy and liposuction. To evaluate the results after surgical treatment (mastectomy) performed in a general surgery unit. We performed a retrospective study; all the patients operated for gynecomastia were reviewed. The clinical, imaging, biological, intraoperative and histological data were included into a MS Access database and statistical analyzed. From 1990-2007, 114 patients were admitted in the First Surgical Clinic Iaşi for gynecomastia. Only 12.6% from the patients were with bilateral gynecomastia. The mean age was 40.54 +/- 1.83 years old (range 12-84). Mean body mass was 26.72 +/- 0.46 kg/m2 (range 18.5-41), and about 20% from the patients had a BMI of over 30 kg/m2. We also noted that 46.5% were smokers. Simon classification was used for preoperative staging: 2.6% from the cases (N = 3) were included in stage I, 16.7% (N = 19) in stage IIa, 50% (N = 57) in stage IIb and 30.7% in stage III. The patients included in stages IIa and I are younger then the patients included in stage III (p = 0.024). Mastodynia was noted in 46 cases (40.4%). Ultrasound exam was performed in all the cases, and the larger diameter of the nodule measured was 3.75 +/- 0.18 cm (range 0.5-9.7). Only three cases were preoperatively treated with tamoxifen. Most of the cases were operated using general anesthesia (53.5%). Mastectomy was performed by peri-areolar (70.2%), elliptical (28.9%) or radial (0.9%) incisions. The subdermal mastectomy using peri-areolar approach was performed especially for the cases included in stages I, IIa and IIb--p gynecomastia in 6 cases; the other cases presented dilated ducts. We also noted intraductal papillary hyperplasia in 87 cases and chronic inflammation in 35 cases. The histological exam also revealed intraductal papilloma--9 cases, fibro

  19. Prediction of retained residual stresses in laboratory fracture mechanics specimens extracted from welded components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurlston, R.G.; Sherry, A.H.; James, P.; Sharples, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of weld material fracture toughness properties is important for the structural integrity assessment of engineering components. However, welds can contain high levels of residual stress and these can be retained in fracture mechanics specimens, particularly when machined from non-stress relieved welds. Retained residual stresses can make the measurement of valid fracture toughness properties difficult. This paper describes the results of analytical work undertaken to investigate factors that can influence the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses retained in fracture mechanics specimen blanks extracted from as-welded ferritic and austenitic stainless steel plates. The results indicate that significant levels of residual stress can be retained in specimen blanks prior to notching, and that the magnitude and distribution of stress is dependent upon material properties, specimen geometry and size, and extraction location through the thickness of the weld. Finite element modelling is shown to provide a useful approach for estimating the level and distributions of retained residual stresses. A new stress partitioning approach has been developed to estimate retained stress levels and results compare favourably with FE analysis and available experimental data. The approach can help guide the selection of specimen geometry and machining strategies to minimise the level of residual stresses retained in fracture mechanics specimen blanks extracted from non stress-relieved welds and thus improve the measurement of weld fracture toughness properties. - Highlights: • A simplified method for generating realistic weld residual stresses has been developed. • It has been shown that significant levels of residual stress can be retained within laboratory fracture mechanics specimens. • The level and distribution is dependant upon material, specimen type, specimen size and extraction location. • A method has been developed to allow estimates of the

  20. The working procedure of human autopsy specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rusong; Liu Guodong

    2000-01-01

    In order to perform the Coordinated Research Program for the Reference Asian Man (phase 2): Ingestion and body content of trace elements of importance in Radiation Protection, study on elemental content in organs of normal Chinese has been worked by China Institute for Radiation Protection and Institute of Radiation Medicine - CAMS in recent two years. Sampling and sample collection of human tissues and the procedures of sample preparation of human autopsy specimens are enlisted

  1. Rapid and non-enzymatic in vitro retrieval of tumour cells from surgical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Mack

    Full Text Available The study of tumourigenesis commonly involves the use of established cell lines or single cell suspensions of primary tumours. Standard methods for the generation of short-term tumour cell cultures include the disintegration of tissue based on enzymatic and mechanical stress. Here, we describe a simple and rapid method for the preparation of single cells from primary carcinomas, which is independent of enzymatic treatment and feeder cells. Tumour biopsies are processed to 1 mm(3 cubes termed explants, which are cultured 1-3 days on agarose-coated well plates in specified medium. Through incisions generated in the explants, single cells are retrieved and collected from the culture supernatant and can be used for further analysis including in vitro and in vivo studies. Collected cells retain tumour-forming capacity in xenotransplantation assays, mimic the phenotype of the primary tumour, and facilitate the generation of cell lines.

  2. Digestive tumor bank protocol: from surgical specimens to genomic studies of digestive cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, I; Stroescu, C; Dumitrascu, T; Herlea, V; Paslaru, Liliana; Lazar, V; Boissin, H; Taieb, J; Horeanga, Ionela

    2006-01-01

    Cancer is a complex polygenic and multifactorial disease, resulting from successive dynamic changes in the genome of somatic cells and from the accumulation of molecular alterations in both tumour cells and host cells. For the majority of cancers, including many malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract, our current means of diagnosis and treatment of the tumors are grossly insufficient. In recent years the development of several gene expression profiling methods such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), differential display, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and DNA arrays, together with the sequencing of the human genome, has provided an opportunity to monitor and investigate the complete cascade of molecular events leading to tumor development and progression. Given the central role played by surgeons in the current management of patients with solid cancers, it is of paramount importance for them to know the principles characterizing this laboratory tools to critically assess the results originating from this biotechnology. We describe in this article the scientific partnership between Fundeni Clinical Institute Bucharest, Romania and RNtech Company, Paris, France for the development of a center of biological resources (Biobank) as well as the standardized protocol of working with the biological samples, the ongoing projects and the future perspectives.

  3. Measurements and Counts for Larval and Juvenile Beryx Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Larval alfonsin (Beryx species) were collected in the vicinity of the Southeast Hancock Seamount. A three-net Tucker trawl (I m2 effective mouth opening and 0.333 mm...

  4. Measurements and Counts for Larval and Juvenile Pseudopentaceros Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Armorhead (Pseudopentaceros wheeleri) larvae and juveniles were collected in the vicinity of the Northwest and Southeast Hancock Seamounts During 1984 and 1985....

  5. Measurements and Counts for Larval and Juvenile Bramidae Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Micronekton and plankton samples were collected at the Southeast (SE) Hancock Seamount in 1985-1987, and in the vicinity of Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands in 1990....

  6. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report

  7. Bone biopsy needles. Mechanical properties, needle design and specimen quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keulers, Annika; Penzkofer, T.; Cunha-Cruz, V.C.; Bruners, P.; Helmholtz Inst. fuer biomedizinische Technik, Aachen; Braunschweig, T.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Mahnken, A.; Helmholtz Inst. fuer biomedizinische Technik, Aachen

    2011-01-01

    To quantitatively analyze differences in mechanical properties, needle design including signs of wear, subjective handling and specimen quality of bone biopsy needles. Materials and Methods: In this study 19 different bone biopsy systems (total 38; 2 /type) were examined. With each biopsy needle five consecutive samples were obtained from vertebral bodies of swine. During puncture a force-torques sensor measured the mechanical properties and subjective handling was assessed. Before and after each biopsy the needles were investigated using a profile projector and signs of wear were recorded. Afterwards, a pathologist semi-quantitatively examined the specimen regarding sample quality. The overall evaluation considered mechanical properties, needle wear, subjective handling and sample quality. Differences were assessed for statistical significance using ANOVA and t-test. Results: Needle diameter (p = 0.003) as well as needle design (p = 0.008) affect the mechanical properties significantly. Franseen design is significantly superior to other needle designs. Besides, length reduction recorded by the profile projector, as a quality criterion showed notable distinctions in between the needle designs. Conclusion: Bone biopsy needles vary significantly in performance. Needle design has an important influence on mechanical properties, handling and specimen quality. Detailed knowledge of those parameters would improve selecting the appropriate bone biopsy needle. (orig.)

  8. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since 1975....

  9. Correlation of clinical data with fallopian tube specimen immune cells and tissue culture capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramraj, Satish Kumar; Smith, Katie M; Janakiram, Naveena B; Toal, Coralee; Raman, Ankita; Benbrook, Doris Mangiaracina

    2018-06-01

    Human fallopian tube fimbria secretory epithelial cells (hFTSECs) are considered an origin of ovarian cancer and methods for their culture from fallopian tube specimens have been reported. Our objective was to determine whether characteristics of the donors or surgeries were associated with the capacities of fimbria specimens to generate hFTSEC cultures or their immune profiles. There were no surgical complications attributable to fallopian tube removal. Attempts to establish primary hFTSEC cultures were successful in 37 of 55 specimens (67%). Success rates did not differ significantly between specimens grouped by patient or surgery characteristics. Established cultures could be revived after cryopreservation and none became contaminated with microorganisms. Two cultures evaluated for long term growth senesced between passages 10 and 15. M1 macrophages were the predominant cell type, while all other immune cells were present at much lower percentages. IL-10 and TGF-β exhibited opposing trends with M1 and M2 macrophages. Plasma IL-10 levels exhibited significant positive correlation with patient age. In conclusion, fallopian tube fimbria specimens exhibit a pro-inflammatory phenotype and can be used to provide a source of hFTSECs that can be cultured for a limited time regardless of the donor patient age or race, or the type of surgery performed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Computer assisted surgical anatomy mapping : applications in surgical anatomy research, tailor-made surgery and presonalized teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L.A. Kerver (Anton)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis presents a novel anatomy mapping tool named Computer Assisted Surgical Anatomy Mapping (CASAM). It allows researchers to map complex anatomy of multiple specimens and compare their location and course. Renditions such as safe zones or danger zones can be visualized,

  11. Virtual reality in surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, D; Loftin, B; Saito, T; Lea, R; Keller, J

    1995-03-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging technology that can teach surgeons new procedures and can determine their level of competence before they operate on patients. Also VR allows the trainee to return to the same procedure or task several times later as a refresher course. Laparoscopic surgery is a new operative technique which requires the surgeon to observe the operation on a video-monitor and requires the acquisition of new skills. VR simulation could duplicate the operative field and thereby enhance training and reduce the need for expensive animal training models. Our preliminary experience has shown that we have the technology to model tissues and laparoscopic instruments and to develop in real time a VR learning environment for surgeons. Another basic need is to measure competence. Surgical training is an apprenticeship requiring close supervision and 5-7 years of training. Technical competence is judged by the mentor and has always been subjective. If VR surgical simulators are to play an important role in the future, quantitative measurement of competence would have to be part of the system. Because surgical competence is "vague" and is characterized by such terms as "too long, too short" or "too close, too far," it is possible that the principles of fuzzy logic could be used to measure competence in a VR surgical simulator. Because a surgical procedure consists of a series of tasks and each task is a series of steps, we will plan to create two important tasks in a VR simulator and validate their use. These tasks consist of laparoscopic knot tying and laparoscopic suturing. Our hypothesis is that VR in combination with fuzzy logic can educate surgeons and determine when they are competent to perform these procedures on patients.

  12. Use of globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) to link herbarium specimen records to physical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gil; Sweeney, Patrick; Gilbert, Edward

    2018-02-01

    With the advent of the U.S. National Science Foundation's Advancing Digitization of Biodiversity Collections program and related worldwide digitization initiatives, the rate of herbarium specimen digitization in the United States has expanded exponentially. As the number of electronic herbarium records proliferates, the importance of linking these records to the physical specimens they represent as well as to related records from other sources will intensify. Although a rich and diverse literature has developed over the past decade that addresses the use of specimen identifiers for facilitating linking across the internet, few implementable guidelines or recommended practices for herbaria have been advanced. Here we review this literature with the express purpose of distilling a specific set of recommendations especially tailored to herbarium specimen digitization, curation, and management. We argue that associating globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) with physical herbarium specimens and including these identifiers in all electronic records about those specimens is essential to effective digital data curation. We also address practical applications for ensuring these associations.

  13. Development of fatigue life evaluation technique using miniature specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Shuhei; Nishimura, Arata; Fujiwara, Masaharu; Hisaka, Tomoaki

    2012-01-01

    To develop the fatigue life evaluation technique using miniature specimen, the investigation of the effect of specimen size and specimen shape on the fatigue life and the development of the fatigue testing machine, especially the extensometer, were carried out. The effect of specimen size on the fatigue life was almost negligible for the round-bar specimens. The shorter fatigue life at relatively low strain range conditions for the hourglass specimen that the standard specimen were observed. Therefore the miniature round-bar specimen was considered to be adequate for the fatigue life evaluation using small specimen. Several types of the extensometer system using a strain gauge and a laser has been developed for realizing the fatigue test of the miniature round-bar specimen at high temperature in vacuum. (author)

  14. Surgical site infection rates following laparoscopic urological procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Arvin K; Srinivasan, Arun K; Cho, Jane; Sadek, Mostafa A; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2011-04-01

    Surgical site infections have been categorized by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as "never events". The incidence of surgical site infection following laparoscopic urological surgery and its risk factors are poorly defined. We evaluated surgical site infection following urological laparoscopic surgery and identified possible factors that may influence occurrence. Patients who underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic procedures during a 4-year period by a single laparoscopic surgeon were retrospectively reviewed. Surgical site infections were identified postoperatively and defined using the Centers for Disease Control criteria. Clinical parameters, comorbidities, smoking history, preoperative urinalysis and culture results as well as operative data were analyzed. Nonparametric testing using the Mann-Whitney U test, multivariable logistic regression and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. In 556 patients undergoing urological laparoscopic procedures 14 surgical site infections (2.5%) were identified at mean postoperative day 21.5. Of the 14 surgical site infections 10 (71.4%) were located at a specimen extraction site. Operative time, procedure type and increasing body mass index were significantly associated with the occurrence of surgical site infections (p = 0.007, p = 0.019, p = 0.038, respectively), whereas history of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.071) and intraoperative transfusion (p = 0.053) were found to trend toward significance. Age, gender, positive urine culture, steroid use, procedure type and smoking history were not significantly associated with surgical site infection. Body mass index and operative time remained significant predictors of surgical site infection on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Surgical site infection is an infrequent complication following laparoscopic surgery with the majority occurring at the specimen extraction site. Infection is associated with prolonged operative time and

  15. Scanning transmission ion micro-tomography (STIM-T) of biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwertner, Michael; Sakellariou, Arthur; Reinert, Tilo; Butz, Tilman

    2006-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was applied to sets of Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) projections recorded at the LIPSION ion beam laboratory (Leipzig) in order to visualize the 3D-mass distribution in several specimens. Examples for a test structure (copper grid) and for biological specimens (cartilage cells, cygospore) are shown. Scanning Transmission Micro-Tomography (STIM-T) at a resolution of 260 nm was demonstrated for the first time. Sub-micron features of the Cu-grid specimen were verified by scanning electron microscopy. The ion energy loss measured during a STIM-T experiment is related to the mass density of the specimen. Typically, biological specimens can be analysed without staining. Only shock freezing and freeze-drying is required to preserve the ultra-structure of the specimen. The radiation damage to the specimen during the experiment can be neglected. This is an advantage compared to other techniques like X-ray micro-tomography. At present, the spatial resolution is limited by beam position fluctuations and specimen vibrations

  16. Response of a PGNAA setup for pozzolan-based cement concrete specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, A.A.; Garwan, M.A.; Maslehuddin, M.; Nagadi, M.M.; Al-Amoudi, O.S.B.; Raashid, M.

    2010-01-01

    Pozzolanic materials are added to Portland cement concrete to increase its durability, particularly corrosion-resistance. In this study the elemental composition of a pozzolanic cement concrete was measured non-destructively utilizing an accelerator-based Prompt Gamma Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. The optimum size of the pozzolanic cement concrete specimen was obtained through Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results were experimentally verified through the γ-ray yield measurement from the pozzolanic cement concrete specimens as a function of their radii. The concentration of the pozzolanic material in the cement concrete specimens was evaluated by measuring γ-ray yield for calcium and iron from pozzolanic cement concrete specimens containing 5-80 wt% pozzolan. A good agreement was noted between the experimental values and the Monte Carlo simulation results, indicating an excellent response of the KFUPM accelerator-based PGNAA setup for pozzolan based concrete.

  17. Response of a PGNAA setup for pozzolan-based cement concrete specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Garwan, M.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Nagadi, M.M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Raashid, M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-04-15

    Pozzolanic materials are added to Portland cement concrete to increase its durability, particularly corrosion-resistance. In this study the elemental composition of a pozzolanic cement concrete was measured non-destructively utilizing an accelerator-based Prompt Gamma Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. The optimum size of the pozzolanic cement concrete specimen was obtained through Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results were experimentally verified through the {gamma}-ray yield measurement from the pozzolanic cement concrete specimens as a function of their radii. The concentration of the pozzolanic material in the cement concrete specimens was evaluated by measuring {gamma}-ray yield for calcium and iron from pozzolanic cement concrete specimens containing 5-80 wt% pozzolan. A good agreement was noted between the experimental values and the Monte Carlo simulation results, indicating an excellent response of the KFUPM accelerator-based PGNAA setup for pozzolan based concrete.

  18. Assessment of plastic flow and fracture properties with small specimens test techniques for IFMIF-designed specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaetig, P.; Campitelli, E.N.; Bonade, R.; Baluc, N.

    2005-01-01

    The primary mission of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is to generate a material database to be used for the design of various components, for the licensing and for the assessment of the safe operation of a demonstration fusion reactor. IFMIF is an accelerator-based high-energy neutron source whose irradiation volume is quite limited (0.5 l for the high fluence volume). This requires the use of small specimens to measure the irradiation-induced changes on the physical and mechanical properties of materials. In this paper, we developed finite element models to better analyze the results obtained with two different small specimen test techniques applied to the tempered martensitic steel F82H-mod. First, one model was used to reconstruct the load-deflection curves of small ball punch tests, which are usually used to extract standard tensile parameters. It was shown that a reasonable assessment of the overall plastic flow can be done with small ball punch tests. Second, we investigated the stress field sensitivity at a crack tip to the constitutive behavior, for a crack modeled in plane strain, small-scale yielding and fracture mode I conditions. Based upon a local criterion for cleavage, that appears to be the basis to account for the size and geometry effects on fracture toughness, we showed that the details of the constitutive properties play a key role in modeling the irradiation-induced fracture toughness changes. Consequently, we suggest that much more attention and efforts have to be paid in investigating the post-yield behavior of the irradiated specimens and, in order to reach this goal, we recommend the use of not only tensile specimens but also that of compression ones in the IFMIF irradiation matrices. (author)

  19. Quantification of surgical blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marcel H; Ingvertsen, Britt T; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Jensen, Asger L; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2006-06-01

    To compare gravimetric and colorimetric methods of quantifying surgical blood loss, and to determine if there is a correlation between preoperative hemostatic tests (buccal mucosa bleeding time [BMBT] and intraoperative blood loss). Prospective clinical study. Dogs (n=15) admitted for cutaneous tumor excision, orthopedic procedure, or exploratory laparotomy. Intraoperative blood loss was quantified by measuring irrigation fluid and weighing surgical sponges used for blood and fluid collection during surgery. Results of gravimetric measurements were then correlated to blood loss quantified using spectrophotometric analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) content. Hemostatic variables including BMBT were measured before surgery and compared with the calculated amount of blood loss. Blood loss quantified by gravimetric measurement showed a significant correlation with colorimetric determination of Hb content in surgical sponges and collected irrigation fluid (r=0.93, P<.0001). BMBT correlated weakly but significantly with intraoperative blood loss (r=0.56, P<.05). Quantifying intraoperative blood loss using spectrophotometric Hb analysis accurately assessed the amount of blood loss; however, it is a time-consuming procedure, primarily applicable as a research tool. Gravimetric evaluation of intraoperative blood loss was found to be an accurate method, which can be recommended for use in a clinical setting. Estimation of blood loss using a gravimetric method is accurate and applicable in the clinical setting and provides surgeons with a simple and objective tool to evaluate intraoperative blood loss.

  20. Histological evaluation of 400 cholecystectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A majority of gallbladder specimens show changes associated with chronic cholecystitis; however few harbour a highly lethal carcinoma. This study was conducted to review the significant histopathological findings encountered in gallbladder specimens received in our laboratory.Materials and Methods: Four hundred cholecystectomy specimens were studied over a period of five years (May, 2002 to April, 2007 received at department of pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India. Results: Gallstones and associated diseases were more common in women in the 4th to 5th decade as compared to men with M: F ratio of 1:1.33. Maximum number of patients (28.25% being 41 to 50 years old. Histopathologically, the most common diagnosis was chronic cholecystitis (66.75%, followed by chronic active cholecystitis (20.25%, acute cholecystitis (6%, gangrenous cholecystitis (2.25%,xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (0.50%, empyema (1%, mucocele (0.25%, choledochal cyst (0.25%, adenocarcinoma gallbladder (1.25% and  normal  gallbladders (1%.Conclusion: All lesions were found more frequently in women except chronic active cholecystitis. Gallstones were present in (80.25% cases, and significantly associated with various lesions (P value 0.009. Pigment stones were most common, followed by cholesterol stones and mixed stones. Adequate  sectioning  is  mandatory  in  all  cases  to  assess  epithelial changes arising from cholelithiasis and chronic cholecystitis as it has been known to progress to malignancy in some cases.

  1. Wildlife specimen collection, preservation, and shipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. LeAnn; Dusek, Robert J.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Specimens are used to provide supporting information leading to the determination of the cause of disease or death in wildlife and for disease monitoring or surveillance. Commonly used specimens for wildlife disease investigations include intact carcasses, tissues from carcasses, euthanized or moribund animals, parasites, ingested food, feces, or environmental samples. Samples from live animals or the environment (e.g., contaminated feed) in the same vicinity as a mortality event also may be helpful. The type of specimen collected is determined by availability of samples and biological objectives. Multiple fresh, intact carcasses from affected species are the most useful in establishing a cause for a mortality event. Submission of entire carcasses allows observation of gross lesions and abnormalities, as well as disease testing of multiple tissues. Samples from live animals may be more appropriate when sick animals cannot be euthanized (e.g., threatened or endangered species) or for research and monitoring projects examining disease or agents circulating in apparently healthy animals or those not exhibiting clinical signs. Samples from live animals may include collections of blood, hair, feathers, feces, or ectoparasites, or samples obtained by swabbing lesions or orifices. Photographs and videos are useful additions for recording field and clinical signs and conveying conditions at the site. Collection of environmental samples (e.g., feces, water, feed, or soil) may be appropriate when animals cannot be captured for sampling or the disease agent may persist in the environment. If lethal collection is considered necessary, biologists should refer to the policies, procedures, and permit requirements of their institution/facility and the agency responsible for species management (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or State natural resource agency) prior to use in the field. If threatened or endangered species are found dead, or there is evidence of illegal take, field

  2. Dose determination of 600 MeV proton irradiated specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavillet, D.

    1991-01-01

    The calculation method for the experimental determination of the atomic production cross section from the γ activity measurements are presented. This method is used for the determination of some isotope production cross sections for 600 MeV proton irradition in MANET steel, copper, tungsten, gold and titanium. The results are compared with some calculation. These values are used to determine the dose of specimens irradiated in the PIREX II facility. The results are discussed in terms of the irradiation parameters. A guide for the use of the production cross section determined in the dosimetry experiment are given. (author) tabs., refs

  3. Deriving DICOM surgical extensions from surgical workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgert, O.; Neumuth, T.; Gessat, M.; Jacobs, S.; Lemke, H. U.

    2007-03-01

    The generation, storage, transfer, and representation of image data in radiology are standardized by DICOM. To cover the needs of image guided surgery or computer assisted surgery in general one needs to handle patient information besides image data. A large number of objects must be defined in DICOM to address the needs of surgery. We propose an analysis process based on Surgical Workflows that helps to identify these objects together with use cases and requirements motivating for their specification. As the first result we confirmed the need for the specification of representation and transfer of geometric models. The analysis of Surgical Workflows has shown that geometric models are widely used to represent planned procedure steps, surgical tools, anatomical structures, or prosthesis in the context of surgical planning, image guided surgery, augmented reality, and simulation. By now, the models are stored and transferred in several file formats bare of contextual information. The standardization of data types including contextual information and specifications for handling of geometric models allows a broader usage of such models. This paper explains the specification process leading to Geometry Mesh Service Object Pair classes. This process can be a template for the definition of further DICOM classes.

  4. Diagnostic Value of Serial Measurement of C-Reactive Protein in the Detection of a Surgical Complication after Laparoscopic Bowel Resection for Endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riiskjær, Mads; Forman, Axel; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of serial monitoring of biochemical inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count) in the postoperative diagnosis of anastomotic leakage or ureteral injury after bowel resection for deep infiltrating endometrio......AIMS: The study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of serial monitoring of biochemical inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count) in the postoperative diagnosis of anastomotic leakage or ureteral injury after bowel resection for deep infiltrating...... endometriosis. METHODS: This is a review of prospectively collected data from 217 patients who underwent laparoscopic bowel resection for endometriosis from January 2009 to April 2015. Patients with an anastomotic leakage or ureteral injury were identified and classified. RESULTS: The frequency of anastomotic...... leakage requiring reoperation was 8.3%. The frequency of ureteral injury was 4.6%. Median time to diagnosis was 6 days for anastomotic leakage and 8 days for ureteral injury. The daily mean values of serum CRP were significantly higher in patients with a surgical complication starting at the second...

  5. Recognizing surgical patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, L.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, each year over 1700 patients die from preventable surgical errors. Numerous initiatives to improve surgical practice have had some impact, but problems persist. Despite the introduction of checklists and protocols, patient safety in surgery remains a continuing challenge. This is

  6. Surgical medical record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, S.

    2008-01-01

    A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15......A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15...

  7. Multimodal strategies to improve surgical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Wilmore, Douglas W

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of modifying perioperative care in noncardiac surgical patients on morbidity, mortality, and other outcome measures. BACKGROUND: New approaches in pain control, introduction of techniques that reduce the perioperative stress response, and the more frequent use...... anesthesia in elective operations, and pilot studies of fast track surgical procedures using the multimodality approach. RESULTS: The introduction of newer approaches to perioperative care has reduced both morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. In the future, most elective operations will become day...... surgical procedures or require only 1 to 2 days of postoperative hospitalization. Reorganization of the perioperative team (anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and physical therapists) will be essential to achieve successful fast track surgical programs. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding perioperative...

  8. Development of fatigue life evaluation method using small specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Shuhei; Nishimura, Arata; Wakai, Eichi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Itoh, Takamoto; Hasegawa, Akira

    2013-01-01

    For developing the fatigue life evaluation method using small specimen, the effect of specimen size and shape on the fatigue life of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (F82H-IEA, F82H-BA07 and JLF-1) was investigated by the fatigue test at room temperature in air using round-bar and hourglass specimens with various specimen sizes (test section diameter: 0.85–10 mm). The round-bar specimen showed no specimen size and no specimen shape effects on the fatigue life, whereas the hourglass specimen showed no specimen size effect and obvious specimen shape effect on it. The shorter fatigue life of the hourglass specimen observed under low strain ranges could be attributed to the shorter micro-crack initiation life induced by the stress concentration dependent on the specimen shape. On the basis of this study, the small round-bar specimen was an acceptable candidate for evaluating the fatigue life using small specimen

  9. Enhanced radiometric detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by using filter-concentrated bovine fecal specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.T.; Kenefick, K.B.; Sockett, D.C.; Lambrecht, R.S.; McDonald, J.; Jorgensen, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    A commercial radiometric medium, BACTEC 12B, was modified by addition of mycobactin, egg yolk suspension, and antibiotics (vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid). Decontaminated bovine fecal specimens were filter concentrated by using 3-microns-pore-size, 13-mm-diameter polycarbonate filters, and the entire filter was placed into the radiometric broth. Comparison of the radiometric technique with conventional methods on 603 cattle from 9 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected herds found that of 75 positive specimens, the radiometric technique detected 92% while conventional methods detected 60% (P less than 0.0005). Only 3.9% of radiometric cultures were contaminated. To measure the effect of filter concentration of specimens on the detection rate, 5 cattle with minimal and 5 with moderate ileum histopathology were sampled weekly for 3 weeks. M. paratuberculosis was detected in 33.3% of nonfiltered specimens and 76.7% of filtered specimens (P less than 0.005). Detection rates were directly correlated with the severity of disease, and the advantage of specimen concentration was greatest on fecal specimens from cattle with low-grade infections. Detection times were also correlated with infection severity: 13.4 +/- 5.9 days with smear-positive specimens, 27.9 +/- 8.7 days with feces from cows with typical subclinical infections, and 38.7 +/- 3.8 days with fecal specimens from cows with low-grade infections. Use of a cocktail of vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid for selective suppression of nonmycobacterial contaminants was better than the commercial product PANTA (Becton Dickinson Microbiologic Systems, Towson, Md.) only when specimens contained very low numbers of M. paratuberculosis

  10. Full thickness crack arrest investigations on compact specimens and a heavy wide-plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Gillot, R.; Elenz, T.

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine the influence of specimen size and testing procedure on the crack arrest toughness K Ia at various temperatures, investigations were carried out on a wide-plate and compact specimens using a highly brittle material. Test interpretation included static as well as dynamic methods. The comparison of the measured K Ia -values shows good agreement although there is a distinct difference in specimen size. In general, the (static) ASTM test method yields a lower and thus conservative estimate of the crack arrest toughness K Ia . 14 refs., 27 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Recent advances in FIB-TEM specimen preparation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Malis, T.; Dionne, S.

    2006-01-01

    Preparing high-quality transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens is of paramount importance in TEM studies. The development of the focused ion beam (FIB) microscope has greatly enhanced TEM specimen preparation capabilities. In recent years, various FIB-TEM foil preparation techniques have been developed. However, the currently available techniques fail to produce TEM specimens from fragile and ultra-fine specimens such as fine fibers. In this paper, the conventional FIB-TEM specimen preparation techniques are reviewed, and their advantages and shortcomings are compared. In addition, a new technique suitable to prepare TEM samples from ultra-fine specimens is demonstrated

  12. Device for investigating subcritical crack growth of RPV steel specimens under BWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, D.; Ahlf, J.

    1983-01-01

    An experiment is being prepared to investigate the subcritical crack growth of RPV steel specimens under cyclic load and under the environmental conditions of a BWR with regard to primary water and irradiation. The experiment will be carried out in the VAK reactor Kahl which is a boiling water reactor operating at 71 bar, 286 0 C and generating 16 MW/sub e/. The experimental setup is composed of an open frame to which a string consisting of five compact tension speciments (40 mm thickness) and connecting links is fixed. The specimen chain is set under cyclic load by a pneumatically actuated bellows unit which is attached to the frame top. Specimen strain and crack opening are measured by linear differential transformers; for temperature distribution measurements in the specimens thermocouples are applied

  13. Application of small specimens to fracture mechanics characterization of irradiated pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, M.A.; Wallin, K.; McCabe, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, precracked Charpy V-notch (PCVN) specimens were used to characterize the fracture toughness of unirradiated and irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels in the transition region by means of three-point static bending. Fracture toughness at cleavage instability was calculated in terms of elastic-plastic K Jc values. A statistical size correction based upon weakest-link theory was performed. The concept of a master curve was applied to analyze fracture toughness properties. Initially, size-corrected PCVN data from A 533 grade B steel, designated HSST Plate O2, were used to position the master curve and a 5% tolerance bound for K Jc data. By converting PCVN data to IT compact specimen equivalent K Jc data, the same master curve and 5% tolerance bound curve were plotted against the Electric Power Research Institute valid linear-elastic K Jc database and the ASME lower bound K Ic curve. Comparison shows that the master curve positioned by testing several PCVN specimens describes very well the massive fracture toughness database of large specimens. These results give strong support to the validity of K Jc with respect to K Ic in general and to the applicability of PCVN specimens to measure fracture toughness of reactor vessel steels in particular. Finally, irradiated PCVN specimens of other materials were tested, and the results are compared to compact specimen data. The current results show that PCVNs demonstrate very good capacity for fracture toughness characterization of reactor pressure vessel steels. It provides an opportunity for direct measurement of fracture toughness of irradiated materials by means of precracking and testing Charpy specimens from surveillance capsules. However, size limits based on constraint theory restrict the operational test temperature range for K Jc data from PCVN specimens. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  14. Fractography evaluation of impact and tensile specimens from the HFBR [High Flux Beam Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajkowski, C.J.

    1989-10-01

    The Materials Technology Group of the Department of Nuclear Energy (DNE) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has performed a fractographic examination of neutron irradiated and unirradiated tensile and Charpy ''V'' notch specimens. The evaluation was carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to evaluate the fracture mode. Photomicrographs were then evaluated to determine the extent of ductility present on the fracture surfaces of the unirradiated specimens. Ductility area measurements ranged from 4.6--9.5% on typical photomicrographs examined. 12 figs

  15. Clinical and histologic evaluation of non-surgical periodontal therapy with enamel matrix derivative: a report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellonig, James T; Valderrama, Pilar; Gregory, Holly J; Cochran, David L

    2009-09-01

    Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) is a composite of proteins that was demonstrated histologically to work as an adjunct to periodontal regenerative surgical therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and histologic effects of EMD as an adjunct to scaling and root planing. Four patients with severe chronic periodontitis and scheduled to receive complete dentures were accrued. Probing depth and clinical attachment levels were obtained. Unlimited time was allowed for hand and ultrasonic instrumentation. A notch was placed in the root >or=1 to 2 mm from the apical extent of root planing. EMD was inserted into the pocket, and a periodontal dressing was placed. Patients were seen every 2 weeks for plaque control. At 6 months post-treatment, soft tissue measurements were repeated, and the teeth were removed en bloc and prepared for histomorphologic analysis. Probing depth reduction and clinical attachment level gain were obtained in three-fourths of the specimens. Three of the four specimens analyzed histologically demonstrated new cementum, bone, periodontal ligament, and connective tissue attachment coronal to the notch. In one specimen, the gingival margin had receded below the notch. The results were unexpected and may represent an aberration. However, the substantial reduction in deep probing depths and clinical attachment level gain in three of four specimens, in addition to the histologic findings of new cementum, new bone, a new periodontal ligament, and a new connective tissue attachment, suggest that EMD may be useful as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in single-rooted teeth.

  16. Surgical ethics: surgical virtue and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercler, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    The encounter between a patient and her surgeon is unique for several reasons. The surgeon inflicts pain upon a patient for the patient's own good. An operative intervention is irreducibly personal, such that the decisions about and performance of operations are inseparable from the idiosyncrasies of the individual surgeon. Furthermore, there is a chasm of knowledge between the patient and surgeon that is difficult to cross. Hence, training in the discipline of surgery includes the inculcation of certain virtues and practices to safeguard against abuses of this relationship and to make sure that the best interests of the patient are prioritized. The stories in this issue are evidence that in contemporary practice this is not quite enough, as surgeons reflect on instances they felt were ethically challenging. Common themes include the difficulty in communicating surgical uncertainty, patient-surgeon relationships, ethical issues in surgical training, and the impact of the technological imperative on caring for dying patients.

  17. Laparoscopic right-sided colonic resection with transluminal colonoscopic specimen extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Kutluturk, Koray; Yagci, Mehmet Ali; Ates, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the transcolonic extraction of the proximally resected colonic specimens by colonoscopic assistance at laparoscopic colonic surgery. METHODS: The diagnoses of our patients were Crohn’s disease, carcinoid of appendix and adenocarcinoma of cecum. We preferred laparoscopic total mesocolic resections. Colon and terminal ileum were divided with endoscopic staplers. A colonoscope was placed per anal and moved proximally in the colon till to reach the colonic closed end under the laparoscopic guidance. The stump of the colon was opened with laparoscopic scissors. A snare of colonoscope was released and the intraperitoneal complete free colonic specimen was grasped. Specimen was moved in to the colon with the help of the laparoscopic graspers and pulled gently through the large bowel and extracted through the anus. The open end of the colon was closed again and the ileal limb and the colon were anastomosed intracorporeally with a 60-mm laparoscopic stapler. The common enterotomy orifice was closed in two layers with a running intracorporeal suture. RESULTS: There were three patients with laparoscopic right-sided colonic resections and their specimens were intended to remove through the remnant colon by colonoscopy but the procedure failed in one patient (adenocarcinoma) due to a bulky mass and the specimen extraction was converted to transvaginal route. All the patients had prior abdominal surgeries and had related adhesions. The operating times were 210, 300 and 500 min. The lengths of the specimens were 13, 17 and 27 cm. In our cases, there were no superficial or deep surgical site infections or any other complications. The patients were discharged uneventfully within 4-5 d and they were asymptomatic after a mean 7.6 mo follow-up (ranged 4-12). As far as we know, there were only 12 cases reported yet on transcolonic extraction of the proximal colonic specimens by colonoscopic assistance after laparoscopic resections. With our cases, success rate of the

  18. Corrosion testing of uranium silicide fuel specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourns, W.T.

    1968-09-01

    U 3 Si is the most promising high density natural uranium fuel for water-cooled power reactors. Power reactors fuelled with this material are expected to produce cheaper electricity than those fuelled with uranium dioxide. Corrosion tests in 300 o C water preceded extensive in-reactor performance tests of fuel elements and bundles. Proper heat-treatment of U-3.9 wt% Si gives a U 3 5i specimen which corrodes at less than 2 mg/cm 2 h in 300 o C water. This is an order of magnitude lower than the maximum corrosion rate tolerable in a water-cooled reactor. U 3 Si in a defected unbonded Zircaloy-2 sheath showed only a slow uniform sheath expansion in 300 o C water. All tests were done under isothermal conditions in an out-reactor loop. (author)

  19. A system for mapping radioactive specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britten, R.J.; Davidson, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    A system for mapping radioactive specimens comprises an avalanche counter, an encoder, pre-amplifier circuits, sample and hold circuits and a programmed computer. The parallel plate counter utilizes avalanche event counting over a large area with the ability to locate radioactive sources in two dimensions. When a beta ray, for example, enters a chamber, an ionization event occurs and the avalanche effect multiplies the event and results in charge collection on the anode surface for a limited period of time before the charge leaks away. The encoder comprises a symmetrical array of planar conductive surfaces separated from the anode by a dielectric material. The encoder couples charge currents, the amlitudes of which define the relative position of the ionization event. The amplitude of coupled current, delivered to pre-amplifiers, defines the location of the event. (author) 12 figs

  20. Corrosion testing of uranium silicide fuel specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourns, W T

    1968-09-15

    U{sub 3}Si is the most promising high density natural uranium fuel for water-cooled power reactors. Power reactors fuelled with this material are expected to produce cheaper electricity than those fuelled with uranium dioxide. Corrosion tests in 300{sup o}C water preceded extensive in-reactor performance tests of fuel elements and bundles. Proper heat-treatment of U-3.9 wt% Si gives a U{sub 3}5i specimen which corrodes at less than 2 mg/cm{sup 2} h in 300{sup o}C water. This is an order of magnitude lower than the maximum corrosion rate tolerable in a water-cooled reactor. U{sub 3}Si in a defected unbonded Zircaloy-2 sheath showed only a slow uniform sheath expansion in 300{sup o}C water. All tests were done under isothermal conditions in an out-reactor loop. (author)

  1. A curved beam test specimen for determining the interlaminar tensile strength of a laminated composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, Clement C.; Sumich, Mark; Chappell, David P.

    1991-01-01

    A curved beam type of test specimen is evaluated for use in determining the through-the-thickness strength of laminated composites. Two variations of a curved beam specimen configuration (semicircular and elliptical) were tested to failure using static and fatigue loads. The static failure load for the semicircular specimens was found to be highly sensitive to flaw content, with the specimens falling into two distinct groups. This result supports the use of proof testing for structural validation. Static design allowables are derived based on the Weibull distribution. Fatigue data indicates no measured increase in specimen compliance prior to final fracture. All static and fatigue failures at room temperature dry conditions occurred catastrophically. The elliptical specimens demonstrated unusually high failure strengths indicating the presence of phenomena requiring further study. Results are also included for specimens exposed to a wet environment showing a matrix strength degradation due to moisture content. Further testing is underway to evaluate a fatigue methodology for matrix dominated failures based on residual static strength (wearout).

  2. Deginerative changes of femoral articular cartilage in the knee : comparative study of specimen sonography and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju Youn; Hong, Sung Hwan; Sohn, Jin Hee; Wee, Young Hoon; Chang, Jun Dong; Park, Hong Seok; Lee, Eil Seoung; Kang Ik Won

    2001-01-01

    To determine the sonographic findings of degenerative change in femoral articular cartilage of the knee by comparative study of specimen sonography and pathology. We obtained 40 specimens of cartilage of the femur (20 medial and 20 lateral condylar) from 20 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee who had undergone total knee replacement. The specimens were placed in a saline-filled container and sonography was performed using a 10-MHz linear transducer. Sonographic abnormalities were evaluated at the cartilage surface, within the cartilage, and at the bone-cartilage interface, and were compared with the corresponding pathologic findings. In addition, cartilage thickness was measured at a representative portion of each femoral cartilage specimen and was compared with the thickness determined by sonography. 'Dot' lesions, irregularity or loss of the hyperechoic line, were demonstrated by sonography at the saline-cartilage interface of 14 cartilages. Pathologic examination showed that these findings corresponded to cleft, detachment, erosion, and degeneration. Irregularities in the hyperechoic line at the bone-cartilage interface were revealed by sonography in eight cartilages and were related to irregularity or loss of tidemark, downward displacement of the cartilage, and subchondral callus formation. Dot lesions, corresponding to cleft and degeneration, were noted within one cartilage. Cartilage thickness measured on specimen and by sonography showed no significant difference (p=0.446). Specimen sonography suggested that articular cartilage underwent degenerative histopathological change. Cartilage thickness measured by sonography exactly reflected real thickness

  3. Assessment of Surgical Skills and Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Nasir I

    2017-10-01

    Evaluation of surgical skills and competency are important aspects of the medical education process. Measurable and reproducible methods of assessment with objective feedback are essential components of surgical training. Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) is widely used across the medical specialties and otolaryngology-specific tools have been developed and validated for sinus and mastoid surgery. Although assessment of surgical skills can be time-consuming and requires human and financial resources, new evaluation methods and emerging technology may alleviate these barriers while also improving data collection practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Test methodology and technology of fracture toughness for small size specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakai, E.; Takada, F.; Ishii, T.; Ando, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Matsukawa, S. [JNE Techno-Research Co., Kanagawa-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Small specimen test technology (SSTT) is required to investigate mechanical properties in the limited availability of effective irradiation volumes in test reactors and accelerator-based neutron and charged particle sources. The test methodology guideline and the manufacture processes for very small size specimens have not been established, and we would have to formulate it. The technology to control exactly the load and displacement is also required in the test technology under the environment of high dose radiation produced from the specimens. The objective of this study is to examine the test technology and methodology of fracture toughness for very small size specimens. A new bend test machine installed in hot cell has been manufactured to obtain fracture toughness and DBTT (ductile - brittle transition temperature) of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels for small bend specimens of t/2-1/3PCCVN (pre-cracked 1/3 size Charpy V-notch) with 20 mm length and DFMB (deformation and fracture mini bend specimen) with 9 mm length. The new machine can be performed at temperatures from -196 deg. C to 400 deg. C under unloading compliance method. Neutron irradiation was also performed at about 250 deg. C to about 2 dpa in JMTR. After the irradiation, fracture toughness and DBTT were examined by using the machine. Checking of displacement measurement between linear gauge of cross head's displacement and DVRT of the specimen displacement was performed exactly. Conditions of pre-crack due to fatigue in the specimen preparation were also examined and it depended on the shape and size of the specimens. Fracture toughness and DBTT of F82H steel for t/2-1/3PCCVN, DFMB and 0.18DCT specimens before irradiation were examined as a function of temperature. DBTT of smaller size specimens of DFMB was lower than that of larger size specimen of t/2-1/3PCCVN and 0.18DCT. The changes of fracture toughness and DBTT due to irradiation were also

  5. Two cases of laparoscopic total colectomy with natural orifice specimen extraction and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogan, Ersin; Aktas, Aydin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Gonultas, Fatih; Sumer, Fatih

    2017-09-01

    We present two cases of natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) after laparoscopic total colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis (TC-IRA), and we also review all of the previously reported cases. Our aim was to focus on patient selection for NOSE after TC-IRA. The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were scanned. Demographic features, surgical indications, and techniques were analyzed. Basic calculations were used for statistical analysis. A total of 13 cases were detected in addition to our 2 cases. All of the specimens were removed through the natural orifices successfully. No case required a diverting ileostomy. No patients were converted to open surgery or to conventional laparoscopy. Complications were reported in three patients. Transanal extractions were performed in 12 cases (10 colonic inertia, 2 polyposis), and transvaginal extractions were performed in 3 cases (2 malignancy, 1 colonic inertia). Both transanal and transvaginal specimen extractions after laparoscopic TC-IRA can be preferred. However, transanal extraction seems to be feasible in cases of TC for benign disease with a limited mesenteric-omental resection. If the indication is a malignancy requiring a mesenteric-omental resection, a transvaginal route should be preferred for a voluminous specimen.

  6. 10 CFR 26.165 - Testing split specimens and retesting single specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (c), as applicable. If the specimen in Bottle A is free of any evidence of drugs or drug metabolites... suitable inquiry conducted under the provisions of § 26.63 or to any other inquiry or investigation... records must be provided to personnel conducting reviews, inquiries into allegations, or audits under the...

  7. A non-destructive DNA sampling technique for herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Lara D

    2017-01-01

    Herbarium specimens are an important source of DNA for plant research but current sampling methods require the removal of material for DNA extraction. This is undesirable for irreplaceable specimens such as rare species or type material. Here I present the first non-destructive sampling method for extracting DNA from herbarium specimens. DNA was successfully retrieved from robust leaves and/or stems of herbarium specimens up to 73 years old.

  8. Miniature tensile test specimens for fusion reactor irradiation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Three miniature sheet-type tensile specimens and a miniature rod-type specimen are being used to determine irradiated tensile properties for alloy development for fusion reactors. The tensile properties of type 316 stainless steel were determined with these different specimens, and the results were compared. Reasonably good agreement was observed. However, there were differences that led to recommendations on which specimens are preferred. 4 references, 9 figures, 6 tables

  9. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1998-01-01

    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior

  10. Homemade specimen retrieval bag for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A solution in the time of fiscal crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, George; Fotiadis, Kyriakos; Panagiotou, Dimitrios; Faitatzidou, Afroditi; Kotzampassi, Katerina

    2015-05-01

    Due to the current economic crisis in Greece, major cutbacks on healthcare costs have been imposed, resulting in a shortage of surgical supplies, including laparoscopic materials. In an attempt to reduce costs, we developed a homemade specimen retrieval bag for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We used the polyethylene bag containing the catheter of a Redon drainage set. The bag was cut in half and pleated longitudinally; then, the gallbladder was placed in the bag and removed through the umbilicus with a grasping forceps. From September 2011 to June 2012, we used our homemade bag on 85 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. No rupture, accidental opening, or bile leak was observed. The learning curve was found to be five cases. Our homemade specimen retrieval bag seems to be a safe, effective, and easy tool for tissue extraction. Further studies need to be conducted to evaluate its full potential. © 2015 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Prognostic significance of lymphovascular invasion in radical prostatectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, David S; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Lowrance, William T; Maschino, Alexandra C; Savage, Caroline J; Cronin, Angel M; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A

    2011-08-01

    Study Type - Prognosis (case series). 4. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The reported incidence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in radical prostatectomy specimens ranges from 5% to 53%. Although LVI has a strong and significant association with adverse clinicopathologic features, it has almost uniformly not been found to be a predictor of biochemical recurrence (BR) on multivariate analysis. This study confirms that LVI is associated with features of aggressive disease and is an independent predictor of BCR. Given that LVI may play a role in the metastatic process, it may be useful in clinical decision-making regarding adjuvant therapy for patients treated with RP. To determine whether lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens has prognostic significance. The study examined whether LVI is associated with clinicopathological characteristics and biochemical recurrence (BCR). LVI was evaluated based on routine pathology reports on 1298 patients treated with RP for clinically localized prostate cancer between 2004 and 2007. LVI was defined as the unequivocal presence of tumour cells within an endothelium-lined space. The association between LVI and clinicopathological features was assessed with univariate logistic regression. Cox regression was used to test the association between LVI and BCR. LVI was identified in 10% (129/1298) of patients. The presence of LVI increased with advancing pathological stage: 2% (20/820) in pT2N0 patients, 16% (58/363) in pT3N0 patients and 17% (2/12) in pT4N0 patients; and was highest in patients with pN1 disease (52%; 49/94). Univariate analysis showed an association between LVI and higher preoperative prostate-specific antigen levels and Gleason scores, and a greater likelihood of extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node metastasis and positive surgical margins (all P < 0.001). With a median follow-up of 27 months, LVI was significantly associated with an

  12. Perception of Surgical Faculty on the Utility of Modified Thiel Embalmed Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini C Appaji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical skills training on low and high fidelity simulators have been in practice for over a decade, but due to the high cost of virtual reality simulators it is beyond the reach of institutions and trainees. Among the simulators, high fidelity simulators such as a suitably prepared human anatomical specimen would give a real feel as if doing the procedure in the living. Hence, having soft, supple cadaver with organoleptic properties is an ideal situation for training by simulation and research. To facilitate the surgical skill training and research, chemical embalming was adopted with modifications of the Thiel method, for cadaver preservation. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the perception of the surgical faculty’s experience on the utility of modified Thiel embalmed cadavers for surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a feedback was taken from practicing surgeons of broad and sub specialties such as general surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, plastic surgery, pediatric surgery, ophthalmology, ENT, OBG, Transplant surgery (n=54. A 5 point Likert scale questionnaire was used with criteria of measurements like skin color, consistency, odour, differentiation of the layers, approach to the area, joint mobility and suitability for the procedure. Results: The scores ranged from 3.9 to 4.46/5. The participants expressed satisfaction on the cadaver quality on their utility for performance of surgical procedures. They expressed that, such embalmed cadavers would be excellent for learning purpose, surgical skills training in orthopedic procedures like arthroscopy. They felt the joint mobility was good, the consistency was soft and differentiation of layers was good. Some felt the tissues were fragile and would easily give away losing their strength. Conclusion: Thiel embalmed cadavers retain their organoleptic properties and hence facilitate surgical skills training. The thiel embalmed

  13. Surgical Critical Care Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Surgical Critical Care Initiative (SC2i) is a USU research program established in October 2013 to develop, translate, and validate biology-driven critical care....

  14. Surgical Management of Hemorrhoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhoids are common human afflictions known since the dawn of history. Surgical management of this condition has made tremendous progress from complex ligation and excision procedures in the past to simpler techniques that allow the patient to return to normal life within a short period. Newer techniques try to improve on the post-operative complications of older ones. The surgical options for the management of hemorrhoids today are many. Capturing all in a single article may be difficult if not impossible. The aim of this study therefore is to present in a concise form some of the common surgical options in current literature, highlighting some important post operative complications. Current literature is searched using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library. The conclusion is that even though there are many surgical options in the management of hemorrhoids today, most employ the ligature and excision technique with newer ones having reduced post operative pain and bleeding. PMID:22413048

  15. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a worldwide problem that has ... deep tissue is found on clinical examination, re-opening, histopathological or radiological investigation ..... Esposito S, Immune system and SSI, Journal of Chemotherapy, 2001.

  16. Surgical management of pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If these therapies fail, and with a thorough multidisciplinary approach involving carefully ... Generally, surgical pain management is divided into neuro- modulative .... 9 suggested. It is important to be sure that the underlying instability or.

  17. [Simulation in surgical training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, A; Schipper, J

    2017-01-01

    Patient safety during operations hinges on the surgeon's skills and abilities. However, surgical training has come under a variety of restrictions. To acquire dexterity with decreasingly "simple" cases, within the legislative time constraints and increasing expectations for surgical results is the future challenge. Are there alternatives to traditional master-apprentice learning? A literature review and analysis of the development, implementation, and evaluation of surgical simulation are presented. Simulation, using a variety of methods, most important physical and virtual (computer-generated) models, provides a safe environment to practice basic and advanced skills without endangering patients. These environments have specific strengths and weaknesses. Simulations can only serve to decrease the slope of learning curves, but cannot be a substitute for the real situation. Thus, they have to be an integral part of a comprehensive training curriculum. Our surgical societies have to take up that challenge to ensure the training of future generations.

  18. Dual-Energy CT of Rectal Cancer Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Madsen, Gunvor

    2016-01-01

    is represented by a certain effective Z value, which allows for information on its composition. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to standardize a method for dual-energy scanning of rectal specimens to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of benign versus malignant lymph node differentiation. Histopathological evaluation...... cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured accuracy of differentiating benign from malignant lymph nodes by investigating the following: 1) gadolinium, iodine, and water concentrations in lymph nodes; 2) dual-energy ratio; 3) dual-energy index; and 4) effective Z value. RESULTS: Optimal discriminations...... between benign and malignant lymph nodes were obtained using the following cutoff values: 1) effective Z at 7.58 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 90%; and accuracy, 93%), 2) dual-energy ratio at 1.0 × 10 (sensitivity, 96%; specificity, 87%; and accuracy, 90%), 3) dual-energy index at 0.03 (sensitivity, 97...

  19. Improving core surgical training in a major trauma centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Daniel L J; Bryson, David J; Ollivere, Ben J; Forward, Daren P

    2016-06-01

    English Major Trauma Centres (MTCs) were established in April 2012. Increased case volume and complexity has influenced trauma and orthopaedic (T&O) core surgical training in these centres. To determine if T&O core surgical training in MTCs meets Joint Committee on Surgical Training (JCST) quality indicators including performance of T&O operative procedures and consultant supervised session attendance. An audit cycle assessing the impact of a weekly departmental core surgical trainee rota. The rota included allocated timetabled sessions that optimised clinical and surgical learning opportunities. Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme (ISCP) records for T&O core surgical trainees at a single MTC were analysed for 8 months pre and post rota introduction. Outcome measures were electronic surgical logbook evidence of leading T&O operative procedures and consultant validated work-based assessments (WBAs). Nine core surgical trainees completed a 4 month MTC placement pre and post introduction of the core surgical trainee rota. Introduction of core surgical trainee rota significantly increased the mean number of T&O operative procedures led by a core surgical trainee during a 4 month MTC placement from 20.2 to 34.0 (pcore surgical trainee during a 4 month MTC placement was significantly increased (0.3 vs 2.4 [p=0.04]). Those of dynamic hip screw fixation (2.3 vs 3.6) and ankle fracture fixation (0.7 vs 1.6) were not. Introduction of a core surgical trainee rota significantly increased the mean number of consultant validated WBAs completed by a core surgical trainee during a 4 month MTC placement from 1.7 to 6.6 (pcore surgical trainee rota utilising a 'problem-based' model can significantly improve T&O core surgical training in MTCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of reconstitution method for surveillance specimens using surface activated joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Terumi; Kaihara, Shoichiro; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sato, Akira [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Onizawa, Kunio; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Masahide

    1996-03-01

    Evaluation of embrittlement of reactor vessel steel due to irradiation requires surveillance tests. However, many surveillance specimens are necessary for nuclear plants life extension. Therefore, a specimen reconstitution technique has become important to provide the many specimens for continued surveillance. A surface activated joining (SAJ) method has been developed to join various materials together at low temperatures with little deformation, and is useful to bond irradiated specimens. To assess the validity of this method, Charpy impact tests were carried out, and the characteristics caused by heating during joining were measured. The test results showed the Charpy impact values were almost the same as base materials, and surface activated joining reduced heat affected zone to less than 2 mm. (author).

  1. Observation and control of hepatic specimens with MRI and MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludescher, B.; Wietek, B.; Machann, J.; Graf, H.; Schick, F.; Subke, J.; Claussen, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to observe the process of fixation in liver specimens non-invasively by means of magnetic resonance. The fixation process of several formaldehyde-containing solutions was monitored with MRI and MRS at two different temperatures. Materials and Methods: Liver specimens were conserved in aqueous fixative solutions containing formaldehyde concentrations of 0.7, 1.8, 4 and 7.2% and at different temperatures of 5 C and 20 C. MRI was performed with T1-, T2- and PD-weighted TSE sequences, a 2D FLASH-sequence with and without magnetization transfer, and a FISP 3D-sequence on a clinical 1.5 Tesla MR whole-body unit, and MRS with 1 H-spectroscopic methods (STEAM-sequence) on a 3 Tesla MR whole-body unit. Results: The diffusion of formaldehyde into the tissue was best identified on PD- and T1-weighted images as a band under the liver surface with increasing thickness, penetrating especially fast during the first three days. Spectroscopic measurements revealed the rising formaldehyde concentration in the inner part of the organs. Temperature had no significant influence on the velocity of immersing, but cooling conditions produced less gas-filled caverns due to reduced undesired decomposition processes. Conclusion: The spatial and temporal process of ongoing fixation in the liver can be monitored by MRI. MRS confirms a rising concentration of formaldehyde during ongoing fixation. (orig.) [de

  2. Retrospective analysis of heavy metal contamination in Rhode Island based on old and new herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Sofia M; Murray, David W; Whitfeld, Timothy J S

    2017-01-01

    Herbarium specimens may provide a record of past environmental conditions, including heavy metal pollution. To explore this potential, we compared concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc in historical and new collections from four sites in Rhode Island, USA. We compared historical specimens (1846 to 1916) to congener specimens collected in 2015 at three former industrial sites in Providence, Rhode Island, and one nonindustrial site on Block Island. Leaf material was prepared by UltraWAVE SRC Microwave Digestion, and heavy metal concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Heavy metal concentrations in the historical and new specimens were measurable for all elements tested, and levels of copper and zinc were comparable in the historical and 2015 collections. By contrast, the concentration of lead declined at all sites over time. Significant variability in heavy metal concentration was observed between taxa, reflecting their varied potential for elemental accumulation. It seems clear that herbarium specimens can be used to evaluate past levels of pollution and assess local environmental changes. With careful sampling effort, these specimens can be a valuable part of environmental science research. Broadening the possible applications for herbarium collections in this way increases their relevance in an era of reduced funding for collections-based research.

  3. Prediction of mass absorption coefficients from inelastically scattered X-radiation for specimens of less than 'infinite thickness'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieser, R.; Mulligan, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    An equation is developed which describes the X-ray scatter radiation from specimens of any thickness. This equation suggests that a specimen's mass absorption coefficient can be determined from its inelastically scattered X-radiation not only when the specimen is 'infinitely thick' but also when it is of 'intermediate thickness'. Measurements have been carried out with a standard energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer on specimens of 'intermediate thickness'. Good agreement is obtained between the mass absorption coefficients that are calculated from the scattered radiation and those obtained on the basis of tabulated mass absorption coefficients for the elements. (author)

  4. Impurity composition effect on work function in cylindrical specimens of niobium and low zirconium niobium base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobyakov, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    A study is made into poly- and single crystal cylindrical niobium specimens, prepared by various methods as well as into polycrystalline specimens of niobium base alloys doped with 1.2 and 1.6 % Zr. Thermionic work function is measured using a full current method. Several techniques are applied to determine the content of substitutional and interstitial impurities in specimens. The phase composition of polished section surface is also investigated. A work function increase is observed when a considerable amount of carbide phases occurs at the surface. This increase is comparable with the effect of going from a polycrystalline niobium specimen to a single crystal with (110) surface orientation [ru

  5. Specimen holder for an electron microscope and device and method for mounting a specimen in an electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, H.W.; Latenstein van Voorst, A.; Westra, C.; Hoveling, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    A specimen holder for an electron microscope, comprising a bar-shaped body provided adjacent one end with means for receiving a specimen, with means being present for screening the specimen from the environment at least temporarily in airtight and moisture-proof manner in a first position, which

  6. Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAli, Ahmad B; Griffin, Michelle F; Butler, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice.

  7. Do psychological variables affect early surgical recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Mavros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the effect of psychological variables on surgical recovery, but no definite conclusion has been reached yet. We sought to examine whether psychological factors influence early surgical recovery. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases to identify studies examining the association of preoperative psychological variables or interventions with objectively measured, early surgical outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 16 eligible studies, 15 of which reported a significant association between at least one psychological variable or intervention and an early postoperative outcome. However, most studies also reported psychological factors not influencing surgical recovery and there was significant heterogeneity across the studies. Overall, trait and state anxiety, state anger, active coping, subclinical depression, and intramarital hostility appeared to complicate recovery, while dispositional optimism, religiousness, anger control, low pain expectations, and external locus of control seemed to promote healing. Psychological interventions (guided relaxation, couple support visit, and psychiatric interview also appeared to favor recovery. Psychological factors unrelated to surgical outcomes included loneliness, perceived social support, anger expression, and trait anger. CONCLUSION: Although the heterogeneity of the available evidence precludes any safe conclusions, psychological variables appear to be associated with early surgical recovery; this association could bear important implications for clinical practice. Large clinical trials and further analyses are needed to precisely evaluate the contribution of psychology in surgical recovery.

  8. Mastoidectomy: anatomical parameters x surgical difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Júnior, Anastácio Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lowered temporal meninges and/ or anterior sigmoid sinus are contiditions that can determine surgical difficulties in performing mastoidectomy. Objective: To correlate in the tomography the extent of the prolapse of the sigmoid sinus and of temporal meninges with the surgical difficulty in the mastoidectomy. Method: The tomographic measurements of prolapse sigmoid and of temporal meninges were correlated with the presence or non-presence of the surgical difficulty observed during the mastoidectomy procedure in patients with ostomatoiditis chronic (n=30. Form of study: Contemporary cohort transverse. Results: In 10 patients were observed surgical difficulty distributed as: due to prolapse of the sigmoid sinus (n = 2 or temporal meninges prolapse (n = 7 or both (n = 1. In patients in which the surgical difficulty was due to sigmoid sinus prolapse, the tomography distance of the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus to posterior wall of external auditory canal was lower than 9 mm. In patients in which surgical difficulty was due to temporal meninges prolapse, the tomographic distance to the upper plane of the petrous bone was 7 mm. Conclusion: The computerized tomography distance between the temporal meninges and the upper plane of the petrous bone 7 mm and the distance of the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus to posterior wall of external auditory canal was lower than 9 mm are predictive to the surgical difficulties to perform mastoidectomy.

  9. Post surgical complications from students' large animal surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of post surgical complications was conducted on records of students' Large Animal Surgical Laboratories in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (F.V.M.), Ahmadu Bello University (A.B.U), Zaria from 1989 to 1993. Three hundred and eleven surgical complications were recorded from five surgical ...

  10. Patient identification error among prostate needle core biopsy specimens--are we ready for a DNA time-out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, Eric J; Pfeifer, John D; Raab, Stephen S

    2007-10-01

    Patient identification errors in surgical pathology often involve switches of prostate or breast needle core biopsy specimens among patients. We assessed strategies for decreasing the occurrence of these uncommon and yet potentially catastrophic events. Root cause analyses were performed following 3 cases of patient identification error involving prostate needle core biopsy specimens. Patient identification errors in surgical pathology result from slips and lapses of automatic human action that may occur at numerous steps during pre-laboratory, laboratory and post-laboratory work flow processes. Patient identification errors among prostate needle biopsies may be difficult to entirely prevent through the optimization of work flow processes. A DNA time-out, whereby DNA polymorphic microsatellite analysis is used to confirm patient identification before radiation therapy or radical surgery, may eliminate patient identification errors among needle biopsies.

  11. Influence of surgical decompression on the expression of inflammatory and tissue repair biomarkers in periapical cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Janderson Teixeira; Dos Santos Antunes, Henrique; Armada, Luciana; Pires, Fábio Ramôa

    2017-12-01

    The biologic effects of surgical decompression on the epithelium and connective tissues of periapical cysts are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of tissue repair and inflammatory biomarkers in periapical cysts before and after surgical decompression. Nine specimens of periapical cysts treated with decompression before undergoing complete enucleation were immunohistochemically analyzed to investigate the expression of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, Ki-67, and epidermal growth factor receptor. Expression of the biomarkers was classified as positive, focal, or negative. Ki-67 immunoexpression was calculated as a cell proliferation index. The expression of the biomarkers was compared in the specimens from decompression and from the final surgical procedure. Computed tomography demonstrated that volume was reduced in all cysts after decompression. There were no differences in the immunoexpression of the proinflammatory and tissue repair biomarkers when comparing the specimens obtained before and after the decompression. Surgical decompression was efficient in reducing the volume of periapical cysts before complete enucleation. When comparing the specimens obtained from surgical decompression and from complete surgical removal, the immunohistochemical analysis did not show a decrease in proinflammatory biomarkers; neither did it show an increase in tissue repair biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgical smoke and ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Dennis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrocautery, laser tissue ablation, and ultrasonic scalpel tissue dissection all generate a 'surgical smoke' containing ultrafine ( Methods To measure the amount of generated particulates in 'surgical smoke' during different surgical procedures and to quantify the particle number concentration for operation room personnel a condensation particle counter (CPC, model 3007, TSI Inc. was applied. Results Electro-cauterization and argon plasma tissue coagulation induced the production of very high number concentration (> 100000 cm-3 of particles in the diameter range of 10 nm to 1 μm. The peak concentration was confined to the immediate local surrounding of the production side. In the presence of a very efficient air conditioning system the increment and decrement of ultrafine particle occurrence was a matter of seconds, with accumulation of lower particle number concentrations in the operation room for only a few minutes. Conclusion Our investigation showed a short term very high exposure to ultrafine particles for surgeons and close assisting operating personnel – alternating with longer periods of low exposure.

  13. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  14. Liability exposure for surgical robotics instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu L; Kilic, Gokhan; Phelps, John Y

    2012-01-01

    Surgical robotics instructors provide an essential service in improving the competency of novice gynecologic surgeons learning robotic surgery and advancing surgical skills on behalf of patients. However, despite best intentions, robotics instructors and the gynecologists who use their services expose themselves to liability. The fear of litigation in the event of a surgical complication may reduce the availability and utility of robotics instructors. A better understanding of the principles of duty of care and the physician-patient relationship, and their potential applicability in a court of law likely will help to dismantle some concerns and uncertainties about liability. This commentary is not meant to discourage current and future surgical instructors but to raise awareness of liability issues among robotics instructors and their students and to recommend certain preventive measures to curb potential liability risks. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2012-01-01

    The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... and 28 students from 2010). Our results show that anxiety levels in veterinary students are significantly higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course (p...

  16. Improvement of rotary specimen rack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batch, J.M.; Gietzen, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A redesign and verification test program has been completed on a new Rotary Specimen Rack ('Lazy Susan') design for the TRIGA Mark III. The purpose of the redesign was to solve a rotation problem which occurred at power levels of about 1 MW and above. The previous redesign effort on the Mark II-type lazy susan was made in 1967 when the bearing was changed to use stellite balls, spring-type separators and stainless-steel bearing races. An extensive test program at that time showed that the design gave excellent service under all anticipated operating conditions. Fifteen of these units have been installed in the past ten years and have been essentially trouble-free. Although the bearing design for the Mark III was very similar, the component layout was such that irradiation-induced heating with associated thermal expansion resulted in decreased bearing clearance and an increase in the required driving torque. The solution involved redesign and re-arrangement of the rack drive mechanism. A series of stringent operational proof tests were made under high temperature and temperature differential conditions which proved successful operation of the new design. The severe conditions under which these tests were performed uncovered further difficulties with the bearing and led to a re-evaluation of the bearing design. A new design was developed in which the spring separators were replaced by similar sized, cylindrical graphite spacers. The entire series of operational and life tests were repeated and the performance was outstanding. Acceptable wear characteristics of the spacers were verified and the bearing was noticeably smoother and quieter than with previous designs. A Mark III lazy susan of this new design was installed in a TRIGA about one year ago and operated at power levels up to 2 MW with excellent performance. The Mark II design has now been changed to incorporate the new drive and bearing design proven for the Mark III. (author)

  17. Standard practice for preparing, cleaning, and evaluating corrosion test specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers suggested procedures for preparing bare, solid metal specimens for tests, for removing corrosion products after the test has been completed, and for evaluating the corrosion damage that has occurred. Emphasis is placed on procedures related to the evaluation of corrosion by mass loss and pitting measurements. (Warning—In many cases the corrosion product on the reactive metals titanium and zirconium is a hard and tightly bonded oxide that defies removal by chemical or ordinary mechanical means. In many such cases, corrosion rates are established by mass gain rather than mass loss.) 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see 1 and 7.2.

  18. Signal processing methods for in-situ creep specimen monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guers, Manton J.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2018-04-01

    Previous work investigated using guided waves for monitoring creep deformation during accelerated life testing. The basic objective was to relate observed changes in the time-of-flight to changes in the environmental temperature and specimen gage length. The work presented in this paper investigated several signal processing strategies for possible application in the in-situ monitoring system. Signal processing methods for both group velocity (wave-packet envelope) and phase velocity (peak tracking) time-of-flight were considered. Although the Analytic Envelope found via the Hilbert transform is commonly applied for group velocity measurements, erratic behavior in the indicated time-of-flight was observed when this technique was applied to the in-situ data. The peak tracking strategies tested had generally linear trends, and tracking local minima in the raw waveform ultimately showed the most consistent results.

  19. Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Duck Seok; Seo, Hang Seok; Min, Duck Kee; Koo, Dae Seo; Lee, Eun Pyo; Yang, Song Yeol

    1999-04-01

    Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods to perform efficient PIE is developed by analyzing the relation between requiring time of manufacturing specimen and manufacturing method in irradiated fuel rods. It takes within an hour to grind 1 mm of specimen thickness under 150 rpm in speed of grinding, 600 g gravity in force using no.120, no.240, no.320 of grinding paper. In case of no.400 of grinding paper, it takes more an hour to grind the same thickness as above. It takes up to a quarter to grind 80-130 μm in specimen thickness using no.400 of grinding paper. When grinding time goes beyond 15 minutes, the grinding thickness of specimen does not exist. The polishing of specimen with 150 Rpms in speed of grinding machine, 600 g gravity in force, 10 minutes in polishing time using diamond paste 15 μm on polishing cloths amounts to 50 μm in specimen thickness. In case of diamond paste 9 μm on polishing cloth, the polishing of specimen amounts to 20 μm. The polishing thickness of specimen with 15 minutes in polishing time using 6 μm, 3 μm, 1 μm, 1/4 μm does not exist. Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods will have application to the destructive examination of PIE. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  20. Analysis of the learning curve for pre-cut corneal specimens in preparation for lamellar transplantation: a prospective, single-centre, consecutive case series prepared at the Lions New South Wales Eye Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Aifric Isabel; Devasahayam, Rajnesh; Hodge, Christopher; Cooper, Simon; Sutton, Gerard L

    2017-09-01

    This study is the first paper to establish a learning curve by a single technician. Preparation of pre-cut corneal endothelial grafts commenced at Lions New South Wales Eye Bank in December 2014. The primary objective of this study was to review the safety and reliability of the preparation method during the first year of production. This is a hospital-based, prospective case series. There were 234 consecutive donor corneal lenticules. Donor lenticules were prepared by a single operator using a linear cutting microkeratome. Immediately prior to cutting, central corneal thickness values were recorded. Measurements of the corneal bed were taken immediately following lenticule preparation. Outcomes were separated by blade sizes, and intended thickness was compared to actual thickness for each setting. Early specimens were compared to later ones to assess for a learning curve within the technique. The main parameter measured is the mean difference from intended lamellar cut thickness. The mean final cut thickness was 122.36 ± 20.35 μm, and the mean difference from intended cut was 30.17 ± 37.45 μm. No significant difference was found between results achieved with early specimens versus those achieved with later specimens (P = 0.425). Thin, reproducible endothelial grafts can routinely be produced by trained technicians at their respective eye banks without significant concerns for an extended learning curve. This service can reduce perioperative surgical complexity, required surgical paraphernalia and theatre times. The consistent preparation of single-pass, ultrathin pre-cut corneas may have additional advantages for surgeons seeking to introduce lamellar techniques. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  1. SURGICAL SITE INFECTION: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. M. Bonai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection or nosocomial infection (NI is one of the factors that increase the cost of maintaining patients in the health system, even in processes that should safely occur, such as hospital patients and performing simple and routine surgical procedures surgical centers and clinics leading to complications resulting from these infections that prolong hospital stay and promote pain and suffering to the patient, resulting in the defense of the quality of services and influencing negatively the hospitals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the factors that result in surgical site infection, with the purpose of better understanding of the subject and the possibility of preventive actions to better treatment outcome of the patient.

  2. Improving ED specimen TAT using Lean Six Sigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Janet H; Karr, Tedd

    2015-01-01

    Lean and Six Sigma are continuous improvement methodologies that have garnered international fame for improving manufacturing and service processes. Increasingly these methodologies are demonstrating their power to also improve healthcare processes. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a case study for the application of Lean and Six Sigma tools in the reduction of turnaround time (TAT) for Emergency Department (ED) specimens. This application of the scientific methodologies uncovered opportunities to improve the entire ED to lab system for the specimens. This case study provides details on the completion of a Lean Six Sigma project in a 1,000 bed tertiary care teaching hospital. Six Sigma's Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control methodology is very similar to good medical practice: first, relevant information is obtained and assembled; second, a careful and thorough diagnosis is completed; third, a treatment is proposed and implemented; and fourth, checks are made to determine if the treatment was effective. Lean's primary goal is to do more with less work and waste. The Lean methodology was used to identify and eliminate waste through rapid implementation of change. The initial focus of this project was the reduction of turn-around-times for ED specimens. However, the results led to better processes for both the internal and external customers of this and other processes. The project results included: a 50 percent decrease in vials used for testing, a 50 percent decrease in unused or extra specimens, a 90 percent decrease in ED specimens without orders, a 30 percent decrease in complete blood count analysis (CBCA) Median TAT, a 50 percent decrease in CBCA TAT Variation, a 10 percent decrease in Troponin TAT Variation, a 18.2 percent decrease in URPN TAT Variation, and a 2-5 minute decrease in ED registered nurses rainbow draw time. This case study demonstrated how the quantitative power of Six Sigma and the speed of Lean worked in harmony to improve

  3. Effect of sized and specimen geometry on the initiation and propagation of the ductile fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frund, J.M.; Marini, B.; Bethmont, M.

    1994-02-01

    Strength to the fracture of the pipe in PWR has to be justified with mechanical analyses. These tests are based on the strength to ductile fracture of steels which are tested in lab. The values of resistance to fracture are obtained through tensile tests on CT specimens (determination of J-R curves). The purpose of this study is to justify the sizes of the specimens which have to be used to characterize the strength to ductile fracture of steel in secondary pipes. Tests were conducted on 0,5T-CT, 1T-CT and 2T-CT specimens. Two materials with different suffer contents were studied. The test results show that the JO,2 values gotten from the different specimens are similar. But the strength to ductile fracture in 2T-CT specimens in lower than the one measured in 0,5t-CT and 1T-CT specimens. The surface of fracture of the different specimens displays splits perpendicular to the notch and parallel to the sheet surface. These splits are produced by the separation of the manganese sulfur inclusions. The effect notes on the J-R curves seems to be relevant to these splits. The reason why these splits might be responsible for a decrease of the tearing modulus are not clearly defined up to this point. The results which have been published show the importance of the geometry effects (presence or not of lateral notches...) and the loading mode on the strength to ductile fracture. We note that the curves determined from tests on CT specimens are conservative. A few preliminary studies showed that the geometry effects on resistance to fracture can be studied and explained by using local approach methods. The Rousselier modeling is useful to explain the behaviour of ferritic steels in ductile fracture. (authors). 20 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Retained surgical sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Masashi; Kurono, Kenji; Iida, Akihiko; Suzuki, Hirochika; Hara, Masaki; Mizutani, Hirokazu; Ohba, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaru; Nakajima, Yoichiro.

    1993-01-01

    The CT, US, and MRI findings of confirmed retained surgical sponges were reviewed. The CT examinations in eight lesions demonstrated round or oval masses with heterogeneous internal structures. The US examinations in 5 lesions demonstrated low echogenic masses with high echogenic internal structures, which suggested retained surgical sponges. MR imagings in three lesions showed slightly high intensity comparable to that of muscles on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, suggesting fluid collections of high protein concentration. (author)

  5. High-Resolution Ultrasonography (US) of Appendiceal Specimens: Differentiation of Acute Non-perforated Appendicitis from Perforated Appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gyo Chang; Kim, Suk; Im, Han Hyeok; Lee, Sang Jin; Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Il Young [Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hae Kyung [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kui Hyang; Shin, Hyung Chul [Soonchunhyang University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    To analyze surgical specimens from patients with acute non-perforated and perforated appendicitis using high-resolution ultrasonography (US), and to correlate the US features with the pathologic findings. One hundred and six surgical appendix specimens obtained from patients with suspected acute appendicitis were evaluated. The following US features were evaluated for differentiating acute non-perforated appendicitis from perforated appendicitis: circumferential loss of the echogenic submucosal layer, disruption of the serosal layer, asymmetrical wall thickening, the sum of opposing walls {>=} 9 mm and the presence of appendicoliths. The sensitivity and specificity of the US findings for diagnosing perforated appendicitis were determined. All US features were detected significantly more often in the perforated appendicitis group of specimens. The disruption of the serosal layer was the most significant independent predictor of perforation (p < .001). The sensitivity for circumferential loss of the echogenic submucosal layer, disruption of the serosal layer, asymmetrical wall thickening, wall thickness {>=} 9 mm, and the presence of appendicoliths individually was 84.6%, 69.2%, 61.5%, 73.1% and 46.2%, respectively. The specificity for all of these findings was 86.3%, 98.7%, 95.0%, 85.0% and 85.0%, respectively. High-resolution US of appendiceal specimens was very useful for differentiating acute non-perforated from perforated appendicitis

  6. An Experimental Study of Shear-Dominated Failure in the 2013 Sandia Fracture Challenge Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deibler, Lisa Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reedlunn, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingraham, Mathew Duffy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, Shelley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report presents an experimental study motivated by results obtained during the 2013 Sandia Fracture Challenge. The challenge involved A286 steel, shear-dominated compression specimens whose load-deflection response contained a load maximum fol- lowed by significant displacement under decreasing load, ending with a catastrophic fracture. Blind numerical simulations deviated from the experiments well before the maximum load and did not predict the failure displacement. A series of new tests were conducted on specimens machined from the original A286 steel stock to learn more about the deformation and failure processes in the specimen and potentially improve future numerical simulations. The study consisted of several uniaxial tension tests to explore anisotropy in the material, and a set of new tests on the compression speci- men. In some compression specimen tests, stereo digital image correlation (DIC) was used to measure the surface strain fields local to the region of interest. In others, the compression specimen was loaded to a given displacement prior to failure, unloaded, sectioned, and imaged under the microscope to determine when material damage first appeared and how it spread. The experiments brought the following observations to light. The tensile tests revealed that the plastic response of the material is anisotropic. DIC during the shear- dominated compression tests showed that all three in-plane surface strain components had maxima in the order of 50% at the maximum load. Sectioning of the specimens revealed no signs of material damage at the point where simulations deviated from the experiments. Cracks and other damage did start to form approximately when the max- imum load was reached, and they grew as the load decreased, eventually culminating in catastrophic failure of the specimens. In addition to the steel specimens, a similar study was carried out for aluminum 7075-T651 specimens. These specimens achieved much lower loads and displacements

  7. Selection of oncoplastic surgical technique in Asian breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Sun Shin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Oncoplastic surgery is being increasingly performed in Korean women; however, unlike Westerners, Korean women usually have small to moderate-sized breasts. To achieve better outcomes in reconstructed breasts, several factors should be considered to determine the optimal surgical method. Methods A total of 108 patients who underwent oncoplastic surgery from January 2013 to December 2016 were retrospectively investigated. We used various methods, including glandular tissue reshaping, latissimus dorsi (LD flap transposition, and reduction oncoplasty, to restore the breast volume and symmetry. Results The mean weight of the tumor specimens was 40.46 g, and the ratio of the tumor specimen weight to breast volume was 0.12 g/mL in the patients who underwent glandular tissue reshaping (n=59. The corresponding values were 101.47 g and 0.14 g/mL, respectively, in the patients who underwent reduction oncoplasty (n=17, and 82.54 g and 0.20 g/mL, respectively, in those treated with an LD flap (n=32. Glandular tissue reshaping was mostly performed in the upper outer quadrant, and LD flap transposition was mostly performed in the lower inner quadrant. No major complications were noted. Most patients were satisfied with the aesthetic results. Conclusions We report satisfactory outcomes of oncoplastic surgical procedures in Korean patients. The results regarding specimen weight and the tumor-to-breast ratio of Asian patients will be a helpful reference point for determining the most appropriate oncoplastic surgical technique.

  8. Comparing the Quality of Ambulatory Surgical Care for Skin Cancer in a Veterans Affairs Clinic and a Fee-For-Service Practice Using Clinical and Patient-Reported Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizon, Matthew P; Linos, Eleni; Arron, Sarah T; Hills, Nancy K; Chren, Mary-Margaret

    2017-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has identified serious deficiencies in the measurement of cancer care quality, including the effects on quality of life and patient experience. Moreover, comparisons of quality in Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VA) and other sites are timely now that many Veterans can choose where to seek care. To compare quality of ambulatory surgical care for keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) between a VA and fee-for-service (FFS) practice, we used unique clinical and patient-reported data from a comparative effectiveness study. Patients were enrolled in 1999-2000 and followed for a median of 7.2 years. The practices differed in a few process measures (e.g., median time between biopsy and treatment was 7.5 days longer at VA) but there were no substantial or consistent differences in clinical outcomes or a broad range of patient-reported outcomes. For example, 5-year tumor recurrence rates were equally low (3.6% [2.3-5.5] at VA and 3.4% [2.3-5.1] at FFS), and similar proportions of patients reported overall satisfaction at one year (78% at VA and 80% at FFS, P = 0.69). These results suggest that the quality of care for KC can be compared comprehensively in different health care systems, and suggest that quality of care for KC was similar at a VA and FFS setting.

  9. Laboratory specimens and genetic privacy: evolution of legal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle Huckaby

    2013-03-01

    Although laboratory specimens are an important resource for biomedical research, controversy has arisen when research has been conducted without the knowledge or consent of the individuals who were the source of the specimens. This paper summarizes the most important litigation regarding the research use of laboratory specimens and traces the evolution of legal theory from property claims to claims related to genetic privacy interests. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  10. Disc degeneration: current surgical options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Schizas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain attributed to lumbar disc degeneration poses a serious challenge to physicians. Surgery may be indicated in selected cases following failure of appropriate conservative treatment. For decades, the only surgical option has been spinal fusion, but its results have been inconsistent. Some prospective trials show superiority over usual conservative measures while others fail to demonstrate its advantages. In an effort to improve results of fusion and to decrease the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, total disc replacement techniques have been introduced and studied extensively. Short-term results have shown superiority over some fusion techniques. Mid-term results however tend to show that this approach yields results equivalent to those of spinal fusion. Nucleus replacement has gained some popularity initially, but evidence on its efficacy is scarce. Dynamic stabilisation, a technique involving less rigid implants than in spinal fusion and performed without the need for bone grafting, represents another surgical option. Evidence again is lacking on its superiority over other surgical strategies and conservative measures. Insertion of interspinous devices posteriorly, aiming at redistributing loads and relieving pain, has been used as an adjunct to disc removal surgery for disc herniation. To date however, there is no clear evidence on their efficacy. Minimally invasive intradiscal thermocoagulation techniques have also been tried, but evidence of their effectiveness is questioned. Surgery using novel biological solutions may be the future of discogenic pain treatment. Collaboration between clinicians and basic scientists in this multidisciplinary field will undoubtedly shape the future of treating symptomatic disc degeneration.

  11. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....

  12. [Surgical therapy of gynecomastia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, A; Leclère, F M; Vogt, P M; Steiert, A

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays surgical intervention is an essential part of the treatment of idiopathic gynecomastia. Choosing the right method is crucial and is based on the current status in the clinical and histological evaluation. Before finalizing the process of choosing a specific method a prior interdisciplinary evaluation of the patient is necessary to ascertain clear indications for a surgical intervention. Liposuction is one of the methods which have become popular in recent years. The advantages are the possible combination with traditional techniques, such as subcutaneous mastectomy or periareolar mastopexy. The main indication is for gynecomastia stage IIa/b and is justifiable due to the reduction in surgical complications and scarring. Furthermore this technique provides an excellent aesthetical outcome for the patient. A total of 162 patients suffering from gynecomastia stages I-III (according to Simon) were surgically treated between 2000 and 2010 and these cases were retrospectively evaluated. The results showed a decline in the use of a T-shaped incision in combination with subcutaneous mastectomy with periareolar tightening compared to an increase in the use of subcutaneous mastectomy in combination with liposuction. The excised tissue should always be sent for histological examination to make sure no malignant cells were present.

  13. Surgical manifestations of filariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrahmanyam M

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical manifestations of filariasis as seen in 150 cases over a period of three years in the department of Surgery, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha are reviewed. The genital manifestations are more common than the elephantiasis in this endemic zone.

  14. Improving surgical weekend handover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culwick, Caroline; Devine, Chris; Coombs, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Effective handovers are vital to patient safety and continuity of care, and this is recognised by several national bodies including the GMC. The existing model at Great Western Hospital (GWH) involved three general surgical teams and a urology team placing their printed patient lists, complete with weekend jobs, in a folder for the on-call team to collect at the weekend. We recognised a need to reduce time searching for patients, jobs and reviews, and to streamline weekend ward rounds. A unified weekend list ordering all surgical patients by ward and bed number was introduced. Discrepancies in the layout of each team's weekday list necessitated the design of a new weekday list to match the weekend list to facilitate the easy transfer of information between the two lists. A colour coding system was also used to highlight specific jobs. Prior to this improvement project only 7.1% of those polled were satisfied with the existing system, after a series of interventions satisfaction increased to 85.7%. The significant increase in overall satisfaction with surgical handover following the introduction of the unified weekend list is promising. Locating patients and identifying jobs is easier and weekend ward rounds can conducted in a more logical and timely fashion. It has also helped facilitate the transition to consultant ward rounds of all surgical inpatients at the weekends with promising feedback from a recent consultants meeting.

  15. [Surgical complications of colostomies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ameur, Hazem; Affes, Nejmeddine; Rejab, Haitham; Abid, Bassem; Boujelbene, Salah; Mzali, Rafik; Beyrouti, Mohamed Issam

    2014-07-01

    The colostomy may be terminal or lateral, temporary or permanent. It may have psychological, medical or surgical complications. reporting the incidence of surgical complications of colostomies, their therapeutic management and trying to identify risk factors for their occurrence. A retrospective study for a period of 5 years in general surgery department, Habib Bourguiba hospital, Sfax, including all patients operated with confection of a colostomy. Were then studied patients reoperated for stoma complication. Among the 268 patients who have had a colostomy, 19 patients (7%) developed surgical stoma complications. They had a mean age of 59 years, a sex ratio of 5.3 and a 1-ASA score in 42% of cases. It was a prolapse in 9 cases (reconfection of the colostomy: 6 cases, restoration of digestive continuity: 3 cases), a necrosis in 5 cases (reconfection of the colostomy), a plicature in 2 cases (reconfection of the colostomy) a peristomal abscess in 2 cases (reconfection of the colostomy: 1 case, restoration of digestive continuity: 1 case) and a strangulated parastomal hernia in 1 case (herniorrhaphy). The elective incision and the perineal disease were risk factors for the occurrence of prolapse stomial. Surgical complications of colostomies remain a rare event. Prolapse is the most common complication, and it is mainly related to elective approach. Reoperation is often required especially in cases of early complications, with usually uneventful postoperative course.

  16. Location specific in situ TEM straining specimens made using FIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.; Papin, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    A method has been devised and demonstrated for producing in situ straining specimens for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) from specific locations in a sample using a dual-beam focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. The specimen is removed from a polished surface in the FIB using normal methods and then attached to a pre-fabricated substrate in the form of a modified TEM tensile specimen. In this manner, specific features of the microstructure of a polished optical mount can be selected for in situ tensile straining. With the use of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), this technique could be extended to select specific orientations of the specimen as well

  17. Uniaxial compression tests on diesel contaminated frozen silty soil specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenaf, D.; Stampli, N.; Bathurst, R.; Chapuis, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Results of a uniaxial, unconfined compression test on artificial diesel-contaminated and uncontaminated frozen silty soils are discussed. The testing program involved 59 specimens. The results show that for the same fluid content, diesel contamination reduced the strength of the frozen specimens by increasing the unfrozen water content. For example, in specimens containing 50 per cent diesel oil of the fluid content by weight the maximum strength was reduced by 95 per cent compared to the strength of an uncontaminated specimen. Diesel contamination was also shown to contribute to the slippage between soil particles by acting as a lubricant, thus accelerating the loss of compressive strength.13 refs., 18 figs

  18. Quantitative X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roomans, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Qualitative X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens requires an approach that is somewhat different from that used in the materials sciences. The first step is deconvolution and background subtraction on the obtained spectrum. The further treatment depends on the type of specimen: thin, thick, or semithick. For thin sections, the continuum method of quantitation is most often used, but it should be combined with an accurate correction for extraneous background. However, alternative methods to determine local mass should also be considered. In the analysis of biological bulk specimens, the ZAF-correction method appears to be less useful, primarily because of the uneven surface of biological specimens. The peak-to-local background model may be a more adequate method for thick specimens that are not mounted on a thick substrate. Quantitative X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens generally requires the use of standards that preferably should resemble the specimen in chemical and physical properties. Special problems in biological microanalysis include low count rates, specimen instability and mass loss, extraneous contributions to the spectrum, and preparative artifacts affecting quantitation. A relatively recent development in X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens is the quantitative determination of local water content

  19. Drone Transport of Microbes in Blood and Sputum Laboratory Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Street, Jeff; Carroll, Karen; Miller, Heather; Zhang, Sean X

    2016-10-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) could potentially be used to transport microbiological specimens. To examine the impact of UAVs on microbiological specimens, blood and sputum culture specimens were seeded with usual pathogens and flown in a UAV for 30 ± 2 min. Times to recovery, colony counts, morphologies, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identifications of the flown and stationary specimens were similar for all microbes studied. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. A Debonded Sandwich Specimen Under Mixed Mode Bending (MMB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2008-01-01

    Face/core interface crack propagation in sandwich specimens is analyzed. A thorough analysis of the typical failure modes in sandwich composites was performed in order to design the MMB specimen to promote face/core debond fracture. Displacement, compliance and energy release rate expressions...... for the MMB specimen were derived from a superposition analysis. An experimental verification of the methodology proposed was performed using MMB sandwich specimens with H100 PVC foam core and E-glass/polyester non-crimp quadro-axial [0/45/90/-45]s DBLT-850 faces. Different mixed mode loadings were applied...

  1. TEM specimen preparation of semiconductor-PMMA-metal interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangadurai, P.; Lumelsky, Yulia; Silverstein, Michael S.; Kaplan, Wayne D.

    2008-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) cross-section specimens of PMMA in contact with gold and Si were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) and compared with plan-view PMMA specimens prepared by a dip-coating technique. The specimens were characterized by TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). In the cross-section specimens, the thin films of PMMA were located in a Si-PMMA-Au multilayer. Different thicknesses of PMMA films were spin-coated on the Si substrates. The thickness of the TEM specimens prepared by FIB was estimated using EELS to be 0.65 of the plasmon mean-free-path. Along the PMMA-Au interface, Au particle diffusion into the PMMA was observed, and the size of the Au particles was in the range of 2-4 nm. Dip-coating of PMMA directly on Cu TEM grids resulted in thin specimens with a granular morphology, with a thickness of 0.58 of the plasmon mean-free-path. The dip-coated specimens were free from ion milling induced artifacts, and thus serve as control specimens for comparison with the cross-sectioned specimens prepared by FIB

  2. Significance of microscopic extention from 1162 esophageal carcinoma specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Zhu Shuchai; Han Chun; Zhang Xin; Xiao Aiqin; Ma Guoxin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the subclinical microscopic tumor extention along the long axis in 1162 specimens of esophageal carcinoma so as to help define the clinical target volume(CTV) according to the degree of microscopic extention(ME) for radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. Methods: 1162 resected esophageal carcinoma specimens originally located in the neck and thorax were studied with special reference to the correlation between upper and lower resection length from the tumor and positive microscopic margin. Another 52 resected esophageal carcinoma specimens were made into pathological giant sections: the actual resection length of upper and para-esophageal normal tissues was compared with that of the lower nor- mal tissues from the tumor, there by, the ratio of shrinkage was obtained and compared. Results: After fixation, microscopic positive margin ratio of the upper resection border in length ≤0.5 cm group was higher than that in length > 0.5 cm group (16.4% vs 4.1%, P=0.000). Microscopic positive margin ratio of the lower resection border in length ≤1.5 cm group was higher than that in length > 1.5 cm group( 8.1% vs 0.4%, P = 0.000). This showed that the positive margin ratio of the upper border was higher than that of the lower border in resection length > 1.5 cm group(3.5% vs 0.4%, P=0. 000). The actual length of upper and lower normal esophageal tissue after having been made into pathological giant sections in 52 patients, was 30% ± 14% and 44% ± 19% of that measured in the operation. Conclusions: Considering the shrinkage of the normal esophagus during fixation, a CTV margin of 2.0 cm along the upper long axis and 3.5 cm along the lower long axis should be chosen for radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma, according to the ratio of shrinkage. Ascending invasion proportion is higher than the descending invasion in that tumor. (authors)

  3. A new contrast agent for radiological and dissection studies of the arterial network of anatomic specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, A; Casoli, C; Farace, F; Mazzarello, V; De Luca, L; Rubino, C; Montella, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to propose a new contrast agent that can be easily applied both to CT and dissection studies to replace lead oxide based formulas for comparative anatomical analyses of the vascularisation of cadaveric specimens. The infusion material was an epoxy resin, especially modified by the addition of barium sulphate to enhance its radiopacity. The final copolymer was toxicologically safe. To test the properties of the new material, several cadaveric limb injections were performed. The injected specimens were both CT scanned to perform 3D vascular reconstructions and dissected by anatomical planes. There was a perfect correspondence between the image studies and the dissections: even the smallest arteries on CT scan can be identified on the specimen and vice versa. The properties of the epoxy allowed an easy dissection of the vessels. The new imaging techniques available today, such as CT scan, can evaluate the vascular anatomy in high detail and 3D. This new contrast agent may help realising detailed vascular studies comparing CT scan results with anatomical dissections. Moreover, it may be useful for teaching surgical skills in the field of plastic surgery.

  4. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity with natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkova, P; Gunka, I; Zonca, P; Dostalik, J; Ihnat, P

    2015-01-01

    An experience with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy using the natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) technique. Bariatric surgery is nowadays the only long term effective obesity treatment method. Twenty one consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with the use of natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) in the Surgical Clinic of Faculty Hospital Ostrava between May 2012 and August 2012. Inclusion criteria were the body mass index (BMI) higher than 35 kg/m2 or higher than 32 kg/m2 accompanied with relevant comorbidities. Among 21 patients in this series, there were three men (14.3%) and 18 women (85.7%). Their mean age was 40.9±10.2 years. Their mean preoperative BMI was 40.4±4.6 kg/m2. No patient had previous bariatric surgery, one patient had laparoscopic fundoplication. All operations were completed laparoscopically with no conversions to an open procedure. In two cases, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and the gallbladder was extracted along with the gastric specimen by transgastric approach. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a safe and effective bariatric procedure with low morbidity and mortality. Based on our initial experiences it could be an indication for NOSE with transgastric approach. Obese patients would benefit from this approach due to the elimination of wound complications (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 22).

  5. Histopathological Study of Splenectomy Specimens with Correlation with Age, Sex, and Cause of Splenectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Hiral Patel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spleen is mysterious organ. It can be troublesome specimen for surgical pathologist due to discordance between patient’s clinical condition and perceived finding. The weight of spleen is about 150 grams and lies beneath 9th to 12th thoracic rib in healthy adult and between fundus of stomach & diaphragm. It composed of red pulp (76-79% and white pulp (5-20% which are separated by marginal zone. A total of 100 cases were studied at histopathology section of our laboratory during the period of January 2015 to December 2015. The specimens were received in 10% neutral buffer formalin with duly filled request form. All specimens were examined macroscopically. After routine processing the sections were stained with routine haematoxylin and eosin stain. The most common age group to be affected is 3rd decade (29%, next was 4th decade (23% with slightly male predominance. Male: female ratio is 1.3:1. Most common cause for splenectomy was portal hypertension (33% followed by trauma (15%. Most common microscopic finding is fibrocongestive splenomegaly (68% which is correlated with clinical and radiological finding. In adult Portal hypertension as a hepatic cause and in paediatric age group thalassemia is the most common indication for splenectomy.

  6. Improving the quality of colon cancer surgery through a surgical education program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Nicholas P; Sutton, Kate M; Ingeholm, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated the importance of dissection in the correct tissue plane for the resection of colon cancer. We have previously shown that meticulous mesocolic plane surgery yields better outcomes and that the addition of central vascular ligation produces an oncologically superio...... specimen compared with standard techniques. We aimed to assess the effect of surgical education on the oncological quality of the resection specimen produced....

  7. Transition Fracture Toughness Characterization of Eurofer 97 Steel using Pre-Cracked Miniature Multi-notch Bend Bar Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sokolov, Mikhail A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linton, Kory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clowers, Logan N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-01

    In this report, we present the feasibility study of using pre-cracked miniature multi-notch bend bar specimens (M4CVN) with a dimension of 45mm (length) x 3.3mm (width) x 1.65mm (thickness) to characterize the transition fracture toughness of Eurofer97 based on the ASTM E1921 Master Curve method. From literature survey results, we did not find any obvious specimen size effects on the measured fracture toughness of unirradiated Eurofer97. Nonetheless, in order to exclude the specimen size effect on the measured fracture toughness of neutron irradiated Eurofer97, comparison of results obtained from larger size specimens with those from smaller size specimens after neutron irradiation is necessary, which is not practical and can be formidably expensive. However, limited literature results indicate that the transition fracture toughness of Eurofer97 obtained from different specimen sizes and geometries followed the similar irradiation embrittlement trend. We then described the newly designed experimental setup to be used for testing neutron irradiated Eurofer97 pre-cracked M4CVN bend bars in the hot cell. We recently used the same setup for testing neutron irradiated F82H pre-cracked miniature multi-notch bend bars with great success. Considering the similarity in materials, specimen types, and the nature of tests between Eurofer97 and F82H, we believe the newly designed experimental setup can be used successfully in fracture toughness testing of Eurofer97 pre-cracked M4CVN specimens.

  8. [da Vinci surgical system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Gou; Ishikawa, Norihiro

    2014-07-01

    The da Vinci surgical system was developed by Intuitive Surgical Inc. in the United States as an endoscopic surgical device to assist remote control surgeries. In 1998, the Da Vinci system was first used for cardiothoracic procedures. Currently a combination of robot-assisted internal thoracic artery harvest together with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) through a mini-incision (ThoraCAB) or totally endoscopic procedures including anastomoses under robotic assistance (TECAB) are being conducted for the treatment of coronary artery diseases. With the recent advances in catheter interventions, hybrid procedures combining catheter intervention with ThoraCAB or TECAB are anticipated in the future.On the other hand, with the decrease in number of coronary artery bypass surgeries, the share of valvular surgeries is expected to increase in the future. Among them, mitral valvuloplasty for mitral regurgitation is anticipated to be conducted mainly by low-invasive procedures, represented by minimally invasive cardiac surgery( MICS) and robot-assisted surgery. Apart from the intrinsic good surgical view, robotic-assisted systems offer additional advantages of the availability of an amplified view and the easy to observe the mitral valve in the physiological position. Thus, robotic surgical surgeries that make complicated procedures easier are expected to accomplish further developments in the future. Furthermore, while the number of surgeries for atrial septal defects has decreased dramatically following the widespread use of Amplatzer septal occluder, robotic surgery may become a good indication for cases in which the Amplatzer device is not indicated. In Japan, clinical trial of the da Vinci robotic system for heart surgeries has been completed. Statutory approval of the da Vinci system for mitral regurgitation and atrial septal defects is anticipated in the next few years.

  9. Effect of specimen geometry on the variability in fatigue crack growth rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Hajime; Kondo, Tatsuo

    1982-02-01

    Fatigue crack growth tests on SA 533 grade B class 1 steel were conducted in air with both contoured double cantilever beam (CDCB) specimens and compact-tension (CT) specimens for comparison, which corresponded to the ΔK constant and ΔK increasing fatigue tests respectively. The variability of the measured values was examined statistically, and possible sources of the determined variability were discussed. The variability in the ΔK increasing fatigue tests with the CT specimens was found to be substantially greater than that in the ΔK constant fatigue tests with the CDCB specimens employed in the present study. In addition, the width of the scatter as well as in the degree of deviation from the expected linearity in da/dN versus ΔK plots were found to be varied depending on the level of ΔK in the CT specimen. Based on the results, a conclusion was drawn that constant ΔK type tests should be preferred in the tests where accuracy and reproducibility of crack growth rate measurement was of particular importance. (author)

  10. A Study on Mechanical behavior of Tensile Specimen Fabricated by Laser Cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y. G.; Kim, G. S.; Baik, S. J.; Baek, S. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The mechanical testing data are required for the assessment of dry storage of the spent nuclear fuel. Laser cutting system could be useful tools for material processing such as cutting in radioactive environment due to non-contact nature, ease in handling and the laser cutting process is most advantageous, offering the narrow kerf width and heat affected zone by using small beam spot diameter. The feasibility of the laser cutting system was demonstrated for the fabrication of various types of the unirradiated cladding with and without oxide layer on the specimens. In the present study, the dimensional measurement and tensile test were conducted to investigate the mechanical behavior of the axial tensile test specimens depending on the material processing methods in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser cutting system was used to fabricate the tensile test specimens, and the mechanical behavior was investigated using the dimensional measurement and tensile test. It was shown that the laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens and this technique will be developed for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hotcell.

  11. A Study on Mechanical behavior of Tensile Specimen Fabricated by Laser Cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y. G.; Kim, G. S.; Baik, S. J.; Baek, S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical testing data are required for the assessment of dry storage of the spent nuclear fuel. Laser cutting system could be useful tools for material processing such as cutting in radioactive environment due to non-contact nature, ease in handling and the laser cutting process is most advantageous, offering the narrow kerf width and heat affected zone by using small beam spot diameter. The feasibility of the laser cutting system was demonstrated for the fabrication of various types of the unirradiated cladding with and without oxide layer on the specimens. In the present study, the dimensional measurement and tensile test were conducted to investigate the mechanical behavior of the axial tensile test specimens depending on the material processing methods in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser cutting system was used to fabricate the tensile test specimens, and the mechanical behavior was investigated using the dimensional measurement and tensile test. It was shown that the laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens and this technique will be developed for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hotcell

  12. Finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in thin semiconductor specimens for electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somodi, P K; Twitchett-Harrison, A C; Midgley, P A; Kardynał, B E; Barnes, C H W; Dunin-Borkowski, R E

    2013-11-01

    Two-dimensional finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in parallel-sided semiconductor specimens that contain p-n junctions are used to assess the effect of the electrical state of the surface of a thin specimen on projected potentials measured using off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope. For a specimen that is constrained to have an equipotential surface, the simulations show that the step in the projected potential across a p-n junction is always lower than would be predicted from the properties of the bulk device, but is relatively insensitive to the value of the surface state energy, especially for thicker specimens and higher dopant concentrations. The depletion width measured from the projected potential, however, has a complicated dependence on specimen thickness. The results of the simulations are of broader interest for understanding the influence of surfaces and interfaces on electrostatic potentials in nanoscale semiconductor devices. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  14. Introducing 3-Dimensional Printing of a Human Anatomic Pathology Specimen: Potential Benefits for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Education and Anatomic Pathology Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Amr; Bennett, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing, a rapidly advancing technology, is widely applied in fields such as mechanical engineering and architecture. Three-dimensional printing has been introduced recently into medical practice in areas such as reconstructive surgery, as well as in clinical research. Three-dimensionally printed models of anatomic and autopsy pathology specimens can be used for demonstrating pathology entities to undergraduate medical, dental, and biomedical students, as well as for postgraduate training in examination of gross specimens for anatomic pathology residents and pathology assistants, aiding clinicopathological correlation at multidisciplinary team meetings, and guiding reconstructive surgical procedures. To apply 3D printing in anatomic pathology for teaching, training, and clinical correlation purposes. Multicolored 3D printing of human anatomic pathology specimens was achieved using a ZCorp 510 3D printer (3D Systems, Rock Hill, South Carolina) following creation of a 3D model using Autodesk 123D Catch software (Autodesk, Inc, San Francisco, California). Three-dimensionally printed models of anatomic pathology specimens created included pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple operation) and radical nephrectomy specimens. The models accurately depicted the topographic anatomy of selected specimens and illustrated the anatomic relation of excised lesions to adjacent normal tissues. Three-dimensional printing of human anatomic pathology specimens is achievable. Advances in 3D printing technology may further improve the quality of 3D printable anatomic pathology specimens.

  15. Bacteriological aspects implicated in abdominal surgical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israil, A M; Delcaru, C; Palade, R S; Chifiriuc, C; Iordache, C; Vasile, D; Grigoriu, M; Voiculescu, D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish the microbial etiology of abdominal surgical emergencies as well as the relationship between the bacterial etiology and the virulence factors produced by the respective isolated strains. 110 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 randomized clinical cases, operated during 2009-2010 in the First Surgical Clinic of the University Hospital of Bucharest. The clinical cases (sex ratio 52 M/48F aged between 22-85 years old) were classified into three risk groups, as related to their severity. The isolated strains were characterized by cultural, microscopic and biochemical methods. After identification, the bacterial strains were investigated for their virulence potential (adherence to abiotic surface and production of soluble virulence factors). The specimens were collected from different clinical pathologies: diffuse acute peritonitis, biliary duct infections, severe acute pancreatitis followed by septic processes etc. The 110 bacterial (72 aerobic and 38 anaerobic) strains were isolated only in 70 out of 100 cases. Out of these 70 cases, in 45 already submitted to pre-operatory empiric broad spectrum antibiotic therapy, there were isolated 74 strains, whereas in 25 cases without any treatment, there were isolated 36 strains. The etiology was either mono-specific or multi-specific (aerobic-anaerobic associations, especially in old persons). Out of the 30 negative culture cases, 16 were already submitted to pre-operatory parenteral empiric antibiotic therapy at the moment of specimen collection. The aerobic etiology was dominated by Enterobacteriaceae. The most frequent anaerobic species belonged to Clostridium, Peptococcus and Bacteroides genera. It is to be mentioned that the isolation of Bifidobacterium and Veillonella spp. in 11 (10%) severe cases of the studied abdominal surgical emergencies is pleading for the fact that in certain conditions, bacteria belonging usually to commensal gut flora can turn to pathogenic

  16. Paediatric Abdominal Surgical Emergencies in a General Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... organized for general surgeons undertaking paediatric surgical emergencies. More paediatric surgeons should be trained and more paediatric surgical units should established in the country. Key Words: Paediatric Abdominal Surgical Emergencies; Paediatric Surgeons, General Surgeons. Journal of College of Medicine ...

  17. 46 CFR 57.06-4 - Production testing specimen requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WELDING AND BRAZING Production Tests § 57.06-4 Production testing specimen requirements. (a) For test... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production testing specimen requirements. 57.06-4... to welding shall not throw the finished test plate out of line by an angle of over 5°. (c) Where the...

  18. Structural analysis of 177-FA redesigned surveillance specimen holder tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, C.W.; Thoren, D.E.; Vames, G.J.; Harris, R.J.

    1976-08-01

    Because of in-service operational problems, the surveillance specimen holder tubes described in B and W topical report BAW-10051 have been redesigned. This report describes the new design and structural analysis for normal operation and upset loading conditions. The results of the analysis demonstrate the adequacy of the new surveillance specimen holder tubes for their design life of 40 years

  19. Feasibility Study of Laser Cutting for Fabrication of Tensile Specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y. G.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B.

    2015-01-01

    The specimen fabrication technique was established to machine the specimen from the irradiated materials. The wire cut EDM(electric discharge machine) was modified to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from irradiated components and fuel claddings. The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated components and claddings interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, zirconium oxide is protective against further corrosion as well as beneficial to mechanical strength for the tensile deformation of the cladding. Thus, it is important to fabricate the irradiated specimens without removal of oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated structural components and claddings. In the present study, laser cutting system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the feasibility of the laser cutting system was studied for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser beam machining system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the dimensions were compared for the feasibility of the laser cutting system. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer

  20. Feasibility Study of Laser Cutting for Fabrication of Tensile Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y. G.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The specimen fabrication technique was established to machine the specimen from the irradiated materials. The wire cut EDM(electric discharge machine) was modified to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from irradiated components and fuel claddings. The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated components and claddings interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, zirconium oxide is protective against further corrosion as well as beneficial to mechanical strength for the tensile deformation of the cladding. Thus, it is important to fabricate the irradiated specimens without removal of oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated structural components and claddings. In the present study, laser cutting system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the feasibility of the laser cutting system was studied for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser beam machining system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the dimensions were compared for the feasibility of the laser cutting system. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer.

  1. Design Analysis of the Mixed Mode Bending Sandwich Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2010-01-01

    A design analysis of the mixed mode bending (MMB) sandwich specimen for face–core interface fracture characterization is presented. An analysis of the competing failure modes in the foam cored sandwich specimens is performed in order to achieve face–core debond fracture prior to other failure modes...... for the chosen geometries and mixed mode loading conditions....

  2. Blood specimen labelling errors: Implications for nephrology nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duteau, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is the foundation of high-quality health care, as recognized both nationally and worldwide. Patient blood specimen identification is critical in ensuring the delivery of safe and appropriate care. The practice of nephrology nursing involves frequent patient blood specimen withdrawals to treat and monitor kidney disease. A critical review of the literature reveals that incorrect patient identification is one of the major causes of blood specimen labelling errors. Misidentified samples create a serious risk to patient safety leading to multiple specimen withdrawals, delay in diagnosis, misdiagnosis, incorrect treatment, transfusion reactions, increased length of stay and other negative patient outcomes. Barcode technology has been identified as a preferred method for positive patient identification leading to a definitive decrease in blood specimen labelling errors by as much as 83% (Askeland, et al., 2008). The use of a root cause analysis followed by an action plan is one approach to decreasing the occurrence of blood specimen labelling errors. This article will present a review of the evidence-based literature surrounding blood specimen labelling errors, followed by author recommendations for completing a root cause analysis and action plan. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) will be presented as one method to determine root cause, followed by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU) as a framework for implementation of strategies to reduce blood specimen labelling errors.

  3. On a specimen of Lumbricus terrestris, L. with bifurcated tail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1886-01-01

    In the last number of the »Annals and Magazine of Nat. History” (Dec. 1885), I find a notice of Prof. Jeffrey Bell about two Lumbrici with bifid hinder ends, one specimen belonging to L. terrestris, the other to L. foetidus; moreover he mentions a specimen, presenting a similar remarquable

  4. A cylindrical specimen holder for electron cryo-tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Colin M.; Löwe, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The use of slab-like flat specimens for electron cryo-tomography restricts the range of viewing angles that can be used. This leads to the “missing wedge” problem, which causes artefacts and anisotropic resolution in reconstructed tomograms. Cylindrical specimens provide a way to eliminate the problem, since they allow imaging from a full range of viewing angles around the tilt axis. Such specimens have been used before for tomography of radiation-insensitive samples at room temperature, but never for frozen-hydrated specimens. Here, we demonstrate the use of thin-walled carbon tubes as specimen holders, allowing the preparation of cylindrical frozen-hydrated samples of ribosomes, liposomes and whole bacterial cells. Images acquired from these cylinders have equal quality at all viewing angles, and the accessible tilt range is restricted only by the physical limits of the microscope. Tomographic reconstructions of these specimens demonstrate that the effects of the missing wedge are substantially reduced, and could be completely eliminated if a full tilt range was used. The overall quality of these tomograms is still lower than that obtained by existing methods, but improvements are likely in future. - Highlights: • The missing wedge is a serious problem for electron cryo-tomography. • Cylindrical specimens allow the missing wedge to be eliminated. • Carbon nanopipettes can be used as cylindrical holders for tomography of frozen-hydrated specimens. • Cryo-tomography of cylindrical biological samples demonstrates a reduction of deleterious effects associated with the missing wedge

  5. Thermal Cycling of Uranium Dioxide - Tungsten Cermet Fuel Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gripshover, P.J.; Peterson, J.H.

    1969-12-08

    In phase I tungsten clad cermet fuel specimens were thermal cycled, to study the effects of fuel loading, fuel particle size, stablized fuel, duplex coatings, and fabrication techniques on dimensional stability during thermal cycling. In phase II the best combination of the factors studies in phase I were combined in one specimen for evaluation.

  6. Surgical camps: the Ugandan experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The planned visits were advertised locally and in the national media. Screening of the patients was done first by the local medical teams and later by the visiting surgical teams. The surgical teams were comprised of the following personnel:.

  7. Improving surgical weekend handover

    OpenAIRE

    Culwick, Caroline; Devine, Chris; Coombs, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Effective handovers are vital to patient safety and continuity of care, and this is recognised by several national bodies including the GMC. The existing model at Great Western Hospital (GWH) involved three general surgical teams and a urology team placing their printed patient lists, complete with weekend jobs, in a folder for the on-call team to collect at the weekend. We recognised a need to reduce time searching for patients, jobs and reviews, and to streamline weekend ward rounds. A unif...

  8. Acquiring minimally invasive surgical skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hiemstra, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Many topics in surgical skills education have been implemented without a solid scientific basis. For that reason we have tried to find this scientific basis. We have focused on training and evaluation of minimally invasive surgical skills in a training setting and in practice in the operating room. This thesis has led to an enlarged insight in the organization of surgical skills training during residency training of surgical medical specialists.

  9. Failure mechanism of resistance-spot-welded specimens impacted on base material by bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The tests of bullet impact on the base material (BM of a simple specimen with a single resistance-spot-welded (RSW nugget of TRIP800 steel are performed to investigate the response of the RSW specimen to the ballistic debris impact on the RSW specimen. A one-stage gas gun is used to fire the bullets while a laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR is used to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the RSW specimen. The recovered RSW specimens are examined with the three-dimensional super depth digital microscope (SDDM and the scanning electro microscope (SEM. For the tests of small multiple-bullet impact, it is revealed that the wave train of the VISAR measured results and the detachment of the base material interfaces in the recovered RSW specimens are directly related to the reflection and refraction of the curved stress waves incoming to the interfaces and the free surfaces in the RSW specimens. The detachment of BM interfaces can lead to the impact failure of the RSW joints for the larger multiple-bullet impact at higher velocity, the mechanism of which is different from the case for normal incidence (spalling. For the tests of single large bullet impact, it is brought to light experimentally that the plastic strain concentration at the “notch tip” spurs either the crack near the RSW joint or the split of the nugget. The numerical simulation shows up the process of splitting the nugget: a crack initiates at the “notch tip”, propagates across the nugget interface and splits the nugget into two parts. It is indicated that the interaction between the stress waves and many interfaces/free surfaces in the RSW specimen under ballistic impact causes variable local stress triaxialities and stress Lode angles, which affects the deformation and fracture mechanism of the RSW specimen including stretching and shearing failure. It is shown that the impact failure of the RSW joints is a mixture of brittle

  10. Failure mechanism of resistance-spot-welded specimens impacted on base material by bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunlei; Ma, Bohan; Chen, Danian; Wang, Huanran; Ma, Dongfang

    2018-01-01

    The tests of bullet impact on the base material (BM) of a simple specimen with a single resistance-spot-welded (RSW) nugget of TRIP800 steel are performed to investigate the response of the RSW specimen to the ballistic debris impact on the RSW specimen. A one-stage gas gun is used to fire the bullets while a laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) is used to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the RSW specimen. The recovered RSW specimens are examined with the three-dimensional super depth digital microscope (SDDM) and the scanning electro microscope (SEM). For the tests of small multiple-bullet impact, it is revealed that the wave train of the VISAR measured results and the detachment of the base material interfaces in the recovered RSW specimens are directly related to the reflection and refraction of the curved stress waves incoming to the interfaces and the free surfaces in the RSW specimens. The detachment of BM interfaces can lead to the impact failure of the RSW joints for the larger multiple-bullet impact at higher velocity, the mechanism of which is different from the case for normal incidence (spalling). For the tests of single large bullet impact, it is brought to light experimentally that the plastic strain concentration at the "notch tip" spurs either the crack near the RSW joint or the split of the nugget. The numerical simulation shows up the process of splitting the nugget: a crack initiates at the "notch tip", propagates across the nugget interface and splits the nugget into two parts. It is indicated that the interaction between the stress waves and many interfaces/free surfaces in the RSW specimen under ballistic impact causes variable local stress triaxialities and stress Lode angles, which affects the deformation and fracture mechanism of the RSW specimen including stretching and shearing failure. It is shown that the impact failure of the RSW joints is a mixture of brittle fracture and ductile

  11. Robotic surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Or, Sharon; Nifong, L Wiley; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2013-01-01

    In July 2000, the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc) received Food and Drug Administration approval for intracardiac applications, and the first mitral valve repair was done at the East Carolina Heart Institute in May 2000. The system is now approved and used in many surgical specialties. With this disruptive technology and accepted use, surgeons and hospitals are seeking the most efficacious training pathway leading to safe use and responsible credentialing.One of the most important issues related to safe use is assembling the appropriate team of professionals involved with patient care. Moreover, proper patient selection and setting obtainable goals are also important.Creation and maintenance of a successful program are discussed in the article focusing on realistic goals. This begins with a partnership between surgeon leaders, hospital administrators, and industry support. Through this partnership, an appropriate training pathway and clinical pathway for success can be outlined. A timeline can then be created with periods of data analysis and adjustments as necessary. A successful program is attainable by following this pathway and attending to every detail along the journey.

  12. Study of patina formation on bronze specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.J.R. de; Lago, D.C.B.; Senna, L.F.; Miranda, L.R.M. de; D'Elia, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, bronze samples (94.059% Cu; 0.023% Zn; 0.077% Pb and 5.801% Sn, w/w) were exposed for 8 months to a marine atmosphere (splash zone) at Barra of Tijuca Beach, Rio de Janeiro. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to identify the composition of the corrosion products formed on the samples. The electrochemical properties were analyzed using potential and electrochemical impedance measurements. These analyses and measurements were obtained from periodically removed samples, and compared to those exposed to laboratory tests (total and alternating immersion) in 10 -2 mol L -1 NaCl solution. The corrosion potential results, allied to XRD analysis, showed that the chemical nature of the films obtained on the surface of the field test samples was very similar to that obtained in the alternating immersion test. The main products identified were cuprite and atacamite. However, the film formed during the total immersion (TI) test was primarily composed of cuprite with nantokite traces, which was not observed in either the field or in alternating tests. The electrochemical impedance measurements obtained in laboratory and field test samples showed the formation of films with a porous structure. The thermodynamic evaluation was also consistent with the corrosion products formed.

  13. Self-heating forecasting for thick laminate specimens in fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuerta, F.; Westphal, T.; Nijssen, R. P. L.

    2014-12-01

    Thick laminate sections can be found from the tip to the root in most common wind turbine blade designs. Obtaining accurate and reliable design data for thick laminates is subject of investigations, which include experiments on thick laminate coupons. Due to the poor thermal conductivity properties of composites and the material self-heating that occurs during the fatigue loading, high temperature gradients may appear through the laminate thickness. In the case of thick laminates in high load regimes, the core temperature might influence the mechanical properties, leading to premature failures. In the present work a method to forecast the self-heating of thick laminates in fatigue loading is presented. The mechanical loading is related with the laminate self-heating, via the cyclic strain energy and the energy loss ratio. Based on this internal volumetric heat load a thermal model is built and solved to obtain the temperature distribution in the transient state. Based on experimental measurements of the energy loss factor for 10mm thick coupons, the method is described and the resulting predictions are compared with experimental surface temperature measurements on 10 and 30mm UD thick laminate specimens.

  14. Effects of drying conditions, admixtures and specimen size on shrinkage strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saleh, Saleh A.; Al-Zaid, Rajeh Z.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the effects of drying conditions, specimen size and presence of plasticizing admixture on the development of shrinkage strains. The measurements are taken in a harsh (50 deg. C and 5% R.H.) and a moderate environment (28 deg. C and 50% R.H.). The results include strain development at various levels of cross sections of concrete prisms. The drying conditions are found to be the dominant parameter affecting the shrinkage strain development particularly in specimens of smaller sizes. The effect of plasticizing admixture on shrinkage strains is negligible

  15. Grain tracing and strain determination in a Be compact tension specimen using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, R.; Green, R.; Garcia, M.D.; Satyam, P.V.; Yun, W.B.; Maser, J.; Kai, Z.; Lai, B.; Sinha, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    X-ray synchrotron radiation of high (11 KeV) energy and high flux (10 10 photons per square centimeter per second) has been used to measure strains and polycrystallinity in 6-mm thick polycrystalline beryllium compact tension (CT) specimens at and around the crack tip (for fatigue-precracked sample) or at chevron notch point under load or no-load conditions. The authors demonstrated the feasibility strain field mapping as well as determining the polycrystallinity at or near the points of maximum load in beryllium CT specimens. The experimental techniques and results will be discussed

  16. Face/core debond fatigue crack growth characterization using the sandwich mixed mode bending specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manca, Marcello; Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Face/core fatigue crack growth in foam-cored sandwich composites is examined using the mixed mode bending (MMB) test method. The mixed mode loading at the debond crack tip is controlled by changing the load application point in the MMB test fixture. Sandwich specimens were manufactured using H45...... and H100 PVC foam cores and E-glass/polyester face sheets. All specimens were pre-cracked in order to define a sharp crack front. The static debond fracture toughness for each material configuration was measured at different mode-mixity phase angles. Fatigue tests were performed at 80% of the static...

  17. Replacement of the rotary specimen rack in the U.S. Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusling, D.H.; Helfer, P.G.; Perryman, R.E.; Smith, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    A new rotary specimen rack was installed in the GSTR on November 13, 1985. The new rack has been modified to allow the pneumatic unloading of samples. Instructions for the removal and installation of the rotary specimen rack were provided by GA Technologies. The first step was to prepare the core for removal of the control rods, T/C fuel elements, and the central thimble. The rack was weighted prior to removal to ensure that it could not float to the surface. The old rack was stored at the side of the tank. Radiation measurements were made with an underwater ion chamber. (author)

  18. The Effect of Specimen Size on the Results of Concrete Adiabatic Temperature Rise Test with Commercially Available Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Jae Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, adiabatic temperature rise tests depending on binder type and adiabatic specimen volume were performed, and the maximum adiabatic temperature rises and the reaction factors for each mix proportion were analyzed and suggested. The results indicated that the early strength low heat blended cement mixture had the lowest maximum adiabatic temperature rise (Q∞ and the ternary blended cement mixture had the lowest reaction factor (r. Also, Q and r varied depending on the adiabatic specimen volume even when the tests were conducted with a calorimeter, which satisfies the recommendations for adiabatic conditions. Test results show a correlation: the measurements from the 50 L specimens were consistently higher than those from the 6 L specimens. However, the Q∞ and r values of the 30 L specimen were similar to those of the 50 L specimen. Based on the above correlation, the adiabatic temperature rise of the 50 L specimen could be predicted using the results of the 6 L and 30 L specimens. Therefore, it is thought that this correlation can be used for on-site concrete quality control and basic research.

  19. The Effect of Specimen Size on the Results of Concrete Adiabatic Temperature Rise Test with Commercially Available Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Jae; Bang, Jin Wook; Shin, Kyung Joon; Kim, Yun Yong

    2014-12-08

    In this study, adiabatic temperature rise tests depending on binder type and adiabatic specimen volume were performed, and the maximum adiabatic temperature rises and the reaction factors for each mix proportion were analyzed and suggested. The results indicated that the early strength low heat blended cement mixture had the lowest maximum adiabatic temperature rise ( Q ∞ ) and the ternary blended cement mixture had the lowest reaction factor ( r ). Also, Q and r varied depending on the adiabatic specimen volume even when the tests were conducted with a calorimeter, which satisfies the recommendations for adiabatic conditions. Test results show a correlation: the measurements from the 50 L specimens were consistently higher than those from the 6 L specimens. However, the Q ∞ and r values of the 30 L specimen were similar to those of the 50 L specimen. Based on the above correlation, the adiabatic temperature rise of the 50 L specimen could be predicted using the results of the 6 L and 30 L specimens. Therefore, it is thought that this correlation can be used for on-site concrete quality control and basic research.

  20. Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research is a publication of the Surgical Research Society with main office in Zaria, Nigeria. Zaria is home to Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), a premier university in Nigeria. The aim of The Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research is to cover developments and advances in the broad field of ...

  1. Critical roles of orthopaedic surgeon leadership in healthcare systems to improve orthopaedic surgical patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Calvin C; Robb, William J

    2013-06-01

    The prevention of medical and surgical harm remains an important public health problem despite increased awareness and implementation of safety programs. Successful introduction and maintenance of surgical safety programs require both surgeon leadership and collaborative surgeon-hospital alignment. Documentation of success of such surgical safety programs in orthopaedic practice is limited. We describe the scope of orthopaedic surgical patient safety issues, define critical elements of orthopaedic surgical safety, and outline leadership roles for orthopaedic surgeons needed to establish and sustain a culture of safety in contemporary healthcare systems. We identified the most common causes of preventable surgical harm based on adverse and sentinel surgical events reported to The Joint Commission. A comprehensive literature review through a MEDLINE(®) database search (January 1982 through April 2012) to identify pertinent orthopaedic surgical safety articles found 14 articles. Where gaps in orthopaedic literature were identified, the review was supplemented by 22 nonorthopaedic surgical references. Our final review included 36 articles. Six important surgical safety program elements needed to eliminate preventable surgical harm were identified: (1) effective surgical team communication, (2) proper informed consent, (3) implementation and regular use of surgical checklists, (4) proper surgical site/procedure identification, (5) reduction of surgical team distractions, and (6) routine surgical data collection and analysis to improve the safety and quality of surgical patient care. Successful surgical safety programs require a culture of safety supported by all six key surgical safety program elements, active surgeon champions, and collaborative hospital and/or administrative support designed to enhance surgical safety and improve surgical patient outcomes. Further research measuring improvements from such surgical safety systems in orthopaedic care is needed.

  2. Enzymatic detection of formalin-fixed museum specimens for DNA analysis and enzymatic maceration of formalin-fixed specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Margrethe; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2016-01-01

    % ethanol. The method was subsequently tested on wild-living preserved specimens and an archived specimen. The protease enzyme used was SavinaseH 16 L, Type EX from Novozymes A/S. The enzymatic screening test demands only simple laboratory equipment. The method is useful for natural history collections...

  3. Influence of bleaching agents on surface roughness of sound or eroded dental enamel specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrak, Birgül; Callaway, Angelika; Kurth, Petra; Willershausen, Brita

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to assess the effect of bleaching agents on eroded and sound enamel specimens. Enamel specimens prepared from human permanent anterior teeth were incubated with different bleaching agents containing active ingredients as 7.5 or 13.5% hydrogen peroxide or 35% carbamide peroxide, ranging in pH from 4.9 to 10.8. The effect of the tooth whitening agents on surface roughness was tested for sound enamel surfaces as well as for eroded enamel specimens. To provoke erosive damage, the enamel specimens were incubated for 10 hours with apple juice (pH = 3.4). Afterwards, pretreated and untreated dental slices were incubated with one of the bleaching agents for 10 hours. The surface roughness (R(a)) of all enamel specimens (N = 80) was measured using an optical profilometric device. A descriptive statistical analysis of the R(a) values was performed. The study demonstrated that exposure to an acidic bleaching agent (pH = 4.9) resulted in a higher surface roughness (p = 0.043) than treatment with a high peroxide concentration (pH = 6.15). If the enamel surface was previously exposed to erosive beverages, subsequent bleaching may enhance damage to the dental hard tissue. Bleaching agents with a high concentration of peroxide or an acidic pH can influence the surface roughness of sound or eroded enamel. © 2010, COPYRIGHT THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2010, WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  4. Ex vivo MRI evaluation of prostate cancer: Localization and margin status prediction of prostate cancer in fresh radical prostatectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidkamp, Jan; Hoogenboom, Martijn; Kovacs, Iringo E; Veltien, Andor; Maat, Arie; Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A; Fütterer, Jurgen J

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the ability of high field ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to localize prostate cancer (PCa) and to predict the margin status in fresh radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens using histology as the reference standard. This Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved study had written informed consent. Patients with biopsy-proved PCa and a diagnostic multiparametric 3T MRI examination of the prostate prior to undergoing RP were prospectively included. A custom-made container provided reference between the 7T ex vivo MRI obtained from fresh RP specimens and histological slicing. On ex vivo MRI, PCa was localized and the presence of positive surgical margins was determined in a double-reading session. These findings were compared with histological findings obtained from completely cut, whole-mount embedded, prostate specimens. In 12 RP specimens, histopathology revealed 36 PCa lesions, of which 17 (47%) and 20 (56%) were correlated with the ex vivo MRI in the first and second reading session, respectively. Nine of 12 (75%) index lesions were localized in the first session, in the second 10 of 12 (83%). Seven and 8 lesions of 11 lesions with Gleason score >6 and >0.5 cc were localized in the first and second session, respectively. In the first session none of the four histologically positive surgical margins (sensitivity 0%) and 9 of 13 negative margins (specificity 69%) were detected. In second session the sensitivity and specificity were 25% and 88%, respectively. Ex vivo MRI enabled accurate localization of PCa in fresh RP specimens, and the technique provided information on the margin status with high specificity. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:439-448. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Analysis of stress intensity factors for a new mechanical corrosion specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassineux, B.; Crouzet, D.; Le Hong, S.

    1996-03-01

    Electricite de France is conducting a research program to determine corrosion cracking rates in the steam generators Alloy 600 tubes of the primary system. The objective is to correlate the cracking rates with the specimen stress intensity factor K I . One of the samples selected for the purpose of this study is the longitudinal notched specimen TEL (TEL: ''Tubulaire a Entailles Longitudinales''). This paper presents the analysis of the stress intensity factor and its experimental validation. The stress intensity factor has been evaluated for different loads using 3D finite element calculations with the Hellen-Parks and G(θ) methods. Both crack initiation and propagation are considered. As an assessment of the method, the numerical simulations are in good agreement with the fatigue crack growth rates measured experimentally for TEL and compact tension (CT) specimens. (authors). 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  6. In-line phase contrast micro-CT reconstruction for biomedical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Tan, Renbo

    2014-01-01

    X-ray phase contrast micro computed tomography (micro-CT) can non-destructively provide the internal structure information of soft tissues and low atomic number materials. It has become an invaluable analysis tool for biomedical specimens. Here an in-line phase contrast micro-CT reconstruction technique is reported, which consists of a projection extraction method and the conventional filter back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. The projection extraction is implemented by applying the Fourier transform to the forward projections of in-line phase contrast micro-CT. This work comprises a numerical study of the method and its experimental verification using a biomedical specimen dataset measured at an X-ray tube source micro-CT setup. The numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the presented technique can improve the imaging contrast of biomedical specimens. It will be of interest for a wide range of in-line phase contrast micro-CT applications in medicine and biology.

  7. Ultrastable gold substrates: Properties of a support for high-resolution electron cryomicroscopy of biological specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Christopher J.; Passmore, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) allows structure determination of a wide range of biological molecules and specimens. All-gold supports improve cryo-EM images by reducing radiation-induced motion and image blurring. Here we compare the mechanical and electrical properties of all-gold supports to amorphous carbon foils. Gold supports are more conductive, and have suspended foils that are not compressed by differential contraction when cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These measurements show how the choice of support material and geometry can reduce specimen movement by more than an order of magnitude during low-dose imaging. We provide methods for fabrication of all-gold supports and preparation of vitrified specimens. We also analyse illumination geometry for optimal collection of high resolution, low-dose data. Together, the support structures and methods herein can improve the resolution and quality of images from any electron cryomicroscope. PMID:26592474

  8. Shoulder morbidity after non-surgical treatment of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouwe, Merian van; Bree, Remco de; Kuik, Dirk J.; Goede, Cees J.T. de; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Doornaert, Patricia; Rene Leemans, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reports on shoulder function after non-surgical treatment are not available. In the present study shoulder morbidity after surgical and non-surgical treatment of the neck is determined and compared. Materials and methods: In 100 head and neck cancer patients 174 neck sides were treated by surgery (n = 51) or (chemo)radiation (n = 123). Abduction, anteflexion, endorotation and exorotation were assessed. Subjective measurements were performed using the Visual Analogue Scale for pain, the Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ) and stiffness reporting. Results: Predictive factors for SDQ-score > 0 (n = 54) were VAS pain score, stiffness, abduction, anteflexion, physiotherapy, low shoulder position and surgical treatment. The SDQ, stiffness and pain scores were significantly higher in the surgically treated group than in the non-surgical group (p < 0.01). Anteflexion, abduction and exorotation were less impaired in the non-surgically treated group than in the surgically treated group (p < 0.01). No differences between neck dissection and neck dissection with post-operative radiotherapy, and radiotherapy and chemoradiation were found for these movements. Conclusions: Shoulder morbidity is often present after non-surgical treatment of the neck, but to a lesser extent compared to surgical treatment. Radiotherapy adds no morbidity to neck dissection and chemotherapy does not add extra morbidity to primary radiation

  9. Assessment of surgeon fatigue by surgical simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuwairqi K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Khaled Tuwairqi,1 Jessica H Selter,2 Shameema Sikder3 1College of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 2Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 3Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: The impact of fatigue on surgical performance and its implications for patient care is a growing concern. While investigators have employed a number of different tools to measure the effect of fatigue on surgical performance, the use of the surgical simulator has been increasingly implemented for this purpose. The goal of this paper is to review the published literature to achieve a better understanding of evaluation of fatigue on performance as studied with surgical simulators. Methods: A PubMed and Cochrane search was conducted using the search terms “simulator”, “surgery”, and “fatigue”. In total, 50 papers were evaluated, and 20 studies were selected after application of exclusion criteria. Articles were excluded if they did not use the simulator to assess the impact of fatigue on surgeon performance. Systematic reviews and case reports were also excluded. Results: Surgeon fatigue led to a consistent decline in cognitive function in six studies. Technical skills were evaluated in 18 studies, and a detrimental impact was reported in nine studies, while the remaining nine studies showed either no change or positive results with regard to surgical skills after experience of fatigue. Two pharmacological intervention studies reversed the detrimental impact of fatigue on cognitive function, but no change or a worsening effect was recognized for technical skills. Conclusion: Simulators are increasingly being used to evaluate the impact of fatigue on the surgeon's performance. With regard to the impact of fatigue in this regard, studies have demonstrated a consistent decline in cognitive function and mixed outcomes for technical skills. Larger studies that relate the simulator's results to real surgical

  10. Comparison of a new hydro-surgical technique to traditional methods for the preparation of full-thickness skin grafts from canine cadaveric skin and report of a single clinical case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, F I; Ralphs, S C; Coronado, G; Sweet, D C; Ward, J; Bloch, C P

    2012-01-01

    To compare the hydro-surgical technique to traditional techniques for removal of subcutaneous tissue in the preparation of full-thickness skin grafts. Ex vivo experimental study and a single clinical case report. Four canine cadavers and a single clinical case. Four sections of skin were harvested from the lateral flank of recently euthanatized dogs. Traditional preparation methods used included both a blade or scissors technique, each of which were compared to the hydro-surgical technique individually. Preparation methods were compared based on length of time for removal of the subcutaneous tissue from the graft, histologic grading, and measurable thickness as compared to an untreated sample. The hydro-surgical technique had the shortest skin graft preparation time as compared to traditional techniques (p = 0.002). There was no significant difference in the histological grading or measurable subcutaneous thickness between skin specimens. The hydro-surgical technique provides a rapid, effective debridement of subcutaneous tissue in the preparation of full-thickness skin grafts. There were not any significant changes in histological grade and subcutaneous tissue remaining among all treatment types. Additionally the hydro-surgical technique was successfully used to prepare a full-thickness meshed free skin graft in the reconstruction of a traumatic medial tarsal wound in a dog.

  11. Influence of specimen size/type on the fracture toughness of five irradiated RPV materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Mikhail A; Lucon, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program had previously irradiated five reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels/welds at fast neutron fluxes of about 4 to 8 x 10 11 n/cm 2 /s (>1 MeV) to fluences from 0.5 to 3.4 10 19 n/cm 2 and at 288 °C. The unirradiated fracture toughness tests were performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory with 12.7-mm and 25.4-mm thick (0.5T and 1T) compact specimens, while the HSSI Program provided tensile and 5 x 10-mm three-point bend specimens to SCK-CEN for irradiation in the in-pile section of the Belgian Reactor BR2 at fluxes > 10 13 n/cm 2 /s and subsequent testing by SCK-CEN. The BR2 irradiations were conducted at about 2 and 4 x 10 13 n/cm 2 /s with irradiation temperature between 295 °C and 300 °C (water temperature), and to fluences between 6 and 10 x 10 19 n/cm 2 . The irradiation-induced shifts of the Master Curve reference temperatures, ΔT 0 , for most of the materials deviated from the embrittlement correlations much more than expected, motivating the testing of 5 x 10-mm three-point bend specimens of all five materials in the unirradiated condition to eliminate specimen size and geometry as a variable. Tests of the unirradiated small bend specimens resulted in Master Curve reference temperatures, ΔT 0 , 25 °C to 53 °C lower than those from the larger compact specimens, meaning that the irradiation-induced reference temperature shifts, ΔT 0 , were larger than the initial measurements, resulting in much improved agreement between the measured and predicted fracture toughness shifts.

  12. Thoracic surgical resident education: a costly endeavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoon, John H; Baisden, Clint; Holler, Ben; Hicks, George L; Bove, Ed L; Wright, Cameron D; Merrill, Walter H; Fullerton, Dave A

    2014-12-01

    We sought to define an accurate measure of thoracic surgical education costs. Program directors from six distinct and differently sized and geographically located thoracic surgical training programs used a common template to provide estimates of resident educational costs. These data were reviewed, clarifying questions or discrepancies when noted and using best estimates when exact data were unavailable. Subsequently, a composite of previously published cost-estimation products was used to capture accurate cost data. Data were then compiled and averaged to provide an accurate picture of all costs associated with thoracic surgical education. Before formal accounting was performed, the estimated average for all programs was approximately $250,000 per year per resident. However, when formal evaluations by the six programs were performed, the annual cost of resident education ranged from $330,000 to $667,000 per year per resident. The average cost of $483,000 per year was almost double the initial estimates. Variability was noted by region and size of program. Faculty teaching costs varied from $208,000 to $346,000 per year. Simulation costs ranged from $0 to $80,000 per year. Resident savings to program ranged from $0 to $135,000 per year and averaged $37,000 per year per resident. Thoracic surgical education costs are considerably higher than initial estimates from program directors and probably represent an unappreciated source of financial burden for cardiothoracic surgical educational programs. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Post-deformation examination of specimens subjected to SCC testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Busby, Jeremy T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leonard, Keith J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report details the results of post-radiation and post-deformation characterizations performed during FY 2015–FY 2016 on a subset of specimens that had previously been irradiated at high displacement per atom (dpa) damage doses. The specimens, made of commercial austenitic stainless steels and alloys, were subjected to stress-corrosion cracking tests (constant extension rate testing and crack growth testing) at the University of Michigan under conditions typical of nuclear power plants. After testing, the specimens were returned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for further analysis and evaluation.

  14. The effect of specimen and flaw dimensions on fracture toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevalainen, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effect of the specimen size and geometry on fracture toughness has been investigated both by experimental tests and computational analyses. The methods for constraint description, namely T-stress, Q-parameter and Small-Scale Yielding Correction (SSYC) have been compared and applied for various geometries. A statistical treatment for the specimen thickness effect on cleavage fracture toughness has been investigated. Elliptical surface cracks were compared with straight-thickness cracks and a method for crack shape correction was presented. Based on the results, the differences in apparent fracture toughness values obtained from various specimen configurations can be better understood and taken into account

  15. Fabrication and testing of prestressed composite rotor blade spar specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleich, D.

    1974-01-01

    Prestressed composite spar specimens were fabricated and evaluated by crack propagation and ballistic penetration tests. The crack propagation tests on flawed specimens showed that the prestressed composite spar construction significantly suppresses crack growth. Damage from three high velocity 30 caliber projectile hits was confined to three small holes in the ballistic test specimen. No fragmentation or crack propagation was observed indicating good ballistic damage resistance. Rotor attachment approaches and improved structural performance configurations were identified. Design theory was verified by tests. The prestressed composite spar configuration consisted of a compressively prestressed high strength ARDEFORM 301 stainless steel liner overwrapped with pretensioned S-994 fiberglass.

  16. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Medium-size specimens (glass-fibre beams bonded together by an adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking...... along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres...

  17. Implementation of surgical quality improvement: auditing tool for surgical site infection prevention practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; Hobson, Deborah B; Bennett, Jennifer L; Wick, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infections are a potentially preventable patient harm. Emerging evidence suggests that the implementation of evidence-based process measures for infection reduction is highly variable. The purpose of this work was to develop an auditing tool to assess compliance with infection-related process measures and establish a system for identifying and addressing defects in measure implementation. This was a retrospective cohort study using electronic medical records. We used the auditing tool to assess compliance with 10 process measures in a sample of colorectal surgery patients with and without postoperative infections at an academic medical center (January 2012 to March 2013). We investigated 59 patients with surgical site infections and 49 patients without surgical site infections. First, overall compliance rates for the 10 process measures were compared between patients with infection vs patients without infection to assess if compliance was lower among patients with surgical site infections. Then, because of the burden of data collection, the tool was used exclusively to evaluate quarterly compliance rates among patients with infection. The results were reviewed, and the key factors contributing to noncompliance were identified and addressed. Ninety percent of process measures had lower compliance rates among patients with infection. Detailed review of infection cases identified many defects that improved following the implementation of system-level changes: correct cefotetan redosing (education of anesthesia personnel), temperature at surgical incision >36.0°C (flags used to identify patients for preoperative warming), and the use of preoperative mechanical bowel preparation with oral antibiotics (laxative solutions and antibiotics distributed in clinic before surgery). Quarterly compliance improved for 80% of process measures by the end of the study period. This study was conducted on a small surgical cohort within a select subspecialty. The

  18. Radical prostatectomy: positive surgical margins matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Joshua J; Eastham, James A

    2013-10-01

    A positive surgical margin (PSM) in the radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen is associated with biochemical recurrence (BCR) and the need for adjuvant radiation therapy, and is a surrogate for surgical quality. We review the available data describing the identification, anatomy, and management of PSM after RP. A PubMed search (using English language as a filter) was performed to identify factors affecting PSMs and their management. PSMs are associated with an increased likelihood of BCR after RP. The most common location for a PSM is the apex, followed by the posterolateral edge of the prostate. The risk of recurrence in a patient with a PSM is associated with the location, length, and Gleason score of the PSM. The management of a patient with a PSM remains controversial, with some recommending adjuvant radiation therapy for all PSMs and others suggesting only salvage radiation therapy for men who experience BCR. PSMs are associated with an increased likelihood of BCR and often result in initiation of adjuvant treatment. Therefore, the goal of surgery should be to minimize the likelihood of a PSM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Duane vertical surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, M L; Gómez de Liaño, P; Merino, P; Franco, G

    2014-04-01

    We report 3 cases with a vertical incomitance in upgaze, narrowing of palpebral fissure, and pseudo-overaction of both inferior oblique muscles. Surgery consisted of an elevation of both lateral rectus muscles with an asymmetrical weakening. A satisfactory result was achieved in 2 cases, whereas a Lambda syndrome appeared in the other case. The surgical technique of upper-insertion with a recession of both lateral rectus muscles improved vertical incomitance in 2 of the 3 patients; however, a residual deviation remains in the majority of cases. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. ARCTOS: a relational database relating specimens, specimen-based science, and archival documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Gordon H.; Ramotnik, Cindy A.; McDonald, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Data are preserved when they are perpetually discoverable, but even in the Information Age, discovery of legacy data appropriate to particular investigations is uncertain. Secure Internet storage is necessary but insufficient. Data can be discovered only when they are adequately described, and visibility increases markedly if the data are related to other data that are receiving usage. Such relationships can be built within (1) the framework of a relational database, or (1) they can be built among separate resources, within the framework of the Internet. Evolving primarily around biological collections, Arctos is a database that does both of these tasks. It includes data structures for a diversity of specimen attributes, essentially all collection-management tasks, plus literature citations, project descriptions, etc. As a centralized collaboration of several university museums, Arctos is an ideal environment for capitalizing on the many relationships that often exist between items in separate collections. Arctos is related to NIH’s DNA-sequence repository (GenBank) with record-to-record reciprocal linkages, and it serves data to several discipline-specific web portals, including the Global Biodiversity Information Network (GBIF). The University of Alaska Museum’s paleontological collection is Arctos’s recent extension beyond the constraints of neontology. With about 1.3 million cataloged items, additional collections are being added each year.

  1. Old Plants, New Tricks: Phenological Research Using Herbarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles G; Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Primack, Richard B; Davis, Charles C; Pearson, Katelin D; Gallinat, Amanda S; Yost, Jenn M; Nelson, Gil; Mazer, Susan J; Rossington, Natalie L; Sparks, Tim H; Soltis, Pamela S

    2017-07-01

    The timing of phenological events, such as leaf-out and flowering, strongly influence plant success and their study is vital to understanding how plants will respond to climate change. Phenological research, however, is often limited by the temporal, geographic, or phylogenetic scope of available data. Hundreds of millions of plant specimens in herbaria worldwide offer a potential solution to this problem, especially as digitization efforts drastically improve access to collections. Herbarium specimens represent snapshots of phenological events and have been reliably used to characterize phenological responses to climate. We review the current state of herbarium-based phenological research, identify potential biases and limitations in the collection, digitization, and interpretation of specimen data, and discuss future opportunities for phenological investigations using herbarium specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Validity of fracture toughness determined with small bend specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, K.; Rintamaa, R.; Valo, M.

    1994-02-01

    This report considers the validity of fracture toughness estimates obtained with small bend specimens in relation to fracture toughness estimates obtained with large specimens. The study is based upon the analysis and comparison of actual test results. The results prove the validity of the fracture toughness determined based upon small bend specimens, especially when the results are only used to determine the fracture toughness transition temperature T o . In this case the possible error is typically less than 5 deg C and at most 10 deg C. It can be concluded that small bend specimens are very suitable for the estimation of fracture toughness in the case of brittle fracture, provided the results are corrected for statistical size effects. (orig.). (20 refs., 17 figs.)

  3. Description of Specimens in the Marine Mammal Osteology Reference Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Marine Mammal Osteology Collection consists of approximately 2500 specimens (skulls...

  4. Elemental microanalysis of botanical specimens using the Melbourne Proton Microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolini, A.P.J.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1978-01-01

    A proton microprobe has been used to obtain the distribution of elements of various botanical specimens. This paper presents preliminary results obtained by the irradiation of certain organs of the wheat plant

  5. Replacement/Refurbishment of JSC/NASA POD Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Willard L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Special NDE certification process requires demonstration of NDE capability by test per NASA-STD-5009. This test is performed with fatigue cracked specimens containing very small cracks. The certification test results are usually based on binomial statistics and must meet a 90/95 Probability of Detection (POD). The assumption is that fatigue cracks are tightly closed, difficult to detect, and inspectors and processes passing such a test are well qualified for inspecting NASA fracture critical hardware. The JSC NDE laboratory has what may be the largest inventory that exists of such fatigue cracked NDE demonstration specimens. These specimens were produced by the hundreds in the late 1980s and early 1990s. None have been produced since that time and the condition and usability of the specimens are questionable.

  6. Tensile and Creep Testing of Sanicro 25 Using Miniature Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymáček, Petr; Jarý, Milan; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Kloc, Luboš

    2018-01-01

    Tensile and creep properties of new austenitic steel Sanicro 25 at room temperature and operating temperature 700 °C were investigated by testing on miniature specimens. The results were correlated with testing on conventional specimens. Very good agreement of results was obtained, namely in yield and ultimate strength, as well as short-term creep properties. Although the creep rupture time was found to be systematically shorter and creep ductility lower in the miniature test, the minimum creep rates were comparable. The analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed similar ductile fracture morphology for both specimen geometries. One exception was found in a small area near the miniature specimen edge that was cut by electro discharge machining, where an influence of the steel fracture behavior at elevated temperature was identified. PMID:29337867

  7. Molecular markers: Implications for cytopathology and specimen collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Paul A

    2015-08-01

    Cytologic specimens obtained through minimally invasive biopsy techniques are increasingly being used as principle diagnostic specimens for tumors arising in multiple sites. The number and scope of ancillary tests performed on these specimens have grown substantially over the past decade, including many molecular markers that not only can aid in formulating accurate and specific diagnoses but also can provide prognostic or therapeutic information to help direct clinical decisions. Thus, the cytopathologist needs to ensure that adequate material is collected and appropriately processed for the study of relevant molecular markers, many of which are specific to tumor site. This brief review covers considerations for effective cytologic specimen collection and processing to ensure diagnostic and testing success. In addition, a general overview is provided of molecular markers pertinent to tumors from a variety of sites. The recognition of these established and emerging molecular markers by cytopathologists is an important step toward realizing the promise of personalized medicine. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  8. Examination of the fatigue life under combined loading of specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtík F.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes experimental results under combined loading of specimens manufactured from common construction steel 11523. Specimens were gradually loaded by amplitude of the torque, then by combination of torque and tension prestress. The last set of specimens was loaded in combination of torque and inner overpressure. To obtain the required input values the stress-strain analysis of specimens by finite element method in software Ansys was performed within the last experiment. For evaluation of the results the Fuxa's criterion was applied. The performed experiments and their results embody a good agreement with bellow mentioned conjugated strength criterion. The experiments were performed on reconstructed testing machine equipped by pressure chamber.

  9. 46 CFR 54.05-5 - Toughness test specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shown in Figure 4 of the specification. Special attention is drawn to the fact that the Charpy Keyhole....090-inch. In preparing weld specimens for dropweight testing, weld reinforcement shall be ground flush...

  10. Influence of specimen size on the creep of rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senseny, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    Triaxial compression creep data for Avery Island dome salt are analyzed to determine the influence of specimen size on creep deformation. Laboratory experiments were performed on 50- and 100-mm-diameter specimens in the temperature range from 25 to 200 0 C and the axial stress difference range from 2.5 to 31.0 MPa. The strain-vs-time data from each test are divided into transient and steady-state components. Results of statistical analysis of these data show that transient creep of the small specimens is a stronger function of stress, temperature, and time than is transient creep of the larger specimens. Analysis of the steady-state data show no size effect, however. 14 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  11. Tensile and Creep Testing of Sanicro 25 Using Miniature Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymáček, Petr; Jarý, Milan; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Kloc, Luboš

    2018-01-16

    Tensile and creep properties of new austenitic steel Sanicro 25 at room temperature and operating temperature 700 °C were investigated by testing on miniature specimens. The results were correlated with testing on conventional specimens. Very good agreement of results was obtained, namely in yield and ultimate strength, as well as short-term creep properties. Although the creep rupture time was found to be systematically shorter and creep ductility lower in the miniature test, the minimum creep rates were comparable. The analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed similar ductile fracture morphology for both specimen geometries. One exception was found in a small area near the miniature specimen edge that was cut by electro discharge machining, where an influence of the steel fracture behavior at elevated temperature was identified.

  12. Surgical data science: The new knowledge domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedula, S Swaroop; Hager, Gregory D

    2017-04-01

    Healthcare in general, and surgery/interventional care in particular, is evolving through rapid advances in technology and increasing complexity of care with the goal of maximizing quality and value of care. While innovations in diagnostic and therapeutic technologies have driven past improvements in quality of surgical care, future transformation in care will be enabled by data. Conventional methodologies, such as registry studies, are limited in their scope for discovery and research, extent and complexity of data, breadth of analytic techniques, and translation or integration of research findings into patient care. We foresee the emergence of Surgical/Interventional Data Science (SDS) as a key element to addressing these limitations and creating a sustainable path toward evidence-based improvement of interventional healthcare pathways. SDS will create tools to measure, model and quantify the pathways or processes within the context of patient health states or outcomes, and use information gained to inform healthcare decisions, guidelines, best practices, policy, and training, thereby improving the safety and quality of healthcare and its value. Data is pervasive throughout the surgical care pathway; thus, SDS can impact various aspects of care including prevention, diagnosis, intervention, or post-operative recovery. Existing literature already provides preliminary results suggesting how a data science approach to surgical decision-making could more accurately predict severe complications using complex data from pre-, intra-, and post-operative contexts, how it could support intra-operative decision-making using both existing knowledge and continuous data streams throughout the surgical care pathway, and how it could enable effective collaboration between human care providers and intelligent technologies. In addition, SDS is poised to play a central role in surgical education, for example, through objective assessments, automated virtual coaching, and robot

  13. Surgical data science: The new knowledge domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedula, S. Swaroop; Hager, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare in general, and surgery/interventional care in particular, is evolving through rapid advances in technology and increasing complexity of care with the goal of maximizing quality and value of care. While innovations in diagnostic and therapeutic technologies have driven past improvements in quality of surgical care, future transformation in care will be enabled by data. Conventional methodologies, such as registry studies, are limited in their scope for discovery and research, extent and complexity of data, breadth of analytic techniques, and translation or integration of research findings into patient care. We foresee the emergence of Surgical/Interventional Data Science (SDS) as a key element to addressing these limitations and creating a sustainable path toward evidence-based improvement of interventional healthcare pathways. SDS will create tools to measure, model and quantify the pathways or processes within the context of patient health states or outcomes, and use information gained to inform healthcare decisions, guidelines, best practices, policy, and training, thereby improving the safety and quality of healthcare and its value. Data is pervasive throughout the surgical care pathway; thus, SDS can impact various aspects of care including prevention, diagnosis, intervention, or post-operative recovery. Existing literature already provides preliminary results suggesting how a data science approach to surgical decision-making could more accurately predict severe complications using complex data from pre-, intra-, and post-operative contexts, how it could support intra-operative decision-making using both existing knowledge and continuous data streams throughout the surgical care pathway, and how it could enable effective collaboration between human care providers and intelligent technologies. In addition, SDS is poised to play a central role in surgical education, for example, through objective assessments, automated virtual coaching, and robot

  14. Surgical data science: the new knowledge domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedula S. Swaroop

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare in general, and surgery/interventional care in particular, is evolving through rapid advances in technology and increasing complexity of care, with the goal of maximizing the quality and value of care. Whereas innovations in diagnostic and therapeutic technologies have driven past improvements in the quality of surgical care, future transformation in care will be enabled by data. Conventional methodologies, such as registry studies, are limited in their scope for discovery and research, extent and complexity of data, breadth of analytical techniques, and translation or integration of research findings into patient care. We foresee the emergence of surgical/interventional data science (SDS as a key element to addressing these limitations and creating a sustainable path toward evidence-based improvement of interventional healthcare pathways. SDS will create tools to measure, model, and quantify the pathways or processes within the context of patient health states or outcomes and use information gained to inform healthcare decisions, guidelines, best practices, policy, and training, thereby improving the safety and quality of healthcare and its value. Data are pervasive throughout the surgical care pathway; thus, SDS can impact various aspects of care, including prevention, diagnosis, intervention, or postoperative recovery. The existing literature already provides preliminary results, suggesting how a data science approach to surgical decision-making could more accurately predict severe complications using complex data from preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative contexts, how it could support intraoperative decision-making using both existing knowledge and continuous data streams throughout the surgical care pathway, and how it could enable effective collaboration between human care providers and intelligent technologies. In addition, SDS is poised to play a central role in surgical education, for example, through objective

  15. Surgical management of gynecomastia--a 10-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschin, A E; Bietry, D; Hüsler, R; Banic, A; Constantinescu, M

    2008-01-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as the benign enlargement of the male breast. Most studies on surgical treatment of gynecomastia show only small series and lack histopathology results. The aim of this study was to analyze the surgical approach in the treatment of gynecomastia and the related outcome over a 10-year period. All patients undergoing surgical gynecomastia corrections in our department between 1996 and 2006 were included for retrospective evaluation. The data were analyzed for etiology, stage of gynecomastia, surgical technique, complications, risk factors, and histological results. A total of 100 patients with 160 operations were included. Techniques included subcutaneous mastectomy alone or with additional hand-assisted liposuction, isolated liposuction, and formal breast reduction. Atypical histological findings were found in 3% of the patients (spindle-cell hemangioendothelioma, papilloma). The surgical revision rate among all patients was 7%. Body mass index and a weight of the resected specimen higher than 40 g were identified as significant risk factors for complications (p gynecomastia requires an individualized approach. Caution must be taken in performing large resections, which are associated with increased complication rates. Histological tissue analysis should be routinely performed in all true gynecomastia corrections, because histological results may reveal atypical cellular pathology.

  16. A general mixed mode fracture mechanics test specimen: The DCB-specimen loaded with uneven bending moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jørgensen, K.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratiobetween the two applied moments, the full mode...... glass-fibre laminates was studied. The mixed mode fracture resistance increased with increasing crack length due to fibre bridging, eventually reaching asteady-state level (R-curve behaviour). The steady-state fracture toughness level increased with increasing tangential crack opening displacement....

  17. Biaxial Testing of 2195 Aluminum Lithium Alloy Using Cruciform Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W. M.; Pollock, W. D.; Dawicke, D. S.; Wagner, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A cruciform biaxial test specimen was used to test the effect of biaxial load on the yield of aluminum-lithium alloy 2195. Fifteen cruciform specimens were tested from 2 thicknesses of 2195-T8 plate, 0.45 in. and 1.75 in. These results were compared to the results from uniaxial tensile tests of the same alloy, and cruciform biaxial tests of aluminum alloy 2219-T87.

  18. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Notched Specimen Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtrey, Michael David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Richard Neil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Creep behavior of Alloy 617 has been extensively characterized to support the development of a draft Code Case to qualify Alloy 617 in Section III division 5 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This will allow use of Alloy 617 in construction of nuclear reactor components at elevated temperatures and longer periods of time (up to 950°C and 100,000 hours). Prior to actual use, additional concerns not considered in the ASME code need to be addressed. Code Cases are based largely on uniaxial testing of smooth gage specimens. In service conditions, components will generally be under multi axial loading. There is also the concern of the behavior at discontinuities, such as threaded components. To address the concerns of multi axial creep behavior and at geometric discontinuities, notched specimens have been designed to create conditions representative of the states that service components experience. Two general notch geometries have been used for these series of tests: U notch and V notch specimens. The notches produce a tri axial stress state, though not uniform across the specimen. Characterization of the creep behavior of the U notch specimens and the creep rupture behavior of the V notch specimens provides a good approximation of the behavior expected of actual components. Preliminary testing and analysis have been completed and are reported in this document. This includes results from V notch specimens tested at 900°C and 800°C. Failure occurred in the smooth gage section of the specimen rather than at the root of the notch, though some damage was present at the root of the notch, where initial stress was highest. This indicates notch strengthening behavior in this material at these temperatures.

  19. Intraoperative specimen radiography in patients with nonpalpable malignant breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmachtenberg, C.; Engelken, F.; Fischer, T.; Bick, U.; Poellinger, A.; Fallenberg, E.M. [Charite, Berlin (Germany). Radiology

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Specimen mammography of nonpalpable wire-localized breast lesions is the standard in breast-conserving surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of intraoperative 2-view specimen mammography in different cancer types. Materials and Methods: After ethics approval, 3 readers retrospectively evaluated margins on 266 2-view specimen radiographs. They determined the closest margin and the orientation. The results were correlated with the histopathology (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] and contingency coefficient [CC]) and compared (Wilcoxon test). Results: Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was present in 115 (43 %), IDC in 75 (28 %), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) in 57 (22 %) and rare cancers (CA) in 19 specimens (7 %). The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive value (P/NPV) of specimen mammography were 0.50/0.86 and 0.86/0.50 for CA, 0.42/0.68 and 0.48/0.63 for IDC, 0.36/0.81 and 0.69/0.51 for ILC, and 0.22/0.78 and 0.68/0.32 for IDC+DCIS. Readers correctly identified the orientation of the closest margin in at least one view in an average of 149 specimens (56 %). CCs were between 0.680 (IDC) and 0.912 (CA), suggesting a moderate correlation between radiographic and histological orientation. The correlations were worse for the radiographic and histological distances, with ICC ranging from 0.238 (ILC) to 0.475 (CA). The Wilcoxon test revealed overestimation of the radiographic margins compared to the histological ones for DCIS. Conclusion: Our results suggest that specimen radiography has relatively good overall specificity and good PPV, while the sensitivity and NPV are low for DCIS. A negative result on specimen radiography does not rule out histologically involved margins. (orig.)

  20. Thinning of specimens for examination under the electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, J.

    1982-01-01

    Heretofore specimens have been thinned to penetration for examination by electron microscopy techniques, by ion erosion techniques. A more rapid technique is disclosed employing a beam or beams comprised solely of neutral particles. In tests carried out using this technique the sputtering rate from a sample specimen has been shown to be several percentages greater using a neutral source than from an ion source with the same flux density. (author)

  1. Improved PID control for triaxial testing liquefied specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Using a frictionless triaxial apparatus, sand specimens can be tested at relatively high axial strains, even while liquefying. However, liquefying specimens have extremely nonlinear stiffness, thus standard PID control does not perform well. To maintain control over applied loads, the PID...... controller was modified to adapt to disturbed soil states. The proposed methods expand the scope of testing towards options which are otherwise inaccessible by triaxial testing....

  2. Design and construction of OGL-1 Specimen Transfer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kunio; Saruta, Tohru; Nabeya, Hideaki; Nakagaki, Shogo; Nishizaki, Tadashi.

    1977-11-01

    OGL-1 is the first high temperature gas in-pile loop in Japan, which is installed in JMTR of Oarai Research Establishment, JAERI. As the JMTR is the PWR type, specimens must be set in the loop with a remote control system ''OGL-1 Specimen Transfer System'' because of the needs for moisture prevention and radiation shielding. Described in this report are design philosophy, loop development, problems in construction, inspection and operation. (auth.)

  3. Detecting Rickettsia parkeri Infection from Eschar Swab Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Detecting Rickettsia parkeri Infection from Eschar Swab Specimens Todd Myers, Tahaniyat Lalani, Mike Dent, Ju Jiang, Patrick L. Daly, Jason D...Maguire, and Allen L. Richards The typical clinical presentation of several spotted fever group Rickettsia infections includes eschars. Clinical...diagnosis by using an eschar swab specimen from patients infected with Rickettsia parkeri. Until 2004, all confirmed cases of tick-borne spotted

  4. Influence of thermal conditioning media on Charpy specimen test temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Swain, R.L.; Berggren, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact test is used extensively for determining the toughness of structural materials. Research programs in many technologies concerned with structural integrity perform such testing to obtain Charpy energy vs temperature curves. American Society for Testing and Materials Method E 23 includes rather strict requirements regarding determination and control of specimen test temperature. It specifies minimum soaking times dependent on the use of liquids or gases as the medium for thermally conditioning the specimen. The method also requires that impact of the specimen occur within 5 s removal from the conditioning medium. It does not, however, provide guidance regarding choice of conditioning media. This investigation was primarily conducted to investigate the changes in specimen temperature which occur when water is used for thermal conditioning. A standard CVN impact specimen of low-alloy steel was instrumented with surface-mounted and embedded thermocouples. Dependent on the media used, the specimen was heated or cooled to selected temperatures in the range -100 to 100 degree C using cold nitrogen gas, heated air, acetone and dry ice, methanol and dry ice, heated oil, or heated water. After temperature stabilization, the specimen was removed from the conditioning medium while the temperatures were recorded four times per second from all thermocouples using a data acquisition system and a computer. The results show that evaporative cooling causes significant changes in the specimen temperatures when water is used for conditioning. Conditioning in the other media did not result in such significant changes. The results demonstrate that, even within the guidelines of E 23, significant test temperature changes can occur which may substantially affect the Charpy impact test results if water is used for temperature conditioning. 7 refs., 11 figs

  5. Special fracture mechanics specimens for multilayer plastic pipes testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutař, Pavel; Šestáková, Lucie; Knésl, Zdeněk; Nezbedová, E.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 8 (2009), s. 785-792 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/0279; GA ČR GC101/09/J027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Multilayer plastic pipes * C-type specimen * K-calibration * Fracture toughness * Slow crack growth * Non-homogenous specimens Subject RIV: JL - Material s Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2009

  6. Failed PCR of Ganoderma type specimens affects nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R R M; Lima, N

    2015-06-01

    The nomenclature of Ganoderma used as a Chinese medicine is debated. A group of researchers could not amplify the DNA of type specimens and concluded the DNA was degraded irreparably. New topotypes were used as the type specimens which was premature. The use of internal amplification controls is recommended to determine if other factors were involved as alternative explanations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intraoperative specimen radiography in patients with nonpalpable malignant breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmachtenberg, C; Engelken, F; Fischer, T; Bick, U; Poellinger, A; Fallenberg, E M

    2012-07-01

    Specimen mammography of nonpalpable wire-localized breast lesions is the standard in breast-conserving surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of intraoperative 2-view specimen mammography in different cancer types. After ethics approval, 3 readers retrospectively evaluated margins on 266 2-view specimen radiographs. They determined the closest margin and the orientation. The results were correlated with the histopathology (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] and contingency coefficient [CC]) and compared (Wilcoxon test). Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was present in 115 (43 %), IDC in 75 (28 %), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) in 57 (22 %) and rare cancers (CA) in 19 specimens (7 %). The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive value (P/NPV) of specimen mammography were 0.50/0.86 and 0.86/0.50 for CA, 0.42/0.68 and 0.48/0.63 for IDC, 0.36/0.81 and 0.69/0.51 for ILC, and 0.22/0.78 and 0.68/0.32 for IDC+DCIS. Readers correctly identified the orientation of the closest margin in at least one view in an average of 149 specimens (56 %). CCs were between 0.680 (IDC) and 0.912 (CA), suggesting a moderate correlation between radiographic and histological orientation. The correlations were worse for the radiographic and histological distances, with ICC ranging from 0.238 (ILC) to 0.475 (CA). The Wilcoxon test revealed overestimation of the radiographic margins compared to the histological ones for DCIS. Our results suggest that specimen radiography has relatively good overall specificity and good PPV, while the sensitivity and NPV are low for DCIS. A negative result on specimen radiography does not rule out histologically involved margins. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Intraoperative specimen radiography in patients with nonpalpable malignant breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmachtenberg, C.; Engelken, F.; Fischer, T.; Bick, U.; Poellinger, A.; Fallenberg, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Specimen mammography of nonpalpable wire-localized breast lesions is the standard in breast-conserving surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of intraoperative 2-view specimen mammography in different cancer types. Materials and Methods: After ethics approval, 3 readers retrospectively evaluated margins on 266 2-view specimen radiographs. They determined the closest margin and the orientation. The results were correlated with the histopathology (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] and contingency coefficient [CC]) and compared (Wilcoxon test). Results: Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was present in 115 (43 %), IDC in 75 (28 %), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) in 57 (22 %) and rare cancers (CA) in 19 specimens (7 %). The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive value (P/NPV) of specimen mammography were 0.50/0.86 and 0.86/0.50 for CA, 0.42/0.68 and 0.48/0.63 for IDC, 0.36/0.81 and 0.69/0.51 for ILC, and 0.22/0.78 and 0.68/0.32 for IDC+DCIS. Readers correctly identified the orientation of the closest margin in at least one view in an average of 149 specimens (56 %). CCs were between 0.680 (IDC) and 0.912 (CA), suggesting a moderate correlation between radiographic and histological orientation. The correlations were worse for the radiographic and histological distances, with ICC ranging from 0.238 (ILC) to 0.475 (CA). The Wilcoxon test revealed overestimation of the radiographic margins compared to the histological ones for DCIS. Conclusion: Our results suggest that specimen radiography has relatively good overall specificity and good PPV, while the sensitivity and NPV are low for DCIS. A negative result on specimen radiography does not rule out histologically involved margins. (orig.)

  9. In search of the rainbow: Colored inks in surgical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralekha Tampi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although surgical pathologists are aware of the multiple advantages that coloured inks contribute to surgical pathology practice, these coloured inks are not available in India and importing them is not a viable proposition. A systematic search for locally available coloring agents was done, and resulted in identifying specific shades within a popular set of children′s hobby colors of a particular brand. They retain their bright distinct colors on paraffin blocks and sections. These paints are available all over India, and are cheap, safe, and easy to use. Coloring gross specimen excision margins with different colors, adds precision to margin examination. It allows three-dimensional microscopic reconstruction of the tumor vis-a-vis its various neighboring anatomic structures. It allows postoperative comparison of tissue planes predicted by preoperative imaging. It maintains orientation of grossed and dissected specimens, enabling the pathologist to re-visit the grossed specimen, if required, and confidently allows further sampling if necessary. Aim: A systematic search for indigenous coloring agents was carried out, which included the dyes used in the histopathology laboratory, gelatin, commercially available paints, including acrylic paints and inks. Results: The study identified specific shades within a brand of acrylic colors that are easily available and simple to use, with good results on microscopic examination. Conclusion: Colored inks lend precision to margin examination. A set of easily procurable colors are available in our country, which are easy to use, with distinct bright colors, safe, and reliable.

  10. Quantitative sensing of corroded steel rebar embedded in cement mortar specimens using ultrasonic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu Twumasi, Jones; Le, Viet; Tang, Qixiang; Yu, Tzuyang

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcing bars (rebars) is the primary cause for the deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. Traditional corrosion monitoring methods such as half-cell potential and linear polarization resistance can only detect the presence of corrosion but cannot quantify it. This study presents an experimental investigation of quantifying degree of corrosion of steel rebar inside cement mortar specimens using ultrasonic testing (UT). A UT device with two 54 kHz transducers was used to measure ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of cement mortar, uncorroded and corroded reinforced cement mortar specimens, utilizing the direct transmission method. The results obtained from the study show that UPV decreases linearly with increase in degree of corrosion and corrosion-induced cracks (surface cracks). With respect to quantifying the degree of corrosion, a model was developed by simultaneously fitting UPV and surface crack width measurements to a two-parameter linear model. The proposed model can be used for predicting the degree of corrosion of steel rebar embedded in cement mortar under similar conditions used in this study up to 3.03%. Furthermore, the modeling approach can be applied to corroded reinforced concrete specimens with additional modification. The findings from this study show that UT has the potential of quantifying the degree of corrosion inside reinforced cement mortar specimens.

  11. Influence of Specimen Preparation and Test Methods on the Flexural Strength Results of Monolithic Zirconia Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Christine; Strickstrock, Monika; Roos, Malgorzata; Edelhoff, Daniel; Eichberger, Marlis; Zylla, Isabella-Maria; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-03-09

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx² (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods were applied: either dry polishing before sintering or wet polishing after sintering. Each subgroup included 40 specimens. The surface roughness was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a profilometer whereas monoclinic phase transformation was investigated with X-ray diffraction. The data were analyzed using a three-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with respect to the three factors: zirconia, specimen preparation, and test method. One-way ANOVA was conducted for the test method and zirconia factors within the combination of two other factors. A 2-parameter Weibull distribution assumption was applied to analyze the reliability under different testing conditions. In general, values measured using the 4-point test method presented the lowest flexural strength values. The flexural strength findings can be grouped in the following order: 4-point strength values than prepared before sintering. The Weibull moduli ranged from 5.1 to 16.5. Specimens polished before sintering showed higher surface roughness values than specimens polished after sintering. In contrast, no strong impact of the polishing procedures on the monoclinic surface layer was observed. No impact of zirconia material on flexural strength was found. The test method and the preparation method significantly influenced the flexural strength values.

  12. Surgical Instrument Sets for Special Operations Expeditionary Surgical Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Diane F; Sexton, Justin C; Benavides, Linda C; Benavides, Jerry M; Lundy, Jonathan B

    The deployment of surgical assets has been driven by mission demands throughout years of military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The transition to the highly expeditious Golden Hour Offset Surgical Transport Team (GHOST- T) now offers highly mobile surgical assets in nontraditional operating rooms; the content of the surgical instrument sets has also transformed to accommodate this change. The 102nd Forward Surgical Team (FST) was attached to Special Operations assigned to southern Afghanistan from June 2015 to March 2016. The focus was to decrease overall size and weight of FST instrument sets without decreasing surgical capability of the GHOST-T. Each instrument set was evaluated and modified to include essential instruments to perform damage control surgery. The overall number of main instrument sets was decreased from eight to four; simplified augmentation sets have been added, which expand the capabilities of any main set. The overall size was decreased by 40% and overall weight decreased by 58%. The cardiothoracic, thoracotomy, and emergency thoracotomy trays were condensed to thoracic set. The orthopedic and amputation sets were replaced with an augmentation set of a prepackaged orthopedic external fixator set). An augmentation set to the major or minor basic sets, specifically for vascular injuries, was created. Through the reorganization of conventional FST surgical instrument sets to maintain damage control capabilities and mobility, the 102nd GHOST-T reduced surgical equipment volume and weight, providing a lesson learned for future surgical teams operating in austere environments. 2017.

  13. Intraoperative digital specimen radiography in the treatment of nonpalpable breast lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicko Ferenc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. About a third of the breast lesions on mammography are clinically occult. The goals of surgical treatment are to locate, remove, and verify their presence in the removed breast tissue. Standard specimen mammography (SSM has been an official procedure for the latter, while intraoperative digital specimen radiography (IDSR was introduced recently. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of IDSR versus SSM and possible benefits regarding the duration of the procedures (operating room occupancy, availability of digital mammography for additional number of patients, surgeon productivity, and the quality of performed services. Methods. A retrospective chart review of 109 patients who underwent IDSR for nonpalpable breast lesions was performed between January 2014 and June 2016. We compared the difference in the duration of IDSR versus SSM procedure. We also observed the number of re-excisions and evaluated time-saving in the operating room workflow. Results. The average duration of surgery in the IDSR group of patients was 51 minutes, compared to 64 minutes in the SSM group. Every IDSR procedure saved 13 minutes over the standard SSM. That would allow another 28 procedures in the same time frame, with the same quality of service compared with SSM. In that way we increased productivity by 27.5%. Additional operation/surgery was needed for histologically involved surgical margins in three cases (2.75%. Conclusion. The use of new technology resulted in the rationalization of the operative room workflow and gave better productivity. More savings were obtained through the increase of digital mammography capacity for diagnostics, decrease of anesthesia duration, and better management of human resources. The number of “true” re-excisions, involving additional surgery, remained similar after introducing IDSR.

  14. Cluster analysis in soft X-ray spectromicroscopy: Finding the patterns in complex specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerotic, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)]. E-mail: lerotic@xray1.physics.sunysb.edu; Jacobsen, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Gillow, J.B. [Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Francis, A.J. [Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Wirick, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Vogt, S. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Maser, J. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy provides spectral data on the chemical speciation of light elements at sub-100 nanometer spatial resolution. If all chemical species in a specimen are known and separately characterized, existing approaches can be used to measure the concentration of each component at each pixel. In other situations such as in biology or environmental science, this approach may not be possible. We have previously described [M. Lerotic, C. Jacobsen, T. Schaefer, S. Vogt, Ultramicroscopy 100 (1-2) (2004) 35] the use of principle component analysis (PCA) to orthogonalize and noise-filter spectromicroscopy data, and cluster analysis (Canada) to classify the analyzed data and obtain thickness maps of representative spectra. We describe here an extension of that work employing an angle distance measure; this measure provides better classification based on spectral signatures alone in specimens with significant thickness variations. The method is illustrated using simulated data, and also to examine sporulation in the bacterium Clostridium sp.

  15. Surgical Site Infection Following Fixation of Acetabular Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Faizan; Younus, Sajid; Asmatullah; Zia, Osama Bin; Khan, Naveed

    2017-09-01

    Acetabular fractures are mainly caused by high energy trauma. Surgical fixation of these fractures requires extensive surgical exposure which increases the length of operation and blood loss as well. This may increase the risk of surgical site infection. Our aim is to evaluate the prevalence of surgical site infections and the risk factors associated with it so as to minimize its chances. A total of 261 patients who underwent acetabular fracture surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into 2 groups, with or without surgical site infection. Factors examined include patients' gender, age, body mass index (BMI), time between injury and surgery, operative time, estimated blood loss, number of packed red blood cell transfused, length of total intensive care unit (ICU) stay, fracture type, surgical approach, smoking status, patients' comorbids and associated injuries. Fourteen patients (5.4%) developed surgical site infection. Out of 14 infections, 4 were superficial and 10 were deep. The factors that were found to be associated with surgical site infection following acetabular fracture fixation were prolonged operation time, increased BMI, prolonged ICU stay, larger amount of packed red blood cell transfused and associated genitourinary and abdominal trauma. In our study, we conclude that measures should be undertaken to attenuate the chances of surgical site infection in this major surgery by considering the risk factors significantly associated with it.

  16. Investing in a Surgical Outcomes Auditing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Luis; Trost, Kristen; Ayala, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Background. Humanitarian surgical organizations consider both quantity of patients receiving care and quality of the care provided as a measure of success. However, organizational efficacy is often judged by the percent of resources spent towards direct intervention/surgery, which may discourage investment in an outcomes monitoring system. Operation Smile's established Global Standards of Care mandate minimum patient followup and quality of care. Purpose. To determine whether investment of resources in an outcomes monitoring system is necessary and effectively measures success. Methods. This paper analyzes the quantity and completeness of data collected over the past four years and compares it against changes in personnel and resources assigned to the program. Operation Smile began investing in multiple resources to obtain the missing data necessary to potentially implement a global Surgical Outcomes Auditing System. Existing personnel resources were restructured to focus on postoperative program implementation, data acquisition and compilation, and training materials used to educate local foundation and international employees. Results. An increase in the number of postoperative forms and amount of data being submitted to headquarters occurred. Conclusions. Humanitarian surgical organizations would benefit from investment in a surgical outcomes monitoring system in order to demonstrate success and to ameliorate quality of care. PMID:23401763

  17. Standardised metrics for global surgical surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Thomas G; Makary, Martin A; Haynes, Alex B; Dziekan, Gerald; Berry, William R; Gawande, Atul A

    2009-09-26

    Public health surveillance relies on standardised metrics to evaluate disease burden and health system performance. Such metrics have not been developed for surgical services despite increasing volume, substantial cost, and high rates of death and disability associated with surgery. The Safe Surgery Saves Lives initiative of WHO's Patient Safety Programme has developed standardised public health metrics for surgical care that are applicable worldwide. We assembled an international panel of experts to develop and define metrics for measuring the magnitude and effect of surgical care in a population, while taking into account economic feasibility and practicability. This panel recommended six measures for assessing surgical services at a national level: number of operating rooms, number of operations, number of accredited surgeons, number of accredited anaesthesia professionals, day-of-surgery death ratio, and postoperative in-hospital death ratio. We assessed the feasibility of gathering such statistics at eight diverse hospitals in eight countries and incorporated them into the WHO Guidelines for Safe Surgery, in which methods for data collection, analysis, and reporting are outlined.

  18. Experimental study on variations in Charpy impact energies of low carbon steel, depending on welding and specimen cutting method