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Sample records for surgical skin markers

  1. Surgical skin-marking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, M S; Heckler, F R; Jones, E W

    1987-04-01

    Surgical skin-marking inks and dyes are in everyday use for designing and planning incisions in plastic and reconstructive surgery. We have traced the historical development of surgical skin-marking techniques from ancient times to the present. The biochemical characteristics of the commonly used marking agents are discussed. A three-part experiment utilizing a pig model was carried out to test the tissue inflammatory response to the various dyes and inks when used intradermally as tattoos, the persistence of such tattoos, and the ease of skin erasure for each of eight stains. Methylene blue and gentian violet are recommended as the best all-purpose marking agents. The use of proprietary inks is discouraged.

  2. Surgical Treatment of Skin Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When we mention about surgical treatment of any tumor residing on the skin independent of its benign or malignant nature, the first method we recall is excision. Elliptical excision is the mainstay of the dermatologic surgery. Each excision ends with a defect for which we are responsible to repair functionally and cosmetically. The diameter of the tumor we excised and the safety margin used for excision determine the diameter of the final defect. After achieving tumor free lateral and deep margins with the appropriate surgical method, we decide between the repair options of second intention healing, primary repair, flaps, full or split thickness grafts, considering the diameter and the anatomic localization of the defect, for the best functional and cosmetic result for that specific defect. This review overviews not only the most common dermatologic surgical methods, but also Mohs surgery which is a method rarely used in our country, although it is the treatment of choice for the treatment of high risk basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC.

  3. Concentration modulated skin marker for radiotherapy treatment planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgüven, Yıldıray; Yücel, Birsen; Özyürek, Betül; Karakuş, Gülderen; Özgüven, Yücel

    2013-03-01

    For conformal radiotherapy, it is feasible to achieve high accuracy in contouring the outline of the target volume in treatment planning process. In contouring process, target volume is occasionally defined by means of either surgical clips or skin marker during patient anatomical data acquisition. Treatment planning systems are predicting invalid radiation dose distributions by using surgical clips and skin marker within the patient. Purpose of this study is the production of new skin marker which affects less dose distributions of electron beam. The influences of lead and commercial markers on dose calculations in a 3D treatment planning systems were investigated in terms of electron beam energy and dose profile depth. Dose deviation with commercial marker was observed to smaller than lead marker. However this dose deviation was still at big value. In order to reduce of this value, barium sulfate suspension and ultrasound gel were mixed with different volumetric ratio. With the purpose of acception the most suitable marker for radiation therapy, obtained new suspensions were investigated in terms of visibility and dose deviation. B:G/1:10 marker was determined to cause optimum visibility and the lowest dose deviation on dose calculations in terms of electron beam energy and dose profile depth. Appropriate marker, mixture of substances such as barium sulfate suspension and ultrasound gel can be produced. This marker is both ease of usage and practical and economical. Each clinic can prepare marker which is peculiar to suspension with different concentration of substance for specific visibility. But, it should be taken into account resultant dose deviation to beam calculation depending on barium sulfate concentration. Copyright © 2012 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular markers in the surgical margin of oral carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, Anders; von Buchwald, Christian; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2009-01-01

    epithelium in the surgical resection margin may explain the local recurrence rate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the presence of senescence markers, which may represent early malignant changes in the margin that in routine pathological evaluations are classified as histologically normal...

  5. Molecular markers in the surgical margin of oral carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, A.; Buchwald, C. von; Dabelsteen, E.;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Local or regional lymph node recurrence is the most common pattern of treatment failure in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The local recurrence rate is 30% even when the surgical resection margin is diagnosed as tumour free. Accumulation of genetic changes in histologically normal...... epithelium in the surgical resection margin may explain the local recurrence rate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the presence of senescence markers, which may represent early malignant changes in the margin that in routine pathological evaluations are classified as histologically normal....... METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical specimens from 16 consecutive patients with oral SCC and a clear surgical margin were obtained. The margin was analysed by immunohistochemistry for p53, p16, Chk2, Laminin-5 and glycosylated oncofetal fibronectin. RESULTS: Two patterns of p53 expression...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4730 - Surgical skin degreaser or adhesive tape solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical skin degreaser or adhesive tape solvent... Surgical skin degreaser or adhesive tape solvent. (a) Identification. A surgical skin degreaser or an adhesive tape solvent is a device that consists of a liquid such as...

  7. Echosonography and surgical therapy of facial skin tumors

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    Pešić Zoran U.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the 20 century, echosonography has been used in many medical specialties. In 1992 and 1993 highfrequencies echosonography was used in the examination of irritant and allergic skin lesions in order to examine the effects of different therapeuthical agents on the skin lesions [1-4]. Hoffmann used highfrequencies echosonography in the examination of healing of skin lesions [3]. By their incidence skin tumors are the largest group of newly discovered tumors, and their usual location is on the face [5-7]. By clinical examination it is not possible to precisely determine the depth of tumor border; therefore, the radically performed surgical excision is the only correct surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to estimate the results of preoperatively performed high frequencies echosonography in order to reduce the number of incorrectly performed surgical excisions of skin tumors. The group was composed of 40 patients with 45 tumors, who first underwent echosonographic diagnostic procedure (20 MHz, Hadsund electronic, Hadsund Technology, Denmark and then surgical excision; patients in control group (45 patients with 45 tumors were only subjected to surgical excision. Excised tumors were then pathohistologically analyzed, and measurements of tumor depth progression were performed. Margins of pathohistological specimen were controlled for the presence of tumor cells. Results of measurements of tumor depth obtained by echosonography and pathohistological measurements were compared. By Jate's modification of c2 test results regarding correct and incorrect surgical excision in patients and control group were compared. By linear regression analysis results of tumor depth obtained by echosonographic and pathohistologic examinations were compared. Hypoechogen zone echosonographic results were used like criteria for tumor expansion. Results of tumor depth measurements are presented in Table 1. Linear regression analysis showed (R = 0

  8. Surgical Removal of lipoma from an area with tattooed skin

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    Francesco Inchingolo, Marco Tatullo, Fabio M. Abenavoli, Massimo Marrelli, Alessio D. Inchingolo, Roberto Corelli, Andrea Servili, Angelo M. Inchingolo, Gianna Dipalma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of tattoos on the skin of people of all ages is on the rise. On occasion, the tattoo is in close proximity to an area which has to undergo a surgical operation, therefore why not using the tattoo itself to cover the cicatrix?The case we treated was that of a 39 year old female who, for a couple of years, had a large lipoma on her right shoulder which she never treated because it was beneath a large tattoo. During the surgical treatment of the lipoma, we followed the exact lines of the tattoo itself thus obtaining precise access for lipoma removal which minimized visible post operative cicatrix while maintaining the original tattoo design.No similar case was found in literature.

  9. P63 marker Expression in Usual Skin Cancers Compared With Non Tumoral Skin Lesions

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    Abdolhamid Esmaili

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-melanoma skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common cancers in human. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of P63 marker in usual skin cancers compared with non-tomoral skin lesions. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, sampling was performed from archival blocks of Shahid Mohammadi hospital patients during 2010-2011. 60 samples (including 30 samples of non tumoral skin lesions and 30 samples of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were studied and evaluation of p63 gene expression was done with Immunohistochemistry method. T-test and Chi-square were used for analysis of data. Results: P63 gene were expressed in 4 cases (13.33 % of non tumoral lesions and all tumoral lesions (100 %. In tumoral lesions, 5 cases (16.66 % showed 1+ severity experssion, 11 cases (36.66% 2 + severity experssion and 14 cases (46.66 % 3+severity experssion. All 4 non tumoral lesions shoed 1+ severity experssion of P63gene. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the incidence and severity of gene expression of P63 can be use for differentiation between basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma as well as non-tumoral skin lesions. 

  10. Skin Autofluorescence as Marker of Tissue Advanced Glycation End-Products Accumulation in Formerly Preeclamptic Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffeng, S.M.; Blaauw, Judith; Souwer, E.T.; Rakhorst, G.; Smit, A.J.; Graaff, R.; van Doormaal, J.J.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Faas, M.M.; van Pampus, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Condensation. In women with a history of preeclampsia skin autofluorescence as marker of tissue AGEs accumulation is increased, supporting a common causal metabolic or vascular link between preeclampsia and cardiovascular diseases. Objective. To investigate whether skin autofluorescence (AF), as mar

  11. Skin Autofluorescence as Marker of Tissue Advanced Glycation End-Products Accumulation in Formerly Preeclamptic Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffeng, S.M.; Blaauw, Judith; Souwer, E.T.; Rakhorst, G.; Smit, A.J.; Graaff, R.; van Doormaal, J.J.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Faas, M.M.; van Pampus, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Condensation. In women with a history of preeclampsia skin autofluorescence as marker of tissue AGEs accumulation is increased, supporting a common causal metabolic or vascular link between preeclampsia and cardiovascular diseases. Objective. To investigate whether skin autofluorescence (AF), as mar

  12. Skin tumour surgery in primary care: do general practitioners need to improve their surgical skills?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsingen, M.C.J. van; Vossen, R.; Huystee, B.E.W.L. van; Gorgels, W.J.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to a rapid increase in the incidence of skin cancer, it seems inevitable that general practitioners (GPs) will play a larger role in skin cancer care. OBJECTIVES: To assess surgical procedures used by GPs in skin tumour management. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 1,898

  13. Multiple parallel skin markers for minimal incision lumbar disc surgery; a technical note

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    Chen Po-Quang

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal surgery depends on accurate localization to prevent incorrect surgical approaches. The trend towards minimally invasive surgery that minimizes surgical exposure and reduces postoperative pain increasingly requires surgeons to accurately determine the operative level before an incision is made. Preoperative localization with a C-arm image intensifier is popular, but the exposure of both patients and theatre staff to radiation is a disadvantage, as well as being time-consuming. Methods We describe a simple surgical tool developed to help localize exact spinal levels in conjunction with a simple AP X-ray film immediately before surgery. Multiple parallel skin markers were made using a circular oven rack comprising multiple 1.5 cm spaced parallel wires attached to a circular outside rim. The longest line was placed on the line of the postero-superior iliac spine (PSIS over the junction of the L5-S1 region. Results and conclusions Based on the film taken, the incision can be accurately made at the intended level. The incision wound can be minimized to 3.0 cm even when using conventional disc surgery instruments.

  14. ARE THE SPIDER ANGIOMAS SKIN MARKERS OF HEPATOPULMONARY SYNDROME?

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    Americo de Oliveira SILVERIO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Hepatopathies can significantly influence both veins and arteries, these changes may cause some cutaneous stigmas, such as spider angioma (SA and some systemic vascular changes, such as those observed in hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS. Based on this common pathophysiological root we can assume that the SA can be skin markers of HPS. Objective The objective of this study is to assess whether there is a relationship between the presence of SA and HPS. Methods Records of 40 patients with liver cirrhosis who underwent contrast echocardiography were evaluated, in which we researched the description of SA, physical examination, and other clinical and laboratory data. For diagnosis of HPS we use these signs of the disease: presence of liver disease (cirrhosis in the case, abnormalities in gas exchange by arterial blood gases, and evidence of pulmonary vasodilations by the contrast echocardiography. Results The SA were found in 21/40 (52.5% patients and hepatopulmonary syndrome in 9/40 (22.5%. The HPS was observed in 8/21 (38.1% of patients with SA and 1/19 (5.3% patients were without this sign (P<0.01. We found no statistically significant difference between the SA and the presence of HPS with sex or age. Patients with SA had a higher hypoxemia [PaO2 84.8 ± 11.5 mmHg and 19.8 ± 14.7 mmHg alveolar-arterial gradient of oxygen (AAG] than those without SA (PaO2 90.8 ± 10.7 mmHg and 10.9 ± 11.7 AAG mmHg (P<0.05. Conclusion Our findings show a correlation between the presence of SA and HPS, suggesting that the SA may be cutaneous markers of HPS.

  15. A Target-Orientated Marker Image Binarization Method for Orthopaedic Surgical Navigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shi-ju; CHEN Xiao-jun; WANG Cheng-tao; SU Ying-ying; XIA Qing

    2007-01-01

    Camera calibration is the key technique in a C-arm based orthopaedic surgical navigation system. The extraction of marker location information is a necessary step in the calibration process. Ideal marker images should possess uniform background and contain marker shadow only, but in fact marker images always possess nonuniform background and are contaminated by noise and unwanted anatomic information, making the extraction very difficult. A target-orientated marker shadow extraction method was proposed. With this method a proper threshold for marker image binarization can be determined.

  16. Kinetin Improves Barrier Function of the Skin by Modulating Keratinocyte Differentiation Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sungkwan; Cha, Hwa Jun; Ko, Jung-Min; Han, Hyunjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Kyung-Suk; Lee, Song Jeong; An, In-Sook; Kim, Sangwon; Youn, Hae Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Background Kinetin is a plant hormone that regulates growth and differentiation. Keratinocytes, the basic building blocks of the epidermis, function in maintaining the skin barrier. Objective We examined whether kinetin induces skin barrier functions in vitro and in vivo. Methods To evaluate the efficacy of kinetin at the cellular level, expression of keratinocyte differentiation markers was assessed. Moreover, we examined the clinical efficacy of kinetin by evaluating skin moisture, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and skin surface roughness in patients who used kinetin-containing cream. We performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to measure the expression of keratinocyte differentiation markers in HaCaT cells following treatment. A clinical trial was performed to assess skin moisture, TEWL, and evenness of skin texture in subjects who used kinetin-containing cream for 4 weeks. Results Kinetin increased involucrin, and keratin 1 mRNA in HaCaT cells. Moreover, use of a kinetin-containing cream improved skin moisture and TEWL while decreasing roughness of skin texture. Conclusion Kinetin induced the expression of keratinocyte differentiation markers, suggesting that it may affect differentiation to improve skin moisture content, TEWL, and other signs of skin aging. Therefore, kinetin is a potential new component for use in cosmetics as an anti-aging agent that improves the barrier function of skin. PMID:28223740

  17. C-Reactive protein is an independent surgical indication marker for appendicitis: a retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Takifuji, Katsunari; Hotta, Tsukasa; Matsuda, Kenji; Nasu, Toru; Nakamori, Mikihito; Hirabayashi, Naoki; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    Background This study is an attempt to clarify the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a surgical indication marker for appendicitis. Methods One hundred and fifty patients who underwent appendectomies and had pathologically confirmed appendicitis were reviewed between May 1, 1999 and September 31, 2007. The correlation between preoperative clinical factors and the actual histological severity, and identify surgical indication markers were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Univariate analysis showed that only the CRP level significantly differ between the surgical treatment necessary group (gangrenous appendicitis) and the possible non-surgical treatment group (catarrhalis and phlegmonous appendicitis). Multivariate analysis indicated only the CRP level to be a surgical indication marker for acute appendicitis. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicated that the cutoff value of CRP for surgical indication of appendicitis is 4.95 mg/dl. Conclusion Only the CRP level is consistent with the severity of appendicitis, and considered to be a surgical indication marker for acute appendicitis. PMID:19878592

  18. C-Reactive protein is an independent surgical indication marker for appendicitis: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamori Mikihito

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is an attempt to clarify the role of C-reactive protein (CRP as a surgical indication marker for appendicitis. Methods One hundred and fifty patients who underwent appendectomies and had pathologically confirmed appendicitis were reviewed between May 1, 1999 and September 31, 2007. The correlation between preoperative clinical factors and the actual histological severity, and identify surgical indication markers were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Univariate analysis showed that only the CRP level significantly differ between the surgical treatment necessary group (gangrenous appendicitis and the possible non-surgical treatment group (catarrhalis and phlegmonous appendicitis. Multivariate analysis indicated only the CRP level to be a surgical indication marker for acute appendicitis. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve indicated that the cutoff value of CRP for surgical indication of appendicitis is 4.95 mg/dl. Conclusion Only the CRP level is consistent with the severity of appendicitis, and considered to be a surgical indication marker for acute appendicitis.

  19. Potential Surgical and Oncologic Consequences Related to Skin Tattoos in the Treatment of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Christhardt; Foiato, Tariane; Marnitz, Simone; Schneider, Achim; Le, Xin; Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Pfiffer, Tatiana; Jacob, Anna Elena; Mölgg, Andrea; Hagemann, Ingke; Favero, Giovanni

    Skin tattoos on the feet, legs, and lower abdominal wall are progressively gaining popularity. Consequently, the number of tattooed women with cervical cancer has significantly increased in the last decade. However, pigments of tattoo ink can be transported to regional lymph nodes and potentially clog lymphatic pathways that might also be used by sentinel labeling substances. Therefore, here we report whether the presence of tattoo ink affected pelvic lymph nodes in women with early cervical cancer and discuss its potential oncologic and surgical consequences. Prospective observational study. University Hospital in Hamburg, Germany (Canadian Task Force classification II2). Women affected by cervical cancer. Between January 2014 and May 2016, 267 laparoscopic oncologic operations, including at least a pelvic sentinel or complete lymphadenectomy, were performed in the Department of Advanced Surgical and Oncologic Gynecology, Asklepios Hospital, Hamburg, Germany. Among these, 191 patients were affected by cervical cancer. Data of patients in whom dyed lymph nodes without the use of patent blue as a sentinel marker or different from blue-colored pelvic lymph nodes in the case of sentinel procedure were identified and prospectively collected. In 9 patients, skin tattoos localized in the lower extremities caused discoloration of at least 1 pelvic lymph node. This effect was observed in 40% of women (9/23) with tattoos in this area of the body. Mean patient age was 34 years (range, 27-56). All women had cutaneous tattoos on their feet or legs, and in 1 woman an additional tattoo situated on the inferior abdominal wall was observed. The stage of cervical cancer was FIGO IB1 in all cases. One woman was at the 16th week of gestation at the time of cancer diagnosis. On average, 26 pelvic lymph nodes (range, 11-51) were harvested from both pelvic basin sides. None of the removed lymph nodes was tumor involved. Three patients (33%) developed postoperatively infected

  20. Comparison of Protocols for Walking and Running Kinematics Based on Skin Surface Markers and Rigid Clusters of Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Miana, AN; Prudencio, MV; Barros, RML

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the two main types of marker sets for human body representation based on rigid clusters of markers and skin surface markers for measuring kinematics during walking and running. Velocity, body segment, and joint angle were considered in the comparison of both protocols. Six male athletes were Studied during treadmill gait at 1.4 and 5.5 m/s and recorded with 8 high speed video cameras. The subjects used simultaneously both protocols in the same walking ...

  1. Are surgical scrubbing and pre-operative disinfection of the skin in orthopaedic surgery reliable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, M; Chelo, C; Caputo, F; Conte, M; Fontana, C; Peddis, G; Velluti, C

    2006-01-01

    This study attempts to establish the actual effectiveness of pre-surgical disinfection of the patient and surgeon's hands. We evaluated bacterial density and composition on the skin of 15 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy and the left hand of two surgeons after standard disinfection with povidone-iodine. Three samples were taken after the first 6-min scrub in the first surgical operation from the periungual space of the 1 degrees finger, from the interdigital space between the 2 degrees and 3 degrees fingers and from the transverse palmar crest of the left hand of two surgeons for seven consecutive surgical sessions, for a total of 42 samples, and two samples from the pre-patellar skin and from the popliteal skin of 15 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy, for a total of 30 samples. Pre-surgical handwashing and disinfection procedures were identical in each case. Pre-surgical disinfection of the patient's skin with povidone-iodine was shown to be completely effective, with 100% of samples negative. Samples taken from the interdigital space and the palmar crest (100% of samples negative) demonstrated the efficacy of disinfection of the surgeon's hands with povidone-iodine, while the periungual space was contaminated in 50% of the samples. The bacterial strains isolated belong to the staphylococcus genus in 100% of the cases, with pathogenic strains in 29.6% of the cases. Standard pre-surgical disinfection of skin in areas easily accessible to the disinfectant is sufficient in itself to guarantee thorough sanitization. Standard scrubbing of the surgeon's hands is insufficient in eliminating bacterial contamination, including pathogenic germs, in the periungual space, where it is probably difficult for the disinfectant to come into contact with the skin.

  2. Immunolocalization of lactoferrin in surgically resected pigmented skin lesions

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    G Tuccari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (Lf expression was determined immunohistochemically in 57 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bioptic samples obtained from an equal number of patients treated by surgery to remove pigmented skin lesions (nevi = 23; melanoma = 12; vulgaris and seborrhoeic warts = 12; basal cell carcinoma = 10; in addition, 10 specimens of normal skin were studied as control. On 3 ?m thick sections, depigmentation and antigen retrieval procedures were performed. The Lf immunoreactivity was revealed by a rabbit anti-human Lf. Quantification of Lf immunoreactivity was performed using an intensity-distribution (ID score. Melanocytic cells, regardless of their benign or malignant nature, were consistently stained, with no significant differences in the Lf IDscore between melanomas or nevi. A different intensity of Lf immunoreactivity was encountered in superficial portions of warts, exclusively inside squamous epithelial cells arranged in sheets or whorls of keratin. On the contrary, basal cell carcinomas were always unstained, while a slight Lf positivity was found in focal keratinized areas present in two tumours showing baso-squamous differentiation. The Lf immunoreactivity was localized in the cytoplasm and only occasionally in the nucleus. The biological meaning of Lf in these cases of human skin specimens remains unexplained, although it cannot be ruled out that Lf might be involved in the defense system against tumours, or alternatively, may be used by cells requiring iron availability for their turnover. Moreover, the immunohistochemical expression of Lf in melanocytic lesions might be also related to a Lf-melanin interaction. Finally, the involvement of Lf in skin squamous non-neoplastic elements could be related to its role as one of the molecules modulating an unspecific inflammatory or anti-oxidant response.

  3. Effectiveness of three surgical alcohol-based hand rubs on skin flora

    OpenAIRE

    Zandiyeh, Mitra; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is proved that surgical hand disinfectant contains alcohol, and has favorable properties such as strong and rapid antibacterial effect, ease of application, and suitable effect on skin. Therefore, nowadays use of them has been gradually replacing traditional surgical hand scrub with antibacterial soap. Hence, several domestic and imported products are available to the healthcare facilities in Iran. This study was done in order to determine the antibacterial effect of Decosept, ...

  4. Passive markers for tracking surgical instruments in real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Jeffrey; Ren, Hongliang; Dupont, Pierre E

    2012-03-01

    A family of passive echogenic markers is presented by which the position and orientation of a surgical instrument can be determined in a 3-D ultrasound volume, using simple image processing. Markers are attached near the distal end of the instrument so that they appear in the ultrasound volume along with the instrument tip. They are detected and measured within the ultrasound image, thus requiring no external tracking device. This approach facilitates imaging instruments and tissue simultaneously in ultrasound-guided interventions. Marker-based estimates of instrument pose can be used in augmented reality displays or for image-based servoing. Design principles for marker shapes are presented that ensure imaging system and measurement uniqueness constraints are met. An error analysis is included that can be used to guide marker design and which also establishes a lower bound on measurement uncertainty. Finally, examples of marker measurement and tracking algorithms are presented along with experimental validation of the concepts.

  5. Comparison of protocols for walking and running kinematics based on skin surface markers and rigid clusters of markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miana, A N; Prudêncio, M V; Barros, R M L

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the two main types of marker sets for human body representation based on rigid clusters of markers and skin surface markers for measuring kinematics during walking and running. Velocity, body segment, and joint angle were considered in the comparison of both protocols. Six male athletes were studied during treadmill gait at 1.4 and 5.5 m/s and recorded with 8 high speed video cameras. The subjects used simultaneously both protocols in the same walking and running cycles, in order to compare the variability in the determination of the joint centers' positions and the joint angles calculated from each protocol. The three-way ANOVA results showed that the variability of the inter-markers distance in the skin surface protocol was higher than that in the rigid clusters of markers, as reported in the literature. However, no statistical differences between the protocols were found in the variability of the determination of the joint centers' positions. Therefore no advantage was verified to rigid cluster protocols even for the upper body segments. Another conclusion is that increases in velocity produced increases in variability of the joint centers' distances and increases in the maximum differences between the joint angles.

  6. Skin wounds vitality markers in forensic pathology: An updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casse, Jean-Matthieu; Martrille, Laurent; Vignaud, Jean-Michel; Gauchotte, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Wound age evaluation is one of the most challenging issues in forensic pathology. In the first minutes or hours, standard histological examination may not determine whether the wound was inflicted in the pre- or post-mortem period. While red blood cell infiltration is classically considered as a sign of vital reaction, several studies have shown that extravasation of blood cells may also occur after death and cannot be used as a reliable marker in the diagnosis of wound vitality. Numerous studies about wound vitality are available in the literature. They have evaluated markers involved in coagulation or inflammation, using various methods such as enzymology, molecular biology or immunohistochemistry. In this update, we first introduce some methodological principles. Then, we review the main studies available in the literature. Immunohistochemistry seems to be the most valuable method, given its easy application and the possibility to analyse the localization of the molecules of interest. Some markers are promising, such as CD15, TNFα, IL-6, IL-1β, TGFα or TGFβ1. Prior to their application in daily practice, these early results need to be confirmed with other studies, conducted by independent teams and integrating multiple controls. Most notably, the antibodies have to be tested in numerous post-mortem wounds. Indeed, a critical risk of overexpression in post-mortem wounds is present. Some promising markers have been later invalidated because of post-mortem false positivity. Finally, optimal sensitivity and specificity values could probably be reached by combining several markers, validated by large groups of pre- and post-mortem wounds.

  7. Cyanoacrylate Skin Microsealant for Preventing Surgical Site Infection after Vascular Surgery : A Discontinued Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhout, Bastiaan P.; Ott, Alewijn; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.; Oskam, Jacques; Ott, Alewijn; van den Dungen, Jan J. A. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    Background: Surgical site infections (SSI) after vascular surgery are related to substantial morbidity. Restriction of bacterial access to the site of surgery with a cyanoacrylate sealant is a new concept. We performed a randomized clinical trial to assess the effect of the sealing of skin with a

  8. The influence of physiological and surgical menopause on coronary heart disease risk markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Marieke O.; van der Mooren, Marius J.; Teerlink, Tom; Verheijen, Rene H. M.; Scheffer, Peter G.; Kenemans, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of physiological and surgical menopause oil Serum concentrations of corollary heart disease (CHD) risk markers and sex hormones. Design: Physiological menopausal transition was investigated in two studies. In a longitudinal Study, 16 women were followed from 2

  9. The influence of physiological and surgical menopause on coronary heart disease risk markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Marieke O.; van der Mooren, Marius J.; Teerlink, Tom; Verheijen, Rene H. M.; Scheffer, Peter G.; Kenemans, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of physiological and surgical menopause oil Serum concentrations of corollary heart disease (CHD) risk markers and sex hormones. Design: Physiological menopausal transition was investigated in two studies. In a longitudinal Study, 16 women were followed from 2

  10. Improvements in self-administration studies based on changes in skin button type and surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lindsey M; Sgro, Mario P; Modlin, Deah L; Wheat, Nathaniel J; Kallman, Mary J

    2015-01-01

    These studies, ranging in duration from 3 to 8months, evaluated the patency and longevity of the intravenous (IV) self-administration surgical model in male Sprague Dawley rats. Surgeries were categorized and assessed based on the number of catheter and/or skin button repairs required per animal across four separate self-administration studies. Design improvements in skin button types and changes in surgical procedures were chronologically tracked and assessed. Animals were evaluated under a self-administration paradigm in which they were trained to respond for a food reward under a fixed ratio schedule (FR5 or FR10). Animals were then surgically prepared with a femoral catheter and skin button port. Following recovery, animals were returned to food-maintained responding for at least 5 sessions and subsequently trained to respond for injections of a reinforcing drug. Once drug training criteria was established, the effects of vehicle or varying doses of test articles were evaluated. Animals were tested in operant chambers one hour each day 5days a week and the length of each study was recorded. Differences in the number of repairs per study as well as the total number of repairs were tabulated. Study length was directly correlated to the mean number of repairs occurring per study, with study length increasing as the total number of repairs increased. The majority of repairs were skin button-related issues. Multiple combinations of skin button types and surgical techniques were implemented across time to evaluate model efficiency and decrease overall cycle time per study. Initial combinations produced a greater number of repairs on a per study basis. However, the skin button type and surgical technique combination that resulted in the fewest number of total repairs used a lateral incision with a dorsal biopsy punch. The combination of improvements in skin button type and surgical techniques drastically decreased the number of surgical repairs required per study

  11. Stepwise surgical approach to diabetic partial foot amputations with autogenous split thickness skin grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal L. Ramanujam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the surgical treatment of severe diabetic foot infections, substantial soft tissue loss often accompanies partial foot amputations. These sizeable soft tissue defects require extensive care with the goal of expedited closure to inhibit further infection and to provide resilient surfaces capable of withstanding long-term ambulation. Definitive wound closure management in the diabetic population is dependent on multiple factors and can have a major impact on the risk of future diabetic foot complications. In this article, the authors provide an overview of autogenous skin grafting, including anatomical considerations, clinical conditions, surgical approach, and adjunctive treatments, for diabetic partial foot amputations.

  12. Expression and localization of epithelial stem cell and differentiation markers in equine skin, eye and hoof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardi, Renata L.; Megee, Susan O.; Mainardi, Sarah R.; Senoo, Makoto; Galantino-Homer, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The limited characterization of equine skin, eye and hoof epithelial stem cell (ESC) and differentiation markers impedes the investigation of the physiology and pathophysiology of these tissues. Hypothesis/Objectives To characterize ESC and differentiation marker expression in epithelial tissues of the equine eye, haired skin and hoof capsule. Methods Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting were utilized to detect expression and tissue localization of keratin (K) isoforms K3, K10, K14, and K124, the transcription factor p63 (a marker of ESCs) and phosphorylated p63 (pp63, a marker of ESC to transit-amplifying (TA) cell transition) in epithelial tissues of the foot (haired skin, hoof coronet and hoof lamellae) and the eye (limbus and cornea). Results K14 expression was restricted to the basal layer of epidermal lamellae, and to basal and adjacent suprabasal layers of the haired skin, coronet and corneal limbus. Coronary and lamellar epidermis was negative for both K3 and K10, which were expressed in the cornea/limbus epithelium and haired skin epidermis, respectively. Variable expression of p63 with relatively low to high levels of phosphorylation was detected in individual basal and suprabasal cells of all epithelial tissues examined. Conclusions This is the first report of the characterization of tissue-specific keratin marker expression and the localization of putative epithelial progenitor cell populations, including ESCs (high p63 expression with low pp63 levels) and TA cells (high expression of both p63 and pp63), in the horse. These results will aid further investigation of epidermal and corneal epithelial biology and regenerative therapies in horses. PMID:25963063

  13. The effect of preoperative skin preparation products on surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Heather L; Reese, Sara; Knepper, Bryan; Miller, Amber; Mauffrey, Cyril; Price, Connie S

    2014-12-01

    Skin preparation products contribute to surgical site infection (SSI) prevention. In a case-control study, diabetes was associated with increased SSI (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.74 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-27.0]), while the use of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) plus isopropyl alcohol versus CHG alone was found to be protective (adjusted OR, 2.64 [95% CI, 1.12-6.20]).

  14. Transdermal treatment of the surgical and burned wound skin via phytochemical-capped gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewook; Kim, JiEun; Go, Jun; Lee, Jong Ho; Han, Dong-Wook; Hwang, DaeYoun; Lee, Jaebeom

    2015-11-01

    The biological activities and therapeutic potential of phytochemical-decorated Au nanoparticles (Phyto-AuNPs) were investigated through the treatment of Phyto-AuNPs on the dorsal skin of rats via transdermal drug delivery process in order to regenerate surgical wounded and burned skin. Two different Phyto-AuNPs were applied to the dorsal skin: gallic acid-isoflavone--covered AuNPs (GI-AuNPs) and protocatechuic acid-isoflavone--covered AuNPs (PI-AuNPs). From the biological activity monitoring, it has been resulted that 5-fold thicker epidermis (ER), 50% reduction of metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) level, 3-fold higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were obtained in the Phyto-AuNP-treated group, compared with a vehicle group (deionized water (DI-water) treatment). Moreover, the Phyto-AuNPs treatment on the surgical and burn damaged Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats induced higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2). It would be plausible that antioxidant property of Phyto-AuNPs assist the acceleration and activation of biomolecules in the healing mechanism, where Phyto-AuNPs can be potential candidates for skin regeneration and wound healing.

  15. Effectiveness of three surgical alcohol-based hand rubs on skin flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandiyeh, Mitra; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2015-01-01

    It is proved that surgical hand disinfectant contains alcohol, and has favorable properties such as strong and rapid antibacterial effect, ease of application, and suitable effect on skin. Therefore, nowadays use of them has been gradually replacing traditional surgical hand scrub with antibacterial soap. Hence, several domestic and imported products are available to the healthcare facilities in Iran. This study was done in order to determine the antibacterial effect of Decosept, Sterillium, and Septicidine on skin flora. This clinical trial was carried out on 20 volunteers. Subjects disinfected their hands with three test products. At first, subjects washed their hands with soap. Then pre-value sample was taken from the finger tips in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB). After that, the hands were disinfected with one of the surgical hand rubs with as much volume as necessary to keep the hands wet, at the recommended application time. Immediate post-value sample was taken from one hand and the other hand was gloved for 3 h. After removing the surgical glove, 3 h post-value sample (sustained effect) was taken from the hand. All products remarkably decreased the colony forming units (CFU) immediately (P effective than the others, whereas 3 h effect of the three products was similar (P = 0.630, ANOVA). Our results confirm the effectiveness of the three alcohol-based hand rubs. Considering the short application time, less volume used, and more antibacterial effect, however, Sterillium seems to be a better choice.

  16. [Improvised surgical technique for elderly women with advanced breast cancer accompanied by extensive skin invasion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Keiko; Kosaka, Yoshimasa; Sengoku, Norihiko; Enomoto, Takumo; Kajita, Sabine; Kuranami, Masaru; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2012-11-01

    Patient 1 was a 63-year-old woman whose chief complaint was a mass in the left breast. Physical examination revealed an inverted left nipple, a very large mass on the anterior aspect of the sternum, and erythema. Because the tumor had directly invaded the sternum, T4cN3M0, stage IIIC breast cancer was diagnosed. The patient preoperatively received chemotherapy with 6 courses of FEC100 (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide) and 5 courses of nanoparticle albumin -bound paclitaxel (260 mg/m2), which enabled a partial response. Patient 2 was an 83-year-old woman whose chief complaint was a mass in the upper internal and external quadrants of the right breast measuring 20×15 cm and erythema. The mass was accompanied by enlarged right axillary lymph nodes(T4bN1M0, stage IIIB breast cancer). Both patients underwent core needle biopsy of the skin and breast masses. They were both diagnosed with invasive, lobular, triple-negative breast cancer (estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative). The surgical resection line was drawn to include the extensive skin invasion, and mastectomy and axillary dissection were performed. Skin grafting was scheduled but the retromammary space on the healthy side was dissected to the anterior border of the latissimus dorsi muscle, and the skin of the healthy side was used to cover the defect on the affected side. Consequently, the pendulous breast on the healthy side was elevated. This surgical technique provided an excellent aesthetic outcome without any skin problems, because autologous skin was used to fill the defect. Radiotherapy could subsequently be administered as scheduled. This procedure may be useful for elderly patients.

  17. [Correlation between five RNA markers of rat's skin and PMI at different temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hui; Zhang, Heng; Lü, Ye-hui; Ma, Jian-long; Ma, Kai-jun; Chen, Long

    2014-08-01

    To explore the correlation between postmortem interval (PMI) and five RNA markers of rat's skin--β-actin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 18S ribosomal RNA(18S rRNA), 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA), and microRNA-203 (miR-203), at different temperatures. Eighteen SD rats were randomly divided into three environmental temperature groups: 4 °C, 15 °C and 35 °C, respectively. Skin samples were taken at 11 time points from 0 h to 120 h post-mortem. The total RNA was extracted from the skin samples and the five RNA levels were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Proper internal reference was selected by geNorm software. Regression analysis of the RNA markers was conducted by GraphPad software. 5S rRNA and miR-203 were most suitable internal references. A good linear relationship between PMI and RNA levels (β-actin and GAPDH) was observed in two groups (4 °C and 15 °C), whereas the S type curve relationship between the expression levels of the two markers (β-actin and GAPDH) and PMI was observed in the 35 °C group. The partial linear relationship between 18S rRNA and PMI was observed in the groups (15 °C and 35 °C). Skin could be a suitable material for extracting RNA. The RNA expression levels of β-actin and GAPDH correlate well with PMI, and these RNA markers of skin tissue could be additional indice for the estimation of PMI.

  18. Investigation of soft tissue movement during level walking: translations and rotations of skin markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Zheng, Naiquan Nigel

    2008-11-14

    Skin marker-based stereophotogrammetry is the most widely used technique for human motion analysis but its accuracy is mainly limited by soft tissue artifact (STA) which reflects the non-rigidity of human body segments during activities. To compensate for the effects of STA and improve the accuracy of motion analysis, it is critical to understand the behavior and characteristics of soft tissue movement. By using a non-invasive approach, this study investigated the soft tissue movement on the thigh and shank of twenty healthy subjects during level walking which is one of the most important human daily activities and the basic content of clinical gait analysis. With the measurement of inter-marker translations and rotations on each segment, a 4D picture (3D space and time) of soft tissue deformation on the thigh and shank during walking was quantified in terms of the positional and orientational change between different skin locations. Soft tissue deformation showed nonuniform distribution at different locations as well as along different directions. The range of inter-marker movement was found to be up to 19.1mm/19.6 degrees on the thigh and 9.3mm/8.6 degrees on the shank. Results in this study provide useful information for understanding soft tissue movement behavior and exploring better marker configurations. Inter-marker movement exhibited similar patterns across subjects. This finding suggests the possibility that STA has inter-subject similarity, which is contrary to the prevailing opinion. This new insight may lead to more effective STA compensation strategies for skin marker-based motion analysis.

  19. Iatrogenic surgical microscope skin burns: A systematic review of the literature and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Joseph; Soni, Ashwin; Calva, Daniel; Susarla, Srinivas M; Jallo, George I; Redett, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous burns associated with microscope-use are perceived to be uncommon adverse events in microsurgery. Currently, it is unknown what factors are associated with these iatrogenic events. In this report, we describe the case of a 1-year-old patient who suffered a full thickness skin burn from a surgical microscope after a L4-S1 laminectomy. Additionally, we present a systematic review of the literature that assessed the preoperative risk, outcome, and management of iatrogenic microscope skin burns. Lastly, a summary of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database of voluntary adverse events was reviewed and analyzed for clinical cases of microscope thermal injuries. The systematic literature review identified only seven articles related to microsurgery-related cutaneous burns. From these seven studies, 15 clinical cases of iatrogenic skin burns were extracted for analysis. The systematic review of the FDA MAUDE database revealed only 60 cases of cutaneous burns associated with surgical microscopes since 2004. Few cases of microscope burns have been described in the literature; this report is, to our knowledge, one of the first comprehensive reports of this iatrogenic event in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Surgical site wound infection in relation to antibiotic prophylaxis given before skin incision and after cord clamping during cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B; Marhatha, R; Giri, A; Jaisi, S; Maskey, U

    2014-12-01

    Surgical site infection is one of the most common complications following Lower Segment Cesarean Section, which accounts for prolonged hospital stay thereby increasing expense. Prophylactic antibiotics in cesarean section reduces surgical site infection significantly. The best protection is provided when tissue level of antibiotics are adequate before incision, without prejudice to neonatal infectious morbidity. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of surgical site wound infection with prophylactic antibiotics given before skin incision and after cord clamping following delivery of baby. This was a prospective, hospital based study, in which hundred cases of cesarean deliveries who received antibiotics prophylaxis one hour before the skin incision were compared with another 100 cases where antibiotic was given after cord clamping following delivery of the baby. Surgical site infection occurred in 3% of women who received antibiotics prophylaxis before skin incision as compared to 6% in whom antibiotic was given after cord clamping. It was statistically not significant (p = 0.465).

  1. Preoperative skin preparation with 2% chlorhexidine as a factor in the prevention of surgical site infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Solano Castro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of secondary research that refers to preoperative skin preparation with antiseptic chlorhexidine 2% are presented. Surgical Site Infections are one of the most common complications in surgical procedures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the user and are the third -associated infection more frequent in the health care . Steps of clinical practice based on evidence were applied, considering in the first instance a question in PICO format, then a search for information in databases recommended in the Course of Clinical Nursing Practice Evidence-Based, taught by the program for Collaborative Research in Evidence-Based Nursing of Costa Rica ( CIEBE -CR . The PubMed database and Cochrane LIBRARY was consulted, National Center for Biotechnology Information ( NCBI, Google Scholar, CINAHL (cummulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature. SCIELO (Scientific Electronic Library on line www.Scielo.org . 22 documents were recovered, but only three were selected because had methodological rigor. For the critical analysis Critical Reading Sheets 2.0 ( FLC software was used. Was concluded that 2% chlorhexidine, is the best choice for preoperative skin preparation antiseptic, however, it is necessary to conduct further studies in order to determine which is the correct way in strength, frequency, technical and adverse effects in the pediatric population.

  2. Skin autofluorescence, a non-invasive marker for AGE accumulation, is associated with the degree of atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dekker, Martijn A. M.; Zwiers, Marjan; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; de Vos, Lisanne C.; Smit, Andries J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Lefrandt, Johan; Mulder, Douwe J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis, beyond diabetes and renal disease. Skin autofluorescence (AF) is a non-invasive marker for AGEs. We examined whether skin AF is increased in (subclinical) atherosclerosis and associated with th

  3. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of surgical scalpel or diathermy in making abdominal skin incisions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Nasir Zaheer

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgical scalpels are traditionally used to make skin incisions. Diathermy incisions on contrary are less popular among the surgeons. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness of both techniques and address the common fallacies about diathermy incisions. METHODS: A literature search of MEDLINE and Cochrane databases was done, using the keywords diathermy, cold scalpel, and incisions. Eleven clinical trials comparing both methods of making skin incisions were selected for meta-analysis. The end points compared included postoperative wound infection, pain in first 24 hours after surgery, time taken to complete the incisions, and incision-related blood loss. RESULTS: Postoperative wound infection rate was comparable in both techniques (P = 0.147, odds ratio = 1.257 and 95% CI = 0.923-1.711). Postoperative pain was significantly less with diathermy incisions in first 24 hours (P = 0.031, weighted mean difference = 0.852 and 95% CI = 0.076-1.628). Similarly, the time taken to complete the incision and incision-related blood loss was significantly less with diathermy incisions (95% CI = 0.245-0.502 and 0.548-1.020, respectively). CONCLUSION: Diathermy incisions are equally prone to get wound infection, as do the incisions made with scalpel. Furthermore, lower incidence of early postoperative pain, swiftness of the technique, and a reduced blood loss are the encouraging facts supporting routine use of diathermy for abdominal skin incisions after taking careful precautions.

  4. Oxidization of squalene, a human skin lipid: a new and reliable marker of environmental pollution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, D-M; Boussouira, B; Moyal, D; Nguyen, Q L

    2015-08-01

    A review of the oxidization of squalene, a specific human compound produced by the sebaceous gland, is proposed. Such chemical transformation induces important consequences at various levels. Squalene by-products, mostly under peroxidized forms, lead to comedogenesis, contribute to the development of inflammatory acne and possibly modify the skin relief (wrinkling). Experimental conditions of oxidation and/or photo-oxidation mechanisms are exposed, suggesting that they could possibly be bio-markers of atmospheric pollution upon skin. Ozone, long UVA rays, cigarette smoke… are shown powerful oxidizing agents of squalene. Some in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo testings are proposed as examples, aiming at studying ingredients or products capable of boosting or counteracting such chemical changes that, globally, bring adverse effects to various cutaneous compartments.

  5. Anatomical landmarks and skin markers are not reliable for accurate labeling of thoracic vertebrae on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabshin, Nogah (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-HaShomer (Israel)), e-mail: shabshin@gmail.com; Schweitzer, Mark E. (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa Hospital and Univ. of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada)); Carrino, John A. (Dept. of Radiology, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    2010-11-15

    Background: Numbering of the thoracic spine on MRI can be tedious if C2 and L5-S1 are not included and may lead to errors in lesion level. Purpose: To determine whether anatomic landmarks or external markers are reliable as an aid for accurate numbering of thoracic vertebrae on MRI. Material and Methods: Sixty-seven thoracic spine MR studies of 67 patients (30 males, 37 females, age range 18-83 years) were studied, composed of 52 consecutive MR studies and an additional 15 MRI in which vitamin E markers were placed over the skin. In the 52 thoracic MR examinations potential numbering aids such as the level of the sternal apex, pulmonary artery, aortic arch, and osseous or disc abnormalities were numbered on both cervical localizer (standard of reference) and thoracic sagittal images. The additional 15 examinations in which vitamin E markers were placed over the skin were evaluated for consistency in the level of the markers on different sequences in the same exam. Results: The sternal apex level ranged from T2 to T5 [T3 in 28/51 patients (55%), T2 in 10/51 (20%)]. The aortic arch level ranged from T2 to T4 [T4 in 18/48 (38%) and T3 in 17 (35%)]. Pulmonary artery level ranged from T4 to T6-7 disc [T5 in 20/52 patients (38%) and T6 in 14/52 (27%)]. In 3 of 12 patients who had abnormalities in a vertebral body or disc as definite point reference, the non-localizer image mislabelled the level. In 11/15 (73%) patients with vitamin E markers that were placed over the upper thoracic spine, the results showed consistency in the level of the markers in relation to the reference points or consistent inter-marker gap between the sequences. Conclusion: There are only two reliable ways to accurately define the levels if no landmarking feature is available on the magnet. The first is by including C2 in the thoracic sequence of a diagnostic quality, and the second is by using an abnormality in the discs or vertebral bodies as a point of reference

  6. Past history of skin infection and risk of surgical site infection after elective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraday, Nauder; Rock, Peter; Lin, Elaina E; Perl, Trish M; Carroll, Karen; Stierer, Tracey; Robarts, Polly; McFillin, Angela; Ross, Tracy; Shah, Ashish S; Riley, Lee H; Tamargo, Rafael J; Black, James H; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Guallar, Eliseo

    2013-01-01

    To identify baseline patient characteristics associated with increased susceptibility to surgical site infection (SSI) after elective surgery. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services considers SSI to be preventable through adherence to current infection control practices; however, the etiology of wound infection is incompletely understood. Prospective cohort study involving patients undergoing cardiac, vascular, craniotomy, and spinal surgery at 2 academic medical centers in Baltimore, MD. A comprehensive medical history was obtained at baseline, and participants were followed for 6 months using active inpatient and outpatient surveillance for deep SSI and infectious death. Infection control best practices were monitored perioperatively. The relative risk of SSI/infectious death was determined comparing those with versus those without a past medical history of skin infection using Cox proportional hazards models. Of 613 patients (mean [SD] = 62.3 [11.5] years; 42.1% women), 22.0% reported a history of skin infection. The cumulative incidence of deep SSI/infectious death was 6.7% versus 3.1% for those with and without a history of skin infection, respectively (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.25; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.98-5.14; P = 0.055). Risk estimates increased after adjustments for demographic and socioeconomic variables (HR = 2.82; 95% CI, 1.18-6.74; P = 0.019) and after propensity score adjustment for all potential confounders (HR = 3.41; 95% CI, 1.36-8.59; P = 0.009). Adjustments for intraoperative infection risk factors and adherence to infection control best practice metrics had no impact on risk estimates. A history of skin infection identified a state of enhanced susceptibility to SSI at baseline that is independent of traditional SSI risk factors and adherence to current infection control practices.

  7. Effectiveness of N-butyl cyanoacrylate-based microbial skin sealant on the prevention of surgical site infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Mustafa Tahir; Sinan, Huseyin; Saydam, Mehmet; Kilic, Abdullah; Akyol, Mesut; Coskun, Ali Kagan; Bedir, Orhan; Demibas, Sezai

    2014-02-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a serious concern in health care, and wound contamination by endogenous skin flora is a major factor in the development of SSIs. Despite preventive tactics in pre-operative skin care, antibiotic prophylaxis, surgical technique, and post-operative incision care, complete sterilization of the skin is not possible. Recently developed microbial skin sealant forms a continuous but breathable barrier that prevents migration of endogenous skin flora into the incision. The skin sealant closes dermal microabrasions, preventing re-colonization of potential pathogens at the incision. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an N-butyl cyanoacrylate-based microbial skin sealant in reducing the occurrence of SSIs in an experimental rodent model. This was a randomized, controlled animal trial. Forty-eight Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups of eight rats each. Three groups received application of sealant against specific bacteria, and three matched control groups received only the bacteria without the sealant. Group one underwent pre-operative hair removal, followed by application of skin sealant, then abdominal incision and closure. Group two (control) simply underwent hair removal, followed by incision and closure, with no skin sealant applied. Group three received an application of cage swabs (containing a mixture of urine, stool and sawdust from the animals' cages) before application of skin sealant, and group four (control) received cage swabs without subsequent skin sealant. Group five received methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) followed by skin sealant, and group six (control) received MRSA without skin sealant. Seven days after surgery, the animals were sacrificed. Samples were taken from the abdomen of each rat and placed in culture medium. Proliferation of the following bacteria were observed: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), gram-positive bacilli (GPB), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and

  8. Role of markers for acute kidney injury in surgical management of patients with renal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of studying the urinary levels of markers of acute kidney injury (AKI in 46 patients with renal cancer during separate ureteral catheterization before the surgery and 24 hours after laparoscopic partial nephrectomy performed due to elective indications under warm ischemia. The levels of cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, and interleukin-18 were examined by enzyme immunoassay. It has been established that the risk of early postoperative AKI may be predicted from the baseline urinary levels of cystatin C and LFABP in patients with renal cancer resulting from 15-20-min warm ischemia time during the partial nephrectomy. An approach based on estimation of the baseline urinary levels of cystatin C and L-FABP to be incorporated into a preoperative examination scheme is proposed for surgical treatment policy choosing in patients with renal cancer. A scheme for examining patients with renal cancer is also suggested for the risk of complications and the degree of AKI assessing in the early post-operative period.

  9. Inflammatory markers in blood and serum tumor markers predict survival in patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasms undergoing surgical cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Terence C; Chong, Chanel H; Liauw, Winston; Zhao, Jing; Morris, David L

    2012-08-01

    The study examines the role inflammatory and tumor markers as biomarkers to preoperatively predict outcome in patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasm undergoing cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Associations between baseline variables, tumor markers [CEA (carcinoembyronic antigen], CA125, CA199), inflammatory markers including neutrophils-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were examined in patients undergoing surgical cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy for epithelial appendiceal neoplasm. A total of 174 patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasm (low-grade pseudomyxoma, n = 117; appendiceal cancer, n = 57) underwent cytoreduction. On univariate analysis, all 3 inflammatory and tumor markers predicted for both PFS and OS, respectively; NLR ≤ 2.6 (P = 0.01, P = 0.002), PLR ≤ 166 (P = 0.006, P = 0.016), CRP ≤ 12.5 (P = 0.001, P = 0.008), CEA (P 37 (P = 0.003), and a CRP > 12.5 (P = 0.013). A higher peritoneal cancer index (PCI > 24) was associated with elevation in CEA > 12, CA125 > 39, CA199 > 37, PLR > 166 and CRP > 12. The tumor histologic subtype was associated with CA 199 levels. The results from this investigation suggest that preoperative inflammatory markers in blood and serologic tumor markers may predict outcomes and are associated with tumor biology in patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasm undergoing cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy treatment.

  10. Skin autofluorescence, a marker of advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress, is increased in recently preeclamptic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, Judith; Smit, Andries J.; van Pampus, Maria G.; van Doormaal, Jasper J.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Graaff, Reindert

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Advanced glycation end-products are considered to be markers of oxidative stress and to be involved in the atherosclerotic process. We investigated skin autofluorescence, which reflected advanced glycation end-product accumulation, in recently preeclamptic women and its relationship with

  11. Quality of life and self-esteem in patients submitted to surgical treatment of skin carcinomas: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Paula Curitiba; Veiga-Filho, Joel; Carvalho, Marcelo Prado; Fonseca, Fernando Elias Martins; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Veiga, Daniela Francescato

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease and skin carcinomas are the most common type of cancer. Assessing quality of life and self-esteem outcomes in skin cancer patients is important because these are indicators of the results of the treatment, translating how patients face their lives and their personal relationships. To assess the late impact of the surgical treatment of head and/or neck skin carcinomas on quality of life and self-esteem of the patients. Fifty patients with head or neck skin carcinomas were enrolled. Their age ranged between 30 and 75 years, 27 were men and 23 were women. Patients were assessed with regard to quality of life and self-esteem, preoperatively and five years postoperatively. Validated instruments were used: the MOS 36-item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Rosenberg Self-esteem/EPM-UNIFESP Scale. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for the statistical analysis. Twenty-two patients completed the five-year follow-up, 54.5% women and 45.5% men. Compared to the preoperative assessment, patients had an improvement in mental health (p=0.011) and in self-esteem (p=0.002). There was no statistical difference with regard to the other domains of the SF-36. Patients submitted to surgical treatment of skin carcinoma improved mental health and self-esteem in the late postsurgical testing.

  12. Soft tissue artifact distribution on lower limbs during treadmill gait: Influence of skin markers' location on cluster design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Arnaud; Jolles, Brigitte M; Theumann, Nicolas; Aminian, Kamiar

    2015-07-16

    Segment poses and joint kinematics estimated from skin markers are highly affected by soft tissue artifact (STA) and its rigid motion component (STARM). While four marker-clusters could decrease the STA non-rigid motion during gait activity, other data, such as marker location or STARM patterns, would be crucial to compensate for STA in clinical gait analysis. The present study proposed 1) to devise a comprehensive average map illustrating the spatial distribution of STA for the lower limb during treadmill gait and 2) to analyze STARM from four marker-clusters assigned to areas extracted from spatial distribution. All experiments were realized using a stereophotogrammetric system to track the skin markers and a bi-plane fluoroscopic system to track the knee prosthesis. Computation of the spatial distribution of STA was realized on 19 subjects using 80 markers apposed on the lower limb. Three different areas were extracted from the distribution map of the thigh. The marker displacement reached a maximum of 24.9 mm and 15.3 mm in the proximal areas of thigh and shank, respectively. STARM was larger on thigh than the shank with RMS error in cluster orientations between 1.2° and 8.1°. The translation RMS errors were also large (3.0 mm to 16.2 mm). No marker-cluster correctly compensated for STARM. However, the coefficient of multiple correlations exhibited excellent scores between skin and bone kinematics, as well as for STARM between subjects. These correlations highlight dependencies between STARM and the kinematic components. This study provides new insights for modeling STARM for gait activity.

  13. Simulation-based cutaneous surgical-skill training on a chicken-skin bench model in a medical undergraduate program

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    Rafael Denadai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of ethical and medico-legal aspects involved in the training of cutaneous surgical skills on living patients, human cadavers and living animals, it is necessary the search for alternative and effective forms of training simulation. Aims: To propose and describe an alternative methodology for teaching and learning the principles of cutaneous surgery in a medical undergraduate program by using a chicken-skin bench model. Materials and Methods: One instructor for every four students, teaching materials on cutaneous surgical skills, chicken trunks, wings, or thighs, a rigid platform support, needled threads, needle holders, surgical blades with scalpel handles, rat-tooth tweezers, scissors, and marking pens were necessary for training simulation. Results: A proposal for simulation-based training on incision, suture, biopsy, and on reconstruction techniques using a chicken-skin bench model distributed in several sessions and with increasing levels of difficultywas structured. Both feedback and objective evaluations always directed to individual students were also outlined. Conclusion: The teaching of a methodology for the principles of cutaneous surgery using a chicken-skin bench model versatile, portable, easy to assemble, and inexpensive is an alternative and complementary option to the armamentarium of methods based on other bench models described.

  14. Healing and evaluating guinea pig skin incision after surgical suture and laser tissue by welding using in vivo Raman spectroscopy

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    Alimova, A.; Sriramoju, V.; Chakraverty, R.; Muthukattil, R.; Alfano, R. R.

    2010-02-01

    Changes in collagen in the wound during the healing process of guinea pig skin following surgical incisions and LTW was evaluated using in vivo, using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy provided information regarding the internal structure of the proteins. After the incisions were closed either by suturing or by LTW the ratio of the Raman peaks of the amide III (1247 cm-1) band to a peak at 1326 cm-1 used to evaluate the progression of collagen deposition. Histopathology was used as the gold standard. LTW skin demonstrated better healing than sutured skin, exhibiting minimal hyperkeratosis, minimal collagen deposition, near-normal surface contour, and minimal loss of dermal appendages. This work is important to plastic surgery.

  15. Autonomic markers of emotional processing: skin sympathetic nerve activity in humans during exposure to emotionally-charged images

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    Rachael eBrown

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic innervation of the skin primarily subserves thermoregulation, but the system has also been commandeered as a means of expressing emotion. While it is known that the level of skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA is affected by anxiety, the majority of emotional studies have utilized the galvanic skin response as a means of inferring increases in SSNA. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the changes in SSNA when showing subjects neutral or emotionally-charged images from the International Affective Picture System. Skin sympathetic nerve activity was recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into cutaneous fascicles of the common peroneal nerve in ten subjects. Neutral images, positively-charged images (erotica or negatively-charged images (mutilation were presented in blocks of fifteen images of a specific type, each block lasting two minutes. Images of erotica or mutilation were presented in a quasi-random fashion, each block following a block of neutral images. Both images of erotica or images of mutilation caused significant increases in SSNA, but the increases in SSNA were greater for mutilation. The increases in SSNA were often coupled with sweat release and cutaneous vasoconstriction, however, these markers were not always consistent with the SSNA increases. We conclude that SSNA, comprising cutaneous vasoconstrictor and sudomotor activity, increases with both positively-charged and negatively-charged emotional images. Measurement of SSNA provides a more comprehensive assessment of sympathetic outflow to the skin than does the use of sweat release alone as a marker of emotional processing.

  16. In vivo molecular evaluation of guinea pig skin incisions healing after surgical suture and laser tissue welding using Raman spectroscopy.

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    Alimova, A; Chakraverty, R; Muthukattil, R; Elder, S; Katz, A; Sriramoju, V; Lipper, Stanley; Alfano, R R

    2009-09-01

    The healing process in guinea pig skin following surgical incisions was evaluated at the molecular level, in vivo, by the use of Raman spectroscopy. After the incisions were closed either by suturing or by laser tissue welding (LTW), differences in the respective Raman spectra were identified. The study determined that the ratio of the Raman peaks of the amide III (1247 cm(-1)) band to a peak at 1326 cm(-1) (the superposition of elastin and keratin bands) can be used to evaluate the progression of wound healing. Conformational changes in the amide I band (1633-1682 cm(-1)) and spectrum changes in the range of 1450-1520 cm(-1) were observed in LTW and sutured skin. The stages of the healing process of the guinea pig skin following LTW and suturing were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, using histopathology as the gold standard. LTW skin demonstrated better healing than sutured skin, exhibiting minimal hyperkeratosis, minimal collagen deposition, near-normal surface contour, and minimal loss of dermal appendages. A wavelet decomposition-reconstruction baseline correction algorithm was employed to remove the fluorescence wing from the Raman spectra.

  17. Skin autofluorescence, a non-invasive marker for AGE accumulation, is associated with the degree of atherosclerosis.

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    Martijn A M den Dekker

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis, beyond diabetes and renal disease. Skin autofluorescence (AF is a non-invasive marker for AGEs. We examined whether skin AF is increased in (subclinical atherosclerosis and associated with the degree of atherosclerosis independent of diabetes and renal function. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 223 patients referred for primary (n = 163 or secondary (n = 60 prevention between 2006 and 2012 was performed. Skin AF was measured using the AGE-Reader. Ultrasonography was used to assess plaques in carotid and femoral arteries and computed tomography for the calculation of the coronary artery calcium score (CACS; in primary prevention only. Primary prevention patients were divided into a group with subclinical atherosclerosis defined as >1 plaque or CACS>100 (n = 67; age 53 year [interquartile range 48-56]; 49% male and without (controls; 96; 43 [38-51]; 55%. Secondary prevention were patients with peripheral arterial disease (60; 64 [58-70]; 73%. RESULTS: Skin AF was higher in subclinical and clinical atherosclerosis compared with controls (skin AF 2.11 [interquartile range 1.83-2.46] and 2.71 [2.15-3.27] vs. 1.87 [1.68-2.12] respectively; P = 0.005 and <0.001. In a multivariate analysis, the association of skin AF with the atherosclerosis categories was independent of age, sex, diabetes, presence of the metabolic syndrome, Framingham Risk Score, and renal function. Skin AF correlated with most cardiovascular risk factors, Framingham risk score, and IMT and CACS. CONCLUSIONS: Skin AF is increased in documented subclinical and clinical atherosclerosis, independent of known risk factors such as diabetes and renal disease. These data suggest that AGEs may be associated with the burden of atherosclerosis and warrant a prospective study to investigate its clinical usability as a risk assessment tool for primary prevention.

  18. Using Skin Markers for Spinal Curvature Quantification in Main Thoracic Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: An Explorative Radiographic Study.

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    Stefan Schmid

    Full Text Available Although the relevance of understanding spinal kinematics during functional activities in patients with complex spinal deformities is undisputed among researchers and clinicians, evidence using skin marker-based motion capture systems is still limited to a handful of studies, mostly conducted on healthy subjects and using non-validated marker configurations. The current study therefore aimed to explore the validity of a previously developed enhanced trunk marker set for the static measurement of spinal curvature angles in patients with main thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. In addition, the impact of inaccurate marker placement on curvature angle calculation was investigated.Ten patients (Cobb angle: 44.4±17.7 degrees were equipped with radio-opaque markers on selected spinous processes and underwent a standard biplanar radiographic examination. Subsequently, radio-opaque markers were replaced with retro-reflective markers and the patients were measured statically using a Vicon motion capture system. Thoracolumbar/lumbar and thoracic curvature angles in the sagittal and frontal planes were calculated based on the centers of area of the vertebral bodies and radio-opaque markers as well as the three-dimensional position of the retro-reflective markers. To investigate curvature angle estimation accuracy, linear regression analyses among the respective parameters were used. The impact of inaccurate marker placement was explored using linear regression analyses among the radio-opaque marker- and spinous process-derived curvature angles.The results demonstrate that curvatures angles in the sagittal plane can be measured with reasonable accuracy, whereas in the frontal plane, angles were systematically underestimated, mainly due to the positional and structural deformities of the scoliotic vertebrae. Inaccuracy of marker placement had a greater impact on thoracolumbar/lumbar than thoracic curvature angles. It is suggested that spinal curvature

  19. Comparison of 2 methods of measuring spine angular kinematics during dynamic flexion movements: skin-mounted markers compared with markers affixed to rigid bodies.

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    Howarth, Samuel J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the spine flexion angle time histories computed with the 2 described techniques (dot product [DP] and a modified joint coordinate system [JCS] approaches) that used vector algebra and used skin-mounted markers to the spine flexion angles derived using local coordinate systems constructed from rigid bodies affixed to the pelvis and thorax during spine flexion movements. Discrepancies between the simplified marker setup and a criterion standard (CS) method for measuring spine kinematics were quantified. Sixteen participants performed full forward spine flexion. Three-dimensional kinematic data were obtained from markers affixed bilaterally over the greater trochanters, iliac crests, and 10th ribs. Time varying spine flexion angles were derived from the 3-, and 2-dimensional marker data using a DP and a modified JCS approach. Criterion standard spine kinematics were obtained from clusters of markers adhered to 2 rigid fins that were affixed over the pelvis and trunk. The DP and JCS methods were compared with the CS by computing root mean squared differences and correlations during the spine flexion trials. Descriptive measurements of missing kinematic data were also obtained. On average, root mean squared differences were 30.1% lower for the JCS method of deriving spine flexion angles. Correlations were also higher for the JCS method by 2.5%, compared with the DP method. The findings suggest that the adapted JCS method is superior to the DP method for deriving spine flexion angles. This is especially true when only 2-dimensional coordinate data are available. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Surgical Excision of Non–Melanoma Skin Cancer in an Elderly Veteran’s Affairs Population

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    C. Malcolm M. Stewart, BS

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Although reduction of residual tumor at reexcision is noted with both BCC and even more so with SCC, the rate at which this occurs is not sufficient that a general recommendation to forgo surgical excision can be made.

  1. Skin autofluorescence, a non-invasive marker of advanced glycation end products: clinical relevance and limitations.

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    Da Moura Semedo, Cidila; Webb, M'Balu; Waller, Helen; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie

    2017-01-31

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are protein-bound compounds derived from glycaemic and oxidative stress that contain fluorescent properties, which can be non-invasively measured as skin autofluorescence (SAF) by the AGE Reader. SAF has been demonstrated to be a biomarker of cumulative skin AGEs and potentially may be a better predictor for the development of chronic complications and mortality in diabetes than glycated haemoglobin A1c. However, there are several confounding factors that should be assessed prior to its broader application: these include presence of other fluorescent compounds in the skin that might be measured (eg, fluorophores), skin pigmentation and use of skin creams. The aim of this article is to provide a theoretical background of this newly developed method, evaluate its clinical relevance and discuss the potential confounding factors that need further analysis.

  2. Surgical complications of skin sparing mastectomy and immediate prosthetic reconstruction after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for invasive breast cancer.

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    Donker, M; Hage, J J; Woerdeman, L A E; Rutgers, E J Th; Sonke, G S; Vrancken Peeters, M-J T F D

    2012-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is gaining acceptance as an option for breast cancer treatment, particularly in young women. These women may seek immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy even though it is not known whether such preoperative chemotherapy may be detrimental to post-reconstruction wound healing. Therefore, we set out to assess the influence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for invasive breast cancer on the short-term complications after skin sparing mastectomy and immediate prosthetic reconstruction. The short-term surgical outcome of 48 immediate breast reconstructions in 37 women treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy from 2006 through 2009 was prospectively compared to that of 215 immediate reconstructions in 176 women who were operated in the same period without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The overall rate of short-term postoperative complications was significantly less among neoadjuvantly treated women (15% vs. 29%; p = 0.042) but this did not result in a reduction of loss of prostheses (8% vs. 11%; p = 0.566). Because neoadjuvant chemotherapy is not associated with an increase in short-term complications after skin sparing mastectomy and immediate prosthetic reconstruction in patients with invasive breast cancer, such combined surgical therapy may be offered as treatment option for this particular group of patients also. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. TRATAMENTO CIRÚRGICO DA PISADURA EM EQÜINOS SURGICAL TREATMENT OF SKIN LESIONS IN EQUIDAE

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    Valéria de Sá Jayme

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico em 20 eqüinos e seis muares portadores da lesão de pisadura, na região dorsal do tórax, através de incisão elíptica da ferida e dermorrafia com sutura do tipo Donatti encavilhada. A técnica cirúrgica mostrou-se adequada e 93% dos animais recuperaram-se em aproximadamente 20 dias após a cirurgia.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Eqüino; pisadura; cirurgia.

    After clinical diagnosis, 20 horses and six mules were submitted to surgical treatment of skin lesions in the dorsal region through an elliptic incision of the wound closed by a Donatti fastening suture. This surgical technique was shown to be adequate and 93% of the animals recovered in approximately 20 days after surgery.

    KEY-WORDS: Equine; skin lesions; surgery.

  4. Effect of the Lectin of Bauhinia variegata and Its Recombinant Isoform on Surgically Induced Skin Wounds in a Murine Model

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    Rodrigo Bainy Leal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of highly specific carbohydrate-binding proteins. Due to their great biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata (nBVL and its recombinant isoform (rBVL-1. Following surgical creation of dorsal skin wounds, seven groups of mice were submitted to topical treatment for 12 days with lectin, D-galactose, BSA and saline. The animals were anesthetized and euthanized on POD 2, 7 and 12 in order to evaluate the healing potential of each treatment. The parameters considered included wound size, contraction rate, epithelialization rate and histopathological findings. Wound closure was fastest in animals treated with rBVL-1 (POD 7. nBVL was more effective than the controls. All skin layers were reconstructed and keratin deposition increased. Our findings indicate that the lectin of Bauhinia variegata possesses pro-healing properties and may be employed in the treatment of acute skin wounds.

  5. Effect of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata and its recombinant isoform on surgically induced skin wounds in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Luiz Gonzaga do Nascimento; Pinto, Luciano da Silva; Bastos, Rafaela Mesquita; Evaristo, Francisco Flávio Vasconcelos; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves de; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Júnior, Valdemiro Amaro da Silva; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

    2011-11-07

    Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of highly specific carbohydrate-binding proteins. Due to their great biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata (nBVL) and its recombinant isoform (rBVL-1). Following surgical creation of dorsal skin wounds, seven groups of mice were submitted to topical treatment for 12 days with lectin, D-galactose, BSA and saline. The animals were anesthetized and euthanized on POD 2, 7 and 12 in order to evaluate the healing potential of each treatment. The parameters considered included wound size, contraction rate, epithelialization rate and histopathological findings. Wound closure was fastest in animals treated with rBVL-1 (POD 7). nBVL was more effective than the controls. All skin layers were reconstructed and keratin deposition increased. Our findings indicate that the lectin of Bauhinia variegata possesses pro-healing properties and may be employed in the treatment of acute skin wounds.

  6. Effects of platelet-rich plasma gel on skin healing in surgical wound in horses

    OpenAIRE

    DeRossi, Rafael; Coelho,Anna Carolina Anciliero de Oliveira; Mello,Gisele Silveira de; Frazílio,Fabrício de Oliveira; Leal,Cássia Rejane Brito; Facco,Gilberto Gonçalves; Brum,Karine Bonucielli

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish a low-cost method to prepare platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and evaluates the potential of platelet derived factors to enhance wound healing in the surgical wounds in equine. METHODS: To obtain a PRP gel, calcium gluconate and autologous thrombin were added to platelet-rich plasma. For the tests six saddle horses were used and two surgical incisions were made in each animal. Wounds were treated with PRP gel or untreated. Sequential wound biopsies collected at Treatment 1: at...

  7. Review of selected national surgical curricula: quantity is not the sole marker of quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pritam; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Darzi, Ara

    2014-01-01

    Despite marked global variations in length and structure of surgical training programs, their common end product is a trained surgeon capable of independent practice. If variations exist, yet the end product is similar, modifications to curricula could potentially enhance the quality and efficiency of surgical training. This review evaluates global general surgery training programs and compares their curricula against the established standards for assessment of curricula. A convenience sampling method was employed during an online search for nationally recognized general surgery curricula. Curricula of Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America were individually reviewed and subsequently evaluated against the General Medical Council's "Standards for curricula and assessment systems." Postgraduate surgical training is completed in 5 years in Canada and the United States, whereas this takes a minimum of 7, 7, and 10 years in Australia, Hong Kong, and the United Kingdom, respectively. However, when their general surgery curricula are objectively compared, they are remarkably similar. The principle disparities noted were in documentation and standardization of the structured in-training assessment system. This review highlights variations in the structure of general surgery training programs globally. There is a need for an objective method to assess training quality, not reliant upon quantity alone. An evidence-based approach is the gold standard in patient care; it is essential to invest resources into developing an evidence-based curricular approach to ensure surgical training quality can be accurately evaluated to maintain and enhance the standards. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytokine and Protein Markers of Leprosy Reactions in Skin and Nerves: Baseline Results for the North Indian INFIR Cohort

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    Lockwood, Diana N. J.; Suneetha, Lavanya; Sagili, Karuna Devi; Chaduvula, Meher Vani; Mohammed, Ismail; van Brakel, Wim; Smith, W. C.; Nicholls, Peter; Suneetha, Sujai

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies investigating the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of leprosy have either been on only small numbers of patients or have not combined clinical and histological data. The INFIR Cohort study is a prospective study of 303 new multibacillary leprosy patients to identify risk factors for reaction and nerve damage. This study characterised the cellular infiltrate in skin and nerve biopsies using light microscopic and immunohistochemical techniques to identify any association of cytokine markers, nerve and cell markers with leprosy reactions. Methodology/Principal Findings TNF-α, TGF-β and iNOS protein in skin and nerve biopsies were detected using monoclonal antibody detection immunohistochemistry techniques in 299 skin biopsies and 68 nerve biopsies taken from patients at recruitment. The tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, modified Fite Faraco, CD68 macrophage cell marker and S100. Conclusions/Significance Histological analysis of the biopsies showed that 43% had borderline tuberculoid (BT) leprosy, 27% borderline lepromatous leprosy, 9% lepromatous leprosy, 13% indeterminate leprosy types and 7% had no inflammation. Forty-six percent had histological evidence of a Type 1 Reaction (T1R) and 10% of Erythema Nodosum Leprosum. TNF-α was detected in 78% of skin biopsies (181/232), iNOS in 78% and TGF-β in 94%. All three molecules were detected at higher levels in patients with BT leprosy. TNF-α was localised within macrophages and epithelioid cells in the granuloma, in the epidermis and in dermal nerves in a few cases. TNF-α, iNOS and TGF-β were all significantly associated with T1R (p<0.001). Sixty-eight nerve biopsies were analysed. CD68, TNF-α and iNOS staining were detectable in 88%, 38% and 28% of the biopsies respectively. The three cytokines TNF-α, iNOS and TGF-β detected by immunohistochemistry showed a significant association with the presence of skin reaction. This study is the first to demonstrate an

  9. Virtual surgical planning for orthognathic surgery using digital data transfer and an intraoral fiducial marker: the charlotte method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Sam; Farrell, Brian; Choi, Chris; Farrell, Bart; Weimer, Katie; Tucker, Myron

    2015-06-01

    We describe an alternative workup protocol for virtual surgical planning of orthognathic surgery using an intraoral fiducial marker, clinical photography, and the digital transfer of occlusal data. We also discuss our initial experience using this protocol in a series of patients. A retrospective cohort study was performed of consecutive patients who had undergone combined maxillary and mandibular osteotomies for the correction of dentofacial deformities at 1 center. These patients underwent treatment planning using the modified virtual surgical planning protocol described in the present report. The primary outcome evaluated was the accuracy of the method, which was determined through superimposition of the surgical plan to the postoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan. The secondary outcomes included the accuracy of the natural head position readings and the adequacy of the CBCT scanned stone models for the fabrication of occlusal splints. The population included 25 patients. The root mean standard deviation (RMSD) from the preoperative plan to the postoperative scan at the maxillary cephalometric points was 1.2, 1.4, and 2.1 mm in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes, respectively. The RMSD of the superimposed plan to the postoperative scan at the 3 mandibular cephalometric points was 1.2, 0.8, and 0.7 mm in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes, respectively. The average variance from the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes for the natural head position was 0.05, 2.22, and 0.69 mm, respectively. All splints fabricated from the CBCT occlusal data fit the stone models and were used intraoperatively. In the subset of patients whose models were both digitally transferred and laser scanned, the superimposition of the laser scan data to the CBCT scanned data was found to have a maximum variation of 0.2 mm at the occlusal level. The use of an intraoral fiducial marker changed the workflow for the data collection needed for virtual surgical

  10. Comparison of skin microvascular reactivity with hemostatic markers of endothelial dysfunction and damage in type 2 diabetes

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    Sandra Beer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Beer1,2, François Feihl1, Juan Ruiz2, Irène Juhan-Vague3, Marie-Françoise Aillaud3, Sandrine Golay Wetzel1, Lucas Liaudet4, Rolf C Gaillard2, Bernard Waeber1Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Division de Physiopathologie Clinique, Lausanne, Suisse1Division de Physiopathologie Clinique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois et Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Suisse; 2Service d’Endocrinologie, de Diabétologie et de Métabolisme, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois et Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Suisse; 3Laboratoire d’hématologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Marseille; Inserm UMR 626, Marseille, France; 4Service de Médecine Intensive de l’Adulte, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois et Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, SuisseAim: Patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM are at increased cardiovascular risk due to an accelerated atherosclerotic process. The present study aimed to compare skin microvascular function, pulse wave velocity (PWV, and a variety of hemostatic markers of endothelium injury [von Willebrand factor (vWF, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI, and the soluble form of thrombomodulin (s-TM] patients with NIDDM.Methods: 54 patients with NIDDM and 38 sex- and age-matched controls were studied. 27 diabetics had no overt micro- and/or macrovascular complications, while the remainder had either or both. The forearm skin blood flow was assessed by laser-Doppler imaging, which allowed the measurement of the response to iontophoretically applied acetylcholine (endotheliumdependent vasodilation and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent vasodilation, as well as the reactive hyperemia triggered by the transient occlusion of the circulation.Results: Both endothelial and non-endothelial reactivity were significantly blunted in diabetics, regardless of the presence or the absence of

  11. Effect of Intensive Non-Surgical Treatment on the Level of Serum Inflammatory Markers in Advanced Periodontitis

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    G. Radafshar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether non-surgical periodontal treatment is associated with changes in serological markers of systemic inflammation.Materials and Methods: Thirty-five systemically healthy subjects with severe generalized periodontitis meeting the inclusion criteria participated in a four-month single blind interventional trial of which thirty-two completed the study. Periodontal parameters andinflammatory markers [C-reactive protein (CRP and plasma fibrinogen] and also the white blood cell count (WBC were evaluated prior to and four months after delivery of intensive non-surgical periodontal therapy with simultaneous lavage of chlorhexidine0.1% from the tip of the ultrasonic instrument into the pockets.Results: Significant differences in serum CRP levels were observed four months after treatment compared to the baseline (1.85, SD=1.93 vs 2.46, SD=2.32, respectively,P<0.0001. Periodontal treatment also resulted in a significant difference in WBC and neutrophilcounts compared to the baseline (P<0.0001. The reduction in fibrinogen levels was not significant at the end of the research period. Significant improvement in the pocket probing depth and clinical attachment level for pockets with initially 4-6 mm and thenmore than 7 mm depth was observed. Changes in plaque and bleeding scores were also statistically significant (82.75 vs. 35.84 and 19.03 vs. 1.81, respectively.Conclusion: Periodontal treatment is effective in reducing CRP levels and white blood cell count, while fibrinogen levels are not influenced by periodontal therapy. Periodontal treatment may therefore decrease the systemic inflammatory burden in patients with advanced periodontitis.

  12. Skin as marker for collagen type I/III ratio in abdominal wall fascia.

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    Peeters, E; De Hertogh, G; Junge, K; Klinge, U; Miserez, M

    2014-08-01

    An altered collagen metabolism could play an important role in hernia development. This study compared collagen type I/III ratio and organisation between hernia and control patients, and analysed the correlation in collagen type I/III ratio between skin and abdominal wall fascia. Collagen organisation was analysed in Haematoxylin-Eosin sections of anterior rectus sheath fascia, and collagen type I/III ratio, by crosspolarisation microscopy, in Sirius-Red sections of skin and anterior rectus sheath fascia, of 19 control, 10 primary inguinal, 10 recurrent inguinal, 13 primary incisional and 8 recurrent incisional hernia patients. Compared to control patients [7.2 (IQR = 6.8-7.7) and 7.2 (IQR = 5.8-7.9)], collagen type I/III ratio was significantly lower in skin and anterior rectus sheath fascia of primary inguinal [5.2 (IQR = 3.8-6.3) and 4.2 (IQR = 3.8-4.7)], recurrent inguinal [3.2 (IQR = 3.1-3.6) and 3.3 (IQR = 3-3.7)], primary incisional [3.5 (IQR = 3-3.9) and 3.4 (IQR = 3.3-3.6)] and recurrent incisional hernia [3.2 (IQR = 3.1-3.9) and 3.2 (IQR = 2.9-3.2)] patients; also incisional and recurrent inguinal hernia had lower ratio than primary inguinal hernia patients. Furthermore, collagen type I/III ratio was significantly correlated (r = 0.81; P fascia. Finally, collagen organisation was comparable between hernia and control patients. Furthermore, in both skin and abdominal wall fascia of hernia patients, collagen type I/III ratio was lower compared to control patients, with more pronounced abnormalities in incisional and recurrent inguinal hernia patients. Importantly, collagen type I/III ratio in skin was representative for that in abdominal wall fascia.

  13. Clinical and prognostic significance of pathological and inflammatory markers in the surgical treatment of locally advanced colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, M; Angelov, K; Vasileva, M; Atanasova, MP; Vlahova, A; Todorov, G

    2015-01-01

    Background Locally advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) may vary in its clinical and pathological appearance. It is now accepted that progression of disease in patients with locally advanced CRC is determined not only by local tumor characteristics but also by the immune system and inflammatory response in the body. Methods We investigated patients with confirmed CRC who were treated in the surgical clinic at the University Hospital Alexandrovska over a 10-year period and retrospectively evaluated the histological features of the preoperative biopsies and operative specimens removed during radical multivisceral resections. We also collected prospective data for serum C-reactive protein levels and Jass-Klintrup score, Petersen Index score, and Glasgow Prognostic Score in patients with locally advanced CRC. Results Of 1,105 patients with CRC, 327 (29.6%) were diagnosed with locally advanced disease. In total, 108 combined multivisceral resections (79 for primary tumors and 29 for recurrent tumors) were performed. Overall survival was 34 months for pR0 cases and 12 months for pR1 cases (P<0.05). Our data confirmed that C-reactive protein is a prognostic marker of overall survival. Data for 48 patients with histologically confirmed locally advanced tumors showed significantly increased survival with a higher Jass-Klintrup score (P=0.037). In patients with node-negative disease, 5-year survival was 49%. However, where there were high-risk pathological characteristics according to the Petersen Index, survival was similar to that for node-positive disease (P=0.702). Our data also showed a significant difference in survival between groups divided according to whether they had a modified Glasgow Prognostic Score of 1 or 2 (P=0.031). Conclusion In order to maintain a reasonable balance between an aggressive approach and so-called meaningless “surgical exorbitance”, we should focus on certain histopathological and inflammatory markers that can be identified as additional

  14. Application of skin traction for surgical treatment of grade IV pressure sore: a clinical report of 160 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Jiang, Z; Chen, Z; Wang, D

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective clinical study. To assess the method of primary surgical closure of pressure sores developed by the Ruixin Hospital for burns. Nanjing, China. The study included 235 grade IV pressure sores of 160 patients, M:F = 119:41. Their age ranged from 19 to 93 years (mean = 47.4, s.d. ± 15.7). The primary disease was spinal cord injury in 141 patients (88.1%). The location of sore spread over ischial, sacrococcygeal and trochanteric regions. The largest pressure sore measured 15 × 25 cm(2). The time from onset of sore to admission ranged from 3 months to 22 years (mean = 35.5 months, s.d. ± 55.8). Local preoperative preparation included external skin traction using adhesive tapes, wound cleaning and change of dressing. General condition was checked and improved by supportive measures. Operation procedures included thorough debridement, excision of hidden minor scars, mobilizing opposing skin flaps and meticulous haemostasis before closure. Skin traction continued after the operation until the wound was healed. All but 10 sores healed primarily. These 10 sores healed after a revision. The length of stay in hospital ranged from 20 to 140 days (mean = 45.1 days, s.d. ± 21.1). Follow-up period was 2-51 months (mean = 22 months, s.d. ± 12.5). Two ischial sores recurred owing to long sitting. They were cured with the same method. Three illustrative cases are presented. The method is simple and enjoys a high success rate with a short stay in hospital and hence is cost effective. The recurrence is rare.

  15. Investigation of in vivo potential of scorpion venom against skin tumorigenesis in mice via targeting markers associated with cancer development

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    Al Asmari AK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman K Al Asmari, Abdul Quaiyoom Khan Research Centre, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world in spite of the advances made in its management. In this study, we investigated the in vivo antitumorigenic potential of the venom obtained from a medically important scorpion species Leiurus quinquestriatus on chemically induced skin cancer in mice. Animals were divided into five groups, with 13 animals in each group. All the treatments were given topically on the shaved dorsal surface of the skin. Animals in Group 1 received vehicle only (0.2 mL acetone. Moreover, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 400 nmol per mouse was applied to all the animals in the remaining four groups. After 1 week, different concentrations of venom (17.5 µg, 35 µg, and 52.5 µg per animal were applied to each animal in the Groups III–V. Thirty minutes after the application of venom, croton oil was applied on the same position where venom was administered to the animals of Groups III–V. Animals in Group II were treated as the positive control (without venom and received croton oil as in Groups III–V. The findings of this study revealed that venom extract of L. quinquestriatus inhibits DMBA + croton oil-induced mouse skin tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity. Venom treatment also decreased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Immunohistochemistry results showed a downregulation of the expression of molecular markers such as Ki-67, nuclear factor kappa-B, cyclooxygenase-2, B-cell lymphoma-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor, in venom-treated animals. Our findings suggest that the venom of L. quinquestriatus possesses in vivo anticancer potential and may be used in the development of anticancer molecules. Keywords: Leiurus quinquestriatus, skin cancer, apoptosis, immunosuppression

  16. Skin-Tissue-sparing Excision with Electrosurgical Peeling (STEEP) : a surgical treatment option for severe hidradenitis suppurativa Hurley stage II/III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, J. L.; Spoo, J. R.; Leeman, F. W. J.; Jonkman, M. F.; Horvath, B.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundSurgery is the only curative treatment for removal of the persistent sinus tracts in the skin that are characteristic of severe hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Complete resection of the affected tissue by wide excision is currently regarded as the preferred surgical technique in these cases

  17. Prospective Study of Surgical Treatment of Acromegaly: Effects on Ghrelin, Weight, Adiposity, and Markers of CV Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Vidal, Carlos; Fernandez, Jean Carlos; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Crisman, Celina; Conwell, Irene M.; Kostadinov, Jane; Geer, Eliza B.; Post, Kalmon D.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Although epidemiological studies have found that GH and IGF-1 normalization reduce the excess mortality of active acromegaly to expected rates, cross-sectional data report some cardiovascular (CV) risk markers to be less favorable in remission than active acromegaly. Objective: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that remission of acromegaly after surgical therapy increases weight and adiposity and some CV risk markers and these changes are paralleled by a rise in ghrelin. Design: Forty-two adults with untreated, active acromegaly were studied prospectively. Changes in outcome measures from before to after surgery were assessed in 26 subjects achieving remission (normal IGF-1) and 16 with persistent active acromegaly (elevated IGF-1) after surgery. Setting: The study was conducted at tertiary referral centers for pituitary tumors. Main Outcome Measures: Endocrine, metabolic, and CV risk parameters, anthropometrics, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Results: Remission increased total ghrelin, body weight, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, high-density lipoprotein, and leptin and reduced systolic blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment score, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a) by 6 months and for 32 ± 4 months after surgery. The ghrelin rise correlated with the fall in the levels of GH, IGF-1, and insulin and insulin resistance. Weight, waist circumference, and ghrelin did not increase significantly in the persistent active acromegaly group. Total body fat, trunk fat, and perentage total body fat increased by 1 year after surgery in 15 remission subjects: the increase in body fat correlated with the rise in total ghrelin. Conclusions: Although most markers of CV risk improve with acromegaly remission after surgery, some markers and adiposity increase and are paralleled by a rise in total ghrelin, suggesting that these changes may be related. Understanding the mechanisms and

  18. Skin as a marker of internal disease: A case of sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjyot Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old female presented to our out patient department with asymptomatic, hypopigmented lesions on the neck and back since 2 months. There was a history of taking antitubercular treatment for suspected pulmonary tuberculosis 2 years back. On blood investigations, the serum angiotensin converting enzyme levels were increased and the skin biopsy revealed a naked granuloma in the dermis. A diagnosis of systemic sarcoidosis was made and the patient was started on oral corticosteroids and Methotrexate, with clinical improvement.

  19. Surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up vs. CBCT for radiotherapy of the thorax and pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallotta, Stefania; Bucciolini, Marta [Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali e Cliniche, Florence (Italy); AOU Careggi, Sezione di Fisica Medica, Florence (Italy); Vanzi, Eleonora; Marrazzo, Livia [AOU Careggi, Sezione di Fisica Medica, Florence (Italy); Simontacchi, Gabriele; Paiar, Fabiola [AOU Careggi, Sezione di Radioterapia, Florence (Italy); Ceroti, Marco [ISPO, U.O. Epidemiologia Molecolare e Nutrizionale, Florence (Italy); Livi, Lorenzo [Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali e Cliniche, Florence (Italy); AOU Careggi, Sezione di Radioterapia, Florence (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to compare surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up in radiotherapy of thoracic and pelvic regions, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data as the gold standard. Twenty patients were included in this study. CBCT, surface acquisition (SA), and two orthogonal portal images (PI) were acquired during the first four treatment sessions. Patient set-up corrections, obtained by registering the planning CT with CBCT, were used as the gold standard. Registration results of the PI and SA were evaluated and compared with those obtained with CBCT. The advantage derived from using SA or PI verification systems over a skin marker set-up was also quantified. A statistically significant difference between PI and SA (in favour of PI) was observed in seven patients undergoing treatment of the pelvic region and in two patients undergoing treatment of the thoracic region. The use of SA or PI, compared with a skin marker set-up, improved patient positioning in 50% and 57 % of the thoracic fractions, respectively. For pelvic fractions, the use of PI was beneficial in 73 % of the cases, while the use of SA was beneficial in only 45 %. Patient positioning worsened with SA, particularly along longitudinal and vertical directions. PI yielded more accurate registration results than SA for both pelvic and thoracic fractions. Compared with the skin marker set-up, PI performances were superior to SA for pelvic fractions while comparable results were obtained for thoracic fractions. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie ist der Vergleich der Patientenpositionierung mittels der 3-D/4-D-Erfassung der Patientenoberflaeche durch ein Abtastsystem, kV/MV-Verifikationsaufnahmen mit Hochenergiebildsystemen und Markierungen auf der Haut bei Bestrahlungen im Thorax- bzw. Beckenbereich. Als Goldstandard zum Vergleich dienten CBCT(''cone beam computed tomography'')-Aufnahmen. Die Studie basiert auf Untersuchungen an 20 Patienten. Es wurden

  20. Surgical staples compared with subcuticular suture for skin closure after cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Assadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cesarean delivery is the most common surgical procedure and this prevalence is on the rise. Given these trends, cesarean wound complications, such as disruption or infection, remain an important cause of post-cesarean morbidity. Methods: We conducted a single-center randomized controlled trial that included women with viable pregnancies (≥24 weeks undergoing cesarean delivery at Motahary University Hospital, Urmia, Iran from April to November 2014. All cesarean types were included: scheduled or unscheduled and primary or repeat cesareans. Women were excluded for the following reasons: inability to obtain informed consent, immune compromising disease (e.g. AIDS, chronic steroid use, diabetic mellitus and BMI≥30. Of 266 women, 133 were randomized to staples and 133 women to suture group. Results: The mean±SD age of the staples group was 27.6±5.4 years and mean±SD age of suture was 28.7±5.9 years. Multiparity is the most frequent in both groups that by using Chi-square test, no significant differences were observed between the two groups (P=0.393. The most frequent indication for cesarean section in both groups was history of cesarean section in staple 40 cases (30.1% and suture 32 cases (24.1%. The survey was conducted using the Chi-square test was not significant (P=0.381. Pain at 6 weeks postoperatively was significantly less in the staple group (P=0.001. Operative time was longer with suture closure (4.68±0.67 versus 1.03±0.07 minute, P<0.001. The Vancouver scale score was significantly less in suture closure (6.6±0.8 versus 7.5±0.9, P=0.001. Wound disruption was significantly less in suture closure (3.8% versus 11.3%, P=0.017. Conclusion: The staple group had low pain and operation time but had a significant wound disruption and scar. The patients who have suffered a significant wound disruption were affected by age (P=0.022 and BMI (P=0.001 at compared those who were not affected by factors such as age or high BMI as

  1. Serum concentration of amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) as a prognostic marker for skin fibrosis after scar correction in burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Dietmar; Noah, Ernst-Magnus; Burchardt, Elmar Reinhardt; Atkins, Derek; Pallua, Norbert

    2002-12-01

    The amino-terminal propeptide of procollagen type III (PIIINP) has been proposed as a marker for fibrogenesis in patients with different fibroproliferative disorders, e.g. liver and lung fibrosis. In this study, serum concentrations of PIIINP were measured by ELISA as a marker for excessive cicatrization in burned patients before and after scar correction. All patients were followed 6 months to determine a new fibrotic reaction during the wound healing process using the Burn Scar Index and to correlate pre- and post-operative concentrations of PIIINP in their sera with the risk to develop a new severe tissue fibrosis leading to pathological scar formation. Furthermore, PIIINP was determined in the excised scar tissue by immunohistochemistry. The study included 38 patients. Nineteen patients (8 female, 11 male, average age 48.3+/-18.9 years) had hypertrophic scars after major burn injury (TBSA, 21+/-12%; Burn Scar Index, 10.4+/-3.7 points) and underwent scar correction. Nineteen patients (12 female, 7 male, average age 42.3+/-25.5 years) who underwent elective plastic-surgical operations served as the control group. Blood samples were drawn immediately before operation, at the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14th post-operative days, as well as 1st, 3rd, and 6th months after operation.Pre-operatively, PIIINP was significantly elevated (P<0.05) in burned patients who underwent scar correction. There was a significant increase (P<0.05) of PIIINP in burned patients from 9.8+/-3.7ng/ml pre-operatively to 13.9+/-4.2ng/ml at the 7th post-operation day. Up to 3 months after operation, the 6 months after scar correction concentration remained at a significantly elevated level compared to pre-operative values. The burned patients had a Burn Scar Index of 7.8+/-3.6 points. Pre-operative PIIINP serum concentrations correlated with the Burn Scar Index (r(2)=0.7 and 0.68; P<0.05). Scar tissue stained intensively positive for PIIINP. There was a significant correlation between pre

  2. Early excision and grafting, an alternative approach to the surgical management of large body surface area levamisole-adulterated cocaine induced skin necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jason; Gruber, Paul; Perry, Travis L

    2015-05-01

    Levamisole-adulterated cocaine as a cause of retiform purpura progressing to full-thickness skin necrosis was first documented in 2003 and currently comprises over 200 reported cases. Whereas, its presentation, pathophysiology, and diagnostic workup have been reasonably well-defined, only one publication has significantly detailed its surgical management. For this reason there exists a relative absence of data in comparison to its reported incidence to suggest a preferred treatment strategy. In the case mentioned, treatment emphasized delayed surgical intervention while awaiting lesion demarcation and the monitoring of autoantibodies. At our institution we offer an alternative approach and present the case of a 34 year old female who presented with 49% TBSA, levamisole-induced skin necrosis managed with early surgical excision and skin grafting. The patient presented three days following cocaine exposure with painful, purpura involving the ears, nose, buttocks, and bilateral lower extremities which quickly progressed to areas of full-thickness necrosis. Lab analysis demonstrated elevated p-ANCA and c-ANCA, as well as leukopenia, decreased C4 complement, and urinalysis positive for levamisole, corroborating the diagnosis. Contrasting the most thoroughly documented case in which the patient underwent first surgical excision on hospital day 36 and underwent 18 total excisions, our patient underwent first excision on hospital day 10 and received only one primary excision prior to definitive autografting. To our knowledge, this is the largest surface area surgically treated that did not result in surgical amputation or autoamputation of limbs or appendages, respectively. We contend that early excision and grafting provides optimal surgical management of this syndrome while avoiding the morbidity seen with delayed intervention.

  3. Non-invasive Measurement of Skin Autofluorescence as a Beneficial Surrogate Marker for Atherosclerosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temma, Jin; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Horie, Toru; Kuroda, Akio; Mori, Hiroyasu; Tamaki, Motoyuki; Endo, Itsuro; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Abe, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Skin autofluorescence (AF) was recently reported to represent tissue AGEs accumulation with a non-invasive method. The aim of the present study was to evaluate association between AF value and diabetic vascular complications, such as retinopathy, nephropathy and cervical atherosclerosis using the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an established marker of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 68 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in a cross-sectional manner. AGEs accumulation was measured with AF reader. Clinical parameters were collected at the time of AF and IMT measurement. Max-IMT was correlated with age and AF (r=0.407, p=0.001), but not with HbA1c, GA, and pentosidine. Also, AF was not correlated with HbA1c, GA and pentosidine, but was correlated with age (r=0.560, p<0.001), duration of diabetes (r=0.256, p<0.05). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that AF, but not age, was an independent determinant of max-IMT. In conclusion, AF might be a beneficial surrogate marker for evaluating carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes non-invasively. J. Med. Invest. 62: 126-129, August, 2015.

  4. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin: an immunohistochemical study of tumor markers and neuroendocrine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layfield, L; Ulich, T; Liao, S; Barr, R; Cheng, L; Lewin, K L

    1986-08-01

    Fifteen neuroendocrine carcinomas of the skin (Merkel cell tumors) were stained within the constraints of tissue availability by the Grimelius method and immunohistochemically for keratin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), S-100, common leukocyte antigen (CLA), met-enkephalin, bombesin, calcitonin, ACTH, gastrin, and somatostatin. Focal argyrophilia was present in 5 of 12 tumors. All tumors tested demonstrated immunoreactivity for NSE and 5 tumors were positive for keratin. One tumors appeared to demonstrate focal ACTH-like immunoreactivity, but otherwise no immunoreactivity for the above mentioned polypeptide hormones was noted in 11 completely studied tumors. One tumor contained histologically obvious areas of squamous differentiation in addition to areas of Merkel cell tumor. In various tumors, keratin immunoreactivity was present either in areas of histologically obvious squamous differentiation, in randomly scattered single cells not histologically identifiable as squamous, or in a paranuclear dot-like distribution. Immunoreactivity for CEA, S-100 and CLA was not present in any tumors. The lack of met-enkephalin and the presence of squamous differentiation in these tumors indicates multidirectional differentiation in a fashion not phenotypically typical of Merkel cells.

  5. Linearity of patient positioning detection. A phantom study of skin markers, cone beam computed tomography, and 3D ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballhausen, Hendrik; Hieber, Sheila; Li, Minglun; Belka, Claus; Reiner, Michael [University Hospital of LMU, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Parodi, Katia [Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Department of Experimental Physics - Medical Physics, Munich (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) is a modality complementary to kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) and skin markers for patient positioning detection. This study compares the linearity of evaluations based on measurements using a modern 3D-US system (Elekta Clarity {sup registered}; Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden), a kV-CBCT system (Elekta iView {sup registered}), and skin markers. An investigator deliberately displaced a multimodal phantom by up to ± 30 mm along different axes. The following data points were acquired: 27 along the lateral axis, 29 along the longitudinal axis, 27 along the vertical axis, and 27 along the space diagonal. At each of these 110 positions, the displacements according to skin' markers were recorded and scans were performed using both 3D-US and kV-CBCT. Shifts were detected by matching bony anatomy or soft tissue density to a reference planning CT in the case of kV-CBCT and for 3D-US, by matching ultrasound volume data to a reference planning volume. A consensus value was calculated from the average of the four modalities. With respect to this consensus value, the linearity (offset and regression coefficient, i.e., slope), average offset, systematic error, and random error of all four modalities were calculated for each axis. Linearity was similar for all four modalities, with regression coefficients between 0.994 and 1.012, and all offsets below 1 mm. The systematic errors of skin markers and 3D-US were higher than for kV-CBCT, but random errors were similar. In particular, 3D-US demonstrated an average offset of 0.36 mm to the right, 0.08 mm inferiorly, and 0.15 mm anteriorly; the systematic error was 0.36 mm laterally, 0.35 mm longitudinally, and 0.22 mm vertically; the random error was 0.15 mm laterally, 0.30 mm longitudinally, and 0.12 mm vertically. A total of 109 out of 110 (99 %) 3D-US measurements were within 1 mm of the consensus value on either axis. The linearity of 3D-US was no worse than that of skin

  6. Assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for metallic surgical implants: findings applied to 61 additional skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Metallic skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips should be tested at 3-Tesla to characterize MRI issues in order to ensure patient safety. Therefore, metallic surgical implants were assessed at 3-Tesla for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts. Methods A skin closure staple (Visistat Skin Stapler, staple, Polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, coated 316L/316LVM stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) and a vessel ligation clip (Hemoclip Traditional, stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) that represented the largest metallic sizes made from materials with the highest magnetic susceptibilities (i.e., based on material information) among 61 other surgical implants (52 metallic implants, 9 nonmetallic implants) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. MRI-related heating was assessed by placing each implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged SAR of 2.9-W/kg for 15-min. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted, SE and GRE pulse sequences. Results Each surgical implant showed minor magnetic field interactions (20- and 27-degrees, which is acceptable from a safety consideration). Heating was not substantial (highest temperature change, ≤ 1.6°C). Artifacts may create issues if the area of interest is in the same area or close to the respective surgical implant. Conclusions The results demonstrated that it would be acceptable for patients with these metallic surgical implants to undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Because of the materials and dimensions of the surgical implants that underwent testing, these findings pertain to 61 additional similar implants. PMID:22230200

  7. Soft tissue artefacts of the human back: comparison of the sagittal curvature of the spine measured using skin markers and an open upright MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Zemp

    Full Text Available Soft tissue artefact affects the determination of skeletal kinematics. Thus, it is important to know the accuracy and limitations of kinematic parameters determined and modelled based on skin marker data. Here, the curvature angles, as well as the rotations of the lumbar and thoracic segments, of seven healthy subjects were determined in the sagittal plane using a skin marker set and compared to measurements taken in an open upright MRI scanner in order to understand the influence of soft tissue artefact at the back. The mean STA in the flexed compared to the extended positions were 10.2±6.1 mm (lumbar/9.3±4.2 mm (thoracic and 10.7±4.8 mm (lumbar/9.2±4.9 mm (thoracic respectively. A linear regression of the lumbar and thoracic curvatures between the marker-based measurements and MRI-based measurements resulted in coefficients of determination, R2, of 0.552 and 0.385 respectively. Skin marker measurements therefore allow for the assessment of changes in the lumbar and thoracic curvature angles, but the absolute values suffer from uncertainty. Nevertheless, this marker set appears to be suitable for quantifying lumbar and thoracic spinal changes between quasi-static whole body postural changes.

  8. Melanoma-specific marker expression in skin biopsy tissues as a tool to facilitate melanoma diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrescu, Doru T; Kauffman, C Lisa; Jatkoe, Timothy A; Hartmann, Dan P; Vener, Tatiana; Wang, Haiying; Derecho, Carlo; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Wang, Yixin; Palma, John F

    2010-07-01

    Diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma requires accurate differentiation of true malignant tumors from highly atypical lesions, which lack the capacity to develop uncontrolled proliferation and to metastasize. We used melanoma markers from previous work to differentiate benign and atypical lesions from melanoma using paraffin-embedded tissue. This critical step in diagnosis generates the most uncertainty and discrepancy between dermatopathologists. A total of 193 biopsy tissues were selected: 47 melanomas, 48 benign nevi, and 98 atypical/suspicious, including 48 atypical nevi and 50 melanomas as later assigned by expert dermatopathologists. Performance for SILV, GDF15, and L1CAM normalized to TYR in unequivocal melanoma versus benign nevi resulted in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.94, 0.67, and 0.5, respectively. SILV also differentiated atypical cases classified as melanoma from atypical nevi with an AUC=0.74. Furthermore, SILV showed a significant difference between suspicious melanoma and each suspicious atypia group: melanoma versus severe atypia and melanoma versus moderate atypia had P-values of 0.0077 and 0.0009, respectively. SILV showed clear discrimination between melanoma and benign unequivocal cases as well as between different atypia subgroups in the group of suspicious samples. The role and potential utility of this molecular assay as an adjunct to the morphological diagnosis of melanoma are discussed.

  9. Mast cell reactivity at the margin of human skin wounds: an early cell marker of wound survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmichen, M; Gronki, T; Meissner, C; Anlauf, M; Schwark, T

    2009-10-30

    Detecting the vitality of mechanical skin wounds (antemortem versus postmortem injury) in human cadavers remains a specifically forensic problem. To determine whether skin mast cells (MCs) are activated during the very early phase of human wound healing we performed a histomorphometric evaluation of the extent of MC enzyme loss as an indication of MC degranulation at the wound margins of skin wounds in 64 human cadavers. We compared the number of tryptase-reactive MCs, which are said not to loose all of their enzyme activity during degranulation process, with the number of naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase (NAS-DClAE)-positive MCs, which loose their complete enzyme activity in the form of enzyme-positive granula after activation. The enzyme activity was evaluated on sequential histological sections after autopsy as an indirect quantification of the number of degranulated MCs. Most of the victims had died within 10-60 min after injury (n=50), 12 survived between 60 min and 24h, and only 2 victims survived more than 24h (12 days each). The number of enzyme-positive MCs were counted in six successive visual fields (0.785 mm(2)) on the one hand located parallel to and--on the other hand--at increasing distances outward from the wound margins. In victims surviving the injury less than 60 min the average number of NAS-DClAE-reactive MCs next to the wound margin was significantly lower than the number of tryptase-reactive MCs. The extent of the reduction in NAS-DClAE-reactive MC counts correlated inversely with the distance from the wound edges. Our findings show that MCs undergo very early loss of NAS-DClAE activity at wound margins, and thus appear to be an early cell marker of wound survival. However, definitive evidence that the enzyme loss (degranulation) represents a vital process can only be obtained by comparing MC enzyme loss induced by injury during intact circulation with the MC reaction to injury inflicted very shortly after cardiac arrest, a question that

  10. Daily skin cleansing with chlorhexidine did not reduce the rate of central-line associated bloodstream infection in a surgical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, Kyle J; Hota, Bala; Hayes, Robert; Weinstein, Robert A; Hayden, Mary K

    2010-05-01

    Cleansing the skin of intensive care unit (ICU) patients daily with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been associated with beneficial effects, including a reduction in central-line-associated bacteremias (CLABSIs). Most studies have been done in medical ICUs. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of daily chlorhexidine skin cleansing on CLABSI rates in a surgical ICU. In Fall 2005, the 30-bed surgical ICU at Rush University Medical Center discontinued daily soap-and-water bathing of patients and substituted skin cleansing with no-rinse, 2% CHG-impregnated cloths. This change was made without research investigator input or oversight. Using administrative, microbiological and infection control practitioner databases, we compared rates of CLABSIs and blood culture contamination during soap-and-water bathing (September 2004-October 2005) and CHG cleansing (November 2005-October 2006) periods. Rates of other nosocomial infections that were not expected to be affected by CHG bathing (secondary bacteremia, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary tract infection) were included as control variables. There was no significant difference in the CLABSI rate between soap-and-water and CHG bathing periods (3.81/1,000 central line days vs. 4.6/1,000 central line days; p = 0.57). Blood culture contamination declined during CHG bathing (5.97/1,000 to 2.41/1,000 patient days; p = 0.003). Rates of other nosocomial infections did not change significantly. In this real-world effectiveness trial, daily cleansing of surgical ICU patients' skin with CHG had no effect on CLABSI rates, but was associated with half the rate of blood culture contamination. Controlled trials in surgical ICUs are needed to determine whether CHG bathing can prevent infections in this setting.

  11. Optimal skin antiseptic agents for prevention of surgical site infection in cesarean section: a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaping; Li, Guirong; Wang, Haiyan; He, Mei

    2017-08-30

    The best choice of antiseptic agent for skin preparation at cesarean section remains controversial. We performed this meta-analysis to assess whether chlorhexidine (CH)-based skin antisepsis was more effective than povidone iodine (PI)-based antisepsis for the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI) after cesarean section. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched to identify English publications that compared chlorhexidine gluconate (CH) as a skin preparation agent with PI in cesarean section. The primary outcome was SSI rate. Review Manager 5.3 was used to analyze the collected data and trial sequential analysis (TSA) Software 0.9 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK) beta was applied to estimate whether the overall pooled outcome was conclusive. Six articles involving 4385 participants were included in this study. The outcomes showed that CH-based skin antisepsis, compared with PI-based antisepsis, was not associated with a decreased overall rate of SSI (risk ratio [RR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-1.02; p = .07). TSA indicated that the current available evidence was inconclusive. There were no differences in adverse skin reactions in the two groups. This study provides evidence that CH-based antisepsis for skin preparation does not show an additional advantage in reducing risk of SSI after cesarean section. However, additional high-quality, randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Collagen hydrogels strengthened by biodegradable meshes are a basis for dermo-epidermal skin grafts intended to reconstitute human skin in a one-step surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; Biedermann, Thomas; Braziulis, Erik; Luginbühl, Joachim; Pontiggia, Luca; Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Faraj, Kaeuis A; Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Extensive full-thickness skin loss, associated with deep burns or other traumata, represents a major clinical problem that is far from being solved. A promising approach to treat large skin defects is the use of tissue-engineered full-thickness skin analogues with nearly normal anatomy and function. In addition to excellent biological properties, such skin substitutes should exhibit optimal structural and mechanical features. This study aimed to test novel dermo-epidermal skin substitutes based on collagen type I hydrogels, physically strengthened by two types of polymeric net-like meshes. One mesh has already been used in clinical trials for treating inguinal hernia; the second one is new but consists of a FDA-approved polymer. Both meshes were integrated into collagen type I hydrogels and dermo-epidermal skin substitutes were generated. Skin substitutes were transplanted onto immuno-incompetent rats and analyzed after distinct time periods. The skin substitutes homogeneously developed into a well-stratified epidermis over the entire surface of the grafts. The epidermis deposited a continuous basement membrane and dermo-epidermal junction, displayed a well-defined basal cell layer, about 10 suprabasal strata and a stratum corneum. Additionally, the dermal component of the grafts was well vascularized. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Automatic shape recognition of human limbs to avoid errors due to skin marker shifting in motion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatze, Herbert; Baca, Arnold

    1991-12-01

    A new method in human motion analysis is presented for overcoming the problem of the shifting of skin-mounted position markers relative to the skeleton. The present version of the method is based on two-dimensional video processing and involves the recording of subjects wearing special clothing. The clothing is designed in such a way as to permit the unambiguous spatial shape recognition of each of the 17 body segments by means of an edge detection algorithm. The latter and the algorithms for the computation of segment translation and rotation constitute improved versions of previously used algorithms, especially with respect to the execution times of the respective computer program on ordinary PCs. From the recognized shapes, the translation and rotation of each segment relative to its initial configuration is computed by using positional information from the previous frames. For the first frame to be analyzed, a starting algorithm has to be applied. Finally, the configurational coordinates of the body model are calculated from the respective spatial linear and angular positions.

  14. Skin cancer as a marker of sun exposure associates with myocardial infarction, hip fracture and death from any cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Jacobsen, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F;

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is the single most important risk factor for skin cancer, but sun exposure may also have beneficial effects on health. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with skin cancer (non-melanoma skin cancer and cutaneous malignant melanoma) have less myocardial infarction, hip fracture...

  15. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation is a requisite for modulation of skin-homing markers on regulatory T cells in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Ai-Leng; Koenen, Hans J P M; Michels, Meta; Ooms, Sharon; Bosch, Marjolein; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Irma; van der Ven, André J A M

    2013-02-01

    Vitamin D(3) is known to have an effect on the immune function. We investigated the immunomodulatory capability of vitamin D(3) in HIV-infected patients and studied the expression of chemokine receptors on regulatory T cells (Treg). Vitamin D(3)-deficient HIV-1-seropositive subjects were treated with cholecalciferol (vitamin D(3)) at a dose of 800 IU daily for 3 months (n=9) or 25,000 IU weekly for 2 months (n=7). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and analyzed for skin-homing (CCR4 and CCR10) and gut-homing (CCR9 and integrin α(4)β(7)) marker expression on Treg, by flow cytometry, before and after supplementation. Serum 25(OH)D(3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were determined at baseline and after the treatment period. Weekly doses of 25,000 IU cholecalciferol effectively achieved the optimal target serum 25(OH)D(3) concentration of >75 nmol/liter (30 ng/ml) in HIV-infected patients. High-dose cholecalciferol supplementation differentially influenced skin-homing markers on Treg with an increased level of CCR10 expression and while a reduction in CCR4 expression level was observed together with a lower percentage of Treg expressing CCR4. For both dosing regimens, there were no significant differences in the expression of gut-homing markers, CCR9, and integrin α(4)β(7). High-dose vitamin D(3) supplementation is needed to reverse vitamin D(3) deficiency in HIV-infected individuals and this results in modulation of skin-homing markers but not gut-homing markers expression on Treg. At a standard dose of 800 IU/day, vitamin D(3) is not effective in achieving an optimal 25(OH)D(3) concentration in patients with an underlying T cell dysfunction and is unable to exert any immunomodulatory effects.

  16. Effect of UV-irradiation on immunological and histochemical markers of Langerhans cells in normal appearing skin of psoriatic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjernlund, U.; Juhlin, L.

    1982-03-01

    A total of 12 patients with moderately severe psoriasis was treated with psoralen baths and/or ultraviolet radiation. Punch biopsies were taken for mimunological markers and shave biopsies for ATPase detection. As immunological marker immunosorbent purified antibodies against Ia antigens and monoclonal antigens against thymocyte antigens were used. The study showed that in the clinical relevant situation PUVA treatment had a more profound effect on the immunological markers of epidermal Langerhans cells than had light treatment without psoralens. With UV treatment without psoralens the ATPase activity of the Langerhans cells seemed to be more influenced than the immunological markers.

  17. Epidermal Cells Expressing Putative Cell Markers in Nonglabrous Skin Existing in Direct Proximity with the Distal End of the Arrector Pili Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Torkamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconsistent with the view that epidermal stem cells reside randomly spread along the basal layer of the epidermal rete ridges, we found that epidermal cells expressing stem cell markers in nonglabrous skin exist in direct connection with the distal end of the arrector pili muscle. The epidermal cells that express stem cell markers consist of a subpopulation of basal keratinocytes located in a niche at the lowermost portion of the rete ridges at the distal arrector pili muscle attachment site. Keratinocytes in the epidermal stem cell niche express K15, MCSP, and α6 integrin. α5 integrin marks the distal end of the APM colocalized with basal keratinocytes expressing stem cell markers located in a well-protected and nourished environment at the lowermost point of the epidermis; these cells are hypothesized to participate directly in epidermal renewal and homeostasis and also indirectly in wound healing through communication with the hair follicle bulge epithelial stem cell population through the APM. Our findings, plus a reevaluation of the literature, support the hierarchical model of interfollicular epidermal stem cell units of Fitzpatrick. This new view provides insights into epidermal control and the possible involvement of epidermal stem cells in nonmelanoma skin carcinogenesis.

  18. Pigmentary Markers in Danes – Associations with Quantitative Skin Colour, Nevi Count, Familial Atypical Multiple-Mole, and Melanoma Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Peter; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; Madsen, Linnea Nørgård

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether pigmentation genes involved in the melanogenic pathway (melanogenesis) contributed to melanoma predisposition, we compared pigmentary genetics with quantitative skin pigmentation measurements, the number of atypical nevi, the total nevus count, and the familial atypical mul...

  19. A STUDY OF COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF PREOPERATIVE SKIN PREPARATION WITH CHLORHEXIDINE-ALCOHOL VERSUS POVIDONE-IODINE IN PREVENTION OF SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Danasekaran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Surgical site infections is a dangerous condition posing a heavy burden on the patient and social health system. The use of preoperative skin preparation by effective antiseptic plays an important role in reducing postoperative wound infections. Hence, the present study was undertaken to compare and evaluate the efficacy of 2% chlorhexidine-alcohol versus 5% povidone-iodine in abdominal surgeries for prevention of SSI. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present one year randomised controlled trial was conducted in the Department of General Surgery, Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai, over a period from 2014 to 2015 on 120 patients undergoing elective abdominal surgeries. The patients were divided into two groups by computer randomisation that is Group A (chlorhexidine-alcohol group and Group B (povidone-iodine group. The surgical wounds were examined for any infections present. RESULTS Most of the patients were males in both the groups (73.33% and 61.67% in group A and B, respectively. Half of the patients (50% in both the groups had chronic appendicitis. The mean duration of surgery in group A was 44.66 ± 5.86 minutes, and in group B, it was 45.00 ± 6.24 minutes. Staphylococcus aureus (1.67% in group A and 10% in group B was the most common organism isolated after skin preparation. After the application of antiseptic agents, there was reduction of bacterial colonisation in both the groups, but significant reduction was seen in chlorhexidine group. In group A, two patients had superficial SSIs compared to 14 patients in group B (p=0.001. The mean length of hospital stay in group A was significantly less (7.20 ± 1.10 vs. 8.67 ± 3.17. CONCLUSION Preoperative skin cleansing with chlorhexidine significantly reduces risk of postoperative SSIs and colonisation of bacteria in clean abdominal surgeries.

  20. Trial of universal gloving with emollient-impregnated gloves to promote skin health and prevent the transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms in a surgical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Gonzalo; Rosato, Adriana E; Duane, Therese M; Elam, Kara; Sanogo, Kakotan; Haner, Cheryl; Kazlova, Valentina; Edmond, Michael B

    2010-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of universal gloving with emollient-impregnated gloves with standard contact precautions for the control of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and to measure the effect on healthcare workers' (HCWs') hand skin health. Prospective before-after trial. An 18-bed surgical intensive care unit. During phase 1 (September 2007 through March 2008) standard contact precautions were used. During phase 2 (March 2008 through September 2008) universal gloving with emollient-impregnated gloves was used, and no contact precautions. Patients were screened for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). HCW hand hygiene compliance and hand skin health and microbial contamination were assessed. The incidences of device-associated infection and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) were determined. The rate of compliance with contact precautions (phase 1) was 67%, and the rate of compliance with universal gloving (phase 2) was 78% (P = .01). Hand hygiene compliance was higher during phase 2 than during phase 1 (before patient care, 40% vs 35% of encounters; P = .001; after patient care, 63% vs 51% of encounters; P emollient-impregnated gloves was associated with improved hand hygiene compliance and skin health. No statistically significant change in the rates of device-associated infection, CDI, or patient MDRO acquisition was observed. Universal gloving may be an alternative to contact precautions.

  1. Coste por proceso en el tratamiento quirúrgico del cáncer de piel Cost per episode of care in the surgical treatment of skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Hernández Martín

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: El cáncer cutáneo es la neoplasia maligna más frecuente en humanos. Su tratamiento puede ser efectuado con diversas técnicas y por diferentes especialistas, y la escisión quirúrgica es el método terapéutico con menor tasa de recidivas. Objetivos: Evaluar el coste por proceso del tratamiento quirúrgico del cáncer cutáneo no melanoma (CCNM cuando es realizado por un servicio de dermatología. Material y método: Definición del proceso asistencial como conjunto de actividades clínicas que conducen al tratamiento quirúrgico del CCNM por parte de un especialista en dermatología, y cálculo del coste por proceso empleando los datos económicos facilitados por la institución sanitaria pública en que se ha realizado el análisis. Resultados: El gasto por proceso varió entre 273,71 y 1.129,84 euros, dependiendo del procedimiento quirúrgico y de los recursos sanitarios empleados. Conclusiones: El cáncer cutáneo es una de las enfermedades dermatológicas cuyo aspecto clínico suele ser inequívoco para los dermatólogos, por lo que muchas veces ni siquiera se precisa una confirmación histológica para diagnosticarlo y decidir la pauta terapéutica correspondiente. Este hecho hace que los dermatólogos quirúrgicos sean muy eficientes, ya que el proceso se realiza con un mínimo de episodios asistencia-les y solamente en los pacientes adecuados. El coste del tratamiento varía sustancialmente en función de la complejidad de la intervención y el escenario quirúrgico donde se realiza.Background: Skin cancer is the most common form of malignancy in humans. It can be treated with various techniques and by different specialists. The procedure with the lowest failure rates is surgical excision. Objectives: To calculate the cost per episode of care in the surgical treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC when performed by dermatologists. Material and method: An episode of NMSC surgical care was defined as the series of

  2. Reference values for the Chinese population of skin autofluorescence as a marker of advanced glycation end products accumulated in tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, X.; Hu, H.; Koetsier, M.; Graaff, R.; Han, C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Advanced glycation end products play an important role in the pathophysiology of several chronic and age-related diseases, especially diabetes mellitus. Skin autofluorescence is a non-invasive method for assessing levels of tissue advanced glycation end products. This study aims to establish the

  3. Reference values for the Chinese population of skin autofluorescence as a marker of advanced glycation end products accumulated in tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, X.; Hu, H.; Koetsier, M.; Graaff, R.; Han, C.

    Aim Advanced glycation end products play an important role in the pathophysiology of several chronic and age-related diseases, especially diabetes mellitus. Skin autofluorescence is a non-invasive method for assessing levels of tissue advanced glycation end products. This study aims to establish the

  4. Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction: a retrospective analysis of the surgical and patient-reported outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Zisun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM and latissimus dorsi (LD flap immediate breast reconstruction (IBR is a tailored surgical procedure. The surgical and patient-reported outcome (PRO of SSM and LD IBR were assessed. Methods Retrospective data of 146 SSMs performed by a single surgeon was reviewed. Among patients included in the data, 65 patients underwent SSM and LD IBR without a prosthetic implant. A survey estimating the degree of patient satisfaction (poor, fair, good, and excellent as regards the cosmetic outcomes of surgery was performed. The patients were divided into two groups according to their degree of satisfaction (excellent group versus non- excellent group, and analysis was done to identify factors affecting the highest patient satisfaction. Results The mean age of the patients was 48.4 years, and pathological results were: infiltrating ductal carcinoma (n = 48, 73.8%, ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 15, 23.1%, and others (n = 2, 3.1%. One patient received postmastectomy radiotherapy. After a mean follow-up of 34 months, no local recurrence occurred. There was no skin necrosis or LD flap loss. Donor site morbidities were seroma (n = 8, 12.3%, scarring (n = 8, 12.3%, and back pain (n = 6, 9.2%. Fifty patients (76.9% were satisfied and 40% reported their degree of satisfaction as excellent. Breast symmetry (P P P = 0.021, and panel assessment score (P Conclusions Our SSM and LD IBR was safe, with no local recurrence and low morbidities, and produced a sufficiently high level of patient satisfaction. Achieving breast symmetry and nipple cosmesis would be the key to meeting the patient’s expectation.

  5. Late-onset deep surgical-site infection after posterior lumbar interbody fusion in a patient treated with tocilizumab; unusual changes in inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Takahiro; Kaito, Takashi; Tsuboi, Hideki; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Yonenobu, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    To describe a case of late-onset deep surgical-site infection (SSI) after posterior lumbar interbody fusion in a patient treated with tocilizumab (TCZ) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with emphasis on the clinical symptoms and changes in inflammatory markers such as white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP) level. A 74-year-old woman with 3-year history of RA underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion at the L4/5/S1 level. After confirmation of no clinical symptom of SSI postoperatively, we decided to use TCZ for the patient after 2 months postoperatively. At 8 months after beginning of TCZ, she suffered from sudden onset of severe low back pain (LBP) with fever (38 °C) 1 day after administration of TCZ. Local tissues around the operative wound showed no sign of redness, warmth, or swelling. Increases in body temperature, WBC count, and CRP level were well suppressed by TCZ. Magnetic resonance imaging performed 2 weeks after onset of LBP revealed deep SSI. After surgical debridement and administration of the sensitive antibiotics, no clinical signs of recurrent spondylitis or osteolysis of vertebral body have been seen for 3 years. As TCZ strongly suppresses inflammatory reactions, detecting deep SSI based on local and systemic findings and laboratory data is quite difficult. Care must be taken regarding SSI when patients treated with TCZ complain of long-lasting LBP after lumbar surgery.

  6. The arterial supply of the cervical and thoracic spinal muscles and overlying skin: Anatomical study with implications for surgical wound complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Brian Yin Ting; le Roux, Cara Michelle; Corlett, Russell; De La Harpe, David; Richardson, Martin; Ashton, Mark

    2013-07-01

    Postoperative spinal wound dehiscence is a significant complication following the posterior midline approach. It is postulated that this approach disrupts the vasculature supplying the paraspinal muscles and overlying skin. Although the spinal vasculature has been investigated previously, the smaller arterioles have not been described in the context of the posterior midline approach. Eight cadaveric neck and posterior torso specimens were dissected after injection with a radio-opaque lead oxide mixture and subsequent radiographs taken were analyzed. The deep cervical, vertebral, superficial cervical, and occipital arteries consistently supplied the cervical paraspinal muscles. The latter two arteries also vascularized the overlying skin. The deep cervical arteries were found to be located lateral to the C3 to C6 vertebrae, vulnerable to damage with the posterior approach. In the thoracic region, the superior and posterior intercostal arteries consistently supplied the spinal muscles. In all specimens, two small anastomotic vessels posterior to the laminae were found connecting the intercostal artery perforators. Both the arterial perforators and their anastomotic channels were situated in the surgical field and susceptible to damage with the posterior approach. It is likely that the disruption in spinal vasculature contributes to the multifactorial problem of wound dehiscence with the posterior midline approach. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Pigmentary Markers in Danes - Associations with Quantitative Skin Colour, Nevi Count, Familial Atypical Multiple-Mole, and Melanoma Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Peter; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; Madsen, Linnea Nørgård;

    2016-01-01

    multiple mole and melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome. We typed 32 pigmentary SNP markers and sequenced MC1R in 246 healthy individuals and 116 individuals attending periodic control for malignant melanoma development, 50 of which were diagnosed with FAMMM. It was observed that individuals with any two grouped MC1R...

  8. Phase Angle and Handgrip Strength Are Sensitive Early Markers of Energy Intake in Hypophagic, Non-Surgical Patients at Nutritional Risk, with Contraindications to Enteral Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Caccialanza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of nutritional intakes during hospitalization is crucial, as it is known that nutritional status tends to worsen during the hospital stay, and this can lead to the negative consequences of malnutrition. International guidelines recommend the use of parenteral nutrition (PN in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. However, to date, there are no published data regarding either energy intake or objective measurements associated with it in this patient population. The aim of the present exploratory methodological study was to evaluate whether phase angle (PhA and handgrip strength normalized for skeletal muscle mass (HG/SMM are sensitive early markers of energy intake in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. We evaluated 30 eligible patients, who were treated with personalized dietary modifications and supplemental PN for at least one week during hospitalization. In a liner regression model adjusted for age, gender, basal protein intake and the basal value of each variable, a trend toward improvement of PhA and preservation of HG/SMM was observed in patients satisfying the estimated calorie requirements (N = 20, while a significant deterioration of these parameters occurred in those who were not able to reach the target (N = 10. The mean adjusted difference and 95% CI were +1.4° (0.5–2.3 (p = 0.005 for PhA and +0.23 (0.20–0.43 (p = 0.033 for HG/SMM. A significant correlation between PhA and HG/SMM variations was also observed (r = 0.56 (95% CI, 0.23–0.77; p = 0.0023. PhA and HG/SMM were able to distinguish between hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk who satisfied their estimated caloric requirements and those who did not after a one-week personalized nutritional support. Clinical studies are warranted, in order to verify these preliminary observations and to validate the role of Ph

  9. Phase angle and handgrip strength are sensitive early markers of energy intake in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccialanza, Riccardo; Cereda, Emanuele; Klersy, Catherine; Bonardi, Chiara; Cappello, Silvia; Quarleri, Lara; Turri, Annalisa; Montagna, Elisabetta; Iacona, Isabella; Valentino, Francesco; Pedrazzoli, Paolo

    2015-03-11

    The assessment of nutritional intakes during hospitalization is crucial, as it is known that nutritional status tends to worsen during the hospital stay, and this can lead to the negative consequences of malnutrition. International guidelines recommend the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. However, to date, there are no published data regarding either energy intake or objective measurements associated with it in this patient population. The aim of the present exploratory methodological study was to evaluate whether phase angle (PhA) and handgrip strength normalized for skeletal muscle mass (HG/SMM) are sensitive early markers of energy intake in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. We evaluated 30 eligible patients, who were treated with personalized dietary modifications and supplemental PN for at least one week during hospitalization. In a liner regression model adjusted for age, gender, basal protein intake and the basal value of each variable, a trend toward improvement of PhA and preservation of HG/SMM was observed in patients satisfying the estimated calorie requirements (N = 20), while a significant deterioration of these parameters occurred in those who were not able to reach the target (N = 10). The mean adjusted difference and 95% CI were +1.4° (0.5-2.3) (p = 0.005) for PhA and +0.23 (0.20-0.43) (p = 0.033) for HG/SMM. A significant correlation between PhA and HG/SMM variations was also observed (r = 0.56 (95% CI, 0.23-0.77); p = 0.0023). PhA and HG/SMM were able to distinguish between hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk who satisfied their estimated caloric requirements and those who did not after a one-week personalized nutritional support. Clinical studies are warranted, in order to verify these preliminary observations and to validate the role of PhA variations as early

  10. Review and proposal of regional surgical management for melanoma: revisiting of integumentectomy and incontinuity dissection in treatment of skin melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshihiko; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Takashi; Shichinohe, Ryuji; Murao, Naoki; Oyama, Akihiko; Funayama, Emi; Maeda, Taku; Yamamoto, Yuhei

    2017-06-01

    Past studies showed that integumentectomy and incontinuity could be effective procedures in the surgical management of melanoma patients. The present study reports on the historical background of these procedures. In addition, we analyze the ICG assisted integumentectomy and incontinuity techniques and algorithms that we had created when performing this procedure. In accordance with our algorithm, we performed ICG assisted integumentectomy/incontinuity procedures on 17 patients with stage III melanomas between 2008 and 2016. We also investigated the locoregional recurrence rate in a control group comprising 60 patients at stage III without using the algorithm. The former group exhibited a tendency of locoregional recurrence rate suppression. Melanoma cells in the dissected intervening tissue were microscopically identified in 2 out of 17 cases. Our ICG assisted integumentectomy or incontinuity procedures could be effective in controlling locoregional recurrence rates in melanoma cases. Moreover, our method can be generally applied because the dissection is only performed within the lymphatic pathway region identified using indocyanine green.

  11. Self-Healable Sensors Based Nanoparticles for Detecting Physiological Markers via Skin and Breath: Toward Disease Prevention via Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Han; Huynh, Tan-Phat; Haick, Hossam

    2016-07-13

    Flexible and wearable electronic sensors are useful for the early diagnosis and monitoring of an individual's health state. Sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) derived from human breath/skin or monitoring abrupt changes in heart-beat/breath rate should allow noninvasive monitoring of disease states at an early stage. Nevertheless, for many reported wearable sensing devices, interaction with the human body leads incidentally to unavoidable scratches and/or mechanical cuts and bring about malfunction of these devices. We now offer proof-of-concept of nanoparticle-based flexible sensor arrays with fascinating self-healing abilities. By integrating a self-healable polymer substrate with 5 kinds of functionalized gold nanoparticle films, a sensor array gives a fast self-healing (device, with a desirable performance in the possible detection and/or clinical application for a number of different purposes.

  12. Ability of m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid to induce the ornithine decarboxylase marker of skin tumor promotion and inhibition of this response by gallotannins, oligomeric proanthocyanidins, and their monomeric units in mouse epidermis in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilan Chen; Elisabeth M. Perchellet; Xiao Mei Gao; Steven W. Newell; richard W. Hemingway; Vittorio Bottari; Jean-Pierre Perchellet

    1995-01-01

    m-Chloroperoxybenzoic acid (CPBA) was tested for its ability to induce the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) marker of skin tumor promotion. In contrast to benzoyl peroxide, dicumyl peroxide, and 2-butanol peroxide, 5 mg of CPBA applied twice at a 72-h interval induce ODC activity at least as much as 3 ug of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). ODC induction peaks...

  13. Germ line polymorphisms as predictive markers for pre-surgical radiochemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer: a 5-year literature update and critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolo, Elisa; Modena, Yasmina; Corso, Barbara; Giusti, Pietro; Gusella, Milena

    2015-05-01

    Locally advanced rectal cancer is currently treated with pre-surgical radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Approximately one-half of patients obtain a relevant shrinkage/disappearance of tumour, with major clinical advantages. The remaining patients, in contrast, show no benefit and possibly need alternative treatment. To provide the best therapeutic option for each individual patient, predictive markers have been widely researched. This review was undertaken to evaluate recent progress made in this field. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed and Scopus database, focused on germ line gene polymorphisms as biomarkers and response and toxicity as outcomes. Because an exhaustive previous review was available describing findings up to 2008, we restricted our analysis to the last 5 years. Ten original research articles were found, reporting promising results for some candidate genes in drug metabolism (TYMS, MTHFR), DNA repair (XRCC1, OGG1, CCND1) and inflammation (SOD2, TGFB1)/immunity (IL13) pathways, but with no firm conclusion. All the studies had small sample size and were defined as exploratory. This review highlights pivotal molecular, clinical, genetic and statistical issues in the investigation of genetic polymorphisms as outcome predictors for rectal cancer and offers suggestions for future development. What emerges is a clear need for new proposals, especially in view of the increasing evidence for tumour-host and gene-gene interactions during anticancer treatment, together with stronger adherence to proper methodological requirements.

  14. Age related efficiency of the leishmanin skin test as a marker of immunity to human visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, A; Ben Salah, A; Hamida, N Bel Haj; Zaatour, A

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating whether the efficiency of the leishmanin skin test (LST) to evaluate the immune status of individuals exposed to Leishmania (L.) infantum is age-related. It was conducted in two districts of the governorate of Kairouan, an endemic region for L. infantum infection in Tunisia. Healthy individuals (n = 119) were selected according to two criteria: no current or past history of visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis, and their age range: 1-6 years (group I), 7-14 years (group II), and 20-66 years old (group III). Assessments comprised LSTs, in vitro lymphoproliferative response, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) productions induced by soluble leishmanial antigens (SLA). LST recorded an overall of 89.07% and 89.9% concordance with T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production induced by SLA, respectively. Using in vitro tests as gold standards, LST was found more sensitive for screening individuals from group I (96% and 100%, considering T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production results, respectively), than group II (91% and 97%) and group III (70% and 74%,). Conversely, LST was less specific in group I (84% and 77%) than group II (100% and 94%) and group III (100% for both in vitro tests). Our results suggested that the strength of LST resided in its higher sensitivity, to unravel asymptomatic injections and cell mediated immunity to L. infantum parasite in infants and its higher specificity for screening adult individuals. Negative LST in adults and positive LST in children < 5 years, the population at risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis, remain the weaknesses of LST and should be interpreted with caution.

  15. Surgical navigation with QR codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katanacho Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented work is an alternative to established measurement systems in surgical navigation. The system is based on camera based tracking of QR code markers. The application uses a single video camera, integrated in a surgical lamp, that captures the QR markers attached to surgical instruments and to the patient.

  16. Pontos marcados na superfície da pele representam os processos espinhosos quando a postura é modificada? Can skin markers represent spinous process when the posture is changed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Silveira Furlanetto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi verificar radiograficamente se a posição dos marcadores de superfície, identificados por palpação em ortostase, é alterada com a modificação da postura para o decúbito lateral. Dez indivíduos foram: palpados e marcados com adesivos de superfície, os processos espinhosos das vértebras C7, T2, T4, T6, T8, T10, T12, L2, L4 e S2; submetidos a um exame radiológico da coluna vertebral na posição ortostática e em decúbito lateral direito para verificar se o marcador de superfície colocado sobre o processo espinhoso estava condizente com o processo espinhoso da imagem radiográfica. Uma ANOVA two-way mostrou diferenças significativas para o deslocamento do marcador de superfície entre as posições para as vértebras C7, T2, T4, T6, T8, T10, L2 e S2 (pThe objective was to radiographically verify if the position of skin markers, identified by palpation in orthostasis posture, changes when the subject position shifts to lying posture. Ten subjects underwent two X-ray tests, first, in orthostasis and right lying posture. Ten subjects were palpated and marked with skin markers in the orthostasis posture, in the spinous process of the vertebrae C7, T2, T4, T6, T8, T10, T12, L2, L4 and S2 . After palpation, subjects underwent X-ray exams in orthostasis and lying postures to verify if the surface marker matched the spinous process shown on X-ray. A two-way ANOVA indicated significant differences for the displacement of the skin markers, for the C7, T2, T4, T6, T8, T10, L2 and S2 spinous processes (p<0.001. The T12 and L4 spinous processes did not indicate significant differences. The skin markers locations were not consistent with the spinous processes identified in X-rays for both positions. The skin movement may have displaced the skin markers when the subject changed from orthostasis to lying posture.

  17. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  18. Aplicação de retalho cutâneo no tratamento cirúrgico do hemangiopericitoma canino Surgical treatment of canine hemangiopericytoma using skin flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Maria Matera

    1998-03-01

    records of 6 dogs treated at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of São Paulo between July 1994 and July 1996 were reviewed for tumor features, skin flap technique and postoperative follow up. The dogs in this study were 3 females and 3 males; the mean age was 9 years. One dog was mixed breed and the other dogs were Poodle (2; Boxer (1; German Shepherd(1 and Pekingeese(1. The majority of tumors (5 tumors were located on the limbs and l was located on the perineal region. Skin flap techniques used were : H- plasty (2, W-plasty(1, transposition flap (2, single pedicle advancement flap (1. The sutures were removed 10 to 15 days after surgery. Five dogs had 100% viability of flap skin and necrosis ocurred in one dog which had a survival of 89% of the flap. One dog died 15 months after the surgery because of nontumor related causes. No evidence of recurrence was noted and tumor free interval ranged from 4-20 months. Wide surgical excision of the canine hemangiopericytoma seems to be an eficient therapy since no recurrence ocurred. Familiarity with techniques of skin flap creation can provide the surgeon with alternatives to close a large wound resulting from tumor excision. Skin flaps can bypass many problems in open wound management including delayed healing and greater expenses.

  19. Depletion of the chloramine-T marker residue, para-toluenesulfonamide, from skin-on fillet tissue of hybrid striped bass, rainbow trout, and yellow perch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J.R.; Stehly, G.R.; Greseth, Shari L.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Waterborne exposure to n-sodium-n-chloro-p-toluenesulfonamide (chloramine-T) is an effective treatment for controlling fish mortalities caused by bacterial gill disease (BGD). Currently, data are being generated to gain United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the use of chloramine-T in aquaculture. As part of the data required for an approval, depletion of the chloramine-T marker residue (para-toluenesulfonamide [p-TSA]) from the edible fillet tissue of exposed fish must be determined. Hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis??Morone chrysops; mean weight 357 g), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; mean weight 457 g), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens; mean weight 144 g) were exposed to 20 mg/l of chloramine-T for 60 min on 4 consecutive days (the most aggressive treatment expected for approved use in the United States). Groups of fish (n=15 or 19) were sampled immediately after the last treatment and periodically through 48 or 168 h after the treatment phase. Duplicate subsamples of skin-on fillet tissue from each fish were analyzed for p-TSA. Mean p-TSA concentrations in fillet tissue from fish sampled immediately after the last treatment were 142 ng/g (hybrid striped bass), 97 ng/g (rainbow trout), and 150 ng/g (yellow perch). Mean p-TSA concentrations at terminal sample times were 94 (168 h; hybrid striped bass), 74 (48 h; rainbow trout), and 35 ng/g (168 h; yellow perch). The half-lives of p-TSA in fillet tissue from fish near or at market size were 11.4 (hybrid striped bass), 4.3 (rainbow trout), and 3.2 days (yellow perch).

  20. Experimental model for the study of soft tissue fixation methods on skin-pericranium flaps in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cavazana,William César; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Passeri, Luis Augusto

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model to study and radiologically monitor displacement of skin flaps in the pericranium of rats subjected to traction and surgical fixation using suture anchored in a skull bone tunnel or with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (HistoacrylTM) surgical adhesive. METHODS: Radiological markers were placed in the subcutis of Wistar rats undergoing subperiosteal detachment of the pericranium with pulling and fixation of the flap. We performed radiography on postoperative d...

  1. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  2. Comparison of acute skin reaction following morning versus late afternoon radiotherapy in patients with breast cancer who have undergone curative surgical resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jae Myoung; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Hyojung; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Seol, Seung Won; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kil, Won-Ho

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the relationship between the time of radiotherapy (RT) and treatment outcomes in breast cancer. Patients with pathologic T1-2N0-1 breast cancer who received adjuvant RT in the morning (before 10:00 AM) or late afternoon (after 3:00 PM) were eligible for inclusion in this study. We retrospectively compared the clinicopathologic characteristics, acute skin reaction, and survival outcomes according to the time of RT. The median follow-up duration was 83 months (range, 10-131 months). From the 395 eligible patients, 190 (48.1%) and 205 (51.9%) patients were classified into the morning RT group and the afternoon RT group, respectively. The clinicopathologic characteristics were relatively well balanced between the treatment groups, except for pathologic N-stage (P = 0.0409). Grade 2 or higher acute skin reaction according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria was observed in 39 (9.9%) patients, with a higher frequency in the afternoon RT group than the morning RT group (13.7% vs 5.8%, respectively; P = 0.0088). There was no difference in the failure patterns or survival outcomes between the treatment groups. RT in late afternoon was associated with increased Grade 2 or more skin reaction after RT for breast cancer patients, but treatment outcomes did not differ according to the time of RT. Individualized considerations for treatment should be taken into account to reduce the risk of skin reactions.

  3. Derivation of marker gene signatures from human skin and their use in the interpretation of the transcriptional changes associated with dermatological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Barbara B; Nirmal, Ajit J; Headon, Denis J; Akbar, Arne N; Mabbott, Neil A; Freeman, Tom C

    2017-04-01

    Numerous studies have explored the altered transcriptional landscape associated with skin diseases to understand the nature of these disorders. However, data interpretation represents a significant challenge due to a lack of good maker sets for many of the specialized cell types that make up this tissue, whose composition may fundamentally alter during disease. Here we have sought to derive expression signatures that define the various cell types and structures that make up human skin, and demonstrate how they can be used to aid the interpretation of transcriptomic data derived from this organ. Two large normal skin transcriptomic datasets were identified, one RNA-seq (n = 578), the other microarray (n = 165), quality controlled and subjected separately to network-based analyses to identify clusters of robustly co-expressed genes. The biological significance of these clusters was then assigned using a combination of bioinformatics analyses, literature, and expert review. After cross comparison between analyses, 20 gene signatures were defined. These included expression signatures for hair follicles, glands (sebaceous, sweat, apocrine), keratinocytes, melanocytes, endothelia, muscle, adipocytes, immune cells, and a number of pathway systems. Collectively, we have named this resource SkinSig. SkinSig was then used in the analysis of transcriptomic datasets for 18 skin conditions, providing in-context interpretation of these data. For instance, conventional analysis has shown there to be a decrease in keratinization and fatty metabolism with age; we more accurately define these changes to be due to loss of hair follicles and sebaceous glands. SkinSig also highlighted the over-/under-representation of various cell types in skin diseases, reflecting an influx in immune cells in inflammatory disorders and a relative reduction in other cell types. Overall, our analyses demonstrate the value of this new resource in defining the functional profile of skin cell types and

  4. On skin expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion.

  5. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  6. [The role of skin substitutes in the surgical treatment of extensive burns covering more than 60 % of total body surface area. A review of patients over a 10-year period at the Tours University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, J; Yassine, A-H; Gourari, A; Forme, N; Zakine, G

    2015-04-01

    Progress in intensive care and surgery has made it possible to significantly improve the survival of victims with burns over 60% of total body surface area (TBSA). Coverage of the excised areas of these patients can be difficult when there is a shortage of skin donor sites; then the role of skin substitutes can be important. This retrospective study included patients with burns covering more than 60% TBSA and treated at the Tours University Hospital over a period of 10 years. Patients who died during the first week or who presented superficial burns were excluded. The various substitutions means to temporarily or permanently replace the cutaneous barrier are presented. The biological dressings associated with grafts expanded by six according to the sandwich technique, allografts and xenografts, widely expanded postage stamp skin grafts using a modified Meek technique (Humeca(®)), temporary cutaneous substitutes such as Biobrane(®) and skin substitutes colonized by autologous cells (Integra(®)) are presented. Forty-four patients were admitted. Self-immolations represented 52% of the cases. Twenty-one patients were treated with Integra(®), 5 with Biobrane(®), 17 with sandwich grafts and 4 with postage stamp skin grafts. Integra(®) was widely used when donor sites were insufficient. The mean number of surgical procedures per patient was 8.4. The mean duration of hospitalization was 155 days. Twenty-four patients survived until the end of treatment. Eighteen patients died during the first week before any surgery could be performed. Two patients died at the end of treatment. The overall survival rate was 55%. It was 92% for patients who survived the first week. The principal sequel were functional (hand, cervical, thoracic and axillary contractures) and aesthetic (face and hands). Associated treatments were pressotherapy, physical therapy, ergotherapy and thermal water therapy. By temporarily replacing the cutaneous barrier in the absence of sufficient donor sites

  7. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  8. [Microalbuminuria as a marker of endothelial dysfunction in the long-term follow-up patients after surgical correction of aortic coarctation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, N I; Lazoryshynets, V V

    2013-06-01

    1170 patients after surgical correction of aortic coarctation during the period from 1988 to 2002 were studied. The median period of medical supervision after coarctation repair was 13,8 years, maximum age - 24 years. For diagnostics of the Microalbuminuria (MAU) it were used the special test-strings Microalbu PHAN (PLIVA-Lachema Diagnostica). MAU were discovered in 62.6% of and 34.9% of normotesive patients. Credible decrease of MAU of hypertensive patients with corrected coarctation of the aorta were defined after 3 months-long treatment by Losartan.

  9. Alteration of skin hydration and its barrier function by vehicle and permeation enhancers: a study using TGA, FTIR, TEWL and drug permeation as markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, D K; Khandavilli, S; Panchagnula, R

    2008-09-01

    Vehicles and permeation enhancers (PEs) used in transdermal drug delivery (TDD) of a drug can affect skin hydration, integrity and permeation of the solute administered. This investigation was designed to study the effect of the most commonly used vehicles and PEs on rat skin hydration, barrier function and permeation of an amphiphilic drug, imipramine hydrochloride (IMH). An array of well-established techniques were used to confirm the findings of the study. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to determine changes in skin hydration. Alteration of the stratum corneum (SC) structure was investigated using FTIR studies. To monitor the barrier function alteration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurement and permeation studies were performed. Our findings indicate that with hydration, there was an increase in the bound water content of the skin, and pseudoequilibrium of hydration (a drastic decrease in hydration rate) was achieved at around 12 h. Hydration increased the ratio between amide-I and amide-II peaks in FTIR and reduced the C-H stretching peak area. Both propylene glycol (PG) and ethanol (EtOH) dehydrated skin, with the latter showing a predominant effect. Furthermore, it was confirmed that PG and EtOH decreased the bound water content due to alteration in the protein domains and extraction of SC lipids, respectively. The effect of hydration on the SC was found to be similar to that reported for temperature. Permeation studies revealed that the dehydration caused by vehicles decreased IMH flux, whereas the flux was enhanced by PEs. The role of partition was predominant for the permeation of IMH through dehydrated skin. A synergistic effect was observed for PG and menthol in the enhancement of IMH. Further findings provided strong evidence that PG affects protein domains and EtOH extracts lipids from the bilayer. Both PG and EtOH, with or without PEs, increased TEWL. Initial TEWL was well

  10. Application of local skin flap for skin tumor of scalp and face or neck after surgical ablation%局部皮瓣修复头面颈部皮肤肿瘤切除后缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文斌; 叶建州; 杨恩品; 欧阳晓勇; 杨瑾

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨局部皮瓣一期修复头面颈部皮肤肿瘤切除后缺损的效果.方法:2006年1月~2010年12月收治155例头面颈部皮肤肿瘤病例,采取将肿瘤及其边缘0.1 ~ 3cm正常组织一起切除并彻底清创的方法,综合考虑创面的性质、部位、大小等因素,设计局部皮瓣一期修复切除后遗留的创面,术后随访期6个月~2年.结果:本组155例患者的切口均Ⅰ期愈合,皮瓣全部成活.术后随访6个月~2年,形态、功能良好,瘢痕不明显,无并发症,效果满意.结论:采用局部皮瓣Ⅰ期修复头面颈部皮肤软组织缺损(大小2.0cm × 1.5cm~7.0cm×4.0cm),手术简单易行、适应证广、疗效较好,是比较理想的方法.%Objective To investigate the effect and advantage of using local skin flap for the reconstruction of mediumsized skin and soft tissue defect. Methods From January 2006 to December 2010,Skin and soft tissue defect on the head .face or neck in 155 patients were repaired with local skin flaps , according to the lesion type.location.and size, tumors were excised including the 0.1 to 3cm normal tissue around the tumor and the wounds were debrided completely .The defects were immediately repaired by using local skin flap.After operation.all patients were persevered to follow up for 6 months to 2 years. Results Raps in all 155 patients survived with primary healing postoperatively. All patients were followed for 6 months to 2 years.the postoperative contour and function was satisfactory. No complicationoccurred .All patients were satisfied with the cosmetic appearance. Conclusion The local skin flap is an effective way to repair skin and soft tissue defect on the head ,face or neck.The size of the defect which were repaired ranged from 2.0cmx 1.5cm to 7.0cmx4.0cm. Operation is simple .indication is extensive and results are satisfactory.

  11. Clinical evaluation of the tumor marker CA 19-9 in comparison with the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for the surgical pre- and postoperative diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, M.; Hottenrott, C.; Encke, A.; Happ, J.; Maul, F.D.; Baum, R.P.; Hoer, G.

    1986-02-01

    A new tumor marker (CA 19-9) was investigated. CA 19-9 is a tumor-associated antigen which is detected by a monoclonal antibody. CA 19-9 (CIS-Centocor) was compared simultaneously with CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) in 347 patients. 123 patients with gastrointestinal tumors showed a sensitivity of 31% for CA 19-9 (CEA 49%), combination increased sensitivity to 58%. The highest sensitivity was found in pancreas carcinoma (CA 19-9 75%, CEA 66%, combination 92%); it was lower in gastric, colon, and oesophagus carcinomas. In relapsed colorectal carcinomas sensitivity was 53% (CEA 78%, combination 85%). In cases of relapse, tumor markers may become positive even if they were not detectable before resection of the primary tumor. Specificity for CA 19-9 was 100% (CEA 84%) compared to a group of non-malignant diseases including patients with inflammations and patients with nicotin abuse (n=102). Because of its high specificity and superior sensitivity to CEA in pancreas carcinomas CA 19-9 should be determined in primary and relapse diagnosis in combination with CEA.

  12. Development of a Vascularized Skin Construct Using Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Debrided Burned Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney K. Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large body surface area burns pose significant therapeutic challenges. Clinically, the extent and depth of burn injury may mandate the use of allograft for temporary wound coverage while autografts are serially harvested from the same donor areas. The paucity of donor sites in patients with burns involving large surface areas highlights the need for better skin substitutes that can achieve early and complete coverage and retain normal skin durability with minimal donor requirements. We have isolated autologous stem cells from the adipose layer of surgically debrided burned skin (dsASCs, using a point-of-care stem cell isolation device. These cells, in a collagen—polyethylene glycol fibrin-based bilayer hydrogel, differentiate into an epithelial layer, a vascularized dermal layer, and a hypodermal layer. All-trans-retinoic acid and fenofibrate were used to differentiate dsASCs into epithelial-like cells. Immunocytochemical analysis showed a matrix- and time-dependent change in the expression of stromal, vascular, and epithelial cell markers. These results indicate that stem cells isolated from debrided skin can be used as a single autologous cell source to develop a vascularized skin construct without culture expansion or addition of exogenous growth factors. This technique may provide an alternative approach for cutaneous coverage after extensive burn injuries.

  13. Skin autofluorescence, a novel marker for glycemic and oxidative stress-derived advanced glycation endproducts : An overview of current clinical studies, evidence, and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Douwe J.; Van de Water, Tara; Lutgers, Helen L.; Graaff, Reindert; Gans, Rijk O.; Zijlstra, Felix; Smit, Andries J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGES) predict long-term complications in age-related diseases. However, there are no clinically applicable markers for measuring AGES in vivo. Methods: We have recently introduced the AGE-Reader (DiagnOptics B.V., Groningen, The Netherlands) to noninvasive

  14. Surgical management of primary and recurrent melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farma, Jeffrey M; Kulkarni, Nandini; Hsu, Cary

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma accounts for less than 2% of skin cancer cases but causes most skin cancer-related deaths. Surgery continues to be the cornerstone of treatment of melanoma and surgical principles are guided by data derived from clinical research. This article examines the evolution of surgical techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of primary and locally recurrent melanoma.

  15. SUBPOPULATION PROFILES OF T HELPER CELLS EXPRESSING CD45RA AND CD31 MARKERS IN CHILDREN AFTER THYMECTOMY PERFORMED UPON SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Rovda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymectomy is a stage of surgery when treating some congenital heart defects. Thymus gland is the central organ of immune system. This organ is the primary site of T-cell lymphopoiesis and central tolerance to autoantigens during fetal and early postnatal life. If performed neonatally or in infancy, the thymectomy may cause restriction of these immune functions. Suppression of T-cell lymphopoiesis in children with thymectomy can be estimated as a subpopulation of thymic naive T helper cells (CD3+CD4+CD45RA+CD31+. To perform this task, we evaluated subpopulations of thymic naive T helper lymphocytes with CD3+CD4+CD45RA+CD31+ phenotype in the children (n = 40 who underwent thymectomy during surgical treatment of congenital heart diseases in neonates, or in early postnatal life. Their data were compared with children who underwent surgical treatment of congenital heart disease without thymectomy at the same age periods (n = 12, and healthy children (n = 23. We have revealed that thymectomy in frames of surgery of congenital heart disease leads to reduced thymic naive T helper lymphocytes with CD3+CD4+CD45RA+CD31+ phenotype in peripheral blood. Early execution of thymectomy is associated with deficiency of the thymic naive T helper lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, as well as a decrease in T helper cells (CD3+CD4+. The number thymic naive T helper lymphocytes in peripheral blood negatively corrrelated with terms elapsed after the surgery of congenital heart defects in children.

  16. Histogenesis and possible mechanism of chondroid changes in mixed tumour of the skin: immunohistochemical evaluation of bone morphogenetic protein, glycosaminoglycans, keratin, vimentin and neuronal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, M; Shrestha, P; Sakamoto, F; Yang, L J; Qin, C; Tsujimura, T

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of immunoreactivity of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), the glycosaminoglycans chondroitin 4-sulphate (C4SPG), chondroitin 6-sulphate (C6SPG), dermatan sulphate (DSPG) and keratan sulphate proteoglycans (KSPG), cytokeratin (K8.12), vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), actin, desmin, S-100 protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in mixed tumour of the skin was investigated using immunohistochemical methods using monoclonal (MoAb) and polyclonal antibodies (PoAb). A strong BMP immunoreactivity was found characteristically in outer tumour cells of tubuloductal structures and modified myoepithelial cells. Modified myoepithelial cells and chondroidally changed cells showed positive immunoreactivity for C4SPG, C6SPG and DSPG; and KSPG was more pronounced in the modified myoepithelial cells. Vimentin, S-100 protein, GFAP and NSE, but not actin and desmin, were distribute in the outer tumour cells and modified myoepithelial cells in chondroidally changed tissue. Two factors show that chondrogenesis in mixed tumour of the skin is associated with the modified myoepithelial cells through the activity of BMP and biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans as matrix substance. First, outer or basal tumour cells in mixed tumour of the skin is characterized by the presence of positive immunoreactivity for BMP, KSPG, vimentin, cytokeratin K8.12, S-100 protein, GFAP and NSE, and second, there is a matrix of chondroidally changed tissue containing the reaction products of C4SPG, C6SPG, DSPF and KSPG.

  17. Surgical Assisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Insert and remove Foley urinary bladder catheter Place pneumatic tourniquet Confirm procedure with surgeon Drape patient within ... Technology and Surgical Assisting (NBSTSA) offers the CertifiedSurgical First Assistant (CSFA) credential, and the National Surgical Assistant ...

  18. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  19. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Skin KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Skin Print A A ... are really dead skin cells. continue Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  20. Violência contra a criança: indicadores dermatológicos e diagnósticos diferenciais Child abuse: skin markers and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Marinho Falcão Gondim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As denúncias de abuso contra a criança têm sido frequentes e configuram grave problema de saúde pública. O tema é desconfortável para muitos médicos, seja pelo treinamento insuficiente, seja pelo desconhecimento das dimensões do problema. Uma das formas mais comuns de violência contra a criança é o abuso físico. Como órgão mais exposto e extenso, a pele é o alvo mais sujeito aos maustratos. Equimoses e queimaduras são os sinais mais visíveis. Médicos (pediatras, clínicos-gerais e dermatologistas costumam ser os primeiros profissionais a observar e reconhecer sinais de lesões não acidentais ou intencionais. Os dermatologistas podem auxiliar na distinção entre lesões traumáticas intencionais, acidentais e doenças cutâneas que mimetizam maus-tratosReports of child abuse have increased significantly. The matter makes most physicians uncomfortable for two reasons: a Little guidance or no training in recognizing the problem; b - Not understanding its true dimension. The most common form of child violence is physical abuse. The skin is the largest and frequently the most traumatized organ. Bruises and burns are the most visible signs. Physicians (pediatricians, general practitioners and dermatologists are the first professionals to observe and recognize the signs of intentional injury. Dermatologists particularly, can help distinguish intentional injury from accidental, or from skin diseases that mimic maltreatment

  1. Protecting the skin during thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Bezerra Lira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note we describe the standard technical maneuver used in our department to protect the skin during thyroidectomy in order to get the best aesthetic result. We use surgical gloves to protect the skin during these operations to reduce the negative impact of thermal trauma and mechanical retractors and energy delivery devices at the edges of the skin incised. This practice is effective, inexpensive, rapid, reproducible and showed no complication in our experience of over 2,500 thyroidectomies.

  2. The Effect of Resveratrol Supplementation in Adjunct with Non-surgical Periodontal Treatment on Blood Glucose, Triglyceride, Periodontal Status and Some Inflammatory Markers in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zare Javid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are two chronic and common diseases with close relationship together affecting public health and quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol supplementation in adjunct with non-surgical periodontal treatment (NST on blood glucose, triglyceride, periodontal status and inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: This double-blind clinical trial study was conducted on 43 diabetic patients with periodontitis referred to the Endocrinology Clinic at Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran. All subjects were randomly assigned into two groups of intervention and control. The intervention and control groups received either 480 mg/d resveratrol or placebo capsules (2 PCs for four weeks. All subjects underwent non-surgical periodontal therapy during the intervention period. Anthropometric parameters, 24-hour dietary recall, fasting blood sugar, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, triglycerides, pocket depth (PD, IL6 and TNF&alpha were evaluated in all subjects pre- and post-intervention. Results: The mean serum levels of fasting insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were significantly (P=0.02, P=0.045, respectively lower in the intervention group compared with the control group (10.42 ± 0.28 and 10.92 ± 0.9 3.66 ± 0.97 and 4.49 ± 1.56, respectively . Moreover, significant difference (P < 0.001 was obtained in the mean pocket depth (PD between the intervention and control groups (2.35 ± 0.6 and 3.38 ± 0.5, respectively post-intervention. In the intervention group, the mean serum level of IL6 was reduced significantly (P= 0.039 post-intervention (1.58 ± 1.06 and 2.19± 1.09. No significant differences were seen in the mean levels of fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, IL6 and TNF&alpha between the two groups post-intervention. Conclusions: It is suggested that resveratrol may be recommended as

  3. The isolated perfused human skin flap model: A missing link in skin penetration studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternullo, Selenia; de Weerd, Louis; Flaten, Gøril Eide; Holsæter, Ann Mari; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Development of effective (trans)dermal drug delivery systems requires reliable skin models to evaluate skin drug penetration. The isolated perfused human skin flap remains metabolically active tissue for up to 6h during in vitro perfusion. We introduce the isolated perfused human skin flap as a close-to-in vivo skin penetration model. To validate the model's ability to evaluate skin drug penetration the solutions of a hydrophilic (calcein) and a lipophilic (rhodamine) fluorescence marker were applied. The skin flaps were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer (pH7.4). Infrared technology was used to monitor perfusion and to select a well-perfused skin area for administration of the markers. Flap perfusion and physiological parameters were maintained constant during the 6h experiments and the amount of markers in the perfusate was determined. Calcein was detected in the perfusate, whereas rhodamine was not detectable. Confocal images of skin cross-sections shoved that calcein was uniformly distributed through the skin, whereas rhodamine accumulated in the stratum corneum. For comparison, the penetration of both markers was evaluated on ex vivo human skin, pig skin and cellophane membrane. The proposed perfused flap model enabled us to distinguish between the penetrations of the two markers and could be a promising close-to-in vivo tool in skin penetration studies and optimization of formulations destined for skin administration.

  4. Source investigation of two outbreaks of skin and soft tissue infection by Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Coy, J A; Rodríguez-Castillo, B A; Pérez-Alfonzo, R; DE Waard, J H

    2016-04-01

    Outbreaks of soft tissue or skin infection due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria are reported frequently in scientific journals but in general the infection source in these outbreaks remains unknown. In Venezuela, in two distinct outbreaks, one after breast augmentation surgery and another after hydrolipoclasy therapy, 16 patients contracted a soft tissue infection due to Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus. Searching for the possible environmental infection sources in these outbreaks, initially the tap water (in the hydrolipoclasy therapy outbreak) and a surgical skin marker (in the breast implant surgery outbreak), were identified as the infection sources. Molecular typing of the strains with a variable number tandem repeat typing assay confirmed the tap water as the infection source but the molecular typing technique excluded the skin marker. We discuss the results and make a call for the implementation of stringent hygiene and disinfection guidelines for cosmetic procedures in Venezuela.

  5. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Skin Biopsy KidsHealth > For Teens > Skin Biopsy Print A A ... español Biopsia de piel What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would Need One? In a biopsy, ...

  6. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  7. [Optimizing surgical hand disinfection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, G; Kramer, A; Rotter, M; Widmer, A

    2006-08-01

    For more than 110 years hands of surgeons have been treated before a surgical procedure in order to reduce the bacterial density. The kind and duration of treatment, however, has changed significantly over time. Recent scientific evidence suggests a few changes with the aim to optimize both the efficacy and the dermal tolerance. Aim of this article is the presentation and discussion of new insights in surgical hand disinfection. A hand wash should be performed before the first disinfection of a day, ideally at least 10 min before the beginning of the disinfection as it has been shown that a 1 min hand wash significantly increases skin hydration for up to 10 min. The application time may be as short as 1.5 min depending on the type of hand rub. Hands and forearms should be kept wet with the hand rub for the recommended application time in any case. A specific rub-in procedure according to EN 12791 has been found to be suitable in order to avoid untreated skin areas. The alcohol-based hand rub should have a proven excellent dermal tolerance in order to ensure appropriate compliance. Considering these elements in clinical practice can have a significant impact to optimize the high quality of surgical hand disinfection for prevention of surgical site infections.

  8. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  9. Impairments in Skin Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, Rose W

    2017-09-01

    Altered skin integrity increases the chance of infection, impaired mobility, and decreased function and may result in the loss of limb or, sometimes, life. Skin is affected by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors can include altered nutritional status, vascular disease issues, and diabetes. Extrinsic factors include falls, accidents, pressure, immobility, and surgical procedures. Ensuring skin integrity in the elderly requires a team approach and includes the individual, caregivers, and clinicians. The twenty-first century clinician has several online, evidence-based tools to assist with optimal treatment plans. Understanding best practices in addressing skin integrity issues can promote positive outcomes with the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Estado nutricional preoperatorio y riesgo quirúrgico: Identificación de marcadores bioquímicos promisorios Preoperative nutritional status and surgical risk: Identification of promissory biochemical markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zago

    2010-02-01

    ático y protoporfirina eritrocitaria, resultaron marcadores promisorios de riesgo quirúrgico por haber permitido identificar pacientes en riesgo de sufrir complicaciones postoperatorias.Background: The fact that deficient or even marginal nutritional levels may contribute to increase morbidity and mortality in the surgical patient is well accepted. The usefulness of vitamin and mineral markers has not been much explored. Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of vitamin and mineral indicators as nutritional markers of surgical risk. Methods: Biomarkers of vitamin A (plasma retinol, carotenes (plasma carotenes, vitamin C (plasma vitamin C, iron (hematocrit, hemoglobin, serum iron, transferrin saturation and erythrocyte protoporphyrin, calcium (calcium/creatinine in basal urine and zinc (zinc/creatinine in basal urine, were performed 24 ours before surgery. Appearance of complications was evaluated in 100 adult patients from programmed surgical procedures of hernia (n = 41 or gallbladder lithiasis (n = 59, two of the most frequent interventions in general surgery services. Results: Patients were grouped in those that presented postoperative complications (C; n = 26 and those who did not (NC; n=74. Two of the studied markers presented significant differences between both groups: plasma retinol and erythrocyte protoporphyrin. Plasma retinol of C was significantly lower than that obtained in NC: 33.2 ± 13.5 μg/dl vs. 40.2 ± 16.3 μg/dl; P = 0.0495 and an association between values below 30 μg/dl and postoperative complications was founded (53.8% in C vs. 30.1% in NC; P = 0.0360. Erythrocyte protoporphyrin of C was significantly higher to that obtained in NC: 52.0 ± 34.0 μg/dl RBC vs. 36.8 ± 17.5 μg/dl RBC; P = 0.0453 and the association between values higher than 70 μg/dl RBC and presence of complications were highly significant (25.0% vs. 4.2%; P = 0.0069. Conclusions: On the basis of the obtained results is concluded that plasma retinol and erythrocyte

  11. Marker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  12. Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Skin ... (bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin and tissues beneath) are typical childhood skin infections. The usual bacterial culprits in skin ...

  13. 'Medical Tattoos' Help Hide Surgical Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161132.html 'Medical Tattoos' Help Hide Surgical Scars Pigments can restore more ... scars from cancer surgeries may benefit from "medical tattoos" that can help restore some of the skin's ...

  14. Skin Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  15. Effects of platelet-rich plasma gel on skin healing in surgical wound in horses Efeitos do gel de plasma rico em plaquetas na cicatrização de feridas cirúrgicas na pele de cavalos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael DeRossi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish a low-cost method to prepare platelet-rich plasma (PRP and evaluates the potential of platelet derived factors to enhance wound healing in the surgical wounds in equine. METHODS: To obtain a PRP gel, calcium gluconate and autologous thrombin were added to platelet-rich plasma. For the tests six saddle horses were used and two surgical incisions were made in each animal. Wounds were treated with PRP gel or untreated. Sequential wound biopsies collected at Treatment 1: at days 5 and 30 and Treatment 2: at days 15 and 45 post wounding permitted comparison of differentiation markers and wound repair. RESULTS: The optimal platelets enrichment over 4.0 time's baseline values was obtained using 300 g for 10 min on the first centrifugation and 640 g for 10 min on the second centrifugation. CONCLUSION: Wounds treated with PRP gel exhibit more rapid epithelial differentiation and enhanced organization of dermal collagen compared to controls in equineOBJETIVO: Estabelecer um método econômico na preparação de plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP e avaliar se os fatores derivados destas plaquetas aceleram a cicatrização de feridas cirúrgicas em cavalos. MÉTODOS: Gluconato de cálcio e trombina autógena foram adicionados ao PRP para a obtenção do gel de PRP. Foram usados seis cavalos de sela, cada um dos quais sofreu duas incisões cirúrgicas. Uma destas incisões foi tratada com gel de PRP e a outra suturada de maneira tradicional (controle. A biópsia das feridas foi coletada de maneira seqüencial; Tratamento 1. nos dias 5 e 30 e Tratamento 2. nos dias 15 e 45 do período pós-operatório permitindo uma comparação na diferenciação epitelial e no reparo das feridas. RESULTADOS: O enriquecimento das plaquetas obtido através de uma primeira centrifugação usando 300 g por 10 minutos e uma segunda 640 g por 10 minutos acelerou quatro vezes a reparação tecidual em relação ao controle. CONCLUSÃO: As feridas tratadas com gel

  16. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  17. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...... wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms....

  18. 梨果皮色泽变异品种(系)的AFLP与SRAP标记鉴定%Identification of skin colour variant cultivars(strains) in pear by AFLP and SRAP markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵广; 乐文全; 路娟; 张绍铃; 李俊才; 吴俊

    2011-01-01

    为揭示梨果皮色泽变异品种(系)与原始品种的遗传差异,利用AFLP和SRAP标记对3组果皮色泽的变异品种(系)进行了鉴别。54对AFLP引物共检测1 089个位点,其中多态性条带数为688,多态性比率为63.2%;20对SRAP引物可检测210个位点,其中多态性条带为76条,多态性比率为36.2%。分析结果表明,7对AFLP引物、3对SRAP引物可区分南果与其红色变异系;3对AFLP引物、1对SRAP引物可区分考密斯、红考密斯、早红考密斯与其绿色变异系;所检测的引物均无法区分红安久及其绿色变异系。综合AFL%In order to reveal the genetic difference between the skin colour mutants and their original varieties,molecular identification and analysis were conducted on three groups of skin colour variations in pear by AFLP and SRAP makers.A total of 1 089 gene loci were screened by 54 AFLP primer-pairs,of which 688 were polymorphic with the polymorphism percentage of 63.2%.And 210 gene loci were screened by 20 SRAP primer pairs,of which 76 were polymorphic with the polymorphism percentage of 36.2%.Results showed that seven AFLP and three SRAP primer pairs could distinguish Nanguo and red variant strain;three AFLP and one SRAP primer pairs could identify the difference among Doyenne du Comice,Red Doyenne du Comice,Early Red Doyenne du Comice,and green variant strain of Early Red Doyenne du Comice;Red D Anjou and green variant strain could not be distinguished by any AFLP and SRAP primer pairs.Combining with data revealed by AFLP and SRAP,specific patterns of 4 cultivars or strains were constructed.All cultivars or strains,except Red D'Anjou and its variant strain,could be identified by SRAP primer em11/me5,and this primer could be used as a useful marker in molecular identification.

  19. Preoperative antiseptic skin preparations and reducing SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maqbali, Mohammed Abdullah

    Surgical site infection (SSI) can affect the quality of care and increase the morbidity and mortality rate in after-surgical procedure. The use of an antiseptic skin preparation agent before the procedure can reduce the pathogens in the skin surface around the incision. Indicating the type of skin antiseptic preparation could prevent the infection and contamination of the wound. The most commonly used types of skin preparations are chlorhexidine and povidone iodine. However, the antiseptic solutions of both agents are strengthened with alcohol to prevent postoperative wound infection. The aim of this paper is to identify the best antiseptic agent in terms of skin preparation by evaluating the evidence in the literature. The factors associated with choosing the antiseptic skin agent, such as patients' allergies, skin condition and environmental risk, are also taken into account. This review suggests that cholorhexdine with alcohol may be the most effective in terms of reducing SSI.

  20. Marker chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Marker chromosomes are a morphologically heterogeneous group of structurally abnormal chromosomes that pose a significant challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Phenotypes associated with marker chromosomes are highly variable and range from normal to severely abnormal. Clinical outcomes are very difficult to predict when marker chromosomes are detected prenatally. In this review, we outline the classification, etiology, cytogenetic characterization, and clinical consequences of marker chromosomes, as well as practical approaches to prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  1. 医用胶在急诊外科处置颜面部皮肤裂伤中的应用%The application of tissue adhesive in treatment of facial skin lacerations in emergency surgical practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾亿卿; 林朱森; 黄立嵩; 王立秋; 陈瑞丰; 郑吉波

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨急诊外科处置颜面部皮肤裂伤的治疗经验,总结采用医用胶对伤口清创粘合处置的临床应用价值.方法 将自2011年6月至2012年1月海军总医院急诊外科救诊的208例颜面部皮肤裂伤患者随机分成两组.医用胶组为106例应用医用胶清创粘合伤口;缝合组为102例常规的清创缝合伤口.对手术时间、疼痛指数及伤口愈合外观满意指数进行比较.结果 医用胶组手术时间较缝合组明显缩短(经x2检验,P<0.001);医用胶组疼痛指数为(4.24±0.96),缝合组疼痛指数为(7.08+1.12);医用胶组术后伤口愈合满意度:优良为66.03%,满意为31.13%,不满意为2.83%,缝合组术后伤口愈合满意度:优良为11.77%,满意为56.86%,不满意为31.37%,患者对清创粘合术后的伤口愈合满意指数明显高于传统的清创缝合术(经x2检验,P< 0.05).结论 采用医用胶清创粘合伤口操作简便,缩短了手术时间,无需拆线,减轻了患者的痛苦和烦恼,也减少患者就诊次数.避免了皮肤裂伤因清创缝合产生的针线反应红斑、硬结及瘢痕增生,达到了外伤美容修复,特别深受儿童和女性患者的欢迎,清创粘合术在急诊外科处置颜面部皮肤裂伤时易于推广使用.%Objective To explore the advantages of tissue adhesive in wound debridement and closure based on the cases analyzed in emergency surgical treatment of facial skin lacerations. Methods 208 cases of facial skin laceration collected in between June 2011 and January 2012 were randomly divided into two groups, the tissue adhesive (TA) group with 106 cases and routine suturing (RS) group with 102 cases. The operation duration, the pain and healing satisfaction index were documented. Results The operation duration in TA group was markedly decreased compared with the RS group (P< 0.001); the pain index in the TA group was lower than the RS group (4.24±0.96 vs 7.08±1.12); the wound healing satisfaction

  2. Smoking and skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  3. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  4. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are round and lie directly under squamous cells. Melanocytes are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. It also protects the ...

  5. Skin turgor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arm or abdomen is checked. The skin is held for a few seconds then released. Skin with ... University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  6. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  7. [Skin-to-skin caesarean section: a hype or better patient care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korteweg, F J; de Boer, H D; van der Ploeg, J M; Buiter, H D; van der Ham, D P

    2017-01-01

    A caesarean section (CS) is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in the world, for which there are minimal variations in the surgical approach. During the last few years the "skin-to-skin" CS, also coined "natural" or "gentle" CS, is on the rise; parental participation, slow delivery and direct skin-to-skin contact are important aspects. Most Dutch hospitals offer some form of "skin-to-skin" CS but there are local differences in availability and performance of the procedure. Since 2011, the standard procedure in the Martini Hospital in Groningen is the "skin-to-skin" CS (for both elective and emergency CS, 24/7). We describe our method and share our retrospective data, and demonstrate that this procedure does not result in more complications for mother or baby.

  8. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  9. Vitiligo- A surgical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Ghia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objective- To describe the spectrum of surgical modalities for stable vitiligo patients Methods- Patients having stable vitiligo since past 2 years with no improvement with medical line of treatment were enrolled for surgery after informed consent. Depending upon the size and location of vitiligo patch different modalities were performed. Suction blister, mini-punch grafting, split thickness skin grafting, trypsinised melanocyte-keratinocyte transfer and non-trypsinised melanocyte- keratinocyte transfer (Jodhpur technique and follicular grafting technique have been described photographically which have been performed at a tertiary care hospital. Conclusion- Vitiligo is often difficult to treat, stable patches resistant to medical line of management do respond to surgical treatment; however it is very important to choose the modality of surgery according location of the patch, size of the lesion and available resources.

  10. Spacecraft surgical scrub system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, M.

    1980-01-01

    Ease of handling and control in zero gravity and minimizing the quantity of water required were prime considerations. The program tasks include the selection of biocidal agent from among the variety used for surgical scrub, formulation of a dispensing system, test, and delivery of flight dispensers. The choice of an iodophore was based on effectiveness on single applications, general familiarity among surgeons, and previous qualification for space use. The delivery system was a choice between the squeeze foamer system and impregnated polyurethane foam pads. The impregnated foam pad was recommended because it is a simpler system since the squeeze foamer requires some applicator to effectively clean the skin surfaces, whereas the form pad is the applicator and agent combined. Testing demonstrated that both systems are effective for use as surgical scrubs.

  11. Surgical Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azarmehr, Iman; Stokbro, Kasper; Bell, R. Bryan

    2017-01-01

    were identified in the field of traumatology. Treatment of complex orbital fractures was considerably improved by the use of SN compared with traditionally treated control groups. Conclusions: SN seems to be a very promising addition to the surgical toolkit. Planning details of the surgical procedure...... in a 3-dimensional virtual environment and execution with real-time guidance can significantly improve precision. Among factors to be considered are the financial investments necessary and the learning curve....

  12. Skin deposits in hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Blöndal, H; Gudmundsson, G

    1990-01-01

    Clinically normal skin from 47 individuals aged 9-70 years was investigated. Cystatin C amyloid deposits were found in various locations of the skin by light and/or electron microscopy, in all 12 patients with a clinical history of hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis (HCCA). Six asymptomatic...... individuals, who had the Alu 1 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker reported to cosegregate with the disease, also had cystatin C amyloid deposits in the skin. Three asymptomatic individuals (age 17-46) belonging to the HCCA families were without amyloid in the skin but had Alu 1 RFLP marker...

  13. Um marcador anatômico e a proposta de tratamento cirúrgico na síndrome do cólon irritável Anatomical marker and a surgical option in the irritable bowel syndrome treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César M. Santos Jr

    2006-09-01

    da SCM; 3. O ceco móvel pode ser usado como indicador anatômico da SCI.PURPOSE: Based on the observation that the mobile cecum syndrome (MCS includes symptoms which overlap symptoms of the IBS, our purposes were: to demonstrate the relationship of cause and effect between the mobile cecum and IBS; to evaluate the result of the cecopexia, as method of patients' treatment with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS or with abdominal discomfort of ignored etiology; and to show that the mobile cecum can be considered as the first anatomical marker for IBS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1994 to 2006, 123 patients (109 women and 14 men - median age, 37,7 - ranged 3 to 82 seen in private office had clinical diagnosis of mobile cecum; 103 patients (83,7% had been seen as having irritable bowel syndrome. All patients of this series were programmed for cecopexy. Thirty refused the surgical treatment and 29 are waiting for suitable surgery; both are on clinical follow-up in private office RESULTS: All operated patients (64/52% with fixed cecum followed from 1 to 139 months (median, 21 are well and asymptomatic Among the 58 operated women, 48 (82,7% answered the inquiry about dispareunia; 44(92% had dispareunia. After surgical treatment 89,7% have participated of the inquiry; 52 (96% were without symptoms. The non-operated patients (59/48% followed from 1 to 72 months (median, 16 are with the same complain. CONCLUSION: Based on the results, we conclude that: the topographical investigation of the cecum-ascendent should be made for all the patients with diagnosis of IBS or with functional obscure abdominal symptoms; the patients of that serie with IBS had mobile cecum and they were cured with cecopexy; there is a relationship of cause and effect between mobile cecum and IBS; the mobile cecum can be pointed as the first anatomical marker for SCI; the mobile cecum can be considered as cause of deep dispareunia.

  14. Skin deposits in hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Blöndal, H; Gudmundsson, G

    1990-01-01

    Clinically normal skin from 47 individuals aged 9-70 years was investigated. Cystatin C amyloid deposits were found in various locations of the skin by light and/or electron microscopy, in all 12 patients with a clinical history of hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis (HCCA). Six asymptomatic...... individuals, who had the Alu 1 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker reported to cosegregate with the disease, also had cystatin C amyloid deposits in the skin. Three asymptomatic individuals (age 17-46) belonging to the HCCA families were without amyloid in the skin but had Alu 1 RFLP marker....... Skin from 12 individuals who served as controls and skin from 14 close relatives of the patients was negative for amyloid. Punch biopsy of the skin is a simple procedure which is of value for the diagnosis of HCCA, even before the appearance of clinical symptoms. This method might also be of use...

  15. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well-balanced diet that includes plenty of protein foods, fruits and vegetables (fresh if possible) and liquids. If you are having a skin problem, such as a pressure sore or a healing surgical incision, you should increase your intake of ...

  16. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the

  17. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are the most widely used marker system for plant variety characterization and ... gene tagging in marker assisted breeding and gene cloning in .... PLS-2 and PAU Selection Long) to 1.00 (between PC. 2062 and .... Comparative analyses of genetic diversities within tomato.

  18. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... seeded and black-seeded cultivars and breeding lines. The group B included 70 ... maize, rice and tomatoes (Reif et al., 2006; Vigouroux et al., 2005; Warburton et ..... development of molecular markers for marker-assisted breeding. .... Selection under domestication: evidence for a sweep in the rice Waxy ...

  19. Extraoral surgical approach of ectopic mandibular third molar to the lower border of mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laino, Luigi; Menditti, Dardo; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Laino, Gregorio; Lauritano, Floriana; Cicciù, Marco

    2015-05-01

    The surgical removal of impacted lower third molar is an ordinary intervention. The treatment of choice in this pathology is an intraoral or, seldom, extraoral surgical approach. Various surgical procedures have been described to remove ectopic mandibular teeth. The more common technique is an intraoral approach (so named "conservative"), even when the tooth is located in an ectopic area. However, the "intraoral approach" is often related with the difficulty of view, the bleeding of the surgical site, and with the possible lesions of inferior alveolar or lingual nerve. From the other side, a nonconservative surgical approach like "extraoral pathway" may be associated with no aesthetic cutaneous postoperative scar tissue. The aim of those 2 study cases is to highlight the management of infected ectopic third molars located close to the lower border of the mandibular body, underlining the anatomical land markers of the submandibular area. The authors have applied the extraoral pathway using an incision of small size. From our analysis, the treatment of those typical can be managed by using a "mini-skin-incision" (so termed as mini-submandibular approach) respecting the cosmetic expectations of the patients.

  20. Guideline implementation: Surgical attire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-02-01

    Surgical attire helps protect patients from microorganisms that may be shed from the hair and skin of perioperative personnel. The updated AORN "Guideline for surgical attire" provides guidance on scrub attire, shoes, head coverings, and masks worn in the semirestricted and restricted areas of the perioperative setting, as well as how to handle personal items (eg, jewelry, backpacks, cell phones) that may be taken into the perioperative suite. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel adhere to facility policies and regulatory requirements for attire. The key points address the potential benefits of wearing scrub attire made of antimicrobial fabric, covering the arms when in the restricted area of the surgical suite, removing or confining jewelry when wearing scrub attire, disinfecting personal items that will be taken into the perioperative suite, and sending reusable attire to a health care-accredited laundry facility after use. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  1. Oily skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  2. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body. Without skin, people's muscles, bones, and organs would be hanging out all over the place. Skin holds everything together. It also: protects our bodies helps keep our bodies at just the right temperature allows us to have the sense of touch Don't Miss Your Epidermis The ...

  3. Persistent Skin Reactions and Aluminium Hypersensitivity Induced by Childhood Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salik, Elaha; Løvik, Ida; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    . Two patients had skin biopsies performed from their skin lesions, and 2 patients had the nodules surgically removed. Forty-two children had a patch-test performed with 2% aluminium chloride hexahydrate in petrolatum and 39 of them (92%) had a positive reaction. The persistent skin reactions were...

  4. Reference Values of Skin Autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Lutgers, H. L.; de Jonge, C.; Links, T. P.; Smit, A. J.; Graaff, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (AF) as measured with the AGE Reader (DiagnOptics Technologies, Groningen, The Netherlands) is a noninvasive prognostic marker in diabetes mellitus and other diseases with increased cardiovascular risk. This study provides reference values of healthy Caucasian contr

  5. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... markers may be seen in conditions such as: Osteoporosis Paget disease Cancer that has spread to the bone (metastatic bone disease) Hyperparathyroidism Hyperthyroidism Osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children—lack of bone mineralization, ...

  6. [Skin-sparing mastectomies: how to avoid skin necrosis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbaere, M; Delaporte, T; Toussoun, G; Delay, E

    2008-04-01

    Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) has emerged as the surgical technique best adapted to the treatment of early breast cancers or breast cancer recurrences after conservative treatment; the technique is particularly appreciated by the patients who had been expecting the development of immediate, high-quality breast reconstruction for over 15 years. SSM preserves anatomical landmarks on the skin surface (notably the under-breast fold and the conical shape of the breast). The procedure must be performed by a skilled surgical team in order to maximize the quality of breast resection and reconstruction, particularly to avoid postoperative complications, notably damage to blood vessels within the skin flap and prosthesis infection. These complications generally affect the cosmetic outcome of the reconstruction, with serious short-term and long-term consequences for the acceptability of the surgical procedure, and may sometimes compromise the delivery of adjuvant treatments (either chemo- or radiotherapy). Based on our previous experience (1000 new cases since 1992), we will compare the advantages and drawbacks of the procedure, discuss its indications, describe the clinical situations encountered and the various specific interventions available, as well as the methods to reduce the risks of tissue damage and skin necrosis.

  7. An Analysis of Cesarean Section and Emergency Hernia Ratios as Markers of Surgical Capacity in Low-Income Countries Affected by Humanitarian Emergencies from 2008 – 2014 at Médecins sans Frontières Operations Centre Brussels Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Barclay; Wong, Evan; Papillon-Smith, Jessica; Trelles Centurion, Miguel Antonio; Dominguez, Lynette; Ao, Supongmeren; Jean-Paul, Basimuoneye Kahutsi; Kamal, Mustafa; Helmand, Rahmatullah; Naseer, Aamer; Kushner, Adam L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical capacity assessments in low-income countries have demonstrated critical deficiencies. Though vital for planning capacity improvements, these assessments are resource intensive and impractical during the planning phase of a humanitarian crisis. This study aimed to determine cesarean sections to total operations performed (CSR) and emergency herniorrhaphies to all herniorrhaphies performed (EHR) ratios from Médecins Sans Frontières Operations Centre Brussels (MSF-OCB) projects and examine if these established metrics are useful proxies for surgical capacity in low-income countries affected by crisis. Methods: All procedures performed in MSF-OCB operating theatres from July 2008 through June 2014 were reviewed. Projects providing only specialty care, not fully operational or not offering elective surgeries were excluded. Annual CSRs and EHRs were calculated for each project. Their relationship was assessed with linear regression. Results: After applying the exclusion criteria, there were 47,472 cases performed at 13 sites in 8 countries. There were 13,939 CS performed (29% of total cases). Of the 4,632 herniorrhaphies performed (10% of total cases), 30% were emergency procedures. CSRs ranged from 0.06 to 0.65 and EHRs ranged from 0.03 to 1.0. Linear regression of annual ratios at each project did not demonstrate statistical evidence for the CSR to predict EHR [F(2,30)=2.34, p=0.11, R2=0.11]. The regression equation was: EHR = 0.25 + 0.52(CSR) + 0.10(reason for MSF-OCB assistance). Conclusion: Surgical humanitarian assistance projects operate in areas with critical surgical capacity deficiencies that are further disrupted by crisis. Rapid, accurate assessments of surgical capacity are necessary to plan cost- and clinically-effective humanitarian responses to baseline and acute unmet surgical needs in LICs affected by crisis. Though CSR and EHR may meet these criteria in ‘steady-state’ healthcare systems, they may not be useful during

  8. Aging skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L

    1995-01-16

    Aging of the skin is a composite of actinic damage, chronologic aging, and hormonal influences. The majority of changes associated with aging, such as wrinkles and solar lentigines ("liver spots"), are due to photoaging and reflect cumulative sun exposure as well as skin pigmentation. Classically, chronologic aging includes those cutaneous changes that occur in non-sun-exposed areas, such as the buttocks, and are observed in both men and women. A clinical example would be soft tissue sagging due to elastic fiber degeneration. In women, investigations into the effect of hormones on aging of the skin have concentrated on estrogens; in men, there have been a limited number of studies on the influence of testosterone. The latter have shown an age-dependent decrease in tissue androgens in pubic skin, but not scrotal or thigh skin. To date, age has not been shown to have an effect on androgen receptor binding, although a decrease in foreskin 5 alpha-reductase activity with increasing age has been described. In fibroblast cultures from foreskins, there have been conflicting results as to whether 5 alpha-reductase activity decreases in an age-dependent manner. Some of the skin changes that have been categorized as secondary to chronologic aging, such as decreased sebaceous gland activity and decreased hair growth, may actually represent a decline in the concentration of tissue androgens with increasing age. The influence of androgens on age-related changes in keratinocyte and fibroblast function remains speculative.

  9. Insulin Resistance and Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena Napolitano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In medical practice, almost every clinician may encounter patients with skin disease. However, it is not always easy for physicians of all specialties to face the daily task of determining the nature and clinical implication of dermatologic manifestations. Are they confined to the skin, representing a pure dermatologic event? Or are they also markers of internal conditions relating to the patient’s overall health? In this review, we will discuss the principal cutaneous conditions which have been linked to metabolic alterations. Particularly, since insulin has an important role in homeostasis and physiology of the skin, we will focus on the relationships between insulin resistance (IR and skin diseases, analyzing strongly IR-associated conditions such as acanthosis nigricans, acne, and psoriasis, without neglecting emerging and potential scenarios as the ones represented by hidradenitis suppurativa, androgenetic alopecia, and hirsutism.

  10. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  11. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  12. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy priorities AADA Health System Reform Principles Drug pricing and availability CVS dermatologic formulary restrictions Access to ... Skin care for men Skin care on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin of ...

  13. A Novel 3D Skin Explant Model to Study Anaerobic Bacterial Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazieli Maboni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin infection studies are often limited by financial and ethical constraints, and alternatives, such as monolayer cell culture, do not reflect many cellular processes limiting their application. For a more functional replacement, 3D skin culture models offer many advantages such as the maintenance of the tissue structure and the cell types present in the host environment. A 3D skin culture model can be set up using tissues acquired from surgical procedures or post slaughter, making it a cost effective and attractive alternative to animal experimentation. The majority of 3D culture models have been established for aerobic pathogens, but currently there are no models for anaerobic skin infections. Footrot is an anaerobic bacterial infection which affects the ovine interdigital skin causing a substantial animal welfare and financial impact worldwide. Dichelobacter nodosus is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium and the causative agent of footrot. The mechanism of infection and host immune response to D. nodosus is poorly understood. Here we present a novel 3D skin ex vivo model to study anaerobic bacterial infections using ovine skin explants infected with D. nodosus. Our results demonstrate that D. nodosus can invade the skin explant, and that altered expression of key inflammatory markers could be quantified in the culture media. The viability of explants was assessed by tissue integrity (histopathological features and cell death (DNA fragmentation over 76 h showing the model was stable for 28 h. D. nodosus was quantified in all infected skin explants by qPCR and the bacterium was visualized invading the epidermis by Fluorescent in situ Hybridization. Measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the culture media revealed that the explants released IL1β in response to bacteria. In contrast, levels of CXCL8 production were no different to mock-infected explants. The 3D skin model realistically simulates the interdigital skin and has

  14. Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes - Relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA(1c) as markers of diabetic complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnier, VM; Bautista, O; Kenny, D; Sell, DR; Fogarty, J; Dahms, W; Cleary, PA; Lachin, J; Genuth, S

    1999-01-01

    The relationships between long-term intensive control of glycemia and indicators of skin collagen glycation (furosine), glycoxidation (pentosidine and N-epsilon-[carboxymethyl]-lysine [CML]), and crosslinking (acid and pepsin solubility) were examined in 216 patients with type 1 diabetes from the pr

  15. Prevalence of protein calorie malnutrition in general surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y S; Nambiar, R; Yo, S L

    1992-05-01

    The prevalence of protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) based on ten nutritional parameters was studied in 307 patients undergoing major elective surgical operations. These parameters included anthropometric measurements (weight/height, triceps skin fold thickness, arm muscle circumference) and biochemical (serum total proteins, albumin, transferrin, prealbumin, retinol binding protein) and immunological tests (total lymphocyte count and delayed hypersensitivity test). Using these criteria, the prevalence of PCM was high. Eighty-six percent of patients had at least one abnormal parameter. The prevalence of PCM as judged by weight/height and arm muscle circumference was 49% and 62% respectively. The incidence was higher in cancer than non cancer patients (63% vs 43%). Although serum albumin and total protein levels were normal in 93.5% of patients, acute serum protein markers such as transferrin, prealbumin and retinol binding protein were low in 20-30%. Lymphopenia of 1500 cells/cu mm or less was found in 18% and abnormal delayed hypersensitivity test in 60%. We found that only weight/height, serum protein, transferrin and lymphopenia had predictive values in postoperative morbidity and mortality. By identifying PCM patients early, adequate nutritional support can be given in order to reduce the risk of major surgical complications.

  16. Tophi - surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowińska, Iwona; Słowiński, Radosław; Rutkowska-Sak, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Gout is an inflammatory joint disease associated with deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the bones forming the joints, in periarticular tissues and in other organs. The disease is one of the most frequent causes of disability. This paper presents the case of a 57-year-old male patient treated for generalised gout. A "clinical mask" suggesting another disease was the cause of making the correct diagnosis only six years after the occurrence of the first manifestations. The patient, with high values of inflammatory markers, severe pain and advanced joint destruction, was given an aggressive anti-inflammatory treatment. The unsatisfactory effect of the conservative treatment forced the authors to perform surgical resection of the gouty nodules in the hands. After several operations the function of the hand joints operated on, appearance of the hands and the quality of the patient's life improved significantly.

  17. Tophi – surgical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowińska, Iwona; Słowiński, Radosław

    2016-01-01

    Gout is an inflammatory joint disease associated with deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the bones forming the joints, in periarticular tissues and in other organs. The disease is one of the most frequent causes of disability. This paper presents the case of a 57-year-old male patient treated for generalised gout. A “clinical mask” suggesting another disease was the cause of making the correct diagnosis only six years after the occurrence of the first manifestations. The patient, with high values of inflammatory markers, severe pain and advanced joint destruction, was given an aggressive anti-inflammatory treatment. The unsatisfactory effect of the conservative treatment forced the authors to perform surgical resection of the gouty nodules in the hands. After several operations the function of the hand joints operated on, appearance of the hands and the quality of the patient’s life improved significantly. PMID:27994273

  18. Morphologic construction and markers of epidermal stem cell comparision of skin between fetal and adult%胎儿皮肤与成人皮肤的形态结构及表皮干细胞分子标志物的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永胜; 陈晓蓉

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨胎儿皮肤与成人皮肤的形态结构及表皮干细胞分子标志物的差异,为后续皮肤功能的研究及皮肤移植提供理论依据。方法取胎儿背部与成人腿部皮肤,标本取材后立即用10%中性甲醛固定,石蜡包埋。所有标本经石蜡切片,HE染色,观察皮肤表皮、真皮和皮肤附属器的形态结构;应用免疫组织化学法检测皮肤组织中表皮干细胞标志物p63、β1整合素和角蛋白19(K19)的表达。结果胎儿皮肤与成人皮肤表皮、真皮和皮肤附属器结构不同,胎儿表皮由2~3层上皮细胞组成,基底层细胞呈立方形,核圆,染色深,未发现颗粒层细胞,真皮乳头状突起不明显;成人全层皮肤明显厚于胎儿皮肤,尤其是成人皮肤的真皮层明显较胎儿真皮发达,成人皮肤真皮乳头状突起明显,成人表皮由6~7层上皮细胞组成,基底层细胞呈立方形或柱形,细胞核染色较深,呈卵圆形,居中,有明显的颗粒层,但细胞轮廓不清晰,胞质内可见蓝色颗粒。经测定胎儿皮肤表达的p63、β1整合素及K19的平均光密度值高于成人( P<0.01)。结论胎儿皮肤和成人皮肤表皮、真皮和皮肤附属器形态结构存在差异,表皮干细胞分子标志物表达也存在差异。%Objective To explore the differences of morphologic structure and markers of epithelial stem cell be-tween fetal and adult skin and to provide experimental basis for further study of the function of the skin and skin transplantion. Methods The skin was obtained from the part of fatal dorsal and adult leg respectively. After draw-ing materials, the specimens were immediately drawn with 10% neutral formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded. After all the specimens were sliced series, the structure of epidermis, dermis and skin appendages were observed by HE staining. The quantity of p63,β1 integrin, keratin 19 (K19) expression were determined by immunohistochemis-try. Results There were differences

  19. Skin scoring in systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Hugh; Bjerring, Peter; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    Forty-one patients with systemic sclerosis were investigated with a new and simple skin score method measuring the degree of thickening and pliability in seven regions together with area involvement in each region. The highest values were, as expected, found in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis...... (type III SS) and the lowest in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (type I SS) with no lesions extending above wrists and ancles. A positive correlation was found to the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen, a serological marker for synthesis of type III collagen. The skin score...

  20. Skin scoring in systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Hugh; Bjerring, Peter; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    Forty-one patients with systemic sclerosis were investigated with a new and simple skin score method measuring the degree of thickening and pliability in seven regions together with area involvement in each region. The highest values were, as expected, found in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis...... (type III SS) and the lowest in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (type I SS) with no lesions extending above wrists and ancles. A positive correlation was found to the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen, a serological marker for synthesis of type III collagen. The skin score...

  1. Human Dark Skin and Equatorial Africa: Toward a Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain K. Cibangu

    2015-01-01

    While skin color represents one of the most common markers of humans, the theories that explain it remain largely unknown both in academia and industry. Meanwhile, fraught with theoretical shortcomings about skin color, as clear from its body of knowledge, racial studies has not addressed skin color with needed attention. Consequently, misconceptions about human skin color have proliferated. This paper discusses anew Gloger’s theory and its widespread impact in the social sciences and general...

  2. [Surgical strategy for postburn cervical scar contracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shaoqing; Su, Weijie; Xi, Wenjing; Min, Peiru; Pu, Zheming; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-08-01

    To explore the surgical strategy for postburn cervical scar contracture. Sixty-five patients with scar contracture as a result of burn injury in the neck were hospitalized from July 2013 to July 2014. Release of cervical scar contracture was conducted according to different demands of the 3 anatomic subunits of neck, i.e. lower lip vermilion border-supramaxillary region, submaxillary region, and anterior region of neck. After release of contracture, platysma was released. For some cases with chin retrusion, genioplasty with horizontal osteotomy was performed. The coverage of wound followed the principle of similarity, i.e. the skin tissue covering the wound in the neck should be similar to the characters of skin around the wound in terms of color, texture, and thickness. Based on this principle, except for the preschool children in whom skin grafting was performed, the wounds of the other patients were covered by local skin flaps, adjacent skin flaps, or free skin flaps. All patients underwent release of scar and platysma, while 9 patients underwent genioplasty with horizontal osteotomy. Wounds were covered with local skin flaps in 32 patients, with adjacent skin flaps in 7 patients, with free skin flaps in 11 patients, and with skin grafts in 15 patients. All skin grafts and flaps survived. Good range of motion was achieved in the neck of all patients, with the cervicomental angle after reconstruction ranging from 90 to 120°. All patients were followed up for 6 to 24 months. Six patients who had undergone skin grafting were found to have some degrees of skin contracture, while none of the patients who had undergone flap coverage showed any signs of contracture recurrence. Restoration of the cervicomental angle is critical in the treatment of postburn cervical scar contracture, and the release of scar contracture should conform to the subunit principle. The coverage of wound should be based on the principle of similarity, with repair by skin flaps as the first

  3. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  4. Recombinant human erythropoietin stimulates angiogenesis and healing of ischemic skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, Michele; Galeano, Mariarosaria; Sturiale, Alessio; Ientile, Riccardo; Crisafulli, Costantino; Parisi, Alessandra; Catania, MariaAntonietta; Calapai, Gioacchino; Impalà, Patrizia; Aloisi, Carmela; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica; Bitto, Alessandra; Tuccari, Giovanni; Frisina, Nicola

    2004-08-01

    Wound healing in ischemic tissues such as flap margins due to inadequate blood supply is still a source of considerable morbidity in surgical practice. Adequate tissue perfusion is particularly important in wound healing. We investigated the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) on wound healing in an ischemic skin wound model. Sixty-three Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Normal incisional wound and H-shaped double flaps were used as the wound models. Animals were treated with rHuEPO (400 IU/kg) or its vehicle. Rats were killed on different days (3, 5, and 10 days after skin injury) and the wounded skin tissues were used for immunohistochemistry and for analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor content and collagen content. Tissue transglutaminase immunostaining of histological specimens was used as a vascular marker to determine the level of microvessel density. The results showed a higher level of vascular endothelial growth factor protein and an increased microvessel density in ischemic wounds with rHuEPO treatment than the normal incisional wounds and ischemic control wounds. Collagen content was higher in the incisional wounds and in the ischemic wounds with rHuEPO treatment compared with the ischemic control wounds. Our results suggest that erythropoietin may be an effective therapeutic approach in improving healing in ischemic skin wounds.

  5. [Surgical tactics by various ameloblastic tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkin, V A; Grigor'ian, A S; Babichenko, I I; Usachev, E S; Zaretskaia, A S

    2012-01-01

    Ameloblastoma and ameloblastic fibroma are benign odontogenous tumors of the jaws with local destructive growth, prone to recurrence. They have various typical radiological and histological features. Surgical tactic generally includes partial resection of the affected jaw. Immunohistochemical study of the tumor tissues allows assessing the expression of tumor progression markers and forecasting tumor growth thus providing individual choice of surgical tactics. Our experience in treatment of ameloblastic tumors showed total biopsy with osseous surgical margins resection to be sufficient for normal bone structure remodeling in some patients.

  6. Radiation Therapy Versus No Radiation Therapy to the Neo-breast Following Skin-Sparing Mastectomy and Immediate Autologous Free Flap Reconstruction for Breast Cancer: Patient-Reported and Surgical Outcomes at 1 Year-A Mastectomy Reconstruction Outcomes Consortium (MROC) Substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Andrew L; Diaz-Abele, Julian; Hayakawa, Tom; Buchel, Ed; Dalke, Kimberly; Lambert, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) is associated with adverse patient-reported outcomes and surgical complications 1 year after skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate autologous free flap reconstruction for breast cancer. We compared 24 domains of patient-reported outcome measures 1 year after autologous reconstruction between patients who received adjuvant RT and those who did not. A total of 125 patients who underwent surgery between 2012 and 2015 at our institution were included from the Mastectomy Reconstruction Outcomes Consortium study database. Adjusted multivariate models were created incorporating RT technical data, age, cancer stage, estrogen receptor, chemotherapy, breast size, body mass index, and income to determine whether RT was associated with outcomes. At 1 year after surgery, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Breast Cancer-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire breast symptoms were significantly greater in 64 patients who received RT (8-point difference on 100-point ordinal scale, PBREAST-Q (Post-operative Reconstruction Module), Patient-Report Outcomes Measurement Information System Profile 29, McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form (MPQ-SF) score, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire-were not statistically different between groups. Surgical complications were uncommon and did not differ by treatment. RT to the neo-breast compared with no RT following immediate autologous free flap reconstruction for breast cancer is well tolerated at 1 year following surgery despite patients undergoing RT also having a higher cancer stage and more intensive surgical and systemic treatment. Neo-breast symptoms are more common in patients receiving RT by the EORTC Breast Cancer-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire but not by the BREAST-Q. Patient-reported results at 1 year after surgery suggest RT following immediate autologous free flap breast reconstruction is well tolerated

  7. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Skin Cancer ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  8. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  9. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures The ...

  10. Skin Bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Samira M.

    2015-01-01

    In this project, I aim to investigate the reasoning behind the practice of skin bleaching by analyzing the documentary ”Dark Girls”, to gain a better understanding of race and colorism issues. Also this project tries to see if there is a connection with history and if this has been a part of making the european beauty ideal determine the choices black’s make in regards to beauty.

  11. Cutaneous skin tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  12. An optimized animal model for partial and total skin thickness burns studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campelo, Ana Paula Bomfim Soares; Campelo, Marcio Wilker Soares; Britto, Gerly Anne de Castro; Ayala, Alejandro Pedro; Guimarães, Sergio Botelho; Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão de

    2011-01-01

    Development of an improved animal model for studying skin burns in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n=6): G1-Control, G2- T100°C, G3-T150°C and G4-T200°C. Two 10 x 10 mm squares were outlined with a sterile surgical marker on each side and along the vertebral column using a prepared template positioned between the anterior and posterior limbs. G2-G4 rats were subjected to 100°C, 150°C and 200ºC thermal burns, respectively. G1 rats served as controls. Burns were inflicted by applying a copper plate connected to an electronic temperature controlling device to the dorsal skin of anesthetized rats. Four burns were produced on each animal (total area: 4 cm²/animal) leaving about 1 cm of undamaged skin between burn areas. Analgesia was administered during 24 h after burn injury by adding 30 mg codeine phosphate hemihydrate to 500 ml tap water. The application of 100°C and 150ºC resulted in partial thickness skin burns with central reepithelialization of the burned area only at 100°C. In G4 group the whole thickness of the skin was injured without central reepithelialization. However, there was marginal reepithelialization in all groups. The model studied is inexpensive and easily reproducible, enabling the achievement of controlled burns with partial or total impairment of the skin in experimental animals.

  13. Potential of mid IR spectroscopy in the rapid label free identification of skin malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Lena; Kemper, Björn; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Stone, Nick; Naranjo, Valery; Penaranda, Francisco; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    The rapid inspection of suspicious skin lesions for pathological cell types is the objective of optical point of care diagnostics technologies. A marker free fast diagnosis of skin malignancies would overcome the limitations of the current gold standard surgical biopsy. The time consuming and costly biopsy procedure requires the inspection of each sample by a trained pathologist, which limits the analysis of potentially malignant lesions. Optical technologies like RAMAN or infrared spectroscopy, which provide both, localization and chemical information, can be used to differentiate malignant from healthy tissue by the analysis of multi cell structures and cell type specific spectra. We here report the application of midIR spectroscopy towards fast and reliable skin diagnostics. Within the European research project MINERVA we developed standardized in vitro skin systems with increasing complexity, from single skin cell types as fibroblasts, keratinocytes and melanoma cells, to mixtures of these and finally three dimensional human skin equivalents. The standards were characterized in the established midIR range and also with newly developed systems for fast imaging up to 12 μm. The analysis of the spectra by novel data processing algorithms demonstrated the clear separation of all cell types, especially the tumor cells. The signals from single cell layers were sufficient for cell type differentiation. We have compared different midIR systems and found all of them suitable for specific cell type identification. Our data demonstrate the potential of midIR spectroscopy for fast image acquisition and an improved data processing as sensitive and specific optical biopsy technology.

  14. 手部皮肤软组织缺损皮瓣修复78例效果观察%Observation on Surgical Flap for Repairing Skin and Soft Tissue Defects of Hand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立; 米高松; 申小青; 张绪华; 粟钦

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To explore the clinical efficacy of island flap from the dorsal forearm for repairing skin and soft tissue defects in the dorsum of hand .[Methods]Totally 78 cases of skin and soft tissue defects in the dorsum of hand were repaired by 5 different island flaps from dorsal forearm ,which were posterior interosseous artery island flap (PIA) ,reversed island flap supplied by radial osteo-cutaneous branch of anterior interosseous artery (AIAR) ,reversed island flap supplied by superficial branch of radial nerve and its nourishing blood vessels (RN) ,reversed island flap supplied by wrist dorsal branch of ulnar nerve and its nourishing blood vessels (UN ) and reversed island flap supplied by cutaneous branch of radial artery in snuff-box region(RA) .[Results]After operation ,71 flaps survived completely .The necrosis of distal parts of the flaps was found in 1 case of PIA ,2 cases of AIAR ,2 cases of RN and 2 cases of UN .The necrotic flaps were healed after local dress-ing for 2~ 4 weeks .During the follow up for 3 months to 2 years ,blood supply ,elasticity and texture were good .[Conclusion]The reversed island flap from dorsal forearm for repairing skin and soft tissue defects in the dorsum of hand is simple and safe ,and has satisfactory clinical efficacy .%[目的]探讨应用不同的前臂背侧岛状皮瓣修复手背皮肤软组织缺损的临床效果。[方法]应用骨间背侧动脉岛状皮瓣(35例),骨间前动脉桡侧骨皮支逆行岛状皮瓣(15例),桡神经浅支营养血管为蒂的逆行岛状皮瓣(12例),尺神经腕背支营养血管为蒂的逆行岛状皮瓣(8例),桡动脉鼻烟窝皮支逆行岛状皮瓣(8例)5种不同的前臂背侧岛状皮瓣逆行转移修复78例手背皮肤软组织缺损。[结果]术后71例皮瓣完全成活,1例骨间背侧动脉岛状皮瓣,2例骨间前动脉桡侧骨皮支逆行岛状皮瓣,2例桡神经浅支营养血管为蒂的逆行岛状皮瓣,2例尺神经

  15. Experimental dermatoplasty of skin defects with an absorbable bioplastic preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemisza, G; Ladányi, J; Mikó, I

    1979-01-01

    Experimental dermatoplasty was performed with fibrin sponge preparation in the rabbit, during the course of which the whole skin thickness was substituted. The fibrin sponge was fixed to the skin-edges with surgical adhesive. The gradually absorbed fibrin was replaced by the migrating epithelium such that epithelization developed gradually. In special cases this method can be recommended for clinical purposes.

  16. Surgical infection in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakins, J L

    1996-12-01

    The earliest images of medicine and surgery in Western art are from the late Middle Ages. Although often attractive, at that time they were illustrative and mirrored the text on how to diagnose or treat a specific condition. These drawings in medieval manuscripts represent management of abscesses, perianal infection and fistulas, amputation, and wound dressings. With the Renaissance, art in all its forms flourished, and surgeons were represented at work draining carbuncles, infected bursae, and mastoiditis; managing ulcers, scrofula, and skin infections; and performing amputations. Specific diagnosis can be made, such as streptococcal infection in the discarded leg of the miraculous transplantation performed by Saints Cosmas and Damian and in the works of Rembrandt van Rijn and Frederic Bazille. Evocations of cytokine activity are evident in works by Albrecht Dürer, Edvard Munch, and James Tissot. The iconography of society's view of a surgeon is apparent and often not complimentary. The surgeon's art is a visual art. Astute observation leads to early diagnosis and better results in surgical infection and the septic state. Learning to see what we look at enhances our appreciation of the world around us but, quite specifically, makes us better clinicians.

  17. Skin changes in internal malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal Ravi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internal malignancies are accompanied by various skin changes which may be specific infiltrates or non-specific changes. This study is aimed at determining the frequency of such changes in malignant disease treatment center attendees in India. METHODS: A study of 300 confirmed cases of internal malignancy at a malignant disease treatment center was undertaken to evaluate these skin changes. Specific infiltrates were confirmed by histopathology. Statistical methods were employed to calculate significance in non-specific lesions by comparing with 300 controls not suffering from internal malignancy. RESULTS: Skin changes were present in 82 (27.3%. Cutaneous metastases were found in 19 (6.3%; non-contiguous in 5 (1.6%; contiguous in 14 (4.3%. Non-specific skin lesions numbered 74 (11.6% in 52 patients. Statistically significant non-specific skin changes were acquired ichthyosis, herpes zoster and generalized pruritus. CONCLUSION: Metastases usually occurred late in internal malignancy (17, 5.6% except in a case each of histiocytic lymphoma and non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (2, 0.7% where the lesions preceded malignancy by 3 months and 1 month respectively. Contiguous nodules were a marker of relapse after surgery in 3 (1%.

  18. Skin Keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin.

  19. A systematic literature review of the economic implications of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degener, F.; Ivanescu, C.; Casamayor, M.; Postma, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: During the years, acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) have seen an increase in incidence in many parts of the western world. Additionally, the treatment of ABSSSIs, generally consisting of surgical debridement or drainage and empiric antibiotics in the hospital,

  20. A systematic literature review of the economic implications of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degener, F.; Ivanescu, C.; Casamayor, M.; Postma, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: During the years, acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) have seen an increase in incidence in many parts of the western world. Additionally, the treatment of ABSSSIs, generally consisting of surgical debridement or drainage and empiric antibiotics in the hospital,

  1. Estimating joint kinematics from skin motion observation: modelling and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Alon; Senesh, Merav

    2011-11-01

    Modelling of soft tissue motion is required in many areas, such as computer animation, surgical simulation, 3D motion analysis and gait analysis. In this paper, we will focus on the use of modelling of skin deformation during 3D motion analysis. The most frequently used method in 3D human motion analysis involves placing markers on the skin of the analysed segment which is composed of the rigid bone and the surrounding soft tissues. Skin and soft tissue deformations introduce a significant artefact which strongly influences the resulting bone position, orientation and joint kinematics. For this study, we used a statistical solid dynamics approach which is a combination of several previously reported tools: the point cluster technique (PCT) and a Kalman filter which was added to the PCT. The methods were tested and evaluated on controlled human-arm motions, using an optical motion capture system (Vicon(TM)). The addition of a Kalman filter to the PCT for rigid body motion estimation results in a smoother signal that better represents the joint motion. Calculations indicate less signal distortion than when using a digital low-pass filter. Furthermore, adding a Kalman filter to the PCT substantially reduces the dispersion of the maximal and minimal instantaneous frequencies. For controlled human movements, the result indicated that adding a Kalman filter to the PCT produced a more accurate signal. However, it could not be concluded that the proposed Kalman filter is better than a low-pass filter for estimation of the motion. We suggest that implementation of a Kalman filter with a better biomechanical motion model will be more likely to improve the results.

  2. Micro-surgical endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Vere, J; Ali, Z; Harris, I

    2014-02-01

    Non-surgical endodontic retreatment is the treatment of choice for endodontically treated teeth with recurrent or residual disease in the majority of cases. In some cases, surgical endodontic treatment is indicated. Successful micro-surgical endodontic treatment depends on the accuracy of diagnosis, appropriate case selection, the quality of the surgical skills, and the application of the most appropriate haemostatic agents and biomaterials. This article describes the armamentarium and technical procedures involved in performing micro-surgical endodontics to a high standard.

  3. Surgical innovation as sui generis surgical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Mianna

    2013-12-01

    Successful innovative 'leaps' in surgical technique have the potential to contribute exponentially to surgical advancement, and thereby to improved health outcomes for patients. Such innovative leaps often occur relatively spontaneously, without substantial forethought, planning, or preparation. This feature of surgical innovation raises special challenges for ensuring sufficient evaluation and regulatory oversight of new interventions that have not been the subject of controlled investigatory exploration and review. It is this feature in particular that makes early-stage surgical innovation especially resistant to classification as 'research', with all of the attendant methodological and ethical obligations--of planning, regulation, monitoring, reporting, and publication--associated with such a classification. This paper proposes conceptual and ethical grounds for a restricted definition according to which innovation in surgical technique is classified as a form of sui generis surgical 'research', where the explicit goal of adopting such a definition is to bring about needed improvements in knowledge transfer and thereby benefit current and future patients.

  4. Deepening our understanding of immune sentinels in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Frank O; Nickoloff, Brian J

    2007-09-01

    Advances in our understanding of the skin immune system have a major impact on studies of skin autoimmunity, graft-versus-host disease, inflammation, and cancer as well as on the development of novel vaccines and immunotherapy approaches. In this issue of the JCI, Zaba et al. carefully dissected the complex network of DCs and macrophages residing in normal human skin and defined novel phenotypic markers for these immunocytes (see the related article beginning on page 2517). These studies provide the basis for better insight into the role of important immune sentinels contributing to the maintenance of skin tissue homeostasis and lay the foundation for future studies of the skin immune system.

  5. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can ... rarely, younger children can develop skin cancer. How can people with dark skin get skin cancer? Although ...

  6. A New Skin Tensiometer Device: Computational Analyses To Understand Biodynamic Excisional Skin Tension Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sharad P; Matulich, Justin; Charlton, Nick

    2016-07-25

    One of the problems in planning cutaneous surgery is that human skin is anisotropic, or directionally dependent. Indeed, skin tension varies between individuals and at different body sites. Many a surgeon has tried to design different devices to measure skin tension to help plan excisional surgery, or to understand wound healing. However, many of the devices have been beset with problems due to many confounding variables - differences in technical ability, material (sutures) used and variability between different users. We describe the development of a new skin tensiometer that overcomes many historical technical issues. A new skin tension measuring device is presented here. It was designed to be less user-dependent, more reliable and usable on different bodily sites. The design and computational optimizations are discussed. Our skin tensiometer has helped understand the differences between incisional and excisional skin lines. Langer, who pioneered the concept of skin tension lines, created incisional lines that differ from lines caused by forces that need to be overcome when large wounds are closed surgically (excisional tension). The use of this innovative device has led to understanding of skin biomechanics and best excisional skin tension (BEST) lines.

  7. Excised Abdominoplasty Material as a Systematic Plastic Surgical Training Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Erol Demirseren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving a level of technical skill and confidence in surgical operations is the main goal of plastic surgical training. Operating rooms were accepted as the practical teaching venues of the traditional apprenticeship model. However, increased patient population, time, and ethical and legal considerations made preoperation room practical work a must for plastic surgical training. There are several plastic surgical teaching models and simulators which are very useful in preoperation room practical training and the evaluation of plastic surgery residents. The full thickness skin with its vascular network excised in abdominoplasty procedures is an easily obtainable real human tissue which could be used as a training model in plastic surgery.

  8. In vivo virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seunghoon, E-mail: hsh860504@gmail.com; Kim, Sehui, E-mail: sehui0916@nate.com; Kim, Jeehyun, E-mail: jeehk@knu.ac.kr, E-mail: chulhong@postech.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changho, E-mail: ch31037@postech.edu; Jeon, Mansik, E-mail: msjeon@postech.edu [Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chulhong, E-mail: jeehk@knu.ac.kr, E-mail: chulhong@postech.edu [Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14221 (United States)

    2013-11-11

    We developed a virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy system by combining with a commercial surgical microscope and photoacoustic microscope (PAM). By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and PAM system, we could acquire the PAM and microscope images simultaneously. Moreover, by employing a beam projector to back-project 2D PAM images onto the microscope view plane as augmented reality, the conventional microscopic and 2D cross-sectional PAM images are concurrently mapped on the plane via an ocular lens of the microscope in real-time. Further, we guided needle insertion into phantom ex vivo and mice skins in vivo.

  9. Skin and Plasma Autofluorescence During Hemodialysis : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, Reindert; Arsov, Stefan; Ramsauer, Bernd; Koetsier, Marten; Sundvall, Nils; Engels, Gerwin E.; Sikole, Aleksandar; Lundberg, Lennart; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Stegmayr, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) is related to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and is one of the strongest prognostic markers of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether changes in skin AF appear after a single HD session an

  10. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  11. Surface markers and skin differentiation of epidermal stem cells:theoretical features and clinical feasibility%表皮干细胞表面标志物及向皮肤分化:理论特色与应用的可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光荣; 陈清元; 胡冠松; 蔡玉春

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Epidermal stem cells as special stem cells of the skin not only plays an important role in maintaining the metabolism of skin, but also is closely related to wound repair, which are the basis for the occurrence and repair of skin and its appendages. Now, epidermal stem cells have been paid great attention on the research of gene therapy and celltherapy with its specific biological advantages. OBJECTIVE:To summarize the research status on features and clinical application of epidermal stem cells. METHODS:A computer-based online retrieval of CNKI, PubMed database and Google scholar was performed for searching papers about clinical application of epidermal stem cells using the keywords of“epidermal stem cells, stem cells division, stem cells culture, clinical application”in Chinese and English. Older theoretical perspectives and repetitive research were excluded. Finally, only 41 articles were included in result analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Epidermal stem cells have the great potential of proliferation and multi-directional differentiation, and have important significances for large-area skin defects (burn and trauma), skin tissue engineering, and gene therapy. There are stil many problems that need to be solved, such as how to screen surface markers special for epidermal stem cells and how to induce skin differentiation of epidermal stem cells.%背景:表皮干细胞作为皮肤组织的特异性干细胞,不仅是维持皮肤新陈代谢的主要功能细胞,而且与创面修复紧密相关,是皮肤及其附属器发生、修复的基础。现在表皮干细胞凭借其特有的生物学优势在基因治疗、细胞治疗中越来越受到重视。目的:对表皮干细胞的特性及临床应用研究现状进行综述。方法:应用计算机检索 CNKI、 PubMed 数据库以及进行Google学术搜索,检索词为“表皮干细胞,临床应用,干细胞分裂;干细胞培养;epidermal stem cel s,stem cel s division

  12. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the e

  13. Global skin colour prediction from DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Walsh (Susan); L.C. Chaitanya (Lakshmi); Breslin, K. (Krystal); Muralidharan, C. (Charanya); Bronikowska, A. (Agnieszka); E. Pośpiech (Ewelina); Koller, J. (Julia); L. Kovatsi (Leda); A. Wollstein (Andreas); W. Branicki (Wojciech); F. Liu; M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHuman skin colour is highly heritable and externally visible with relevance in medical, forensic, and anthropological genetics. Although eye and hair colour can already be predicted with high accuracies from small sets of carefully selected DNA markers, knowledge about the genetic

  14. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  15. Evaluation of skin viscoelasticity in type 1 neurofibromatosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimoun, N; Razzouq, N; Wolkenstein, P; Moreno, J C; Marty, J P; Lantieri, L; Astier, A; Paul, M

    2006-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a frequent autosomal dominant disease characterized by cutaneous benign tumors called neurofibromas. Surgery takes an important place in managing these skin disorders. However, skin distensibility and softness of NF1 patients quickly offset the surgical benefit. The aim of this study was to determine the rheological behavior of neurofibromas and compare it with healthy skin in an attempt to comprehend what leads to this phenomenon. Thirty patients were admitted to this study. A group of 24 healthy control subjects was also included. The skin elasticity was assessed by a noninvasive in vivo suction device (Cutometer) including 5 consecutive suctions. The assessments were performed on neurofibroma skin, the supposedly healthy skin around neurofibromas and the healthy skin of control subjects. The extensibility at the first and the fifth traction in NF1 patients (neurofibromas and the supposedly healthy skin around it) was significantly different compared to the healthy skin of control subjects. The viscoelastic parameters obtained from the neurofibromas were significantly different in comparison to those obtained from the supposedly healthy skin of NF1 patients and the healthy skin of control subjects. The rheological profiles of the neurofibromas and the apparent healthy skin of NF1 patients demonstrated a hyperextensibility behavior, but in neurofibromas, the skin was unable to return to its initial position at the end of the stretch.

  16. Hair bleaching and skin burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-12-31

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  17. Relationship between patient complaints and surgical complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murff, H J; France, D J; Blackford, J; Grogan, E L; Yu, C; Speroff, T; Pichert, J W; Hickson, G B

    2006-01-01

    Background Patient complaints are associated with increased malpractice risk but it is unclear if complaints might be associated with medical complications. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an association exists between patient complaints and surgical complications. Methods A retrospective analysis of 16 713 surgical admissions was conducted over a 54 month period at a single academic medical center. Surgical complications were identified using administrative data. The primary outcome measure was unsolicited patient complaints. Results During the study period 0.9% of surgical admissions were associated with a patient complaint. 19% of admissions associated with a patient complaint included a postoperative complication compared with 12.5% of admissions without a patient complaint (p = 0.01). After adjusting for surgical specialty, co‐morbid illnesses and length of stay, admissions with complications had an odds ratio of 1.74 (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 2.98) of being associated with a complaint compared with admissions without complications. Conclusions Admissions with surgical complications are more likely to be associated with a complaint than surgical admissions without complications. Further research is necessary to determine if patient complaints might serve as markers for poor clinical outcomes. PMID:16456204

  18. Reduced retinoid signaling in the skin after systemic retinoid-X receptor ligand treatment in mice with potential relevance for skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihály, Johanna; Gericke, Janine; Aydemir, Gamze; Weiss, Kathrin; Carlsen, Harald; Blomhoff, Rune; Garcia, Javier; Rühl, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Retinoid-X receptor (RXR)- and retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-mediated signaling is induced by retinoic acids (RA), which are involved in the regulation of skin permeability, differentiation and immune response. Dysregulation of retinoid signaling is present in various skin disorders. Topically and systemically administered synthetic RAR or RXR agonists might influence retinoid-mediated signaling in the skin of RARE reporter animals and gene expression analysis for retinoid, skin homeostasis and skin inflammation marker genes and local retinoid concentrations. Mice were treated orally and topically with synthetic ligands and bioimaging, QRT-PCR and retinoid analysis were performed. Topical application of the synthetic RAR ligand AM580 significantly enhanced retinoid signaling in skin while topical application of the RXR ligand LG268 did not influence retinoic acid receptor response elements (RARE)-mediated signaling. Systemic treatments with LG268 decreased the expression of genes involved in skin homeostasis, RA synthesis and skin RA concentrations, while it increased various markers for skin inflammation and RA degradation, which corresponds to decreased skin RARE signaling. We conclude from these observations that increased systemic concentrations of an RXR -ligand may be one reason for reduced retinoid signaling, -reduced all-trans RA levels in the skin, reduced epidermal homeostasis and increased skin inflammation marker expression with potential relevance for various skin disorders, like atopic dermatitis.

  19. Untreatable Surgical Site Infection: Consider Pyoderma Gangrenosum

    OpenAIRE

    Ilan Berlinrut, MD; Nitasha Bhatia, MD; Jonathan M. Josse, MD, MSc; David de Vinck, DO; Sanjeev Kaul, MD

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an inflammatory disease characterized by sterile infiltration of the skin by neutrophils. We describe a case of a 63-year-old woman who developed PG following an abdominal wall reconstruction. Her initial presentation was thought to be consistent with a surgical site infection. Antibiotic therapy was initiated, and the patient was taken for multiple irrigation/lavage of her abdomen and debridement of necrotic tissue. Wound cultures remained negative, and ...

  20. Inflammatory Dermatopathology for General Surgical Pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily H; Chan, May P

    2017-09-01

    Owing to the wide variety and complexity of inflammatory skin diseases, inflammatory dermatopathology can be a challenging topic for dermatopathologists and general surgical pathologists alike. Following a basic tissue reaction pattern approach, this article reviews the most common and important entities of each pattern, with emphasis on differential diagnosis, diagnostic pitfalls, and appropriate workup when indicated. A few dermatologic emergencies are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Stephan; Hermann, Marcus; Essenpreis, Matthias; Farrell, Thomas J.; Krämer, Uwe; Patterson, Michael S.

    2000-10-01

    Using spatially resolved, steady state diffuse reflectometry, a directional dependence was found in the propagation of visible and near infrared light through human skin in vivo. The skin's reduced scattering coefficient µ's varies by up to a factor of two between different directions of propagation at the same position. This anisotropy is believed to be caused by the preferential orientation of collagen fibres in the dermis, as described by Langer's skin tension lines. Monte Carlo simulations that examine the effect of partial collagen fibre orientation support this hypothesis. The observation has consequences for non-invasive diagnostic methods relying on skin optical properties, and it could be used non-invasively to determine the direction of lines of cleavage in order to minimize scars due to surgical incisions.

  2. Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... majority of tissue used to produce these mesh implants are from a pig (porcine) or cow (bovine) ...

  3. Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... majority of tissue used to produce these mesh implants are from a pig (porcine) or cow (bovine). ...

  4. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  5. Optimizing surgical f

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Mohamed Amin

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: In our study both dexmedetomidine and esmolol were effective in reducing MABP, and lowering the heart rate providing dry surgical field and ensured good surgical condition during cochlear implant surgery in pediatric patients.

  6. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  7. Povidone iodine skin absorption: an ex-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvadbova, Martina; Crosera, Matteo; Maina, Giovanni; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2015-06-15

    Povidone iodine is a water-soluble complex used to disinfect the skin surface and it exerts prolonged germicidal action against a broad spectrum of germs. Indeed, it is often applied on burned skin, large wounds, deep tissues or mucosa. Notably some surgical hand-scrub solutions, which are considered safe antiseptics, contain large amounts of iodine that can be absorbed by skin. The aim of present study was to study the skin absorption of iodine after the application on the skin of povidone-iodine solution, used by health care workers during surgical procedure. We use Franz diffusion static cells with human skin. After 24h from the beginning of our measurement the iodine concentration in the receiving compartment was 11.59±6.3μg/cm(2). The medium flux calculated was 0.73±0.33μg/cm(2)/h with a lag time of 8.9±1.5h. These in vitro results confirmed that povidone iodine could pass through the skin in a relevant amount that can explain the clinical findings in burned or surgically treated patients. In professional use the repetitive contact with povidone iodine, also as soap, can cause iodine skin permeation that must be considered when the washing procedures are repeated more than 20 times a day.

  8. Trajectory surgical guide stent for implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, E D; Ivanhoe, J R; Krantz, W A

    1992-05-01

    This article describes a new implant placement surgical guide that gives both implant location and trajectory to the surgeon. Radiopaque markers are placed on diagnostic dentures and a lateral cephalometric radiograph is made that shows the osseous anatomy at the symphysis and the anterior tooth location. The ideal implant location and trajectory data are transferred to a surgical stent that programs the angle and location of the fixtures at time of surgery. The stent has the additional benefit of acting as an occlusion rim, a mouth prop, and tongue retractor. Use of this stent has resulted in consistently programming the placement of implant fixtures that are prosthodontically ideal.

  9. 不同皮肤准备方法术后切口感染的研究及预防%Prospective study on the effect of different methods of preoperative skin prepara-tion on surgical site infection and the implications for infection prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德秀; 王正芸; 李家瑜

    2014-01-01

    析差异有统计学意义(P <0.01),A 因素(剃毛与否)单因素分析差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);B 与 C、A 与 C 之间存在交互作用(P <0.01),A 与 B 之间无交互作用(P >0.05);A、B、C 之间存在二级交互作用(P <0.01)。结论手术前皮肤准备对于术后切口感染预防具有重要意义。在进行术前备皮时,应优先考虑皮肤清洁,大量肥皂水或消毒水冲洗,彻底杀灭皮肤表面暂居致病菌;同时缩短备皮准备时间,减少细菌在皮肤表面的繁殖,预防切口感染;在保证术野清洁的前提下,尽量减少皮肤损伤,可以考虑剪毛或使用脱毛剂脱毛等方式,无须剃毛。%Objective To examine the correlation betwee different methods of preoperative skin preparation and post-operative surgical site infections and propose scientific,effective,and convenient measures for infection control.Methods The factorial design in this study considered three possible factors of post-operative surgical site infections,including factor A (shaving), factor B (way of cleaning),factor C (timing of skin preparation).There were 8 combinations in the design.The incidence of infection was analyzed for the total patients and each specificied group based on factors A,B,C.Results A total of 1 802 inpa-tients were included in this investigation.Infection was identified in 146 (8.1%)patients,including 80 (8.2%)of the 978 pa-tients undergoing type I operation,66 (8.0%)of the 824 patients receiving type II operation (P >0.05).Microbiological pathogens were identified for 65 patients.The top three pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (22.5% ),Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.3%)and Escherichia coli (13.9%).The surgical site infections were mainly seen in gastrointestinal tract surgery (42, 10.3%), followed by orthopedic operation (37, 10.1%).The incidence of surgical site infections was significantly different between groups (χ2 = 24.540,P

  10. Pelvic Surgical Site Infections in Gynecologic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Lachiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of surgical site infection (SSI remains the most common complication of gynecologic surgical procedures and results in significant patient morbidity. Gynecologic procedures pose a unique challenge in that potential pathogenic microorganisms from the skin or vagina and endocervix may migrate to operative sites and can result in vaginal cuff cellulitis, pelvic cellulitis, and pelvic abscesses. Multiple host and surgical risk factors have been identified as risks that increase infectious sequelae after pelvic surgery. This paper will review these risk factors as many are modifiable and care should be taken to address such factors in order to decrease the chance of infection. We will also review the definitions, microbiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of pelvic SSIs after gynecologic surgery.

  11. Stratum corneum damage and ex vivo porcine skin water absorption - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch Lynggaard, C; Bang Knudsen, D; Jemec, G B E

    2009-01-01

    A simple ex vivo screening technique would be of interest for mass screening of substances for potential barrier disruptive qualities. Ex vivo water absorption as a marker of skin barrier integrity was studied on pig ear skin. Skin water absorption was quantified by weighing and weight changes we...

  12. Current Approaches for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Florman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical site infections (SSIs are the most common type of nosocomial infection among surgical patients and are commonly caused by the patients’ own microbial flora. The prevalence of SSI is a major concern because of the associated increase in the incidence of morbidity and mortality, length of hospitalization and cost of care for postoperative patients. Key factors that determine whether patients are at risk for developing SSI include the inherent potential contamination of the surgical site, the duration of the operation and the individual patient susceptibility. Preventive preoperative measures that can reduce the risk of SSIs include administration of antimicrobial prophylaxis, proper utilization of skin antiseptic agents for both the patient and the surgical team, proper patient preoperative hair removal and the policy of canceling elective procedures when remote skin, urinary or pulmonary infections occur. This paper will review the efficacy and safety of available antiseptic agents, as well as discuss patient-specific prevention strategies.

  13. Skin Care and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It becomes thinner, ... to make it feel and look better. Dry Skin and Itching Click for more information Many older ...

  14. UTILIZAÇÃO DO ADESIVO METIL-2-CIANOACRILATO E FIO DE NÁILON NA REPARAÇÃO DE FERIDAS CUTÂNEAS DE CÃES E GATOS UTILIZATION OF THE METHYL-2-CYANOACRYLATE ADHESIVE AND THE NYLON SUTURE IN SURGICAL SKIN WOUNDS OF DOGS AND CATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Andrade Gueiros

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar e comparar clínica e histologicamente o uso do adesivo metil-2-cianoacrilato e do fio de náilon na reparação de feridas cirúrgicas de pele, foram utilizados cinco cães e cinco gatos adultos, clinicamente sadios. Seguindo o protocolo anestésico e cirúrgico habitual para cada espécie, foram feitas cinco incisões na pele da região costal do lado esquerdo e cinco do lado direito, com aproximadamente dois centímetros de comprimento. As feridas cirúrgicas do lado direito foram suturadas com fio de náilon cirúrgico 3-0 e as do lado esquerdo foram aproximadas e fixadas com o metil-2-cianoacrilato em ambas as espécies. Os animais foram submetidos a avaliações clínicas a cada três dias. Foram retirados fragmentos de pele para realização de biopsias aos três, seis, nove, doze e quinze dias após a cirurgia. Os resultados obtidos, tanto em cães quanto em gatos, não revelaram diferença clínica ou histológica entre os tratamentos utilizados.The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare clinically and histologically the use of methyl-2-cyanoacrylate adhesive versus the nylon's suture in skin wounds closure. There were five adult mongrel dogs and cats, clinically healthy used. Following anaesthetical routine and surgical protocol, five incisions were made in the left costal region, and other five in right costal region, about 2cm in length, in both especies. The right side costal wounds were sutured with surgical nylon 3-0, and in the left side costal wounds methyl-2-cyanoacrylate was applied, in both species. The animals were submitted to clinical evaluation every three days, and a biopsy was realized at three, six, nine, twelve and fifteen days after the surgery. In both species, the results did not show any clinical or histologic difference when comparing the used treatments.

  15. Surgical Lasers In Gynecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhas, Helmut F.; Barnes, Alfonso E.

    1982-12-01

    Multipurpose surgical CO2 lasers marketed in the USA have been developed to be applicable to a variety of surgical procedures in many surgical fields. They are all suited for endoscopic surgical procedures and can be fitted to all standard surgical microscopes. They all can adjust the focal length of the laser beam to the different standard focal lengths of the surgical microscope which for instance in laryngoscopy is 400 mm and in colposcopy 300 mm. One laser instrument can even change the spot size in a given focal distance which is very advantageous for some microsurgical procedures (Merrimack Laboratories 820). All multipurpose surgical CO2 laser systems provide a multi-articulated surgical arm for free-hand surgery. The surgical arms are cumbersome to use but they are adapted to the surgeons needs with ingenuity. The practicality of the multi-articulated surgical arms depends mostly on the distance of the handpiece from the surgical console which now is also overbridged by the laser tube in most surgical laser system. The spot size of the beam is variable in most handpieces by interchangeable lenses which modify the focal distance of the beam and the power density. Another common feature in all systems is a coaxial He-Ne pilot light which provides a red spot which unfortunately becomes invisible in a bleeding surgical field. Most surgical laser systems have a spacial mode of TEM 00 which is essential for incisional surgery. The continuous mode of beam delivery is used for incisional surgery and also for most endoscopic procedures.

  16. SKIN STAPLED OR SUTURED: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The choice of wound closure after a surgical procedure has been a surgeon’s dilemma . The concerns have been as to how fast , uneventful , less painful , with minimal complications and comfortable will the patient’s recovery be. A well - known technology is surgical staples which are easier to use , less time consuming and a needle free method o f wound closure. OBJECTIVE: To compare skin staples with non - absorbable skin suture for skin closure in surgical laparotomy procedures for the following character : wound infection , dehiscence , cosmesis and postoperative pain . METHODS: This is a comparative study conducted on 100 patients divided in two groups randomly at Bapuji Hospital for cases undergoing surgical laparotomy procedures. Skin closure was done with 2 - 0 polyamide skin sutures in one group and skin closure was achieved with skin staples in th e other group. The outcome of wound was assessed on 3rd , 5th and 7th postoperative days using ASEPSIS score. Wound cosmesis was assessed on the 7th postoperative day and followed up at 1st month and 3rd month , using modified Hollander cosmesis scale. Postoperative pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale on the 1st , 3rd and 7th postoperative days. RESULTS : The mean wound ASPESIS scores on day 3 for skin staples and sutured group was 0.28 and 0.36 (p=0.7 respectively. The score on day 5 for staples and sutured group was 0.12 and 0.28 (p=0.4 respectively. The results in both the groups were the same , 0.08 on day 7(p=0. Wound cosmesis mean score assessment on day 7 for skin staples suturing group was 5.84 and 5.68 respectively (p=0.3. The mean score for cosmesis assessment at 1 month , and 3 rd month for skin staples and suturing group was 5.92 and 5.68 (p=0.1 and was 6.00 and 5.92 (p=0.36 respectively which was not satistically significant . The visual analogue scale score for postopera tive pain on 1st day , 3 rd and 7 th day for skin staples and suturing group 54

  17. Spectrum of pediatric skin biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace D′costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin diseases are common in childhood and they are common reasons for pediatric visits to the hospital. In spite of this high occurrence, there are very few prospective studies addressing this issue. Aims: The present study was directed at determining the spectrum of dermato-pathological lesions encountered in a large general tertiary care hospital, over a two-year period. Materials and Methods: 107 cases formed the total sample studied, in a part prospective and part retrospective study. A detailed clinical history was recorded on a proforma prepared for the purpose and gross photographs were taken wherever possible. Results: Skin biopsies accounted for 7.29% of the total surgical pathology load, 55.44% of the total pediatric biopsies and 10.82% of the total number of skin biopsies. The age and sex distribution pattern revealed that the maximum number of biopsies (62.61% were of older children, with a male preponderance (57.94%. The anatomic distribution pattern indicated predominant involvement of the limbs (59.82%. The maximum numbers of cases were of infectious nature (24.29%; the most frequently encountered being borderline tuberculoid Hansen′s disease (8.4%. A positive correlation with the clinical diagnosis was obtained in 56.07% cases. Conclusions: Histopathology contributed to the diagnosis in a significant number of (82.23% cases, indicating its importance and utility.

  18. SURGICAL PROCEDURES IN SUSHRUTA SAMHITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh R.K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sushruta Samhita is an Ayurvedic text, by the legendary Sushruta, foundational to Ayurvedic medicine (Indian traditional medicine, with innovative chapters mainly on surgery. There is a general impression that Sushruta Samhita is only an ancient Indian Ayurvedic text book of surgery. Sushruta Samhita contains 184 chapters and description of 1120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, a detailed study on anatomy, 64 preparations from mineral sources and 57 preparations based on animal sources. It still retains the land mark position in the field of surgical texts. In addition to his worldwide known work of historical significance on plastic surgery, he also made similar unique contributions on numerous aspects of medicine, such as fracture and dislocations, urinary stones, skin diseases including leprosy, Pancha Karma (Purification procedures, toxicology, pediatrics, eye diseases, psychiatry, obstetrics and gynaecology, etc. A very limited conceptual work has been performed on the selected chapters of Sushruta Samhita. Therefore a review conceptual study has been carried out on the various surgical concepts of Sushruta Samhita. Outcome of this study shows, Sushruta Samhita is written in the aphorism form and the techniques described in it are eminently in line with technical abilities of the times. It is need of the hour to explore the hidden truth by decoding the versions of the texts.

  19. A Systematic Review on Complications of Tissue Preservation Surgical Techniques in Percutaneous Bone Conduction Hearing Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, Emmy; Bezdjian, Aren; Grolman, Wilko; Thomeer, Hans

    OBJECTIVE:: To investigate skin-related postoperative complications from tissue preservation approaches in percutaneous bone conduction device (BCD) implantations. DATA SOURCES:: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. STUDY SELECTION:: We identified studies on BCDs including the opted surgical

  20. Persistent Skin Reactions and Aluminium Hypersensitivity Induced by Childhood Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salik, Elaha; Løvik, Ida; Andersen, Klaus E; Bygum, Anette

    2016-11-02

    There is increasing awareness of reactions to vaccination that include persistent skin reactions. We present here a retrospective investigation of long-lasting skin reactions and aluminium hypersensitivity in children, based on medical records and questionnaires sent to the parents. In the 10-year period 2003 to 2013 we identified 47 children with persistent skin reactions caused by childhood vaccinations. Most patients had a typical presentation of persisting pruritic subcutaneous nodules. Five children had a complex diagnostic process involving paediatricians, orthopaedics and plastic surgeons. Two patients had skin biopsies performed from their skin lesions, and 2 patients had the nodules surgically removed. Forty-two children had a patch-test performed with 2% aluminium chloride hexahydrate in petrolatum and 39 of them (92%) had a positive reaction. The persistent skin reactions were treated with potent topical corticosteroids and disappeared slowly. Although we advised families to continue vaccination of their children, one-third of parents omitted or postponed further vaccinations.

  1. Time between skin incision and delivery during cesarean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, Jana N; Hall, David; Harvey, Justin

    2013-04-01

    To investigate factors influencing skin incision-to-delivery time (including sub-divisions thereof) and the effect of these surgical intervals on immediate neonatal outcome. A prospective cohort analysis was conducted of all women undergoing cesarean delivery at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, from May 24 to November 2, 2010. Three surgical intervals were evaluated: skin incision to myometrium, myometrium to delivery, and skin incision to delivery. Neonatal outcome was assessed by the 5-minute Apgar score. Of 1120 cesarean deliveries recorded during the study period, 77.2% were emergency procedures, which were performed more quickly at all surgical planes (Pdelivery time was significantly extended among repeat procedures (Pdeliveries. Repeat procedures, adhesions, and obesity prolonged the time taken for cesarean delivery. Nevertheless, the effect of these factors on the 5-minute Apgar score was minimal. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Surgical management of animal bites in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzet-Roumazeille, S; Jayyosi, L; Plenier, Y; Guyot, E; Guillard, T; François, C

    2016-10-01

    Children represent a population at risk, because of their short size, their naivety and their attraction to animals. The face and hands are the most specific locations in young children. Wounds are often multiple. In more than half the cases, the child knows the animal, which are dogs and cats by frequency argument. The bite episode occurs mostly when the child is alone with the pet without direct supervision, while playing or stroking the animal. As in all bites, pediatric lesions are infectious, functional and aesthetic emergencies, but the goal of this work was primarily to make a point on principles of surgical management of animal bites in children, highlighting pediatric specificities. Animal bites require psychological, anesthetic and surgical treatment, adapted to the child, in a specialized structure. Hospitalization and general anesthesia are more frequent in children. Any suspicion of mistreatment (and/or abuse) should lead to the child's hospitalization, even if wounds do not justify monitoring in a surgical environment. Emergency surgery is essential to limit functional and aesthetic consequences. The healing capacities of the child and the frequent lack of co-morbidity allow a conservative surgical treatment with suture, repositioning skin flaps and controlled healing in the first place. Immobilization, drainage, and antibiotics will complete the surgery. The healing process, however, leads to a specific management during scar remodeling phase and growth. Psychological care of the child and parents should not be forgotten, and has to start at the same time as surgical treatment at in acute phase.

  3. Comprehensive Surgical Approaches to Management of Various Facial Nevi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-gen Hu; Hai-huan Ma; Yan-yong Zhao; Qing-hua Yang

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the flexible surgical approaches on therapeutic and cosmetic outcomes of facial nevi.Methods From August 2002 to January 2008, 16 cases with facial nevi had been treated in our wards with the selected approaches. Surgical approaches including serial excision or one-time radical excision, free skin graft, and expanded flap were adopted in accordance with the individual size and location of the facial nevi. Results All cases experienced complete excision and had satisfactory cosmetic appearance in the end.Conclusion The flexible surgical measures help to minimize the risk of malignant transformation and achieve good cosmetic results.

  4. Mucogingival surgical procedures: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, A; Serio, F G

    1999-07-01

    This article provides an in-depth review of the literature on mucogingival surgical techniques. Indications and contraindications of various surgical procedures are discussed with reference to the literature. Surgical techniques and indications for increasing the zone of keratinized tissue, such as free autogenous grafts, applications of freeze-dried skin, and dermal matrix allografts, are described. Procedures to attain root coverage, such as various autogenous grafts and guided tissue regeneration techniques, along with application of chemicals such as citric acid to improve their success, are also described.

  5. [Sarcoidosis of the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Y; Ogawa, H

    1994-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is characterized by formation of epithelioid-cell tubercules, without caseation, of the affected organ systems. The mediastinum, peripheral lymph nodes and eyes, in addition to the skin, are most frequently affected. Between 10% and 30% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis in Japan have skin lesions. Skin sarcoidosis is morphologically classified into three basic groups, erythema nodosum, scar sarcoidosis and skin sarcoid. Skin sarcoid is characterized by specific cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis, and may take nodular, plaque, angiolupoid, subcutaneous and some other forms. Clinical manifestations of the cutaneous lesions are usually asymptomatic and polymorphous. Skin biopsy is, however, often highly useful for confirming a diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  6. Manual of Surgical Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lidia Sánchez Sarría

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgical instruments are the group of tools used in surgical procedures. They are very expensive and sophisticated. Consequently, a standardized and meticulous care is essential; they should go through the decontamination, cleaning and sterilization process. These instruments are designed in order to provide surgeons with tools that help them to perform a basic surgical procedure; there are multiple variations and the design depends on their function. This paper aims at showing all surgical instruments that can be used in an operating room during surgery and are not generally included in the medical literature.

  7. New strategies for preoperative skin antisepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Miriam; Lademann, Juergen; Patzelt, Alexa; Knorr, Fanny; Kramer, Axel; Koburger, Torsten; Assadian, Ojan; Daeschlein, Georg; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    During the past decades, encouraging progress has been made in the prevention of surgical site infections (SSI). However, as SSI still occur today, strategic prevention measures such as standardized skin antisepsis must be implemented and rigorously promoted. Recent discoveries in skin physiology necessitate the development of novel antiseptic agents and procedures in order to ameliorate their efficacy. In particular, alternate target structures in the skin need to be taken into consideration for the development of the next generation of antiseptics. Recent investigations have shown that a high number of microorganisms are located within and in the close vicinity of the hair follicles. This suggests that these structures are an important reservoir of bacterial growth and activity in human skin. To date, it has not been fully elucidated to what extent conventional liquid antiseptics sufficiently target the hair follicle-related microbial population. Modern technologies such as tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP) have been tested for their potential antiseptic efficiency by reducing the bacterial load in the skin and in the hair follicles. First experiments using liposomes to deliver antiseptics into the hair follicles have been evaluated for their potential clinical application. The present review evaluates these two innovative methods for their efficacy and applicability in preoperative skin antiseptics.

  8. Differentiation between Acute Skin Rejection in Allotransplantation and T-Cell Mediated Skin Inflammation Based on Gene Expression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in microsurgical techniques and immunosuppressive medication have rendered transplantation of vascularized composite allografts possible, when autologous tissue is neither available nor sufficient for reconstruction. However, skin rejection and side effects of long-term immunosuppression still remain a major hurdle for wide adoption of this excellent reconstructive technique. Histopathologic changes during acute skin rejection in vascular composite allotransplantation often mimic inflammatory skin disorders and are hard to distinguish. Hence, the identification of diagnostic and therapeutic markers specific for skin rejection is of particular clinical need. Here we present novel markers allowing for early differentiation between rejection in hind limb allotransplantation and contact hypersensitivity. Assessment of Ccl7, Il18, and Il1b expression is most indicative of distinguishing skin rejection from skin inflammatory disorders. Gene expression levels varied significantly across skin types and regions, indicating localization specific mechanism of leukocyte migration and infiltration. Expression of Il12b, Il17a, and Il1b gene expression levels differed significantly between rejection and inflammation, independent of the skin type. In synopsis of the RNA expression profile and previously assessed protein expression, the Il1 family appears as a promising option for accurate skin rejection diagnosis and, as a following step, for development of novel rejection treatments.

  9. Characterization of hair follicle development in engineered skin substitutes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penkanok Sriwiriyanont

    Full Text Available Generation of skin appendages in engineered skin substitutes has been limited by lack of trichogenic potency in cultured postnatal cells. To investigate the feasibility and the limitation of hair regeneration, engineered skin substitutes were prepared with chimeric populations of cultured human keratinocytes from neonatal foreskins and cultured murine dermal papilla cells from adult GFP transgenic mice and grafted orthotopically to full-thickness wounds on athymic mice. Non-cultured dissociated neonatal murine-only skin cells, or cultured human-only skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts without dermal papilla cells served as positive and negative controls respectively. In this study, neonatal murine-only skin substitutes formed external hairs and sebaceous glands, chimeric skin substitutes formed pigmented hairs without sebaceous glands, and human-only skin substitutes formed no follicles or glands. Although chimeric hair cannot erupt readily, removal of upper skin layer exposed keratinized hair shafts at the skin surface. Development of incomplete pilosebaceous units in chimeric hair corresponded with upregulation of hair-related genes, LEF1 and WNT10B, and downregulation of a marker of sebaceous glands, Steroyl-CoA desaturase. Transepidermal water loss was normal in all conditions. This study demonstrated that while sebaceous glands may be involved in hair eruption, they are not required for hair development in engineered skin substitutes.

  10. Surgical ethics and the challenge of surgical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Surgical ethics as a specific discipline is relatively new to many. Surgical ethics focuses on the ethical issues that are particularly important to the care of surgical patients. Informed consent for surgical procedures, the level of responsibility that surgeons feel for their patients' outcomes, and the management of surgical innovation are specific issues that are important in surgical ethics and are different from other areas of medicine. The future of surgical progress is dependent on surgical innovation, yet the nature of surgical innovation raises specific concerns that challenge the professionalism of surgeons. These concerns will be considered in the following pages.

  11. Recontouring, resurfacing, and scar revision in skin cancer reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Michael J; Perro, Christopher A

    2009-08-01

    Residual disfigurement is a common problem for patients who have undergone skin cancer reconstruction. Restoring form and function in these patients is an artistic and technical endeavor. The efficacy of surgical scar revision, dermabrasion, chemical peels, and laser resurfacing is predicated upon the skin's innate ability to regenerate over time in response to mechanical, chemical, and thermal or ablative stresses. The patient and surgeon should be accepting of a process that is often gradual and may proceed in stages. Achieving proficiency with the secondary procedures for improving scars and local flaps may allow the motivated surgeon to mold an initially passable surgical result into an excellent one.

  12. Learning about Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information, in skin cells, creating "misspellings" in their genetic code and, as a result, alter the function of those cells. Cancers generally are caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. With skin cancer, the environment plays a ...

  13. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Items Awareness Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly ... use this video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly ...

  14. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  15. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  16. Bleeding into the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003235.htm Bleeding into the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bleeding into the skin can occur from broken blood ...

  17. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  18. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  19. Evaluation of 30 patients with gynecomastia surgically treated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Yiyit

    2013-10-01

    Conclusions; Surgery is the most effective  treatment of gynecomastia. The most suitable surgical tecnique should be selected according to the skin redundancy. The target always must be breast reduction by the tecnique to provide the best symmetry and leave at least scar.

  20. Hidradenitis suppurativa : Pathogenesis, burden of disease and surgical strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Ineke Christina

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to gain more knowledge about the cause, burden and surgical treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). HS is a chronic, debilitating inflammatory skin disease affecting the inguinal, axillary and gluteal regions. The disease usually develops after puberty, and the

  1. Hidradenitis suppurativa : Pathogenesis, burden of disease and surgical strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Ineke Christina

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to gain more knowledge about the cause, burden and surgical treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). HS is a chronic, debilitating inflammatory skin disease affecting the inguinal, axillary and gluteal regions. The disease usually develops after puberty, and the

  2. Ceramic subsurface marker prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, C.E. [Rockwell International Corp., Richland, WA (United States). Rockwell Hanford Operations

    1985-05-02

    The client submitted 5 sets of porcelain and stoneware subsurface (radioactive site) marker prototypes (31 markers each set). The following were determined: compressive strength, thermal shock resistance, thermal crazing resistance, alkali resistance, color retention, and chemical resistance.

  3. Changes in mast cell number and stem cell factor expression in human skin after radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, Charlotte B; Freeman, Alex; Rashid, Mohammed; Pearson, Ann; Yarnold, John R; Short, Susan C

    2014-05-01

    Mast cells are involved in the pathogenesis of radiation fibrosis and may be a therapeutic target. The mechanism of increased mast cell number in relation to acute and late tissue responses in human skin was investigated. Punch biopsies of skin 1 and 15-18 months after breast radiotherapy and a contralateral control biopsy were collected. Mast cells were quantified by immunohistochemistry using the markers c-Kit and tryptase. Stem cell factor (SCF) and collagen-1 expression was analysed by qRT-PCR. Clinical photographic scores were performed at post-surgical baseline and 18 months and 5 years post-radiotherapy. Primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cell (HDMEC) cultures were exposed to 2Gy ionising radiation and p53 and SCF expression was analysed by Western blotting and ELISA. Dermal mast cell numbers were increased at 1 (p=0.047) and 18 months (p=0.040) using c-Kit, and at 18 months (p=0.024) using tryptase immunostaining. Collagen-1 mRNA in skin was increased at 1 month (p=0.047) and 18 months (p=0.032) and SCF mRNA increased at 1 month (p=0.003). None of 16 cases scored had a change in photographic appearance at 5 years, compared to baseline. SCF expression was not increased in HDMECs irradiated in vitro. Increased mast cell number was associated with up-regulated collagen-1 expression in human skin at early and late time points. This increase could be secondary to elevated SCF expression at 1 month after radiotherapy. Although mast cells accumulate around blood vessels, no endothelial cell secretion of SCF was seen after in vitro irradiation. Modification of mast cell number and collagen-1 expression may be observed in skin at 1 and 18 months after radiotherapy in breast cancer patients with no change in photographic breast appearance at 5 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recognizing surgical patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, L.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, each year over 1700 patients die from preventable surgical errors. Numerous initiatives to improve surgical practice have had some impact, but problems persist. Despite the introduction of checklists and protocols, patient safety in surgery remains a continuing challenge. This is

  5. Surgical medical record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, S.

    2008-01-01

    A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15......A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15...

  6. [Remote results of surgical treatment of aging ptosis of face and neck tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezrokhin, V M; Pavlovich, V A

    2008-01-01

    Remote results of surgical treatment of patients with aging ptosis of face and neck tissues during 15 years are presented. Results were good there where suggested incisions marking was carried out and for those face and neck skin regions which should be corrected. Unsatisfactory results were received in the cases when wounds edges were sewn by uninterrupted blanket sutures without skin deeper layers fixing.

  7. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology.

  8. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Experts do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is ...

  9. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  10. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  11. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing

  12. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing

  13. PPD skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test; Mantoux test Images Tuberculosis in the kidney Tuberculosis in the lung Positive PPD skin test PPD skin test References Chernecky CC, Berger ... test, purified protein derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, tuberculosis test) - diagnostic. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. ...

  14. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  15. The Role of Carotenoids in Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theognosia Vergou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The human skin, as the boundary organ between the human body and the environment, is under the constant influence of free radicals (FR, both from the outside in and from the inside out. Carotenoids are known to be powerful antioxidant substances playing an essential role in the reactions of neutralization of FR (mainly reactive oxygen species ROS. Carotenoid molecules present in the tissue are capable of neutralizing several attacks of FR, especially ROS, and are then destroyed. Human skin contains carotenoids, such as α-, γ-, β-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and their isomers, which serve the living cells as a protection against oxidation. Recent studies have reported the possibility to investigate carotenoids in human skin quickly and non-invasively by spectroscopic means. Results obtained from in-vivo studies on human skin have shown that carotenoids are vital components of the antioxidative protective system of the human skin and could serve as marker substances for the overall antioxidative status. Reflecting the nutritional and stress situation of volunteers, carotenoids must be administered by means of antioxidant-rich products, e.g., in the form of fruit and vegetables. Carotenoids are degraded by stress factors of any type, inter alia, sun radiation, contact with environmental hazards, illness, etc. The kinetics of the accumulation and degradation of carotenoids in the skin have been investigated.

  16. Acne - a potential skin marker of internal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Joseph L

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder in adult women. Hyperandrogenism is the crux of the pathogenesis of both acne and hirsutism, the most frequent clinical presentations of the syndrome. The chronic anovulation that may occur, often but not always associated with enlarged cystic ovaries, has long been recognized as an important feature of PCOS. In recent years major changes have occurred with regard to PCOS: Although management of the common cutaneous manifestations, mainly acne, hirsutism, alopecia, and acanthosis nigricans, remains strictly within the realm of daily dermatologic practice, the pendulum is shifting toward greater awareness of the longer-term systemic implications of PCOS, with emphasis on the unique opportunity and privileged position of the dermatologist to diagnose this potentially serious problem at an early stage, when effective long-term treatment can be instituted. Patients need to be advised that PCOS cannot be cured but can be controlled. Management should involve a multidisciplinary team with emphasis on lifestyle change, insulin sensitizing agents, androgen blockers, and attention to specific cutaneous manifestations.

  17. [The clinical use of cryopreserved human skin allografts for transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Flores, Francisco; Chacón-Gómez, María; Madinaveitia-Villanueva, Juan Antonio; Barrera-Lopez, Araceli; Aguirre-Cruz, Lucinda; Querevalu-Murillo, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The biological recovery of human skin allografts is the gold standard for preservation in Skin Banks. However, there is no worldwide consensus about specific allocation criteria for preserved human skin allografts with living cells. A report is presented on the results of 5 years of experience of using human skin allografts in burned patient in the Skin and Tissue Bank at the "Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion" The human skin allografts were obtained from multi-organ donors. processed and preserved at -80 °C for 12 months. Allocation criteria were performed according to blood type match, clinical history, and burned body surface. Up to now, the Skin and Tissue Bank at 'Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion" has processed and recovered 125,000 cm(2) of human skin allografts. It has performed 34 surgical implants on 21 burned patients. The average of burn body surface was 59.2%. More than two-thirds (67.7%) of recipients of skin allografts were matched of the same to type blood of the donor, and 66.6% survived after 126 days hospital stay. It is proposed to consider recipient's blood group as allocation criteria to assign tissue; and use human skin allografts on patiens affected with burns over 30% of body surface (according the "rule of the 9"). Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Using gloves coated with a dermal therapy formula to improve skin condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Deborah D; Harper, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-one health care workers, of whom 24 (77%) were perioperative nurses, evaluated a new nonlatex surgical glove with a coating consisting of ingredients clinically proven to have beneficial effects on skin health. In this one-day, clinical self-assessment study, nurses and other health care workers compared the condition of the skin on their hands before and after wearing these surgical gloves. Eighty-one percent of the perioperative nurses and health care workers rated the skin on the hand that had worn the glove as less dry than it had been at baseline. Sixty-five percent rated their skin as more hydrated, and 58% rated their skin as smoother and more supple after wearing a surgical glove coated with a dermal therapy formulation.

  19. Using skin to assess iron accumulation in human metabolic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinote, I. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Fleming, R. [Imunohaemotherapy Department, Hospital de St. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, R. [Dermatology Department, Hospital de St. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Filipe, P. [Dermatology Department, Hospital de St. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, J.N. [Dermatology Department, Hospital de St. Maria, Lisbon (Portugal); Verissimo, A. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Napoleao, P. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisbon (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisbon (Portugal); Pinheiro, T. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal) and Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: murmur@itn.pt

    2006-08-15

    The distribution of Fe in skin was assessed to monitor body Fe status in human hereditary hemochromatosis. The paper reports on data from nine patients with hemochromatosis that were studied along the therapeutic programme. Systemic evaluation of Fe metabolism was carried out by measuring with PIXE technique the Fe concentration in plasma and blood cells, and by determining with biochemical methods the indicators of Fe transport in serum (ferritin and transferrin). The Fe distribution and concentration in skin was assessed by nuclear microscopy and Fe deposits in liver estimated through nuclear magnetic resonance. Elevated Fe concentrations in skin were related to increased plasma Fe (p < 0.004), serum ferritin content (p < 0.01) and Fe deposits in liver (p < 0.004). The relationship of Fe deposits in organs and metabolism markers may help to better understand Fe pools mobilisation and to establish the quality of skin as a marker for the disease progression and therapy efficacy.

  20. Using skin to assess iron accumulation in human metabolic disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinote, I.; Fleming, R.; Silva, R.; Filipe, P.; Silva, J. N.; Veríssimo, A.; Napoleão, P.; Alves, L. C.; Pinheiro, T.

    2006-08-01

    The distribution of Fe in skin was assessed to monitor body Fe status in human hereditary hemochromatosis. The paper reports on data from nine patients with hemochromatosis that were studied along the therapeutic programme. Systemic evaluation of Fe metabolism was carried out by measuring with PIXE technique the Fe concentration in plasma and blood cells, and by determining with biochemical methods the indicators of Fe transport in serum (ferritin and transferrin). The Fe distribution and concentration in skin was assessed by nuclear microscopy and Fe deposits in liver estimated through nuclear magnetic resonance. Elevated Fe concentrations in skin were related to increased plasma Fe (p serum ferritin content (p < 0.01) and Fe deposits in liver (p < 0.004). The relationship of Fe deposits in organs and metabolism markers may help to better understand Fe pools mobilisation and to establish the quality of skin as a marker for the disease progression and therapy efficacy.

  1. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  2. Surgical ethics: surgical virtue and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercler, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    The encounter between a patient and her surgeon is unique for several reasons. The surgeon inflicts pain upon a patient for the patient's own good. An operative intervention is irreducibly personal, such that the decisions about and performance of operations are inseparable from the idiosyncrasies of the individual surgeon. Furthermore, there is a chasm of knowledge between the patient and surgeon that is difficult to cross. Hence, training in the discipline of surgery includes the inculcation of certain virtues and practices to safeguard against abuses of this relationship and to make sure that the best interests of the patient are prioritized. The stories in this issue are evidence that in contemporary practice this is not quite enough, as surgeons reflect on instances they felt were ethically challenging. Common themes include the difficulty in communicating surgical uncertainty, patient-surgeon relationships, ethical issues in surgical training, and the impact of the technological imperative on caring for dying patients.

  3. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  4. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z About Melanoma Skin Cancer What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma ... Policy . About Melanoma Skin Cancer What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma ...

  5. [Localized bacterial skin infections and dermatologic manifestations of systemic infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, W; Itin, P

    1992-04-01

    Localized bacterial skin infections are frequent. In furunculosis, a local treatment is usually sufficient. In case of frequent recurrence a possible staphylococcus aureus colonization should be looked for and eliminated. Erysipela is treated by systemic antibiotics in order to avoid complications such as streptococcal gangrena or parainfectious glomerulonephritis. Anaerobic cellulitis and gas gangrena are postoperative or posttraumatic infections of the soft tissues which require a combined surgical and antibiotic treatment. Systemic infections may be recognized by characteristic skin lesions. These skin lesions are the consequence of bacterial emboli, vasculitis, intravascular coagulation or toxins, respectively. Examples for such manifestations are lesions in endocarditis, purpura fulminans, ekthyma gangrenosum, disseminated candidemia and toxic shock syndrome.

  6. Multiscale Surgical Telerobots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R R; Seward, K P; Benett, W J; Tendick, F; Bentley, L; Stephan, P L

    2002-01-23

    A project was undertaken to improve robotic surgical tools for telerobotic minimally invasive surgery. The major objectives were to reduce the size of the tools to permit new surgical procedures in confined spaces such as the heart and to improve control of surgical tools by locating positional sensors and actuators at the end effector rather than external to the patient as is currently the state of the technology. A new compact end-effector with wrist-like flexibility was designed. Positional sensors based on MEMS microfabrication techniques were designed.

  7. Surgical Treatment of Anorectal Crohn Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert T.; Bleier, Joshua I. S.

    2013-01-01

    Crohn disease involves the perineum and rectum in approximately one-third of patients. Symptoms can range from mild, including skin tags and hemorrhoids, to unremitting and severe, requiring a proctectomy in a small, but significant, portion. Fistula-in-ano and perineal sepsis are the most frequent manifestation seen on presentation. Careful diagnosis, including magnetic resonance imaging or endorectal ultrasound with examination under anesthesia and aggressive medical management, usually with a tumor necrosis factor-alpha, is critical to success. Several options for definitive surgical repair are discussed, including fistulotomy, fibrin glue, anal fistula plug, endorectal advancement flap, and ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract procedure. All suffer from decreased efficacy in patients with Crohn disease. In the presence of active proctitis or perineal disease, no surgical therapy other than drainage of abscesses and loose seton placement is recommended, as iatrogenic injury and poor wound healing are common in that scenario. PMID:24436656

  8. [Noma. Proposal for a surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D; Pinsolle, V; Pelissier, Ph; Barthelemy, I; Weis, C; Baudet, J

    2004-06-01

    The authors present their experience of surgical treatment of noma in situation of surgical camp. The strategy is focused on two objectives: treatment of tissue loss itself and treatment of the trismus. After having presented the means at disposal, going from local flaps, quickly exceeded, to distant flaps, they decided upon the indications by taking in account the NOILTULP classification. Thus, the authors present their experience of fascia temporalis skin grafted for oral lining in combination with the submental or Backamjian flap for external coverage. The treatment of the trismus is less codified requiring osteotomies in stages 3 and 4. They finally insist first on the prevention of this disease, very accessible to antibiotics at the initial stage of stomatitis and second on simple means very efficient to prevent the trismus which impairs heavily the functional outcome of the reconstructions.

  9. Human Dark Skin and Equatorial Africa: Toward a Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain K. Cibangu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While skin color represents one of the most common markers of humans, the theories that explain it remain largely unknown both in academia and industry. Meanwhile, fraught with theoretical shortcomings about skin color, as clear from its body of knowledge, racial studies has not addressed skin color with needed attention. Consequently, misconceptions about human skin color have proliferated. This paper discusses anew Gloger’s theory and its widespread impact in the social sciences and general public. Gloger explained dark skin by heat. Not surprisingly, dark skin is believed to be the product of and response to ultra violet radiation in Equatorial Africa. One reason might be the fixation of the debate on the white-black binary. Another reason might be the commonplace belief about the African heat. The present paper calls into question the Equator-Africa presentation of black skin. To this end, the paper situates the debate in the broader spectrum of social science disciplines, and investigates the ways in which black skin is presented. The paper advocates for the consideration of skin complexity and of minorities in the field of skin color. The goal is to work toward a deeper understanding of others and their traits, with a view to raise awareness among policy makers, the general public, and social science experts. The paper takes an encyclopedic approach to best cater to these audiences.

  10. Development of a forensic skin colour predictive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroñas, Olalla; Phillips, Chris; Söchtig, Jens; Gomez-Tato, Antonio; Cruz, Raquel; Alvarez-Dios, José; de Cal, María Casares; Ruiz, Yarimar; Fondevila, Manuel; Carracedo, Ángel; Lareu, María V

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in skin colour prediction in the forensic field. However, a lack of consensus approaches for recording skin colour phenotype plus the complicating factors of epistatic effects, environmental influences such as exposure to the sun and unidentified genetic variants, present difficulties for the development of a forensic skin colour predictive test centred on the most strongly associated SNPs. Previous studies have analysed skin colour variation in single unadmixed population groups, including South Asians (Stokowski et al., 2007, Am. J. Hum. Genet, 81: 1119-32) and Europeans (Jacobs et al., 2013, Hum Genet. 132: 147-58). Nevertheless, a major challenge lies in the analysis of skin colour in admixed individuals, where co-ancestry proportions do not necessarily dictate any one person's skin colour. Our study sought to analyse genetic differences between African, European and admixed African-European subjects where direct spectrometric measurements and photographs of skin colour were made in parallel. We identified strong associations to skin colour variation in the subjects studied from a pigmentation SNP discovery panel of 59 markers and developed a forensic online classifier based on naïve Bayes analysis of the SNP profiles made. A skin colour predictive test is described using the ten most strongly associated SNPs in 8 genes linked to skin pigmentation variation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Surgical interventions of the nail organ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, A; Petres, J

    1990-10-01

    The nails are the largest appendage of the skin. They provide protection of the tactile regions of the fingers; moreover, well cared-for nails are an attribute of beauty. Operations of the nails should, therefore, regard both functional and cosmetic aspects. Surgical procedures are indicated in the case of nail deformities, bacterial or mycotic infections, as well as pigmentation of the nail wall or plate, and periungual or subungual tumors, which are always suspicious of malignant melanoma. All operations of the nail region can be performed in Oberst's anesthesia. We recommend the preoperative application of a tourniquet to stop the blood flow.

  12. Surgical management of complications of multimodal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Chan-Hon

    2012-08-01

    Multimodality therapies that include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and various newer forms of targeted therapies have been commonly applied in childhood cancers. Such modalities are associated with complications that may adversely affect the outcome of cancer treatment. Acute complications that require surgical management form the focus of our discussion. These patients are often compromised by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia, and malnutrition. The complications discussed include typhlitis, invasive aspergillosis (IA), pancreatitis, hemorrhagic cystitis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, necrotizing skin and soft-tissue infections, and perianal infection. Familiarity with the spectrum of complications and their appropriate management approaches will minimize the patients' morbidity.

  13. A new surgical technique for ingrown toenail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Khoshnevice, Jaledin

    2012-01-01

    Background. Ingrowing toenails are a common condition which, when recurrent and painful, are often treated surgically. The aim of this study is to present a new simple surgical technique for ingrown toenails with good results. Method and Patients. The selected 250 patients with affected toes were surgically treated by our technique and observed from 1998 to 2004. Marginal nail elevation combined with surgical excision of the granulation tissue was more successful. For fixing the nail margin on the toe we have done one-bite suture by Nylon 3/0 that was removed after 3 weeks. Results. All patients were operated on by our new technique and the outcome was excellent; recurrence and failure of the technique were very low. Discussion. Because with this simple technique we excise the granulation tissue and elevate margin of nail over the skin, we will have higher cure rate, shorter postoperative pain, lower risk of postoperative infection, and remarkable cosmetic result without deformity; hence this technique should be considered as an alternative method of treatment.

  14. Guide to Surgical Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have expertise in the following areas of responsibility: neonatal surgery (specialized knowledge in the surgical repair of ... and non-operative management of certain types of pain. Common conditions managed by neurologic surgeons include disorders ...

  15. Surgical Critical Care Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Surgical Critical Care Initiative (SC2i) is a USU research program established in October 2013 to develop, translate, and validate biology-driven critical care....

  16. Ambulatory Surgical Measures - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Ambulatory Surgical Center Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program seeks to make care safer and more efficient through quality reporting. ASCs eligible for this...

  17. Ambulatory Surgical Measures - Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Ambulatory Surgical Center Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program seeks to make care safer and more efficient through quality reporting. ASCs eligible for this...

  18. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and mortality as well as significant financial implications. Worldwide it has ... common nosocomial infection amongst surgical patients with up to 38% .... antibiotics as soon as the sensitivity results are available. ... Breast surgery. Staph Aureus/ ...

  19. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  20. Molecular marker databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kaitao; Lorenc, Michał Tadeusz; Edwards, David

    2015-01-01

    The detection and analysis of genetic variation plays an important role in plant breeding and this role is increasing with the continued development of genome sequencing technologies. Molecular genetic markers are important tools to characterize genetic variation and assist with genomic breeding. Processing and storing the growing abundance of molecular marker data being produced requires the development of specific bioinformatics tools and advanced databases. Molecular marker databases range from species specific through to organism wide and often host a variety of additional related genetic, genomic, or phenotypic information. In this chapter, we will present some of the features of plant molecular genetic marker databases, highlight the various types of marker resources, and predict the potential future direction of crop marker databases.

  1. Aquaporins in the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravi; Kevin Heard, L; Chen, Xunsheng; Bollag, Wendy B

    2017-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the body, serving as an important barrier between the internal milieu and the external environment. The skin is also one of the first lines of defense against microbial infection and other hazards, and thus, the skin has important immune functions . This organ is composed of many cell types, including immune-active dendritic cells (epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells), connective tissue-generating dermal fibroblasts and pigment-producing melanocytes. Comprising the outer skin layer are the epidermal keratinocytes, the predominant cell of this layer, the epidermis , which provides both a mechanical barrier and a water -permeability barrier. Recent data suggest that aquaporins, a family of barrel-shaped proteins surrounding internal pores that allow the passage of water and, in some family members, small solutes such as glycerol , play critical roles in regulating various skin parameters. The involvement of different aquaporin family members in skin function is discussed.

  2. [Cause and prevention of surgical site infection and hypertrophic scars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Rei

    2012-03-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) occurs at the site of surgery within 1 month of an operation or within 1 year of an operation if a foreign body is implanted as part of the surgery. Most SSIs (about 70%) are superficial infections involving the skin and subcutaneous tissues only. The remaining infections are more serious and can involve tissues under the skin, organs, or implanted material. Hypertrophic scars( HSs) occur frequently on particular sites, including the anterior chest wall. The anterior chest wall is frequently subjected to skin stretching caused by the natural daily movements of the body. Most cases of SSIs and HSs can be prevented by (1) suture technique modification to prevent high stretching tension and ischemia, and (2) appropriate wound care after surgery. It would be useful to avoid subjecting wounded skin to sustained mechanical force, thereby permitting the wound to rest and heal normally.

  3. A summary about dendritic cells in skin diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Huang; Robert Gniadecki

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cellls (DCs) comprise an essential component of the immune system, are crucial in the initiation of antigen specific immune responses. In this summary we focus on summarizing on the central role of DCs in skin diseases: Bullous dermatoses,Dermatitis, Psoriasis, Lichen Planus , Graft-versus-host disease, Connect Tissue Diseases, Virus Diseases, Fungi Diseases, HIV, Urticaria, Urticaria pigmentosa, Mastocytosis, Tumour, Solar dermatoses. Moreover, in this summary we review the distribution and phenotype of DCs in human skin. Markers and phenotyps ' s study have provided strong support for a concept in which DCs play an important role in the pothogenesis of some skin diseases.

  4. Management of Bronchopleural Fistula Complicated by Skin Wound Necrosis after Thoracomyoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Divisi, Duilio; Barone, Mirko; Zaccagna, Gino; Di Francescantonio, William; Crisci, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Skin necrosis is a rare complication after thoracomyoplasty and usually needs conservative treatment. We described positive findings with surgical approach. A 54-year-old man showed bronchopleural fistula after undergoing right pneumonectomy for lung cancer, treated with thoracomyoplasty. On the 20th postoperative day, a skin wound lesion was noted, whose deterioration required a skin flap transposition. Patient was discharged from hospital on the 7th postoperative day and did not sh...

  5. Acceptance of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist among surgical personnel in hospitals in Guatemala city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado Juan J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have highlighted the effects the use of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist can have on lowering mortality and surgical complications. Implementation of the checklist is not easy and several barriers have been identified. Few studies have addressed personnel’s acceptance and attitudes toward the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist. Determining personnel’s acceptance might reflect their intention to use the checklist while their awareness and knowledge of the checklist might assess the effectiveness of the training process. Methods Through an anonymous self- responded questionnaire, general characteristics of the respondents (age, gender, profession and years spent studying or working at the hospital, knowledge of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist (awareness of existence, knowledge of objectives, knowledge of correct use, acceptance of the checklist and its implementation (including personal belief of benefits of using the checklist, current use, teamwork and safety climate appreciation were determined. Results Of the 147 surgical personnel who answered the questionnaire, 93.8% were aware of the existence of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist and 88.8% of them reported knowing its objectives. More nurses than other personnel knew the checklist had to be used before the induction of anesthesia, skin incision, and before the patient leaves the operating room. Most personnel thought using the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist is beneficial and that its implementation was a good decision. Between 73.7% and 100% of nurses in public and private hospitals, respectively, reported the checklist had been used either always or almost always in the general elective surgeries they had participated in during the current year. Conclusions Despite high acceptance of the checklist among personnel, gaps in knowledge about when the checklist should be used still exist. This can jeopardize effective implementation and correct use of the checklist

  6. Investigation of Lipid Oxidation in High- and Low-Lipid-Containing Topical Skin Formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raagaard Thomsen, Birgitte; Frisenfeldt Horn, Anna; Hyldig, G.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Lipid oxidation can impact the odour of skin care products during storage. A study was conducted to identify and monitor representative markers for lipid oxidation in skin care products over time. Four lip care formulations and three skin care formulations with different lipid contents...... were stored at various cosmetic industry-relevant conditions for 84 days. The skin care products were analysed for lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation products. A trained sensory panel performed an odour difference (triangle) test and odour-profiled the products to detect and describe...... odour changes during storage. Several potential markers for lipid oxidation were identified. In skin care formulations, peroxide value (PV) analysis was a useful marker for lipid oxidation if the product was exposed to light during storage, but no clear changes were observed for PV in samples stored...

  7. Basophils and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Granata, Francescopaolo; Marone, Gianni

    2014-05-01

    Since their discovery in 1879, basophils have been viewed as circulating blood granulocytes with limited immune function. New research tools for their functional analysis in vivo have revealed previously unrecognized roles for basophils in several skin disorders. Human basophils infiltrate different skin lesions and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases ranging from chronic idiopathic urticaria to systemic lupus erythematosus. In mouse models, basophils participate in IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation of the skin and have a protective role in tick infestation. In this review, we discuss critical advances in our understanding of basophil biology and their roles in the pathophysiology of skin disorders.

  8. Skin Images Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali E. Zaart

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Image segmentation is a fundamental step in many applications of image processing. Skin cancer has been the most common of all new cancers detected each year. At early stage detection of skin cancer, simple and economic treatment can cure it mostly. An accurate segmentation of skin images can help the diagnosis to define well the region of the cancer. The principal approach of segmentation is based on thresholding (classification that is lied to the problem of the thresholds estimation. Approach: The objective of this study is to develop a method to segment the skin images based on a mixture of Beta distributions. We assume that the data in skin images can be modeled by a mixture of Beta distributions. We used an unsupervised learning technique with Beta distribution to estimate the statistical parameters of the data in skin image and then estimate the thresholds for segmentation. Results: The proposed method of skin images segmentation was implemented and tested on different skin images. We obtained very good results in comparing with the same techniques with Gamma distribution. Conclusion: The experiment showed that the proposed method obtained very good results but it requires more testing on different types of skin images.

  9. Halstedian technique revisited. Innovations in teaching surgical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R W; Lang, N P; Whiteside, M F

    1989-07-01

    This paper reviews the laboratory models used to teach fundamental surgical skills in our general surgery residency. The laboratory modules allow supervision and self-instruction, practice, and videotape monitoring of the following techniques: skin incision, suturing, knot tying, hemostasis, vascular anastomosis, and intestinal anastomosis. Pigs' feet simulate human skin for exercises in skin incision, lesion excision, suturing, and basic plastic surgical techniques. Latex tubing and penrose drains allow experience in suturing, knot tying, and hemostasis. Polytetrafluoroethylene vascular prostheses permit quantification of the precision of needle passage and suturing by measurement of leakage of water through a vascular anastomosis. Reconstituted, lyophilized, irradiated bovine arteries and ileum provide models of biologic tissue for creating handsewn vascular anastomoses and sutured or stapled gastrointestinal anastomoses. A headlamp videocamera allows unobstructive recording of the resident's technical performance and provides subsequent visual feedback for self-improvement when compared to reference instructional videotapes. We feel that these innovations may enhance surgical dexterity of residents without the need for animal sacrifice. Our goal is to foreshorten the learning curve for basic surgical skills and improve performance in the clinical operating room.

  10. Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections in internal medicine wards: old and new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Marco; Concia, Ercole; Giusti, Massimo; Mazzone, Antonino; Santini, Claudio; Stefani, Stefania; Violi, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common cause of hospital admission among elderly patients, and traditionally have been divided into complicated and uncomplicated SSTIs. In 2010, the FDA provided a new classification of these infections, and a new category of disease, named acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), has been proposed as an independent clinical entity. ABSSSIs include three entities: cellulitis and erysipelas, wound infections, and major cutaneous abscesses This paper revises the epidemiology of SSTIs and ABSSSIs with regard to etiologies, diagnostic techniques, and clinical presentation in the hospital settings. Particular attention is owed to frail patients with multiple comorbidities and underlying significant disease states, hospitalized on internal medicine wards or residing in nursing homes, who appear to be at increased risk of infection due to multi-drug resistant pathogens and treatment failures. Management of ABSSSIs and SSTIs, including evaluation of the hemodynamic state, surgical intervention and treatment with appropriate antibiotic therapy are extensively discussed.

  11. Identification of skin immune cells in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Lucille; Rosenbaum, Pierre; Cosma, Antonio; Le Grand, Roger; Martinon, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    The skin is a valuable target for vaccine delivery because it contains many immune cell populations, notably antigen presenting cells. Skin immune cells have been extensively described in mice and humans but not in non-human primates, which are pertinent models for immunological research in vaccination. The aim of this work was to describe immune cell populations in the epidermis, dermis and skin draining lymph nodes in cynomolgus macaques by a single 12-parameter flow cytometry protocol. Given that skin cells share several markers, we defined a gating strategy to identify accurately immune cells and to limit contamination of one immune cell population by another. The epidermis contained CD1a(+)CD1c(-) Langerhans cells (LCs), CD3(+) T cells and putative NK cells. The dermis contained CD1a(+)CD1c(-) cells, which were similar to LCs, CD1a(+)CD1c(+) dermal dendritic cells (DDCs), CD163(high)CD11b(+) resident macrophages, CD3(+) T cells and putative NK cells. The skin also contained CD66(+) polymorphonuclear cells in some animals. Thus, immune cell populations in the macaque are similar to those in humans despite some differences in phenotype. In skin draining lymph nodes, we identified migratory LCs, CD1a(+)CD1c(+) DDCs and macrophages. The simultaneous identification of these different immune cells with one panel of markers avoids the use of large amounts of precious sample and may improve the understanding of immune mechanisms in the skin after treatment or vaccination.

  12. Dynamics of the surgical microbiota along the cardiothoracic surgery pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eRomano-Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human skin associated microbiota are increasingly described by culture-independent methods that showed an unexpected diversity with variation correlated with several pathologies. A role of microbiota disequilibrium in infection occurrence is hypothesized, particularly in surgical site infections. We study the diversities of operative site microbiota and its dynamics during surgical pathway of patients undergoing coronary-artery by-pass graft (CABG. Pre-, per- and post-operative samples were collected from 25 patients: skin before the surgery, superficially and deeply during the intervention, and healing tissues. Bacterial diversity was assessed by DNA fingerprint using 16S rRNA gene PCR and Temporal Temperature Gel Electrophoresis (TTGE. The diversity of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs at the surgical site was analyzed according to the stage of surgery.From all patients and samples, we identified 147 different OTUs belonging to the 6 phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria and Fusobacteria. High variations were observed among patients but common themes can be observed. The Firmicutes dominated quantitatively but were largely encompassed by the Proteobacteria regarding the OTUs diversity. The genera Propionibacterium and Staphylococcus predominated on the preoperative skin, whereas very diverse Proteobacteria appeared selected in peri-operative samples. The resilience in scar skin was partial with depletion in Actinobacteria and Firmicutes and increase of Gram-negative bacteria. Finally, the thoracic operative site presents an unexpected bacterial diversity, which is partially common to skin microbiota but presents particular dynamics. We described a complex bacterial community that gathers pathobiontes and bacteria deemed to be environmental, opportunistic pathogens and non-pathogenic bacteria. These data stress to consider surgical microbiota as a pathobiome rather than a reservoir of individual

  13. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  14. Skin changes following organ transplantation: an interdisciplinary challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Claas; Arnold, Renate; Frei, Ulrich; Hetzer, Roland; Neuhaus, Peter; Stockfleth, Eggert

    2014-03-14

    The immunosuppressants used in transplantation medicine significantly elevate the incidence of neoplasia, particularly in the skin. The cumulative incidence of non-melanocytic skin cancer (NMSC) in renal transplant recipients was 20.5% in a study carried out in German centers. Data on more than 35 000 renal transplant recipients in the USA document a cumulative NMSC incidence of over 7% after 3 years of immunosuppression. The authors selectively review publications obtained by a PubMed search to discuss the incidence of, and major risk factors for, skin tumors and infectious diseases of the skin in immunosuppressed patients. The main risk factors for skin tumors are age at the time of transplantation, light skin color, previous and present exposure to sunlight, and the type and duration of immunosuppressive treatment. Squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common kind of skin tumor in immunosuppressed patients. Human herpesvirus 8 and Merkel-cell polyoma virus also cause neoplasia more often in immunosuppressed patients than in the general population. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Actinic keratosis markedly elevates the risk that SCC will arise in the same skin area (odds ratio 18.36, 95% confidence interval 3.03-111). Patients with multiple actinic keratoses can be treated with photodynamic therapy or with acitretin. To lower the skin cancer risk, organ transplant recipients should apply medical screening agents with a sun protection factor of at least 50 to exposed skin areas every day. 55% to 97% of organ transplant recipients have skin infections; these are treated according to their respective types. Squamous-cell carcinoma of the skin adds to the morbidity and mortality of transplant recipients and is therefore among the major oncological challenges in this patient group. Structured concepts for interdisciplinary care enable risk-adapted treatment.

  15. Facial plexiform neurofibromatosis: A surgical challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat B Dogra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plexiform neurofibromatosis is a relatively common but potentially devastating manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. It produces very hideous deformity if the face is involved. Surgical management remains the mainstay of therapy, but in the head and neck region it is limited by the infiltrating nature of these tumors, inherent operative morbidity and high rate of regrowth. We present two cases of facial neurofibromatosis managed in our hospital. The first patient presented with overhanging mass of skin folds on the right side of her face, completely obliterating her right eye. The other patient was a young male having a huge, unsightly swelling over the right cheek, resulting in pulled down right eyelids and right pinna. Physical examination revealed the presence of café au lait macules, freckling in the axillary region and multiple neurofibromas over the trunk. Reconstructive surgical procedure in the form of subtotal excision of tumor mass followed by re draping of the facial skin was performed in both cases. There was evidence of regrowth of the tumor on review after 6 months.

  16. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2012-01-01

    The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... and 28 students from 2010). Our results show that anxiety levels in veterinary students are significantly higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course (p...

  17. Role of adipose-derived stromal cells in pedicle skin flap survival in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroglou, Pericles; Karathanasis, Vasileios; Demiri, Efterpi; Koliakos, George; Papadakis, Marios

    2016-03-26

    The use of skin flaps in reconstructive surgery is the first-line surgical treatment for the reconstruction of skin defects and is essentially considered the starting point of plastic surgery. Despite their excellent usability, their application includes general surgical risks or possible complications, the primary and most common is necrosis of the flap. To improve flap survival, researchers have used different methods, including the use of adipose-derived stem cells, with significant positive results. In our research we will report the use of adipose-derived stem cells in pedicle skin flap survival based on current literature on various experimental models in animals.

  18. Role of adipose-derived stromal cells in pedicle skin flap survival in experimental animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pericles; Foroglou; Vasileios; Karathanasis; Efterpi; Demiri; George; Koliakos; Marios; Papadakis

    2016-01-01

    The use of skin flaps in reconstructive surgery is the first-line surgical treatment for the reconstruction of skin defects and is essentially considered the starting point of plastic surgery. Despite their excellent usability, their application includes general surgical risks or possible complications, the primary and most common is necrosis of the flap. To improve flap survival, researchers have used different methods, including the use of adiposederived stem cells, with significant positive results. In our research we will report the use of adipose-derived stem cells in pedicle skin flap survival based on current literature on various experimental models in animals.

  19. Skin autofluorescence as a biological UVR dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandby-Møller, J; Thieden, E; Philipsen, P A; Heydenreich, J; Wulf, H C

    2004-02-01

    Collagen is one of the major endogenous skin fluorophores. Alteration in the structure of collagen due to chronic ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure may influence the intensity of the autofluorescence. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between collagen-linked autofluorescence and sun exposure to clarify whether the skin can be used as a biological UVR dosimeter. We conducted an in vivo study with 131 healthy volunteers. Fluorescence was measured from sun-exposed (dorsal forearm, forehead and shoulder) and sun-protected (buttock) skin and corrected for the impact of pigmentation and redness. The excitation wavelengths (Ex) and emission wavelengths (Em) were: Ex330:Em370, Ex330:Em455 and Ex370:Em455 nm. Individual UVR exposure data were collected both retrospectively and prospectively using questionnaires and electronic personal UVR dosimeters for a summer period. Age, but not sex, skin type or smoking habits correlated significantly positively with skin autofluorescence at Ex370:Em455 at all body sites (P<0.001, r(2)=0.08-0.26), and at Ex330:Em455 only at the buttock (P=0.001, r(2)=0.08), whereas age was not correlated with Ex330:Em370. Sun-protected buttock skin had significantly higher autofluorescence than sun-exposed skin (P-values<0.0001). Because of great between-subject differences in autofluorescence at different body sites, and because the autofluorescence at the unexposed buttock represents the baseline value, individual correction of skin autofluorescence measurement with that of the buttock was performed. Different measures of individual chronic cumulative UVR doses correlated significantly negatively with the skin autofluorescence ratio (F(ratio)), but the correlations were poor (r(2)=0.03-0.10). The results indicate that the collagen-linked skin F(ratio) might be best to use as a measure of individual photodamage, a UVR dose effect, and that it is also a better marker of individual cumulative UVR dose than the used UVR exposure

  20. Surgical bleeding in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M. R.; Billica, R. D.; Johnston, S. L. 3rd

    1993-01-01

    A surgical procedure performed during space flight would occur in a unique microgravity environment. Several experiments performed during weightlessness in parabolic flight were reviewed to ascertain the behavior of surgical bleeding in microgravity. Simulations of bleeding using dyed fluid and citrated bovine blood, as well as actual arterial and venous bleeding in rabbits, were examined. The high surface tension property of blood promotes the formation of large fluid domes, which have a tendency to adhere to the wound. The use of sponges and suction will be adequate to prevent cabin atmosphere contamination with all bleeding, with the exception of temporary arterial droplet streams. The control of the bleeding with standard surgical techniques should not be difficult.

  1. Surgical management of presbyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torricelli AA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available André AM Torricelli, Jackson B Junior, Marcony R Santhiago, Samir J BecharaDivision of Ophthalmology, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Presbyopia, the gradual loss of accommodation that becomes clinically significant during the fifth decade of life, is a physiologic inevitability. Different technologies are being pursued to achieve surgical correction of this disability; however, a number of limitations have prevented widespread acceptance of surgical presbyopia correction, such as optical and visual distortion, induced corneal ectasia, haze, anisometropy with monovision, regression of effect, decline in uncorrected distance vision, and the inherent risks with invasive techniques, limiting the development of an ideal solution. The correction of the presbyopia and the restoration of accommodation are considered the final frontier of refractive surgery. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update about current procedures available for presbyopia correction, their advantages, and disadvantages.Keywords: presbyopia, surgical correction, treatment

  2. Surgical Treatment of Giant Recurrent Breast Phyllodes Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiru LI; Yungong YANG; Jiandong WANG; Bing MA; Yuanchao JIN; Rong LI

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a recurrent massive phyllodes tumor of the breast was surgically removed and the grafting was used to repair the local skin defects. A 29-y female patient had recurring breast phyllodes tumor of extremely large size in the chest wall after the excision of a previous tumor. The massive phyllodes tumor was eliminated by completely removing the layers of the skin and tissues above the costal bones with incisal margin being 2 cm away from the tumor lesion. The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap, lateral thoracic skin flap, and rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap were grafted to replace the lost tissues due to the surgery. Anti-infection and anticoagulation treatments were used after the surgery. The graft flaps had sufficient blood supply and good blood circulation,and the incisions mostly healed. The outcome of the surgery was acceptable. For the surgical treatment of the massive phyllodes tumor in the chest wall, it is an alternative of choice to use latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap, lateral thoracic skin flap and rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in combination for skin grafting.

  3. Optical Tracking With Two Markers for Robust Prospective Motion Correction for Brain Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya; Zahneisen, Benjamin; Keating, Brian; Herbst, Michael; Chang, Linda; Zaitsev, Maxim; Ernst, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Object Prospective motion correction (PMC) during brain imaging using camera-based tracking of a skin-attached marker may suffer from problems including loss of marker visibility due to the coil and false correction due to non-rigid-body facial motion, such as frowning or squinting. A modified PMC system is introduced to mitigate these problems and increase the robustness of motion correction. Materials and Methods The method relies on simultaneously tracking two markers, each providing six degrees of freedom, that are placed on the forehead. This allows us to track head motion when one marker is obscured, and detect skin movements to prevent false corrections. Experiments were performed to compare the performance of the two-marker motion correction technique to the previous single-marker approach. Results Experiments validate the theory developed for adaptive marker tracking and skin movement detection, and demonstrate improved image quality during obstruction of the line-of-sight of one marker, when subjects squint, or when subjects squint and move simultaneously. Conclusion The proposed methods eliminate two common failure modes of PMC and substantially improve the robustness of PMC and can be applied to other optical tracking systems capable of tracking multiple markers. The methods presented can be adapted to the use of more than two markers. PMID:26121941

  4. Bathing in a magnesium-rich Dead Sea salt solution improves skin barrier function, enhances skin hydration, and reduces inflammation in atopic dry skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, Ehrhardt; Nissen, Hans-Peter; Bremgartner, Markus; Urquhart, Colin

    2005-02-01

    Magnesium salts, the prevalent minerals in Dead Sea water, are known to exhibit favorable effects in inflammatory diseases. We examined the efficacy of bathing atopic subjects in a salt rich in magnesium chloride from deep layers of the Dead Sea (Mavena(R) Dermaline Mg(46) Dead Sea salt, Mavena AG, Belp, Switzerland). Volunteers with atopic dry skin submerged one forearm for 15 min in a bath solution containing 5% Dead Sea salt. The second arm was submerged in tap water as control. Before the study and at weeks 1-6, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, skin roughness, and skin redness were determined. We found one subgroup with a normal and one subgroup with an elevated TEWL before the study. Bathing in the Dead Sea salt solution significantly improved skin barrier function compared with the tap water-treated control forearm in the subgroup with elevated basal TEWL. Skin hydration was enhanced on the forearm treated with the Dead Sea salt in each group, which means the treatment moisturized the skin. Skin roughness and redness of the skin as a marker for inflammation were significantly reduced after bathing in the salt solution. This demonstrates that bathing in the salt solution was well tolerated, improved skin barrier function, enhanced stratum corneum hydration, and reduced skin roughness and inflammation. We suggest that the favorable effects of bathing in the Dead Sea salt solution are most likely related to the high magnesium content. Magnesium salts are known to bind water, influence epidermal proliferation and differentiation, and enhance permeability barrier repair.

  5. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  6. Dark Skin No Shield from Deadly Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166194.html Dark Skin No Shield From Deadly Skin Cancer Death rates from melanoma are higher for people of color, skin expert says To use the sharing features on ...

  7. Parasites and the skin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-11

    Jun 11, 2009 ... remind you of those rare and wonderful infestations that you might never see. ... from a burrow, mounted on a glass slide. The findings are ... Parasitic infections may be confined to the skin or may have skin involvement as part ...

  8. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der E.; Zeng, X.; Masen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is fre

  9. Deformable skinning on bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Petersen, Kim Steen; Jakobsen, Bjarke

    2001-01-01

    Applying skin to a model is a relatively simple task to implement. Nonetheless it seems that no good resource exists that describes both the concepts and math necessary to understand and implement skinning. The intention of this article is an attempt to give a thoroughly description...

  10. Expanded retroauricular skin and fascial flap in congenital microtia reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingguo; Quan, Yuzhu; Su, Yuanda; Shi, Lei; Xie, Yangchun; Liu, Xinhai

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this article is to report the application of expanding retroauricular skin fascia flap, and autogenous costal cartilage for congenital microtia reconstruction. Microtia reconstruction was generally completed in 3 surgical stages. In the first surgical stage, a 50 or 80 mL kidney-shaped tissue expander was inserted subcutaneously in the retroauricular mastoid region. Inflation of saline volume increased up to 60 to 80 mL, and skin flap was expanded for 2 to 3 months postoperatively. In the second surgical stage, removal of tissue expander, formation of retroauricular skin flap, elevation of retroauricular fascia flap, and pedicles of both flaps in remnant ear side were performed. Costal cartilage was harvested from ipsilateral side chest to the ear for reconstruction. The 3D ear framework was sculpted with stabilization of structure, contour and erection. Simultaneously, intermediate full thickness skin graft of 4 x 8 cm was obtained from previous incision site from where costal cartilage was harvested. Cartilage ear framework was anchored between skin flap and fascia flap, and fixed it symmetrically to the opposite normal ear, inferior portion of the ear framework was wrapped by remnant ear lobule, expanded skin flap covered the anterior portion of the framework, fascial flap was draped to the posterior side of framework and helical rim, then fascial flap was surfaced by intermediate full thickness skin graft. Suction drain was inserted and coated between skin flap and framework, drain was removed fifth postoperative day. Tragus construction and conchal excavation with skin graft was performed in the third stage of microtia reconstruction. Between October 2000 and October 2007, 426 cases were diagnosed as unilateral microtia patients and 22 cases were bilateral microtia patients. Therefore, 448 microtia ears were treated with tissue expander and autogenous costal cartilage. In 262 cases, structure of the helix, tragus, conchal excavation

  11. Clinical Study on the Etiology of Postthyroidectomy Skin Sinus Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Jin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thyroidectomy is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures worldwide. Despite technical advances and high experience of thyroidectomy of specialized centers, it is still burdened by a significant rate of postoperative complications. Among them, the skin sinus formation is an extremely rare postthyroidectomy complication. Here, we first report the incidence of the skin sinus formation after thyroidectomy to identify the causes for skin sinus formation after thyroidectomy and to discuss its prevention and treatment options. Methods. A retrospective analysis was carried out of patients who underwent excision operation of fistula for postthyroidectomy skin sinus formation. Data were retrieved from medical records department of the Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University. Results. Of the 5,686 patients who underwent thyroid surgery, only 5 patients (0.088% had developed skin sinus formation. All 5 patients successfully underwent complete excision of fistula. Conclusion. Infection, foreign body, thyroid surgery procedure, combined disease, and iatrogenic factors may be related with skin sinus formation after thyroidectomy. To reduce the recurrence of postoperative infections and sinus formation, intra- and postoperative compliance with aseptic processing, intraoperative use absorbable surgical suture/ligature, repeated irrigation and drainage, and postoperative administration of anti-inflammatory treatment are to be followed.

  12. Cumulative life course impairment in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaserico, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Patients with skin cancer remain at risk for disease progression or relapse for many years. Therefore, skin cancer may be considered a chronic, life-threatening disease. It could impact on patients lifestyles and social and professional activities. Although no direct study of cumulative life course impairment (CLCI) in skin cancer patients has been carried out, a few studies suggest that skin cancer may strongly impair quality of life and eventually determine a significant CLCI (melanoma more than nonmelanoma skin cancer). Obviously, the life course of patients with melanoma at an advanced stage of the disease may change considerably. A number of cancer-associated problems may determine a CLCI, including familial or professional changes and a reduction of life expectancy may eventually lead to social withdrawal and depressive disorders. Even patients with a low stage disease may experience an important impairment of quality of life and in some cases a CLCI. Some skin cancer patients may have physical and psychological after effects from their cancer surgery. Several patients complain about lymphedema, discomfort experienced from wearing surgical stockings, and diminished range of physical motion postsurgery. A few are concerned about their body image due to surgical scars, and they may consider changing their job position because of the supposed negative impact of scars in visible sites on their ability to perform their job. Some female melanoma survivors may have a reduced desire of having children in the future.

  13. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  14. Clinical implementation of a scrubless chlorhexidine/ethanol pre-operative surgical hand rub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Richard; Theoret, Sylvie; Dion, Danielle; Pellerin, Michel

    2008-06-01

    The objective of surgical scrubbing is to reduce the bioburden on the hands of the surgical team in hope that if gloves are punctured or torn, the number of bacteria released at the operation site will be minimal and therefore reduce the risk of site infection. Long procedures with scrubbing and soaping can, however, be counterproductive because with repetition they tend to cause skin abrasions, damages and injuries without further reducing the risk of bacterial release. Within a general review of OR processes, it was decided to substitute to the standard surgical scrub a "new" scrubless pre-op surgical hand rub procedure. This article summarizes the results.

  15. Biophysical basis for noninvasive skin cancer detection using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xu; Moy, Austin J.; Markey, Mia K.; Fox, Matthew C.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) is proving to be a valuable tool for real time noninvasive skin cancer detection via optical fiber probe. However, current methods utilizing RS for skin cancer diagnosis rely on statistically based algorithms to provide tissue classification and do not elucidate the underlying biophysical changes of skin tissue. Therefore, we aim to use RS to explore skin biochemical and structural characteristics and then correlate the Raman spectrum of skin tissue with its disease state. We have built a custom confocal micro-Raman spectrometer system with an 830nm laser light. The high resolution capability of the system allows us to measure spectroscopic features from individual tissue components in situ. Raman images were collected from human skin samples from Mohs surgical biopsy, which were then compared with confocal laser scanning, two-photon fluorescence and hematoxylin and eosin-stained images to develop a linear model of skin tissue Raman spectra. In this model, macroscopic tissue spectra obtained from RS fiber probe were fit into a linear combination of individual basis spectra of primary skin constituents. The fit coefficient of the model explains the biophysical changes spanning a range of normal and various disease states. The model allows for determining parameters similar to that a pathologist is familiar reading and will be a significant guidance in developing RS diagnostic decision schemes.

  16. Surgical excision of acne keloidalis nuchae with secondary intention healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, V; Langtry, J A A

    2008-01-01

    Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN) is a chronic scarring folliculitis that presents clinically as follicular papules and pustules. These can coalesce into firm hypertrophic plaques and nodules on the nape of the neck, most commonly affecting young adult men. Treatment includes topical steroids/antibiotics and oral antibiotics, but often has disappointing results. Surgical approaches include excision with primary closure or skin grafting, and hair-removal lasers. Another surgical approach is excision with secondary intention healing. This can result in good cosmesis with little or no recurrence. We report two men with AKN where treatment by excision with secondary intention was successful.

  17. Dermatosurgery Rounds - The Island SKIN Infraorbital Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in dermatologic surgery is complete excision of the tumour while achieving the best possible functional and cosmetic outcome. Also we must take into account age, sex, and tumour size and site. We should also consider the patient's expectations, the preservation of the different cosmetic units, and the final cosmetic outcome. Various reconstructive methods ranging from secondary healing to free flap applications are usedfor the reconstruction of perinasal or facial defects caused by trauma or tumour surgery. Herein, we describe the nasal infraorbital island skin flap for the reconstruction in a patient with basal cell carcinoma. No complications were observed in operation field. The infraorbital island skin flap which we describe for the perinasal area reconstruction is a safe, easily performed and versatile flap. The multidimensional use of this flap together with a relatively easy reconstruction plan and surgical procedure would be effective in flap choice.

  18. Atopic dermatitis. Findings of skin biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piloto Valdés, L; Gómez Echevarría, A H; Valdés Sánchez, A F; Ochoa Ochoa, C; Chong López, A; Mier Naranjo, G

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-eight adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of atopic dermatitis (according to the criteria of Hanifin and Lobitz) were studied at the Allergy Outpatient Service, the Dermatology Service and the Pathological Anatomy Service of the Hermanos Ameijeiras Clinical Surgical Hospital, from January to September 1986. The patients were submitted to a quantification of total serum IgE by means of the ELISA enzymatic ultramicromethod, developed at the Radioimmunoassay National Center, and skin biopsies were carried out by means of the paraffin and direct immunofluorescence methods. The most frequent histopathological findings were acanthosis, espongiosis, parakeratosis and exocitosis, as a chronic inflammatory infiltrate, mainly composed of lymphocytes, mast cells and eosinophils. In the skin direct immunofluorescence method we found depots of IgE in all the patients, having no relation in intensity to total serum IgE values.

  19. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other types of cells, especially tumor cells. Currently, the marker-based flow cytometry (FCM technique and magnetic cell sorting (MACS are the most effective cell isolating methods, and a detailed maker list will help to initially identify, as well as isolate ESCs using these methods. In the current review, we discuss a wide range of cell surface and generic molecular markers that are indicative of the undifferentiated ESCs. Other types of molecules, such as lectins and peptides, which bind to ESC via affinity and specificity, are also summarized. In addition, we review several markers that overlap with tumor stem cells (TSCs, which suggest that uncertainty still exists regarding the benefits of using these markers alone or in various combinations when identifying and isolating cells.

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The ...

  1. Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... removed. That is the most common form of skin cancer and not as dangerous as melanoma. Photo: Corbis ...

  2. [Pancoast tumors ; modified surgical approaches and techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunezuka, Yoshio; Yachi, T; Waseda, R; Yamamoto, D

    2010-01-01

    The surgical treatment of Pancoast tumors is associated with difficulties related to its anatomical locations. Different surgical approaches have been reported but every approaches have some advantages and disadvantages. We report 2 Pancoast tumors cases with unique surgical approaches and our techniques. Case 1 : A 38-year-old man complained of face edema. The chest computed tomography (CT) revealed an right anterior apical tumor with direct invasion of the 1st and 2nd rib. Preoperative chemotherapy with 2 courses of carboplatin [area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) 6, day 1] and paclitaxel (80 mg/m2, day1, 8, 15) and concurrent extracorporeal radiation (70 Gy) was used to treat the adenocarcinoma. The skin incision was performed according to Masaoka's anterior approach, and a proximal median sternotomy communicated with an incision in the 4th intercostal space. The clavicula was freed by the L-shaped incision on the manubrium and the 1st cartilage section according to Grunenwald method to retract the section. Case 2 : A 65-year-old man complained back pain. The chest CT revealed an right superior sulcus tumor, displaced bronchus (B1+B3 tracheal bronchus, B2) and pulmonary arteries anomalies. Combined Shaw-Paulson incision and 4 intercostal lateral thoracotomy was performed to right upper lobectomy and systematic lymph nodes dissection.

  3. Marker development in ornamental plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusden, van A.W.; Arens, P.

    2009-01-01

    Development of markers for a new crop or development of additional markers for a crop where markers have been developed in the past raises the question of the intended use of the markers. Depending on the different objectives in mind one marker type may be better suited then another. In general one

  4. Improving adherence to surgical hand preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A; Hübner, N; Below, H; Heidecke, C-D; Assadian, O

    2008-10-01

    At present, no universal agreement on detailed practice for surgical hand preparation exists. In order to fill this gap, in 2002 a Franco-German recommendation for surgical hand preparation was published as a first step towards a generally accepted European recommendation. Based on an assessment of the actual literature, a protocol for surgical hand preparation is discussed with the aim to recommend evidence-based standard procedures including prerequisites, washing and disinfection phase, and its practical implementation. In contrast to hygienic hand disinfection, for surgical hand preparation compliance is not an issue, since it mostly is regarded as a ceremony which is carried out without exception. Nevertheless, the following factors influence acceptance and efficacy: skin tolerance, ease of use, duration of procedure, and recommended time), potential for impaired efficacy due to incorrect performance of the procedure, possibility of systemic risks and irritating potential by applied preparations, religious restrictions, ecological aspects, costs and safety. Here, we report our experience with the introduction of a new hand preparation regime in all surgical disciplines in our university hospital based on the above factors. The following statements were evaluated: 1) The immediate efficacy of an alcohol-based hand disinfectant is impaired by a preceding hand wash for up to 10 minutes. Therefore hands should not be routinely washed before the disinfection period unless there is a good reason for it such as visible soiling. 2) A shortened application time (1.5 minutes) is equal to 3 min in terms of efficacy. 3) Hands should be air dried before gloves are put on, otherwise the perforation rate of gloves will increase. 4) The efficacy of alcohol-based disinfectants is significantly higher when hands are allowed to dry for 1 minute after the washing phase and before the disinfection phase. To clarify the above questions before the establishment of the modified

  5. A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN POVIDONE-IODINE AND MANUGEL 85 ON SURGICAL SCRUB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Bahar; Sahbaei, Faezeh; Zare, Mohamad Zare; Abdoli, Azam; Heidari, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Direct transmission through skin contact is one of ways for disease transmission. Medical staffs have contact with many patients, so their hand can be a factor for the transmission of disease. Surgical scrub is a process that leads to destruction immigrant and stable microbus of hands and arms through friction washing by use of antiseptic solution prior to surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of disinfection of Povidone-Iodine and Manugel 85 in surgical scrub. Methods: This study was a clinical trial that done before and after Surgical scrub. 33 person of surgical team in hospital were surveyed during. Four samples were done for every person: first before surgical scrub with Povidone-Iodine solution, second immediately after surgical scrub, then after one week third test done before surgical scrub with Manugel 85, and forth one immediately after surgical scrub. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis and SPSS analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that the effect of Povidone-Iodine and Manugel 85, separately, before and after surgical scrub on number of colonies is significant. But the effect of these two solutions on behalf of number of colonies was not significant. The 100% grown cultures before surgical scrub with Povidone-Iodine solution and 90.91% before surgical scrub with Manugel 85 were staphylococcus. Conclusion: The disinfection effect of Povidone-Iodine and Manuge l85 on surgical scrub is the same. PMID:27999482

  6. [da Vinci surgical system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Gou; Ishikawa, Norihiro

    2014-07-01

    The da Vinci surgical system was developed by Intuitive Surgical Inc. in the United States as an endoscopic surgical device to assist remote control surgeries. In 1998, the Da Vinci system was first used for cardiothoracic procedures. Currently a combination of robot-assisted internal thoracic artery harvest together with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) through a mini-incision (ThoraCAB) or totally endoscopic procedures including anastomoses under robotic assistance (TECAB) are being conducted for the treatment of coronary artery diseases. With the recent advances in catheter interventions, hybrid procedures combining catheter intervention with ThoraCAB or TECAB are anticipated in the future.On the other hand, with the decrease in number of coronary artery bypass surgeries, the share of valvular surgeries is expected to increase in the future. Among them, mitral valvuloplasty for mitral regurgitation is anticipated to be conducted mainly by low-invasive procedures, represented by minimally invasive cardiac surgery( MICS) and robot-assisted surgery. Apart from the intrinsic good surgical view, robotic-assisted systems offer additional advantages of the availability of an amplified view and the easy to observe the mitral valve in the physiological position. Thus, robotic surgical surgeries that make complicated procedures easier are expected to accomplish further developments in the future. Furthermore, while the number of surgeries for atrial septal defects has decreased dramatically following the widespread use of Amplatzer septal occluder, robotic surgery may become a good indication for cases in which the Amplatzer device is not indicated. In Japan, clinical trial of the da Vinci robotic system for heart surgeries has been completed. Statutory approval of the da Vinci system for mitral regurgitation and atrial septal defects is anticipated in the next few years.

  7. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  8. Archaea on human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Probst

    Full Text Available The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  9. Skin and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  10. One-sheet spiraling full thickness skin graft for penile resurfacing after paraffinoma excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theddeus O.H. Prasetyono

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of on-going non-illicit practice of silicone or paraffin injection to enlarge penis, the author reported 3 cases of surgical treatment to resurface the body of the penis after excision of the destructed penile skin using full thickness skin graft. The skin excision was performed technically through penile body degloving procedure. Full thickness skin graft was then applied as a single sheet donor tissue to cover the denuded penile body spirally. The full thickness graft, which is relatively easy to be performed, is no doubt much thinner than a skin flap, while it also bears a smaller degree of secondary contraction than split skin graft. The color of the skin is considerably matched as it comes from the groin, which is a nearby area of penis. The size and skin sensitization of the penis looks to be natural. The only disadvantage is the common possibility of either spiral or circular junctional scar in between graft edges and between the graft and the penile mucosa and skin to develop hypertrophic scar. However, this possible scar problem applies also to any other surgical scar with any donor tissue. Fortunately, the 3 cases posed no scar problem and normal appearance. All the patients have also regained their normal sexual function. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:222-5Keywords: full thickness skin graft, paraffinoma, siliconoma, sexual function

  11. Experimental model for the study of soft tissue fixation methods on skin-pericranium flaps in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavazana, William César; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Passeri, Luis Augusto

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model to study and radiologically monitor displacement of skin flaps in the pericranium of rats subjected to traction and surgical fixation using suture anchored in a skull...

  12. Surgical Management of Cicatricial Ectropion in Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, Anjana S; Sullivan, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris is an idiopathic, papulosquamous dermatological disease. It is clinically and histologically distinct from, but may resemble, psoriasis. Pityriasis rubra pilaris can be self-limiting but may also run a protracted, relapsing course. Medical treatment may involve topical emollients, systemic retinoids, methotrexate, and/or tumor necrosis factor antagonists. Ocular complications include cicatricial ectropion. The authors describe the surgical management of 3 patients with cicatricial ectropion secondary to pityriasis rubra pilaris. All patients had procedures involving skin grafts; 1 patient required multiple operations. The management principles are discussed, including the role and timing of surgery, within the context of emerging treatments for pityriasis rubra pilaris. Patients with pityriasis rubra pilaris and cicatricial ectropion should be closely managed by both ophthalmologist and dermatologist. The eyelid position may improve with conservative or surgical measures. If surgery is required, the limitations of skin grafting under these circumstances should be anticipated and patients counseled appropriately.

  13. Memory regulatory T cells reside in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Rodriguez, Robert; Pauli, Mariela L; Neuhaus, Isaac M; Yu, Siegrid S; Arron, Sarah T; Harris, Hobart W; Yang, Sara Hsin-Yi; Anthony, Bryan A; Sverdrup, Francis M; Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth; MacKenzie, Tippi C; Johnson, David S; Meyer, Everett H; Löhr, Andrea; Hsu, Andro; Koo, John; Liao, Wilson; Gupta, Rishu; Debbaneh, Maya G; Butler, Daniel; Huynh, Monica; Levin, Ethan C; Leon, Argentina; Hoffman, William Y; McGrath, Mary H; Alvarado, Michael D; Ludwig, Connor H; Truong, Hong-An; Maurano, Megan M; Gratz, Iris K; Abbas, Abul K; Rosenblum, Michael D

    2014-03-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are characterized by expression of the transcription factor Foxp3, are a dynamic and heterogeneous population of cells that control immune responses and prevent autoimmunity. We recently identified a subset of Tregs in murine skin with properties typical of memory cells and defined this population as memory Tregs (mTregs). Due to the importance of these cells in regulating tissue inflammation in mice, we analyzed this cell population in humans and found that almost all Tregs in normal skin had an activated memory phenotype. Compared with mTregs in peripheral blood, cutaneous mTregs had unique cell surface marker expression and cytokine production. In normal human skin, mTregs preferentially localized to hair follicles and were more abundant in skin with high hair density. Sequence comparison of TCRs from conventional memory T helper cells and mTregs isolated from skin revealed little homology between the two cell populations, suggesting that they recognize different antigens. Under steady-state conditions, mTregs were nonmigratory and relatively unresponsive; however, in inflamed skin from psoriasis patients, mTregs expanded, were highly proliferative, and produced low levels of IL-17. Taken together, these results identify a subset of Tregs that stably resides in human skin and suggest that these cells are qualitatively defective in inflammatory skin disease.

  14. Skin and plasma autofluorescence during hemodialysis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graaff, Reindert; Arsov, Stefan; Ramsauer, Bernd; Koetsier, Marten; Sundvall, Nils; Engels, Gerwin E; Sikole, Aleksandar; Lundberg, Lennart; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Stegmayr, Bernd

    2014-06-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) is related to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and is one of the strongest prognostic markers of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether changes in skin AF appear after a single HD session and if they might be related to changes in plasma AF. Skin and plasma AF were measured before and after HD in 35 patients on maintenance HD therapy (nine women and 26 men, median age 68 years, range 33-83). Median dialysis time was 4 h (range 3-5.5). Skin AF was measured noninvasively with an AGE Reader, and plasma AF was measured before and after HD at 460 nm after excitation at 370 nm. The HD patients had on average a 65% higher skin AF value than age-matched healthy persons (P < 0.001). Plasma AF was reduced by 14% (P < 0.001), whereas skin AF was not changed after a single HD treatment. No significant influence of the reduced plasma AF on skin AF levels was found. This suggests that the measurement of skin AF can be performed during the whole dialysis period and is not directly influenced by the changes in plasma AF during HD.

  15. Surgical team turnover and operative time: An evaluation of operating room efficiency during pulmonary resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzi, Alain Joe; Shah, Karan; Seely, Andrew; Villeneuve, James Patrick; Sundaresan, Sudhir R; Shamji, Farid M; Maziak, Donna E; Gilbert, Sebastien

    2016-05-01

    Health care resources are costly and should be used judiciously and efficiently. Predicting the duration of surgical procedures is key to optimizing operating room resources. Our objective was to identify factors influencing operative time, particularly surgical team turnover. We performed a single-institution, retrospective review of lobectomy operations. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of different factors on surgical time (skin-to-skin) and total procedure time. Staff turnover within the nursing component of the surgical team was defined as the number of instances any nurse had to leave the operating room over the total number of nurses involved in the operation. A total of 235 lobectomies were performed by 5 surgeons, most commonly for lung cancer (95%). On multivariate analysis, percent forced expiratory volume in 1 second, surgical approach, and lesion size had a significant effect on surgical time. Nursing turnover was associated with a significant increase in surgical time (53.7 minutes; 95% confidence interval, 6.4-101; P = .026) and total procedure time (83.2 minutes; 95% confidence interval, 30.1-136.2; P = .002). Active management of surgical team turnover may be an opportunity to improve operating room efficiency when the surgical team is engaged in a major pulmonary resection. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Eicosanoids in skin inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Eicosanoids play an integral part in homeostatic mechanisms related to skin health and structural integrity. They also mediate inflammatory events developed in response to environmental factors, such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and inflammatory and allergic disorders, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. This review article discusses biochemical aspects related to cutaneous eicosanoid metabolism, the contribution of these potent autacoids to skin inflammation and related conditions, and considers the importance of nutritional supplementation with bioactives such as omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and plant-derived antioxidants as means of addressing skin health issues.

  17. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting.

  18. Leishmania Skin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    2009, a dose of 50µg will be used in the design of a phase III clinical trial. 15. SUBJECT TERMS LtSTA = Leishmania tropica Skin Test Antigen 16...2010 on a Leishmania Skin Test (LtSTA) developed from the promastigotes of Leishmania tropica . During this period a phase IIB study was in progress...diluent. The final product is referred to as Leishmania tropica Skin Test Antigen (LtSTA). Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of the Drug Product

  19. VT Roadside Historic Markers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  20. Fiducial Marker Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Computed Tomography (CT) - Body General Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Introduction to Cancer Therapy (Radiation Oncology) Proton Therapy Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Images related to Fiducial Marker Placement Sponsored by ...

  1. Successful closure of feline axillary wounds by reconstruction of the elbow skin fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, C H

    2007-02-01

    This report describes the successful closure of five chronic feline axillary wounds. The aetiology was known to be forelimb entrapment in a neck collar in three cases and was suspected in the others. Each cat underwent a single surgical procedure during which the wound was debrided, the normal structure of the elbow skin fold was restored and the remaining skin defect was closed primarily. None of the cats had undergone any previous reconstruction attempts. No postoperative complications were observed and the wounds healed uneventfully. Cats have well-developed elbow skin folds, allowing a wide range of limb motion to occur. Having a forelimb trapped in a neck collar not only creates a wound in the axilla but also disrupts the normal anatomy of the skin fold. This report demonstrates that restoring the elbow skin fold before closing the wound may improve the chances of a successful reconstruction at the first surgical intervention.

  2. Advance pre-operative chlorhexidine reduces the incidence of surgical site infections in knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywiel, Michael G; Daley, Jacqueline A; Delanois, Ronald E; Naziri, Qais; Johnson, Aaron J; Mont, Michael A

    2011-07-01

    Surgical site infections following elective knee arthroplasties occur most commonly as a result of colonisation by the patient's native skin flora. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of deep surgical site infections in knee arthroplasty patients who used an advance cutaneous disinfection protocol and who were compared to patients who had peri-operative preparation only. All adult reconstruction surgeons at a single institution were approached to voluntarily provide patients with chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated cloths and a printed sheet instructing their use the night before and morning of surgery. Records for all knee arthroplasties performed between January 2007 and December 2008 were reviewed to determine the incidence of deep incisional and periprosthetic surgical site infections. Overall, the advance pre-operative protocol was used in 136 of 912 total knee arthroplasties (15%). A lower incidence of surgical site infection was found in patients who used the advance cutaneous preparation protocol as compared to patients who used the in-hospital protocol alone. These findings were maintained when patients were stratified by surgical infection risk category. No surgical site infections occurred in the 136 patients who completed the protocol as compared to 21 infections in 711 procedures (3.0%) performed in patients who did not. Patient-directed skin disinfection using chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated cloths the evening before, and the morning of, elective knee arthroplasty appeared to effectively reduce the incidence of surgical site infection when compared to patients who underwent in-hospital skin preparation only.

  3. Marker development in ornamental plants

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Development of markers for a new crop or development of additional markers for a crop where markers have been developed in the past raises the question of the intended use of the markers. Depending on the different objectives in mind one marker type may be better suited then another. In general one can think of two main objectives for the use of markers; variety identification and breeding applications. In view of recent developments in molecular genetics, and sequencing technologies in parti...

  4. Longitudinal incision in surgical release of De Quervain disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundes, Hakan; Tosun, Bilgehan

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to contrast the use of a longitudinal incision in surgical decompression of De Quervain disease with a transverse incision. The advantages are ease in recognition of compartment variations and superficial branches of radial nerve and prevention of palmar tendon subluxation by permitting a more dorsal release of the compartment sheath. Since 2002, we have used a longitudinal skin incision instead of the classic transverse incision to release the first dorsal compartment.

  5. Update on anal fistulae: Surgical perspectives for the gastroenterologist

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Tabry; Farrands, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    Anal fistulae are common and debilitating; they are characterized by severe pain and discharge. They arise following infection near the anal canal, or as a primary event from an abscess in the abdomen, fistulating into the vagina or perianal skin. The term ‘cryptoglandular’ is given to abscesses arising from the anal glands.For many years, the treatment of choice was to lay open the fistula; however, this risks causing incontinence with potentially devastating consequences. Alternative surgic...

  6. [Skin-picking disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated.

  7. Skin picking disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Keuthen, Nancy J; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J

    2012-11-01

    Although skin picking has been documented in the medical literature since the 19th century, only now is it receiving serious consideration as a DSM psychiatric disorder in discussions for DSM-5. Recent community prevalence studies suggest that skin picking disorder appears to be as common as many other psychiatric disorders, with reported prevalences ranging from 1.4% to 5.4%. Clinical evaluation of patients with skin picking disorder entails a broad physical and psychiatric examination, encouraging an interdisciplinary approach to evaluation and treatment. Approaches to treatment should include cognitive-behavioral therapy (including habit reversal or acceptance-enhanced behavior therapy) and medication (serotonin reuptake inhibitors, N-acetylcysteine, or naltrexone). Based on clinical experience and research findings, the authors recommend several management approaches to skin picking disorder.

  8. Aging changes in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stress Other causes of skin changes: Allergies to plants and other substances Climate Clothing Exposures to industrial and household chemicals Indoor heating Sunlight can cause: Loss of elasticity (elastosis) ...

  9. Radiation therapy -- skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000735.htm Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. When you have radiation treatment for cancer, you may have some changes ...

  10. Scalded skin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Severe bloodstream infection ( septicemia ) Spread to deeper skin infection ( cellulitis ) When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your provider or go to the emergency room if you have symptoms of this disorder. Prevention ... Alternative Names Ritter disease; Staphylococcal ...

  11. Skin Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Partners for Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalitions References Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Trends Behavior Rates What CDC Is Doing Skin Cancer Prevention Progress Report The Burning Truth Initiative A ...

  12. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have roughly the same number of ...

  13. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  14. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  15. Skin graft - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/presentations/100100.htm Skin graft - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... 2017 Updated by: Debra G. Wechter, MD, FACS, general surgery practice specializing in breast cancer, Virginia Mason ...

  16. Designing pliable structural Skins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Peters, Brady; Nielsen, Stig Anton;

    2013-01-01

    Structural stability can be formed through structured or seemingly unstructured approaches to fold, plead or crumble paper. This paper reports on two projects that showcase how computational design approaches can help to widen the understanding and use of structural skins....

  17. An elastic second skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  18. Occupational skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, Vera; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Alfonso, Jose Hernan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal...... diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, skin diseases) in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To retrieve information and compare the current state of national frameworks and pathways to manage patients with occupational skin disease with regard to prevention, diagnosis, treatment...... in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD 1206 (StanDerm) (www.standerm.eu). RESULTS: Besides a national health service or a statutory health insurance, most European member states implemented a second insurance scheme specifically geared at occupational diseases [insurance against occupational risks...

  19. Skin lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... procedure will leave a small indented area. This type of biopsy is often done when a skin cancer is ... may have stitches to close the area. This type of biopsy is often done to diagnose rashes . EXCISIONAL BIOPSY ...

  20. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card ...

  1. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  2. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  3. Recurrent periductal mastitis: Surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffurelli, Mario; Pellegrini, Alice; Santini, Donatella; Zanotti, Simone; Di Simone, Domenico; Serra, Margherita

    2016-12-01

    Recurrent periductal mastitis is a benign breast disorder that often features a mammary fistula that runs between periareolar skin and the ductal mammary system. Due to the high recurrence rate of this disease, its management is controversial. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of fistulectomy (Hadfield operation), particularly with regard to its long-term outcome. We reviewed all women with recurrent periductal mastitis who underwent the Hadfield operation in the Breast Center in S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital (Bologna University) from 2005 to 2015. All but one of the patients were heavy smokers and presented with a recurrent periareolar abscess and a periareolar mammary fistula. Eighteen women underwent the Hadfield surgical treatment. Mean age at the time of presentation was 42 years; 17 of 18 women smoked >10 cigarettes/d. All patients had a breast ultrasonography or mammography. Half of the patients had undergone antibiotic therapy with one or more prior abscess drainages or another form of operative treatment. All patients who underwent operative treatment had no postoperative events and were satisfied with the cosmetic results. Squamous metaplasia was always present in the specimens. After a median follow-up of 36 months, 2 patients developed a recurrence after a few months; neither had stopped smoking. Based on our review of the literature and taking into account the results of this study, it seems clear that the best treatment involves a combined total excision of the affected duct and the fistulous tract. Due to the important role of smoking in this disease, it is important to encourage patients to stop smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional testing of topical skin formulations using an optimised ex vivo skin organ culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidgwick, G P; McGeorge, D; Bayat, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of equivalent-skin models are available for investigation of the ex vivo effect of topical application of drugs and cosmaceuticals onto skin, however many have their drawbacks. With the March 2013 ban on animal models for cosmetic testing of products or ingredients for sale in the EU, their utility for testing toxicity and effect on skin becomes more relevant. The aim of this study was to demonstrate proof of principle that altered expression of key gene and protein markers could be quantified in an optimised whole tissue biopsy culture model. Topical formulations containing green tea catechins (GTC) were investigated in a skin biopsy culture model (n = 11). Punch biopsies were harvested at 3, 7 and 10 days, and analysed using qRT-PCR, histology and HPLC to determine gene and protein expression, and transdermal delivery of compounds of interest. Reduced gene expression of α-SMA, fibronectin, mast cell tryptase, mast cell chymase, TGF-β1, CTGF and PAI-1 was observed after 7 and 10 days compared with treated controls (p skin, negating the requirement for animal models in this context, prior to study in a clinical trial environment.

  5. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers.

  6. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-22

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  7. Skin Cancer - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Skin Cancer: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Cáncer de piel: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Ukrainian (українська ) Expand Section Skin Cancer - українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Characters ...

  8. Snakebite in Korea: A Guideline to Primary Surgical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Jung Ho; Kwon, Sung Min; Oh, Jin Rok; Han, Byung Keun; Lee, Kang Hyung; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Snakebite is an emergency which causes local symptoms such as pain and edema around the bite. Systemic symptoms may also develop, such as dizziness or renal failure, and may even cause death. The purpose of this research was to assess the validity and safety of snakebite protocol for surgery when treating snakebite patients. Retrospective research was performed on patients who were admitted after being treated at the emergency center from January 2008 to December 2012. When necessary, debridement was also performed, and 46 of 111 patients (41.4%) underwent debridement. Those who had received debridement without antivenom administration due to a positive skin reaction test were classified as group A, and group B received antivenom and delayed debridement. We reviewed the emergency and admission charts of the patients in each group and recorded and compared their age, sex, bite site, severity of local and general symptoms, time to receive antivenin, and complications. Of the ten patients (21.7%) in group A, two (66.6%) developed cellulites, and one of them experienced skin necrosis, resulting in a skin graft. In group B, there were 36 patients (78.2%), 19 (52.7%) of whom developed cellulitis. Skin necrosis occurred in two patients, and one of these patients received a skin graft. Compartment syndrome was found in one patient, and fasciotomy and a skin graft were performed. The treatment protocol implemented to treat snakebite patients admitted to the emergency center during this research was safely and properly followed during surgical treatment.

  9. Surgical treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Y; Elchalal, U; Abramov, D; Goldfarb, A; Schenker, J G

    1996-03-01

    Surgical therapy of lichen sclerosus of the vulva consists of three main operations: vulvectomy (with or without a skin graft), cryosurgery, and laser ablation. It is indicated in two conditions, either when malignant transformation is present or is likely to occur, or when medical treatment has failed. The overall risk for malignant transformation of vulvar lichen sclerosus is low, ranging between 0 and 9 percent. However, specific histological criteria, such as mixed dystrophy, have recently been associated with higher malignancy rates. Vulvectomy is indicated only when these criteria are met. Both skinning and simple vulvectomies are associated with recurrence rates as high as 50 percent. However, better sexual function and cosmetic results have been reported in the former, especially with concomitant split skin grafting. Cryosurgery also has high recurrence rates, although short-term results are favorable. Although only small series have been reported, laser therapy seems to carry better long-term results than other modes of treatment. Convalescence is complete within 6 weeks posttreatment, and remission rates are as high as 85 percent at 3 years of follow-up. The high recurrence rate of all surgical modalities makes surgical treatment suitable only for patients who failed to respond to multiple medical treatments such as topical high potent steroid ointments, testosterone, and retinoids.

  10. The impact of Ets-1 oncoprotein and human endoglin (CD105) on the recurrence of non-melanoma skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisostomidis, Chrisostomos; Konofaos, Petros; Karypidis, Dimitrios; Lazaris, Andreas; Kostakis, Alkiviadis; Papadopoulos, Othon

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if the expression of CD105 and Ets-1 was predictive of aggressive biologic behavior of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) and to evaluate indicators of local recurrence. A total of 144 patients with NMSC were included in the current study. Surgical specimens were independently examined for diagnosis confirmation and immunohistochemical expression of Ets-1 and CD105 by two dermatopathologists. The most common tumor type was basal cell carcinoma (n = 76), followed by squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) (n = 65). The most common anatomic location was the head and neck area (n = 115). The follow-up was ˃ 2 years in all examined cases. A statistically significant correlation was found between tumor local recurrence and age (P = 0.03), Ets-1 expression (P ˂ 0.0001) and CD105 expression (P ˂ 0.0001). Our data confirm that both Ets-1 and CD105 show promise as prognostic markers for local recurrence of NMSC. However, this statement is made with caution, and additional studies, with larger populations, are necessary to examine the correlation between these two markers and local recurrence. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of local recurrence in primary NMSC may result in potential therapeutic interventions. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Gossypiboma—Retained Surgical Sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Shun Sun

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Intra-abdominal retained surgical sponge is an uncommon surgical error. Herein, we report a 92-year-old woman who was brought to the emergency room for acute urinary retention. She had a history of vaginal hysterectomy for uterine prolapse 18 years previously, performed at our hospital. Retained surgical sponge in the pelvic cavity was suspected by abdominal computed tomography. The surgical gauze was removed by laparotomy excision and the final diagnosis was gossypiboma.

  12. Hepatic surgical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panajiotis N; Mirilas, Petros

    2004-04-01

    The liver, the largest organ in the body, has been misunderstood at nearly all levels of organization, and there is a tendency to ignore details that do not fit the preconception. A complete presentation of the surgical anatomy of the liver includes the study of hepatic surfaces, margins, and fissures; the various classifications of lobes and segments; and the vasculature and lymphatics. A brief overview of the intrahepatic biliary tract is also presented.

  13. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-04-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body.

  14. DOSHIC PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivprasad Chiplunkar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The balance of dosha  represents the healthy state and imbalance will cause various diseases. In normalcy doshas will be performing their own functions and individual doshas will be having their own specific sites. By telling the various sthana of each dosha, different function that is taken up by individual dosha in different sites has been highlighted.By mentioning ‘sparshanendriyam’ as one of the sthana of vata dosha the sensory functions of skin to vata dosha has been emphasised. By mentioning ‘sparshanam’ as one of the sthana of pittadosha, the function of colouring/pigmentation of skin, which is majorly carried out  by melanocytes by secreting melanin pigment has been highlighted. Meda is one among the sthanas of kapha dosha; this can be considered as the adipose tissue of skin/below skin. Since sweda is mala of meda it can be also considered as the secretions from the eccrine glands.With respect to skin, sensory functions, both tactile and thermal is carried out by vata dosha more specifically vyana vata, pigmentation to the skin carried out by meloncytes by secreting melanin, it is nothing but function of pitta dosha more specifically brajaka pitta with the help of udana vata and finally production of sweat in sweat glands is the function of kapha. So there is the need for further study and research regarding the sthanas of all three doshas in different structures/organs in the body and its physiology.

  15. Zinc and skin biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Youichi; Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Shimada, Shinji

    2016-12-01

    Of all tissues, the skin has the third highest abundance of zinc in the body. In the skin, the zinc concentration is higher in the epidermis than in the dermis, owing to a zinc requirement for the active proliferation and differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes. Here we review the dynamics and functions of zinc in the skin as well as skin disorders associated with zinc deficiency, zinc finger domain-containing proteins, and zinc transporters. Among skin disorders associated with zinc deficiency, acrodermatitis enteropathica is a disorder caused by mutations in the ZIP4 transporter and subsequent zinc deficiency. The triad acrodermatitis enteropathica is characterized by alopecia, diarrhea, and skin lesions in acral, periorificial, and anogenital areas. We highlight the underlying mechanism of the development of acrodermatitis because of zinc deficiency by describing our new findings. We also discuss the accumulating evidence on zinc deficiency in alopecia and necrolytic migratory erythema, which is typically associated with glucagonomas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Louis Pasteur surgical revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) is considered the most notable medical scientist of his time and perhaps one of the most distinguished of all times in the history of medicine. From Dole in France to Paris, from a student of crystals to "living ferments," and from chemistry to biology and medicine, Pasteur changed the world for the benefit of humanity. The genius of Pasteur dealt with the most pressing issues of his time, basing the germ theory on the effects that microorganisms had on fermentation and putrefaction of organic matter, which gave birth to the science of bacteriology. Many other difficult problems in medicine and biology were tackled by Pasteur, culminating in the spectacular results seen with the treatment of rabies. Surgery was no exception to the scientific conquests of Pasteur. The transformation of the surgical world arose from the antiseptic concepts of Lister that were based on the germ theory of the disease, which had been derived from the germ theory of fermentation and putrefaction discovered by Pasteur. The acceptance of these principles represented the surgical revolution brought on by the science of Pasteur, a revolution that is now accepted in our daily care of surgical patients.

  17. A micromechanical comparison of human and porcine skin before and after preservation by freezing for medical device development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, S. A.; Lehnert, S.; Ranamukhaarachchi, S. L.; Sprenger, L.; Schneider, T.; Mansoor, I.; Rai, K.; Häfeli, U. O.; Stoeber, B.

    2016-08-01

    Collecting human skin samples for medical research, including developing microneedle-based medical devices, is challenging and time-consuming. Researchers rely on human skin substitutes and skin preservation techniques, such as freezing, to overcome the lack of skin availability. Porcine skin is considered the best substitute to human skin, but their mechanical resemblance has not been fully validated. We provide a direct mechanical comparison between human and porcine skin samples using a conventional mechano-analytical technique (microindentation) and a medical application (microneedle insertion), at 35% and 100% relative humidity. Human and porcine skin samples were tested immediately after surgical excision from subjects, and after one freeze-thaw cycle at ‑80 °C to assess the impact of freezing on their mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of fresh human and porcine skin (especially of the stratum corneum) were found to be different for bulk measurements using microindentation; and both types of skin were mechanically affected by freezing. Localized in-plane mechanical properties of skin during microneedle insertion appeared to be more comparable between human and porcine skin samples than their bulk out-of-plane mechanical properties. The results from this study serve as a reference for future mechanical tests conducted with frozen human skin and/or porcine skin as a human skin substitute.

  18. Risk group, skin lesion history, and sun sensitivity reliability in squamous cell skin cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouser, Mary C; Harris, Robin B; Roe, Denise J; Saboda, Kathylynn; Ranger-Moore, James; Duckett, Laura; Alberts, David S

    2006-11-01

    In studies of skin cancer, participants are often classified into risk groups based on self-reported history of sun exposure or skin characteristics. We sought to determine the reliability of self-reported skin characteristics among participants of a study to evaluate markers for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Multiple questionnaires and screening protocols were administered over a 3-month period to individuals from three risk groups: existing sun damage on forearms but no visible actinic keratoses (n = 91), visible actinic keratoses (n = 38), and history of resected squamous cell skin cancer in the last 12 months (n = 35). We assessed consistency of risk group assignment between telephone screen and study dermatologist assignment, self-reported sun sensitivity (telephone recruitment form versus participant completed profile), and self-reported history of NMSC skin lesions (telephone recruitment form versus health history). There was substantial agreement between probable risk group and final assignment (kappa = 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.85) and agreement did not differ by gender. Agreement for self-reported sun sensitivity was moderate (kappa weighted = 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.56) with higher agreement for women. For self-reported NMSC lesion history between two interviews, 24 days apart, kappa estimates ranged from 0.66 to 0.78 and were higher for women than men. Overall, there was evidence for substantial reproducibility related to risk group assignment and self-reported history of NMSC, with self-reported sun sensitivity being less reliable. In all comparisons, women had higher kappa values than men. These results suggest that self-reported measures of skin cancer risk are reasonably reliable for use in screening subjects into studies.

  19. Biofouling of surgical power tools during routine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, A; Smith, G W G; Smith, A J

    2015-07-01

    Surgical power tools (SPTs) are frequently used in many surgical specialties such as dentistry, orthopaedics, ophthalmology, neurology, and podiatry. They have complex designs that may restrict access to cleaning and sterilization agents and frequently become contaminated with microbial and tissue residues following use. Due to these challenges, surgical power tools can be considered the weak link in the decontamination cycle and present a potential for iatrogenic transmission of infection. We aimed to review the existing literature on the decontamination of surgical power tools and associated iatrogenic transmission of infection. A search of the medical literature was performed using Ovid online using the following databases: Ovid Medline 1950-2014, Embase 1980-2014, and EBM Reviews Full Text--Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, and Dare. Despite challenges to decontamination processes, reported episodes of iatrogenic infection directly linked to SPTs appear rare. This may reflect a true picture but more likely represents incomplete reporting, failure to investigate power tools, or lack of surveillance linking surgical site infections (SSIs) to power tools. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the complexities associated with the decontamination of different SPTs, and should review manufacturers' reprocessing instructions prior to purchase. More clarity is required in the manufacturers' validation of these reprocessing instructions. This particularly applies to the emerging surgical robot systems that present extreme challenges to decontamination between uses. Investigation of cross-infection incidents or SSI surveillance should include an element of assessment of SPT decontamination to further elucidate the contribution of SPTs to skin and soft tissue infections.

  20. The role of antimicrobial sutures in preventing surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, D; Wilson, P; Assadian, O; Edmiston, C; Kiernan, M; Miller, A; Bond-Smith, G; Yap, J

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) are falling following widespread and enforced introduction of guidelines, particularly those that have addressed antibiotic resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus or emergent pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, but no such decline has been seen in the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI), either in the UK, the EU or the US. SSI is one of the HCAIs, which are all avoidable complications of a surgical patient's pathway through both nosocomial and community care. METHODS This report is based on a meeting held at The Royal College of Surgeons of England on 21 July 2016. Using PubMed, members of the panel reviewed the current use of antiseptics and antimicrobial sutures in their specialties to prevent SSI. FINDINGS The group agreed that wider use of antiseptics in surgical practice may help in reducing reliance on antibiotics in infection prevention and control, especially in the perioperative period of open elective colorectal, hepatobiliary and cardiac operative procedures. The wider use of antiseptics includes preoperative showering, promotion of hand hygiene, (including the appropriate use of surgical gloves), preoperative skin preparation (including management of hair removal), antimicrobial sutures and the management of dehisced surgical wounds after infection. The meeting placed emphasis on the level I evidence that supports the use of antimicrobial sutures, particularly in surgical procedures after which the SSI rate is high (colorectal and hepatobiliary surgery) or when a SSI can be life threatening even when the rate of SSI is low (cardiac surgery).

  1. Treatment of Skin Avulsion Injuries with Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Matsumine, MD, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This report describes favorable outcomes in 9 patients with skin avulsion injuries of the extremities who underwent full-thickness skin grafting and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF application. Following removal of contaminated subcutaneous fat tissue on the inside of skin, the avulsed skin was processed into a full-thickness skin graft, with as much of the skin used as possible irrespective of damage. Several drainage holes (5–10 mm in diameter were made on the graft for drainage from the graft bed and to prevent seroma and hematoma formation. Genetically recombinant human bFGF was sprayed at a dose of 1 μg/cm2 onto the graft bed, which was then covered with the graft and sutured. Pressure immobilization with ointment gauzes and elastic bandages was administered for 1 week postoperatively, and the surface of the skin grafts that did not take was scraped away, preserving the revascularized dermal component on the debrided raw surface as much as possible. bFGF was sprayed again onto the debrided surface to promote epithelialization. Wound closure was achieved in all cases with conservative therapy. The surgical procedure was effective in preventing postoperative ulcer formation and scar contracture and resulted in wound healing with the formation of good-quality, flexible scars.

  2. The effects of magnetic resonance imaging on surgical staples: an experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, J Christopher; Sensiba, Paul; Imbrogno, Brian F; Venkatarayappa, Indresh; Tsatalis, James; Prayson, Michael J

    2011-05-01

    Surgical staples are commonplace in repairing surgical incisions. Staples allow for expeditious closure and removal compared with suture materials. However, there are clinical concerns when obtaining a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan with staples present. This study examined two issues related to MRI scanning in the presence of surgical staples: skin surface temperature change and staple displacement. Thirty pig feet had 3-cm surgical incisions repaired with five surgical staples. Once placed, each skin staple position was marked for later referencing. A surface temperature laser device recorded prescan skin surface temperature. A 35-minute MRI scan was performed with a 1.5-Tesla magnet and standard knee coil for each pig foot. Immediately afterward, the skin surface temperature and displacement measurements were recorded. The paired t test was used to analyze temperature change from prescan to postscan. The prescan mean temperature was 16.45°C (standard deviation: 0.70°C), and the range was 14.60°C to 18.20°C. After scanning, the mean temperature was 16.02°C (standard deviation: 0.63°C), and the range was 15.00°C to 17.60°C. The decrease of 0.43°C in skin surface temperature was statistically significant (p=0.001). No change in staple position was measurable or evident by visual inspection for any of the pig feet. This study found no increase in skin surface temperature or displacement of staple position after a standard extremity MRI scan. Based on our findings, MRI scanning in the presence of stainless steel surgical staples seems safe.

  3. Debridement for surgical wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, Nancy; Smith, Fiona; Donaldson, Jayne; Mitchell, Melloney

    2008-07-16

    Surgical wounds that become infected are often debrided because clinicians believe that removal of this necrotic or infected tissue will expedite wound healing. There are numerous methods available but no consensus on which one is most effective for surgical wounds. The aim of this review is to determine the effect of different methods of debridement on the rate of debridement and healing of surgical wounds. We developed a search strategy to search the following electronic databases: Wounds Group Specialised Trials Register (searched 3/3/08) , Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2008, issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to February Week 3 2008 ), EMBASE (1980 to 2008 Week 09) and CINHAL (1982 to February Week 4 2008). We checked the citations within obtained studies to identify additional papers and also relevant conference proceedings. We contacted manufactures of wound debridement agents to ascertain the existence of published, unpublished and ongoing trials. Our search was not limited by language or publication status. We included relevant randomised controlled trials (RCT) with outcomes including at least one of the following: time to complete debridement, or time to complete healing. Two authors independently reviewed the abstracts and titles obtained from the search, two extracted data independently using a standardised extraction sheet, and two independently assessed methodological quality. One author was involved in all stages of the data collection and extraction process, thus ensuring continuity. Five RCTs were eligible for inclusion; all compared treatments for infected surgical wounds and reported time required to achieve a clean wound bed (complete debridement). One trial compared an enzymatic agent (Streptokinase/streptodornase) with saline-soaked dressings and reported the time to complete debridement. Four of the trials compared the effectiveness of dextranomer beads or paste with other products (different comparator

  4. Markers of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin P Davies

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development and marketing of oral pharmacotherapy that is both noninvasive and successful in treating erectile dysfunction (ED, the quest to identify markers of organic ED lost ground. Indeed, the multi-factorial nature of ED may have led many researchers to conclude that searching for a universal marker of ED was futile. However, the realization that ED is strongly correlated with the overall health of men, and may act as a predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes, has stimulated interest in identifying genes that can distinguish organic ED. In addition, the potential ability to suggest to the patient that ED is reversible (i.e., psychogenic with a simple test would be of significance to both the physician and patient, as well as for reimbursement issues for therapy by insurance companies. Such a marker may also act as a non-subjective measure of the degree of ED and the efficacy of treatment. This review discusses the importance of identifying such markers and recent work identifying potential markers in human patients.

  5. Global skin colour prediction from DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Susan; Chaitanya, Lakshmi; Breslin, Krystal; Muralidharan, Charanya; Bronikowska, Agnieszka; Pospiech, Ewelina; Koller, Julia; Kovatsi, Leda; Wollstein, Andreas; Branicki, Wojciech; Liu, Fan; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-07-01

    Human skin colour is highly heritable and externally visible with relevance in medical, forensic, and anthropological genetics. Although eye and hair colour can already be predicted with high accuracies from small sets of carefully selected DNA markers, knowledge about the genetic predictability of skin colour is limited. Here, we investigate the skin colour predictive value of 77 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 37 genetic loci previously associated with human pigmentation using 2025 individuals from 31 global populations. We identified a minimal set of 36 highly informative skin colour predictive SNPs and developed a statistical prediction model capable of skin colour prediction on a global scale. Average cross-validated prediction accuracies expressed as area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) ± standard deviation were 0.97 ± 0.02 for Light, 0.83 ± 0.11 for Dark, and 0.96 ± 0.03 for Dark-Black. When using a 5-category, this resulted in 0.74 ± 0.05 for Very Pale, 0.72 ± 0.03 for Pale, 0.73 ± 0.03 for Intermediate, 0.87±0.1 for Dark, and 0.97 ± 0.03 for Dark-Black. A comparative analysis in 194 independent samples from 17 populations demonstrated that our model outperformed a previously proposed 10-SNP-classifier approach with AUCs rising from 0.79 to 0.82 for White, comparable at the intermediate level of 0.63 and 0.62, respectively, and a large increase from 0.64 to 0.92 for Black. Overall, this study demonstrates that the chosen DNA markers and prediction model, particularly the 5-category level; allow skin colour predictions within and between continental regions for the first time, which will serve as a valuable resource for future applications in forensic and anthropologic genetics.

  6. [Surgical therapy and critical care medicine in severely burned patients - Part 1: the first 24 ours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Rolf; Kauczok, Jens; Deisz, Robert; Pallua, Norbert; Marx, Gernot

    2012-09-01

    Critical care medicine in severely burned patients should be adapted to the different pathophysiological phases. Accordingly, surgical and non-surgical therapy must be coordinated adequately. Initial wound care comprises topical treatment of less severely injured skin and surgical debridement of severely burned areas. The first 24 hours of intensive care are focused on calculated fluid delivery to provide stable hemodynamics and avoid progression of local edema formation. In the further course wound treatment with split-thickness skin grafts is the major aim of surgical therapy. Critical care is focused on the avoidance of complications like infections and ventilator associated lung injury. Therefore, lung-protective ventilation strategies, weaning and sedation protocols, and early enteral nutrition are important cornerstones of the treatment.

  7. New Frontiers in Surgical Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ryan S; Schmalbach, Cecelia E

    2017-08-01

    It is an exciting time for head and neck surgical innovation with numerous advances in the perioperative planning and intraoperative management of patients with cancer, trauma patients, and individuals with congenital defects. The broad and rapidly changing realm of head and neck surgical innovation precludes a comprehensive summary. This article highlights some of the most important innovations from surgical planning with sentinel node biopsy and three-dimensional, stereolithic modeling to intraoperative innovations, such as transoral robotic surgery and intraoperative navigation. Future surgical innovations, such as intraoperative optical imaging of surgical margins, are also highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Distribution of T Cells in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Skin and Responsiveness to Viral Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Esther; Granja, Aitor G.; Zarza, Carlos; Tafalla, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Although the skin constitutes the first line of defense against waterborne pathogens, there is a great lack of information regarding the skin associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) and whether immune components of the skin are homogeneously distributed through the surface of the fish is still unknown. In the current work, we have analyzed the transcription of several immune genes throughout different rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin areas. We found that immunoglobulin and chemokine gene transcription levels were higher in a skin area close to the gills. Furthermore, this skin area as well as other anterior sections also transcribed significantly higher levels of many different immune genes related to T cell immunity such as T cell receptor α (TCRα), TCRγ, CD3, CD4, CD8, perforin, GATA3, Tbet, FoxP3, interferon γ (IFNγ), CD40L and Eomes in comparison to posterior skin sections. In agreement with these results, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that anterior skin areas had a higher concentration of CD3+ T cells and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that the percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes was also higher in anterior skin sections. These results demonstrate for the first time that T cells are not homogeneously distributed throughout the teleost skin. Additionally, we studied the transcriptional regulation of these and additional T cell markers in response to a bath infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). We found that VHSV regulated the transcription of several of these T cell markers in both the skin and the spleen; with some differences between anterior and posterior skin sections. Altogether, our results point to skin T cells as major players of teleost skin immunity in response to waterborne viral infections. PMID:26808410

  9. Distribution of T Cells in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Skin and Responsiveness to Viral Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Leal

    Full Text Available Although the skin constitutes the first line of defense against waterborne pathogens, there is a great lack of information regarding the skin associated lymphoid tissue (SALT and whether immune components of the skin are homogeneously distributed through the surface of the fish is still unknown. In the current work, we have analyzed the transcription of several immune genes throughout different rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss skin areas. We found that immunoglobulin and chemokine gene transcription levels were higher in a skin area close to the gills. Furthermore, this skin area as well as other anterior sections also transcribed significantly higher levels of many different immune genes related to T cell immunity such as T cell receptor α (TCRα, TCRγ, CD3, CD4, CD8, perforin, GATA3, Tbet, FoxP3, interferon γ (IFNγ, CD40L and Eomes in comparison to posterior skin sections. In agreement with these results, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that anterior skin areas had a higher concentration of CD3(+ T cells and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that the percentage of CD8(+ T lymphocytes was also higher in anterior skin sections. These results demonstrate for the first time that T cells are not homogeneously distributed throughout the teleost skin. Additionally, we studied the transcriptional regulation of these and additional T cell markers in response to a bath infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV. We found that VHSV regulated the transcription of several of these T cell markers in both the skin and the spleen; with some differences between anterior and posterior skin sections. Altogether, our results point to skin T cells as major players of teleost skin immunity in response to waterborne viral infections.

  10. Recent Progress in Electronic Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiandi; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Hanlu; Yu, Ruomeng; Pan, Caofeng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the human body and can sense pressure, temperature, and other complex environmental stimuli or conditions. The mimicry of human skin's sensory ability via electronics is a topic of innovative research that could find broad applications in robotics, artificial intelligence, and human–machine interfaces, all of which promote the development of electronic skin (e‐skin). To imitate tactile sensing via e‐skins, flexible and stretchable pressure sensor arrays are co...

  11. Skin aging and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sayeeda Ahsanuddin; Minh Lam; Baron, Elma D.

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging occurs through two main pathways, intrinsic and extrinsic. These pathways have significant interaction in contributing to the aging phenotype, which includes skin laxity, wrinkling, pigmentation irregularities, and the appearance of neoplastic skin lesions. Here, we review the critical role that oxidative stress plays in skin aging, including its effects on signaling pathways involved in skin matrix formation and degradation, proteasome activity, as well as DNA structure. Furthermo...

  12. Skin involvement in Dupuytren's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, R.; Igali, L; Figus, A

    2016-01-01

    Whether the palmar skin has a role in the development, propagation or recurrence of Dupuytren's disease remains unclear. Clinical assessment for skin involvement is difficult and its correlation with histology uncertain. We prospectively biopsied the palmar skin of consecutive patients undergoing single digit fasciectomy (for primary Dupuytren's disease without clinically involved skin) and dermofasciectomy (for clinically involved skin or recurrence) in order to investigate this relationship...

  13. The skin landscape in diabetes mellitus. Focus on dermocosmetic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, Gérald E; Seité, Sophie; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Delvenne, Philippe; Scheen, André; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    Background Some relationships are established between diabetes mellitus (DM) and a series of cutaneous disorders. Specific dermatoses are markers for undiagnosed DM. Other disorders represent supervening complications in an already treated DM patient. Objective To review the information about dermocosmetic care products and their appropriate use in the management and prevention of dermatoses related to DM. Method The peer-reviewed literature and empiric findings are covered. Owing to the limited clinical evidence available for the use of dermocosmetics, a review of the routine practices and common therapies in DM-related dermatoses was conducted. Results Some DM-related dermatoses (acanthosis nigricans, pigmented purpuric dermatosis) are markers of macrovascular complications. The same disorders and some others (xerosis, Dupuytren’s disease) have been found to be more frequently associated with microangiopathy. Other skin diseases (alopecia areata, vitiligo) were found to be markers of autoimmunity, particularly in type 1 DM. Unsurprisingly, using dermocosmetics and appropriate skin care has shown objective improvements of some DM-related dermatoses, such effects improve the quality of life. The most common skin manifestations of DM fall along continuum between “dry skin,” xerosis, and acquired ichthyosis, occurring predominately on the shins and feet. Dermocosmetic products improve the feeling of well-being for DM patients. PMID:23696712

  14. A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN POVIDONE-IODINE AND MANUGEL 85 ON SURGICAL SCRUB

    OpenAIRE

    Seifi, Bahar; Sahbaei, Faezeh; Zare, Mohamad Zare; Abdoli, Azam; Heidari, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Direct transmission through skin contact is one of ways for disease transmission. Medical staffs have contact with many patients, so their hand can be a factor for the transmission of disease. Surgical scrub is a process that leads to destruction immigrant and stable microbus of hands and arms through friction washing by use of antiseptic solution prior to surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of disinfection of Povidone-Iodine and Manugel 85 in surgical ...

  15. Surgical management of Gorlin syndrome: a 4-decade experience using local excision technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, Devan; Sutphin, Daniel; Sargent, Larry A

    2015-04-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (aka Gorlin syndrome, Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, and fifth phacomatosis) is a rare but well-described autosomal dominant condition with variable penetrance. We present a female patient who has been successfully treated using local surgical excision and diligent skin surveillance for more than 4 decades, demonstrating that simple local incision is an efficacious and reasonable surgical alternative that may circumvent the specialization and expense of Mohs technique.

  16. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  17. Skin cleansing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmetti, C

    2001-09-01

    The problems of skin cleansing in infants have been re-evaluated in recent years on the basis of current understanding of cosmetology and skin physiology. The anatomical and functional peculiarities of infant's skin have been elucidated and, although it is known that the barrier function is established at birth in normal babies, it remains the case that children's skin is more delicate and therefore more prone to irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. These factors determine the choice of cleansing agents during infancy. The products available on the market differ markedly. Indeed detergents, bath oils, bath powders, due to their distinctive properties, have different indications and different benefits. The method of cleansing the skin, i.e. bathing or showering, is also important. The frequency of cleansing should take into account the age and the degree of exposure to pollutants. For special purposes, e.g. impetiginized dermatoses, antiseptics such as potassium permanganate or chlorhexidine can be added to the water in appropriate concentrations. The ideal paediatric detergent should be very mild to avoid irritant dermatitis, and very simple to avoid allergic dermatitis.

  18. Analysis of surgical intervention populations using generic surgical process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumuth, Thomas; Jannin, Pierre; Schlomberg, Juliane; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Wiedemann, Peter; Burgert, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    According to differences in patient characteristics, surgical performance, or used surgical technological resources, surgical interventions have high variability. No methods for the generation and comparison of statistical 'mean' surgical procedures are available. The convenience of these models is to provide increased evidence for clinical, technical, and administrative decision-making. Based on several measurements of patient individual surgical treatments, we present a method of how to calculate a statistical 'mean' intervention model, called generic Surgical Process Model (gSPM), from a number of interventions. In a proof-of-concept study, we show how statistical 'mean' procedure courses can be computed and how differences between several of these models can be quantified. Patient individual surgical treatments of 102 cataract interventions from eye surgery were allocated to an ambulatory or inpatient sample, and the gSPMs for each of the samples were computed. Both treatment strategies are exemplary compared for the interventional phase Capsulorhexis. Statistical differences between the gSPMs of ambulatory and inpatient procedures of performance times for surgical activities and activity sequences were identified. Furthermore, the work flow that corresponds to the general recommended clinical treatment was recovered out of the individual Surgical Process Models. The computation of gSPMs is a new approach in medical engineering and medical informatics. It supports increased evidence, e.g. for the application of alternative surgical strategies, investments for surgical technology, optimization protocols, or surgical education. Furthermore, this may be applicable in more technical research fields, as well, such as the development of surgical workflow management systems for the operating room of the future.

  19. How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  20. [Duane vertical surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, M L; Gómez de Liaño, P; Merino, P; Franco, G

    2014-04-01

    We report 3 cases with a vertical incomitance in upgaze, narrowing of palpebral fissure, and pseudo-overaction of both inferior oblique muscles. Surgery consisted of an elevation of both lateral rectus muscles with an asymmetrical weakening. A satisfactory result was achieved in 2 cases, whereas a Lambda syndrome appeared in the other case. The surgical technique of upper-insertion with a recession of both lateral rectus muscles improved vertical incomitance in 2 of the 3 patients; however, a residual deviation remains in the majority of cases. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Diverticulitis: selective surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugtiv, G M

    1975-08-01

    The surgical treatment of complications of diverticulitis remains most challenging. A review of twenty years' experience with one hundred fifteen cases is presented with one proved anastomotic leak and no deaths. Interval primary resection with anastomosis for chronic recurrent disease including colovesical fistula and mesocolic abscess was proved sate with low morbidity. The three-stage procedure for perforated diverticulitis with spreading peritonitis or pericolic abscess was associated with a high rate of complications and morbidity. An aggressive approach with resection without anastomosis in two stages is indicated.

  2. The Role of Lymphadenectomy in Surgical Staging of Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki L. Neubauer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical staging, including lymph node sampling, for endometrial cancer was adopted by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO in 1988 based on reports demonstrating diagnostic and therapeutic advantages. This review focuses on the incidence of lymph node metastasis, risk factors for lymph node involvement, the effect of lymph node metastasis on prognosis, the therapeutic effect and diagnostic usefulness of lymphadenectomy, risks of lymph node dissection, and future directions in surgical staging of endometrial cancer. Surgical staging identifies most patients with extrauterine disease as well as uterine risk factors for recurrence, thereby allowing for a more informed approach to postoperative adjuvant therapy. Lymphadenectomy as a part of surgical staging is not required in patients assessed intraoperatively to be at low risk for lymph node metastasis (<2 cm grade 1 tumors with superficial myometrial invasion, however, a systematic lymph node dissection should be performed in most other patients with endometrial cancer. In the future, molecular markers may be useful to predict preoperatively tumor aggressiveness and lymph node metastasis. It is hoped that an approach of surgical staging with selective lymph node dissection will improve survival and spare patients additional surgical complications or unnecessary postoperative exposure to radiation and/or chemotherapy.

  3. Elderly skin and its rejuvenation: products and procedures for the aging skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; da Silva Carneiro, Sueli Coelho

    2007-03-01

    In the last few decades, there has been a substantial increase in the population of people over 60 years of age. Most of them maintain a good general health and physical activity and fitness. For these individuals there is a good number of dermatologic procedures, medications, and cosmetics that can be prescribed to improve the aspect of skin aging, providing an improvement in their self-esteem and quality of life as a result of their better look. We will discuss the mechanisms of skin aging, and the procedures and substances used to minimize its deleterious effects, such as sunscreens, estrogens, chemical peels, toxin botulinum, fillers and surgical procedures, among others. The use of makeup and the adverse reactions to cosmetics will also be mentioned.

  4. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spallone, Giulia; Botti, Elisabetta; Costanzo, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.costanzo@uniroma2.it [Department of Dermatology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via Montpellier 1, 00199, Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-03

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC), representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC). The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC.

  5. Mastectomy skin flap necrosis: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Stuart A; Jeevaratnam, Johann A; Agrawal, Avi; Cutress, Ramsey I

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mastectomy skin flap necrosis (MSFN) has a reported incidence of 5%–30% in the literature. It is often a significant and underappreciated problem. The aim of this article was to review the associated challenges and possible solutions. Methods A MEDLINE search was performed using the search term “mastectomy skin flap necrosis”. Titles and abstracts from peer-reviewed publications were screened for relevance. Results MSFN is a common complication and may present as partial- or full-thickness necrosis. Predictive patient risk factors include smoking, diabetes, obesity, radiotherapy, previous scars and severe medical comorbidity. MSFN leads to a number of challenges, including wound management problems, delays to adjuvant therapy, esthetic compromise, implant extrusion, patient distress and financial loss. Careful preoperative planning and meticulous surgical technique may reduce the incidence of MSFN. A number of intraoperative techniques are available to try and predict skin flaps at risk of MSFN. MSFN may be managed operatively or nonoperatively. Early intervention may reduce the morbidity of MSFN in selected cases. Topical nitroglycerin ointment may be beneficial in reducing MSFN following immediate reconstruction, but the evidence base is still limited. Conclusion MSFN can result in considerable challenges for the patient and the health care service. This review discusses the management options for this problem. PMID:28331365

  6. Targeted Therapy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Spallone

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most prevalent cancer in light-skinned populations, and includes mainly Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCC, representing around 75% of NMSC and Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC. The incidence of these tumors is continuously growing. It was found that the overall number of procedures for NMSC in US rose by 76%, from 1,158,298 in 1992 to 2,048,517 in 2006. Although mortality from NMSC tends to be very low, clearly the morbidity related to these skin cancers is very high. Treatment options for NMSC include both surgical and nonsurgical interventions. Surgery was considered the gold standard therapy, however, advancements in the knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms of NMSCs led to the identification of key targets for drug intervention and to the consequent development of several targeted therapies. These represent the future in treatment of these common forms of cancer ensuring a high cure rate, preservation of the maximal amount of normal surrounding tissue and optimal cosmetic outcome. Here, we will review recent advancements in NMSC targeted therapies focusing on BCC and SCC.

  7. Extreme skin depth waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Jahani, Saman

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we introduced a paradigm shift in light confinement strategy and introduced a class of extreme skin depth (e-skid) photonic structures (S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, "Transparent sub-diffraction optics: nanoscale light confinement without metal," Optica 1, 96-100 (2014)). Here, we analytically establish that figures of merit related to light confinement in dielectric waveguides are fundamentally tied to the skin depth of waves in the cladding. We contrast the propagation characteristics of the fundamental mode of e-skid waveguides and conventional waveguides to show that the decay constant in the cladding is dramatically larger in e-skid waveguides, which is the origin of sub-diffraction confinement. Finally, we propose an approach to verify the reduced skin depth in experiment using the decrease in the Goos-H\\"anchen phase shift.

  8. Skin Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Durga Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available : In recent days, skin cancer is seen as one of the most Hazardous form of the Cancers found in Humans. Skin cancer is found in various types such as Melanoma, Basal and Squamous cell Carcinoma among which Melanoma is the most unpredictable. The detection of Melanoma cancer in early stage can be helpful to cure it. Computer vision can play important role in Medical Image Diagnosis and it has been proved by many existing systems. In this paper, we present a survey on different steps which are being to detect the Melanoma Skin Cancer using Image Processing tools. In every step, what are the different methods are be included in our paper

  9. Sprayed skin turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  10. ROLE OF PRE-OPERATIVE NO HAIR REMOVAL ON SURGICAL S ITE INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Y.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This prospective study evaluate the influence of p re-operative no hair removal on surgical site infection in all abdominal and groin surgeries. As there are very few articles about pre - operative no hair removal and its effect at surgica l site in all types of wound. We are presenting thi s original article. Prospective review of 417 patients operated in Kris hna Hospital and Research Center, Karad. Between JAN-2010 to JAN-2011. The study contains cl ean, clean contaminated and dirty wound with two type of skin preparation. All the endogenous an d exogenous factors affecting post-operative surgical site are kept constant except surgical sit e skin preparation like shaving by razor or no hair removal at surgical site. In this study, we are compared role of hair removal and it impact of SSI. We had 8.21 % SSI rate by using razor shaving as skin preparation whi ch is compared with pre-operative no hair removal. It had only 2.38% rate of SSI. The differe nce between standard error of two prospective is more than twice (P<0.05. So it is clear that preop erative no hair removal at surgical site is effecti ve procedure to prevent SSI in all wound type. We are using this pre-operative no hair removal practically for all surgical intervention in our ho spital.

  11. Malignant Tumor Derived from Skin Melanocytes of a Bovine of Unusual Presentation: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Chaves Velásquez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Melanocytic tumors and melanomas in domestic animals include neoplasms composed of melanin-producing cells. In cattle, these tumors are rare and mostly benign, while malignant tumors are almost non-existent. The article reports the case of a female crossbred cow 38 months of age with a fluctuating mass located between the mandibular border and the left parotid region, about three months duration, with evident growth in the last thirty days. After surgical excision, a sample preserved in buffered formalin (10% was sent to the Laboratory of Pathology (University of Nariño—consisting of a fragment of 7.0 × 10.5 × 8.0 cm, ellipsoid, with skin and hair on one side, irregular surface, blackish brown, semi-soft consistency, and presence of shear translucent slimy content—for processing and inclusion in paraffin, cut to 5 μm thickness and stained with hematoxylin-eosin coloration. The forwarded tissue was classified as a neoplasm of malignant behavior derived from melanocytes, due to its cellular characteristics: growth pattern, pattern of distribution, severe cellular pleomorphism, anisocytosis, megalocytosis, nuclear pleomorphism, anisokaryosis, megalokaryosis, and involvement of blood vessel walls; additionally, the paraffin block was cut for immunohistochemical processing using monoclonal markers (S-100 DAKO® and Melan A DAKO®, contrasted with Mayer’s hematoxylin. Strong immunostaining of neoplastic cells is evident, and it constitutes the first reported case of this disease in Nariño (Colombia.

  12. The skin landscape in diabetes mellitus. Focus on dermocosmetic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piérard GE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Gérald E Piérard,1 Sophie Seité,2 Trinh Hermanns-Lê,3 Philippe Delvenne,3 André Scheen,4 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont3 1Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging (LABIC, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium; 2La Roche-Posay Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Asnières, France; 3Department of Dermatopathology, Unilab Lg, Liège University Hospital, Liège, Belgium; 4Department of Diabetology, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, and Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Liège University Hospital, Liège, Belgium Background: Some relationships are established between diabetes mellitus (DM and a series of cutaneous disorders. Specific dermatoses are markers for undiagnosed DM. Other disorders represent supervening complications in an already treated DM patient. Objective: To review the information about dermocosmetic care products and their appropriate use in the management and prevention of dermatoses related to DM. Method: The peer-reviewed literature and empiric findings are covered. Owing to the limited clinical evidence available for the use of dermocosmetics, a review of the routine practices and common therapies in DM-related dermatoses was conducted. Results: Some DM-related dermatoses (acanthosis nigricans, pigmented purpuric dermatosis are markers of macrovascular complications. The same disorders and some others (xerosis, Dupuytren's disease have been found to be more frequently associated with microangiopathy. Other skin diseases (alopecia areata, vitiligo were found to be markers of autoimmunity, particularly in type 1 DM. Unsurprisingly, using dermocosmetics and appropriate skin care has shown objective improvements of some DM-related dermatoses, such effects improve the quality of life. The most common skin manifestations of DM fall along continuum between "dry skin," xerosis, and acquired ichthyosis, occurring predominately on the shins and feet. Dermocosmetic products improve the feeling of well-being for DM patients. Keywords: diabetes

  13. The Swift Turbidity Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

    2011-01-01

    The Swift Turbidity Marker is an optical instrument developed to measure the level of water turbidity. The components and configuration selected for the system are based on common turbidity meter design concepts but use a simplified methodology to produce rapid turbidity measurements. This work is aimed at high school physics students and is the…

  14. Magik Markers Trehvis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Müra-rock'i viljelevast USA duost Magik Markers (ansambel osaleb režissöör Veiko Õunapuu uue mängufilmi "Püha Tõnu kiusamine" võtetel, kontsert 15. nov. Tartus klubis Trehv, vt. www.magikmarkers.audiosport.org.)

  15. Magik Markers Trehvis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Müra-rock'i viljelevast USA duost Magik Markers (ansambel osaleb režissöör Veiko Õunapuu uue mängufilmi "Püha Tõnu kiusamine" võtetel, kontsert 15. nov. Tartus klubis Trehv, vt. www.magikmarkers.audiosport.org.)

  16. Skin Temperature Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sarjoghian, Siamak

    2017-01-01

    This report represents the design and implementation of a skin temperature measurement system. The system aims to measure the skin temperature from a sensor and send it to the PC using a USB cable to display on screen. The data needs to be updated every second. The PIC18F4550 microcontroller has been used in this project to obtain data from the sensor and send it to the PC using USB 2.0 that has been built into the microcontroller. The microcontroller has a 10-bit Analog Digital Converting ac...

  17. Skin innate immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Aksoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available All multicellular organisms protect themselves from external universe and microorganisms by innate immune sytem that is constitutively present. Skin innate immune system has several different components composed of epithelial barriers, humoral factors and cellular part. In this review information about skin innate immune system and its components are presented to the reader. Innate immunity, which wasn’t adequately interested in previously, is proven to provide a powerfull early protection system, control many infections before the acquired immunity starts and directs acquired immunity to develop optimally

  18. Elevated tumor markers in coccidiomyocosis of the female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Y

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The female genital tract is rarely involved by coccidioidomycosis. We describe a woman with disseminated coccidioidomycosis involving the female pelvic organs associated with elevated tumor markers CA 125 and CA 19-9. She had no fevers and the initial clinical suspicion was a malignancy because of the elevated tumor markers. At exploratory laparotomy a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed because of the suspicion of a malignancy. Subsequent pathology demonstrated coccidioidomycosis involving the female genital tract and no malignancy. The abnormal CA 125 and CA 19-9 returned to normal after surgical resection and treatment of the coccidioidomycosis.

  19. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation.

  20. Clinical applications of CO2 laser resurfacing in the treatment of various pathologic skin disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giler, Shamai

    1997-12-01

    CO2 laser skin resurfacing devices are widely used in cosmetic surgery for the treatment of facial rhytides, acne scars and aging skin. This technique is also useful in the treatment of various benign and premalignant or multiple pathological skin conditions and disorders originating in the epidermal, dermal and skin appendages, vascular lesions, epidermal nevi, infected wounds and ulcers, and keloids. Various surgical techniques have been developed in our clinic using laser resurfacing in the treatment of more than 2,000 patients with various skin pathologic disorders. We describe our experience with the various techniques used. The precise depth control and ablation properties combined with the hemostatic and sterilizing effects of the CO2 laser beam, reduction of the possibility of bleeding, infection and damage to healthy tissues, make the CO2 laser resurfacing techniques the treatment of choice for cosmetic surgery and treatment of benign, premalignant and multiple pathologic skin conditions.

  1. Overview of surgical scar prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Daegu; Harijan, Aram

    2014-06-01

    Management of incisional scar is intimately connected to stages of wound healing. The management of an elective surgery patient begins with a thorough informed consent process in which the patient is made aware of personal and clinical circumstances that cannot be modified, such as age, ethnicity, and previous history of hypertrophic scars. In scar prevention, the single most important modifiable factor is wound tension during the proliferative and remodeling phases, and this is determined by the choice of incision design. Traditional incisions most often follow relaxed skin tension lines, but no such lines exist in high surface tension areas. If such incisions are unavoidable, the patient must be informed of this ahead of time. The management of a surgical incision does not end when the sutures are removed. Surgical scar care should be continued for one year. Patient participation is paramount in obtaining the optimal outcome. Postoperative visits should screen for signs of scar hypertrophy and has a dual purpose of continued patient education and reinforcement of proper care. Early intervention is a key to control hyperplastic response. Hypertrophic scars that do not improve by 6 months are keloids and should be managed aggressively with intralesional steroid injections and alternate modalities.

  2. Minimally invasive surgical technique for tethered surgical drains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane R Hess

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A feared complication of temporary surgical drain placement is from the technical error of accidentally suturing the surgical drain into the wound. Postoperative discovery of a tethered drain can frequently necessitate return to the operating room if it cannot be successfully removed with nonoperative techniques. Formal wound exploration increases anesthesia and infection risk as well as cost and is best avoided if possible. We present a minimally invasive surgical technique that can avoid the morbidity associated with a full surgical wound exploration to remove a tethered drain when other nonoperative techniques fail.

  3. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of secular trends in the prevalence of allergy among children stems in large part from questionnaire surveys, whereas repeated cross-sectional studies using objective markers of atopic sensitization are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the prevalence of skin prick...... (n = 527) and the second in 2001 (n = 480). Skin test reactivity to nine common aeroallergens was measured at both occasions. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive SPT to at least one allergen decreased from 24.1% in 1986 to 18.9% in 2001, (p = 0.05). We found a declining prevalence of sensitization...

  4. Thigh-leg skin tube pedicle and amniotic band syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Eugenia; Drut, Ricardo; Perelló, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    We are reporting the case of a young infant presenting with a cutaneous tubular bridge running from the dorsal aspect of the middle third of the thigh to the middle third of the leg resulting in a permanent flexion position of the limb. This finding was associated with another related to the amniotic band syndrome. Surgical resection showed a tube formed exclusively by normal skin tissue. The case appears unique although related lesions have been reported in the literature.

  5. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

  6. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J

    2011-02-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the effects of endogenous and exogenous local dermal changes by body creams, hyperemia, vasoconstriction, and hydration. SAF was measured before and after local administration of body lotion, day cream, sunscreen, or self-browning cream and after attempts to remove these effects with alcohol swabs and washing. SAF was measured before and during three hyperemia maneuvers: vasoconstriction and on a dry and wet skin. The body lotion increased SAF by 18%. Day cream, sunscreen, and self-browning cream gave an increase of >100%. Except for body lotion, subsequent cleaning with alcohol swabs and washing with soap did not return SAF to baseline values. The effect of self-browning cream persisted for 2 weeks and that of sunscreen for 4 days. Hyperemia caused by a hot bath, capsicum cream, or postocclusive reactive hyperemia gave a decrease in SAF of, respectively, 18%, 22%, and 2.3%. Vasoconstriction caused by immersing the arm in cold water gave a 10% increase. Hydration state did not influence SAF. Measurement of SAF is strongly affected by several skin creams. This effect was often not fully corrected by alcohol swabs and washing with soap and may persist for many days. Marked hyperemia and vasoconstriction also influence SAF. We advise avoiding these potential error sources.

  7. Molecular Comparison of Bacterial Communities on Peripheral Intravenous Catheters and Matched Skin Swabs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Choudhury

    Full Text Available Skin bacteria at peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC insertion sites pose a serious risk of microbial migration and subsequent colonisation of PIVCs, and the development of catheter related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs. Common skin bacteria are often associated with CRBSIs, therefore the bacterial communities at PIVC skin sites are likely to have major implications for PIVC colonisation. This study aimed to determine the bacterial community structures on skin at PIVC insertion sites and to compare the diversity with associated PIVCs. A total of 10 PIVC skin site swabs and matching PIVC tips were collected by a research nurse from 10 hospitalised medical/surgical patients at catheter removal. All swabs and PIVCs underwent traditional culture and high-throughput sequencing. The bacterial communities on PIVC skin swabs and matching PIVCs were diverse and significantly associated (correlation coefficient = 0.7, p<0.001. Methylobacterium spp. was the dominant genus in all PIVC tip samples, but not so for skin swabs. Sixty-one percent of all reads from the PIVC tips and 36% of all reads from the skin swabs belonged to this genus. Staphylococcus spp., (26%, Pseudomonas spp., (10% and Acinetobacter spp. (10% were detected from skin swabs but not from PIVC tips. Most skin associated bacteria commonly associated with CRBSIs were observed on skin sites, but not on PIVCs. Diverse bacterial communities were observed at skin sites despite skin decolonization at PIVC insertion. The positive association of skin and PIVC tip communities provides further evidence that skin is a major source of PIVC colonisation via bacterial migration but microbes present may be different to those traditionally identified via culture methods. The results provide new insights into the colonisation of catheters and potential pathogenesis of bacteria associated with CRBSI, and may assist in developing new strategies designed to reduce the risk of CRBSI.

  8. Surgical scar revision: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scar formation is an inevitable consequence of wound healing from either a traumatic or a surgical intervention. The aesthetic appearance of a scar is the most important criteria to judge the surgical outcome. An understanding of the anatomy and wound healing along with experience, meticulous planning and technique can reduce complications and improve the surgical outcome. Scar revision does not erase a scar but helps to make it less noticeable and more acceptable. Both surgical and non-surgical techniques, used either alone or in combination can be used for revising a scar. In planning a scar revision surgeon should decide on when to act and the type of technique to use for scar revision to get an aesthetically pleasing outcome. This review article provides overview of methods applied for facial scar revision. This predominantly covers surgical methods.

  9. Marcadores tumorais no câncer colorretal Tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís César Fernandes

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a clinical entity of a persistent relevance in clinical practice and its early diagnosis is a determinant factor to obtain better therapeutic results. Tumor markers are helpful means for a better approach to individuals with such neoplasm. In the present review, the authors analyze the phases in which surgical-clinical treatment markers must be used: diagnosis, determination of tumor stage, establishment of prognosis and detection of recurrence. Current and future markers and the consensus on their use are discussed. Causal factors for errors in diagnosis with markers and perspectives of use are also presented.

  10. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... once. This test is usually done to identify allergies to pollen, mold, pet dander, dust mites and foods. In adults, the test is usually done on the forearm. Children may be tested on the upper back. Allergy skin tests aren't painful. This type of ...

  11. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  12. Skin-reducing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Maurizio B; Cortinovis, Umberto; Ottolenghi, Joseph; Riggio, Egidio; Pennati, Angela; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Greco, Marco; Rovere, Guidubaldo Querci Della

    2006-09-01

    The authors propose a combined flap technique to reconstruct large and medium-sized ptotic breasts in a single-stage operation by use of anatomical permanent implants. The authors enrolled 28 patients fulfilling criteria for skin-sparing mastectomy and presenting with ptotic breasts whose areola-to-inframammary fold distance was more than 8 cm. All reconstructions were performed as a single-stage procedure. After preoperative planning, a large area in the lower half of the breast was deepithelialized according to the conventional Wise pattern. Mastectomy was then carried out. To perform reconstructions, the inferomedial fibers of the pectoralis major muscle were dissected and sutured to the superior border of the inferior dermal flap. An anatomical implant was then inserted into the pouch, which was closed laterally with the previously harvested serratus anterior fascia. Skin flaps were finally closed down to the inframammary fold. The authors performed 30 procedures on 28 patients. The medium size anatomical implants was 433 cc. Twelve women achieved symmetrization in a single stage ending in a symmetric inverted-T scar. The overall complication rate was 20 percent, with four cases (13 percent) complicated by severe, extensive necrosis of the skin flaps requiring implant removal. Breast cancer treatment must nowadays optimize cosmetic results. This can be accomplished in selected cases by means of a single-stage operation that the authors call "skin-reducing mastectomy." The final scars imitate those of cosmetic surgery. Careful patient selection and improvement in the learning curve may reduce the complication rate.

  13. Tuberculin Skin Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidance for XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains Data & Statistics Trends in Tuberculosis, 2015 TB Incidence in the United ... No. RR-17). CDC. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test: Training Materials Kit (2003). CDC. Targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection . MMWR 2000; 49 (No. ... CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  14. Immunopathology of skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nazoora

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on 130 patients suffering from skin lesions which included psoriasis, lichen planus, DLE, pemphigus, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Forty age-and-sex-matched healthy individuals served as control. Serum IgG, IgM, and circulating immune complexes (CIC were estimated. Significant increase in serum IgG (1937.2 ± 1030.43 mg% and IgM (232.12 ± 136.98 mg% was observed in all the skin lesions when compared with controls except in lichen planus where they were significantly lowered, values being 580.61± 77.35 mg% and 66.88 ± 6.59mg% respectively. CIC levels were significantly raised (P<0.00 1 in various skin lesions (40.49±23.29 when compared with controls (17.68± 3.21, but no significance was observed in lichen planus( 17.72 ± 4.28. Serum IgG, IgM and CIC were statistically significantly altered depending on the extent of the lesion and lowered significantly to almost normal values following treatment, thereby confirming the role of immunity in the pathogenesis of these skin disorders.

  15. Frog skin function revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid Larsen, Erik; Ramløv, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of the epidermis. These mechanisms have evolved pari passu with life alternating between aquatic and terrestrial habitats associated with permeabilities of the skin controlled by external ion- and osmotic concentrations (loc. cit.). This allows for fast switching of the cutaneous uptake of chloride between active...

  16. Cryoglobulin induced skin ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Razvi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupus Erythematosus (LE is a multi-organ auto-immune disease which results from complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The clinical spectrum ranges from minor cutaneous lesions to life threatening multi-organ dysfunction. The skin manifestations are variable and common and range from LE specific to LE non-specific cutaneous disease. Vasculitis is one of the most common non-specific skin lesion of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and appears as purpuric lesions, infarcts along lateral nail folds, peripheral gangrene, sub-cutaneous nodules and ulcers. Mixed cryoglobulinaemia (type II is associated with connective tissue disorders including SLE. Skin manifestations are seen in 60-100% patients and are more common in females. The most common manifestation is palpable purpura of lower extremities seen in 30-100% which often is triggered in winter or on cold exposure. Skin infarction, hemorrhagic crusts and ulcers are seen in 25% of patients. Wide spread necrotic ulcers are seen in 10-25% of patients which are often exacerbated by cold.

  17. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... appear on the skin during pregnancy? • What are stretch marks? • Is acne common during pregnancy? • How can I ... runs from the navel to the pubic hair • Stretch marks •Acne • Spider veins • Varicose veins • Changes in nail ...

  18. Cytokines and the Skin Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Malte Baron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The skin is the largest organ of the human body and builds a barrier to protect us from the harmful environment and also from unregulated loss of water. Keratinocytes form the skin barrier by undergoing a highly complex differentiation process that involves changing their morphology and structural integrity, a process referred to as cornification. Alterations in the epidermal cornification process affect the formation of the skin barrier. Typically, this results in a disturbed barrier, which allows the entry of substances into the skin that are immunologically reactive. This contributes to and promotes inflammatory processes in the skin but also affects other organs. In many common skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, a defect in the formation of the skin barrier is observed. In these diseases the cytokine composition within the skin is different compared to normal human skin. This is the result of resident skin cells that produce cytokines, but also because additional immune cells are recruited. Many of the cytokines found in defective skin are able to influence various processes of differentiation and cornification. Here we summarize the current knowledge on cytokines and their functions in healthy skin and their contributions to inflammatory skin diseases.

  19. [WHO Surgical Safety Checklist and guideline for safe surgery 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Kimitoshi; Ichikawa, Takao

    2014-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Safe Surgery Saves Lives campaign in 2007 to improve safety of surgical care in the world. As a part of the campaign, the first edition of the Surgical Safety Checklist was created through an international consultative process in 2008 and the second edition was published in the WHO Guidelines for Safe Surgery 2009. The guidelines consist of ten essential objectives for safe surgery, and nine of the ten objectives are facilitated by introducing the surgical checklist in the operating room, which is designed to improve teamwork of the operating room member and to give them chances to use the safety processes consistently. It consists of nineteen check points scheduled to be used in three phases: before anesthesia induction, before any skin incision, and at the end of surgery. In this article we gave an outline of WHO Surgical Safety Checklist and WHO Guidelines for Safe Surgery 2009, and reviewed the evidence of the guidelines and checklist. Finally we presented the evidence indicating the efficacy of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist, which included the pilot study attached in the guidelines showing that its use markedly decreased complications in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery in eight diverse international hospitals.

  20. Open re-rupture of the Achilles tendon after surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Hanada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate of re-rupture of Achilles tendon after surgical treatment were reported to 1.7-5.6% previously. Re-rupture of Achilles tendon generally occurs subcutaneously. We experienced two rare cases of the open re-ruptures of Achilles tendon with a transverse wound perpendicular to the primary surgical incision. Re-rupture occurred 4 and 13 weeks after surgical treatment. We suggest that open re-rupture correlates more closely with skin scaring and shortening. Another factor may be adhesion between the subcutaneous scar and the suture of the paratenon and Achilles tendon with post-operative immobilization.

  1. Discussion on surgical treatment for young patients with congenital lower eyelid entropion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Tao Zheng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the surgical methods and clinical effects on young patients with congenital lower eyelid entropion. METHODS: There were 27 patients(45 caseswho suffered congenital lower eyelid entropion accepted the modified blepharosphincterectomy. The clinical effects and complications were evaluated.RESULTS: After followed up for 6mo, 42 eyes were fully recovered, 3 eyes were unsuccessful and the cure rate was 93%, 5 eyes suffered minor lower eyelid skin folds, none had lower eyelid retraction and ectropion.CONCLUSION: Modified blepharosphincterectomy is an ideal cosmetic surgical treatment for young patients with congenital lower eyelid entropion. It is an effective surgical treatment with fewer complications.

  2. Preoperative Prevalence of Staphylococcus Aureus in Cardiothoracic and Neurological Surgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu eKapoor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a global cause of both hospital and community-acquired infection. This retrospective, observational study determined the prevalence of MRSA carriers in cardiothoracic and neurological surgical patients presenting to an outpatient preoperative assessment center in Columbus, OH. MRSA may cause aggressive skin and soft-tissue infection with potentially fatal complications, and cardiothoracic and neurological surgical patients are at high risk for surgical-site infection. Results indicated that 4.25% of the sample carried MRSA and 25.25% carried methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus.

  3. SKIN TAGS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH SYSTEMIC ILLNESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Skin tags (Acrochordons are very common benign tumor of the skin. It is seen in 25% of population, particularly in women in advancing age and in pregnancy. Skin tags are small, soft, pedunculated and papillomatous lesions usually seen on eyelids and major flexures of the body. Skin tags are enti rely asymptomatic and diagnosis is unmistakable. Many cutaneous lesions have been well established to be associated with some systemic diseases and this has been proven beneficial as it helps in early diagnosis. METHODS: A total no of 50 patients with skin tags were included in the study. Detailed history, thorough physical examination and relevant investigations were done to confirm the systemic manifestations when present. RESULTS: In the study the patient’s age ranged from 18 – 65 yrs with female - male ratio 1:1.17. The number of skin tags among the 50 patients ranged from 1 – 74. In our study we found that 74% of our patients with skin tags were either obese or overweight, 24% of our patients fulfilled the criteria of metabolic syndrome, 36% of the patients were diabetics & 4 of our patients had evidence of thyroid disorder. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Presence of multiple, hyper pigmented skin tags at more than one site can be a marker for diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. All such patients should be evaluated thoroughly for detecting such illnesses. This study thus emphasizes the need for systemic evaluation of all patients with skin tags for early management and improve d quality of life by life style modification.

  4. Neural crest-derived cells with stem cell features can be traced back to multiple lineages in the adult skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. Wong (Christine); S. Paratore (Sabrina); M.T. Dours-Zimmermann (María); T. Rochat (Thierry); T. Pietri (Thomas); U. Suter (Ueli); D. Zimmermann (Dieter); S. Dufour (Sylvie); J.P. Thiery (Joachim); D.N. Meijer (Dies); C. Beermann (Christopher); Y. Barrandon (Yann); L. Sommer (Lukas)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractGiven their accessibility, multipotent skin-derived cells might be useful for future cell replacement therapies. We describe the isolation of multipotent stem cell-like cells from the adult trunk skin of mice and humans that express the neural crest stem cell markers p75 and Sox10 and

  5. Neural crest-derived cells with stem cell features can be traced back to multiple lineages in the adult skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. Wong (Christine); S. Paratore (Sabrina); M.T. Dours-Zimmermann (María); T. Rochat (Thierry); T. Pietri (Thomas); U. Suter (Ueli); D. Zimmermann (Dieter); S. Dufour (Sylvie); J.P. Thiery (Joachim); D.N. Meijer (Dies); C. Beermann (Christopher); Y. Barrandon (Yann); L. Sommer (Lukas)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractGiven their accessibility, multipotent skin-derived cells might be useful for future cell replacement therapies. We describe the isolation of multipotent stem cell-like cells from the adult trunk skin of mice and humans that express the neural crest stem cell markers p75 and Sox10 and di

  6. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Nur, E.; Chunmao, H.; Lutgers, H.L.; Links, T.P.; Smit, A.J.; Rakhorst, G.; de Graaff, R.

    2010-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e. g. due to select

  7. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Nur, E.; Chunmao, H.; Lutgers, H.L.; Links, T.P.; Smit, A.J.; Rakhorst, G.; de Graaff, R.

    2010-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e. g. due to

  8. Neuronavigation. Principles. Surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Marcel; Ciurea, Alexandru Vlad

    2009-01-01

    Neuronavigation and stereotaxy are techniques designed to help neurosurgeons precisely localize different intracerebral pathological processes by using a set of preoperative images (CT, MRI, fMRI, PET, SPECT etc.). The development of computer assisted surgery was possible only after a significant technological progress, especially in the area of informatics and imagistics. The main indications of neuronavigation are represented by the targeting of small and deep intracerebral lesions and choosing the best way to treat them, in order to preserve the neurological function. Stereotaxis also allows lesioning or stimulation of basal ganglia for the treatment of movement disorders. These techniques can bring an important amount of confort both to the patient and to the neurosurgeon. Neuronavigation was introduced in Romania around 2003, in four neurosurgical centers. We present our five-years experience in neuronavigation and describe the main principles and surgical techniques.

  9. Surgical education in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Surgical education in Mexico basically follows the same model as in the United States, with a selection process resembling the matching program. There is a 4-year training period during which residents in their third year spend 4 months as the sole surgeon in a rural community. During the senior year they are entitled to an elective period in a place of their choosing. After completion of the 4 years, residents have to present a thesis and undergo an oral examination before getting a university diploma. They are then encouraged to pass the written and oral examination of the Mexican Board of Surgery before they are fully certified to enter practice in a public or private hospital.

  10. Real-time automatic registration in optical surgical navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qinyong; Yang, Rongqian; Cai, Ken; Si, Xuan; Chen, Xiuwen; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-05-01

    An image-guided surgical navigation system requires the improvement of the patient-to-image registration time to enhance the convenience of the registration procedure. A critical step in achieving this aim is performing a fully automatic patient-to-image registration. This study reports on a design of custom fiducial markers and the performance of a real-time automatic patient-to-image registration method using these markers on the basis of an optical tracking system for rigid anatomy. The custom fiducial markers are designed to be automatically localized in both patient and image spaces. An automatic localization method is performed by registering a point cloud sampled from the three dimensional (3D) pedestal model surface of a fiducial marker to each pedestal of fiducial markers searched in image space. A head phantom is constructed to estimate the performance of the real-time automatic registration method under four fiducial configurations. The head phantom experimental results demonstrate that the real-time automatic registration method is more convenient, rapid, and accurate than the manual method. The time required for each registration is approximately 0.1 s. The automatic localization method precisely localizes the fiducial markers in image space. The averaged target registration error for the four configurations is approximately 0.7 mm. The automatic registration performance is independent of the positions relative to the tracking system and the movement of the patient during the operation.

  11. Skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The major applications of tissue-engineered skin substitutes are in promoting the healing of acute and chronic wounds. Several approaches have been taken by commercial companies to develop products to address these conditions. Skin substitutes include both acellular and cellular devices. While acellular skin substitutes act as a template for dermal formation, this discussion mainly covers cellular devices. In addressing therapeutic applications in tissue engineering generally, a valuable precursor is an understanding of the mechanism of the underlying pathology. While this is straightforward in many cases, it has not been available for wound healing. Investigation of the mode of action of the tissue-engineered skin substitutes has led to considerable insight into the mechanism of formation, maintenance and treatment of chronic wounds. Four aspects mediating healing are considered here for their mechanism of action: (i) colonization of the wound bed by live fibroblasts in the implant, (ii) the secretion of growth factors, (iii) provision of a suitable substrate for cell migration, particularly keratinocytes and immune cells, and (iv) modification of the immune system by secretion of neutrophil recruiting chemokines. An early event in acute wound healing is an influx of neutrophils that destroy planktonic bacteria. However, if the bacteria are able to form biofilm, they become resistant to neutrophil action and prevent reepithelialization. In this situation the wound becomes chronic. In chronic wounds, fibroblasts show a senescence-like phenotype with decreased secretion of neutrophil chemoattractants that make it more likely that biofilms become established. Treatment of the chronic wounds involves debridement to eliminate biofilm, and the use of antimicrobials. A role of skin substitutes is to provide non-senescent fibroblasts that attract and activate neutrophils to prevent biofilm re-establishment. The emphasis of the conclusion is the importance of preventing

  12. STR MARKERS. GENOTYPING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Sirbu

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available STR (short tandem repeats loci consist of short, repetitive sequence elements of 2-8 bp in length. These abundant repeats are well distributed throughout the human genome and are rich source of highly polymorphic markers. There are literally hundreds of STR systems which have been mapped throughout the human genome. Several dozen have been investigated for application to human identity testing. These STR loci are found on almost every chromosome in the genome. They may be amplified using a variety of PCR primers. Tetranucleotide repeats have been most popular among forensic scientists due to their fidelity in PCR amplification although some tri- and pentanucleotide repeats are also in use. In this paper we intend (far from being exhaustive to present a synthesis of the characteristics of these genetic markers and their applications in genotyping, giving as an example the use of the STRs in a paternity testing case.

  13. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  14. Full-thickness skin grafting in nasal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, William M; Bhadkamkar, Mohin; Wolfswinkel, Erik M; Thornton, James F

    2013-05-01

    Skin grafting in nasal reconstruction, long used by dermatologists, can provide superior results and can well be the "go to" procedure for nasal reconstruction. The upper two-thirds of the nose is composed of both flattened, featureless and often thin skin that is well recreated with defect-only full-thickness grafting. Skin grafting for the lower third of the nose has been practiced for years by dermatologists; over the last 4 to 5 years, it has been embraced by plastic surgeons. The patient and donor site selection is critical. Meticulous attention to graft selection, utilization of a no-touch technique during graft harvest and placement of surgical bolsters with through-and-through tacking sutures are essential to ensure 100% graft take and a successful aesthetic result.

  15. Lipoprotein marker for hypertriglyceridemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubicciotti, Roger S. (El Cerrito, CA); Karu, Alexander E. (Kensington, CA); Krauss, Ronald M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1986-01-01

    Methods and compositions are provided for the detection of a particular low density lipoprotein which has been found to be a marker for patients suffering from type IV hypertriglyceridemia. A monoclonal antibody capable of specifically binding to a characteristic epitopic site on this LDL subspecies can be utilized in a wide variety of immunoassays. Hybridoma cell line SPL.IVA5A1 was deposited at the American Type Culture Collection on Mar. 29, 1984, and granted accession no. HB 8535.

  16. Alcoholism: Current Marker Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    mongolism are high-risk candidates for certain types of leukemia. Similarly, hemophiliacs have a correspondingly high incidence of color blindness . (4...genetically determined characteristics such as color blindness and blood type. GENETIC MARKER STUDIES In 1966 Dr. Cruz-Coke and Dr. Varela reported that...their study had linked color blindness , cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. They further hypothesized the existence of a sex-linked carrier gene

  17. SKIN DETECTION OF ANIMATION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  18. Staining of skin with dihydroxyacetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WITTGENSTEIN, E; BERRY, H K

    1960-09-30

    The reaction of skin with dihydroxyacetone to produce a brown "artificial tan" appears to proceed through combination with free amino groups in skin proteins, and particularly by combination of dihydroxyacetone with the free guanido group in arginine.

  19. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  20. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from seams or elastic binding. Check also for blisters, bumps, insect bites, dry flaky skin or pimples. ... always check your skin carefully after wearing new shoes or clothing. Too loose — Loose clothing can form ...