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Sample records for surgical pulmonary embolectomy

  1. Rescue surgical pulmonary embolectomy for acute massive pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulrahman Elassal

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Surgical pulmonary embolectomy is a rescue operation in high-risk PE. It could save patients with preoperative cardiac arrest. Early diagnosis, interdisciplinary team action, appropriate and emergent treatment strategy are necessary for favorable outcome.

  2. Midterm benefits of surgical pulmonary embolectomy for acute pulmonary embolus on right ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, William Brent; Leshnower, Bradley G; Lasajanak, Yi; Binongo, Jose; Guyton, Robert A; Halkos, Michael E; Thourani, Vinod H; Lattouf, Omar M

    2016-09-01

    Surgical pulmonary embolectomy has been used for the successful treatment of massive and submassive pulmonary emboli. The purpose of this study is to document the short- and midterm echocardiographic follow-up of right ventricular function after surgical pulmonary embolectomy for acute pulmonary embolus. A retrospective review of the local Society of Thoracic Surgeons database of patients who underwent surgical pulmonary embolectomy for acute pulmonary embolectomy was conducted from 1998 to 2014 at a US academic center. Patients with chronic thrombus were excluded. The institutional echocardiographic database was searched for follow-up studies to compare markers of right ventricular function. Unadjusted outcomes were described, and quantitative comparisons were made of short- and long-term echocardiographic data. A total of 44 patients were included for analysis; 35 patients (79.5%) had a submassive pulmonary embolectomy, and 9 patients (20.5%) had a massive pulmonary embolectomy and required preoperative inotropy. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 68.0 ± 40.2 minutes, and 30 patients (68.2%) underwent procedures without aortic crossclamping. There was 1 in-hospital mortality (2.3%), and there were no permanent neurologic deficits. A total of 21 patients had echocardiography results available for follow-up. Perioperative echocardiographic data showed an immediate decrease in tricuspid regurgitant velocity and right ventricular pressure (P < .05). Mean midterm echocardiographic follow-up was 30 months in 12 patients. At midterm follow-up, improvements in right ventricular function observed postoperatively persisted. Only 1 patient had moderate right ventricular dysfunction, and no patient had worse than mild tricuspid regurgitation. Mean tricuspid valve regurgitant velocity was 2.4 ± 0.7 m/s, and mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure was 37.2 ± 14.2 mm Hg. Surgical pulmonary embolectomy may represent optimal therapy in selected patients for

  3. [Anesthetic management of massive endobronchial hemorrhage after pulmonary embolectomy].

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    Nakayama, Shin; Miyabe, Masayuki; Tabata, Kouya; Toyooka, Hidenori

    2003-08-01

    We report a case of massive endobronchial hemorrhage after pulmonary embolectomy. A 63-year-old woman underwent emergency pulmonary embolectomy with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). During partial CPB, we found massive blood gushing out from the endotracheal tube. Approximately 2,000 ml of blood was aspirated in 10 minutes. To ensure adequate oxygenation, emergent percutaneous cardiopulmonary support system (PCPS) was started. After neutralization of heparin and the institution of 10 cmH2O of positive end-expiratory pressure, the bleeding diminished. Institution of PCPS allows performance of unhurried bronchoscopy to identify the actual bleeding point and to lavage the airway. In addition to this management, we administrated steroids and neutrophil elastase inhibitor to stabilize pulmonary capillary membrane. Without complications, the patient was extubated 2 days after operation and the following course was uneventful. Immediate institution of PEEP and pharmacological interventions to reduce pulmonary blood pressure were beneficial in arresting hemorrhage. The bleeding begins usually at the time of discontinuation of CPB. We should recognize the possible occurrence of endobronchial bleeding after pulmonary embolectomy and prepare to protect the airway and to maintain oxygenation and cardiac function.

  4. Surgical treatment of acute pulmonary embolism--a 12-year retrospective analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehnert, Per; Møller, Christian H; Carlsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Surgical embolectomy for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is considered to be a high risk procedure and therefore a last treatment option. We wanted to evaluate the procedures role in modern treatment of acute PE....

  5. Fração tardia do espaço morto (fDlate antes e após embolectomia pulmonar Late dead space fraction (fDlate before and after pulmonary embolectomy

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    Marcos Mello Moreira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este relato de caso apresenta os resultados da fDlate (fração tardia de espaço morto em um paciente submetido a embolectomia por tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP. O TEP foi diagnosticado por ultrassonografia ecodoppler de membros inferiores, cintilografia pulmonar, tomografia helicoidal computadorizada e arteriografia pulmonar. O cálculo da fDlate se baseou na capnografia volumétrica e na gasometria arterial de acordo com ERIKSSON et al. [1]. A fDlate pré-operatória foi de 0,16 e foi considerada positiva por estar acima do valor de corte de 0,12. A fDlate pós-operatória foi de - 0,04, um valor inferior ao valor de corte de 0,12 e foi caracterizada como negativa. A correlação da fDlate com os resultados de imagem confirma a validade desta nova ferramenta diagnóstica não-invasiva.This report presents data on the late dead space fraction (fDlate of a patient submitted to surgical pulmonary embolectomy. Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE was diagnosed by echo-Doppler ultrasound of the lower limbs, lung scintigraphy, computerized helical tomography and angiography. The fDlate was calculated based on volumetric capnography as well as on arterial blood gases according to ERIKSSON et al. [1]. The preoperative fDlate value was 0.16, which was considered positive for the diagnosis of PTE, as it was higher than the cut-off point of 0.12. The postoperative fDlate value was - 0.04, which was below 0.12 and was characterized as negative. The agreement of fDlate with the imaging results confirms the validity of this new, noninvasive diagnostic tool.

  6. Surgical Treatment for Pulmonary Hamartomas

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    Funda Ižncekara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we evaluated the patients operated for hamartoma and treated endobronchially and the diagnostic value of this approach has been examined. Material and Method: 59 patients (24 females, 35 males; mean age 53 years, range 28-78 years which were operated and endobronchial treated for hamartoma in our clinic between January 2003 - January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Patient age, sex, symptoms, histopathological, surgical procedures and treatment outcomes were evaluated. Results: The most common complaint was shortness of breath, while 25 patients were asymptomatic. Thoracotomy and mass enucleation in 29 patients (%49,15, thoracotomy and wedge resection in 18 patients (%30.5, VATS and wedge resection in 4 patients (%6.77, thoracotomy and upper lobectomy in 4 patients (%6.77, thoracotomy and lower lobectomy in 2 patients (%3.38 and left upper lobe segmentectomy in 1 patient (%1.69 and right upper bronchial sleeve resection in 1 patient were performed. The postoperative pathology of lesions examined and diagnosis were chondroid hamartoma in 28 , pulmonary hamartoma in 20 , hamartoma chondrolypomatous in 11 and the bronchial hamartoma in 2 . No mortality was observed intraoperatively. Discussion: Although hamartomas are benign , diagnosis should be made because it can be confused with lung cancer. Definitive diagnosis and treatment can be performed successfully through VATS in primarily appropriate cases with minimal morbidity or thoracotomy or endobronchial treatment.

  7. Surgical repair of pulmonary artery branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghez, Olivier; Saeed, Imran; Serrato, Maria; Quintero, Diana Bernal; Kreitmann, Bernard; Fraisse, Alain; Uemura, Hideki; Seale, Anna; Daubeney, Piers; McCarthy, Karen; Ho, S Yen

    2013-01-01

    Surgical repair of pulmonary artery (PA) branches encompasses many different clinical scenarios and technical challenges. The most common, such as bifurcation and central PA reconstruction, are described, as well as the challenges of complex and peripheral reconstruction.

  8. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with pulmonary embolism in surgical patients - a case series.

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    Swol, J; Buchwald, D; Strauch, J; Schildhauer, T A

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) devices maintain the circulation and oxygenation of organs during acute right ventricular failure and cardiogenic shock, bypassing the lungs. A pulmonary embolism can cause this life-threatening condition. ECLS is a considerably less invasive treatment than surgical embolectomy. Whether to bridge embolectomy or for a therapeutic purpose, ECLS is used almost exclusively following failure of all other therapeutic options. From January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2014, five patients in cardiac arrest and with diagnosed pulmonary embolism (PE) were cannulated with the ECLS system. PE was diagnosed using computer tomography scanning or echocardiography. Cardiac arrest was witnessed in the hospital in all cases and CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) was initiated immediately. Cannulation of the femoral vein and femoral artery was always performed under CPR conditions. Right heart failure regressed during the ECLS therapy, usually under a blood flow of 4-5 L/min after 48 hours. Three patients were weaned from ECLS and one patient became an organ donor. Finally, two of the five PE patients treated with ECLS were discharged from inpatient treatment without neurological dysfunction. The duration of ECLS therapy depends on the patient's condition. Irreversible damage to the organs after hypoxemia limits ECLS treatment and leads to futile multiorgan failure. Hemorrhages after thrombolysis and cerebral dysfunction were further complications. Veno-arterial cannulation for ECLS can be feasibly achieved and should be established during active CPR for cardiac arrest. In the case of PE, the immediate diagnosis and rapid implantation of the system are decisive for therapeutic success. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. 21 CFR 870.5150 - Embolectomy catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thromboemboli, i.e., blood clots which have migrated in blood vessels from one site in the vascular tree to...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Therapeutic Devices § 870.5150 Embolectomy...

  10. [Our experience with peripheral arterial embolectomy].

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    Caminiti, R; Arrigo, G; Broccio, G

    1975-04-30

    34 cases of acute peripheral ischaemia examined in recent years at the University of Messina General Surgery Clinic are presented. 16 were subjected to embolectomy according to Fogarty. The remaining 18 received protracted medical therapy. Some successes were obtained. In other cases, gangrene necessitated amputation of the affected limb. Satisfactory results were observed in 70% of the operated series. Success was more marked when only a short interval was left between the embolic episode, with progressively poorer results as the penalty for delay. The long-term results of embolectomy are related to the nature of the underlying disease and the treatment given after surgery.

  11. Fistulectomy as a surgical option for pulmonary arteriovenous malformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shao-yan; ZHANG Zhi-tai; OU Song-lei; HU Yan-sheng; SONG Fei-qiang; LI Xin; MA Xu-chen; MA Xin-xin; LIANG Lin; LI Dong; GUO Lin; SUN Zhen

    2009-01-01

    Background Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice for pulmonary arteriovenous malformation but removes some normal lung parenchyma. This study aimed to evaluate the effect and safety of the lung-saving procedure of fistulectomy as an alternative to lung resection.Methods From July 2003 to July 2008, 6 selected patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations underwent fistulectomies. Among them, 1 patient underwent emergency operation and 2 underwent bilateral operations. One patient received postoperative embolotherapy.Results No hospital deaths or postoperative morbidity occurred. PaO_2 increased significantly after operation. All patients were free of symptoms and hypoxia during a follow-up for 9 months to 5 years.Conclusions Fistulectomy is a safe and effective procedure for patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformation and may be an alternative to lung resection.

  12. Should embolectomy be performed in late acute lower extremity arterial occlusions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Iyem

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Hikmet Iyem, M Nesimi ErenDepartment of Cardiovascular Surgery, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, TurkeyBackground: We analyzed the embolectomy results and complications of patients who were operated on after a diagnosis of late acute arterial occlusion of lower extremities.Methods: A total of 122 patients operated on in our clinic between 2004 and 2009 for late acute arterial occlusion were included in the study. Late arterial occlusion was defined as occlusion occuring 72 hours after initial manifestation of the patient complaints related to the affected lower extremity.Results: Average age of the 122 patients (71 male, 51 female was 54.2 ± 16.8 years. In this cohort, 64.75% of patients had cardiac pathologies, while 28.68% had extracardiac causes; 1.64% patients had cathetherization, 0.81% patient had malignancy, and 2.46% patients had a history of trauma. In 1.64% of the cases, no reason for thromboembolysis could be found. Thirty-one patients (25.40% had additional surgical operations, 14 (11.47% had fasciotomy, and 9 (7.37% had amputation. Re-embolectomy was performed on 37 patients (30.32% who had ongoing ischemia after an operation. Additional surgical operations were performed on 31 patients (25.40% with ongoing ischemia. In 14 of these cases (11.47%, patients were treated with fasciotomy due to development of compartment syndrome. Amputation was performed on a total of 9 patients. Early in the postoperative phase, mortality was observed in 11 patients (9.01%.Conclusion: We believe that late embolectomies of acute late leg ischemia increases blood flow in the extremity and reduces the number of amputations required.Keywords: lower extremity, embolism, prognosis, treatment outcome

  13. Generating patient-specific pulmonary vascular models for surgical planning

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    Murff, Daniel; Co-Vu, Jennifer; O'Dell, Walter G.

    2015-03-01

    Each year in the U.S., 7.4 million surgical procedures involving the major vessels are performed. Many of our patients require multiple surgeries, and many of the procedures include "surgical exploration". Procedures of this kind come with a significant amount of risk, carrying up to a 17.4% predicted mortality rate. This is especially concerning for our target population of pediatric patients with congenital abnormalities of the heart and major pulmonary vessels. This paper offers a novel approach to surgical planning which includes studying virtual and physical models of pulmonary vasculature of an individual patient before operation obtained from conventional 3D X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest. These models would provide clinicians with a non-invasive, intricately detailed representation of patient anatomy, and could reduce the need for invasive planning procedures such as exploratory surgery. Researchers involved in the AirPROM project have already demonstrated the utility of virtual and physical models in treatment planning of the airways of the chest. Clinicians have acknowledged the potential benefit from such a technology. A method for creating patient-derived physical models is demonstrated on pulmonary vasculature extracted from a CT scan with contrast of an adult human. Using a modified version of the NIH ImageJ program, a series of image processing functions are used to extract and mathematically reconstruct the vasculature tree structures of interest. An auto-generated STL file is sent to a 3D printer to create a physical model of the major pulmonary vasculature generated from 3D CT scans of patients.

  14. Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Its Surgical Treatment.

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    Fry, Donald E

    2016-08-01

    Tuberculous infection has declined in the United States but remains a major infectious disease with morbidity and death for millions of people. Although the primary therapy is drugs, complications of the disease require surgical interventions. The published literature on tuberculosis was reviewed to provide a current understanding of the medical treatment of the disease and to define those areas where surgical intervention continues to be necessary. Multi-drug therapy for tuberculosis has become the standard and has reduced the complications of the disease necessitating surgical intervention. However, multi-drug resistance and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis continue to be major problems and require effective initial therapy with surveillance to define resistant infections. The roles of surgery in tuberculosis are in establishing the diagnosis in extra-pulmonary infection and in the management of complications of disseminated disease. Tuberculosis remains an occupational risk for surgeons and surgical personnel. Tuberculosis is still a global problem, mandating recognition and treatment. Surgeons should have an understanding of the diverse presentation and complications of the disease.

  15. The role of preoperative pulmonary function tests in the surgical treatment of extremely severe scoliosis

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    Lao, Lifeng; Weng, Xisheng; Qiu, Guixing; Shen, Jianxiong

    2013-01-01

    Background The patients with extremely severe spinal deformity are commonly considered high-risk candidates for surgical treatment because of their underlying lung disease. Currently, little has been reported about the postoperative pulmonary complication events in this population. This retrospective study sought to evaluate preoperative pulmonary function tests in the surgical treatment of extremely severe scoliosis. Methods Preoperative forced vital capacity (FVC), FVC ratio, forced expirat...

  16. Fungal native pulmonary valve endocarditis: facing both medical and surgical challenges.

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    Bouabdallaoui, Nadia; Demondion, Pierre; Lebreton, Guillaume; Leprince, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Fungal isolated native pulmonary valve endocarditis is extremely uncommon. Data are scarce and report high mortality and recurrence rates. Recommended management combines both medical and surgical approaches. We report herein a rare case of isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis caused by Candida albicans The patient did not display prior heart disease. Medical management was unsuccessful. Pulmonary valve replacement allowed rapid improvement. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  17. Surgical interventions for pulmonary tuberculosis in Mumbai, India: surgical outcomes and programmatic challenges

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    Shirodkar, S.; Anande, L.; Dalal, A.; Desai, C.; Corrêa, G.; Laxmeshwar, C.; Mansoor, H.; Remartinez, D.; Trelles, M.; Isaakidis, P.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: While surgery for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is considered an important adjunct for specific cases, including drug-resistant tuberculosis, operational evidence on its feasibility and effectiveness is limited. Objective: To describe surgical outcomes and programmatic challenges of providing surgery for PTB in Mumbai, India. Design: A descriptive study of routinely collected data of surgical interventions for PTB from 2010 to 2014 in two Mumbai hospitals, one public, one private. Results: Of 85 patients, 5 (6%) died and 17 (20%) had complications, with wound infection being the most frequent. Repeat operation was required in 12 (14%) patients. Most procedures were performed on an emergency basis, and eligibility was established late in the course of treatment. Median time from admission to surgery was 51 days. Drug susceptibility test (DST) patterns and final treatment outcomes were not systematically collected. Conclusion: In a high-burden setting such as Mumbai, important data on surgery for PTB were surprisingly limited in both the private and public sectors. Eligibility for surgery was established late, culture and DST were not systematically offered, the interval between admission and surgery was long and TB outcomes were not known. Systematic data collection would allow for proper evaluation of surgery as adjunctive therapy for all forms of TB under programmatic conditions. PMID:27695683

  18. Upper-limb thrombo-embolectomy: national cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L V; Mortensen, L S; Lindholt, Jes S.;

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the incidence of thrombo-embolectomy in upper-limb and prognosis with respect to arm amputation, stroke and death.......We investigated the incidence of thrombo-embolectomy in upper-limb and prognosis with respect to arm amputation, stroke and death....

  19. Thrombolytic therapy in pulmonary embolism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nagi, D

    2010-01-01

    Massive pulmonary embolism carries a high mortality. Potential treatment includes anticoagulation, thrombolytic therapy and embolectomy. We report a case of deep vein thrombosis leading to progressive massive pulmonary embolism despite appropriate anticoagulation, where thrombolysis with IVC filter placement resulted in a successful outcome.

  20. Thoracic vasculitis presenting as surgical problems.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jansen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We present four patients with vasculitis manifesting with unusual clinical or pathological features, generating surgical problems. Two cases presented with pulmonary hypertension, with investigations and radiological evidence prompting clinical suspicion of pulmonary thrombo-embolic disease. First case, with an antecedant history of Wegener\\'s granulomatosis (WG), demonstrated following "embolectomy", WG involving the large pulmonary elastic arteries. The second case of inoperable "pulmonary thrombo-embolic disease" was subsequently found at limited post mortem to have giant cell arteritis, which affected widespread small peripheral pulmonary arterial vessels. The other two cases were of aortitis occurring in the background of immune-mediated disease, which had been treated with aggressive immunosuppression regimens. The first of these was a case of Cogan\\'s syndrome complicated by descending aortitis, a rarely reported phenomenon, with co-existent acute endocarditis of the aortic valve leaflets. Most cases of endocarditis in this context occur secondary to and in continuity with ascending aortitis. That this case, and a case of ascending aortitis occurring in the context of relapsing polychondritis occurred in the face of aggressive immunosuppression with an apparent clinical response, underscores the need to not accept a clinical picture at face value. This has implications for clinical management, particularly in the follow-up of surgical prosthetic devices such as grafts which may be used in these cases. All four cases emphasise the continued importance of histology and the post-mortem examination in elucidating previously undetected or unsuspected disease.

  1. Surgical repair of an idiopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm.

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    Shiokawa, Yuichi; Ushijima, Tomoki; Oishi, Yasuhisa; Tominaga, Ryuji

    2011-02-01

    We report a rare case of idiopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) in a 56-year-old woman without any causative conditions, such as congenital heart disease, inflammation, pulmonary artery hypertension, or systemic vasculitis. She presented with sudden back pain, and examination revealed the PAA. She electively underwent resection of the aneurysm and graft replacement. Pathology examination revealed cystic medial necrosis, which was considered the underlying pathology of the aneurysm.

  2. Carbon dioxide as a substitute for iodine contrast in arteriography during embolectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Wolosker, Nelson; Teivelis, Marcelo Passos; Mendes,Cynthia de Almeida; Nishinari, Kenji; Ribeiro,Mariângela de Freitas; Kuzniec, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Acute limb ischemia can be potentially harmful to the limb and life threatening. Renal failure is a possible outcome associated with release of products of ischemic limb reperfusion. Some authors reported the benefit of performing angiography after embolectomy, even though iodine contrast is also nephrotoxic. We report a case of embolectomy on a patient with renal insufficiency in whom carbon dioxide was used as a substitute for iodine contrast.

  3. Carbon dioxide as a substitute for iodine contrast in arteriography during embolectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolosker, Nelson; Teivelis, Marcelo Passos; Mendes, Cynthia de Almeida; Nishinari, Kenji; Ribeiro, Mariângela de Freitas; Kuzniec, Sergio [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Acute limb ischemia can be potentially harmful to the limb and life threatening. Renal failure is a possible outcome associated with release of products of ischemic limb reperfusion. Some authors reported the benefit of performing angiography after embolectomy, even though iodine contrast is also nephrotoxic. We report a case of embolectomy on a patient with renal insufficiency in whom carbon dioxide was used as a substitute for iodine contrast.

  4. [A Case of Surgical Resection of Isolated Pulmonary Metastasis from Gastric Cancer].

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    Murata, Tomohiro; Koshiishi, Haruya; Imaizumi, Ken; Okuno, Keisuke; Nakata, Takuya; Hirano, Takayuki; Tokura, Michiyo; Matsuyama, Takatoshi; Hoshino, Mayumi; Kakimoto, Masaki; Goto, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Tetsunori

    2015-11-01

    We report a rare case of surgical resection for pulmonary metastasis from gastric cancer. A 71-year-old man underwent total gastrectomy for gastric cancer in October 2012. After the operation, he received S-1 chemotherapy for 1 year. In January 2014, computed tomography of the chest showed a nodule shadow with a cavity at S3 in the right lung. Because it showed a tendency to gradually enlarge, we performed an operation in September 2014. The nodule was diagnosed as metastatic adenocarcinoma from gastric cancer on pathology. The patient is being treated with S-1 chemotherapy during follow-up. The pulmonary metastases of gastric cancer often develop along with carcinomatous lymphangiosis or carcinomatous pleurisy, and isolated pulmonary metastasis is rare. A consensus has not been reached about the usefulness of surgical resection, and the accumulation of further cases is required.

  5. Surgical team turnover and operative time: An evaluation of operating room efficiency during pulmonary resection.

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    Azzi, Alain Joe; Shah, Karan; Seely, Andrew; Villeneuve, James Patrick; Sundaresan, Sudhir R; Shamji, Farid M; Maziak, Donna E; Gilbert, Sebastien

    2016-05-01

    Health care resources are costly and should be used judiciously and efficiently. Predicting the duration of surgical procedures is key to optimizing operating room resources. Our objective was to identify factors influencing operative time, particularly surgical team turnover. We performed a single-institution, retrospective review of lobectomy operations. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of different factors on surgical time (skin-to-skin) and total procedure time. Staff turnover within the nursing component of the surgical team was defined as the number of instances any nurse had to leave the operating room over the total number of nurses involved in the operation. A total of 235 lobectomies were performed by 5 surgeons, most commonly for lung cancer (95%). On multivariate analysis, percent forced expiratory volume in 1 second, surgical approach, and lesion size had a significant effect on surgical time. Nursing turnover was associated with a significant increase in surgical time (53.7 minutes; 95% confidence interval, 6.4-101; P = .026) and total procedure time (83.2 minutes; 95% confidence interval, 30.1-136.2; P = .002). Active management of surgical team turnover may be an opportunity to improve operating room efficiency when the surgical team is engaged in a major pulmonary resection. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Surgical outcomes for liposarcoma of the lower limbs with synchronous pulmonary metastases.

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    Illuminati, Giulio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta; Calio, Francesco G; Migliano, Francesco; Mercurio, Valentina; Pizzardi, Giulia; Nigri, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    Surgical resection of pulmonary metastases from soft tissues sarcomas has typically yielded disparate results, owing to the histologic heterogeneity of various series and the presentation times relative to primary tumor discovery. It was our hypothesis that with expeditious, curative surgical resection of both, primary and metastatic disease, patients with liposarcoma of the lower limb and synchronous, resectable, pulmonary metastases might achieve satisfactory outcomes. A consecutive sample clinical study, with a mean follow-up duration of 30 months. Twenty-two patients (mean age, 50 years), each presenting with a liposarcoma of the lower limb and synchronous, resectable, pulmonary metastases, underwent curative resection of both the primary mass and all pulmonary metastases within a mean of 18 days from presentation (range 9-32 days). Mean overall survival was 28 months, disease-related survival (SE) was 9% at 5 years (±9.7%), and disease-free survival was 9% at 5 years (±7.6%). Expeditious, curative resection of both--primary and metastatic lesions--yields acceptable near-term results, with potential for long-term survival, in patients with liposarcoma of the lower limb and synchronous pulmonary metastases. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Surgical Treatment of Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage:Report of 127 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We did a retrospective study to summarize the surgical experience of anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (APVD) correction and discuss effective way of improving the surgical outcome. Methods From January 1985 to May 2008, 127 patients [56 men and 71 women, aged 14-55 years with an average of (26.79 ± 10.62)years ] with APVD underwent surgical treatments. Among them, 13 patients had simple partial APVD with intact atrial septum, 104 patients had partial APVD with atrial septal defect and 10 patients had total APVD. Seventy-one patients of them accompanied with other cardiac anomalies which were also corrected in their operations. Results One early operative death due to severe low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) developed postoperatively, which resulted in a mortality rate of 0.78%. Among other patients, 10 patients complicated with LCOS, 11 patients with arrhythmia, 7 patients with acute renal failure and 4 patients with poor wound healing, all discharged from hospital after treatment.Postoperative echocardiography reexamination revealed 1 case of mild residual shunt in atrial septum but without pulmonary vein stenosis. Conclusion For right atrial and ventricle enlarged patients with or without pulmonary hypertension, surgeons should be vigilance of accompanied APVD whether atrial septal defects exist or not. As long as no contraindications are found, surgical treatment should be performed once accurate diagnosis is obtained.

  8. Surgical treatment for primary lung cancer combined with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

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    Watanabe, Atsushi; Miyajima, Masayoshi; Mishina, Taijiro; Nakazawa, Junji; Harada, Ryo; Kawaharada, Nobuyoshi; Higami, Tetsuya

    2013-05-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is defined as a specific form of chronic, progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause. IPF is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, and lung cancer patients with IPF undergoing pulmonary resection for non-small cell lung cancer have increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Especially, postoperative acute exacerbation of IPF (AEIPF) causes fatal status and long-term outcomes are worse than for patients without IPF, although certain subgroups have a good long-term outcome. A comprehensive review of the current literature pertaining to AEIPF and the late phase outcome after the context of a surgical intervention was performed.

  9. A conservative surgical approach for management of iatrogenic pulmonary artery perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monodeep Biswas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental malposition of a chest tube in the pulmonary artery is a potentially fatal complication. Here we describe a 66 year-old obese woman with prior cardiac transplantation, intubated for respiratory failure and felt to have a large left pleural effusion. A chest tube was inserted using a trocar tube, and resulted in near-exsanguinating hemorrhage immediately, with development of hypovolemic shock. Prompt clamping of the tube proved life-saving, and CT scan confirmed placement of the tube in the main pulmonary artery. Initial stabilization, followed by a planned surgical approach, resulted in successful removal of the tube.

  10. Surgical Repair of Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection in a Neonate With Mosaic Trisomy 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomomi; Oshima, Yoshihiro; Sato, Yumi; Tanaka, Akiko

    2016-03-01

    Trisomy 8 mosaicism is a relatively rare chromosomal abnormality and has extremely variable phenotype with a wide range of clinical manifestations. Although no well-defined criteria for cardiac surgical indications are available for patients with mosaic trisomy 8, we present a case of hypoplastic left heart syndrome with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) in a neonate with mosaic trisomy 8. Although primary sutureless repair of TAPVC with concomitant bilateral pulmonary artery banding was performed successfully in this case, the indications for cardiac surgery in patients with mosaic trisomy 8 should be carefully individualized. The entire dialog with parents and family, including the process of informed consent, is of great importance.

  11. Surgical treatment of pulmonary metastases in pediatric solid tumors.

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    Heaton, Todd E; Davidoff, Andrew M

    2016-10-01

    Most children who succumb to solid malignancies do so because of the burden of metastatic disease or due to complications associated with the therapy administered to treat metastatic disease. Approximately one-quarter of children with solid tumors will present with metastatic disease, and an additional 20% ultimately develop metastatic disease, most commonly in the lung. The role of surgery in the treatment of metastatic solid tumors, given its disseminated nature, is not intuitive, yet there are circumstances in which surgical resection of metastatic disease can potentially be curative. However, the utility of surgery is very much dependent on histology, and generally is most appropriate for those malignancies with histologies that are refractory to other adjuvant therapies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Endovascular embolization prior to surgical resection of symptomatic intralobar pulmonary sequestration in an adult

    OpenAIRE

    Jernej Avsenik; Tomaž Štupnik; Peter Popovič

    2015-01-01

    Intralobar pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital malformation, conventionally managed by surgical resection. Recently, the endovascular embolization has been proposed for the definite treatment of this disease. Additionally, preoperative embolization of aberrant arteries to minimize the risk of serious intraoperative haemorrhage has also been described. We report the case of 43-year old female patient who presented with cough and haemoptysis, and was successfully treated with endovascu...

  13. Right Heart Transvalvular Embolus with High Risk Pulmonary Embolism in a Recently Hospitalized Patient: A Case Report of a Therapeutic Challenge

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    Gyanendra Kumar Acharya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombus-in-transit is not uncommon in pulmonary embolism but Right Heart Transvalvular Embolus (RHTVE complicating this is rare. A 54-year-old obese male with recent hospitalization presented with severe dyspnea and collapse. Initial investigations revealed elevated d-dimer and troponin. CTA showed saddle pulmonary embolus and bedside echocardiogram revealed right ventricular (RV pressure overload and dilatation (RV > 41 mm, McConnell’s sign, and mobile echodensity attached to tricuspid valve. Patient was immediately resuscitated and promptly transferred for surgical embolectomy under cardiopulmonary bypass. A long segment of embolus traversing through the tricuspid valve and extensive bilateral pulmonary artery embolus were removed. IVC filter was placed for a persistent right lower extremity DVT. Hypercoagulable work-up was negative. Patient continued to do well after discharge on Coumadin. Open embolectomy offers great promises where there is no consensus in optimal management approach in such patients. Bedside echocardiogram is vital in risk stratification and deciding choice of advanced PE treatment.

  14. Definition and scope of the surgical treatment in patients with pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer

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    B. B. Ahmedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer in lungs is a relatively new trend of modern oncology. In this connection, still there are no clearly formulated criteria for patient selection for this type of intervention, approaches to repeated resections and scope of the surgical operation in case of multiple lesions. Established key prognostic factors include lesion of intrathoracic lymph nodes, timing of the development of metastatic disease, baseline level of carcinoembryonic antigen, number of foci and the volume of metastatic lesion, stage of the disease. Options for surgical access include lateral thoracotomy, sternotomy, thoracoscopy and thoracoscopy combined with additional minithoracotomy.If a patient has a single peripheral metastatic lesions, physician should prefer thoracoscopic operations. One of their advantages include minimum development of adhesions and possibility of subsequent re-thoracoscopy. Resection of pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer (R0 resection rate allows to achieve persistent healing of the tumor process in a significant number of patients.

  15. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: role of early diagnosis and surgical treatment in patients with acute leukemia

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    Ursavas Ahmet

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspergillus is a ubiquitous soil-dwelling fungus known to cause significant pulmonary infection in immunocompromised patients. The incidence of aspergillosis has increased during the past two decades and is a frequently lethal complication of acute leukemia patients that occurs following both chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA according to the criteria that are established by European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer and Mycoses Study Group raise difficulties in severely ill patients. Despite established improvements in field of diagnosis (galactomannan antigen, quantitative PCR, real-time PCR for Aspergillus spp., and findings of computed tomography and treatment with new antifungals, it is still a major problem in patients with acute leukemia. However, prompt and effective treatment of IPA is crucial because most patients will need subsequent chemotherapy for underlying hematologic disease as soon as possible. Case presentation We report a 33-year-old male patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia diagnosed in 1993 that developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis due to A. flavus at relapse in 2003. The patient was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B and underwent surgical pulmonary resection. The operative course was uneventful. Conclusion This report emphasizes the clinical picture, applicability of recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for IPA. For early identification of a patient infected with IPA, a high index of suspicion and careful clinical and radiological examinations with serial screening for galactomannan should be established. If aspergillosis is suspected, anti-aspergillosis drug should be administered immediately, and if a unique pulmonary lesion remains, surgical resection should be considered to prevent reactivation during consecutive chemotherapy courses and to improve the outcome.

  16. Surgical vs. transcatheter pulmonary vein isolation as first invasive treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation : a matched group comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Maat, Gijs E.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Rienstra, Michiel; Quast, Anne-Floor B. E.; Tan, Eng S.; Wiesfeld, Ans C. P.; Pozzoli, Alberto; Mariani, Massimo A.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) can be considered for treatment of symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF). Nowadays, in addition to transcatheter ablation, thoracoscopic surgical PVI is available. The aim of this study is to compare clinical outcome of surgical with transcatheter PVI as first inv

  17. Surgical vs. transcatheter pulmonary vein isolation as first invasive treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation : a matched group comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Maat, Gijs E.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Rienstra, Michiel; Quast, Anne-Floor B. E.; Tan, Eng S.; Wiesfeld, Ans C. P.; Pozzoli, Alberto; Mariani, Massimo A.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) can be considered for treatment of symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF). Nowadays, in addition to transcatheter ablation, thoracoscopic surgical PVI is available. The aim of this study is to compare clinical outcome of surgical with transcatheter PVI as first inv

  18. The Pulmonary Thromboembolism as a Risk of Surgical Treatments and the Role of Anticoagulant Prophylaxiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our objective is to show the number of patients with postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism (PPTE) treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary diseases an TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year period : from June 1, 2011 - June 1, 2014 and to indicate the importance of various surgical operations in the development of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Material and methods: This is the retrospective study which shows the number of patients with PPTE treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary diseases an TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year period : from 01.06.2011.-01.06.2014. It represents the number of these patients, per cent of patients with PPTE of total patients with PTE, age and sex of patients, type of surgery, period expressed in days from surgery to diagnosis of PTE, presence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of lower extremities, massiveness of PPTE e.g. level of pulmonary artery with embolus. Results: In three-year period 232 patients with PTE were treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic “Podhrastovi”. 60 of them or 25.86% were patients with 24 males or 40% middle-aged 58.5 years, and 36 females or 60% middle-aged 56.3 years. PPTE developed in 15 patients with abdominal, 11 with urologic, 8 with gynecologic, 15 with orthopedic, 4 with cardiologic, 2 with vascular, 3 with neurosurgical, 1 with glandular and 1 with orl operations. The average period from operation to diagnosis of PPTE was 10.5 days for women, and 13.8 days for men. Only two patients had acute DVT after operation (one man and one woman), and five had amnesias of previous DVT or PTE. The level or the site of pulmonary embolus was different from segmental to main branches of pulmonary artery. Conclusion: Different surgical operations are the big risk factor for the development of PTE. There is great significance of anticoagulant prophylaxis before surgery even in patients with no anamnesis of previous DVT or PTE. PMID:25568626

  19. Prognostic value of a previous medical or surgical admission in outpatients with symptomatic pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Artacho, P; Rodríguez-López, I; Pérez Peña, C; González Del Castillo, J; Calvo, E; Martín-Sánchez, F J

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether an earlier medical (MA) or surgical (SA) admission in the previous three months is a factor associated with mortality at 30 days in outpatients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. Observational, retrospective cohort study on adult patients diagnosed with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism in a tertiary hospital over a period of 6 years. The study included 870 patients with a mean age of 72.7 years: 10.6% (92) had a prior MA, 4.9% (43) had a SA and 12.9% (112) died within the first 30 days. The MA group showed a higher frequency of simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) of high risk (≥1) (MA 90.2% vs SA 65.1% vs no prior admission 67.0%; p<0.001) and mortality at 30 days (MA 20.7% vs SA 7.0% vs no prior admission 12.9%; p=0.038). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated that a simplified PESI≥1 was the only independent risk factor for mortality at 30 days. The severity of the acute episode, as assessed by the simplified PESI scale, is independently associated with mortality at 30 days in outpatients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. An earlier MA in the previous 3 months usually involves greater severity in the acute episode. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  20. Clinicoradiological outcomes of 33 cases of surgically resected pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma: correlation with prognostic indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Akifumi; Ashizawa, Kazuto [Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Clinical Oncology, Unit of Translational Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan); Abiru, Hajime [Saga National Hospital, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan); Hayashi, Hideyuki; Uetani, Masataka [Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Radiological Science, Nagasaki (Japan); Matsumoto, Keitaro; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Yamasaki, Naoya; Nagayasu, Takeshi [Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Surgical Oncology, Nagasaki (Japan); Hayashi, Tomayoshi [Nagasaki Prefectural Shimabara Hospital, Department of Pathology, Shimabara (Japan); Kinoshita, Naoe [Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Pathology, Nagasaki (Japan); Honda, Sumihisa [Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Public Health, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    To retrospectively review the clinical, radiological and pathological data in patients who underwent surgical resection for pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma (PC), and to analyse the prognostic predictors of survival. The data were retrospectively examined for 33 consecutive patients (28 males and five females) who had undergone surgical resection for pulmonary PC. Cox's proportional-hazards model was used to analyse the prognostic predictors of survival. The size of the tumours ranged from 1.1 to 12.0 cm (mean 5.4 cm). The majority (26) of the tumours were located at the lung periphery, five tumours had cavitation, two had calcification and 14 had peritumoral ground-glass opacity. Most of the tumours showed heterogeneous enhancement and contained a low-density area (LDA) within the tumour. The 5-year overall survival of surgically resected PC was 36 % (standard error = 0.093). A multivariate analysis revealed the LDA grade [hazard ratio (HR), 2.019], pathological stage (HR, 7.552) and pathological N factor (HR, 0.370) to be significant predictors of a poorer prognosis. A greater component of LDA within the tumour on contrast-enhanced CT is associated with a poorer prognosis in patients with PC. (orig.)

  1. Utility of surgical lung biopsy in critically ill patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, L H; Gill, A J; Hibbert, M

    2016-11-01

    There are conflicting reports regarding the role of surgical lung biopsies in patients who present to the intensive care unit (ICU) with unexplained respiratory failure and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on imaging. To describe the utility of surgical lung biopsies in patients presenting to the ICU with unexplained respiratory failure and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. A retrospective cohort study was performed. All patients admitted to the ICU who underwent a surgical lung biopsy for the investigation of respiratory failure and unexplained pulmonary infiltrates between 1998 and 2012 were included. The primary outcome measures for this descriptive study were the biopsy histopathology, changes in patient management following biopsy and in-hospital mortality. A total of 30 patients was included in the review. Biopsies in 22 patients (73%) demonstrated diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), with 15 of these biopsies (50%) suggesting a specific underlying aetiology. In 73% of cases (n = 22), the biopsy finding was associated with a change in management, although this generally involved the escalation of an existing therapy rather than initiation of a new treatment. Biopsies were performed at a median 10 days after admission (interquartile range 5-17 days), with the majority of patients being treated empirically prior to the biopsy with systemic steroids and broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Mortality was 53%. In this series, DAD was the most frequent pathology. The biopsy result was associated with a change in management in a majority of the subjects, most frequently an escalation of prior empiric therapy. Mortality was high. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Minimally invasive surgical treatment of patients with bilateral pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with pleural empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpusenko I.V

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective of our study was to increase the effectiveness of surgical treatment of bilateral destructive pulmonary tuberculosis complicated by pleural empyema by using VTS-technologies. The study was done in Dnepropetrovsk regional clinical therapeutic and prophylactic association "Phthisiology" in the period from 2008 to 2013. A retrospective analysis of 43 cases of bilateral destructive pulmonary tuberculosis complicated by pleural empyema on one side and dissemination focus or limited destructive process on contralateral side has been performed. Selected cases were divided into 2 groups: main (eighteen cases where the following procedures were done: performed transsternal occlusion of the main bronchus, sanation of empyema cavity using videothoracosopy, in 30-45 days followed by pleuropneumectomy with usage of minithoracothomy and control (nineteen cases who had undergone drainage of the empyema cavity, sanation, in 45-60 days followed by pleuropmeumectomy with usage of anterolateral access. The distribution of main and control groups for analyzed parameters was representative. Sanation of pleural cavity with videothoracosopy usage compared with Bulau’s drainage provides better antibacterial effect, effective sanitation of the pleural cavity as evidenced by following changes: significant decrease in the number of microbial cells; normalization of total white blood cells count and rod-shaped granulocytes in the peripheral blood 10 days after treatment; normalization of leukocyte intoxication index. The use of minimally invasive surgical treatment allowed to reduce intraoperative complications by 2 times, amount of intraoperative blood loss and hemotrasfusions by 1.5 times, postoperative mortality by 2.5 times. Pleural cavity sanation with videothoracoscopy usage with following pneumoectomy leads to reduce in the incidence and severity of postoperative complications. The most promising is stage-by-stage surgical approach with consecutive use

  3. Experience with surgical salvage in pulmonary tuberculosis: application to general thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delarue, N C; Pearson, F G; Henderson, R D; Cooper, J D; Nelems, J M; Gale, G

    1975-11-01

    The diminishing incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis and the increasing effectiveness of drug therapy have resulted in an almost complete disappearance of surgical problems in the management of patients with this disease. However, the lessons learned from the management of such problems should not be forgotten, for they are equally applicable to the management of disabling and life-endangering problems in general thoracic surgical practice. "Salvage" situations develop when therapeutic requirements for control of disease are combined with factors affecting a patient's health so as to increase the surgical risk beyond the range usually considered acceptable. Attempts to salvage patients are indicated when treatment has failed to arrest disease, when life expectancy is threatened, or when return to normal activity is imperiled. Risk may be increased because of age, inadequate cardiopulmonary reserve, or chronic toxemia; in tuberculosis, risk may be increased because of positive sputum culture or resistance of organisms. Experience with 146 tuberculous patients has provided a basis for evaluation of the indications for resection, prophylactic and therapeutic thoracoplasty, and closure of bronchopleural fistulas in general thoracic surgical salvage. Both infection in residual spaces and bronchopleural fistulas are serious complications that can be controlled by thoracoplasty and pedicled muscle grafts. Prophylactic use of osteoplastic thoracoplasty and intercostal muscle grafts warrant more serious consideration. In established complications a "tailored" thoracoplasty can also be combined with an intercostal muscle graft.

  4. Anomalous Origins of Coronary Arteries From the Pulmonary Artery: A Comprehensive Review of Literature and Surgical Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohsen; Kirshbom, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Anomalous origins of coronary arteries from the pulmonary artery are rare malformations in which the coronary arteries originate from pulmonary artery sinuses or branches. The consequences are variable although, in most cases, these anomalies lead to severe coronary hypoperfusion and ventricular dysfunction. Surgical correction is indicated once the diagnosis is established due to high early mortality associated with the disease. In nearly all cases, the anomalous artery can be excised from its pulmonary origin, mobilized, and reimplanted directly into the ascending aorta using different surgical techniques. In rare circumstances, technical modifications must be used to restore a normal dual coronary perfusion. The emphasis of this article is to provide a collective review of surgical options published in the literature.

  5. Surgical treatment of anomalous origin of coronary artery from the pulmonary artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-yu; XU Zhong-hua

    2008-01-01

    Background Anomalous origin of coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare congenial cardiac malformation with a mortality rate of up to 90% within the first year of life without surgical intervention. Direct implantation of the anomalous coronary artery (ACA)into the aorta is successful in early life, but it may have increased surgical difficulty and risk with age. This retrospective study summarized our operative experience in direct implantation for treatment of this coronary anomaly in pediatric and adult patients. Methods From August 2000 to January 2003. 4 consecutive patients aged from 9 months to 41 years underwent dual coronary repair. Among them, two children and one infant with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA)and one adult was anomalous origin of right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery(ARCAPA). Coronary arteries were directly implanted into the ascending aorta in 4 patients. In a boy with ALCAPA associated with moderate mitral insufficiency(MI), whose ACA arose remotely from the ascending aorta, we created a tube-shaped graft using part of the pulmonary arterial wall in continuity with the origin of the left coronary artery (LCA). Concomitant moderate MI was repaired in 2 patients, including this boy, after a dual-coronary repair. Results All patients survived. There were no hospital or late deaths and no major complications as well. Echocardiography revealed that the left ventricular (LV)function including LV end-diastolic dimension(EDD)and ejection fraction(EF)was markedly improved at hospital discharge. At 3-6 years follow-up after surgery all patients were asymptomatic and currently in NYHA class I. Conclusions The best results are achieved with direct implantation of the ACA into the ascending aorta and simultaneous mitral valve repair if needed. Direct implantation is feasible in pediatric and adult patients with ALCAPA or ARCAPA including the coronary artery in a location remote from

  6. [An surgical case of right pulmonary coccidioidomycosis--with subcutaneous coccidiomycosis in the left wrist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, K; Kumamoto, K; Machida, T

    1997-10-01

    Coccidioides is an afferent fungus disease. In Japan, there have been only a few surgical reports on coccidioides disease. We report a 39-year-old male who was diagnosed as having coccidioides disease by biopsy of subcutaneous nodules in the left wrist. The patient also showed a tumor image (1.5 x 1.0 cm) in S4 in the right lung. He had previously lived in Fresno, California on business between 1988 and 1993. After biopsy of the subcutaneous nodules, Itraconazole (200 mg), an anti-fungal drug, was orally administered for the lesion in the right lung for about 6 months. Since the tumor image revealed no improvement through this treatment, the tumor was resected. Histopathological examination by Grocott staining demonstrated the spherical form Coccidioides, i.e., endospores. Only 5 cases of resected pulmonary coccidioidal lesions have been reported in Japan including this case. We must be careful when handling coccidioidal culture because of its strong infectiosity.

  7. CT-guided localization of small pulmonary nodules using adjacent microcoil implantation prior to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Tian-Hao; Jin, Long; He, Wen [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China); Fan, Yue-Feng [Xiamen University, Department of Interventional Therapy, The First Affiliated Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian (China); Hu, Li-Bao [Peking University People' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China)

    2015-09-15

    To describe and assess the localization of small peripheral pulmonary nodules prior to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical (VATS) resection using the implantation of microcoils. Ninety-two patients with 101 pulmonary nodules underwent computed tomography (CT)-guided implantation of microcoils proximal to each nodule. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo entire microcoil or leaving-microcoil-end implantations. The complications and efficacy of the two implantation methods were evaluated. VATS resection of lung tissue containing each pulmonary lesion and microcoil were performed in the direction of the microcoil marker. Histopathological analysis was performed for the resected pulmonary lesions. CT-guided microcoil implantation was successful in 99/101 cases, and the placement of microcoils within 1 cm of the nodules was not disruptive. There was no difference in the complications and efficacy associated with the entire implantation method (performed for 51/99 nodules) versus the leaving-microcoil-end implantation method (performed for 48/99 nodules). All nodules were successfully removed using VATS resection. Asymptomatic pneumothorax occurred in 16 patients and mild pulmonary haemorrhage occurred in nine patients. However, none of these patients required further surgical treatment. Preoperative localization of small pulmonary nodules using a refined percutaneous microcoil implantation method was found to be safe and useful prior to VATS resection. (orig.)

  8. A Histomorphological Pattern Analysis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Lung Autopsy and Surgically Resected Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tuberculosis (TB is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Many cases are diagnosed on autopsy and a subset of patients may require surgical intervention either due to the complication or sequelae of TB. Materials and Methods. 40 cases of resected lung specimens following surgery or autopsy in which a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis was made were included. Histopathological pattern analysis of pulmonary tuberculosis along with associated nonneoplastic changes and identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli was done. Results. The mean age of diagnosis was 41 years with male predominance (92.5%. Tuberculosis was suspected in only 12.1% of cases before death. Seven cases were operated upon due to associated complications or suspicion of malignancy. Tubercular consolidation was the most frequent pattern followed by miliary tuberculosis. The presence of necrotizing granulomas was seen in 33 cases (82.5%. Acid fast bacilli were seen in 57.5% cases on Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Conclusion. Histopathology remains one of the most important methods for diagnosing tuberculosis, especially in TB prevalent areas. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all respiratory diseases because of its varied clinical presentations and manifestations.

  9. Reduction of Pulmonary Function After Surgical Lung Resections of Different Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years an increasing number of lung resections are being done because of the rising prevalence of lung cancer that occurs mainly in patients with limited lung function, what is caused with common etiologic factor - smoking cigarettes. Objective: To determine how big the loss of lung function is after surgical resection of lung of different range. Methods: The study was done on 58 patients operated at the Clinic for thoracic surgery KCU Sarajevo, previously treated at the Clinic for pulmonary diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01.06.2012. to 01.06.2014. The following resections were done: pulmectomy (left, right), lobectomy (upper, lower: left and right). The values of postoperative pulmonary function were compared with preoperative ones. As a parameter of lung function we used FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second), and changes in FEV1 are expressed in liters and in percentage of the recorded preoperative and normal values of FEV1. Measurements of lung function were performed seven days before and 2 months after surgery. Results: Postoperative FEV1 was decreased compared to preoperative values. After pulmectomy the maximum reduction of FEV1 was 44%, and after lobectomy it was 22% of the preoperative values. Conclusion: Patients with airway obstruction are limited in their daily life before the surgery, and an additional loss of lung tissue after resection contributes to their inability. Potential benefits of lung resection surgery should be balanced in relation to postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:25568542

  10. Clinical Experience of the Treatment of Solitary Pulmonary Nodules with Da Vinci Surgical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong TONG

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective A solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN is defined as a round intraparenchimal lung lesion less than 3 cm in size, not associated with atelectasis or adenopathy. The aim of this study is to learn clinical experience of the treatment of SPN with Da Vinci Surgical System. Methods A total of 9 patients with solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN less than 3 cm in diameter was treated with Da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, California in thoracic surgery department from General Hospital of Shenyang Militrary Region from November 2011 to March 2014. This group of patients included 3 males and 6 females, and the mean age was 51±9.9 yr (range: 41-74 yr. Most of the patients were no obvious clinical symptoms (7 cases were found by physical examination, others were with cough and expectoration. Their median medical history was 12 mo (range: 4 d-3 yr. All the lesions of patients were peripheral pulmonary nodules and the mean diameter of those was (1.4±0.6 cm(range: 0.8-2.8 cm. Wedge-shaped resection or lobectomy was performed depending on the result of rapid pathology and systemic lymph node dissection was done for malignant leision. We used general anesthesis with double lumens trachea cannula. We set the patients in lateral decubitus position with jackknife. The patient cart enter from top of the patient. The position of trocars would be set according to the position of lesion. A 12 mm incision was positioned at the 8th intercostal space in the posterior axillary line as vision port, and two 8 mm incisions were positioned at the 5th intercostal space between the anterior axillary line and midclavicular line, and the 8th infrascapular line as robotic instrument ports about 10 cm apart from the vision port. One additional auxiliary small incision for instrument without retracting ribs was set at the 7th intercostal space in the middle axillary line. Results There were 4 benign leisions and 5 malignancies identified. Wedge

  11. Effect of high perioperative oxygen fraction on surgical site infection and pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyhoff, Christian S; Wetterslev, Jørn; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Use of 80% oxygen during surgery has been suggested to reduce the risk of surgical wound infections, but this effect has not been consistently identified. The effect of 80% oxygen on pulmonary complications has not been well defined. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether use of 80% oxygen reduces...... Control and Prevention. Secondary outcomes included atelectasis, pneumonia, respiratory failure, and mortality. RESULTS: Surgical site infection occurred in 131 of 685 patients (19.1%) assigned to receive 80% oxygen vs 141 of 701 (20.1%) assigned to receive 30% oxygen (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95......% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-1.22; P = .64). Atelectasis occurred in 54 of 685 patients (7.9%) assigned to receive 80% oxygen vs 50 of 701 (7.1%) assigned to receive 30% oxygen (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.75-1.66; P = .60), pneumonia in 41 (6.0%) vs 44 (6.3%) (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.61-1.48; P = .82), respiratory...

  12. Impact of pulmonary hypertension on in-hospital outcome after surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Anja; Kaier, Klaus; Reinecke, Holger; Frankenstein, Lutz; Zirlik, Andreas; Bothe, Wolfgang; von Zur Mühlen, Constantin; Zehender, Manfred; Reinöhl, Jochen; Bode, Christoph; Stachon, Peter

    2017-09-20

    We aimed to analyse the impact of pulmonary hypertension (PH) on the in-hospital outcome of either surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Data from all 107,057 patients undergoing isolated SAVR or TAVR in Germany between 2007 and 2014 were provided by the German Federal Bureau of Statistics. About 18% of patients with aortic valve stenosis suffered from PH. Patients with PH had more comorbidities with consequently increased EuroSCORE (TAVR without PH: 12.3%; with PH: 24%). The presence of PH led to an increase of in-hospital strokes, bleedings, acute kidney injuries, and pacemaker implantations in both treatment groups (TAVR and SAVR), but the PH-associated increase of complications and mortality was less pronounced among patients receiving TAVR (mortality after TAVR without PH: 5.4%; with PH: 7.2%). After baseline risk adjustment, the TAVR procedure was associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital stroke (OR 0.81, p=0.011), bleeding (OR 0.22, p<0.001), and mortality (OR 0.70, p=0.005) among PH patients, and in comparison to surgical treatment. PH is a risk factor for worse outcome of SAVR and TAVR. This fact is less pronounced among TAVR patients. Our data suggest a shift towards the transcatheter approach in patients suffering from PH.

  13. Roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Shen, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Hong; Li, Shu-Gang; Zhao, Yu; Qiu, Giu-Xing

    2012-01-01

    It has been stated that preoperative pulmonary function tests are essential to assess the surgical risk in patients with scoliosis. Arterial blood gas tests have also been used to evaluate pulmonary function before scoliotic surgery. However, few studies have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction. This study involved scoliotic patients with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction (forced vital capacity arterial blood gas tests and pulmonary function tests before surgery. The arterial blood gas tests included five parameters: partial pressure of arterial oxygen, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient, pH, and standard bases excess. The pulmonary function tests included three parameters: forced expiratory volume in 1 second ratio, forced vital capacity ratio, and peak expiratory flow ratio. All five parameters of the arterial blood gas tests were compared between the two groups with or without postoperative pulmonary complications by variance analysis. Similarly, all three parameters of the pulmonary function tests were compared. The average coronal Cobb angle before surgery was 97.42° (range, 50° - 180°). A total of 15 (20.5%) patients had postoperative pulmonary complications, including hypoxemia in 5 cases (33.3%), increased requirement for postoperative ventilatory support in 4 (26.7%), pneumonia in 2 (13.3%), atelectasis in 2 (13.3%), pneumothorax in 1 (6.7%), and hydrothorax in 1 (6.7%). No significant differences in demographic characteristics or perioperative factors (P > 0.05) existed between the two groups with or without postoperative pulmonary complications. According to the variance analysis, there were no statistically significant differences in any parameter of the arterial blood gas tests between the two groups. No significant correlation between

  14. The Massachusetts General Hospital Pulmonary Embolism Response Team (MGH PERT): creation of a multidisciplinary program to improve care of patients with massive and submassive pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provias, Tim; Dudzinski, David M; Jaff, Michael R; Rosenfield, Kenneth; Channick, Richard; Baker, Joshua; Weinberg, Ido; Donaldson, Cameron; Narayan, Rajeev; Rassi, Andrew N; Kabrhel, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    New and innovative tools have emerged for the treatment of massive and submassive pulmonary embolism (PE). These novel treatments, when considered alongside existing therapy, such as anticoagulation, systemic intravenous thrombolysis, and open surgical pulmonary embolectomy, have the potential to improve patient outcomes. However, data comparing different treatment modalities are sparse, and guidelines provide only general advice for their use. Treatment decisions rest on clinician expertise and institutional resources. Because various medical and surgical specialties offer different perspectives and expertise, a multidisciplinary approach to patients with massive and submassive PE is required. To address this need, we created a novel multidisciplinary program - the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Pulmonary Embolism Response Team (PERT) - which brings together multiple specialists to rapidly evaluate intermediate- and high-risk patients with PE, formulate a treatment plan, and mobilize the necessary resources to provide the highest level of care. Development of a clinical, educational, and research infrastructure, as well as the creation of a national PERT consortium, will make our experience available to other institutions and serve as a platform for future studies to improve the care of complex patients with massive and submassive PE.

  15. Surgical Resection during Chemotherapy of Pulmonary Cryptococcoma in a Patient with Cryptococcal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuji; Satomi, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    We herein report the case of a 72-year-old-man with pulmonary cryptococcoma along with cryptococcal meningitis who underwent surgery for pulmonary lesions while receiving chemotherapy. We noted two major clinical issues. First, the presence of pulmonary cryptococcoma had a detrimental influence on the cryptococcal meningitis. Second, resolution of the pulmonary cryptococcoma through antifungal therapy had a beneficial influence on the recovery from cryptococcal meningitis. As observed in the current case with pulmonary and meningeal cryptococcosis, surgery for pulmonary cryptococcoma with continuous antifungal treatment should be considered for cases where the symptoms respond poorly to antifungal therapy and radiographic abnormalities persist. PMID:28050006

  16. A novel mouse model of high flow-induced pulmonary hypertension-surgically induced by right pulmonary artery ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anchen; Wang, Hongfei; Wang, Shengwei; Huang, Xiaofan; Ye, Ping; Du, Xinling; Xia, Jiahong

    2017-02-01

    This study sought to establish a new model of high-flow pulmonary hypertension (PH) in mice. This model may be useful for studies seeking to reduce the pulmonary vascular resistance and delay the development of PH caused by congenital heart disease. The right pulmonary artery was ligated via a right posterolateral thoracotomy. Pulmonary hemodynamics was evaluated by right heart catheterization immediately after ligation and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk postoperatively. The right ventricle (RV) and the left ventricle (LV) with septum (S) were weighed to calculate the RV/(LV + S) ratio as an index of right ventricular hypertrophy. Morphologic changes in the left lungs were analyzed, and percentages of muscularized pulmonary vessels were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin, elastica van Gieson and alpha-smooth muscle actin staining. All the study data were compared with data from a model of PH generated by hypoxic stimulation. A pulmonary hypertensive state was successfully induced by 2 wk after surgery. However, the morphologic analysis demonstrated that pulmonary vascular muscularization, as evaluated using right ventricular systolic pressure and RV/(LV + S), was not significantly increased until 4 wk postoperatively. When mice from the new model and the hypoxic model were compared, no significant differences were observed in any of the evaluated indices. High-flow PH can be induced within 4 wk after ligation of the right pulmonary artery, which is easily performed in mice. Such mice can be used as a model of high-flow PH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluoroscopic guided fogarty embolectomy for an angio-seal embolism in the popliteal artery

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    Hong, Dong; Lee, Seung Hwa; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Cha, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kee Yeol; Ahn, Jeong Cheon [Korea University Ansan Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The Angio-Seal is a widely used arterial closure device that helps achieve faster hemostasis and provide early ambulation to patients. However, it can cause various complications in clinical practice. We present the uncommon complication of popliteal artery occlusion following Angio-Seal deployment, and describe an effective interventional approach to its treatment. Because fluoroscopy-guided Fogarty embolectomy has the advantages of complete removal of the embolus without fragmentation, and clear visualization of the exact location of the embolus during the procedure, it is a suitable method for treating this complication.

  18. Roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jia-ming; SHEN Jian-xiong; ZHANG Jian-guo; ZHAO Hong; LI Shu-gang; ZHAO Yu; QIU Giu-xing

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been stated that preoperative pulmonary function tests are essential to assess the surgical risk in patients with scoliosis.Arterial blood gas tests have also been used to evaluate pulmonary function before scoliotic surgery.However,few studies have been reported.The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of preoperative arterial blood gas tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction.Methods This study involved scoliotic patients with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction (forced vital capacity <60%) who underwent surgical treatment between January 2002 and April 2010.A total of 73 scoliotic patients (23 males and 50 females) with moderate or severe pulmonary dysfunction were included.The average age of the patients was 16.53 years (ranged 10-44).The demographic distribution,medical records,and radiographs of all patients were collected.All patients received arterial blood gas tests and pulmonary function tests before surgery.The arterial blood gas tests included five parameters:partial pressure of arterial oxygen,partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide,alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient,pH,and standard bases excess.The pulmonary function tests included three parameters:forced expiratory volume in 1 second ratio,forced vital capacity ratio,and peak expiratory flow ratio.All five parameters of the arterial blood gas tests were compared between the two groups with or without postoperative pulmonary complications by variance analysis.Similarly,all three parameters of the pulmonary function tests were compared.Results The average coronal Cobb angle before surgery was 97.42° (range,50°-180°).A total of 15 (20.5%) patients had postoperative pulmonary complications,including hypoxemia in 5 cases (33.3%),increased requirement for postoperative ventilatory support in 4 (26.7%),pneumonia in 2 (13.3%),atelectasis in 2 (13.3%),pneumothorax in 1 (6.7%),and hydrothorax in 1

  19. Tratamento cirúrgico da embolia pulmonar maciça aguda Surgical treatment of acute pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Abdulmassih Neto

    1993-06-01

    apresentam boa evolução a longo prazo.Between January 1984 and December 1992, 8 patients with acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE underwent pulmonary embolectomy under cardiopulmonary bypass. The age ranged from 36 to 70 years (average 56.6 years. There were 6 men and 2 women. A causative factor for pulmonary embolism was found in 6 (95%: myocardium revascularization in 3, abdominal lipoaspiration in 2 and hemorrhoidectomy in 1. All patients where severely hypoxic with mean arterial PO2 of 55%. The diagnosis of PE was established by pulmonary angiogram in 6 (75% and surgery in 2. Hospital mortality was 50% (4 patients, two of them had previous cardiac arrest, 1 patient died of acute respiratory distress syndrome, 1 of neurologic complication, 1 of pulmonary infection and 1 of myocardial failure. Among the survival patients, 3 are without symptoms and 1 complains of discrete exertional dyspnea (NYHA class II. This study demonstrates that: 1 the mortality rate was higher in patients with previous cardiac arrest; 2 the time between diagnosis and surgery was a predictive factor; 3 the high mortality rate reflects the gravity of the situation; 4 the long term results in surviving patients have been favorable.

  20. Preoperative intervention reduces postoperative pulmonary complications but not length of stay in cardiac surgical patients: a systematic review

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    David Snowdon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Question: Does preoperative intervention in people undergoing cardiac surgery reduce pulmonary complications, shorten length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU or hospital, or improve physical function? Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis of (quasi randomised trials. Participants: People undergoing coronary artery bypass grafts and/or valvular surgery. Intervention: Any intervention, such as education, inspiratory muscle training, exercise training or relaxation, delivered prior to surgery to prevent/reduce postoperative pulmonary complications or to hasten recovery of function. Outcome measures: Time to extubation, length of stay in ICU and hospital (reported in days. Postoperative pulmonary complications and physical function were measured as reported in the included trials. Results: The 17 eligible trials reported data on 2689 participants. Preoperative intervention significantly reduced the time to extubation (MD -0.14 days, 95% CI -0.26 to -0.01 and the relative risk of developing postoperative pulmonary complications (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.66. However, it did not significantly affect the length of stay in ICU (MD -0.15 days, 95% CI -0.37 to 0.08 or hospital (MD -0.55 days, 95% CI -1.32 to 0.23, except among older participants (MD -1.32 days, 95% CI -2.36 to -0.28. When the preoperative interventions were separately analysed, inspiratory muscle training significantly reduced postoperative pulmonary complications and the length of stay in hospital. Trial quality ranged from good to poor and considerable heterogeneity was present in the study features. Other outcomes did not significantly differ. Conclusion: For people undergoing cardiac surgery, preoperative intervention reduces the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications and, in older patients, the length of stay in hospital. [Snowdon D, Haines TP, Skinner EH (2014 Preoperative intervention reduces postoperative pulmonary complications but not length of stay in

  1. Surgical palliation of primary pulmonary arterial hypertension by a unidirectional valved Potts anastomosis in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Minh Thanh; Grollmus, Oswin; Ly, Mohamedou; Mandache, Anca; Fadel, Elie; Decante, Benoit; Serraf, Alain

    2011-11-01

    Patients with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension are at risk for right-sided heart failure and sudden death. Despite improvement in pharmacologic management, some still require lung transplantation. Potts anastomosis has been demonstrated as a good palliation in children to alleviate symptoms and medical therapy despite desaturation in the lower part of the body. Young adult patients with pulmonary hypertension and isosystemic pressure remain at risk, particularly at exercise. The goal of this research was to find a palliation for patients in whom suprasystemic pulmonary hypertension developed at exercise. Creating a Potts anastomosis involved a unidirectional valve between the left pulmonary artery and the descending aorta. Experimental study was performed on 14 pigs. A prosthetic patch of polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex; WL Gore & Associates Inc, Newark, Del) was used to create the unidirectional valve and implanted in the Potts anastomosis. Via a left thoracotomy, an aorto-aortic shunt between the aortic isthmus and the distal descending thoracic aorta was instituted, allowing a safe surgical procedure. Intrapulmonary injection of Erciplex glue (Peters Surgical, Bobigny, France), diluted in 70% alcohol, was used to create acute pulmonary hypertension. The right to left shunt across the unidirectional valvular patch was evaluated after clamping the aorta in the acute phase of pulmonary hypertension by echo-pulsed Doppler at the level of the descending thoracic aorta by withdrawal of blood gas (arterial carbon dioxide tension, alveolar carbon dioxide tension) and assessment of peripheral oxygen saturation. Similar reevaluation of the shunt was performed at a mean interval of 13 ± 2.5 weeks. In the first series, Erciplex glue increased pulmonary artery pressure from 15.3 ± 3.1 mm Hg to 38.7 ± 6.0 mm Hg. Mean peripheral oxygen saturation decreased from 100% to 85% ± 1.5%. Mean partial pressure of carbon dioxide increased from 31.9 ± 9.1 mm Hg to 46.2 ± 12

  2. [Thrombectomy and plication of veins as a method of preventing pulmonary artery thromboembolism at a multidisciplinary surgical hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, S V; Pashin, N V; Dedyukhin, I G; Aleksandrov, A G; Lebedeva, M V

    2016-01-01

    The authors assessed efficacy and safety of the operation of plication of deep veins of lower extremities, pelvic veins, and the inferior vena cava as a method of preventing fatal pulmonary artery thromboembolism. A total of 48 patients were operated on. Of these, 23 patients belonged to traumatological-and-orthopaedical cohort, 3 to general surgical cohort, 4 to gynaecological, and 18 to vascular cohort (isolated deep vein thrombosis). The length of the floating head of the thrombus varied from 2 to 10 cm. The presence of a floating thrombus in traumatological, surgical and gynaecological patients, regardless of the length of the floating part was an absolute indication for thrombectomy and venous plication. Vascular patients were operated on in accordance with the National Guidelines (with the length of the thrombus floating portion of not less than 4 cm). In all cases, surgical management envisaged direct and indirect thrombectomy. Plication was always performed above the level of venotomy. It was shown that thrombectomy combined with plication of major veins is a reliable and safe method of prophylaxis, being in some cases the only possible method of preventing fatal pulmonary artery thromboembolism. The operation of plication makes it possible not to cancel a scheduled surgical intervention in patients with a detected floating thrombus of major veins. The operation of thrombectomy and plication above the level of the floating head of the thrombus may be considered an operation of choice in the conditions where there is no possibility to use endovascular methods of treatment (implantation of a cava filter, endovascular catheter thrombectomy), as well as in pregnant women. Restoration of the venous lumen occurs at safe terms spontaneously, not requiring repeat surgical intervention. Simultaneous plication of the vein does not complicate the course of the postoperative period of the main surgical intervention. Thrombectomy and plication do not lead to the

  3. Surgical Treatment of Small Pulmonary Nodules Under Video-assisted Thoracoscopy 
(A Report of 129 Cases

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    Tong WANG

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The development of image technology has led to increasing detection of pulmonary small nodules year by year, but the determination of their nature before operation is difficult. This clinical study aimed to investigate the necessity and feasibility of surgical resection of pulmonary small nodules through a minimally invasive approach and the operational manner of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods The clinical data of 129 cases with pulmonary small nodule of 10 mm or less in diameter were retrospectively analyzed in our hospital from December 2013 to November 2016. Thin-section computed tomography (CT was performed on all cases with 129 pulmonary small nodules. CT-guided hook-wire precise localization was performed on 21 cases. Lobectomy, wedge resection, and segmentectomy with lymph node dissection might be performed in patients according to physical condition. Results Results of the pathological examination of 37 solid pulmonary nodules (SPNs revealed 3 primary squamous cell lung cancers, 3 invasive adenocarcinomas (IAs, 2 metastatic cancers, 2 small cell lung cancers (SCLCs, 16 hamartomas, and 12 nonspecific chronic inflammations. The results of pathological examination of 49 mixed ground glass opacities revealed 19 IAs, 6 micro invasive adenocarcinomas (MIAs, 4 adenocarcinomas in situ (AIS, 1 atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH, 1 SCLC, and 18 nonspecific chronic inflammations. The results of pathological examination of 43 pure ground glass opacities revealed 19 AIS, 6 MIAs, 6 IA, 6 AAHs, and 6 nonspecific chronic inflammations. Wedge resection under video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS was performed in patients with 52 benign pulmonary small nodules. Lobectomy and systematic lymph node dissection under VATS were performed in 33 patients with NSCLC. Segmentectomy with selective lymph node dissection, wedge resection, and selective lymph node dissection under VATS were performed in six patients with

  4. [Surgical treatment for tetralogy of Fallot with unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, J; Brunner, L; Klinner, W

    1976-10-01

    Among 843 patients with Tetralogy of Fallot, 10 showed unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery. In 7 cases the cause was congenital aplasia, whereas thrombosis of one of the pulmonary arteries following systemic-pulmonary anastomosis was the cause in the remaining 3 patients. According to the reports of other authors and to our own experiences, this rare malformation is treated best with palliative operations, the technique depending on the patient's age and on the individual anatomical condition. Only in very few cases with an acceptable pathologic anatomy there will be a reasonable chance for successful repair with reconstruction of the continuity from the right ventricle to the affected lung. However, if complete repair is performed, reconstruction of the absent pulmonary artery usually will be necessary for avoidance of pulmonary hypertension of the contralateral lung.

  5. Pulmonary dysfunction and surgical risk. How to assess and minimize the hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, G C

    1983-11-01

    Postoperative deterioration of pulmonary function can be considerable, resulting in hypoxemia and atelectasis, if such effects are not anticipated and efforts made to prevent or minimize them. The risk of postoperative pulmonary complications depends on the patient's age, degree of obesity, and cigarette consumption; the type of surgery to be performed; and the anesthetic agent used. Assessment of risk is based primarily on clinical and laboratory evaluations. The tests performed may vary from patient to patient, and specialized studies of regional pulmonary function are frequently required. Even though a patient may be identified as having a high risk of postoperative pulmonary complications, risk can often be decreased through a number of preoperative and intraoperative measures as well as a postoperative therapeutic program.

  6. Experience with Inhaled Iloprost Used in the Surgical Treatment of Chronic Postthromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

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    V. V. Lomivorotov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a case of inhaled iloprost use in a female patient with severe respiratory failure after pulmonary artery thromboendarterectomy, who was on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. To reduce pulmonary hypertension and to prevent reperfusion syndrome, the patient received inhaled iloprost in a dose of 5 ^g every 3 hours during surgery and in the first two days after surgery. On day 14 after surgery, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was stopped as there were satisfactory respiratory and hemodynamic parameters. Four days later, the patient was weaned from mechanical ventilation. The length of stay in the intensive care unit was 24 days. The patient was discharged from hospital in a satisfactory condition. Thus, the perioperative use of iloprost could reduce pulmonary artery pressure by twice; however, reperfusion syndrome could not prevent significant respiratory failure. The data available in the literature on the use of ilo-prost in patients after pulmonary artery thromboendarterectomy are single and their results are ambiguous. There is a need for large-scale multicenter studies in this group of patients. Key words: chronic postthromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary artery thromboendarterectomy, iloprost, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  7. Unresolved major pulmonary embolism: Importance of follow-up lung scan in diagnosis

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    Yoo, H.S.; Intenzo, C.M.; Park, C.H.

    1986-09-01

    Unresolved major pulmonary embolism (UMPE) is an uncommon condition which causes pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale and death. An accurate and prompt diagnosis of UMPE is very important in the management of such patients with pulmonary embolectomy. Folow-up lung scans can lead to earlier diagnosis of UMPE, especially in patients who have a history of acute pulmonary embolism and present with pulmonary hypertension, respiratory insufficiency and cor pulmonale. We report a case of UMPE strongly suggested by follow-up lung scans and subsequently confirmed by pulmonary angiography and postmortem examination.

  8. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk. Clinical features and midterm results after surgical treatment

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    Amaral Fernando

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the authors' experience with the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery (AOLCA from the pulmonary trunk, emphasizing preoperative data, surgical aspects and midterm results of the follow-up. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 11 patients operated upon at the Royal Brompton Hospital from October, 84 to April, 97. RESULTS: Nine infants had heart failure (HF and two other children presented with dyspnea and chest pain. All had ECG changes. The echocardiogram identified the anomalous origin of the coronary artery in 7 (64% patients and hemodynamic studies were performed in 7 patients. All infants were operated upon between the 2nd and 10th month of life. Six patients were treated with aortic reimplantation of the left coronary artery, whereas five were operated upon according to the Takeuchi technique. All patients are alive, with clear improvement of the ECG changes and ventricular function, as evaluated by echocardiography. Two patients operated upon according to the Takeuchi technique required additional surgery due to severe supravalvular pulmonary stenosis. CONCLUSION: AOLCA is a rare disease. Most patients show early signs of severe HF associated with ECG findings. Surgical therapy must be instituted early in the disease, preferentially through aortic implantation of the anomalous coronary artery, with a high possibility of success. Shortly after surgery, clinical and ECG improvement, as well as normalization of left ventricular function, should be expected.

  9. Pulmonary transcriptome analysis in the surgically induced rabbit model of diaphragmatic hernia treated with fetal tracheal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Alexander C; Brady, Paul D; Kammoun, Molka; Finalet Ferreiro, Julio; DeKoninck, Philip; Endo, Masayuki; Toelen, Jaan; Vermeesch, Joris R; Deprest, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a malformation leading to pulmonary hypoplasia, which can be treated in utero by fetal tracheal occlusion (TO). However, the changes of gene expression induced by TO remain largely unknown but could be used to further improve the clinically used prenatal treatment of this devastating malformation. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the pulmonary transcriptome changes caused by surgical induction of diaphragmatic hernia (DH) and additional TO in the fetal rabbit model. Induction of DH was associated with 378 upregulated genes compared to controls when allowing a false-discovery rate (FDR) of 0.1 and a fold change (FC) of 2. Those genes were again downregulated by consecutive TO. But DH+TO was associated with an upregulation of 157 genes compared to DH and controls. When being compared to control lungs, 106 genes were downregulated in the DH group and were not changed by TO. Therefore, the overall pattern of gene expression in DH+TO is more similar to the control group than to the DH group. In this study, we further provide a database of gene expression changes induced by surgical creation of DH and consecutive TO in the rabbit model. Future treatment strategies could be developed using this dataset. We also discuss the most relevant genes that are involved in CDH.

  10. Optimal Z-Score Use in Surgical Decision-Making in Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awori, Mark Nelson; Mehta, Nikita P; Mitema, Frederick O; Kebba, Naomi

    2017-05-01

    In the surgical treatment of pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, the size of the tricuspid valve annulus (as measured by z-scores) has emerged as a significant factor in deciding which repair to perform. Various tricuspid valve annulus z-scores are reported as "cutoffs" for successful biventricular repair. We aimed to determine whether the use of different z-score data sets contributed to the gross variation in "cutoffs" for successful biventricular repair reported in the literature. A single search was made of PubMed using the "advanced" setting with the following search terms: pulmonary, atresia, intact, septum, z, and score. The filters "title" and "title/abstract" were used for the first four and last two terms, respectively; the instruction "AND" combined all terms. Articles that identified which z-score data set was used in patients with biventricular repairs were included. From 13 articles, 1,392 patients were studied, 410 (29.5%) of which achieved biventricular repair. Three z-score data sets were quoted; mean tricuspid valve annulus z-scores in biventricular repair patients ranged between -0.53 and -5.1. After correcting for discrepancies between z-score data sets, no study reported a mean tricuspid valve annulus z-score -1.7. The use of varied tricuspid valve annuli z-score data sets may have contributed to gross variations in reported "cutoffs" for successful biventricular repair. This could lead to inappropriate surgical pathway allocation.

  11. Evaluation of left pulmonary artery sling, associated cardiovascular anomalies, and surgical outcomes using cardiovascular computed tomography angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiajun; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Wang, Qiushi; Chen, Jimei; Zhuang, Jian; Xie, Zhaofeng; Liang, Changhong; Zhu, Yulei; Yu, Zhuliang; Li, Jinglei; Saboo, Sachin S.; Liu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence, image appearance, associated cardiovascular anomalies, and surgical outcomes of left pulmonary artery sling (LPAS) using cardiovascular computed tomography angiography (CCTA). A retrospective search of patients from our database between October 2007 and December 2014 identified 52,200 patients with congenital heart diseases (CHD) referred for CCTA, echocardiography, or magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical information, CCTA findings, associated cardiovascular anomalies, and surgical outcomes were analyzed. We showed a hospital-based prevalence of 71 patients with LPAS (0.14%, 71/52,200) among CHD patients. Of these, 47 patients with CCTA examinations were assessed further. Most patients (40/47, 85%) had associated cardiovascular anomalies, of which ventricular septal defects (22/47, 47%), atrial septal defects (20/47, 43%), patent ductus arteriosus (16/47, 34%), persistent left superior vena cava (14/47, 30%), and abnormal branching of the right pulmonary artery (ABRPA) (14/47, 30%) were most commonly identified. In total, 28 patients underwent LPA reanastomosis and/or tracheoplasty in our center, and 5 died. LPAS had a hospital-based prevalence of 0.14% among CHD patients. ABRPA is not uncommon and must be recognized. CCTA is a feasible method for demonstrating LPAS and its associated cardiovascular anomalies for an optimal pre-operative assessment of LPAS. PMID:28053308

  12. Tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo asociado a foramen oval permeable High-risk massive pulmonary thromboembolism associated with patent foramen ovale

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    Antonio Miranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La alta mortalidad de los pacientes con tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo amerita un enfoque terapéutico enérgico e invasivo que incluya la embolectomía pulmonar quirúrgica en aquellos pacientes con contraindicación para trombolisis o trombolisis fallida. Describimos un caso de tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo que recibió tratamiento quirúrgico en vez de trombolisis debido a que al momento del diagnóstico presentaba un trombo móvil a través de un foramen oval permeable con altísima posibilidad de embolismo paradójico arterial.High mortality rate associated with massive pulmonary embolism requires an aggressive invasive approach including surgical pulmonary embolectomy when thrombolytic therapy has failed or is contraindicated. We describe a case of high-risk massive pulmonary embolism who underwent surgical treatment due to the presence of a mobile intracardiac clot in a patent foramen ovale, and the possible risk of paradoxical arterial embolism.

  13. Patient outcomes with endovascular embolectomy therapy for acute ischemic stroke: a study of the national inpatient sample: 2006 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Kallmes, David F; Cloft, Harry J

    2011-06-01

    Maturing techniques have spurred widespread implementation of endovascular embolectomy therapy for ischemic stroke. We evaluated a large administrative database to determine outcomes in patients treated with endovascular embolectomy in the general population. Using the National Inpatient Sample, we evaluated outcomes of patients treated for acute ischemic stroke in the United States from 2006 to 2008. Patients who had an ischemic stroke and underwent endovascular clot retrieval were identified. Morbidity, defined as "discharge to long-term facility," and mortality were evaluated as a function of patient age and of concomitant thrombolytic agent administration. For 2006 to 2008, a total of 3864 patients received endovascular clot retrieval with 266 (6.9%) patients in 2006, 800 (20.7) patients in 2007, and 2798 (72.4%) patients in 2008. The discharge to a long-term facility rate was 51.3% (1983 of 3864). The in-hospital mortality rate was 24.3% (940 of 3864). For patients acute stroke, even in the setting of endovascular embolectomy. Advanced age portends a worse outcome and patients treated with concomitant use of thrombolytic agent had higher rates of intracranial hemorrhage than those without such therapy.

  14. [Successful surgical treatment of a massive pulmonary embolism in the organized thromboembolic phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarić, V; Todorić, M; Ilić, R; Tisma, S; Trifunović, Z; Nikolić, G; Stojnić, B

    2000-01-01

    A patient, male, aged 36, clinically presented as an unstable angina pectoris following myocardial infarction, who came from general hospital of Banja Luka for further examination is presented. According to the medical report, he was treated for acute myocardial infarction in 1994 at Banja Luka's general hospital, when he was resusciated due to of cardiac arrest. The anginous pain was still present regardless of prescribed therapy. Following the clinical examination at the Military Medical Academy we have established a diagnosis of thromboembolism of the main pulmonary artery with a high pressure in the right ventricle. He underwent surgery under the extracorporeal circulation, when an organized old thrombus the main pulmonary artery and partially in arterial branches. The main pulmonary artery was almost completely obliterated. Thrombectomy was done. Following the operation, the patient was in a good condition and the repeated echocardiographic examinations showed no signs of recurrent thrombosis while the pressure in the right ventricle was significantly decreased. Afterwards, he was treated by heparine and oral anticoagulants and then by antiagregants. This case is very instructive because the massive pulmonary thromboembolism which was wrongly recognized and treated as an acute myocardial infarction.

  15. Effect of pulmonary autograft transplantation in the surgical treatment of aortic valve disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-bin; LIU Hai-yan; ZHOU Qi-wen; XU Xiu-fang; ZHANG Jian-qun; SONG Shi-qiu; PENG Jin-feng; WANG Sheng-xun; LIU Wei; ZHOU Hai-po; WANG Zhu-heng

    2008-01-01

    Background Aortic root replacement with pulmonary autograft (Ross procedure) has the advantages of good haemodynamics and growth potential without the need for anticoagulation.In this study,we reviewed our expedence of the Ross procedure for patients with aortic valve disease.Methods From October 1994 to January 2005,42 Ross procedures were performed in our centre.There were 30 males and 12 females.The mean age was 28+15 years (range,5-56 years).Congenital heart disease (CHD) with aortic valve stenosis (AS) and/or aortic valve insufficiency (A1) in 40 cases including one associated with ventdcular septal defect (VSD),degenerated aortic valve disease with AS in 1 and subacutive bacterial endocarditis (SBE) with A1 in 1 were studied.The diagnosis was made by ultracardiography (UCG) in all patients.The mean aortic valve annulus diameter (AVD) was (2.45±0.31) cm and pulmonary valve annulus diameter (MPVD) was (2.34±0.21) cm.All patients had normal pulmonary valves.The New York Heart Association (NYHA) function class was Ⅱ in 36 cases and Ⅲ in 6 cases.The operation was performed under moderate hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with aortic root replacement using pulmonary autograft and pulmonary valve replacement with a homograft.Results There was no early hospital mortality.Postoperative UCG showed normal aortic valve function in all our patients.The mean gradient across the aortic valve was (6.11±0.12) mmHg.The left ventricular diastole diameter (LVDD)decreased significantly from (62±5) mm to (56±3) mm (P<0.001).The mean postoperative left ventricular ejective fraction (LVEF) was 0.49±0.23.All patients were in NYHA class Ⅰ-Ⅱ.Follow-up was completed in 38 cases for a mean period of 3.2 years (range 1-10 years).All survivors were in NYHA class Ⅰ with normal neo-aortic and pulmonary valve function.One patient died after secondary operation due to homograft fungal endocarditis 1 year after the Ross procedure.The cause of death was uncontrolled

  16. Impact of GOLD groups of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease on surgical complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim HJ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hyung-Jun Kim,1,2 Jinwoo Lee,1,2 Young Sik Park,1,2 Chang-Hoon Lee,1,2 Sang-Min Lee,1,2 Jae-Joon Yim,1,2 Chul-Gyu Yoo,1,2 Young Whan Kim,1,2 Sung Koo Han,1,2 Sun Mi Choi1,2 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with increased postoperative complications. Recently, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD classified COPD patients into four groups based on spirometry results and the severity of symptoms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of GOLD groups on postoperative complications. Patients and methods: We reviewed the medical records of COPD patients who underwent preoperative spirometry between April and August 2013 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. We divided the patients into GOLD groups according to the results of spirometry and self-administered questionnaires that assessed the symptom severity and exacerbation history. GOLD groups, demographic characteristics, and operative conditions were analyzed. Results: Among a total of 405 COPD patients, 70 (17.3% patients experienced various postoperative complications, including infection, wound, or pulmonary complications. Thoracic surgery, upper abdominal surgery, general anesthesia, large estimated blood loss during surgery, and longer anesthesia time were significant risk factors for postoperative complications. Patients in high-risk group (GOLD groups C or D had an increased risk of postoperative complications compared to those in low-risk group (GOLD groups A or B. Conclusion: COPD patients in GOLD groups representing a high exacerbation risk have an increased risk of postoperative complications compared to those with low risk. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary

  17. Treatment Result in the Initial Stage of Kanazawa Mobile Embolectomy Team for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    UCHIYAMA, Naoyuki; MISAKI, Kouichi; MOHRI, Masanao; KAMIDE, Tomoya; HIROTA, Yuichi; HIGASHI, Ryo; MINAMIDE, Hisato; KOHDA, Yukihiko; ASAHI, Takashi; SHOIN, Katsuo; IWATO, Masayuki; KITA, Daisuke; HAMADA, Yoshitaka; YOSHIDA, Yuya; NAKADA, Mitsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Five recent multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have clearly shown the superiority of mechanical thrombectomy in large vessel occlusion acute ischemic stroke compared to systemic thrombolysis. Although 14 hospitals in Ishikawa prefecture have uninterrupted availability of systemic thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy is not available at all of these hospitals. Therefore, we established a Kanazawa mobile embolectomy team (KMET), which could travel to these hospitals and perform the acute reperfusion therapy. In this article, we report early treatment outcomes and validate the effectiveness of a network between affiliated hospitals and KMET. Between January 2014 and December 2015, 48 patients, aged 45–92 years (mean: 73.0 years), underwent acute reperfusion therapy provided by KMET in 10 affiliated hospitals of Kanazawa University Hospital. The pre-treatment NIHSS scores ranged from 5 to 39 (mean: 19.1). ASPECTS+W ranged from 1 to 11 (mean: 7.3). Successful revascularization, defined as thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) 2b or 3, was achieved in 38/48 cases (80%), and a good outcome, defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score from 0 to 2 at 90 days after the treatment, was achieved in 24/48 cases (50%). There were two cases of intracranial bleeding (4%). Mean time from onset to recanalization was 297 min. These results, which are similar to those of five previous RCTs, suggest that a collaborative network between affiliated hospitals and KMET is effective for acute reperfusion therapy in local areas wherein experienced neuroendovascular specialists are insufficient. PMID:27725522

  18. Morphological computed tomography features of surgically resectable pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas: Impact on prognosis and comparison with adenocarcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigkam Santos, Marcel, E-mail: marcelk46@yahoo.com.br [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum – DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, University Hospital of the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Campus Universitario Monte Alegre, 14048 900 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Muley, Thomas [Chest Clinic (Thoraxklinik) at University of Heidelberg, Amalienstr. 5, 69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Warth, Arne [Institute of Pathology, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 224, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Paula, Wagner Diniz de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, University of Brasilia, Brasilia (Brazil); Lederlin, Mathieu [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Imaging, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Schnabel, Philipp Albert [Institute of Pathology, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 224, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 350, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter [German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum – DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2014-07-15

    Objective: To characterize the morphological computed tomography (CT) features of pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas (SQCC) submitted to therapeutic resection; to correlate these features with patients’ outcomes; and to compare with pulmonary adenocarcinomas (ADC). Materials and methods: Two chest radiologists retrospectively evaluated CT exams of 123 patients with SQCC resected between 2002 and 2008. Tumors’ size, location (central vs. peripheral), shape, margins, attenuation, enhancement, presence of calcification, cavitation, internal air bronchograms and pleural tags were assigned by consensus. Prevalence of features was compared with patients’ survival data and a previously studied population of ADC surgically resected at the same time period. Results: Cavitation correlated negatively with overall (hazard ratio = 3.04), disease-specific (HR = 3.67) and disease-free survival (HR = 2.69), independent from age, gender, tumor pathological stage, size, and location. In relation to ADC, SQCC presented different shape, margins, attenuation, enhancement, with more cavitation, rare internal air bronchograms, and less pleural tags. Differences were also significant when comparing only the peripheral type of tumors. Conclusions: Cavitation at CT was an independent and negative predictive factor for SQCC. Different CT morphological features were described for SQCC and ADC. Image evaluation of lung lesions should go beyond measuring and addressing adjacent structures invasion. Adequate imaging characterization not only helps to differentiate benign versus malignant disease and to determine malignancy staging, it may also imply the histologic subtype and improve the prognostic assessment of lung cancer patients.

  19. Severity of lung fibrosis affects early surgical outcomes of lung cancer among patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimae, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Ikeda, Norihiko; Takamochi, Kazuya; Aokage, Keiju; Shimada, Yoshihisa; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Okada, Morihito

    2016-07-01

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is defined as upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis, which are representative lung disorders that increase the prevalence of lung cancer. This unique disorder may affect the morbidity and mortality during the early period after surgery. The present study aimed to identify which clinicopathological features significantly affect early surgical outcomes after lung resection in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and in those with CPFE.We retrospectively assessed 2295 patients with NSCLC and found that 151 (6.6%) had CPFE. All were surgically treated between January 2008 and December 2010 at 4 institutions.The postoperative complication rates for patients with and without CPFE were 39% and 17%, respectively. The 90-day mortality rates were higher among patients with than without CPFE (7.9% vs 1%). Acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia was the main cause of death among 12 patients with CPFE who died within 90 days after surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis selected CPFE, gender, age, and clinical stage as independent predictive factors for postoperative complications, and CPFE, clinical stage, and sex for 90-day mortality. The severity of lung fibrosis on preoperative CT images was an independent predictive factor for 90-day mortality among patients with CPFE.The key predictive factor for postoperative mortality and complications of lung resection for NSCLC was CPFE. The severity of lung fibrosis was the principal predictor of early outcomes after lung surgery among patients with CPFE and NSCLC.

  20. Surgical and transcatheter management alternatives in refractory pulmonary hypertension: Potts shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Serdar; Atasayan, Vildan

    2015-10-01

    Despite advances in the medical treatment of children with pulmonary arterial hypertension that have resulted in improved health quality and life expectancy, the progression of the disease is still the main problem for some patients. Because of this undesirable condition, the search for new treatment strategies continues for pediatric cardiologists. At this point, the Eisenmenger physiology is the main target because of the long-life expectancy and more stable hemodynamics of patients with Eisenmenger syndrome. Therefore, some invasive procedures may be used for conversion to Eisenmenger physiology with the aim of decompressing the right ventricle.

  1. Reduction of Pulmonary Function After Surgical Lung Resections of Different Volume

    OpenAIRE

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years an increasing number of lung resections are being done because of the rising prevalence of lung cancer that occurs mainly in patients with limited lung function, what is caused with common etiologic factor - smoking cigarettes. Objective: To determine how big the loss of lung function is after surgical resection of lung of different range. Methods: The study was done on 58 patients operated at the Clinic for thoracic surgery KCU Sarajevo, previously treated at th...

  2. Does obesity affect the outcomes of pulmonary resections for lung cancer? A National Surgical Quality Improvement Program analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungo, Benedetto; Zogg, Cheryl K; Hooker, Craig M; Yang, Stephen C; Battafarano, Richard J; Brock, Malcolm V; Molena, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    Obesity has increased dramatically in the American population during the past 2 decades. Approximately 35% of adults are obese. Although obesity represents a major health issue, the association between obesity and operative outcomes has been a subject of controversy. We queried the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database to determine whether an increased body mass index (BMI) affects the outcomes of pulmonary resection for lung cancer. We identified 6,567 patients with a diagnosis of lung cancer who underwent pulmonary resection from 2005 to 2012 in the NSQIP database. We stratified this population into 6 BMI groups according to the World Health Organization classification. The primary outcome measured was 30-day mortality; secondary outcomes included length of stay (LOS), operative time, and NSQIP-measured postoperative complications. We performed both unadjusted analysis and adjusted multivariable analysis, controlling for statistically significant variables. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression showed no increase in 30-day mortality, overall morbidity, and serious morbidity among obese patients. Adjusted Poisson regression revealed greater operative times for both obese and underweight patients compared with normal weight patients. Overall, obese patients were younger and had a greater percentage of preoperative comorbidities, including diabetes, hypertension, dyspnea, renal disease, and history of previous cardiac surgery. The prevalence of active smokers was greater among patients with low and normal BMI. Underweight patients had a greater risk-adjusted LOS relative to normal weight patients, whereas overweight and mildly obese patients had lesser risk-adjusted LOS. The results of our analysis suggest that obesity does not confer greater mortality and morbidity after lung resection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Late presentation of an anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery treated with conservative surgical management with long-term cardiac magnetic resonance imaging follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Pishoy; Gouda, John; Butler, Craig; Welsh, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is rare congenital abnormality that most commonly presents in childhood and is associated with a high mortality. In the elderly, patients may present acutely with arrhythmias or signs of ischemia or with vague chronic presentations of shortness of breath and fatigue. In the high-risk elderly population, it is unclear as to whether conservative surgical management by means of suture ligation of the left coronary artery is associated with positive long-term outcomes. We present a case of a 69-year-old patient diagnosed with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, which was treated with conservative surgical management and followed up for 15 years with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, with positive outcomes.

  4. Long-term results of a minimally invasive surgical pulmonary vein isolation and ganglionic plexi ablation for atrial fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ganglionated plexi (GP ablation has been become an adjunct to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI. This study describes the long-term results of minimally invasive surgical PVI, ablation of GPs, and exclusion of the left atrial appendage for atrial fibrillation (AF. METHODS: Long-term follow-up of 55 months was performed in 139 consecutive patients (age 58.3±20.8 years with symptomatic, drug-refractory lone AF who underwent minimally invasive surgical PVI, GPs ablation, and exclusion of the left atrial appendage. Success was defined as freedom from AF, atrial flutter, or atrial tachycardia off antiarrhythmic drugs. RESULTS: AF was paroxysmal in 77.7%, persistent in 12.2% and long-standing persistent in 10.1%. Single-procedure success rate was 71.7%, 59.4% and 46.6% at 12, 24 and 60 months respectively. Single-procedure success rate was 72.9%, 62.6% and 51.8% for paroxysmal AF, 64.7%, 35.3%, and 28.2% for persistent AF, 71.4%, 64.3% and 28.6% for long-standing persistent AF at 12, 24 and 60 months respectively. Duration of AF>24 months (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51 to 6.32; p = 0.002, left atrial diameter≥40 mm (HR: 4.03, 95% CI: 1.88 to 8.65; p<0.001, early recurrence of AF (HR: 4.66, 95% CI: 2.25 to 9.63; p<0.001 independently predicted long-term recurrence of AF. There was no procedure-related death. One patient converted to median sternotomy because of uncontrolled bleeding. Two patients underwent perioperative cerebrovascular events. CONCLUSIONS: At nearly 5-year of clinical follow-up, single-procedure success rate of minimally invasive surgical PVI with GP ablation was 51.8% for paroxysmal AF, 28.2% for persistent AF, 28.6% for long-standing persistent AF after initial procedure. Patients with AF duration≤24 months, left atrial diameter<40 mm and no early recurrence of AF, had favorable outcomes.

  5. [Clinical experience of the treatment of solitary pulmonary nodules with Da Vinci surgical system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiangdong; Xu, Shiguang; Wang, Shumin; Meng, Hao; Gao, Xin; Teng, Hong; Ding, Renquan; Liu, Xingchi; Li, Bo; Xu, Wei; Wang, Tong

    2014-07-20

    背景与目的 肺孤立结节(solitary pulmonary nodule, SPN)定义为一个圆形的直径小于3 cm的肺实质内的病变,不伴有肺不张和淋巴结病变。本研究旨在探讨达芬奇机器人治疗SPN的临床体会。方法 2011年11月-2014年3月,沈阳军区总医院应用达芬奇机器人治疗SPN 9例,其中男性3例;女性6例 ;年龄41岁-74岁,平均(51±9.9)岁;患者多数无明显临床症状(健康体检发现7例,咳嗽咳痰2例);病史时间4天-3年(中位数12个月);病变均为周围型肺结节病灶,直径为0.8 cm-2.8 cm,平均(1.4±0.6)cm;术中切取病变送冰冻病理检查,证实为恶性病变者行肺叶切除或楔形切除并常规清除肺门和纵隔淋巴结。手术采用全麻、双腔管气管插管,患者健侧卧位,胸部垫高,双手屈曲抱枕于头前,折刀位。孔位为腋后线第8肋间为进镜孔,肩胛线第8肋间、腋前线与锁中线间第5肋间为器械孔,腋中线第7肋间为辅助口。结果 术后病理为良性病变4例(炎性假瘤3例,错构瘤1例),恶性病变5例,均为腺癌。手术包括楔形切除4例,右肺中叶切除+淋巴结清除术2例,左肺上叶切除+淋巴结清除术1例,其余2例肺癌患者因为心肺功能差,病变小于2 cm,行楔形切除+淋巴结清除术。9例均顺利完成机器人手术,所有患者无严重术后并发症,均顺利出院。随访时间为0.1个月-18.5个月(中位数11个月),无复发、转移。结论 SPN病变应该予以积极手术治疗,提高早期肺癌的诊断率和治愈率,达芬奇机器人手术对于SPN的治疗是一种安全、微创的手术方法,在SPN病变的诊治中具有较高的价值。

  6. Prevalence, Diagnosis, Perioperative Monitoring and Treatment of Right Ventricular Dysfunction and/or Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Cardiac Surgical Patients in Germany-A Postal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringlake, Matthias; Schön, Julika; Pliet, Teresa; Haake, Nils; Reinecke, Alexander; Habicher, Marit; Sander, Michael; Markewitz, Andreas; Reuter, Daniel A; Groesdonk, Heinrich Volker; Trummer, Georg; Pilarzyk, Kevin; von der Brelie, Michael; Bein, Berthold; Schirmer, Uwe

    2016-02-24

    Background Sparse data are available on the prevalence of right ventricular dysfunction and/or pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery in Germany as well as on the intensity and modalities used for diagnosis, perioperative monitoring, and treatment of these comorbidities. Methods A postal survey including questions on the prevalence of preoperative right ventricular dysfunction and/or pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients undergoing cardiac surgery in 2009 was sent to 81 German heart centers. Total 47 of 81 (58%) heart centers returned the questionnaires. The centers reported data on 51,095 patients, and 49.8% of the procedures were isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. Results Data on the prevalence of preoperative pulmonary hypertension and/or right ventricular dysfunction were not available in 54% and 64.6% of centers. In the remaining hospitals, 19.5% of patients presented right heart dysfunction and 10% pulmonary arterial hypertension. Preoperative echocardiography was performed in only 45.3% of the coronary artery bypass grafting cases. Preoperative pharmacologic treatment of pulmonary hypertension or right ventricular dysfunction with oral sildenafil, inhaled prostanoids, or nitric oxide was initiated in 71% and 95.7% of the centers, respectively. Intra- and postoperative treatment was most frequently accomplished with phosphodiesterase-III inhibitors. Conclusion The prevalence of preoperative right heart dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension in cardiac surgical patients in Germany seems to be substantial. However, in more than 50% of the patients, no preoperative data on right ventricular function and pulmonary arterial pressure are available. This may lead to underestimation of perioperative risk and inappropriate management of this high-risk population.

  7. Lung Volume Reduction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD AND#8211; An Updated Review of Surgical and Endoscopic Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dixit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The conventional medical management of emphysema using bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory agents has a limited benefit in patients having advanced hyperinflation of lungs due to destruction of elastic tissue. The natural course of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD has been shown to be altered by only smoking cessation and oxygen therapy so far. The lung volume reduction surgery is viewed as another modality to change the natural history of emphysema in recent years. For patients with more generalized emphysema, resection of lung parenchyma improves elastic recoil and chest wall mechanics. An extensive literature search has demonstrated that carefully selected patients of emphysema (i.e. upper lobe predominant disease, low exercise capacity and Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1 and DLco and #8804; 20% of predicted receive benefits in terms of symptomatic improvement and physiologic response following Lung Volume Reduction Surgery (LVRS. The resurgent interest in LVRS and National Emphysema Treatment Trial findings for emphysema have stimulated a range of innovative methods, to improve the outcome and reduce complications associated with current LVRS techniques. These novel approaches include surgical resection with compression/banding devices, endobronchial blockers, sealants, obstructing devices and valves and endobronchial bronchial bypass approaches. Experimental data and preliminary results are becoming available for some of these approaches. Most of the published studies so far have been uncontrolled and unblinded. Overall, extensive research in the near future will help to determine the potential clinical applicability of these new approaches to the treatment of emphysema symptoms. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(4.000: 249-257

  8. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölzel, B E; Snijder, R J; Mager, J J; van Es, H W; Plokker, H W M; Reesink, H J; Morshuis, W J; Post, M C

    2014-12-01

    Chronic pulmonary thromboembolic disease is an important cause of severe pulmonary hypertension, and as such is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis of this condition reflects the degree of associated right ventricular dysfunction, with predictable mortality related to the severity of the underlying pulmonary hypertension. Left untreated, the prognosis is poor. Pulmonary endarterectomy is the treatment of choice to relieve pulmonary artery obstruction in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and has been remarkably successful. Advances in surgical techniques along with the introduction of pulmonary hypertension-specific medication provide therapeutic options for the majority of patients afflicted with the disease. However, a substantial number of patients are not candidates for pulmonary endarterectomy due to either distal pulmonary vascular obstruction or significant comorbidities. Therefore, careful selection of surgical candidates in expert centres is paramount. The current review focuses on the diagnostic approach to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and the available surgical and medical therapeutic options.

  9. Radiographic findings in pulmonary hypertension from unresolved embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, W.W. III; Hoeck, B.E.; Chitwood, W.R. Jr.; Lyerly, H.K.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Chen, J.T.T.

    1985-04-01

    Pulmonary artery hypertension with chronic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon entity that is potentially treatable with pulmonary embolectomy. Although the classic radiographic features have been described, several recent investigators report a significant percentage of these patients with normal chest radiographs. In a series of 22 patients, no normal radiographs were seen. Findings included cardiomegaly (86.4%) with right-sided enlargement (68.4%), right descending pulmonary artery enlargement (54.5%), azygos vein enlargement (27.3%), mosaic oligemia (68.2%), chronic volume loss (27.3%), atelectasis and/or effusion (22.7%), and pleural thickening (13.6%). Good correlation with specific areas of diminished vascularity was seen on chest radiographs compared with pulmonary angiograms.

  10. Isolated Pulmonary Infective Endocarditis with Septic Pulmonary Embolism Complicating a Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction: Scarce and Devious Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahmen Abdelbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a fifty-three-year-old male who presented with severe sepsis. He had been treated as a pneumonia patient for five months before the admission. Investigations revealed isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism in addition to undiagnosed right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT obstruction. The patient underwent surgery for the relief of RVOT obstruction by substantial muscle resection of the RVOT, pulmonary artery embolectomy, pulmonary valve replacement, and reconstruction of RVOT and main pulmonary artery with two separate bovine pericardial patches. He was discharged from our hospital after 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. He recovered well on follow-up 16 weeks after discharge. A high-suspicion index is needed to diagnose right-side heart endocarditis. Blood cultures and transesophageal echocardiogram are the key diagnostic tools.

  11. Decline in the Use of Surgical Biopsy for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Disease in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipients in an Era of Improved Diagnostics and Empirical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guang-Shing; Stednick, Zach J; Madtes, David K; Boeckh, Michael; McDonald, George B; Pergam, Steven A

    2016-12-01

    Historically, diagnosis of enigmatic pulmonary disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) required lung biopsy, but recent advancements in diagnosis and therapy for respiratory infections have changed how clinicians approach pulmonary abnormalities. We examined temporal trends in the use of lung biopsy after HCT. We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent their first allogeneic HCT at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center between the years 1993 to 1997, 2003 to 2007, and 2013 to 2015 and subsequently underwent surgical lung biopsy for any reason. Lung biopsy between cohorts were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model with death and relapse considered competing risks. Of 1418 patients, 52 (3.7%) underwent 54 post-HCT surgical lung biopsies during 1993 to 1997 compared with 24 (2.1%) and 25 biopsies in the 2003 to 2007 cohort; 2 cases of surgical lung biopsies out of 786 HCT recipients occurred during the 2013 to 2015 cohort (.25%). The median time to biopsy post-HCT was 71.5 days (IQR, 31 to 89) for the early cohort and 97 days (IQR, 42 to 124) for the late cohort, for an overall biopsy incidence of .15 and .075 per 1000 patient days in the first year after HCT, respectively. Patients in the 2003 to 2007 cohort were less likely to undergo a lung biopsy (adjusted HR, .50; 95% CI, .29 to .83; P = .008) when compared with patients in the early cohort, but more patients in the early cohort underwent lung biopsy without antecedent bronchoscopy (25/54 [46%] versus 3/25 [12%], P = .005). Although infections were a more common finding at biopsy in the early cohort (35/1418 versus 8/1148, P disease in the 2 cohorts (8/54 [15%] versus 4/25 [16%]). Surgical evaluation of lung disease in HCT recipients significantly declined over a span of 2 decades. The decline from the years 1993 to 1997 compared with 2003 to 2007 was because of a reduction in the number of biopsies for post-transplant infections due to aspergillosis, which is

  12. Current status of pulmonary metastasectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbech, Kåre; Ravn, Jesper; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas

    2011-01-01

    for unresected patients. In this article, we discuss the current status on pulmonary metastasectomy. Preoperative assessment and selection of surgical candidates is covered. The different surgical strategies including surgical approach, unilateral versus bilateral exploration, lymph node dissection, and repeat...

  13. Time-Trend Analysis of Pulmonary and Diaphragmatic Functionality in Patients with Diaphragmatic Palsy or with Chronic Diaphragmatic Hernia after Surgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapicetta, Cristian; Voltolini, Luca; Lococo, Filippo; Vecchioni, Ilaria; Tenconi, Sara; Paci, Masimiliano; Ricchetti, Tommaso; Rossi, Marcello; Gotti, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess long-term pulmonary and diaphragmatic function in two cohorts of patients: the first one affected by diaphragmatic palsy (DP) who underwent plication reinforced by rib-fixed mesh and the second one affected by chronic diaphragmatic hernia (TDH) who underwent surgical reduction and direct suture. Materials and Methods From 1996 to 2011, 10 patients with unilateral DP and 6 patients with TDH underwent elective surgery. Preoperative and long-term (12 months) follow-up assessments were completed in all patients, including pulmonary function tests (PFTs) with diffusion of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), measure of maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) assessed both in standing and in supine positions, blood gas analysis, chest computed tomographic (CT) scan, and dyspnea score. The Pearson chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and Student t-test were applied when indicated. Results At long-term (12 months) postoperative follow-up, patients operated for DP showed a significant improvement in terms of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) (+ 18.2%, p TDH group, only the levels of Po 2 were found to be significantly higher in the postoperative assessment (+ 8.3 mm Hg, p = 0.04). Although MIP increased in both the groups after surgery, a persistent and significant decrease of MIP was detected in TDH group when comparing the levels assessed in supine position with those measured in the standing position (p TDH group by a factor of 0.33 (p = 0.175). Conclusion In patients who underwent surgery for DP, good long-term results may be predicted in terms of pulmonary flows, volumes, and DLCO. Conversely, in patients who underwent elective surgery for chronic TDH, a persistent overall restrictive pattern, lower MIP values in supine position, and paradoxical motion could be expected.

  14. The Prognostic Significance of pSTAT1 and CD163 Expressions in Surgically Resected Stage 1 Pulmonary Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mong-Wei; Yang, Ching-Yao; Kuo, Shuenn-Wen; Wu, Chen-Tu; Chang, Yih-Leong; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2016-09-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in the initiation, progression, and metastasis of various solid tumors, and can polarize into M1 and M2 phenotypes. This study aimed to investigate whether TAM polarization is associated with clinical outcomes for early-stage pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). This retrospective study included 97 consecutive patients with stage 1 pulmonary SqCC. Immunohistochemical stains for M1 macrophage marker (pSTAT1) and M2 macrophage marker (CD163) were performed on paraffin-embedded tumors. The correlations of M1 and M2 macrophage expression, clinicopathologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were analyzed. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 63.2 %, and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 74.8 %. Positive pSTAT1 expression was noted in 42 patients (43.3 %) and CD163 expression in 26 patients (26.8 %). A statistically significant negative correlation between pSTAT1 and CD163 expression was found (p = 0.015). Univariate analysis showed that extensive surgical resection, incomplete tumor excision, negative pSTAT1 expression, and positive CD163 expression were significantly correlated with both a poor DFS and a poor OS, whereas male gender was significantly correlated with a poor DFS only. Multivariate analysis showed that the pSTAT1/CD163 expression status was the only independent predictor for both DFS (p = 0.023) and OS and (p = 0.004). Markers identifying M1 and M2 macrophages, including pSTAT1 and CD163, can be used as prognostic indicators for patients with stage 1 pulmonary SqCC.

  15. Initial single-port thoracoscopy to reduce surgical trauma during open en bloc chest wall and pulmonary resection for locally invasive cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayarri, Clara I.; de Guevara, Antonio Cueto Ladron; Martin-Ucar, Antonio E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES En bloc pulmonary and chest wall resection is the preferred method of treatment for locally invasive lung carcinoma. However, it carries major trauma to the chest wall, especially in cases with chest wall involvement distant to the potential location of ‘traditional’ thoracotomies. We describe an alternative method of estimating the boundaries of chest wall resection employing video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and hypodermic needles. METHODS VATS delineation of boundaries of chest wall involvement by lung cancer has been performed in six patients who gave written consent. In one case the single–port thoracoscopic examination revealed unexpected distant pleural metastases thus preventing from resection. The other 5 patients, three males and two females [median age of 60.5 (range 39 to 75) years] underwent en bloc anatomical lung resection in addition to chest wall excision and reconstruction for T3N0 lung cancer. RESULTS In these five cases the chest wall opening was restricted to the extent of the rib excision, and the pulmonary resection was performed via the existing chest wall opening without requiring extension of the thoracotomy or any rib spreading. DISCUSSION Minimally invasive techniques aid to delineate the boundaries of chest wall involvement of lung cancer and intraoperative staging. This helped tailoring the surgical approach and location of the thoracotomy, and prevented rib-spreading or additional thoracotomies in our cases. PMID:23592724

  16. Impact of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema on surgical complications and long-term survival in patients undergoing surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hata A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Atsushi Hata,1,2 Yasuo Sekine,1 Ohashi Kota,1 Eitetsu Koh,1 Ichiro Yoshino2 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tokyo Women’s Medical University Yachiyo Medical Centre, Yachiyo, 2Department of General Thoracic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba City, Chiba, Japan Purpose: The outcome of radical surgery for lung cancer was investigated in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE. Methods: A retrospective chart review involved 250 patients with lung cancer who underwent pulmonary resection at Tokyo Women’s Medical University Yachiyo Medical Center between 2008 and 2012. Based on the status of nontumor-bearing lung evaluated by preoperative computed tomography (CT, the patients were divided into normal, emphysema, interstitial pneumonia (IP, and CPFE groups, and their clinical characteristics and surgical outcome were analyzed. Results: The normal, emphysema, IP, and CPFE groups comprised 124 (49.6%, 108 (43.2%, seven (2.8%, and eleven (4.4% patients, respectively. The 5-year survival rate of the CPFE group (18.7% was significantly lower than that of the normal (77.5% and emphysema groups (67.1% (P<0.0001 and P=0.0027, respectively but equivalent to that of the IP group (44.4% (P=0.2928. In a subset analysis of cancer stage, the 5-year overall survival rate of the CPFE group in stage I (n=8, 21.4% was also lower than that of the normal group and emphysema group in stage I (n=91, 84.9% and n=70, 81.1%; P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively. During entire observation period, the CPFE group was more likely to die of respiratory failure (27.2% compared with the normal and emphysema groups (P<0.0001. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors using Cox proportional hazard model identified CPFE as an independent risk factor (P=0.009. Conclusion: CPFE patients have a poorer prognosis than those with emphysema alone or with normal lung on CT finding. The intensive evaluation of preoperative CT images is

  17. Utility of pulmonary venous flow diastolic deceleration time in an adult patient undergoing surgical closure of atrial septal defect and coronary artery bypass grafting

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    Dharmesh R Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute left ventricular (LV failure has been reported after surgical closure of atrial septal defect (ASD in adult patients. We report acute LV failure in a 56 year old gentleman following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG and surgical closure of ASD. Transesophageal echocardiography examination of the patient following closure of ASD and CABG showed a residual ASD and a shunt (Qp :Qs = 1.5. The residual ASD was closed after re-institution of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB under cardioplegic cardiac arrest. However, the patient did not tolerate closure of the residual ASD. The CPB was re-established and under cardioplegic cardiac arrest residual ASD was reopened to create a fenestration. This time patient was weaned easily from CPB. Postoperatively, 16 hours after extubation, patient became hemodynamically unstable, the patient was electively put on ventilator and intra-aortic balloon pump. Later the patient was weaned off successfully from ventilator. Retrospective analysis of pulmonary venous flow diastolic deceleration time (PVDT D recorded during prebypass period measured 102 msec suggestive of high left atrial pressure which indicate possibility of LV failure after ASD closure.

  18. Intraoperative balloon angioplasty using fogarty artertial embolectomy balloon catheter for creation of arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis: single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Moran; Yoon, Young Chul; Wi, Jin Hong; Lee, Yang-Haeng; Han, Il-Yong; Park, Kyung-Taek

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a Fogarty arterial embolectomy catheter (Fogarty catheter) in intraoperative balloon angioplasty of the cephalic vein, in order to determine its effect on the patency of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) created for hemodialysis access. A total of 156 patients who underwent creation of an AVF were divided into two groups, based whether a Fogarty catheter was used during AVF creation. Group A (89 patients) comprised the patients who underwent balloon angioplasty with a Fogarty catheter during the operation. Group B (67 patients) included the patients in whom a Fogarty catheter was not used during the operation. Patient records were reviewed retrospectively and documented. The patency rate was determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. The records of 156 patients who underwent the creation of an AVF from January 2007 to October 2011 were included. The mean follow-up duration was 40.2±19.4 months (range, 1 to 97 months). The patency rates in group A at 12, 36, and 72 months were 83.9%±3.9%, 78.3%±4.6%, and 76.3%±4.9%, respectively, while the corresponding patency rates in group B were 92.5%±3.2%, 82.8%±0.5%, and 79.9%±5.7%, respectively. The patency rates in group B were found to be slightly higher than those in group A, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.356). Intraoperative balloon angioplasty of the cephalic vein using the Fogarty catheter is a simple and easily reproducible procedure, and it can be helpful in increasing AVF patency in cases of insufficient runoff or a suboptimal cephalic vein.

  19. Giant infantile pulmonary hemangioma

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    Pandya, Rajul; Tummala, Venkat [Hurley Medical Center One Hurley Plaza, Department of Radiology, Flint, MI (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We present a very unusual case of giant infantile pulmonary hemangioma presenting as a large solitary pulmonary mass. This was successfully managed with surgical resection. Histological examination revealed that the mass was positive for GLUT-1 receptor, a marker for infantile hemangioma. To our knowledge only a few cases of pulmonary hemangioma have been described previously in the literature. Pulmonary hemangiomas are very rare lesions, most of them presenting as a pulmonary mass. This case emphasizes the fact that this rare lesion should be considered in the differential of an enhancing pulmonary mass in an infant. (orig.)

  20. Surgical treatment of tracheoesophageal fistula in a patient with severe acute respiratory syndrome complicated with extensive pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang-Ming; Lee, Pei-Lin; Kuo, Shuenn-Wen; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Lee, Yung-Chie

    2004-12-01

    Tracheoesophageal fistula is an uncommon complication usually associated with chronic usage of ventilator and pressure necrosis of the tracheoesophageal wall. A 56-year-old female patient with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) with tracheoesophageal fistula is reported. She was intubated for ventilatory support 3 days after admission because of progressive respiratory distress. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by a maintenance dosage was given due to persistence of bilateral pulmonary fibrosis. Thirty three days after admission, she underwent tracheostomy because of difficulty in weaning from the ventilator. Ten days after tracheostomy, she developed tracheoesophageal fistula, which was confirmed by bronchoscopy and panendoscopy. Tracheal resection and primary repair for the esophageal defect was performed via a cervical incision combined with partial sternotomy. She was weaned from the ventilator soon after the surgery and discharged 34 days after the operation. In SARS patients with persistent pulmonary fibrosis and under prolonged corticosteroid treatment, special care should be given to avoid intubation-related tracheal injury during the period of ventilatory support. The tracheoesophageal fistula, once developed, can be repaired in a single stage after improvement of the nutritional status.

  1. PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM FOLLOWING THORACOTOMY FOR LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-xu; LI Hou-wen; LI Yu; WANG Yu; XU Jie; YIN Hong-nian; ZHANG Lin; CHEN Dong-yi; ZHAO Hui-ru; HU Yong-xiao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical features of pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with primary lung cancer in relation to thoracotomy, and to shed light on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this fatal disease after lung resection. Methods: A total of 1245 cases with primary lung cancer received thoracotomy in the past 13 years were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data of a total of 14 patients (1.1%) suffering from pulmonary thromboembolism and requiring cardiao-pulmonary resuscitation were collected and analyzed. Results: The diagnosis was established primarily by clinical findings in 9 cases (64.3%), including further confirmation of one case during operation, by pulmonary ventilation-perfusion scan in 2, by spiral CT angiography in 1, by pulmonary angiography in 1, and by autopsy in 1 case. Even using prompt resuscitation, 8 patients (57.1%) died within 48 h (mean 4 h) after the onset of the symptoms. Six cases eventually recovered. Of the 6 salvaged patients, they all received anticoagulation therapy with heparin intravenously and warfarin orally, including 3 cases of additional thrombolytic therapy with urokinase. Two cases with massive pulmonary emboli received emergency surgery, including one pulmonary embolectomy, and one bilobectomy after right upper lobectomy, with satisfactory results. Conclusion: Massive pulmonary embolism is an infrequent but fatal early postoperative complication after lung resection. The diagnosis should be based mainly on clinical findings in order to initiate the appropriate therapy immediately. The direct diagnostic techniques including radionuclide pulmonary scan, spiral CT angiography, and pulmonary angiography could be based on a careful evaluation of the expected benefits and risks of the various available treatments.

  2. S WAVE IN PULMONARY EMBOLISM, A NEW ECG SIGN TO AID THROMBOLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas John

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism is a devastating disease that often leads to mortality . Previous investigators have found that thrombolysis reduces mortality in men but not significantly in women with pulmonary embolism. Many of the previous studies are with tenecteplase and alteplase. Here, we describe intra - venous thrombolysis with streptokinase in seven patients with pulmonary embolism who survived including two women. Further, we have one patient who had a new onset of S wave in lead I which subsequently disappeared after embolectomy. We also comment on the usefulness of shock sign in 2 deciding on thrombolysis .We propose a new sign for noninvasive assessment of need for thrombolysis in pulmonary embolism. New onset S wave in Lead I in pulmonary embolism can be used as a new sign for deciding the need for thrombolysis. When added to the shock sign it can be used in the emergency deparment to decide the need for thrombolysis. Further, there are no clear end points as to when to stop thrombolysis. In all 4 patients we switched to heparin when spontaneous bleeding or oozing started. In all 4 patients subsequent CT scans showed that the patient has mild to moderate resolution of the pulmonary embolism and patients remained stable and have been discharged and are under regular follow up. Hence we propose that bleeding can be used as an end point for thrombolysis in acute pulmonary embolism. We also describe a patient who had new onset S wave that disappeared after successful pulmonary embolectomy. Probably, the S wave is a marker of main pulmonary artery branch occlusions.

  3. 婴儿完全性肺静脉异位连接的外科治疗%Surgical therapy of infants with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭帮田; 张岩伟; 艾峰; 程兆云; 范太兵

    2014-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively summarize the strategies and effects of surgical therapy on infants with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC).Methods From January 2007 to April 2012,41 cases of infants with TAPVC were chosen.They were performed with surgical repairing with general anesthesia by hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.Twenty seven cases were treated by supracardiac anastomosis and 3 cases were treated by intracardiac anastomosis,among which 11 cases were treated by autologous pericardical expand anastomosis.As for intracardiac type,7 cases were cured by means of connecting pulmonary vein to coronary sinus,and then by cutting arterial septum and coronary sinus upper wall in the mouth of pulmonary vein,and finally using artificial materials to reconstruct interatrial septum to expand the left artrium; 1 case by linking pulmonary vein to right atrium roof,then the patients were remedied by expanding the interatrial septum defect and giving intracardiac patch.In terms of infracardiac type,2 cases were treated by cutting the pulmonary vein behind the right atrium in lengthways,and connecting the pulmonary vein to the left artrium by longitudinal anastomosis.Results Thirty-nine cases survived the operations,of whom the clinical symptoms disappeared and their physical growth improved obviously without cardiac dysfunction.Only 2 cases died in the early period (mortality rate 4.8%),1 of which died from sudden cardiac arrest as the result of pulmonary arterial hypertension crisis and 1 from low cardiac output as the result of left heart maldevelopment.The outpatient follow-up found no death case,but one case was operated twice,with no short and medium-term anastomosis stricture.Conclusions TAPVC,as an independant abnormality located in a normal heart,can be cured in babyhood with ideal effects and perfect prognosis.%目的 回顾性总结婴儿完全性肺静脉异位连接外科治疗的策略和效果.方法 2007年1月至2012年4月共收治婴

  4. 先天性心脏病合并肺动脉高压术后近期疗效分析%Multivariate Analysis of the Short-term Outcome of Surgical Treatment of Congestive Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光献; 张金涛; 唐白云; 吴钟凯

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨影响左向右分流先心痛(left to ringht shunt congenital heart disease,LRCHD)合并肺动脉高压(pulmonary arterial hypertension,PAH)手术近期效果的因素.方法 通过对过去10年299例先心痛合并充血性肺动脉高压患者可能导致术后近期死亡的影响因素进行回顾性多因素分析.结果 229例中,早期死亡15例,病死率6.55%.术前肺动脉压分级、手术时间和肺高压危象对充血性肺动脉高压患者术后近期死亡的影响差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).且均是影响患者术后近期死亡的危险因素.结论 术前肺动脉压分级、手术时间和肺高压危象是充血性肺动脉高压患者心脏外科手术术后近期死亡的危险因素.%Objective To evaluate the risk factors of the short-term outcome of surgical treatment of left to right shunt congenital heart disease with congestive pulmonary arterial hypertension through regressive multivariate analysis in the past ten years.Methods 229 cases of L-RCHD with congestive PAH who underwent surgical treatment were eligible for entry into the study.Results In the group 15 cases died and the early mortality was 6.55%.Effects of preoperative pulmonary arterial systolic pressure classification,operation time and pulmonary hypertensive crisis were statistically significant on the early death of L-RCHD with congestive PAH after surgical treatment (P<0.05).Conclnsion Preoperative pulmonary arterial systolic pressure classification,operation time and pulmonary hypertensive crisis are risk factors of postoperative early death of L-RCHD with congestive PAH.

  5. Surgical treatment of ventricular septal defect with pulmonary hypertension in infants younger than 1 yearold%1岁以下婴儿室间隔缺损伴肺动脉高压的外科治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许刚; 张镜芳; 庄建; 陈欣欣; 陈寄梅; 岑坚正

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨婴儿室间隔缺损(VSD)伴肺动脉高压(PH)外科治疗的结果和经验。方法对60例1岁以下婴儿室缺伴肺高压的手术治疗进行总结。年龄2~11个月,平均(6.23±2.60)个月,体重3~10 kg,平均(5.50±1.26)kg。术前中度以上肺高压53例(88.8%)。结果全组手术死亡3例(5%),手术死亡的主要原因是肺动脉高压危象和急性心包填塞。术后主要并发症为肺动脉高压危象,术后出血和肺部感染。结论婴儿室缺伴肺高压应尽早手术治疗。术前、术后支持疗法,术中加强心肌保护、提高手术技巧,术后注意呼吸、循环监测,加强呼吸道管理,防治可能出现的并发症是手术治疗成功的关键。%Objective To review the experience of surgical treatment of ventricular septal defect (VSD) with pulmonary hypertension (PH) in infants younger than 1 year old.Methods 60 infants with VSD+PH received operations. Their ages ranged from 2 to 11 months[(6.23±2.60) months]. The mean body weight was [(5.50±1.26)kg]. 53 patients (88.8%) had moderate or severe pulmonary hypertension before operation.Results Three patients died after operation. The operative mortality was 5%. The main reasons were pulmonary hypertensive crisis and acute cardiac tamponade. The main complications were pulmonary hypertensive crisis, bleeding and pulmonary infection. Conclusion Surgical treatment of VSD with PH in infants may have a satisfactory outcome. The improvement of surgical techniques and proper perioperative management are important factors influencing surgical outcome.

  6. Evaluation of pulmonary hypertension and surgical therapeutic effects using radionuclide pulmonary perfusion imaging in patients with pulmonary hypertension of valvular heart disease%核素肺灌注显像对瓣膜性心脏病合并肺动脉高压病人的手术疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘世伟; 胡盛寿; 许建屏; 王巍; 王雪梅; 柳枫; 冯钧; 何卓祥; 苏文君

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate pulmonary hypertension(PH) and surgical therapeutic effects using radionuclide pulmonary perfusion imaging in patients of valvular heart disease. Methods And material 115 patients accumulated with valvular disease were included from May 2001 to August 2007. Echocardiography and first-pass radionuclide pulmonary perfusion imaging(FPPPI) were performed in all patients before surgery,7days after surgery and 3 months after surgery(33cases). Patients were divided into four groups. Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) is normal group[mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP)≤20mm Hg(1 mm Hg =0. 133 kPa)]; PAP slightly rise group[20 mm Hg 50 mm Hg]. Results Lung Equilibrium Time (LET)by FPPPI were(18.87 ± 4.80) s, (26. 17 ± 7.09) s, (38.48 ± 7.09) s and (54.59 ± 7.96) s in this four groups before surgery. LET were 17.58 ±4.52, 21.51 ±6.44, 23.94 ±5.85, 27.29 ±6.70 in this four groups 7 days after surgery (P<0.001). There were no siguificantly differences of LET in 33 cases 3 months after surgery compared with those of 7 days after surgery. Conclusion Pulmonary arterial pressure siguificantly decreased 7 days after surgery in patients with PH of valvular heart disease, especially in those of slightly and moderate rise groups. FPPPI is an accuracy method in evaluating surgical therapeutic effects in valvular heart disease.%目的 探讨采用首次通过法核素肺灌注显像、通过放射性时间-计数曲线方法了解瓣膜性心脏病合并有肺动脉高压(PH)手术前、后肺动脉压力的变化规律的价值.方法 115例二尖瓣病变为主的瓣膜性心脏病病人均行瓣膜置换或成形术治疗.所有病人在手术前,手术后7天行核素肺灌注显像检查,33例在术后3个月进行第3次复查.另选10名健康者,测其肺循环平均时间(LET)作为正常对照组.结果 与术前相比,术后7天LET明显降低(P<0.001).33例术后3个月的LET与术后7天差异虽无统计学意义,但LET仍

  7. Is surgical treatment of cancer of the gastric cardia or esophagus associated with a concurrent major pulmonary operation feasible?One center's experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-xin; LIU Tong-lin; WANG Pei; LI Jian

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary complications are a major cause of mortality after operation for cancer of the gastric cardia or esophagus.Although the risk involved in gastric cardiectomy or esophagectomy associated with a concurrent major pulmonary operation is expected to be much higher,it has seldom been evaluated on the basis of clinical experience.The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility and feasibility of the gastric cardiectomy or esophagectomy associated with a major pulmonary operation.Methods From August 2003 to January 2011,14 patients underwent concurrent gastric cardiectomy or esophagectomy and a major pulmonary operation in our hospital.This included eight for pulmonary invasion of esophageal carcinoma,and six for synchronous lung tumor.All patients underwent systematic lymph node dissection for cardiac or esophageal cancer.To prevent postoperative complications,the operative approach and dissection procedures for cardiac or esophageal carcinoma were modified according to the associated pulmonary operation and the extent of cancer invasion.All thoracotomies for cardiectomy or esophagectomy were performed on the same side as the major pulmonary operation.Results All patients underwent a curative operation.There were no deaths or postoperative complications in the six synchronous lung tumor patients.In the eight pulmonary invasion patients,one patient died of respiratory failure 11 days after operation,and postoperative complications developed in four of them,but none was fatal.Six patients were still alive.Conclusions Curative gastric cardiectomy or esophagectomy associated with concurrent major pulmonary operation is not contraindicated in patients in good condition.In selected patients,when the operative procedures for cardiectomy or esophagectomy are appropriately modified to minimize the effect of the associated pulmonary operation,the treatment is associated with a low operative morbidity and mortality with an acceptable long-term survival.

  8. Integrated Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT Compared to Standard Contrast-Enhanced CT for Characterization and Staging of Pulmonary Tumors Eligible for Surgical Resection

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    Quaia, E.; Tona, G.; Gelain, F.; Lubin, E.; Pizzolato, R.; Boscolo, E.; Bussoli, L. (Dept. of Radiology, Cattinara Hospital, Univ. of Trieste, Trieste (Italy))

    2008-11-15

    Background: Accurate staging is necessary to determine the appropriate therapy in patients with lung cancer. Few studies have compared integrated fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and contrast-enhanced CT in the characterization and staging of pulmonary tumors considered eligible for surgical resection. Purpose: To compare 18F-FDG PET/CT with standard contrast-enhanced CT for the diagnosis and staging of lung neoplasms eligible for surgical resection. Material and Methods: Seventy-six consecutive patients (56 male, 20 female; mean age+-SD, 63.4+-20 years) with 84 pulmonary tumors suspected for malignancy and considered eligible for surgical resection were prospectively enrolled. Seventy-three malignant (65 non-small-cell lung carcinomas, one small-cell lung cancer, two carcinoids, and five metastases) and 11 benign lung tumors (three hamartomas, two sarcoidosis, one amyloidosis, one Wegener granulomatosis, one tuberculosis, and three areas of scarring) were finally diagnosed by histology. Tumor staging was based on the revised American Joint Committee on Cancer. Results: In lesion characterization, the sensitivity and specificity of 18F-FDG PET/CT versus contrast-enhanced CT were 90% vs. 83% and 18% vs. 63% (P<0.05, McNemar test), respectively. In nodal staging, the sensitivity and specificity of 18F-FDG PET/CT versus contrast-enhanced CT were 78% vs. 46% and 80% vs. 93% (P<0.05), respectively. Conclusion: In patients with lung neoplasms considered eligible for surgical resection, 18F-FDG PET/CT versus contrast-enhanced CT revealed higher sensitivity in nodal staging, but lower specificity both in lesion characterization and nodal staging.

  9. Pulmonary edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  10. 非小细胞肺癌伴对侧肺内结节的外科治疗%Surgical treatment of non - small cell lung cancer with contralateral pulmonary nodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡涛; 晏大学; 王青涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnosis and therapeutic strategy of non - small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) with contralateral pulmonary nodules.Methods A total of 24 NSCLC patients with contralateral pulmonary nodules were given surgical treatments.Adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy were performed after the operation.All the patients were followed up for 14 to 21 months.Results Among the 24 cases, six nodules were found to be primary or metastatic tumor.The size of nodules, the stage and type of primary lung cancer were not associated with the nature of nodules.Conclusion NSCLC with contralateral pulmonary nodule is not a contraindication to surgical treatment when the definite pathological results cannot be achieved.%目的 探讨非小细胞肺癌伴对侧肺结节的诊断及治疗.方法 24例获明确诊断的非小细胞肺癌患者伴对侧肺结节,均接受手术治疗,术后辅助放、化疗,并定期跟踪随访14~21个月.结果 24例患者中,其中6例有原发或转移癌;肺结节的大小,原发癌的病理类型和分期与结节性质之间无联系.结论 非小细胞肺癌患者伴对侧肺结节,如果不能取得病理学诊断,也并非是手术的禁忌证.

  11. 外翻式门静脉血栓切除术在肝移植术中的应用%Application of eversion embolectomy for portal vein thrombosis on liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘澄; 史源; 邓永林; 郑虹; 朱志军; 沈中阳

    2009-01-01

    Objective To discuss the technical improvement of the conventional thrombectomy for portal vein thrombosis(PVT) on liver transplantation.Methods The clinical data of 198 cases of liver transplantation with PVT who admitted in Tianjin First Central Hospital were analyzed retrospectively.According to the different treatments for PVT,these cases were divided into group A and group B.The conventional eversion embolectomy were performed in group A (n=43) and the improved eversion embolectomy were performed in group B (n=155).The general conditions,blood loss volumes,the achievement ratio of embolectomy,PVT recurrence rate and survival rate between the two groups were compared.Results No statistical significance on operation time between two groups (P>0.05);the achievement ratio of embolectomy for Yerdel Ⅰ -Ⅱ were 100% in two groups,however,the achievement ratio of embolectomy for Yerdel Ⅲ in group B was higher than that of group A (100% vs.45.45%;X~2=12.38,P0.05).While thrombosis recurrent rate of Yerdel Ⅲ PVT in group B was lower than that of group A (5.6% vs.2/5; X~2=4.09,P0.05).Conclusions Improved eversion embolectomy can simplify the operation procedures,reduce blood loss,expand application range,increase the embolectomy success rate,decrease the PVT relapse rate.%目的 探讨肝移植术中门静脉血栓切除技术的改进.方法 回顾性分析天津市第一中心医院移植外科收治的合并门静脉血栓(PVT)的198例肝移植患者的临床资料,根据术中PVT的处理方法不同分为两组:A组为常规外翻式门静脉血栓切除术组(n=43),B组为不切断PVT的外翻式门静脉血栓切除术组(n=155).分别比较两组患者术中一般情况、失血量、血栓切除成功率、PVT复发率及患者生存情况等指标.结果 两组手术时间无明显差异(P>0.05).两组Yerdel Ⅰ级及Ⅱ级患者血栓切除成功率均为100%;B组中Yerdel Ⅲ级患者血栓切除成功率较A组高(100%比45.4%;X~2=12.38,P0.05),

  12. [Acute arterial ischemia due to tumor embolism after pulmonary resection: report of two cases and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Hammami, S; Smati, B; Djilani-Horchani, H; Kilani, T

    2000-01-01

    From january 1984 to december 1999 we operate in our institution, 465 patients affected by lung cancer. In the early post-operative period we observe two arterial peripheral embolic events. Treatment consist in surgical embolectomy by Fogarty probe under femoral way. We don't observe post-operative complications or any functional sequelae. For the two patients tumoral character of the embolism was confirmed this work confirm the need of pre-operative precautions to avoid this complication that way be severe when in diagnosed or treated lately.

  13. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty: a treatment option for inoperable patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko eOgawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, stenoses or obstructions of the pulmonary arteries due to organized thrombi can cause an elevation in pulmonary artery resistance, which in turn can result in pulmonary hypertension. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension can be cured surgically by pulmonary endarterectomy; however, patients deemed unsuitable for pulmonary endarterectomy due to lesion, advanced age, or comorbidities have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Recently, advances have been made in balloon pulmonary angioplasty for these patients, and this review highlights this recent progress.

  14. Pulmonary thromboembolism following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with preexisting risk factors for deep venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna A Goswami

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a forty-five year old male who was admitted fifteen days prior with biliary pancreatitis. He developed pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE after uneventful laparoscopic cholecystec-tomy. He was initially treated with intravenous (IV heparin and inferior vena cava (IVC filter. Later on he underwent emergency pulmonary embolectomy due to haemodynamic deterioration. There is less incidence of PTE after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but it becomes high-risk for postoperative thromboembolic complications when it is associated with other risk factors. The purpose of this report is to highlight that preoperative detection of risk factors and thromboprophylaxis in indicated cases can prevent this complication. We also review the incidence of PTE, risk factors and thromboprophylaxis.

  15. 室间隔完整的肺动脉闭锁外科治疗%Surgical treatment of the pulmonary artery atresia with intact ventricular septum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴松; 刘迎龙; 万峰; 闫军; 王强; 范祥明

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical results of hybrid and classic surgical procedure for the management of pulmonary artery atresia with intact ventricular septum (PAA/IVS) in children. Method: Forty children with PAA/IVS were divided into three groups according to the surgical procedure: group Al (n = 7, Z score 0 — 1) were received hybrid procedure with PDA ligation, and group A2 (n = 7, Z score 0——1) were received hybrid procedure and BT shunt with PDA ligation; group Bl (n=ll, Z score —0.5——2.0) were received ROVT reconstruction with PDA ligation, and group B2 (n = 4, Z score 0. 5——2. 0) were received ROVT reconstruction with PDA ligation and BT shunt; group Cl (n=3, Z score —2——3) were received one and a half ventricular repair; group C2 (n = 7, Z score —4——5) were received bi-directional Glenn bypass operation, and group C3 (n=l, Z score —5) were received BT shunt. Result: Five babies (5/40) died (1 from group A, and 4 from group B). The body weight, age, respiratory support time and postoperative hospital stay of babies were less in group A than group B (P<0. 05). Conclusion: In carefully selected babies with PAA/IVS according to the tri-cuspid valve diameter, right ventricular size and coronary anatomy, hybrid procedure is feasible and may represent a new alternative to classic surgery operation.%目的:总结分析40例室间隔完整的肺动脉闭锁(PAA/IVS)患儿的外科治疗,评价其临床疗效,并探讨适当的术式.方法:将40例PAA/IVS患儿根据手术治疗情况分为3组:①“杂交”技术组(14例,A组),包括“杂交”技术+动脉导管未闭(PDA)结扎7例(A1亚组,三尖瓣Z值0~-1)和“杂交”技术+PDA结扎+体肺分流术7例(A2亚组,三尖瓣Z值0~-1);②双心室手术矫治组(15例,B组),包括右室流出道跨环补片+PDA结扎术11例(B1亚组,三尖瓣Z值-0.5~-2.0)和右室流出道跨环补片+PDA结扎+体肺分流术4例(B2亚组,三尖瓣Z值0.5~-2.0)

  16. Quantifying pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular function in surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot: a comparative analysis of echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer-Rosa, Laura; Yang, Wei; Kutty, Shelby; Rychik, Jack; Fogel, Mark; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth

    2012-09-01

    Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot are monitored for pulmonary regurgitation (PR) and right ventricular (RV) function. We sought to compare measures of PR and RV function on echocardiogram to those on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and to develop a new tool for assessing PR by echocardiogram. Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (n=143; 12.5±3.2 years) had an echocardiogram and CMR within 3 months of each other. On echocardiogram, RV function was assessed by (1) Doppler tissue imaging of the RV free wall and (2) myocardial performance index. The ratio of diastolic and systolic time-velocity integrals measured by Doppler of the main pulmonary artery was calculated. CMR variables included RV ejection fraction, RV volumes, and pulmonary regurgitant fraction (RF). Pulmonary regurgitation was graded as mild (RF40%). On CMR, RF was 34+17% and RV ejection fraction was 61+8%. Echocardiography had good sensitivity identifying cases with RF>20% (sensitivity 97%; 95% CI: 92-99%) but overestimated the amount of PR when RFPR in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and warrants further investigation. However, echocardiography continues to have a limited ability to quantify PR and RV function as compared with CMR.

  17. The first rib hypoplasia and the aberrant pulmonary artery branch detected by three-dimensional computed tomography in a surgical case with apical lung cancer, a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yasoo; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Naruke, Masao; Hashizume, Toshinori; Kaseda, Shizuka; Nemoto, Etsuo

    2017-01-11

    The complete resection is one of the most crucial requirements to achieve favorable outcomes in oncologic surgery. The apex of the lung is surrounded complicatedly by the clavicle, the first rib, the subclavian artery and vein, and the brachial plexus. Therefore, the image information especially about the infiltration of adjacent anatomic structures, facilitates the surgery in the apical lung cancer. A 70-year-old man presented at our hospital with a computed tomography (CT) scan showing a tumor at the left lung apex that infiltrated the chest wall. Two anatomical anomalies were found, which were the first rib hypoplasia and the aberrant pulmonary artery branch. The three-dimensional (3D) CT enhanced with using bolus tracking method, simultaneously revealed that the subclavian vessels existed between the clavicle and the second rib, and the left lingual pulmonary artery and the ventrobasal pulmonary artery diverged from the left main pulmonary artery as the first branch. We diagnosed the tumor as a primary lung squamous cell carcinoma that infiltrated the second rib, because sputum cytology suggested squamous cell carcinoma. Left lung upper lobectomy with lymph node dissection and chest wall resection (the second and third ribs) were performed with caution for the anatomical anomalies. The pathological diagnosis was pleomorphic carcinoma (5.0 × 3.0 × 1.9 cm) that invaded the second costal bone, and the pathological stage was confirmed to be pT3N0M0. Pathologically curative resection was accomplished. The patient was discharged from the hospital on 10 days after surgery. The 3D-CT precisely detected the anomalous structure consisted with the clavicle, the second rib, the subclavian artery and vein, the aberrant pulmonary artery branch. In the present case with the apical lung cancer, the evaluation of the anatomical structure via 3D-CT facilitated to achieve a pathological complete resection.

  18. Clinical analysis of surgical treatment for patients with solitary pulmonary nodule(45 cases report)%外科治疗肺孤立性结节45例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈慧松; 陈建乐; 许贤创

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨肺孤立性结节的临床特点和治疗方法.方法:回顾性分析我科2003年1月至2009年5月手术治疗45例肺孤立性结节(直径≤3cm)的临床资料,其中开胸肺叶切除术25例,胸腔镜下肺叶切除5例,肺楔形切除术14例,肺肿瘤摘除术1例.结果:术后病理诊断腺癌13例,鳞癌5例,小细胞癌2例,肺泡细胞癌1例,腺样囊性癌1例,转移性癌3例,结核球或肉芽肿8例,炎性假瘤8例,肺曲菌病3例,硬化性血管瘤1例.所有患者均无严重并发症痊愈出院.结论:肺孤立性结节病因复杂,诊断有一定的困难,恶性病变比例较高,尽早手术是明确诊断和提高治愈率的关键.%Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and surgical management of the solitary pulmonary nodule( SPN). Methods: From January 2003 to May 2009, 45 consecutive patients with SPNs underwent surgical treatment in our department. Of 25 cases underwent lobectomy by thoracotomy, 5 underwent lobectomy , 14 underwent pulmonary wedge resection,one underwent tumour extirpation by VATS. ResultS:The pathological results were adencarcinoma in 13 , squamous carcinoma in 5 , metastasis in 3 , small carcinoma cell in 2, alveolar cell and adenoid cystic carcinoma in 1 respectively. Another 20 were benign. There was no postoperative death. Conclusion: The causes of pulmonary solid nodule are a variety often makes the diagnosis dificult. Being its malignant predominance, surgical aproach as erly as possible is benefit for diagnosis or treatment.

  19. Enoxaparin for the prevention of post-surgical pulmonary embolism%低分子肝素预防外科术后患者的肺栓塞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏锡仪; 金雷; 谭玉林; 孙亚伟; 严国度; 戎亚雄; 任全海; 刘建跃; 徐学忠; 单国平

    2011-01-01

    safety of the administration of enoxaparin,a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH),in the prevention of post surgical deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE).Methods 1 928 patients hospitalized for general surgery were randomly divided into:(① test group (n=960) to receive enoxaparin (40 mg,s.c.,12 hours before and after surgery,then once daily for 7 consecutive days); ② control group (n=968) without intervention.The incidence of DVT,PE and bleeding were recorded for statistical analysis during hospitalization and a 2 months follow-up after discharge.Results ① No significant difference was found between the two groups in age,sex,average body mass index,type of surgery,and DVT/PE risk factors (obesity,varicose veins,and history of:venous thrombosis,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,chronic heart failure,and hormone therapy).The percentage of non-malignant/malignant tumor surgery were 36.5%/63.5% (average operation time 2.3 hours) in control group and 35.6%/64.4% (2.2 hours) in test group (both P>0.05).② During the hospitalization period,59 eases (incidence =6.1 %) of DVT and 14 cases (incidence =1.4 % ) of PE (among them 6 were fetal,42.8% of all PE cases) were found in the control group,while 28 cases of DVT (2.9%) and 3 cases (0.3%) of PE (1 fetal,33.3% of all PE cases) were found in test group.The incidence of DVT,PE (total),and PE (fetal) were significant lower in test group (P< 0.05 or P< 0.01).During the follow-up,14 more cases of DVT (1.4%) and 1 more case (0.1% ) of PE (a fetal) were found in the control group,and 2 more DVT cases (0.2%) in test group,with the DVT incidence in test group significantly lower (P<0.01).(③ During the enoxaparin administration,30 cases (3.1 %) minor bleeding and 8 cases (0.8%) major bleeding were found in the control group,while 33 cases (3.4%) minor bleeding events and 9 cases (0.9%) major bleeding events were found in the test group.The results in the two groups

  20. Ablative Approaches for Pulmonary Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Matthew J; Ricardi, Umberto; Ball, David; Salama, Joseph K

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary metastases are common in patients with cancer for which surgery is considered a standard approach in appropriately selected patients. A number of patients are not candidates for surgery due to a medical comorbidities or the extent of surgery required. For these patients, noninvasive or minimally invasive approaches to ablate pulmonary metastases are potential treatment strategies. This article summarizes the rationale and outcomes for non-surgical treatment approaches, including radiotherapy, radiofrequency and microwave ablation, for pulmonary metastases.

  1. Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy for Pulmonary Hypertension Before Considering Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooperkamp, Hannah; Mehta, Inder; Fary, David; Bates, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: In cases of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), referral for possible surgical intervention is important because surgery can be curative. Surgery necessitates cardiopulmonary bypass and deep circulatory arrest with pulmonary thrombectomy and bilateral endarterectomy (PTE). If surgery fails, lung transplant is the next best surgical option. Medical treatment is also an important adjunct. Case Report: A 35-year-old female presented 3 months after a pulmonary embolus was found to be completely occluding her left pulmonary artery. She was found to have pulmonary hypertension with a pulmonary artery pressure of 81/33 mmHg, with a mean pressure of 52 mmHg. The right atrial pressure was also severely elevated at 29 mmHg, and her echocardiogram revealed severe tricuspid regurgitation and severe right ventricular dysfunction. She underwent PTE and postoperatively was followed by the heart failure team. Her 6-minute walk distance improved from 396 meters at 1 month to 670 meters at 7 months, and her pulmonary artery pressure improved significantly to 55/17 mmHg with a mean pressure of 31 mmHg. The patient's right atrial pressure also improved significantly from 29 mmHg to 13 mmHg. Conclusion: CTEPH is likely underrecognized, and patients with pulmonary hypertension or a history of pulmonary embolism should be screened for CTEPH. This case illustrates the surgical treatment for CTEPH and discusses alternative and adjunctive treatments. Residual pulmonary hypertension after PTE occurs in approximately 35% of patients. Overall, 4-year mortality rates after surgery appear to be approximately 15%, and mortality rates correlate with the postoperative pulmonary vascular resistance. Recognition of chronic pulmonary thromboembolic disease as the etiology of pulmonary hypertension warrants evaluation for surgery.

  2. Surgical treatment and perioperative management of congenital heart disease with severe pulmonary hypertension%先心病合并重度肺动脉高压的手术及相关治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元恒; 张红超; 于鲁峰; 李令珂; 侯迈; 杨军民; 徐金星

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To review the results and methods of surgical treatment and perioperative management of congenital heart disease (CHD) with severe pulmonary hypertension (PH). METHODS: Thirty-six patients (17 males, 19 females, aging from 1-41 years) of congenital heart disease with severe pulmonary hypertension were included in the study, among whom were 9 cases of atrial septal defect and 20 cases of ventricular septal defect. The saturation of artery oxygen ranged from 0.85-0.94 and echocardiograpby showed left to right slow velocity shunt in 23 cases, double direction shunt in 10 cases and no shunt in 3 cases. The pulmonary pressure was 80 to 130 mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), the pulmonary pressure/systemic pressure varied from 0.75-1.0 and the pulmonary resistance was 8-27.2 Wood unit. All the patients were treated with corrective surgery, and one way shunt valve (size 0.5-0.6 cm) from right to left shunt on the repaired patch was created especially for the treatment of extremely severe pulmonary hypertension. The therapy of oxygen inhalation, oral intake of captopril and sildenafil, and intravenous injection of sodium nitroprusside and prostaglandin E1 were routinely administrated perioperatively to reduce pulmonary hyper-tension. Nitric oxide and sildenafil were applied especially for the treatment of extremely severe pulmonary hypertension or pulmonary hypertension crisis. RESULTS: Only one early postoperative death occurred due to low output syndrome, and the other 35 patients were recovered and discharged from the hospital. The 0.5 -7 years follow-up showed that the patients were well recovered with NYHA Ⅰ heart function. CONCLUSION: Satisfactory outcome can be achieved in surgical treatment of CHD with severe pulmonary hypertension by meticulous preoperative analysis of surgical indications, selection of appropriate operative procedures and multiple perioperative therapies.%目的:对36例先心病合并重度肺动脉高压患者手术及综合治疗的经验

  3. Enlarged Right Ventricle Without Shock in Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Paul D.; Beemath, Afzal; Matta, Fadi; Goodman, Lawrence R.; Weg, John G.; Hales, Charles A.; Hull, Russell D.; Leeper, Kenneth V.; Dirk Sostman, H; Woodard, Pamela K.

    2008-01-01

    Background An unsettled issue is use of thrombolytic agents in patients with acute pulmonary embolism who are hemodynamically stable, but have right ventricular enlargement. Purpose To assess in-hospital mortality of hemodynamically stable patients with pulmonary embolism and right ventricular enlargement. Methods Patients were enrolled in the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis II (PIOPED II). Exclusions included shock, critically ill, ventilatory support, myocardial infarction within 1 month, or ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation within 24 hours. We evaluated the ratio of the right ventricular minor axis to the left ventricular minor axis measured on transverse images during computed tomographic angiography. Results Among 76 patients with right ventricular enlargement treated with anticoagulants and/or inferior vena cava filters, in–hospital deaths from pulmonary embolism were 0 of 76 (0%) and all-cause mortality was 2 of 76 (2.6%). No septal motion abnormality was observed in 49 (64%), septal flattening in 25 (33%) and septal deviation in 2 (3%). None required ventilatory support, vasopressor therapy, rescue thrombolytic therapy, or catheter embolectomy. There were no in-hospital deaths due to pulmonary embolism. There was no difference in all-cause mortality comparing patients with and without right ventricular enlargement (relative risk = 1.04) Conclusion In-hospital prognosis is good in patients with pulmonary embolism and right ventricular enlargement if not in shock, acutely ill, on ventilatory support, recent myocardial infarction or life threatening arrhythmia. Right ventricular enlargement alone in patients with pulmonary embolism, therefore, does not appear to indicate a poor prognosis or an indication for thrombolytic therapy. PMID:18187071

  4. Three cases of pulmonary varix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takishima, Teruo; Sakuma, Hajime; Tajima, Tsunemi; Okimoto, Takao; Yamamoto, Keiichiro; Dohi, Yutaka (Saitama Medical School (Japan))

    1982-06-01

    Three cases of pulmonary varix associated with valvular heart disease were reported. Round shadows were clearer on first oblique or lateral films of chest x-ray in all 3 cases. On chest tomograms, the shadows were substantial and round-elliptical. RI angiography with sup(99m)Tc-RBC demonstrated these shadows in agreement with the site of influx of the pulmonary vein into the left atrium in Cases 1 and 3 and with the pulmonary vein slightly apart from the left atrium in Case 2. On CT scans in Cases 1 and 3, enhancement with a contrast medium visualized dilatation of the pulmonary vein close to, and in continuation with, the shadow of the left atrium. The diagnosis of pulmonary varix in agreement with the venous phase of pulmonary angiography was made for all 3 cases. Non-surgical examinations (especially CT scan) proved highly useful for the diagnosis of pulmonary varix.

  5. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ray High-resolution CT scan of the chest Pulmonary function tests Open lung biopsy (surgical biopsy) Treatment Treatment involves washing out the protein substance from the lung (whole-lung lavage) from time to time. Some persons may need a lung ... References Levine SM. ...

  6. Alterações da função pulmonar após tratamento cirúrgico de cardiopatias congênitas com hiperfluxo pulmonar Changes in pulmonary function after surgical treatment of congenital heart disease with pulmonary hyperflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Goraieb

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Análise das condições pulmonares dos pacientes no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca pediátrica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o comportamento da complacência pulmonar e resistência da via aérea nos pacientes portadores de cardiopatias congênitas com hiperfluxo pulmonar, submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico com auxílio de circulação extracorpórea. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se, durante a cirurgia, 35 pacientes com medidas de complacência estática e resistência da via aérea, em quatro instantes distintos. As medidas pulmonares foram feitas de forma não-invasiva, com o método de oclusão da via aérea ao final da inspiração e uso de fórmulas matemáticas específicas. As variáveis observadas e relacionadas às alterações pulmonares foram: no período pré-operatório, idade, peso e relação entre fluxo sangüíneo sistêmico e pulmonar; no intra-operatório, tempos de perfusão, de anóxia e temperatura mínima; no pós-operatório, tempo de ventilação mecânica e de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva. RESULTADOS: Ao final da cirurgia, a complacência pulmonar mostrou aumento significativo imediato (p BACKGROUND: Analysis of pulmonary status of pediatric patients in the postoperative phase of cardiac surgery. OBJECTIVE: To assess pulmonary compliance and airway resistance in patients with congenital heart disease and pulmonary hyperflow submitted to surgical treatment with the use of extracorporeal circulation. METHODS: Thirty-five patients were evaluated during surgery with measurements of static compliance and airway resistance at four different timepoints. Pulmonary measurements were performed non-invasively using end-inspiratory airway occlusion and specific mathematical formulas. The variables examined and related to pulmonary changes were: preoperative - age, weight, and relationship between systemic and pulmonary blood flow; intraoperative - perfusion times, anoxia times and minimum temperature; postoperative

  7. Surgical treatment for congeaital pulmonary vein stenosis combined with other cardiac malformations%先天性心脏畸形合并肺静脉狭窄的外科治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴向阳; 陶凉; 朱洁; 周丹; 庾华东; 刘燕; 祁明

    2009-01-01

    Objective Pulmonnary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare congenital disease. It leads to progressive pulmonary hyperten-sion and heart failure with a high mortality. PVS may be isolated or asaseiated with other cardiac malformtions. There were few litera- tores regarding surgical treatmenta and the timing for intervention. The aim of this article is to summarize the surgical treatment for PVS combined with other cardiac malformations. Methods Five patients were diagnosed as PVS. The accompanied cardiac malformations were: xtrocordia(n = 1), patent duetus arteriosuss(n = 2), ventricular septal defect(n = 4), atrial septal defect(n = 2), double- chambered right ventricle(n = 1), pulmonary arterial stenosis (n = 1), tricuspid valve insufficiency(n= 2), partial anomalous pulmo- nary venous connection(n = 1), persistent left superior vena cava(n = 1). The mean age was(8.5 4± 6.4) years. The mean body weight was(15.2 ± 6.3) kg. The mean gradient pressure through the stenotie pulmonary veins was(22.0 ± 6.2) mmHg. Nine stenotic pulmonary veins wore found, including 6 cristal stenosises located at venoatrial junetiom and 3 tubular stauosises outside of the lung. The surgical procedures included eristal stenosis ring resection (n=6) and two of them repaired additionally by "longitudinally open and transeversoly suture of the endomembrane" plasty method. Pulmonary veins repair used auto-pericardium (n= 1) and unitization of neighbonring pulmonary veins(n = 1), etc. Remits Cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp time were(129.2 ± 74.6) and (74.24±39.1) rain, respectively. All the petients had a satisfying honmdynmnic aud no death happened. The mean length of hos- pital stay after operation was (10±3) days. Follow-up waa completed in a duration of 6 month - 3 years. There was a trace residual shunt of VSD and PDA and Ⅱ degree auriculo-ventricular block happened in one patient. Residual stenosis was found by color ulltra- sonograph in a cristal stenosis case, whose

  8. Pulmonary embolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood clot - lung; Embolus; Tumor embolus; Embolism - pulmonary; DVT-pulmonary embolism; Thrombosis - pulmonary embolism ... area). This type of clot is called a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) . The blood clot breaks off and travels ...

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Charles Marinus; Mellemkjær, Søren; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an important differential diagnosis in patients with unexplained dyspnoea. CTEPH is under-recognized and carries a poor prognosis without treatment. Surgical pulmonary endarterectomy is the preferred treatment for the majority of patients...

  10. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  11. Perioperative oxygen fraction - effect on surgical site infection and pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery: a randomized clinical trial. Rationale and design of the PROXI-Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyhoff, Christian Sylvest; Wetterslev, Jørn; Jorgensen, Lars N;

    2008-01-01

    A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction may reduce the risk of surgical site infections, as bacterial eradication by neutrophils depends on wound oxygen tension. Two trials have shown that a high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO(2) = 0.80) significantly reduced risk...... complications, such as atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure. The aim of our trial is to assess the potential benefits and harms of a high perioperative oxygen fraction in patients undergoing abdominal surgery....

  12. Surgical treatment of emphysema with pulmonary bulla under thoracoscope:clinical analysis of 32 cases%胸腔镜手术治疗肺气肿合并肺大疱32例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴韶华; 聂弘; 黄文军; 高从容

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of surgical treatment of emphysema with pulmonary bulla under thoracoscope and summarize the experience of perioperative management.Methods Clinical data of 32 patients with pulmonary emphysema from January 2011 to December 2014 were analyzed, who had undergone thoracoscopic assisted pulmonary bullectomy and LVRS,including unilaterally in 22 cases and VATS in 10.Results There was no operative death.All the patients were cured after the operation.The supportive ventilation time was 4~20h.Postoperative complications included asthma in 12 cases, pul-monary edema in 2,rapid atrial fibrillation in 4,and SVT in 1.Conclusion Pulmonary bullectomy combined with LVRS shows significant clinical benefits for the selected patients with pulmonary emphysema and has lower perioperative mortality.It can improve respiratory function and symptomatic relief.Operative skill is more important during the operation.Better perioperative management may cut down postoperative complications.%目的:总结胸腔镜手术治疗肺气肿合并肺大疱的手术指征掌握、手术要点、围术期处理经验,以提高手术疗效,减少术后并发症。方法回顾性分析我院2011年1月-2014年12月32例肺气肿合并肺大疱在胸腔镜下行肺大疱切除加肺减容术患者的指征掌握、手术技巧及术后处理等。32例中22例单侧肺大疱手术者10例为全电视胸腔镜手术( VATS),12例为电视胸腔镜辅助第四或第五肋间小切口手术;10例双侧肺大疱者均为双侧分期(间隔3~9个月)手术,一期手术均为电视胸腔镜辅助小切口,二期手术均为全胸腔镜手术。结果全组无死亡病例,均痊愈出院。术后住院时间10~30 d;8例带气管插管回ICU,呼吸机辅助呼吸时间4~20 h;术后带胸引管时间7~21 d;围术期12例哮喘发作,2例发作肺水肿;4例发作快速房颤,1例室上性心动过速。结论慢性阻塞性肺气肿

  13. 连枷胸伴肺挫伤92例外科治疗体会%Surgical Treatment of 92 Cases of Flail Chest with Pulmonary Contusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李谦平; 张军; 王建军; 郭海周

    2012-01-01

    [Objcctivc]To summarize the clinical experience of severe flail chest with pulmonary contusion after thoracic trauma. [McthodsJClinical data of 92 patients with flail chest and pulmonary contusion in our hospital from January 2006 to June 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. Among them, 52 patients underwent surgery including lung repair, hematoma clearance and the internal fixation of key fractured rib with memory alloy encircling comprcssivc connector. The clinical efficacy was compared between surgery group and non-surgery group( n =40). [Results! All patients were cured and followed up for 3 to 6 months without death patients. Thoracic deformity, length of stay, the duration of antibiotic use, ICU stay and moderate to severe pain in surgery group were significantly lower than those in non-surgery group. In surgery group, thoracic stability increased and abnormal breathing was obviously cured. [ConclusionJIntcrnal fixation of key fractured rib with memory alloy encircling comprcssivc connector for the treatment of flail chest and pulmonary contusion can decrease the complications and is benefit for rapid rehabilitation of patients.%[目的]总结重症胸外伤连枷胸伴肺挫伤的临床经验.[方法] 回顾分析2006年1月至2011年6月期间在本院诊治的连枷胸伴肺挫伤92例,其中通过手术进行肺修补,胸腔血肿清除,同时应用记忆合金环抱式接骨板对重点肋骨骨折行内固定等治疗的52例,与同期非手术组40例比较,比较其临床疗效.[结果] 随访3~6个月,所有病例均治愈,全组无死亡病例.手术组胸廓畸形率、住院时间、抗生素使用时间、ICU住院时间、中度以上的疼痛、呼吸支持天数、肺部感染率均明显低于非手术组(P<0.05,P<0.01).[结论]应用记忆合金环抱式接骨板行重点部位肋骨骨折内固定治疗连枷胸伴肺挫伤,可以减少并发症,有利于患者的快速康复.

  14. The diagnosis and surgical treatment of 11 cases of pediatric aortic origin of the right pulmonary artery%儿童右肺动脉异常起源于主动脉的诊断与外科治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘辉立; 张健群; 罗毅; 王胜洵; 李温斌; 周其文

    2009-01-01

    目的 评价儿童右肺动脉异常起源于主动脉(aortic origin of the right pulmonary artery,AORPA)的治疗方法及效果,并探讨AORPA的诊断与鉴别诊断方法.方法 回顾性分析1993年5月至2007年7月11例儿童AORPA术前诊断及手术治疗的围术期疗效及中长期随访结果.分别采用右肺动脉经人工血管(2例)或同种主动脉(2例)与主肺动脉吻合术、体外循环下右肺动脉与主肺动脉直接吻合术(3例)、体外循环下(主动脉环及肺动脉环片)双片法右肺动脉与主肺动脉吻合术(2例)、非体外循环下右肺动脉经人工血管与主肺动脉吻合术(2例).结果 11例中10例术前确诊,1例术前漏诊而在术中发现.5例通过右室造影及主动脉造影或多排CT/MRI检查确诊,6例单纯超声心动图检查患儿中确诊5例,1例漏诊.11例手术患儿围术期死亡2例.术后随访2.2~13年,1例于术后4年死于右心功能衰竭.生存8例患儿术后超声心动图复查射血分数(EF)值43%~52%,心功能I级5例,Ⅱ级3例.结论 右室造影及主动脉造影或多排CT/MRI检查可减少漏诊率.手术是治疗AORPA的有效方法,但应尽早手术以进一步提高手术疗效.应用自体组织加宽加长右肺动脉可减少吻合口狭窄的可能性.%Objective To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of pediatric aortic origin of the right pulmonary artery(AORPA)by surgical procedures,and to explore the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of AORPA.Methods Between May 1993 and March 2007,the preoperative diagnosis,perioperative therapeutic effects and results of mid or long term follow-up of 11 cases with AORPA who were diagnosed in Anzhen Hospital were retrospectively analyzed.Eleven patients underwent 4 different surgical procedures as follows:direct anastomosis of right pulmonary artery(RPA)and main pulmonary artery(MPA)under cardiopulmonary bypass(3 cases),double flap technique of anastomosis of RPA and MPA under cardiopulmonary bypass(2 cases

  15. Tratamento cirúrgico da embolia pulmonar crônica: análise da experiência inicial Surgical treatmentent of chronic pulmonary embolism: analisys of initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio B Jatene

    1995-06-01

    undetermined number of patients (pts with chronic pulmonary embolism (PE the incomplete resolution of the embolic material may result in a severe pulmonary hypertension. The pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is an option, specially when the obstruction is proximal and the patient presents failure of the clinical treatment. Many surgical techniques have been used, but the utilized sternotomy, extracorporeal circulation and hypothermic circulatory arrest presented best results. Until January 95,15 pts with PE were operated upon. The pulmonary angiography showed pulmonary embolism at both lungs in 66.7% of the cases. Sternotomy was realized in 73.3%. Endarterectomy by retrograde traction of thrombus was used in these pts. Extracorporeal circulation was utilized in all pts, with medium time of 124.8 min. In 66.7% of the cases hypothermic circulatory arrest was realized with medium time of 34.2 min. The pulmonary artery pressure was 91/32/55 mmHg in the pre and presented reduction by 52/15/ 27 mmHg in the postoperative period. One hospitalar death due to coagulopathy, and one later death due to complications not related to surgery were registered. Of the 13 survivors, 1 (7.7% presented reobstruction and 12 (92.3% had good evolution and now are free of symptoms, with oral anticoagulation in a period of until 165 months (47mo. In conclusion, the pulmonary thromboendarterectomy realized by sternotomy and with help of the hypothermic circulatory arrest is a safe procedure for resolution of pulmonary embolus and symptoms, and maintenance of the results at longterm follow-up.

  16. 血液病合并侵袭性肺部真菌感染的外科治疗%Surgical treatment of invasive pulmonary fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛锦峰; 马晓; 郑世营; 蒋东; 马海涛

    2014-01-01

    目的 总结血液病合并侵袭性肺部真菌感染的外科治疗经验.方法 2000年1月至2012年12月,共收治血液病合并侵袭性肺部真菌感染的病患78例,其中男49例,女29例,平均29.6岁.所有患者术前全部接受过相应方案化疗,疗程1~3次不等,平均抗真菌治疗时间4周.58例患者选择常规开胸手术,其中实施肺段切除者2例,肺叶切除者39例,单纯病灶楔形切除者17例;20例患者选择微创胸腔镜手术,其中全腔镜或腔镜辅助下肺叶切除者15例,单纯病灶楔形切除者5例.结果 所有患者皆顺利完成手术,平均手术时间(125.3 ±35.7) min、术中失血(253.1±42.8)ml.术后无严重并发症,渗血超过1 000 ml者8例,持续漏气大于7天者6例.外科住院时间(7.8±2.5)天,无术后30天再手术及死亡病例.随访6~ 24个月,术后预防性抗真菌治疗者38例,无真菌扩散或复发者.结论 血液病并发肺部真菌感染的患者,在内科保守治疗无效时,选择积极的外科手术治疗是安全且有益的.%Objective To summarise the experience of surgical treatment of invasive pulmonary fungal infection in patients with hematologic malignancies.Methods From Jan.2000 to Dec.2012,78 hematologic patients with invasive pulmonary fungal infections,including 49 males and 29 females with average age of 29.6 years,underwent surgical treatment.Preoperatively,all patients with 1 to 3 courses of chemotherapy had received average 4 weeks antifungal treatment.There were 58 cases received conventional open thoracic surgery and 20 cases received VATS including lobectomy,segmentectomy,wedgectomy.Results The procedures were successful,the average operation time w as(125.3 ± 35.7) min and intraoperative blood loss was(253.1 ± 42.8) nl.There were no severe postoperative complications.The main complications were excessive effusion (10.2%) and persistence airleak (7.7%).The hospital days was(7.8 ± 2.5) days,no reoperation and death case in 30 days

  17. Dúvidas na indicação cirúrgica da cerclagem do tronco pulmonar Questions regarding surgical indications in pulmonary artery banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gregori Jr

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de fevereiro de 1979 a março de 1986 foram submetidos a cerclagem do TP 40 pacientes portadores de cardiopatias congênitas com hiperíluxo pulmonar, insuficiência cardíaca e hipodesenvolvimento ponderal. Vinte e três pacientes eram do sexo masculino e 17 do feminino com idade média de 6 meses (20 dias a 17 meses. Foram as seguintes as malformações: CIV (22 casos, AVC total (6, DVSVD (2, TA (2, TGVB (3, AT (2, VU (1 e cardiopatia complexa (2 casos. A cerclagem foi realizada com controle de pressão do TP de tal forma a reduzí-la de 50% nos acianóticos e de 40% nos cianóticos. Dois pacientes (5% faleceram no pós-operatório imediato, sendo um em bloqueio A-V total (AVC, 1, 7 kg, 20 dias de idade e outro em septicemia, 20 dias após a cirurgia (CIV. Um óbito tardio ocorreu por broncopneumonia. Os demais pacientes evoluíram satisfatoriamente, com resolução da ICC e ganho de peso em média 400g por mês (peso pré: média 4 kg, peso pós: média 7,5 kg. Treze pacientes foram reestudados, hemodinamicamente, em média 21 meses após a cerclagem. A relação FP/FS reduziu de 2,7 para 0,92, ao mesmo tempo em que houve diminuição também na relação PSAP/PSAo de 0,73 para 0,28. Nestes pacientes houve uma melhora clínica observada pela diminuição do déficit ponderal de 38 por cento, para 20 por cento. Treze pacientes foram submetidos a correção total em média 21 meses após a cerclagem, com dois óbitos hospitalares, sendo um imediato e outro por intoxicação digitálica, 1 mês após a cirurgia. Analisando-se, separadamente, os 6 casos de AVCT, em todos predominava o shunt e não o refluxo valvar. Houve um óbito imediato e 5 pacientes foram reestudados hemodinamicamente. Observou-se redução importante nas pressões pulmonares e no fluxo arterial pulmonar. Estes pacientes foram reoperados para correção total, com boa evolução.From February 1979 to March 1986, 50 patients were submitted to pulmonary artery

  18. Surgical treatment of infra-cardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection in 13 neonates%新生儿心下型完全性肺静脉异位引流的外科治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇航; 衣慧; 温志杰; 洪小杨; 王辉; 王刚; 于文文; 封志纯; 周更须

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of urgent surgical correction for infra-cardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection(TAPVC)in neonates.Methods From October 2009 to Janu-ary 2015,13 patients with infra-cardiac TAPVC received surgical correction.The age of patients ranged from 6 to 28 days[(15.08 ±7.42)days],the body weight ranged from 2.5 to 4.8 kg [(3.34 ±0.67)kg].A median sternotomy was performed.Continuous cardiopulmonary bypass using bicaval cannulation with aortic cross-clamping and mild systemic hypothermia were used in all patients.Bi-atrial incision technique making anastomosis between the posterior left atrial wall and the vertical vein were employed in 3 cases.In the other 10 cases,the heart was elevated upward and to the right to expose the anomalous descending vertical vein to facilitate the anastomosis between the posterolateral left atrial wall and vertical vein.Results Emergent or subemergent operations were performed in all patients without surgical death.In the early stage after opera-tion,delayed sternal closure was employed in 1 1 patients,pulmonary hypertension crisis occurred in 3 pa-tients,small atrial septal defect was kept open for hemodynamic stabilization in 6 patients,temporary cardiac pacemaker for proper heart rate in 3 patients.All patients were uneventfully discharged except 2 patients died of severe low cardiac output syndrome.During the period of follow up,2 patients presented with recurrent pulmonary infection and signs of pulmonary venous obstruction including the increased flow speed at the site of anastomosis.One of 2 patients was lost of follow up and the other patient was uneventfully discharged after the second operation.The rest 9 patients received postoperative follow up for 1 month to 5 years,echocardio-graphy,X ray chest radiography,and electrocardiogram were performed during this period.As a result,all children had good cardiac function and with sinus rhythm on electrocardiogram and apparently reduced pul-monary

  19. Quantitative assessment of right ventricular function and pulmonary regurgitation in surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot using 256-slice CT: comparison with 3-Tesla MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Yuzo; Yonezawa, Masato; Matsuo, Yoshio; Kamitani, Takeshi; Higuchi, Ko; Honda, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Nagao, Michinobu; Kawanami, Satoshi [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamamura, Kenichiro [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Pediatrics, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Sakamoto, Ichiro [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiokawa, Yuichi [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Yabuuchi, Hidetake [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Department of Health Sciences, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    To compare 256-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to assess right ventricular (RV) function and pulmonary regurgitant fraction (PRF) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Thirty-three consecutive patients with repaired TOF underwent retrospective ECG-gated CCT and 3-Tesla CMR. RV and left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF) were measured using CCT and CMR. PRF-CCT (%) was defined as (RVSV - LVSV)/RVSV. PRF-CMR (%) was measured by the phase-contrast method. Repeated measurements were performed to determine intra- and interobserver variability. CCT measurements, including PRF, correlated highly with the CMR reference (r = 0.71-0.96). CCT overestimated RVEDV (mean difference, 17.1 ± 2.9 ml), RVESV (12.9 ± 2.1 ml) and RVSV (4.2 ± 2.0 ml), and underestimated RVEF (-2.6 ± 1.0 %) and PRF (-9.1 ± 2.0 %) compared with CMR. The limits of agreement between CCT and CMR were in a good range for all measurements. The variability in CCT measurements was lower than those in CMR. The estimated effective radiation dose was 7.6 ± 2.6 mSv. 256-slice CCT can assess RV function and PRF with relatively low dose radiation exposure in patients with repaired TOF, but overestimates RV volume and underestimates PRF. (orig.)

  20. Severity assessment of acute pulmonary embolism: evaluation using helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collomb, D.; Paramelle, P.J.; Calaque, O. [Department of Radiology, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Bosson, J.L. [Department of Statistics and Vascular diseases, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Vanzetto, G. [Department of Cardiology, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Barnoud, D. [Department of Medical Intensive Care, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Pison, C. [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, CHU Grenoble, BP 218, 38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Coulomb, M.; Ferretti, G.

    2003-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate the helical CT (HCT) criteria that could indicate severe pulmonary embolism (PE). In a retrospective study, 81 patients (mean age 62 years) with clinical suspicion of PE explored by HCT were studied. The patients were separated into three different groups according to clinical severity and treatment decisions: group SPE included patients with severe PE based on clinical data who were treated by fibrinolysis or embolectomy (n=20); group NSPE included patients with non-severe PE who received heparin (n=30); and group WPE included patients without PE (n=31). For each patient we calculated a vascular obstruction index based on the site of obstruction and the degree of occlusion in the pulmonary artery. We noted the HCT signs, i.e., cardiac and pulmonary artery dimensions, that could indicate acute cor pulmonale. According to multivariate analysis, factors significantly correlated with the severity of PE were: the vascular obstruction index (group SPE: 54%; group NSPE: 24%; p<0.001); the maximum minor axis of the left ventricle (group SPE: 30.2 mm; group NSPE: 40.4 mm; p<0.001); the diameter of the central pulmonary artery (group SPE: 32.4 mm; group NSPE: 28.3 mm; p<0.001); the maximum minor axis of the right ventricle (group SPE: 47.5 mm; group NSPE: 42.7 mm; p=0.029); the right ventricle/left ventricle minor axis ratio (group SPE: 1.63; group NSPE: 1.09; p<0.0001). Our data suggest that hemodynamic severity of PE can be assessed on HCT scans by measuring four main criteria: the vascular obstruction index; the minimum diameter of the left ventricle; the RV:LV ratio; and the diameter of the central pulmonary artery. (orig.)

  1. THROMBOENDARTERECTOMY FOR CHRONIC PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Ren; Pi-xiong Su; Chao-ji Zhang; Song Gu; Heng Zhang; Chen Wang

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the improving reliability and safety of thromboendarterectomy and perioperative management for chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. Methods The clinical data of 12 cases with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, who underwent thromboendarterec tomy assisted by low flow or circulation arrest with deep hypothermia, were reviewed retrospectively. Results Pulmonary artery pressure decreased 20 to 40 mmHg immediately after surgical procedures in 9 cases. The postoperative pulmonary edema at various degrees happened in 12 cases, among them, 1 died of severe lung infection and pulmonary re-embolism at 19 days postoperation. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography and angiography of 11 cases indicated that the original obstruction of pulmonary artery disappeared. During the follow-up period of 2 months to 5 years, the clinical symptoms and activity was improved. Conclusion Thromboendarterectomy is an effective treatment for chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. The outcome of the surgical procedure needs to be further investigated and followed up regularly according to an evaluative system, because it might be influenced by multiple factors.

  2. Surgical Assisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Insert and remove Foley urinary bladder catheter Place pneumatic tourniquet Confirm procedure with surgeon Drape patient within ... Technology and Surgical Assisting (NBSTSA) offers the CertifiedSurgical First Assistant (CSFA) credential, and the National Surgical Assistant ...

  3. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    effect on postoperative pulmonary function in the sitting or standing position compared with the supine. Thus, avoidance of the supine position may improve postoperative pulmonary function. Three of six studies showed a positive effect on postoperative pulmonary function of the lateral side compared......BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed...... with the supine. Thus, the lateral position has limited effects on pulmonary function. CONCLUSION: Changes of postoperative position from supine to sitting or standing are of major importance in the interpretation of postoperative pulmonary outcome studies and in future strategies to improve pulmonary outcome....

  4. One-stage Surgical Correction of Aortic Coarctation Complicated With Aortic Arch Hypoplasia by Autologous Pulmonary Artery Patch%自体肺动脉补片一期矫治主动脉缩窄伴主动脉弓发育不良

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王显悦; 毕生辉; 童光; 董文鹏; 王晓武; 梁爱琼; 徐宇; 张卫达

    2014-01-01

      结论:自体肺动脉补片一期矫治主动脉缩窄伴弓发育不良,病变解除良好,并发症少,手术后早中期效果理想。%Objective: To observe the outcomes of one-stage surgical correction of aortic coarctation (COA) complicated with aortic arch hypoplasia by autologous pulmonary artery patch. Methods: A total of 22 COA with aortic arch hypolasia children treated in our hospital from 2009-05 to 2013-05 were summarized. All patients were clearly diagnosed by CTA. All patients received the one-stage surgical correction of aortic coarctation complicated with aortic arch hypoplasia by autologous pulmonary artery patch. The selective low-lfow cerebral perfusion was used during aortic arch procedure and the concomitant cardiac anomalies were corrected during the same surgery. Results: No peri-operative death. There were 6 patients with the upper arm BP higher than lower arm immediately after the operation and the pressure gradient Conclusion: COA with aortic arch hypoplasia could be treated with one-stage surgical correction using autologous pulmonary artery patch, which had good early and mid term outcomes.

  5. Pulmonary complications in neurosurgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randeep Guleria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neurosurgical patients. The common pulmonary complications in neurosurgical patients include pneumonia, postoperative atelectasis, respiratory failure, pulmonary embolism, and neurogenic pulmonary edema. Postoperative lung expansion strategies have been shown to be useful in prevention of the postoperative complications in surgical patients. Low tidal volume ventilation should be used in patients who develop acute respiratory distress syndrome. An antibiotic use policy should be put in practice depending on the local patterns of antimicrobial resistance in the hospital. Thromboprophylactic strategies should be used in nonambulatory patients. Meticulous attention should be paid to infection control with a special emphasis on hand-washing practices. Prevention and timely management of these complications can help to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with pulmonary complications.

  6. Pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clots in the lung ( pulmonary embolism ) Heart failure Heart valve disease HIV infection Low oxygen levels in the blood for a long time (chronic) Lung disease, such as COPD or pulmonary fibrosis Medicines (for example, certain diet drugs) Obstructive sleep ...

  7. Pulmonary Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed March 13, 2014. Pinto DS, et al. Pathophysiology of cardiogenic pulmonary edema. http://www.uptodate.com/ ... hvd/. Accessed March 10, 2014. What is pulmonary hypertension? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www. ...

  8. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the tissue deep in your lungs becomes scarred over time. This ... blood may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue ...

  9. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shortness of breath and increase your ability to exercise. You may have heard that pulmonary rehabilitation is only for people with COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). We now know that ...

  10. Pulmonary endarterectomy outputs in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gude, María Jesús; Pérez de la Sota, Enrique; Pérez Vela, Jose Luís; Centeno Rodríguez, Jorge; Muñoz Guijosa, Christian; Velázquez, María Teresa; Alonso Chaterina, Sergio; Hernández González, Ignacio; Escribano Subías, Pilar; Cortina Romero, José María

    2017-07-07

    Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension; extremely high pulmonary vascular resistance constitutes a risk factor for hospital mortality. The objective of this study was to analyze the immediate and long-term results of the surgical treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in patients with very severe pulmonary hypertension. Since February 1996, we performed 160 pulmonary thromboendarterectomies. We divided the patient population in 2 groups: group 1, which included 40 patients with pulmonary vascular resistance≥1090dyn/sec/cm(-5), and group 2, which included the remaining 120 patients. Hospital mortality (15 vs. 2.5%), reperfusion pulmonary edema (33 vs. 14%) and heart failure (23 vs. 3.3%) were all higher in group 1; however, after one year of follow-up, there were no significant differences in the clinical, hemodynamic and echocardiographic conditions of both groups. Survival rate after 5 years was 77% in group 1 and 92% in group 2 (P=.033). After the learning curve including the 46 first patients, there was no difference in hospital mortality (3.8 vs. 2.3%) or survival rate after 5 years (96.2% in group 1 and 96.2% in group 2). Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is linked to significantly higher morbidity and mortality rates in patients with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Nevertheless, these patients benefit the same from the procedure in the mid-/long-term. In our experience, after the learning curve, this surgery is safe in severe pulmonary hypertension and no level of pulmonary vascular resistance should be an absolute counter-indication for this surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Pulmonary vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Lindsay; Spiera, Robert F

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary vasculitis encompasses inflammation in the pulmonary vasculature with involved vessels varying in caliber from large elastic arteries to capillaries. Small pulmonary capillaries are the vessels most commonly involved in vasculitis affecting the lung. The antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides, which include granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegener granulomatosis), microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome), are the small vessel vasculitides in which pulmonary vasculitis is most frequently observed and are the major focus of this review. Vasculitic involvement of the large pulmonary vessels as may occur in Behçet syndrome and Takayasu arteritis is also discussed.

  12. EFFECT OF CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS ON PULMONARY FUNCTION IN INFANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the pulmonary function in infants with or without pulmonary hypertension in congential ventricular septal defect (VSD). Methods Twenty infants with VSD were enrolled in the study from Jan. to Dec. 2004. They were divided into two groups: pulmonary hypertension group and non-pulmonary hypertension group, ten infants respectively. Pulmonary function parameters were measured before CPB and 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24h after CPB, the following data were recorded: duration for mechanical ventilation (Tmv) and staying in the cardiac intensive care unit (Tcicu) after cardiac surgery. Results Before CPB, the pulmonary function parameters in non-pulmonary hypertension group were more superior than in pulmonary hypertension group ( P < 0. 01 ). By contraries, the pulmonary function parameters in every time stage after CPB statistically significant decreased in non-pulmonary hypertension group ( P < 0. 05),especially at 6, 9, and 15h after CPB ( P < 0. 01 ). In pulmonary hypertension group, the pulmonary function parameters in 3h after CPB were more improved than before CPB, though there was no statistical significance. But they had statistically significant decreased at 9, 12, 15h after CPB ( P <0. 05). There was a similar change in pulmonary function between two groups at 21,24h after CPB. Conclusion Exposure to CPB adversely affects pulmonary function after surgical repair of VSD in infants. We consider that the benefits of the surgical correction in infants with pulmonary hypertension outweight the negative effects of CPB on pulmonary function. We should improve cardiac function to avoid the presence of the nadir trough in pulmonary function. The infants with pulomonary hypertension also have ability to wean from mechanical ventilation as soon as possible, if the hemodynamics is stable, and without the responsive pulmonary hypertension or pulmonary hypertension crisis after surgical repair.

  13. 婴幼儿室间隔缺损并肺动脉高压的外科治疗%Surgical treatment for ventricular septal defect infants with pulmonary hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕瑛; 李小兵; 张会军; 闫芳; 孙丽颖; 李志杰; 申红; 黄建成; 李红英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficiency of urgent surgical correction for ventricular septal defect (VSD) infants with pulmonary hypertension(PH).Methods Two hundred and fifteen infants (109 male,106 female)with VSD and PH received surgical correction from Department of Cardiac Surgery,Center of Congenital Heart Disease,the First Hospital of Hebei Medical University.The age of patients ranged from 1 to 36 months on admission,the body mass ranged from 1.5 to 10.0 kg.Among all the cases,the perimembranous type was found in 156 children,the conal septal defect in 18 cases,and subpulmonary VSD in 41 cases.The diameter of defect was 0.8-2.1 cm.Sixteen patients were associated with atrial septal defect (ASD),8 cases with patent foramen ovale,15 cases with ductus arteriosus (PDA),14 cases with ASD and PDA,and 3 cases with PDA and coarctation of the aorta,14 cases with pulmonary valve stenosis,33 cases with stricture of right ventricular outflow tract,22 cases with incompetence of mitral valve directly ligation,42 cases with incompetence of tritral valve directly ligation,and the rest 12 cases with persistent left superior vena cava.The pressure of pulmonary artery was 4.66-11.31 kPa.All patients received cardiopulmonary bypass under hypothermic anaesthesia through extracorporeal blood circulation.Results Urgent operations were performed in all patients,but 3 patients died after surgery.Postoperative complications included low cardiac output syndrome (15 cases),among whom 2 cases died ; right bundle-branch block (10 cases),supraventricular tachycardia (6 cases),transient atrioventricular block of grade Ⅲ (5 cases),inhalation of nitric oxide was given to 5 cases for the management of significant postoperative PH,among whom 1 case died during surgery,3 cases were pneumothorax,2 cases were atelectasis.Chest radiography,echocardiography,and ECG were performed during this period.As a result,most children had good cardiac functions.Conclusions Low cardiac output syndrome and

  14. 婴幼儿完全性肺静脉异位引流的外科治疗%Surgical Treatment of Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection in Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔芳珍; 刘鑫伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To summarize the experience of the surgical treatment for infants and children with total a-nomalous pulmonary venous connection( TAPVC). Methods:21 patients with TAPVC were conducted surgical thera-py,including 13 boys and 8girls with main age at 4. 3 ± 1. 2month from 54 days to 12 months,with weight at 5. 42 ± 1. 41Kg from3. 6kg to 9. 3 kg ,in which 12 cases were in supracardiac type,7 cases in cardic type,1 case in mixed type and 1 case in intracardiac type . The correction of TAPVC was performed under moderate hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with all patients. Results:The aortic clamping time was(42. 6 ± 21. 3)min,cardiopulmonary bypass time (84. 6 ± 28. 4)min,and postoperative respirator use time(3. 42 ± 2. 01). All children were performed successfully without early death. In the early postoperation,8 cases occurred with pneumonia,2 cases of low cardiac output syn-drome,1cases with pulmonary hypertension crisis,1 case of renal insufficiency,in 3 cases of premature beat,section sex rhythm of the heart in 2 cases,and delay closed chest in 1 case. All recovered after treatment. Follow -up was completed in 21 patients from 3 months to 2 years. The children were in good condition. The cyanosis disappeared. With multiple reexamination,the echocardiographic was no obstruction;anastomotic atrioventricular cavity was reduced or basic close to normal earlier. Conclusions:The infants and children who are once diagnosed TAPVC should be taken early surgical treatment with the postoperative care,and enough intraoperative anastomotic stoma is the key to successful operation. Meanwhile,it is important to prevent the occurrence of postoperative low cardiac and pulmonary hypertension crisis and strengthen postoperative follow-up.%目的:对婴幼儿完全性肺静脉异位引流的外科治疗进行分析总结。方法:选取山西省儿童医院心胸外科2009年10月˜2014年4月收治的TAPVC患儿21例,其中心上型12例、心内型7

  15. Surgical approach to total anomalous pulmonary venous connection in 34 cases of neonate%新生儿完全性肺静脉异位引流的手术治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟波; 陈振良; 陈忠建; 王鹏高; 杨房; 董向阳; 崔亚洲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarize the experience of surgical treatment of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection ( TAPVC).Methods From March 2011 to May 2014,34 neonates less than 28 days old underwent surgical correction of TAPVC,23 males and 11 females,aged from 6 days to 28 days with a mean of (15.00 ±4.60)days,body weight from 2.6 to 4.5 kg with a mean of(3.70 ±0.96)kg.There were 21 cases of supracardiac type(vertical vein was located on the right side in 2 cases and left side in 19 cases),1 case of mixed type,9 cases of cardiac type and 3 cases of infracardiac type.Median sternotomy was used;the pulmonary veins confluence was anastomosed to the left atrium ( side-to-side anastomosis ) for the supracardiac and infracardiac TAPVC.In cardiac TAPVC repair procedure,the tissue between the foramen ovale and coronary sinus was incised and extended in the roof of the coronary sinus to the posterior wall of the heart ,so the blood from pulmonary vein flow through the left atrium without obstruction .Cardiopulmonary bypass time was 39-143 min, the average (78.76 ±27.17)min;aortic clamp time was 21-73 min,the average(37.71 ±10.51)min.Results Early mortality was 8.82%(3 /34),low cardiac output syndrome occured in 7 cases,arrhythmia in 4 cases,pneumonia in 7 cases and temporary pacing were used in 9 cases.Thirty-one cases were followed up from one month to three years ,no death and re-operation for correction of anastomotic stenosis in children .Echocardiography suggested that blood flow velocity in the anastomotic orifice was less than 1.4 m/s.Conclusions Surgical operation should be undertaken early in neonate with TAPVC.%目的总结新生儿期完全性肺静脉异位引流(TAPVC)的手术治疗经验及疗效。方法回顾2011年3月至2014年5月,在我科手术治疗的新生儿 TAPVC 34例的病历资料,男23例,女11例。手术年龄6~28 d,平均(15.00±4.60)d,体重2.6~4.5 kg,平均(3.70±0.96)kg。其中心上型21

  16. Pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Martins Júnior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension is a pathological condition associated with various diseases, which must be remembered by the physicians, since early diagnosis may anticipate and avoid dangerous complications and even death if appropriate measures were not taken. The relationship with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, important pathological process that is in increasing prevalence in developing countries, and leading position as cause of death, emphasizes its importance. Here are presented the classifications, pathophysiology, and general rules of treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  17. Aspergillus endocarditis in a paediatric patient after a cardiac surgery, associated with septic pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Joana O; de Sousa, António Rodrigues; Monterroso, José

    2015-03-01

    We report a rare case of pulmonary prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Aspergillus fumigatus, associated with septic pulmonary embolism and secondary pulmonary hypertension, in a 4-year-old boy with surgically corrected tetralogy of Fallot. The diagnosis and treatment of Aspergillus endocarditis remains highly challenging. The best therapeutic option for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension due to an infectious thromboembolic event is highly debatable and the results are poor.

  18. The pulmonary vascular blood supply in the pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and its implications in surgical treatment O suprimento sangüíneo vascular pulmonar na atresia pulmonar com comunicação interventricular e suas implicações no tratamento cirúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses Alexandre Croti

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: With base in the studies cineangiocardiography of pacients with pulmonary atresia (PA with ventricular septal defect (VSD, to identify in the groups proposed by BARBERO MARCIAL, subgroups with similar morphological characteristics, to measure their central pulmonary arteries (CPA and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCA, thereby establishing their implications in surgical treatment. METHOD: Sixty three patients were classified in groups A (15, B (40 and C (8 between january 1990 and june 2001. Patients with complete cineangiocardiograms prior to the first surgical intervention were included in this study, being calculated the pulmonary arterial index (PAI, the major aortopulmonary collateral arterial index (MAPCAI and the total neopulmonary arterial index (TNPAI = PAI + MAPCAI. Surgical treatment was considered palliative (PT, definitively palliative (DPT and definitive (DT. RESULTS: Nine subgroups were identified, A (A1 and A2, B (B1, B2, B3, B4 and B5 and C (C1 and C2. In group A, the PAI of patients for DT was higher than for PT patients (p=0,0092. In group B, the TNPAI of DT patients was greater than for PT patients (p=0,0959. In group C, the MAPCAI in DPT patients was lower than in PT and DT patients. In the group A was not mortality, in the group B was of 17,5% and in the group C was of 12,5%. CONCLUSIONS:Among the groups A, B e C was possible to identifiy nine subgroups, the morphologic and morphometric characteristics allowed to suggest the surgical treatment in the patients of the group A had larger chance of TD, the group B of TP and the group C of TPD. The mortality presented larger correlation with the morphologic characteristics that with the morphometric.OBJETIVO: Com base nos estudos cineangiocardiográficos de pacientes portadores de atresia pulmonar (AP com comunicação interventricular (CIV, identificar nos grupos propostos pela classificação de BARBERO MARCIAL, subgrupos com suprimento sang

  19. Thoracoscopic or open surgery for pulmonary metastasectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Jens; Licht, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    are now performed routinely worldwide. This prompted us to conduct a prospective observer-blinded study on pulmonary metastasectomy. METHODS: Eligible patients with oligometastatic pulmonary disease on computed tomography (CT) underwent high-definition VATS, with digital palpation by 1 surgical team...... and subsequent immediate thoracotomy during the same anesthesia by a different surgical team, with bimanual palpation and resection of all palpable nodules. Preoperative CT evaluations and surgical results were blinded. Primary endpoints were number and histopathology of detected nodules. RESULTS: During a 3...

  20. Pulmonary endarterectomy: part I. Pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnostic evaluation of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Dalia A; Pretorius, Gert Victor D; Kerr, Kim M; Manecke, Gerard R

    2014-12-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) results from recurrent or incomplete resolution of pulmonary embolism. CTEPH is much more common than generally appreciated. Although pulmonary embolism (PE) affects a large number of Americans, chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains underdiagnosed. It is imperative that all patients with PH be screened for the presence of CTEPH since this form of PH is potentially curable with pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) surgery. The success of this procedure depends greatly on the collaboration of a multidisciplinary team approach that includes pulmonary medicine, cardiothoracic surgery, and cardiac anesthesiology. This review, based on the experience of more than 3000 pulmonary endarterectomy surgeries, is divided into 2 parts. Part I focuses on the clinical history and pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, and intraoperative echocardiography. Part II focuses on the surgical approach, anesthetic management, postoperative care, and complications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Patient participation in pulmonary interventions to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications following cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTier, Lauren; Botti, Mari; Duke, Maxine

    2016-02-01

    Clinical interventions aimed at reducing the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications necessitate patient engagement and participation in care. Patients' ability and willingness to participate in care to reduce postoperative complications is unclear. Further, nurses' facilitation of patient participation in pulmonary interventions has not been explored. To explore patients' ability and willingness to participate in pulmonary interventions and nurses' facilitation of pulmonary interventions. Single institution, case study design. Multiple methods of data collection were used including preadmission (n=130) and pre-discharge (n=98) patient interviews, naturalistic observations (n=48) and nursing focus group interviews (n=2). A cardiac surgical ward of a major metropolitan, tertiary referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia. One hundred and thirty patients admitted for cardiac surgery via the preadmission clinic during a 1-year period and 40 registered nurses who were part of the permanent workforce on the cardiac surgical ward. Patients' understanding of their role in pulmonary interventions and patients' preference for and reported involvement in pulmonary management. Nurses' facilitation of patients to participate in pulmonary interventions. Patients displayed a greater understanding of their role in pulmonary interventions after their surgical admission than they did at preadmission. While 55% of patients preferred to make decisions about deep breathing and coughing exercises, three-quarters of patients (75%) reported they made decisions about deep breathing and coughing during their surgical admission. Nurses missed opportunities to engage patients in this aspect of pulmonary management. Patients appear willing to take responsibility for pulmonary management in the postoperative period. Nurses could enhance patient participation in pulmonary interventions by ensuring adequate information and education is provided. Facilitation of patients' participation

  2. Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Soo; Lee, Jin Seong; Kim, Hyae Young; Song, Koun Sik; Sohn, Kwang Hyun; Lim, Tae Hwan [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    A 72-year-old woman was admitted due to a solitary pulmonary nodule incidentally found after routine chest radiography. Chest CT showed a solitary pulmonary nodule without calcification in the right upper lobe. Three years earlier, she had spent 3 months in Arizona. Surgical resection was performed after percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration had suggested malignaney. The lesion was caseous and necrotic, and histologic examination indicated the presence of endosporulating spherules. We report a case of coccidioidomycosis which was resected in order to rule out lung cancer.

  3. Spectrum of pulmonary sequestration: association with anomalous pulmonary venous drainage in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilenius, O G; Ruschhaupt, D G; Replogle, R L; Bharati, S; Herman, T; Arcilla, R A

    1983-01-01

    Pulmonary sequestration is a spectrum of related lesions, each of which may be absent or present: (1) bronchial sequestration of pulmonary parenchyma; (2) arterial supply from systemic circulation; (3) anomalous pulmonary venous drainage to the right atrium; (4) communications between bronchus and esophagus; (5) defects of diaphragm; (6) gross lung anomalies, such as horseshoe lungs or hypoplasia. Any combination of these primary lesions can occur in an individual patient. Diagnosis should be directed towards each component of the spectrum. Of special importance is the venous connection, as anomalous pulmonary venous drainage can involve not only the sequestered segment but the entire ipsilateral lung, making surgical therapy far more complex. Treatment of choice is surgical resection, associated, if needed, with rerouting of the pulmonary venous return. Classification of sequestration of the lung as intra- and extralobar is of secondary importance: these 2 groups do not represent lesions of different embryological significance.

  4. Neonatal repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and lung agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Yuji; Nagashima, Mitsugi; Matsumura, Goki; Yamazaki, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    Here we report a neonatal case of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection with left lung agenesis. Diagnostic imaging demonstrated that the left pulmonary veins were totally absent and the right pulmonary veins connected with the common pulmonary chamber. Drainage from the common pulmonary venous chamber entered the persistent left suerior vena cava. In addition, it revealed complete absence of the left main bronchus and left lung vessels. The neonate successfully underwent surgical repair 18 days after birth.

  5. Pulmonary Venous Obstruction in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang-Chi Liaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We study the clinical significance and management of pulmonary venous obstruction in cancer patients. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort study to characterize the syndrome that we term “pulmonary vein obstruction syndrome” (PVOS between January 2005 and March 2014. The criteria for inclusion were (1 episodes of shortness of breath; (2 chest X-ray showing abnormal pulmonary hilum shadow with or without presence of pulmonary edema and/or pleural effusion; (3 CT scan demonstrating pulmonary vein thrombosis/tumor with or without tumor around the vein. Results. Two hundred and twenty-two patients developed PVOS. Shortness of breath was the main symptom, which was aggravated by chemotherapy in 28 (13%, and medical/surgical procedures in 21 (9% and showed diurnal change in intensity in 32 (14%. Chest X-rays all revealed abnormal pulmonary hilum shadows and presence of pulmonary edema in 194 (87% and pleural effusion in 192 (86%. CT scans all showed pulmonary vein thrombosis/tumor (100% and surrounding the pulmonary veins by tumor lesions in 140 patients (63%. PVOS was treated with low molecular weight heparin in combination with dexamethasone, and 66% of patients got clinical/image improvement. Conclusion. Physicians should be alert to PVOS when shortness of breath occurs and chest X-ray reveals abnormal pulmonary hilum shadows.

  6. Pulmonary aspergilloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grows on dead leaves, stored grain, bird droppings, compost piles, and other decaying vegetation. Cavities in the ... Histoplasmosis Lung cancer - small cell Pulmonary tuberculosis Sarcoidosis Review Date 8/31/2014 Updated by: Jatin M. ...

  7. Pulmonary tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ray Pulmonary nodule, solitary - CT scan Miliary tuberculosis Tuberculosis of the lungs Erythema nodosum associated with sarcoidosis Respiratory system Tuberculin skin test References Fitzgerald DW, Sterling TR, Haas DW. ...

  8. 外科重症监护室气管插管患者肺部感染的细菌药敏分析%Bacterial susceptibility analysis of pulmonary infection patients in the surgical intensive care unit with endotracheal intubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓良; 苏艳丽; 何家花

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the bacterial susceptibility effects of pulmonary infection in the surgical intensive care unit patients with endotracheal intubation.MethodsSelected 120 pulmonary infection in the surgical intensive care unit with endotracheal intubation from August 2012 to February 2014 in our hospital, the incidence of pulmonary infection and clini-cal data were to investigate; the pathogens were isolated in the pulmonary infection patients and were given the six kinds of drugs sensitivity analysis.ResultsThere were 43 cases of pulmonary infection, the rate was 35.8%, 4 cases were died. Multiple multivariate conditional logistic regression model showed that age, catheterization, vascular catheter, the joint use of antibiot-ics were the major independent risk factors of pulmonary infection and there were 43 cases were isolated pathogens included 28 cases were Gram-negative bacteria, 11 cases were Gram-positive bacteria, 4 cases were fungi. The Gram-negative bacteria to cefuroxime, levofloxacin, cefazolin sensitivity rates were relatively low.ConclusionThe pulmonary infection in the surgical in-tensive care unit with endotracheal intubation is relatively high, the prognosis is relatively poor and the mostly bacteria is Gram-negative bacteria, we should actively reasonable choice the rational antibiotics based on susceptibility circumstances.%目的:探讨外科重症监护室气管插管患者肺部感染的细菌药敏情况。方法:选择2012年8月~2014年2月在我院外科重症监护室诊治的120例患者,对肺部感染发病情况与临床资料进行调查;分离肺部感染患者的病原菌并纳入六种药物的药敏分析。结果:120例患者发生肺部感染43例,发生率为35.8%,其中死亡4例。多元多因素条件logistic回归模型结果发现年龄、导尿、动静脉插管、联合使用抗生素是导致肺部感染的主要独立危险因素。43例患者分离出病原菌43株,其中革兰氏阴性菌28

  9. Pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, more than 800 papers were published in the field of pulmonary hypertension. A Clinical Year in Review article cannot possibly incorporate all this work and needs to be selective. The recently published European guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension contain an inclusive summary of all published clinical studies conducted until very recently. Here, we provide an overview of papers published after the finalisation of the guideline. In addition, we summaris...

  10. Pulmonary Agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Rakesh K; Madan, Arun; Chawla, Aditya; Arora, Harsh Nandini; Chawla, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral opaque lung with ipsilateral mediastinal shift is an uncommon cause of respiratory distress in newborn which can be found on simple radiograph of the chest. Pulmonary agenesis is a rare cause of unilateral opaque lung in the newborn. Nearly 50% cases of pulmonary agenesis are associated with other congenital defects including cardiovascular, skeletal, gastrointestinal or genitourinary systems. We report an infant with agenesis of the right lung associated with other congenital anomalies.

  11. Pulmonary Edema

    OpenAIRE

    Tanser, Paul H.

    1981-01-01

    The physician who deals with pulmonary edema from a pathophysiologic basis will seldom make a diagnostic or therapeutic error. Recent additions to preload and afterload therapy have greatly helped in the emergency and ambulatory treatment of pulmonary edema due to left heart failure. Careful follow-up and patient self-monitoring are the most effective means of reducing hospitalization of chronic heart failure patients.

  12. [Thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension--do not spoil a chance for effective surgery!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzyna, Marcin; Torbicki, Adam; Poloński, Lech; Skoczylas, Ilona; Przybylski, Roman; Wieteska, Maria; Dyk, Wojciech; Biederman, Andrzej; Zembala, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) can be defined as pulmonary hypertension with persistent pulmonary perfusion defects causes by unresolved thrombi. All symptomatic CTEPH patients with documented pulmonary vascular resistance > 300 dyn*sec*cm(-5) and proximal lesions should be considered for surgical treatment--pulmonary endarterectomy. The role of pharmacological treatment remains controversial and should be restricted to inoperable cases and persistent pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy. Every year about 30 procedures is performed in two specialised centers in Poland with 1 year mortality at 8-9%. Number of procedures done gives the frequency of pulmonary endarterectomy at 0.7/million of population/year. Current data from UK indicate the actual ratio of surgical treatment of CTPH at 2/million/year. The article discusses reasons for CTEPH is underdiagnosed and why rate of surgical therapy in Poland is too low.

  13. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: Treat the Patient Not the Haemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Dunne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a disabling condition that is being increasingly recognised. It is unique as a cause of pulmonary hypertension in that it is surgically curable. We wish to highlight the importance of recognition and early referral of any patient who may have CTEPH even in the absence of resting pulmonary hypertension as excellent results can be achieved by restoring pulmonary vascular anatomy, reducing exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension, and reducing dead-space ventilation. We present a case that illustrates these points and discuss our experience as a referral centre for CTEPH.

  14. Diagnosing chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadinnapola C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Charaka Hadinnapola, Deepa Gopalan, David P Jenkins Papworth Hospital National Health Service Foundation Trust, Papworth Everard, Cambridge, United Kingdom Abstract: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a rare and relatively poorly understood disease. It remains underdiagnosed and is often not recognized in primary and secondary care, as its symptoms are nonspecific and there are few clinical signs until late in the disease process. However, pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA offers a potential cure for patients with this type of pulmonary hypertension; therefore, it is important that they are identified and diagnosed in a timely manner. PEA is associated with a 2.2%–5% risk of significant morbidity and mortality, even in experienced PEA centers. Therefore, once chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is diagnosed, further assessment of operability and patient selection is crucial. Assessment of operability involves determining the distribution and burden of chronic thromboembolic disease, assessing pulmonary hemodynamics, and assessing the functional impairment of the patient. Ventilation perfusion scintigraphy is of value in screening for the presence of chronic thromboembolic disease. However, computer tomography pulmonary angiography and magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography are now increasingly used to image the vascular occlusions directly. This allows assessment of the surgically accessible disease burden. Some centers still advocate conventional selective pulmonary angiography for the latter. Right-heart catheterization remains the gold standard for assessing pulmonary hemodynamics. Higher pulmonary vascular resistances are associated with poorer outcomes as well as increased risks at the time of surgery. This is in part because of the presence of more distal chronic thromboembolic material and distal pulmonary artery remodeling. However, in experienced centers, these patients are being operated on safely and with good

  15. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...

  16. Thoracoscopic versus open pulmonary metastasectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Jens; Licht, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    guideline recommendations metastasectomy with therapeutic intent is now performed by VATS in 40% of thoracic surgeons surveyed. The evidence base for optimal surgical approach is limited to case-series and registries and no comparative surgical studies were observer-blinded.METHODS:Patients considered......(92%) and during subsequent thoracotomy 29 additional nodules were resected: 6(21%) were metastases, 19 (66%) were benign lesions, 3 (10%) were subpleural lymph nodes and one was a primary lung cancer.CONCLUSIONS:Modern VATS technology is increasingly used for pulmonary metastasectomy with therapeutic...... for metastasectomy with therapeutic intent....

  17. Surgical Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azarmehr, Iman; Stokbro, Kasper; Bell, R. Bryan

    2017-01-01

    were identified in the field of traumatology. Treatment of complex orbital fractures was considerably improved by the use of SN compared with traditionally treated control groups. Conclusions: SN seems to be a very promising addition to the surgical toolkit. Planning details of the surgical procedure...... in a 3-dimensional virtual environment and execution with real-time guidance can significantly improve precision. Among factors to be considered are the financial investments necessary and the learning curve....

  18. Unilateral pulmonary edema during laparoscopic resection of adrenal tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Smita; Nayar, Pavan; Virmani, Pooja; Bansal, Shipra; Pawar, Mridula

    2015-01-01

    Despite technological, therapeutic and diagnostic advancements, surgical intervention in pheochromocytoma may result in a life-threatening situation. We report a patient who developed unilateral pulmonary edema during laparoscopic resection of adrenal tumor. PMID:26330724

  19. Unilateral pulmonary edema during laparoscopic resection of adrenal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite technological, therapeutic and diagnostic advancements, surgical intervention in pheochromocytoma may result in a life-threatening situation. We report a patient who developed unilateral pulmonary edema during laparoscopic resection of adrenal tumor.

  20. Pulmonary Metastasis from Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Kitai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP is a rare clinical condition, where copious mucinous ascites accumulate in the peritoneal cavity due to dissemination of mucin-producing tumor. Because of this disseminating, yet nonmetastasizing, behavior, PMP attracts much interest from surgical oncologists in that aggressive locoregional therapy can give the opportunity of long survival and even cure. Although extra-abdominal metastasis is exceptionally rare, the lung is the most likely site in such a case. In this paper, the clinical findings and treatment of eleven cases with pulmonary metastasis from PMP were reviewed, including ten cases in the literature and one case which we experienced. The clinical features of PMP cases with pulmonary metastasis were similar to cases without pulmonary metastasis. The histological type was low-grade mucinous neoplasm in most cases. Pulmonary lesions were resected in seven cases in which abdominal lesions were controlled by cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy or another therapeutic modality. Disease-free state was maintained in five cases at the end of the follow-up period. However, it should be noted that rapid progression after resection was seen in two cases, suggesting that biological features may have changed by surgical intervention.

  1. [Sildenafil in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Martínez, E; Ibarra de la Rosa, I; Pérez Navero, J L; Tejero Mateo, I; Expósito Montes, J F; Suárez de Lezo y Cruz Conde, J

    2003-07-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is a rare entity that is difficult to treat. Prognosis is poor. Sildenafil, a selective inhibitor of type 5 phosphodiesterase, has been proposed among the many treatments available for primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension. We report our experience with an infant with pulmonary hypertension due to congenital mitral stenosis and persistent ductus arteriosus, who developed congestive cardiac failure with persistent PHT despite surgical correction. Conventional treatment was unsuccessful and the patient was treated with sildenafil. The clinical course was satisfactory, allowing extubation and withdrawal of vasoactive drugs; pulmonary and left atrial pressure decreased and the patient was discharged. She is currently being treated on an outpatient basis with oral sildenafil and shows satisfactory hemodynamic status. We review alternatives to conventional treatments for pulmonary hypertension with special reference to pediatrics.

  2. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed....... METHODS: Review of controlled, clinical trials evaluating postoperative pulmonary function in patients positioned in the supine vs. the sitting or standing position and patients positioned in the supine vs. the lateral position. Data were obtained from a search in the Medline and Cochrane databases (1966...

  3. Thoracoscopic Video-Assisted Pulmonary Vein Antrum Isolation, Ganglionated Plexus Ablation and Periprocedural Confirmation of Ablation Lesions. First Results of a Hybrid Surgical-Electrophysiological Approach for Atrial Fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P.J. Krul; A.H.G. Driessen; W.J. van Boven; A.C. Linnenbank; G.S.C. Geuzebroek; W.M. Jackman; A.A.M. Wilde; J.M.T. de Bakker; J.R. de Groot

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Thoracoscopic pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) and ganglionated plexus (GP) ablation is a novel approach in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesize that meticulous electrophysiological confirmation of PVI results in fewer recurrences of AF during follow-up. METHODS AND R

  4. Therapeutic application of inhaled nitric oxide in adult cardiac surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Robina; Mehta, Yatin; Trehan, Naresh; Bapna, Rk

    2006-01-01

    Increased pulmonary vascular resistance can be detrimental to the cardiac output in post-operative cardiac surgical patients. Pulmonary vasodilator therapy by systemic pharmacologic agents is non-selective. Inhaled nitric oxide is a selective pulmonary vasodilator and does not cause systemic hypotension. In this prospective study, 14 adult post-operative cardiac surgical patients with pulmonary hypertension underwent inhaled nitric oxide therapy and their hemodynamic changes were evaluated. Inhaled nitric oxide was administered in doses of 5 ppm-25 ppm. The result was a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance from 456.57 +/- 137.13 to 357.64 +/- 119.80 dynes-sec- Continued. - See Free Full Text.

  5. A Tight Spot After Pulmonary Vein Catheter Ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, Rabia; Yeh, Lu; Montealegre-Gallegos, Mario; Saraf, Rabya; Matyal, Robina; Mahmood, Feroze

    2016-01-01

    A 52-YEAR-OLD woman with a history of embolic stroke due to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was referred to the authors’ institution for epicardial surgical pulmonary vein isolation with left atrial appendage resection. The patient had 2 previous failed pulmonary vein catheter ablations. Dense

  6. A Tight Spot After Pulmonary Vein Catheter Ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, Rabia; Yeh, Lu; Montealegre-Gallegos, Mario; Saraf, Rabya; Matyal, Robina; Mahmood, Feroze

    2016-01-01

    A 52-YEAR-OLD woman with a history of embolic stroke due to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was referred to the authors’ institution for epicardial surgical pulmonary vein isolation with left atrial appendage resection. The patient had 2 previous failed pulmonary vein catheter ablations. Dense fibrou

  7. Surgical decision based on positron emission tomography using fluorine-18-deoxyglucose in solitary pulmonary nodules%肺部单发结节在18氟脱氧葡萄糖-正电子发射体层显像检查后外科决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪涛; 孙玉鹗; 杨博; 姚树林; 王瑞民

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨肺部单发结节(SPN)患者在18氟脱氧葡萄糖-正电子发射体层显像(FDG-PET)检查后的外科决策.方法 1998年10月-2006年4月对375例直径1.0~3.0 cm的SPN患者行FDG-PET检查,采用目测法结合半定量分析判读.结果 FDG-PET定性诊断的敏感度、特异度、准确率分别为73.7% (188/255)、71.7%(86/120)、73.1%(274/375);FDG-PET无法区别良性显影病变与腺癌;对于肺外病灶FDG-PET也存在假阳性.结论 PET检查阳性的SPN,除非抗感染或抗结核治疗有效,否则都应当通过手术切除等途径确诊;对PET检查阴性的SPN患者,或手术切除,或定期随访.%Objective To assess the surgical decisions based on positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine-18-deoxyglu-cose ( FDG) in solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). Methods Three hundred and seventy five consecutive patients underwent FDG-PET for evaluation of SPNs 1. 0 ~ 3. 0 cm in diameter between October 1998 and April 2006. Visual interpretation and semi-quantitative analysis by standard uptake value ( SUV ) were performed for the FDG-PET data. Results The semi-quantitative method presented a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of qualitative diagnosis of 73. 7% (188/255 ) , 71. 7% ( 86/120) and 73. 1% (274/375) respectively. FDG-PET failed to differentiate FDG-avid benign pulmonary lesions from adenocarcinoma. The results also revealed false positive for para-pulmonary abnormalities. Conclusion For PET-positive SPNs, surgical resection should be performed for pathological confirmation, unless antibiotic or anti-tuberculosis therapy is effective and for PET-negative SPNs, surgical operation or clinical follow-up should be taken.

  8. Ultrasound diagnosis of pulmonary sling with proximal stenosis of left pulmonary artery and patent arterial duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Mądry

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors discuss methods of echocardiographic diagnosis of the pulmonary sling with stenosis and hypoplasia of the left pulmonary artery and patent arterial duct with massive left‑to‑right shunt, based on a case of the newborn with resistant to treatment heart failure, with initial diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus, referred to surgical treatment. The optimal echocardiographic views permitting establish diagnosis of the pulmonary sling were suggested. The special attention was paid to high parasternal and suprasternal views visualizing vessels of the upper mediastinum as well as characteristic differences between the normal and pathologic picture. The typical features of the echocardiogram suggesting pulmonary sling, like the lack of the left pulmonary artery in its expected position, and the abnormal branching pattern of the right pulmonary artery were indicated. The greatest diagnostic difficulties in visualization of the abnormal route of the left pulmonary artery were related to the presence of air‑containing tissues, like lungs and central airways between the ultrasound probe and area of interest. The other was the masking influence of the large patent arterial duct, that may mimic the left pulmonary artery arising from the pulmonary trunk. The other entities requiring differentiation with sling, like aplasia of the left lung, the direct or indirect aortic origin of the left pulmonary artery, were discussed. The role of other visualization technics, like computed 3D tomography, and magnetic nuclear resonance, as well as direct visualization of central airways with bronchoscopy in establishing precise diagnosis were stressed.

  9. Pulmonary Artery Leiomyosarcoma Diagnosed without Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohisa Yamasaki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old female presented with abnormal lung shadows but had, apart from this, few symptoms. Computed tomography (CT revealed multiple nodules and blockage of the pulmonary artery. She was immediately diagnosed with pulmonary artery sarcoma based on a careful differential diagnosis and underwent surgery. Her tumor was pathologically diagnosed as leiomyosarcoma (i.e. intimal sarcoma. Pulmonary artery sarcoma can be easily confounded with thromboembolism in a clinical setting and some cases are diagnosed post mortem only. In our case, clinical prediction scores (Wells score, Geneva score, and revised Geneva score for the pulmonary embolism showed low probability. Moreover, chest CT showed uncommon findings for pulmonary thromboembolism, as the nodules were too big for thrombi. Because surgical resection can provide the only hope of long-term survival in cases of pulmonary artery sarcoma, clinicians should consider this possibility in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Clinical prediction scores and CT findings might help to reach the correct diagnosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma.

  10. Pulmonary hypertension complicating pulmonary sarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, M P; Grutters, J C; Rensing, B J W M; Reesink, H J; Post, M C

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe complication of sarcoidosis, with an unknown prevalence. The aetiology is multifactorial, and the exact mechanism of PH in the individual patient is often difficult to establish. The diagnostic work-up and treatment of PH in sarcoidosis is complex, and should

  11. Pulmonary hypertension complicating pulmonary sarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, M P; Grutters, J C; Rensing, B J W M; Reesink, H J; Post, M C

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe complication of sarcoidosis, with an unknown prevalence. The aetiology is multifactorial, and the exact mechanism of PH in the individual patient is often difficult to establish. The diagnostic work-up and treatment of PH in sarcoidosis is complex, and should

  12. Diagnostic Evaluation of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Deepa; Blanchard, Daniel; Auger, William R

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure greater than 25 mm Hg. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is defined as pulmonary hypertension in the presence of an organized thrombus within the pulmonary vascular bed that persists at least 3 months after the onset of anticoagulant therapy. Because CTEPH is potentially curable by surgical endarterectomy, correct identification of patients with this form of pulmonary hypertension and an accurate assessment of surgical candidacy are essential to provide optimal care. Patients most commonly present with symptoms of exertional dyspnea and otherwise unexplained decline in exercise capacity. Atypical chest pain, a nonproductive cough, and episodic hemoptysis are observed less frequently. With more advanced disease, patients often develop symptoms suggestive of right ventricular compromise. Physical examination findings are minimal early in the course of this disease, but as pulmonary hypertension progresses, may include nonspecific finding of right ventricular failure, such as a tricuspid regurgitation murmur, pedal edema, and jugular venous distention. Chest radiographs may suggest pulmonary hypertension, but are neither sensitive nor specific for the diagnosis. Radioisotopic ventilation-perfusion scanning is sensitive for detecting CTEPH, making it a valuable screening study. Conventional catheter-based pulmonary angiography retains an important role in establishing the presence and extent of chronic thromboembolic disease. However, computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging are playing a growing diagnostic role. Innovative technologies such as dual-energy computed tomography, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and optical coherence tomography show promise for contributing diagnostic information and assisting in the preoperative characterization of patients with CTEPH.

  13. Bronchoscopic interventions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mineshita, Masamichi; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, several non-surgical and minimally invasive bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) techniques have been developed to treat patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). BLVR can be significantly efficacious, suitable for a broad cohort of patients, and

  14. Pulmonary extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Balanzá, MD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: EMC is an intermediate-grade neoplasm, characterized by a long clinical course with high potential for local recurrence and distant metastasis. Treatment for EMC is surgical and non-surgical treatment is reserved for recurrence or metastatic disease. Pulmonary extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is a rare neoplasm with only isolated case reports found in the literature.

  15. THE ANALYSIS OF CHANGES AND INFLUENCING FACTORS OF EARLY POSTTHORACOTOMY PULMONARY FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔玉尚; 张志庸; 徐协群

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the changes and influencing factors of early postoperative pulmonary functionof thoracotomy.Methods. Pre-and early postoperative pulmonary function was studied in 64 consecutive cases withoptimal thoracotomy. Pain assessment was done before pulmonary function test, and the chief complaintsof patients were recorded after the procedure. The changing curves of pulmonary function were done andthe differences associated with groups, surgical styles, pain assessment, epidural analgesia, chief com-plaint and preoperative conditions were analyzed.Results. Pulmonary function was severely lowered to about 40% of the base line on the first day,and it was rehabilitated to about 60% of the base line on the eighth day. There was a greater gradienton the recovery curve on the 3rd and 4th days. Epidural analgesia was able to improve pain relaxationand pulmonary function in some degree. Single-factor analysis showed that postoperative pain, postopera-tive day and surgical style were the significant influencing factors for early postoperative pulmonary func-tion. By multiple-factor analysis, preoperative pulmonary function, age and postoperative pain were themain factors, while surgical style had only weak effect on it.Conclusions. Early postoperative pulmonary function is severely impaired by thoracotomy. It rehabili-tate gradually with time. Improvement of preoperative pulmonary function, reducing surgical procedure in-juries, especially injury to respiratory muscle system, and enough postoperative pain relief are the mostimportant means that would reduce pulmonary function impairment and consequently reduce postoperativepulmonary complications.

  16. Inflammatory response and pneumocyte apoptosis during lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in an experimental pulmonary thromboembolism model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chaosheng; Zhai, Zhenguo; Wu, Dawen; Lin, Qichang; Yang, Yuanhua; Yang, Minxia; Ding, Haibo; Cao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Qiaoxian; Wang, Chen

    2015-07-01

    Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) may occur in the region of the affected lung after reperfusion therapy. The inflammatory response mechanisms related to LIRI in pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), especially in chronic PTE, need to be studied further. In a PTE model, inflammatory response and apoptosis may occur during LIRI and nitric oxide (NO) inhalation may alleviate the inflammatory response and apoptosis of pneumocytes during LIRI. A PTE canine model was established through blood clot embolism to the right lower lobar pulmonary artery. Two weeks later, we performed embolectomy with reperfusion to examine the LIRI changes among different groups. In particular, the ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2), serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase concentrations in lung homogenates, alveolar polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), lobar lung wet to dry ratio (W/D ratio), apoptotic pneumocytes, and lung sample ultrastructure were assessed. The PaO2/FiO2 in the NO inhalation group increased significantly when compared with the reperfusion group 4 and 6 h after reperfusion (368.83 ± 55.29 vs. 287.90 ± 54.84 mmHg, P inflammatory response and apoptosis occur in our PTE model and NO inhalation may be useful in treating LIRI by alleviating the inflammatory response and pneumocyte apoptosis. This potential application warrants further investigation.

  17. Postoperative management of pulmonary endarterectomy and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayana Iyengar Ramakrishna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery thromboendarterectomy (PTE has been regarded as a promising, potentially curative surgical procedure. However, PTE is associated with specific postoperative complications, such as reperfusion pulmonary edema and right heart failure leading to a considerable mortality of 7-24%. Despite its limitations PTE is a better surgical alternative to lung transplantation which carries high morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study is to analyze the efficacy, safety, morbidity and survival associated in the postoperative period and quality of life after six months of PTE in Indian patients. Forty-one patients with surgically correctable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension underwent pulmonary endarterectomy. All patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA Class II, III or IV. Preoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure was 40.98 ± 9.29 mmHg and mean pulmonary vascular resistance was 418.39 ± 95.88 dynes/sec/cm -5 . All patients were followed up to six months and a telephonic survey was conducted using a standard questionnaire. They were assessed and classified as per NYHA grading. There was a significant reduction in the mean pulmonary artery pressure (from 40.98 ± 9.29 mmHg to 24.13 ± 7.36 mmHg, P < 0.001 and pulmonary vascular resistance (from 418.39 ± 95.88 dynes/sec/cm -5 to 142.45 ± 36.27 dynes/sec/cm -5 , P < 0.001 with a concomitant increase in the cardiac index (from 1.99 ± 0.20 L/min/m 2 to 3.28 ± 0.56 L/min/m 2 , P < 0.001 during the postoperative period. The mortality rate in our study was 12.19% (five patients. Ninety per cent of the patients reported a significant improvement in the quality of life and exercise tolerance after surgery compared to the preoperative state. Pulmonary endarterectomy is an effective and potentially curative surgical treatment for patients with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The current techniques of operation make the procedure relatively safe and

  18. Simultaneous pulmonary metastases from colon and prostate cancer to the same lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Toru; Oki, Tomonari; Otsuki, Yoshiro; Yoneda, Tatsuaki; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Funai, Kazuhito; Toyoda, Futoru

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous pulmonary metastases from different primary tumors to the same lobe are extremely rare, and we herein report the case. Surgical specimen of the pulmonary metastasis from colon cancer contained two additional nodules that were confirmed as metastases from prostate cancer. Pulmonary metastasis from prostate cancer rarely forms nodules, and there is a discrepancy in the incidence of pulmonary metastases between autopsy and clinical findings. This case suggests that different maligna...

  19. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistula: Clinical and Histologic Spectrum of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soomin Ahn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF is abnormally dilated vessels that provide a right-to-left shunt between pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein and is clinically divided into simple and complex type. Here, we report four cases of surgically resected sporadic PAVFs presenting various clinical and histologic spectrums. Cases 1 (a 57-old-female and 2 (a 54-old-female presented as incidentally identified single aneurysmal fistulas and the lesions were surgically removed without complication. On the other hand, case 3 (an 11-old-male showed diffuse dilated vascular sacs involving both lungs and caused severe hemodynamic and pulmonary dysfunction. Embolization and surgical resection of the main lesion failed to relieve the symptoms. Case 4 (a 36-old-male had a localized multiloculated cyst clinically mimicking congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation. Microscopically, the lesion consisted of dilated thick vessels, consistent with the diagnosis of fistulous arteriovenous malformation/hemangioma.

  20. Levoatriocardinal vein with normal intracardiac anatomy and pulmonary venous return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Odemis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Levoatriocardinal vein (LACV is characterized by an abnormal connection between pulmonary and systemic venous return. This extremely rare cardiac malformation is usually associated with left-sided obstructive lesions including mitral atresia, hypoplastic left-heart syndrome, and abnormal pulmonary venous connection. Patients may have low systemic cardiac output and pulmonary venous obstruction symptoms. In this manuscript, we report a case with LACV and normal pulmonary venous return with absence of any intracardiac pathology. LACV was demonstrated with echocardiography, angiography, and computed tomography. Surgical correction was made successfully.

  1. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? To understand pulmonary hypertension (PH) it helps to understand how blood ows throughout your body. While the heart is one organ, it ...

  2. Effects of chronic severe pulmonary regurgitation and percutaneous valve repair on right ventricular geometry and contractility assessed by tissue Doppler echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; Iversen, Kasper K; Vejlstrup, Niels G;

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) following repair of right ventricular (RV) outflow obstruction is related to slowly progressive RV dilatation and heart failure and will eventually require surgical intervention, but optimal timing of pulmonary valve replacement is challenging. Tissue Doppler based...

  3. Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis Complicating Bronchial Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen O. Al-Qadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial atresia is a rare pulmonary developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of a focal obliteration of a segmental or lobar bronchial lumen. The lung distal to the atretic bronchus is typically emphysematous along with the presence of mucus filled ectatic bronchi (mucoceles. BA is usually asymptomatic but pulmonary infections can rarely develop in the emphysematous lung distal to the atretic bronchus. We present a unique case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA in a patient with BA with no evidence of immune dysfunction. The patient was treated initially with voriconazole and subsequently underwent surgical excision of the involved area. On follow-up, she has done extremely well with no evidence for recurrence. In summary, we describe the first case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient with bronchial atresia.

  4. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Treated? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has no cure. However, ... Types of Pulmonary Hypertension." ) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) includes PH ...

  5. Pulmonary arterial hypertension : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendermis, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance

  6. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia; Loffler syndrome; Eosinophilic pneumonia; Pneumonia - eosinophilic ... A rare complication of simple pulmonary eosinophilia is a severe type of pneumonia called acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia.

  7. Surgical tools and medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This new edition presents information and knowledge on the field of biomedical devices and surgical tools. The authors look at the interactions between nanotechnology, nanomaterials, design, modeling, and tools for surgical and dental applications, as well as how nanostructured surfaces can be created for the purposes of improving cell adhesion between medical devices and the human body. Each original chapter is revised in this second edition and describes developments in coatings for heart valves, stents, hip and knee joints, cardiovascular devices, orthodontic applications, and regenerative materials such as bone substitutes. There are also 8 new chapters that address: Microvascular anastomoses Inhaler devices used for pulmonary delivery of medical aerosols Surface modification of interference screws Biomechanics of the mandible (a detailed case study) Safety and medical devices The synthesis of nanostructured material Delivery of anticancer molecules using carbon nanotubes Nano and micro coatings for medic...

  8. Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema (A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Gümüş

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a life threatening complication of severe central nervous system injury. The most common cause of neurogenic pulmonary edema is subarachnoid hemorrhage followed by head trauma and epilepsy. The rare causes are cervical spine trauma, multiplesclerosis, cerebellar hemorrhage and intracranial tumors. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is characterized by an increase in extravascular lung water in patients who have sustained a sudden change in neurologic condition. The exact pathophysiology is unclear but it probably involves an adrenergic response to the central nervous system injury which leads to increased catecholamine, pulmonary hydrostatic pressure and increased lung capillary permeability. The presenting symptoms are nonspecific and often include dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypoxemia, pinkfroty secretion, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and crackles. These symptoms start within minutes or hours and resolves 48-72 hours that typically for neurogenic pulmonary edema. Basic principles of treatment, surgical decompression, reduce intracranial pressure, controlled ventilation with suplemental oxygen, positive end expiratory pressure and diuresis. We report a case with neurogenic pulmonary edema that occured after head trauma. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 59-62

  9. Secuestro pulmonar Pulmonary sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Hernández Varea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El secuestro pulmonar es una afección congénita que consiste en la presencia de una masa quística de tejido pulmonar afuncional que puede carecer de una obvia comunicación con el árbol traqueobronquial y recibe toda o la mayor parte de su irrigación sanguínea de vasos anómalos provenientes de la circulación sistémica. Teniendo en cuenta que la presentación de esta afección resulta rara comparada con otras afecciones pulmonares (entre 1 y 2 % de todas las resecciones pulmonares y que además lo más frecuente resulta su tratamiento definitivo antes de la edad adulta, se presenta el caso de un hombre de 44 años que acudió a consulta por presentar episodios frecuentes de neumonías desde hacía más de 10 años, que fueron diagnosticados como «bronquiectasias». Se discuten los hechos más significativos del origen embriológico de esta afección, características anatomopatológicas, clasificación, diagnóstico imaginológico, detalles del tratamiento quirúrgico y evolución posoperatoria.Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital affection consisting in the presence of a cystic mass of no-functional pulmonary tissue without an obvious communication with tracheobronchial tree and that receives all or most of its bloodstream of the anomalous vessels from systemic circulation. Taking into account that presentation of this affection is rare compared to other pulmonary affections (between the 1% and the 2% of all pulmonary resections and that also the more usual is its definitive treatment before adulthood. The case of man aged 44 is presented coming to consultation due to frequent episodes of pneumonias from more 10 years ago diagnosed as a bronchiectasis. The more significant facts of embryology origin of this affection including: anatomical and pathological features, imaging diagnosis, surgical treatment details, and postoperative course.

  10. [Pulmonary strongyloidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Heiler; Daza, Jorge E

    2016-10-01

    Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, which can be asymptomatic and means a high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts, severe malnutrition and coinfection with HTLV-1 virus. The parasite has the potential to produce and multiply internal autoinfection in humans, thus an hyperinfection can be developed. A case of pulmonary infection by this parasite is presented in this study, infection which advanced into a respiratory failure and required mechanical ventilation and hemodynamic support in an intensive care unit. The standard treatment combined with ivermectin and albendazole was provided, achieving an appropriate response.

  11. [Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis with dendriform pulmonary ossification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Ana Madeleine; Vargas, Leslie

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary ossification is a rare and usually asymptomatic finding reported as incidental in lung biopsies. Similarly, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare cause of pulmonary infiltrates. We report the case of a 64-year old man with chronic respiratory symptoms in whom these two histopathological findings converged.

  12. Pulmonary biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, Peter J.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Kharitonov, Sergei A.; Magnussen, Helgo; Page, Clive P.; Postma, Dirkje; Saetta, Marina

    2006-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in using pulmonary biomarkers to understand and monitor the inflammation in the respiratory tract of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this Pulmonary Perspective we discuss the merits of the various approaches by reviewing the current l

  13. Percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement after different duration of free pulmonary regurgitation in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersboell, Mads; Vejlstrup, Niels; Nilsson, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Free pulmonary regurgitation (PR) after surgical correction of Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) with transannular patching can lead to irreversible right ventricular (RV) failure. However, the optimal timing of valve replacement is still debated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty six pigs were inc...

  14. 成人先天性心脏病合并重度肺动脉高压手术处置策略及效果分析%Outcome analysis for the surgical treatment in adult patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方敏华; 王镇龙; 张春振; 李波; 吴洪江

    2015-01-01

    的效果是满意的。%Objective To study the surgical strategy of adult patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease and to identify the risk factors for the outcomes. Methods Between January 2005 and December 2013, 202 adult patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease underwent the surgical repair. There were 95 male and 107 female with age ranged 18 to 61 years. The ratio of pulmonary arterial pressure/systemic arterial pressure (PAP/AOP) in all patients was more than 0.75 and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was ranged from 2 to 14 Wood unit before operation. 127 patients with PVR less than 6 Wood unit and without heart failure symptom underwent the surgical repair directly. 75 patients with PVR more than 6 Wood unit or with heart failure symptom underwent acute pulmonary vasodilator testing. Among them, 48 patients with positive results received the surgical repair and 27 patients with negative results underwent the surgical repair after receiving targeted therapy about from 2 to 3 month and re-undergoing cardiac catheterization to judge the change of PVR. Results The early mortality was 3.5%. The early postoperative adverse events included severe low cardiac output syndrome occured in 24 patients, hypoxemia in 19 patients and pulmonary crisis in 9 patients. Univariate analysis revealed preoperative moderate or severe MI (P=0.014), atrial fibrillation (P=0.030), the size of heart (P=0.011) as risk factors for the early death. Univariate analysis revealed age (P=0.003), preoperative moderate or severe MI (P=0.001), atrial fibrillation (P=0.001), PVR (P=0.025), the size of heart (P=0.001), the postoperative PAP/AOP more than 0.5 after 72 hour (P=0.001) as risk factors for the early postoperative adverse events. In the multivariate analysis, age (P=0.023), with moderate or severe MI (P=0.026) and the postoperative PAP/AOP more than 0.5 after 72 hour (P=0.001) was independent risk factors for the

  15. Refractory Pulmonary Edema Caused by Late Pulmonary Vein Thrombosis After Lung Transplantation: A Rare Adverse Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Eve J; Rischin, Adam; McGiffin, David; Williams, Trevor J; Paraskeva, Miranda A; Westall, Glen P; Snell, Greg

    2016-09-01

    After lung transplantation, pulmonary vein thrombosis is a rare, potentially life-threatening adverse event arising at the pulmonary venous anastomosis that typically occurs early and presents as graft failure and hemodynamic compromise with an associated mortality of up to 40%. The incidence, presentation, outcomes, and treatment of late pulmonary vein thrombosis remain poorly defined. Management options include anticoagulant agents for asymptomatic clots, and thrombolytic agents or surgical thrombectomy for hemodynamically significant clots. We present a rare case highlighting a delayed presentation of pulmonary vein thrombosis occurring longer than 2 weeks after lung transplantation and manifesting clinically as graft failure secondary to refractory pulmonary edema. The patient was treated successfully with surgical thrombectomy and remains well. We recommend a high index of suspicion of pulmonary vein thrombosis when graft failure after lung transplantation occurs and is not responsive to conventional therapy, and consideration of investigation with transesophageal echocardiography or computed tomography with venous phase contrast in such patients even more than 2 weeks after lung transplantation.

  16. Pulmonary arterioplasty using video-assisted thoracic surgery mechanical suture technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Huang, Jun; Yin, Weiqiang; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Hanzhang; Mo, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer invading pulmonary trunk is a locally advanced condition, which may indicate poor prognosis. Surgical resection of the lesion can significantly improve survival for some patients. Lobectomy/Pneumonectomy with pulmonary arterioplasty via thoracotomy were generally accepted and used in the past. As the rapid development of minimally invasive techniques and devices, pulmonary arterioplasty is feasible via video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). However, few studies have reported the VATS surgical techniques. In this study, we reported the techniques of pulmonary arterioplasty via VATS. PMID:27076961

  17. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF TETRALOGY OF FALLOT IN CHILDREN:A REPORT OF NO SURGICAL DEATH IN 115 CONSECUTIVE CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锦纷; 朱宏斌; 朱德明; 陈玲; 苏肇伉; 丁文祥

    2001-01-01

    Objective A surgical team has performed total correction of Tetralogy of Fallot ( TF) consecutively in 115 patients without surgical death. This paper presents an investigation of how to improve the surgical outcome. Methods This group included 115 children, the ages of these children at operation were from 9 months to 13 years(4.6 ± 2.7 years), 47.8% of whom were younger than 3 years old. Associated anomalies included atresia of main pulmonary artery or unilateral pulmonary artery in 4 cases, atrial septal defect ( ASD ) and patent ductus arteriosus ( PDA ) in 11 cases. All patients have undergone total correction. Ventricular septal defects were closed with Dacron patches. Autologous-pericardial patches were used to enlarge the right ventricular outflow tract and pulmonary arteries. 102 cases (89%) needed transannular patches. Results There was no surgical death and the patients have been followed up for 2 months to 4 years. One child died of cardiac arrhythmia 3 months after operation. The remaining patients recovered well. Conclusion The key points in improving the surgical outcome in TF patients lie in the improvement of surgical technique, total elimination of obstruction of right ventricular outflow tract and distal pulmonary arteries. Attention should be paid to the cardiopulmonary bypass and the postoperative care should also be emphasized.

  18. Severe stenosis of a long tracheal segment, with agenesis of the right lung and left pulmonary arterial sling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Hamish M; Sorbello, Andrea M C; Nykanen, David G

    2006-02-01

    A baby presented at term with respiratory distress was managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Bronchoscopy revealed tracheal hypoplasia, complete tracheal rings, and agenesis of the right main bronchus. Echocardiography showed a left pulmonary arterial sling arising from the proximal part of the right pulmonary artery. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated abnormal pulmonary vasculature in the left lung which would have prevented survival, even after surgical repair. Diagnostic catheterization was important in delineating the anatomy, and aided in the decision not to proceed with surgical repair.

  19. Resection of Late Pulmonary Metastases from Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Is Surgery an Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieau, Bertrand; Barret, Maximilien; Rouquette, Alexandre; Dréanic, Johann; Brezault, Catherine; Regnard, Jean François; Coriat, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Patients with recurrences from pancreas adenocarcinoma have a poor survival rate despite new chemotherapy treatment options. Recurrences are mainly hepatic metastases or peritoneal dissemination and surgical treatment is not recommended. Late and single metachronous pulmonary recurrences are uncommon and may mimic primary lung carcinoma. We report two patients with late and unique pulmonary metastasis from pancreatic cancer. These two patients underwent surgical resection; three and five years later, they did not experience recurrences. Cases called for a surgical approach in late and unique pulmonary metastases from pancreatic cancer, and paved the way for a prolonged chemotherapy free period.

  20. Pulmonary chondroid hamartoma with nontuberculous mycobacterial infection: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Moon, Jin Chang; Gang, Su Jin; Park, Seung Yong; Kim, So Ri

    2015-04-01

    Solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) can be manifested in a variety of disorders including neoplasms, infection, inflammation, and vascular or congenital abnormalities. In addition, they are often accompanied with other pulmonary pathologic lesions such as consolidations and several pulmonary disorders present as similar pulmonary nodular lesions simultaneously. Diagnostic workup is important for these SPNs; however, many physicians often miss the second diagnosis for multiple pulmonary lesions with SPNs due to lack of clinical suspicion that each pulmonary nodule or pathologic lesion can have each other's diagnosis. Herein, we report 2 cases of coexistence of pulmonary chondroid hamartoma with nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection presenting as pulmonary nodules and multiple consolidative lesions. A 60-year-old man was admitted for the evaluation of multifocal pulmonary lesions including SPN with chronic exertional dyspnea. Multiple lung tissues were obtained from each lesion through percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB). At the same time, bacteriologic examination was performed using respiratory samples obtained by bronchoscopy. Based on pathologic and microbiologic results, the patient diagnosed as pulmonary chondroid hamartoma with pulmonary NTM infectious disease. In addition, a 56-year-old woman visited for the evaluation of a small SPN. The SPN was resected surgically for the pathologic examination and turned out to be pulmonary chondroid hamartoma. Interestingly, the diagnostic workup revealed that the patient had Lady Windermere syndrome which is one of features for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease. Both patients were treated with the standard antibiotics against MAC as recommended by the ATS/IDSA guideline. This is the first report of 2 patients, as far as we know, that chondroid hamartoma and NTM disease develop simultaneously in the lung. This report emphasizes that physicians should endeavor to confirm the individual

  1. Apelin and pulmonary hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Uggerhøj; Hilberg, Ole; Mellemkjær, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by pulmonary vasoconstriction, pulmonary arterial remodeling, abnormal angiogenesis and impaired right ventricular function. Despite progress in pharmacological therapy, there is still no cure for PAH. The peptide apelin...... vasoconstriction, and has positive inotropic and cardioprotective effects. Apelin attenuates vasoconstriction in isolated rat pulmonary arteries, and chronic treatment with apelin attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension in animal models. The existing literature thus renders APLNR an interesting...

  2. Managing chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: pharmacological treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Lang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a life-threatening condition in which organised thrombi obstruct the pulmonary vessels, causing increased pulmonary vascular resistance, progressive pulmonary hypertension (PH and right heart failure. The treatment of choice is pulmonary endarterectomy, which restores pulmonary haemodynamics with acceptable periprocedural mortality rates in the majority of suitable patients. However, CTEPH may be inoperable owing to surgically inaccessible thrombi or comorbid diseases that confer an unacceptably high risk. Pharmacotherapies, although not yet approved, may be useful in this situation or for treating residual or recurrent PH following surgery. Vasodilator drugs for PH are attracting growing interest as potential treatments for CTEPH because this disease has recently been labelled as a "dual" pulmonary vascular disorder: major vessel obstruction and remodelling is combined with a small vessel arteriopathy that is histologically indistinguishable from the classical pulmonary arteriopathy observed in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Of three completed randomised controlled trials in patients with CTEPH, only one was powered to detect a treatment effect. The BENEFIT trial employed the dual endothelin-receptor antagonist bosentan. Although haemodynamics improved significantly, the second component of the primary end-point, exercise capacity, was not met. More evidence is required to resolve whether vasodilator treatments are beneficial for inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

  3. Novas técnicas cirúrgicas para o tratamento da atresia pulmonar com comunicação interventricular e anomalias de artérias pulmonares incluindo o assim chamado truncus tipo IV New surgical techniques for treatment of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and pulmonary arteries anomalies including the so-called tipo IV truncus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Barbero-Marcial

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre janeiro de 1975 e outubro de 1986, 42 pacientes com atresia pulmonar e comunicação interventricular, com idade entre 2 e 18 anos, foram submetidos a correção parcial, ou total. Foram divididos em: tipo A com todos os segmentos broncopulmonares conectados às artérias pulmonares (AP's, 34 pacientes; tipo B com alguns dos segmentos broncopulmonares conectados às AP's, 6 pacientes; tipo C com todos os segmentos broncopulmonares conectados às colaterais sistêmico-pulmonares, 2 pacientes. A correção foi planejada em uma a três etapas. No tipo A, 17 foram corrigidos em uma etapa, com três óbitos; em 9, na primeira etapa, as AP's foram reconstruídas e o Blalock (BT, realizado, tendo ocorrido um óbito. Em 2, a segunda etapa de correção total foi realizada, sem óbitos. No tipo B, a primeira etapa de unificação das colaterais intra ou extra-hilares foi realizada em 6 casos, sem óbitos; em 2, a segunda etapa da correção total foi realizada, com um óbito. No tipo C, 2 pacientes foram operados; 1 em três etapas; a primeira constou de construção de segmento arterial intermediário entre as artérias lobares e o BT; a segunda compreendeu unificação das colaterais contralaterais e a terceira, restabelecimento da continuidade ventrículo direito - circulação pulmonar; o paciente teve boa evolução. No segundo caso, a correção foi realizada após somente uma intervenção prévia. A evolução foi satisfatória. Estudos hemodinâmicos seriados foram realizados em 32 pacientes. As técnicas propostas permitem obter condições para correção total com adequada relação pós-operatória das pressões ventrículo direito - ventrículo esquerdo.Fourty-two patients with pulmonary atresia and interventricular septal defect were submited to a partial or total correction, between January 1975 and October 1986, with a range of 2 months to 18 years of age. Three groups were identified: Group A: 34 patients with all bronco-pulmonary

  4. Characteristics of Pseudoaneurysms in Southern India; Risk Analysis, Clinical Profile, Surgical Management and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafeezulla Lone

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the risk factors, clinical characteristics, surgical management and outcome of pseudoaneurysm secondary to iatrogenic or traumatic vascular injury. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study being performed in department of cardiovascular and thoracic surgery skims soura during a 4-year period. We included all the patients referring to our center with primary diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm. The pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed with angiography and color Doppler sonography. The clinical and demographic characteristics were recorded and the risk factors were identified accordingly. Patients with small swelling (less than 5-cm and without any complication were managed conservatively. They were followed for progression and development of complications in relation to swelling. Others underwent surgical repair and excision. The outcome of the patients was also recorded. Results: Overall we included 20 patients with pseudoaneurysm. The mean age of the patients was 42.1±0.6 years. Among them there were 11 (55% men and 9 (45% women. Nine (45% patients with end stage renal disease developed pseudoaneurysm after inadvertent femoral artery puncture for hemodialysis; two patients after interventional cardiology procedure; one after femoral embolectomy; one developed after fire arm splinter injury and one formed femoral artery related pseudoaneurysm after drainage of right inguinal abscess. The most common site of pseudoaneurysm was femoral artery followed by brachial artery. Overall surgical intervention was performed in 17 (85% patients and 3 (15% were managed conservatively. Conclusion: End stage renal disease is a major risk factor for pseudoaneurysm formation. Coagulopathy, either therapeutic or pathological is also an important risk factor. Patients with these risk factors need cannulation of venous structures for hemodialysis under ultrasound guide to prevent inadvertent arterial injury. Patients with end stage renal disease who

  5. Preparation for a pulmonary lobectomy by the daVinci Robot Surgical System:an assistant experience sharing%做好达芬奇机器人肺叶切除手术前的准备工作--一个助手的经验分享

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许世广; 王述民

    2015-01-01

    The minimal invasiveness and safety of the daVinci Surgical System have been approved since it was introduced into China.However,there still is a challenge in pulmonary lobectomy by using the system.To date,only a few domestic surgeons have com-pleted a small number of cases.Little experience can be exchanged about how to make incisions during the operation.In this article,as an assistant,we described our experience about the preparatory work before and during the operation.We wish it could be useful for sur-gical colleagues who carry out the robot assisted surgeries.%自达芬奇机器人引进国内以来,其微创性和安全性已经得到认可,但应用达芬奇机器人系统完成肺叶切除仍具有挑战性。到目前为止,通过达芬奇机器人手术系统完成肺叶切除的单位和完成的例数均较少,在肺叶切除中如何打孔还没有好的经验可以借鉴。本文从助手的角度,就如何做好各项准备工作,协助术者完成机器人肺叶切除的诸多细节问题进行描述,抛砖引玉,期望对于即将开展此类手术的外科同仁有所裨益。

  6. Acute Pulmonary Reperfusion Hemorrhage: A Rare Complication After Oversized Percutaneous Balloon Valvuloplasty for Pulmonary Valve Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-I Cheng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Balloon valvuloplasty became the treatment of choice for valvular pulmonary stenosis following its first description in 1982 by Kan et al, and has almost replaced surgical pulmonary valvotomy in the present day. It is a safe and effective method for children for relief of right ventricular obstruction. The results of the procedure are excellent, without significant complications. This report describes the case of a 12-year-old boy who received successful balloon valvuloplasty for critical pulmonary valve stenosis complicated by an episode of acute pulmonary hemorrhage. Because of cyanosis, hypotension and bradycardia, he received emergent endotracheal intubation with 100% oxygen supplement and the highest infusion rate of inotropic agents. Venoarterial mode extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was indicated for life support due to the persistent high oxygenation index. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation played a key role in the survival of this patient during the course of treatment.

  7. Localization fibrosing mediastinitis causing pulmonary infraction: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sur, Young Keun; Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Park, Kyung Joo; Koh, Young Wha; Sun, Joo Sung [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A 44-year-old female patient visited our emergency room for hemoptysis and refractory chest wall pain of 2 months duration. She had no history of smoking or other medical conditions. Chest CT scan showed homogenously enhancing soft tissue mass without calcification at the left pulmonary hilum. Encasing and compression of the left lower pulmonary artery by the mass had resulted in pulmonary infarction in the left lower lobe. Laboratory tests for tuberculosis, fungus, and vasculitis were all negative. The patient underwent surgical biopsy and resection of infarcted left lower lobe that was histopathologically confirmed as fibrosing mediastinitis. Herein, we reported a rare case of surgically confirmed and treated localized fibrosing mediastinitis causing pulmonary infarction.

  8. Tomografia computadorizada na avaliação tardia do tratamento cirúrgico da conexão anômala total de veias pulmonares Computed tomography in late evaluation of surgical treatment of pulmonary veins total anomalous connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses Alexandre Croti

    2011-12-01

    findings of multislice computed tomography (MSCT are associated with clinical and laboratory tests routinely used in the late follow-up of children undergoing surgical treatment of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC. METHODS: From January 2002 to December 2007, 12 patients operated due to CATVP were evaluated with history, physical examination, chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, echocardiography and MSCT. Specific changes observed in each one of these tests were identified and compared with MSCT qualitative findings. RESULTS: Eleven patients were in functional class I (NYHA, three had nonspecific murmurs, and three were below the 15th percentile of weight and height. Two had pulmonary field abnormalities and three had a slight increase of the cardiac area in the X-ray examination. In the electrocardiogram, one patient had right ventricular overload and one had junctional rhythm. All echocardiograms were within the normal range, except for one patient with stenosis between the superior vena cava and right atrium. MSCT was completely normal in four patients, three had compression of the pulmonary veins and four had significant caliber reduction, which correlated with the other findings. Thus, MSCT showed a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 0.75%, positive predictive value of 87.5%, negative predictive value of 75% and accuracy of 83.3% to demonstrate anatomic changes compared to changes in the physical examination or other additional tests. CONCLUSION: MSTC may provide valuable information and complement the diagnosis of possible anatomical and functional changes in the late follow-up of patients undergoing surgical repair of TAPVC.

  9. Application of Blocking Unilateral Main Pulmonary Artery in Pulmonary Lobectomy of Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Gao; Yunchao Huang; Lixia Liang; Anning Chen; Tierong Zhao

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the application of blocking the unilateral main pulmonary artery (MPA) in pulmonary lobectomy (PL) for patients with stage Ⅱand Ⅲ lung cancer, and to retrospectively analyze the methods of surgery for blocking the unilateral main pulmonary artery, perioperative indications, intraoperative concerns and postoperative cardio-pulmonary complications. METHODS During a period from January 2006 to January 2008, intra-pericardial, or extra-pericardial separation and blockade of the left or right MPA followed by completion of various PLs were conducted for 30 lung cancer patients in stage-Ⅱ to Ⅲ with ill- defined anatomic structure of the pulmonary hilum and difficult pulmonary angiodiastasis.RESULTS In the 30 patients, 5 were diagnosed as stage-Ⅱb, 11 stage-Ⅲa, and 14 stage-Ⅲb. During the surgery, giant tumors at the superior pulmonary lobe, with a diameter of over 10 cm, were seen in 13 cases, in which tumor invasion in the extra-pericardiac pulmonary artery was found in 5 cases. Hilar lymphadenectasis with severe tumor adhesion to pulmonary blood vessel could be seen in 20 cases and partial tumorous invasion in the pericardium in 7. In most of the cases, adhesions existed around the tumor, aorta, superior vena, and azygous vein. Invasion of the laryngeal and vagus nerves on the left side was found in 3 cases. Of the 30 patients, simple PL was conducted in 12, and sleeve lobectomy combined with a pulmonary arterioplasty in 18 cases. With a blockade of unilateral MPA, no intraoperative hemorrhea of pulmonary blood vessels occurred during surgery, when there was a clear surgical field of vision. Both PL and lymphadenectomy were smoothly completed in the 30 patients. The healthy pulmonary lobes with normal function were kept and total pneumonectomy was avoided. The time of blocking the pulmonary artery ranged from 10 to 30 min, and intraoperative blood loss was from 200 to 300 ml. Postoperative complicated acute pulmonary edema occurred in

  10. Surgical treatment of 154 patients with non-traumatic acute lower limb ischemia%外科治疗非创伤急性下肢缺血154例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖传军; 杨宝钟; 张望德; 王克勤; 邢彤; 苑超

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨非创伤急性下肢缺血的外科治疗方法及影响预后的因素,对比急性动脉栓塞和急性动脉血栓形成的发病率和预后.方法 回顾性分析1999年7月至2007年12月手术治疗的154例急性下肢缺血病例,所有病例均行股动脉或胭动脉切开、Fogarty导管取栓术.单纯取栓128例,Fogarty导管取栓+内膜剥脱术8例,Fogarty导管取栓+人工血管或自体大隐静脉转流术13例,Fogarty导管取栓+一期截肢术5例.按照病因将病例分为急性动脉栓塞组(99例)和急性动脉血栓形成组(55例),对比两组发病率、截肢率、病死率及截肢高危因素.结果 急性动脉栓塞组男性发病率(39.4%)低于女性(60.6%)(P0.05).两组病例截肢的共同高危因素是肢体缺血时间,急性动脉血栓形成组截肢风险还与吸烟和糖尿病有关.结论 急性动脉栓塞男性发病率高于女性,急性动脉血栓形成女性发病率高于男性,急性动脉栓塞截肢率低于急性动脉血栓形成,而急性动脉血栓形成比急性动脉栓塞具有更高截肢风险.%Objective To analyze the surgical treatment and prognosis of non-traumatic acute lower limb ischemia, and compare the morbility and prognosis of acute arterial embolism and acute arterial thrombosis. Methods The clinical data of 154 acute lower limb ischemia patients surgically treated from July 1999 to December 2007 were restrospectively analized. Fogarty catheter embolectomy was used in all patients; in which, 128 cases underwent Fogarty catheter embolectomy only, 8 cases Fogarty catheter embelectomy combined with endarterectomy, 13 cases Fogarty catheter embolectomy combined with vascular reconstruction with prosthetic graft or great saphenous vein, 5 cases Fogarty catheter embolectomy combined with amputation. The patients were divided into two groups according to pathogenesis: acute arterial embolism group (99 cases) and acute arterial thrombosis group (55 cases). The morbility

  11. Accuracy of percutaneous lung biopsy for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffer, F.A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Gow, K.; Davidoff, A. [Dept. of Surgery, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Flynn, P.M. [Dept. of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Background. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is fulminant and often fatal in immunosuppressed patients. Percutaneous biopsy may select patients who could benefit from surgical resection. Objective. We sought to determine the accuracy of percutaneous biopsy for pediatric invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed 28 imaging-guided percutaneous biopsies of the lungs of 24 children with suspected pulmonary aspergillosis. Twenty-two were being treated for malignancy and two for congenital immunodeficiency; 15 had received bone-marrow transplants. The accuracy of the percutaneous lung biopsy was determined by subsequent surgical resection, autopsy, or clinical course. Results. Histopathological studies showed ten biopsy specimens with septate hyphae, indicating a mold, and seven with Aspergillus flavus colonies in culture. The remaining 18 biopsies revealed no fungi. No patient had progressive aspergillosis after negative biopsy. Invasive pulmonary mold was detected by percutaneous biopsy with 100 % (10/10) sensitivity and 100 % (18/18) specificity. Percutaneous biopsy results influenced the surgical decision in 86 % (24 of 28) of the cases. Bleeding complicated the biopsy in 46 % (13/28) and hastened one death. Conclusion. Percutaneous biopsy of the lung is an accurate technique for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and correctly determines which immunosuppressed pediatric patients would benefit from therapeutic pulmonary resection. (orig.)

  12. Pulmonary cavernous hemangioma:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyi Jia; Shaolin Sun; Xiaokai Zhang; Lixin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of pulmonary cavernous hemangioma in a 51-year-old female. A computed tomographic scan of the chest showed an il-defined mass measuring 2.3 cm × 2.2 cm in the right lower lobe. Surgical resection was per-formed and postoperative histological examination revealed cavernous hemangioma. We reviewed the clinical features and therapeutic methods of hemangioma.

  13. PULMONARY CYSTIC ECHINOCOCCOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santivanez, Saul; Garcia, Hector H.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary cystic echinococosis, a zoonosis caused by the larvae of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, is considered as a major public health problem in those countries where dogs are used to care for large herds because of the incapacitating effects produced in affected population. The ratio lung:liver involvement is higher in children than in adults. A higher proportion of lung cases are discovered incidentally on a routine x-ray evaluation; the majority of infected people remain asymptomatic until the cyst enlarges sufficiently to cause symptoms. The majority of symptoms are caused by mass effect from the cyst volume; the presence of complications caused by cysts broke changes the clinical presentation; the principal complication is cyst rupture, producing cough, chest pain, hemoptysis, or vomica. Diagnosis is obtained by imaging evaluation (Chest X-ray or CT scan), supported by serology in the majority of cases. Surgery is the main therapeutic approach, having as principal objective, the removal of the parasite, preventing intraoperative dissemination; the use of pre surgical chemotherapy reduces the chances of seeding and recurrence; treatment using benzimidazoles is the preferred treatment when surgery is not available, or complete removal is not feasible PMID:20216420

  14. Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia: A rare case of hemoptysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy S. DeMastes-Crabtree

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of hemoptysis secondary to isolated unilateral pulmonary vein atresia. Isolated pulmonary vein atresia is a rare condition in which patients typically acquire a diagnosis in infancy and early childhood [Mataciunas et al.; Pourmoghadam et al.]. Our patient presented during puberty with several previous episodes of hemoptysis prior to her admission and diagnosis. The initial diagnosis was suspected in our patient from chest computerized tomography (CT, and confirmed with cardiac catheterization and pulmonary angiography. Treatment aim is to preserve lung function and minimize irreversible pulmonary remodeling [Pourmoghadam et al.; Harrison et al.]. Conservative monitoring can be considered with milder or asymptomatic cases, while others may require preoperative collateral artery banding, surgical anastomosis between the pulmonary vein (PV & left atrium (LA and even pneumonectomy [Pourmoghadam et al.].

  15. Pulmonary and tricuspid valvuloplasty in carcinoid heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ashkan; Pourafshar, Negiin; Fudge, James C

    2016-12-28

    A 26-year-old female with carcinoid heart disease consisting of severe pulmonary and tricuspid valve stenosis was admitted with line associated sepsis. She recovered from sepsis with antibiotics and aggressive fluid resuscitation but became grossly volume overloaded with evidence of tense ascites and lower extremity edema. She developed worsening renal and hepatic function due to congestive nephropathy and hepatopathy, which did not respond to intravenous diuretics, and she was deemed too sick for surgical pulmonary and tricuspid valve replacement. Pulmonary and tricuspid valvuloplasty was performed as a rescue measure to alleviate her congestive symptoms and improve her candidacy for valve replacement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Unilateral Absence of the Pulmonary Artery Incidentally Found in Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Aypak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (UAPA or pulmonary artery agenesis is a rare congenital disorder presenting with a wide spectrum of symptoms. UAPA is usually associated with cardiac anomalies and surgically treated in childhood. We report a rare case of a 50-year-old woman who was diagnosed with left pulmonary artery agenesis without any other cardiac anomalies. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of undiagnosed cases of UAPA in patients through a chest radiograph that suggests the diagnosis. Confirmation of the diagnosis and anatomic details can be discerned by CT scanning.

  17. Pulmonary infarction after repair of type B aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoly, Imthiaz; Woo, Edwin B C; Peebles, Charles; Khawaja, Saud

    2012-07-01

    Lung infarction after intrathoracic surgery is a life-threatening complication that needs urgent intervention. Although the exact etiology is not known, pulmonary infarction may be suspected for patients presenting with consolidation of the lung after intrathoracic surgery. We report a very rare case of pulmonary infarction after successful surgical treatment of a type B aortic dissection. The pulmonary infarction was treated by intrapericardial pneumonectomy. This article discusses possible etiology and management of such patients. A high index of clinical suspicion and timely investigations may allow early detection of this unusual event and avoid fatal outcomes.

  18. Pulmonary hematocele mimicking posterior mediastinal mass : two cases report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Dae Sik; Kim, Nam Hyeun; Jung, Seung Mun; Choi, Soo Jung; Wo, Don Hee; Kim, Jong Ook; Park, Chong Bin; Park, Man Soo [Asan foundation. Kangneung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    Closed chest trauma occasionally results in the development of traumatic lung cyst or pulmonary hematocele.Radiologically, this latter rarely mimics posterior mediastinal mass, which can cause unnecessary surgical resection, We encountered two cases of pulmonary hematocele simulating posterior mediastinal mass. Multiplicity of the lesion, fracture of surrounding bony structure, decrease of mass size at follow-up examination, an acute angle between the mass and chest wall, peripheral rim enhancement of the mass, as seen on CT scans, or characteristic signal intensity suggesting hematoma, as seen on MR images, helped differentiate pulmonary hematocele from posterior mediastinal mass.

  19. Pulmonary Hemorrhage in Cryoglobulinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Kirkpatrick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary manifestations of cryoglobulinemia are uncommon and their clinical behaviour is unpredictable, ranging from mild dyspnea to life-threatening presentations. A patient with cryoglobulinemia who presented with hypoxic respiratory failure attributed to pulmonary hemorrhage is reported.

  20. Pregnancy and pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, Petronella G.; Lameijer, Heleen; Hoendermis, Elke S.

    Pulmonary hypertension during pregnancy is associated with considerable risks of maternal mortality and morbidity. Our systematic review of the literature on the use of targeted treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension during pregnancy indicates a considerable decrease of mortality since a

  1. HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 03-13T18:29:11+00:00 PH and HIV Print PH and HIV Brochure (PDF) Order Copies ... to know about pulmonary hypertension in connection with HIV? Although pulmonary hypertension and HIV are two separate ...

  2. Miliary pulmonary cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Kelly

    2014-10-01

    Imaging features of pulmonary cryptococcosis are generally of well-defined pleural-based nodules and less commonly alveolar infiltrates, lymphadenopathy, pleural effusions or cavitating lesions. Miliary pulmonary infiltrates are an exceptionally rare presentation.

  3. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001090.htm Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection between an artery and ...

  4. Histoplasmosis - acute (primary) pulmonary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000098.htm Histoplasmosis - acute (primary) pulmonary To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis is a respiratory infection that is caused by ...

  5. Infant-type anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery: analysis of diagnosis and surgical treatment%婴儿左冠状动脉异常起源于肺动脉的诊疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱家伟; 李方; 李轩; 尹朝华; 闫军; 王强; 李巅远

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨左冠状动脉异常起源于肺动脉(anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery,ALCAPA)的临床特点、诊断方法、外科治疗及疗效分析.方法 2006年6月~ 2015年1月阜外医院诊断为ALCA-PA并行手术治疗患儿29例,对这些患儿的临床资料、诊断与治疗情况及随访结果进行回顾性分析.随访结果根据包括复查结果及电话随访.结果 本组患者男性16例,女性13例,年龄2月~1(0.75 ±0.27)岁,体质量4.8~11.5(8.0±2.2)kg,左心室射血分数18 ~66(42±18)%.患儿均出现临床心功能不全症状,并通过心电图、心脏彩超及64排螺旋CT检查以明确诊断.并发二尖瓣轻度反流10例,中度反流5例,重度反流4例.手术中将左冠状动脉从肺动脉游离后,直接将左冠状动脉移植到升主动脉15例,用部分肺动脉干和主动脉壁或心包片作左冠状动脉延伸与升主动脉吻合13例,应用肺动脉内通道术(Takeuchi方法)1例.9例并发二尖瓣中度及以上反流者同期作二尖瓣成形术.术毕3例行体外膜肺氧合(extracorporeal membrane oxygenation,ECMO)辅助左心系统.无手术早期死亡.术后随访资料24例(83%,24/29),随访1~80(22 ±20)个月,患儿术后症状均明显改善.结论 ALCAPA的患儿应早期诊断,及早手术治疗.冠状动脉直接移植术是目前重建双冠状动脉系统的首选方案,外科治疗效果良好.

  6. Preoperative evaluation of pulmonary artery morphology and pulmonary circulation in neonates with pulmonary atresia - usefulness of MR angiography in clinical routine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawel Nadine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the role of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA in clinical routine for evaluating neonates with pulmonary atresia (PA and to describe their pulmonary artery morphology and blood supply. CE-MRA studies of 15 neonates with PA (12 female; median weight: 2900 g were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. Each study was judged to be either diagnostic or non-diagnostic depending on the potential to evaluate pulmonary artery morphology and pulmonary blood supply. In those cases where surgery or conventional angiocardiography was performed results were compared. Results CE-MRA was considered diagnostic in 87%. Pulmonary artery morphology was classified as "confluent with (n = 1 and without (n = 1 main pulmonary artery", "non-confluent" (n = 6 or "absent" (n = 7. Source of pulmonary blood supply was "a persistent arterial duct" (n = 12, "a direct" (n = 22 or "indirect (n = 9 aortopulmonary collateral artery (APCA" or "an APCA from the ascending aorta" (n = 2. In no patient were there any additional findings at surgery or conventional angiocardiography which would have changed the therapeutic or surgical approach. Conclusions CE-MRA is a useful diagnostic tool for the preoperative evaluation of the morphology of pulmonary arteries and blood supply in neonates with PA. In most cases diagnostic cardiac catheterization can be avoided.

  7. Histoplasmosis presenting with solitary pulmonary nodule: two cases mimicking pulmonary metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, C; Zhang, G; Wang, J; Chai, Y

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary histoplasmosis is a granulomatous disease, whose diagnosis is not always easy, as it may simulate metastatic lesions due to similar radiographic findings. We herein report two cases of histoplasmosis with solitary pulmonary nodule in asymptomatic patients with histories of cancer surgeries, whose diagnoses were confirmed by postoperative pathological examinations. Doctors must pay attention to risk factors for immunosuppression such as the histories of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or malignancy, which may increase chances of developing histoplasmosis. Limited surgical intervention is the treatment of choice for these localized lesions.

  8. Pulmonary artery rupture in a patient receiving an orthotopic heart transplant after total artificial heart explant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Koichi; Weiner, Menachem M; Evans, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Our case illustrates a patient who suffered a pulmonary artery rupture despite previous total artificial heart implantation and replacement with orthotopic heart transplant. Pulmonary artery rupture during or following cardiac surgery has been reported to occur due to both pulmonary artery catheter use and surgical technique. Our case is the first to demonstrate the occurrence of this complication in the total artificial heart patient population.

  9. Blastomatoid pulmonary carcinosarcoma: report of a case with a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer Inga-Marie; Sahlmann Carsten-Oliver; Overbeck Tobias; Schweyer Stefan; Menke Jan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pulmonary carcinosarcoma is a biphasic tumour with an unfavourable prognosis. The differential diagnosis includes pulmonary blastoma and is often challenging. Case presentation We here describe a case of blastomatoid pulmonary carcinosarcoma in a 58-year-old patient, who underwent surgical resection. Histopathological examination revealed immature glandular epithelium resembling high-grade fetal adenocarcinoma expressing epithelial markers and membranous beta-catenin, and ...

  10. Pulmonary Hypertension Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chest X-ray, a breathing test called a pulmonary function test and an echocardiogram (sometimes called an “echo”). Your doctor may also need to do other tests to find out whether another medical condition is causing your pulmonary hypertension. TreatmentHow is pulmonary hypertension treated?If the ...

  11. Pulmonary Hypertension Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at www.AHeartCures.org . Help Kickoff November’s Pulmonary Hypertension Awareness Month Want to help raise awareness for ... Heart2CurePH | Help promote Awareness Month Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH) Awareness Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is ...

  12. Non-operative management of tube thoracostomy induced pulmonary artery injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramurthy, Senthilkumar R; Moshinsky, Randall A; Smith, Julian A

    2009-10-01

    Tube thoracostomy insertion is a common procedure in the management of air and fluid collections in the pleural space. Pulmonary artery injury is a rare but serious complication following intercostal catheterisation. This complication is usually managed surgically. We report a case of successful non-operative management of a pulmonary artery injury after tube thoracostomy.

  13. Diagnostic Evaluation and Management of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: A Clinical Practice Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mehta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism is a common condition. Some patients subsequently develop chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH. Many care gaps exist in the diagnosis and management of CTEPH patients including lack of awareness, incomplete diagnostic assessment, and inconsistent use of surgical and medical therapies.

  14. [Role of surgery in the management of pulmonary parasitosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avaro, J-P; Thefenne, H; Brioude, G; Orsini, B; Garnotel, E; Thomas, P

    2012-04-01

    Pulmonary parasitosis is scarcely encountered in France, and its diagnosis is quite difficult. If numerous parasites can be responsible for respiratory symptoms, only few of them can develop in the lung parenchyma and lead to complications necessitating a surgical treatment. The most common example is the hydatic disease of the lung. The authors review the biological cycles, clinical forms, diagnostic and treatment principles of those main lung parasites, which deserve surgical consideration.

  15. Micro-surgical endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Vere, J; Ali, Z; Harris, I

    2014-02-01

    Non-surgical endodontic retreatment is the treatment of choice for endodontically treated teeth with recurrent or residual disease in the majority of cases. In some cases, surgical endodontic treatment is indicated. Successful micro-surgical endodontic treatment depends on the accuracy of diagnosis, appropriate case selection, the quality of the surgical skills, and the application of the most appropriate haemostatic agents and biomaterials. This article describes the armamentarium and technical procedures involved in performing micro-surgical endodontics to a high standard.

  16. Surgical innovation as sui generis surgical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Mianna

    2013-12-01

    Successful innovative 'leaps' in surgical technique have the potential to contribute exponentially to surgical advancement, and thereby to improved health outcomes for patients. Such innovative leaps often occur relatively spontaneously, without substantial forethought, planning, or preparation. This feature of surgical innovation raises special challenges for ensuring sufficient evaluation and regulatory oversight of new interventions that have not been the subject of controlled investigatory exploration and review. It is this feature in particular that makes early-stage surgical innovation especially resistant to classification as 'research', with all of the attendant methodological and ethical obligations--of planning, regulation, monitoring, reporting, and publication--associated with such a classification. This paper proposes conceptual and ethical grounds for a restricted definition according to which innovation in surgical technique is classified as a form of sui generis surgical 'research', where the explicit goal of adopting such a definition is to bring about needed improvements in knowledge transfer and thereby benefit current and future patients.

  17. Correlation between surgical lung biopsy and autopsy findings and clinical data in patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and acute respiratory failure Correlação entre achados de biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica e de autópsia e dados clínicos em pacientes com infiltrados pulmonares difusos e insuficiência respiratória aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Canzian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Surgical lung biopsy is an invasive procedure performed when other procedures have failed to provide an urgent and specific diagnosis, but there may be reluctance to perform it in critically ill patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, the changes in therapy and survival of patients with diffuse lung infiltrates, mostly presenting acute respiratory failure, who underwent surgical biopsy. METHODS: We retrospectively examined medical records and surgical lung biopsies from 1982 to 2003 of 63 patients older than 18 years with diffuse infiltrates. Clinical diagnoses were compared to histopathological ones, from biopsies and autopsies. Laboratory and epidemiological data were evaluated, and their relationship to hospital survival was analyzed. RESULTS: All histological specimens exhibited abnormalities, mostly presenting benign/inflammatory etiologies. Fifteen patients had an etiologic factor determined in biopsy, most commonly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The preoperative diagnosis was rectified in 37 patients. Autopsies were obtained in 25 patients and confirmed biopsy results in 72% of cases. Therapy was changed for 65% of patients based on biopsy results. Forty-nine percent of patients survived to be discharged from the hospital. Characteristics that differed significantly between survivors and nonsurvivors included sex (P = 0.05, presence of comorbidity (P = 0.05, SpO2 (P = 0.05, and presence of diffuse alveolar damage in the biopsy (P = 0.004. CONCLUSION: Surgical lung biopsy provided a specific, accurate etiologic diagnosis in many patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates when clinical improvement did not occur after standard treatment. Surgical lung biopsy may reveal a specific diagnosis that requires distinct treatment, and it would probably have an impact in lowering the mortality of these patients.INTRODUÇÃO: A biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica é um procedimento invasivo

  18. Multidetector computed tomography pulmonary angiography in childhood acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun Xiang; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States); Chowdhury, Shahryar M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States); Fox, Mary A. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition affecting people of all ages. Multidetector row CT pulmonary angiography has improved the imaging of pulmonary embolism in both adults and children and is now regarded as the routine modality for detection of pulmonary embolism. Advanced CT pulmonary angiography techniques developed in recent years, such as dual-energy CT, have been applied as a one-stop modality for pulmonary embolism diagnosis in children, as they can simultaneously provide anatomical and functional information. We discuss CT pulmonary angiography techniques, common and uncommon findings of pulmonary embolism in both conventional and dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography, and radiation dose considerations. (orig.)

  19. Preceding bronchial cutting for exposure of the pulmonary artery buried in scar tissue after chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomori, Hiroaki; Cong, Yue; Sugimura, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    It is often difficult to expose the pulmonary artery buried in a scar tissue, especially in lung cancer patients that responded well to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Difficulty to access pulmonary artery branches may lead to potentially unnecessary pneumonectomy. To complete lobectomy in such cases, a technique with preceding bronchial cutting for exposure of the pulmonary artery is presented. After dissecting the pulmonary vein, the lobar bronchus is cut from the opposite side of the pulmonary artery with scissors. The back wall of the lobar bronchus is cut using a surgical knife from the luminal face, which can expose the pulmonary artery behind the bronchial stump and then complete lobectomy. Fourteen patients have been treated using the present technique, enabling complete resection by lobectomy (including sleeve lobectomy in 3 patients) without major bleeding. The present procedure can expose pulmonary artery buried in scar tissue, resulting in making the lobectomy safer.

  20. [Total anomalous connection of the pulmonary veins in the adult. Presentation of 4 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Abundis, A; Rendón Aguilar, P; Badui, E

    1989-01-01

    The authors described the clinical, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic studies, as well as the surgical findings in four adult patients with total anomalous connexion of the pulmonary veins (TACPV); two of them with pulmonary arterial hypertension and T A C P V draining in the coronary sinus, and the other two cases with normal pulmonary artery pressure and T A C P V draining in the superior vena cava. None of the patients had symptoms nor signs of congestive heart failure. All cases had successful surgical interventions. Patients survival into adulthood is discussed.

  1. Angiostatic factors in the pulmonary endarterectomy material from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients cause endothelial dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Zabini

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a rare disease with persistent thrombotic occlusion or stenosis of the large pulmonary arteries resulting in pulmonary hypertension. Surgical removal of the neointimal layer of these vessels together with the non-resolved thrombus consisting of organized collagen-rich fibrotic areas with partly recanalized regions is the treatment of choice (pulmonary endarterectomy, PEA. The present study investigates endothelial cells isolated from such material as well as factors present in the surgical PEA material, which may contribute to impairment of recanalization and thrombus non-resolution. We observed muscularized vessels and non-muscularized vessels in the PEA material. The isolated endothelial cells from the PEA material showed significantly different calcium homeostasis as compared to pulmonary artery endothelial cells (hPAECs from normal controls. In the supernatant (ELISA as well as on the tissue level (histochemical staining of the PEA material, platelet factor 4 (PF4, collagen type I and interferon-gamma-inducible 10 kD protein (IP-10 were detected. CXCR3, the receptor for PF4 and IP-10, was particularly elevated in the distal parts of the PEA material as compared to human control lung (RT-PCR. PF4, collagen type I and IP-10 caused significant changes in calcium homeostasis and affected the cell proliferation, migration and vessel formation in hPAECs. The presence of angiostatic factors like PF4, collagen type I and IP-10, as recovered from the surgical PEA material from CTEPH patients, may lead to changes in calcium homeostasis and endothelial dysfunction.

  2. Mechanisms responsible for pulmonary hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Pulmonary hypertension is a pathophysiologic process characterized by progressive elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance and right heart failure, which is a common complication of many diseases. Pulmonary hypertension with no apparent causes (unknown etiology) is termed primary pulmonary hypertension or, more recently, idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH).

  3. Pulmonary arterial hypertension : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendermis, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance a

  4. Pyo-Mediastinitis: A Complication of Pulmonary Coccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Y Rady

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare fatal case of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis complicated by mediastinal and visceral abscesses treated with antifungal medications is described. The case report discusses the potential need for early surgical intervention to drain mediastinal and visceral abscesses as a primary mode of therapy in disseminated coccidioidomycosis for a successful control of infection and clinical outcome.

  5. Transcatheter rehabilitation of pulmonary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, John D R; Qureshi, Shakeel A

    2011-11-01

    Pulmonary arterial stenoses commonly occur in patients with congenital heart disease. Indications for treatment are based around reduction of right ventricular hypertension and equalization of flow to each lung and its constituent segments. There are many treatment approaches for these lesions depending on the anatomy, location and the age of the patient. Although surgical reconstruction remains an option, it is technically challenging and in many cases, the results are disappointing. In the modern era, the majority of these patients are treated with transcatheter therapy, including balloon angioplasty, and increasingly, the use of intravascular stents. In this article, we discuss these issues and deal with both the technical approach to transcatheter therapy and up-to-date results.

  6. Awake operative videothoracoscopic pulmonary resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeo, Eugenio; Mineo, Tommaso C

    2008-08-01

    The authors' initial experience with awake videothoracoscopic lung resection suggests that these procedures can be easily and safely performed under sole thoracic epidural anesthesia with no mortality and negligible morbidity. One major concern was that operating on a ventilating lung would render surgical maneuvers more difficult because of the lung movements and lack of a sufficient operating space. Instead, the open pneumothorax created after trocar insertion produces a satisfactory lung collapse that does not hamper surgical maneuvers. These results contradict the accepted assumption that the main prerequisite for allowing successful thoracoscopic lung surgery is general anesthesia with one-lung ventilation. No particular training is necessary to accomplish an awake pulmonary resection for teams experienced in thoracoscopic surgery, and conversions to general anesthesia are mainly caused by the presence of extensive fibrous pleural adhesions or the development of intractable panic attacks. Overall, awake pulmonary resection is easily accepted and well tolerated by patients, as confirmed by the high anesthesia satisfaction score, which was better than in nonawake control patients. Nonetheless, thoracic epidural anesthesia has potential complications, including epidural hematoma, spinal cord injury, and phrenic nerve palsy caused by inadvertently high anesthetic level, but these never occurred in the authors' experience. Further concerns relate to patient participation in operating room conversations or risk for development of perioperative panic attacks. However, the authors have found that reassuring the patient during the procedure, explaining step-by-step what is being performed, and even showing the ongoing procedure on the operating video can greatly improve the perioperative wellness and expectations of patients, particularly if the procedure is performed for oncologic diseases. Panic attacks occurred in few patients and could be usually managed through

  7. Pulmonary Complications following Thoracic Spinal Surgery: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Brandon C.; Schnell, Eric C.; Dettori, Joseph R.; Jeyamohan, Shiveindra; Oskouian, Rod

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Objective To determine the frequency of pulmonary effusion, pneumothorax, and hemothorax in adult patients undergoing thoracic corpectomy or osteotomy for any condition and to determine if these frequencies vary by surgical approach (i.e., anterior, posterior, or lateral). Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched through September 21, 2015, to identify studies specifically evaluating the frequency of pulmonary effusion, pneumothorax, and hemothorax in patients undergoing thoracic spine surgery. Results Fourteen studies, 13 retrospective and 1 prospective, met inclusion criteria. The frequency across studies of pulmonary effusion ranged from 0 to 77%; for hemothorax, 0 to 77%; and for pneumothorax, 0 to 50%. There was no clear pattern of pulmonary complications with respect to surgical approach. Conclusions There is insufficient data to determine the risk of pulmonary complications following anterior, posterior, or lateral approaches to the thoracic spine. Methods for assessing pulmonary complications were not well reported, and data is sparse. PMID:27099821

  8. Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... majority of tissue used to produce these mesh implants are from a pig (porcine) or cow (bovine) ...

  9. Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... majority of tissue used to produce these mesh implants are from a pig (porcine) or cow (bovine). ...

  10. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  11. Optimizing surgical f

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Mohamed Amin

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: In our study both dexmedetomidine and esmolol were effective in reducing MABP, and lowering the heart rate providing dry surgical field and ensured good surgical condition during cochlear implant surgery in pediatric patients.

  12. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  13. Pulmonary metastasectomy in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erginel, Basak; Gun Soysal, Feryal; Keskin, Erbug; Kebudi, Rejin; Celik, Alaaddin; Salman, Tansu

    2016-02-02

    This study aims to evaluate the outcomes of pulmonary metastasectomy resections in pediatric patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 43 children who were operated on in the Pediatric Surgery Clinic between January 1988 and 2014. Forty-three children (26 boys; 17 girls; mean age 10±4.24 years, range 6 months-18 years) who underwent pulmonary metastasectomy resection were included in the study. The patients were evaluated based on age, gender, history of disease, surgical procedures, complications, duration of hospitalization, duration of chest tube placement, and procedure outcome. Indications for pediatric resections were oncological. Metastasis was secondary to Wilms' tumor in 14 patients, osteosarcoma in 7 patients, Ewing's sarcoma in 5 patients, rhabdomyosarcoma in 5 patients, lymphoma in 3 patients, hepatoblastoma in 2 patients, and other tumors in 7 patients. A total of 59 thoracotomies were performed. Approaches utilized included unilateral posterolateral thoracotomy (n=33), bilateral posterolateral thoracotomy (n=8), and sternotomy (n=2). Wedge resection was the procedure of choice (n=44). In selected cases, 11 segmentectomies, 3 lobectomies, and 1 pneumonectomy were performed. There was no perioperative mortality. One patient suffered prolonged air leak and three patients from fever. All patients received chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was administered to 16 patients (37.2%). Of those 16 patients, 7 had Wilms' tumor, 6 had Ewing's sarcoma/PNET, and 3 were rhabdomyosarcoma patients. During a median follow-up of 3 years, the overall survival was 74.4%. Multidisciplinary treatment involving pediatric oncologists, surgeons, and radiation oncologists is necessary to obtain positive results in children who have pulmonary metastases of oncological diseases. Wedge resection is a suitable option for children because less lung tissue is resected.

  14. Infant-type anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery:early results analysis of ;surgical repair in 23 cases%婴儿型左冠状动脉异常起源于肺动脉:23例术后早期结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇黎生; 周春霞; 刘锦纷; 蔡及明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review our experience with the surgical repair of infant-type anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA). Methods From Jan. 2006 to Dec. 2011, there were 23 patients with ALCAPA, mean age was 193 days (range, 82-360 days), mean weight was 6.2 kg (range, 4.5-9.5 kg), underwent surgical repair at our medical center. Diagnosis was established by echocardiography in all patients. All were clinical symptomatic of the severe heart dysfunction and left ventricle ejection fraction(EF) were 23%-45%. Mitral regurgitation was present in all patients:mild in 8 patients, moderate in 8 patients, and moderate to severe in 7 patients. Surgical methods were selected based on the location of the anomalous left coronary artery origin from the pulmonary trunk and the distance between the left coronary artery and the aorta. Major operative methods included the intrapulmonary tunnel (Takeuchi procedure) in 3 cases, direct reimplantation of the left coronary artery onto the aorta in 4 cases and reimplantation by pericardiac patch enlarge in 16 cases. Valvuloplasty were performed in 5 patients with mitral severe regurgitation. Concomitant left ventricular assistance device(LVAD) was used in 3 patients at the end of surgical repair. Results Postoperatively, transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated that blood flow of the left coronary artery were fluently and left ventricular were also enlargement. Mitral regurgitation were mild in 9 patients, mild to moderate in 12 patients and moderate in 2 patients. Hemodynamic were stable and discharged through therapy in 18 patients (included 3 patients with LVAD installed). There were five hospital deaths (21.7%), ventricular fibrillation was occurred in one patient 48 hours postoperatively, return to sinus rhythm by cardiopulmonary resuscitation and LVAD was installed at operation room immediately, but died with multi-organ failure as a result of diffuse intravascular coagulation disorders

  15. Duplicated left pulmonary artery: an unknown disease? Three case reports and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, Valentina; Kanani, Mazyar; Muthialu, Nagarajan; Carr, Michelle; Calder, Alistair D; Owens, Catherine M; Cook, Andrew C; Marek, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We report three cases of an abnormal finding of duplicated left pulmonary artery: two of these occurring in children with Kabuki syndrome and configuring the setting of a pseudo-pulmonary sling without any clinical or cardiac cross-sectional evidence of tracheal compression. The other case instead represents duplicated left pulmonary artery with pulmonary sling caused by the retro-tracheal course of the lower left pulmonary artery associated with "Christmas Tree" arrangement of the tracheo-bronchial system. In both patients with pseudo-pulmonary sling and Kabuki syndrome, the abnormal finding was incidental during echocardiographic examination and neither of the patients required surgical repair for the condition. To the best of our knowledge, they represent the third and fourth cases in which such an anomaly of the pulmonary artery branches not forming a sling is seen in association with Kabuki syndrome. Another case represents our second experience and the second case reported in literature with duplicated left pulmonary artery in the setting of a complex tracheal anatomy. In this symptomatic patient, surgical repair of atrial septal defect and relief of the vascular ring were indicated, and the surgical repair was performed successfully at the age of 3 years.

  16. Handbook of pulmonary emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaquolo, S.V.; Medinger, A

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: clinical assessment of the patient with pulmonary disease; interpretation of arterial blood gases in the emergency patient; life-threatening pneumonia; extrapulmonic ventilatory failure; acute inhalation lung disease; pulmonary edema; near drowning; chest trauma; upper airway emergencies; chronic lung disease with acute respiratory decompensation; acute respiratory failure in the patient with chronic airflow obstruction; asthma; hemoptysis; embolic pulmonary disease; superior vena cava syndrome; catastrophic pleural disease; ventilatory assistance and its complications; and ventilator emergencies.

  17. Isolated Pulmonary Valve Endocarditis Complicated With Septic Emboli to the Lung Causing Pneumothorax, Pneumonia, and Sepsis in an Intravenous Drug Abuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deephak Swaminath MD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous drug users are at increased risk for developing right-sided infective endocarditis involving the tricuspid and pulmonary valves. Isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis in intravenous drug users is very rare, and these patients often have more complications, such as pulmonary embolism, sepsis, and pneumonia. We report a case with pulmonary valve endocarditis and extensive pulmonary complications, including sepsis, septic emboli, pneumonia, and pneumothorax. Early identification of pulmonic valve endocarditis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics with or without surgical management should provide better outcomes, and clinicians need to think about pulmonary valve endocarditis in patients with complex respiratory presentations.

  18. Miliary pulmonary cryptococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Shane; Marriott, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year-old HIV positive male presents with fevers and a non-productive cough. Initial X-ray and subsequent computerised tomography of the chest shows a bilateral miliary pattern of pulmonary infiltration highly suggestive of disseminated tuberculosis. However subsequent results were consistent with disseminated cryptococcosis, including pulmonary involvement, with cryptococcus identified on transbronchial tissue biopsy, and on blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Imaging features of pulmonary cryptococcosis are generally of well-defined pleural-based nodules and less commonly alveolar infiltrates, lymphadenopathy, pleural effusions or cavitating lesions. Miliary pulmonary infiltrates are an exceptionally rare presentation. PMID:25379393

  19. Idiopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwica, Tomasz; Szumarska, Joanna; Staniszewska-Marszalek, Edyta; Mazurek, Walentyna; Kosmala, Wojciech

    2009-05-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is an uncommon lesion, which may be associated with different etiologies including congenital cardiovascular diseases, systemic vasculitis, connective tissue diseases, infections, and trauma. Idiopathic PAA is sporadically diagnosed by exclusion of concomitant major pathology. We report a case of a 56-year-old female with an idiopathic pulmonary artery dilatation identified fortuitously by echocardiography and confirmed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Neither significant pulmonary valve dysfunction nor pulmonary hypertension and other cardiac abnormalities which might contribute to the PAA development were found. Here, we describe echocardiographic and computed tomography findings and review the literature on PAA management.

  20. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramendi, José I; Rey, Estibaliz; Hamzeh, Gadah; Crespo, Alejandro; Luis, Maite; Voces, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    We describe the surgical technique of reimplantation of the right superior pulmonary vein into the left atrium in 2 patients with partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava without atrial septal defect. A right axillary minithoracotomy is done through the fourth intercostal space. The pulmonary vein is detached from its origin in the superior vena cava. This is sutured with 6-0 reabsorbable polydioxanone suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ). A lateral clamp is applied to the left atrium, and the pulmonary vein is reimplanted. The patient is extubated in the operating room. Neither cardiopulmonary bypass nor blood transfusion was required. It is simple, safe, and reproducible. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of pulmonary inflammation by mesenchymal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkhouri, Hatem; Poppinga, Wilfred Jelco; Tania, Navessa Padma; Ammit, Alaina; Schuliga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary inflammation and tissue remodelling are common elements of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and pulmonary hypertension (PH). In disease, pulmonary mesenchymal cells not only contribute to tissue

  2. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Običan, Sarah G; Cleary, Kirsten L

    2014-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a medical condition characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and secondary right heart failure. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a subset of pulmonary hypertension, which is characterized by an underlying disorder of the pulmonary arterial vasculature. Pulmonary hypertension can also occur secondarily to structural cardiac disease, autoimmune disorders, and toxic exposures. Although pregnancies affected by pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension are rare, the pathophysiology exacerbated by pregnancy confers both high maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. In light of new treatment modalities and the use of a multidisciplinary approach to care, maternal outcomes may be improving.

  3. 建立椎动脉急性血栓栓塞犬模型:微球囊导管临时隔截取栓%Establishment of acute vertebral artery thrombosis models in dogs:micro-balloon catheter temporary isolation for embolectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦文姜; 肖承江; 李立恒; 江桂华

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:In order to avoid distal arterial embolism fol owing mechanical thrombectomy, micro-bal oon catheter temporary isolation is applied to prevent thrombus shedding. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the safety and feasibility of adopting the micro-bal oon catheter technique in treatment of the hyperacute cerebral infarction. The micro-bal oon catheter technique can temporarily block the artery blood flow and isolate the embolism location fol owing mechanical thrombectomy and aspiration combined with thrombolysis. METHODS:Ten beagle dogs were included in this study. Under general anesthesia, the micro-bal oon catheter was delivered to the dominant vertebral artery through the femoral artery in al the dogs and it was fil ed and temporarily blocked the blood flow. Then the autologous thrombus was injected through the micro-catheter into proximal vertebral artery to make a thrombosis model. Al the dogs were equal y divided into two groups according to the embolectomy method:control group (receiving pure stent embolectomy, n=5) and experimental group (n=5). The experiment group was disrupted and aspirated thrombus combined with the drug thrombolysis after temporarily blocking out the blood flow and isolating the target artery by micro-bal oon catheter technique. After treatment, two groups underwent digital subtraction angiography to review the vertebral artery recanalization after different embolectomy methods. The hemodynamic status was evaluated through the thrombolysis in cerebral ischemia grade. Al the dogs were scanned with magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging before modeling and at 12 hours after the thrombectomy. The animals were kil ed to perform pathological examination after magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging (12 hours after the thrombectomy). The vessel recanalization rates and complications were calculated in the two groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The thromboembolism model was successful y established in the dominant vertebral artery of

  4. [Conservative surgery in pulmonary aspergilloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghli, A; Zairi, S; Osmen, M; Ouerghi, S; Boudaya, M S; Ayadi, A; Smati, B; Kilani, T

    2012-03-01

    Pulmonary aspergilloma is a mycotic infection due to the deposit of mycelial fibres, usually in a pre-existing cavity within the lung. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice, with anatomical resection the most practiced technique. Simple aspergillomas are becoming more and more frequent urging this review of the place of conservative surgery. The aim of this study was to establish the characteristics of aspergillomas which may benefit from a conservative surgery. We undertook a retrospective study of 64 cases that were operated on in the thoracic surgery unit in Abderrahmen-Mami Ariana's hospital between 1984 and 2008. Fourteen patients had conservative surgical treatment, with an atypical resection to remove the aspergilloma. The other 50 patients had undergone anatomical resection; segmental resection, lobectomy or pneumonectomy. The perioperative mortality rate was 5%. One case of aspergilloma recurrence had been recorded in a patient who had had conservative surgery for a complex aspergilloma. Surgery is the only effective treatment of aspergilloma. Conservative surgery may be an alternative in simple-peripheral forms, which have a diameter less than 4cm. Copyright © 2012 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification Versus ARISCAT Risk Index: Predicting Pulmonary Complications Following Renal Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupeli, Elif; Er Dedekarginoglu, Balam; Ulubay, Gaye; Oner Eyuboglu, Fusun; Haberal, Mehmet

    2017-02-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure are prone to pulmonary complications. Renal transplant recipients should undergo complete preoperative evaluation to determine risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. The American Society of Anesthesiologists classification and the Assess Respiratory Risk in Surgical Patients in Catalonia risk index correlate well with incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications. Here, we compared their accuracy in predicting pulmonary complications following renal transplant. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of renal transplant recipients between years 2004 and 2015. We collected patient data on Assess Respiratory Risk in Surgical Patients in Catalonia risk index, including demographics, smoking history, comorbidities, preoperative pulmonary risk score, laboratory results, surgery information, history of lower respiratory tract infection 1 month pretransplant, urgency of surgery, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, and pulmonary complications within 1 month posttransplant. Of 172 patients (123 males; mean age 38.82 y), 22 (12.8%) developed pulmonary complication during the first month posttransplant, including effusion (9 patients), pneumonia (10 patients), respiratory inefficiency (2 patients), and pulmonary embolism (1 patient). Atelectasis was observed in 95.4% of patients with complications. A positive correlation was observed between age and development of complications (r = 0.171; P = .025). Regarding risk score, 75% of patients at high risk and 19.5% at intermediate risk developed pulmonary complications. Patients with low-risk scores had significantly lower complications than intermediate- and high-risk groups (P Catalonia risk index.

  6. Surgical Lasers In Gynecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhas, Helmut F.; Barnes, Alfonso E.

    1982-12-01

    Multipurpose surgical CO2 lasers marketed in the USA have been developed to be applicable to a variety of surgical procedures in many surgical fields. They are all suited for endoscopic surgical procedures and can be fitted to all standard surgical microscopes. They all can adjust the focal length of the laser beam to the different standard focal lengths of the surgical microscope which for instance in laryngoscopy is 400 mm and in colposcopy 300 mm. One laser instrument can even change the spot size in a given focal distance which is very advantageous for some microsurgical procedures (Merrimack Laboratories 820). All multipurpose surgical CO2 laser systems provide a multi-articulated surgical arm for free-hand surgery. The surgical arms are cumbersome to use but they are adapted to the surgeons needs with ingenuity. The practicality of the multi-articulated surgical arms depends mostly on the distance of the handpiece from the surgical console which now is also overbridged by the laser tube in most surgical laser system. The spot size of the beam is variable in most handpieces by interchangeable lenses which modify the focal distance of the beam and the power density. Another common feature in all systems is a coaxial He-Ne pilot light which provides a red spot which unfortunately becomes invisible in a bleeding surgical field. Most surgical laser systems have a spacial mode of TEM 00 which is essential for incisional surgery. The continuous mode of beam delivery is used for incisional surgery and also for most endoscopic procedures.

  7. [Pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital heart disease and Eisenmenger syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Sandoval Zárate, Julio; Beltrán Gámez, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a common complication of congenital heart disease (CHD). Congenital cardiopathies are the most frequent congenital malformations. The prevalence in our country remains unknown, based on birthrate, it is calculated that 12,000 to 16,000 infants in our country have some cardiac malformation. In patients with an uncorrected left-to-right shunt, increased pulmonary pressure leads to vascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction secondary to an imbalance in vasoactive mediators which promotes vasoconstriction, inflammation, thrombosis, cell proliferation, impaired apotosis and fibrosis. The progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance and increased pressures in the right heart provocated reversal of the shunt may arise with the development of Eisenmenger' syndrome the most advanced form de Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease. The prevalence of Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD has fallen in developed countries in recent years that is not yet achieved in developing countries therefore diagnosed late as lack of hospital infrastructure and human resources for the care of patients with CHD. With the development of targeted medical treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension, the concept of a combined medical and interventional/surgical approach for patients with Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD is a reality. We need to know the pathophysiological factors involved as well as a careful evaluation to determine the best therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: a distinct disease entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a distinct subtype of pulmonary hypertension (PH. One disease hypothesis is that CTEPH results from the non-resolution of venous thromboembolism. CTEPH is characterised by the presence of obstructive fibrotic thromboembolic material in the major pulmonary vessels, with concomitant microvascular arteriopathy, resulting in progressive PH. The clinical presentation of CTEPH is similar to pulmonary arterial hypertension with nonspecific symptoms, but it is distinguished from pulmonary arterial hypertension by the presence of mismatched segmental defects on the ventilation/perfusion scan. The exact prevalence and incidence of CTEPH are unknown, but are thought to have been underestimated in the past. CTEPH is unique among the subgroups of PH in that it is potentially curable with pulmonary endarterectomy, a surgical intervention intended to remove the occlusive material from the pulmonary vasculature. However, in some patients the obstructions are technically inaccessible or the risk/benefit ratios are unfavourable, making the condition inoperable. It is thought that the involvement of the smaller, more distal vessels is a target for medical treatment. Untreated, CTEPH may result in right heart failure and death. The pathophysiological mechanisms which cause CTEPH are complex and have not yet been fully elucidated.

  9. Unilateral pulmonary hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albay S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypoplasia represents a broad range of malformations characterized by incomplete development of lung tissue. The severity of the lesion depends on the appearance time of the malformation during the timeline of lung development, and the presence of further anatomic anomalies. In this report, we present a case of pulmonary hypoplasia in a 27-year old woman.

  10. Pregnancy and pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, Petronella G.; Lameijer, Heleen; Hoendermis, Elke S.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension during pregnancy is associated with considerable risks of maternal mortality and morbidity. Our systematic review of the literature on the use of targeted treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension during pregnancy indicates a considerable decrease of mortality since a pre

  11. Pulmonary Hypertension in Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a reduced diffusing capacity (DL CO ) on pulmonary function tests (PFTs). The DL CO measures the ability of ... catheterization to measure the actual pressure in the pulmonary ... the PH; to assess the function of the left side of the heart; and ...

  12. Pulmonary Function Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Ranu, H; Wilde, M.; Madden, B

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests are valuable investigations in the management of patients with suspected or previously diagnosed respiratory disease. They aid diagnosis, help monitor response to treatment and can guide decisions regarding further treatment and intervention. The interpretation of pulmonary functions tests requires knowledge of respiratory physiology. In this review we describe investigations routinely used and discuss their clinical implications.

  13. [Mediastino-pulmonary sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaval, P; Desrues, B; Quinquenel, M L; Lineau, C; Lena, H

    1993-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is diffuse granulomatosis disease. The aetiology and pathogenesis are unknown. Many different localizations have been described together with immunological disturbances. Generally, the prognosis is favourable. Here we describe the pulmonary manifestations and their staging. Extra-pulmonary manifestations are then presented. Finally, the principle elements of the diagnosis and the treatment of sarcoidosis are discussed.

  14. Medical image of the week: pulmonary herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baalachandran R

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 49-year-old obese gentleman with a known history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus and GERD presented with complaints of a popping sensation in his left chest with coughing and deep breathing, associated with pain at the same site. Physical examination showed small bulge at the level of the herniation that was most obvious with coughing. CT scan of chest done 2 months ago showed 2. 5 cm pulmonary hernia identified at the left 7-8 costal interspace (Figures 1 and 2. This was thought to have resulted from an open lung biopsy of his left lung done 4 years before presentation to evaluate for acute respiratory failure or chest tube insertion at same site 3 years prior to presentation for treatment of a pneumothorax. Surgical repair was done with round Bard Kugel hernia patch. His symptoms resolved after the procedure.

  15. Primary Pulmonary Amebiasis Complicated with Multicystic Empyema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Ali; Al-Share, Bayan; Al Asad, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Amebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. While most infections are asymptomatic, the disease could manifest clinically as amebic dysentery and/or extraintestinal invasion in the form of amebic liver abscess or other more rare manifestations such as pulmonary, cardiac, or brain involvement. Herein we are reporting a case of a 24-year-old male with history of Down syndrome who presented with severe right side pneumonia complicated with multicystic empyema resistant to regular medical therapy. Further investigation revealed a positive pleural fluid for E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites. The patient was diagnosed with primary pleuropulmonary amebiasis and he responded promptly to surgical drainage and metronidazole therapy. In patients from endemic areas all physicians should keep a high index of suspicion of amebiasis as a cause of pulmonary disease.

  16. Primary Pulmonary Amebiasis Complicated with Multicystic Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. While most infections are asymptomatic, the disease could manifest clinically as amebic dysentery and/or extraintestinal invasion in the form of amebic liver abscess or other more rare manifestations such as pulmonary, cardiac, or brain involvement. Herein we are reporting a case of a 24-year-old male with history of Down syndrome who presented with severe right side pneumonia complicated with multicystic empyema resistant to regular medical therapy. Further investigation revealed a positive pleural fluid for E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites. The patient was diagnosed with primary pleuropulmonary amebiasis and he responded promptly to surgical drainage and metronidazole therapy. In patients from endemic areas all physicians should keep a high index of suspicion of amebiasis as a cause of pulmonary disease.

  17. Primary Pulmonary Amebiasis Complicated with Multicystic Empyema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Share, Bayan; Al Asad, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Amebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. While most infections are asymptomatic, the disease could manifest clinically as amebic dysentery and/or extraintestinal invasion in the form of amebic liver abscess or other more rare manifestations such as pulmonary, cardiac, or brain involvement. Herein we are reporting a case of a 24-year-old male with history of Down syndrome who presented with severe right side pneumonia complicated with multicystic empyema resistant to regular medical therapy. Further investigation revealed a positive pleural fluid for E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites. The patient was diagnosed with primary pleuropulmonary amebiasis and he responded promptly to surgical drainage and metronidazole therapy. In patients from endemic areas all physicians should keep a high index of suspicion of amebiasis as a cause of pulmonary disease. PMID:27478673

  18. Pulmonary vein stenosis: Etiology, diagnosis and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pablo Pazos-López; Cristina García-Rodríguez; Alba Guitián-González; Emilio Paredes-Galán; María ángel; De La Guarda álvarez-Moure; Marta Rodríguez-álvarez; José Antonio Baz-Alonso; Elvis Teijeira-Fernández; Francisco Eugenio Calvo-Iglesias; Andrés í?iguez-Romo

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis(PVS) is rare condition characterized by a challenging diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis at advance stages. At present, injury from radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation has become the main cause of the disease. PVS is characterized by a progressive lumen size reduction of one or more pulmonary veins that, when hemodynamically significant, may raise lobar capillary pressure leading to signs and symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, and hemoptysis. Image techniques(transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and perfusion imaging) are essential to reach a final diagnosis and decide an appropriate therapy. In this regard, series from referral centers have shown that surgical and transcatheter interventions may improve prognosis. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology, assessment and management of PVS.

  19. Ultrasound-Accelerated Thrombolysis in Patients With Intracardiac Thrombi: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadlapati, Ajay; Sweis, Ranya; Schimmel, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We describe a case series of 3 patients presenting with intracardiac thrombi treated with standard anticoagulation therapy and intervention with ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis therapy. Right-sided intracardiac thrombi portend significant mortality due to their susceptibility for embolization and pulmonary embolus despite the continuation of current standard of therapy of parenteral anticoagulation and surgical embolectomy if warranted. We demonstrate the safety and clinical efficacy of ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis therapy with the EkoSonic Endovascular System infusion catheter system (EKOS Corporation) and highlight its use in resolving intracardiac thrombi and impeding the propagation of pulmonary emboli.

  20. [Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma in 36-year-old women: 3-years follow-up after partial resection and radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drożdż, Jarosław; Warchoł, Ewa; Fijuth, Jacek; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Spych, Michał; Maciejewski, Marek; Piestrzeniewicz, Katarzyna; Ludomir, Stafańczyk; Janaszek-Sitkowska, Hanna; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Zembala, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Intimal sarcoma of the heart and pulmonary artery is a very rare, malignant, primary tumour. The prognosis in patients with primary sarcoma of the pulmonary artery, including intimal sarcoma, is poor. We present the case and 3-years follow-up of 36-year-old woman who was successfully treated with surgical, partial resection of the tumour followed by radiotherapy.

  1. Atresia of the bilateral pulmonary veins: a rare and dismal anomaly identified on cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang-Hyub; Koo, Hyun Jung; Cho, Young Hoon; Lee, Eunsol [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Imaging findings of bilateral pulmonary vein atresia have not been described. To describe cardiac CT findings and clinical outcomes of bilateral pulmonary vein atresia. Three newborns with bilateral pulmonary vein atresia were encountered at our institution during a period of 8 years. We evaluated prenatal echocardiographic findings, clinical presentations, postnatal echocardiographic findings, chest radiographic findings, cardiac CT findings and clinical outcomes. All newborns presented immediately after birth with severe cyanosis, respiratory distress and acidosis that were unresponsive to medical management. Prenatal and postnatal echocardiographic studies and chest radiography were misleading, inconclusive or nonspecific in making the diagnosis in these children; however cardiac CT clearly demonstrated atresia of the bilateral pulmonary veins with multiple small mediastinal collateral veins and pulmonary edema. Surgical treatments were not feasible for this anomaly. Their clinical outcomes were universally dismal and all infants died within 3 days. Cardiac CT provides an accurate diagnosis of bilateral pulmonary vein atresia and leads to prompt treatment decision in these children. (orig.)

  2. Perioperative pharmacological management of pulmonary hypertensive crisis during congenital heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Nathan; de Jesus Perez, Vinicio A; Richter, Alice; Haddad, François; Denault, André; Rojas, Vanessa; Yuan, Ke; Orcholski, Mark; Liao, Xiaobo

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertensive crisis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD) who require cardiac surgery. At present, prevention and management of perioperative pulmonary hypertensive crisis is aimed at optimizing cardiopulmonary interactions by targeting prostacyclin, endothelin, and nitric oxide signaling pathways within the pulmonary circulation with various pharmacological agents. This review is aimed at familiarizing the practitioner with the current pharmacological treatment for dealing with perioperative pulmonary hypertensive crisis in PAH-CHD patients. Given the life-threatening complications associated with pulmonary hypertensive crisis, proper perioperative planning can help anticipate cardiopulmonary complications and optimize surgical outcomes in this patient population.

  3. Computed tomography features of supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Alam, MMBS, FCPS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC is a rare congenital anomaly of the pulmonary veins drainage. In this entity, the pulmonary veins, instead of draining to left atrium, connect abnormally to the systemic venous circulation. A right-to-left shunt is obligatory for survival. Based on its type and degree of pulmonary venous obstruction, TAPVC may result in pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure. In severe cases, urgent diagnosis and surgical correction is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. Echocardiography as the first and safest imaging modality for cardiovascular abnormalities may fail in complete depiction of some complex feature of TAPVC. Computed tomography angiography is then a noninvasive and sensitive choice for mapping the pulmonary veins without the need for invasive cardiac catheterization. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography can be a radiation-free alternative. Authors present a computed tomography–detected supracardiac TAPVC with small patent ductus arteriosus in a 2 months cyanotic infant.

  4. Implantation of the Medtronic Harmony Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Improves Right Ventricular Size and Function in an Ovine Model of Postoperative Chronic Pulmonary Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonbeek, Rosanne C; Takebayashi, Satoshi; Aoki, Chikashi; Shimaoka, Toru; Harris, Matthew A; Fu, Gregory L; Kim, Timothy S; Dori, Yoav; McGarvey, Jeremy; Litt, Harold; Bouma, Wobbe; Zsido, Gerald; Glatz, Andrew C; Rome, Jonathan J; Gorman, Robert C; Gorman, Joseph H; Gillespie, Matthew J

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary insufficiency is the nexus of late morbidity and mortality after transannular patch repair of tetralogy of Fallot. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of implantation of the novel Medtronic Harmony transcatheter pulmonary valve (hTPV) and to assess its effect on pulmonary insufficiency and ventricular function in an ovine model of chronic postoperative pulmonary insufficiency. Thirteen sheep underwent baseline cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, surgical pulmonary valvectomy, and transannular patch repair. One month after transannular patch repair, the hTPV was implanted, followed by serial magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography imaging at 1, 5, and 8 month(s). hTPV implantation was successful in 11 animals (85%). There were 2 procedural deaths related to ventricular fibrillation. Seven animals survived the entire follow-up protocol, 5 with functioning hTPV devices. Two animals had occlusion of hTPV with aneurysm of main pulmonary artery. A strong decline in pulmonary regurgitant fraction was observed after hTPV implantation (40.5% versus 8.3%; P=0.011). Right ventricular end diastolic volume increased by 49.4% after transannular patch repair (62.3-93.1 mL/m(2); P=0.028) but was reversed to baseline values after hTPV implantation (to 65.1 mL/m(2) at 8 months, P=0.045). Both right ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular ejection fraction were preserved after hTPV implantation. hTPV implantation is feasible, significantly reduces pulmonary regurgitant fraction, facilitates right ventricular volume improvements, and preserves biventricular function in an ovine model of chronic pulmonary insufficiency. This percutaneous strategy could potentially offer an alternative for standard surgical pulmonary valve replacement in dilated right ventricular outflow tracts, permitting lower risk, nonsurgical pulmonary valve replacement in previously prohibitive anatomies. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Perioperative Anesthesiological Management of Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Gille

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension is a major reason for elevated perioperative morbidity and mortality, even in noncardiac surgical procedures. Patients should be thoroughly prepared for the intervention and allowed plenty of time for consideration. All specialty units involved in treatment should play a role in these preparations. After selecting each of the suitable individual anesthetic and surgical procedures, intraoperative management should focus on avoiding all circumstances that could contribute to exacerbating pulmonary hypertension (hypoxemia, hypercapnia, acidosis, hypothermia, hypervolemia, and insufficient anesthesia and analgesia. Due to possible induction of hypotonic blood circulation, intravenous vasodilators (milrinone, dobutamine, prostacyclin, Na-nitroprusside, and nitroglycerine should be administered with the greatest care. A method of treating elevations in pulmonary pressure with selective pulmonary vasodilation by inhalation should be available intraoperatively (iloprost, nitrogen monoxide, prostacyclin, and milrinone in addition to invasive hemodynamic monitoring. During the postoperative phase, patients must be monitored continuously and receive sufficient analgesic therapy over an adequate period of time. All in all, perioperative management of patients with pulmonary hypertension presents an interdisciplinary challenge that requires the adequate involvement of anesthetists, surgeons, pulmonologists, and cardiologists alike.

  6. Pulmonary mycoses among the clinically suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tshering Ongmu Bhutia; Luna Adhikari

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was carried with the main objectives: (1) to find out the occurrence of pulmonary mycoses in clinically suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases at central referral hospital, Tadong, Sikkim. (2) To find out the various fungi causing pulmonary mycoses in clinically suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases. Methods: 200 clinically suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases who visited the department of microbiology for the diagnostic microscopic examination of sputum sample f...

  7. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for patients with pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Awais; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Blair, Janis E; Jaroszewski, Dawn E

    2014-10-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for removal of pulmonary sequelae of the fungal infection coccidioidomycosis. Retrospective chart review of all patients with pulmonary coccidioidomycosis treated surgically at our tertiary care center between January 1, 2009, and August 31, 2012. Of 2166 patients treated for pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, 58 (2.7%) (median age, 52 years [range, 18-84 years]) required surgical treatment. Surgical resection was performed for diagnosis (n=28 [48%]); 17 with positive positron emission tomography findings); persistent or progressive symptoms despite antifungal therapy (n=23 [40%]); or complications (n=7 [12%] of cavity rupture/infection). Of 33 patients (57%) who had serology performed, 23 (70%) had positive results. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was used for most (95%; n=55) procedures, including 38 (67%) wedge resections, 14 (24%) segmentectomies, and 6 (11%) lobectomies; 4 patients also required additional decortication. Major (8%), including 1 death, and minor (12%) complications occurred in 12 patients postoperatively. Median hospitalization was 3 days (range, 1-8 days). Postoperative antifungal therapy was administered to 50% of patients for a median duration of 2 months. No patient had recurrent coccidioidomycosis at a median follow-up of 19 months. Although rarely necessary for pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, surgical intervention may be indicated. Specific indications include refractory symptomatic disease and complications of the infection, such as cavity rupture. Excisional biopsies also may be required for diagnostic confirmation of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. With video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, diagnostic and therapeutic intervention can be undertaken with a low risk of complications and shorter length of hospital stay. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Manual of Surgical Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lidia Sánchez Sarría

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgical instruments are the group of tools used in surgical procedures. They are very expensive and sophisticated. Consequently, a standardized and meticulous care is essential; they should go through the decontamination, cleaning and sterilization process. These instruments are designed in order to provide surgeons with tools that help them to perform a basic surgical procedure; there are multiple variations and the design depends on their function. This paper aims at showing all surgical instruments that can be used in an operating room during surgery and are not generally included in the medical literature.

  9. Current Approaches for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Florman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical site infections (SSIs are the most common type of nosocomial infection among surgical patients and are commonly caused by the patients’ own microbial flora. The prevalence of SSI is a major concern because of the associated increase in the incidence of morbidity and mortality, length of hospitalization and cost of care for postoperative patients. Key factors that determine whether patients are at risk for developing SSI include the inherent potential contamination of the surgical site, the duration of the operation and the individual patient susceptibility. Preventive preoperative measures that can reduce the risk of SSIs include administration of antimicrobial prophylaxis, proper utilization of skin antiseptic agents for both the patient and the surgical team, proper patient preoperative hair removal and the policy of canceling elective procedures when remote skin, urinary or pulmonary infections occur. This paper will review the efficacy and safety of available antiseptic agents, as well as discuss patient-specific prevention strategies.

  10. Pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Gulati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis has a spectrum of presentation which ranges from mild disease to a severe form comprising of jaundice and renal failure. Involvement of the lung can vary from subtle clinical features to deadly pulmonary hemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Of late, it has been identified that leptospirosis can present atypically with predominant pulmonary manifestations. This can delay diagnosis making and hence optimum treatment. The purpose of this review is to bring together all the reported pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis and the recent trends in the management.

  11. Anesthesia and pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlothlin, Dana; Ivascu, Natalia; Heerdt, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Anesthesia and surgery are associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension due mainly to right ventricular failure, arrhythmias, postoperative hypoxemia, and myocardial ischemia. Preoperative risk assessment and successful management of patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing cardiac surgery involve an understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, screening of patients at-risk for pulmonary arterial hypertension, analysis of preoperative and operative risk factors, thorough multidisciplinary planning, careful intraoperative management, and early recognition and treatment of postoperative complications. This article will cover each of these aspects with particular focus on the anesthetic approach for non-cardiothoracic surgeries.

  12. Isolated pulmonary Goodpasture syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrity, P; Gilbert-Barness, E; Cabalka, A; Hong, R; Zimmerman, J

    1991-01-01

    The case of a 13-year-old girl with Goodpasture syndrome is reported. The presentation at this age with only pulmonary hemorrhage is unusual among Goodpasture syndrome patients. The case illustrates well the diagnostic difficulties in Goodpasture syndrome. The choices of treatment modalities available for this disease and the results and risks of such treatment options are reviewed. A discussion and classification of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage is presented. The case emphasizes that Goodpasture syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage in spite of a lack of renal abnormalities and that serum anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody testing can be of great help in confirming the diagnosis.

  13. Clinical analysis of 68 patients with pulmonary mycosis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Bai-ling

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the lack of specific clinical manifestations and imaging features, the diagnosis of pulmonary mycosis is difficult. This study aimed to investigate the pathogens, clinical manifestations, imaging features, diagnosis and management of pulmonary mycosis. Methods Data on 68 patients diagnosed as pulmonary mycosis in Xiang Ya hospital from January 2001 to December 2010 were collected and their clinical manifestations, radiographic characterization, diagnostic methods and management were analyzed. Results All patients were diagnosed by pathological examination. Of the 68 cases, 38 (55.9% had pulmonary aspergillosis and 19 (27.9% pulmonary cryptococcosis. Open-lung surgery was performed in 38 patients (55.9%, transbronchial biopsy in 15 (22.0%, and computerized tomography (CT guided percutaneous needle biopsy in 11 (16.2%. Main symptoms were as follows: cough in 51 cases (75.0%, expectoration in 38 (55.9%, hemoptysis in 25 (37.8%, fever in 20 (29.4%, while 6 cases (11.1% were asymptomatic. X-ray and chest CT showed masses or nodular lesions in 52 cases (76.5%, patchy lesions in 10 (14.7%, cavity formation in 15 (22.0%, and diffuse miliary nodules in 1 case. In 51 cases (75.0% misdiagnosis before pathological examination occurred. Surgical resection was performed in 38 patients (55.9%. In 25 patients (36.7% systemic antifungal therapy was administered, and 20 patients (29.4% experienced complete responses or partial responses. Conclusion The main pathogens of pulmonary mycosis are Aspergillus, followed by cryptococcosis. Final diagnosis of pulmonary mycosis mainly depends on pathological examination. The clinical manifestations, imaging features, diagnostic methods and management differ depending on the pathogens. Satisfactory therapy can be obtained by both antifungal and surgical treatment.

  14. Surgical ethics and the challenge of surgical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Surgical ethics as a specific discipline is relatively new to many. Surgical ethics focuses on the ethical issues that are particularly important to the care of surgical patients. Informed consent for surgical procedures, the level of responsibility that surgeons feel for their patients' outcomes, and the management of surgical innovation are specific issues that are important in surgical ethics and are different from other areas of medicine. The future of surgical progress is dependent on surgical innovation, yet the nature of surgical innovation raises specific concerns that challenge the professionalism of surgeons. These concerns will be considered in the following pages.

  15. Smooth muscle myosin inhibition: a novel therapeutic approach for pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary hypertension remains a major clinical problem despite current therapies. In this study, we examine for the first time a novel pharmacological target, smooth muscle myosin, and determine if the smooth muscle myosin inhibitor, CK-2019165 (CK-165 ameliorates pulmonary hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six domestic female pigs were surgically instrumented to measure pulmonary blood flow and systemic and pulmonary vascular dynamics. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by hypoxia, or infusion of the thromboxane analog (U-46619, 0.1 µg/kg/min, i.v.. In rats, chronic pulmonary hypertension was induced by monocrotaline. RESULTS: CK-165 (4 mg/kg, i.v. reduced pulmonary vascular resistance by 22±3 and 28±6% from baseline in hypoxia and thromboxane pig models, respectively (p<0.01 and 0.01, while mean arterial pressure also fell and heart rate rose slightly. When CK-165 was delivered via inhalation in the hypoxia model, pulmonary vascular resistance fell by 17±6% (p<0.05 while mean arterial pressure and heart rate were unchanged. In the monocrotaline model of chronic pulmonary hypertension, inhaled CK-165 resulted in a similar (18.0±3.8% reduction in right ventricular systolic pressure as compared with sildenafil (20.3±4.5%. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of smooth muscle myosin may be a novel therapeutic target for treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  16. [From acute pulmonary embolism to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: Pathobiology and pathophysiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Gámez, Miguel E; Sandoval-Zárate, Julio; Pulido, Tomás

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) represents a unique subtype of pulmonary hypertension characterized by the presence of mechanical obstruction of the major pulmonary vessels caused by venous thromboembolism. CTEPH is a progressive and devastating disease if not treated, and is the only subset of PH potentially curable by a surgical procedure known as pulmonary endarterectomy. The clot burden and pulmonary embolism recurrence may contribute to the development of CTEPH however only few thrombophilic factors have been found to be associated. A current hypothesis is that CTEPH results from the incomplete resolution and organization of thrombus modified by inflammatory, immunologic and genetic mechanisms, leading to the development of fibrotic stenosis and adaptive vascular remodeling of resistance vessels. The causes of thrombus non-resolution have yet to be fully clarified. CTEPH patients often display severe PH that cannot be fully explained by the degree of pulmonary vascular obstruction apparent on imaging studies. In such cases, the small vessel disease and distal obstructive thrombotic lesions beyond the sub-segmental level may contribute for out of proportion elevated PVR. The processes implicated in the development of arteriopathy and micro-vascular changes might explain the progressive nature of PH and gradual clinical deterioration with poor prognosis, as well as lack of correlation between measurable hemodynamic parameters and vascular obstruction even in the absence of recurrent venous thromboembolism. This review summarizes the most relevant up-to-date aspects on pathobiology and pathophysiology of CTEPH. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Recognizing surgical patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, L.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, each year over 1700 patients die from preventable surgical errors. Numerous initiatives to improve surgical practice have had some impact, but problems persist. Despite the introduction of checklists and protocols, patient safety in surgery remains a continuing challenge. This is

  18. Surgical medical record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, S.

    2008-01-01

    A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15......A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15...

  19. Evolving hybrid approaches: the preservation of the 'neglected' pulmonary valve function in patients with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Bacha, Emile; Stellin, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    The involvement of the hemodynamic expertise in the operating room led to the development of new strategies aimed to improve both early and long-term outcome of patients with congenital heart disease. During the last decade, with the aim of preserving the pulmonary valve function, we embarked on a new surgical approach, which combines surgical and interventional techniques, which are performed in the operating room. We believe that the preservation of the pulmonary valve function can be extended to any patients with classic tetralogy of Fallot and other selected patients with congenital pulmonary valve hypoplasia and dysfunction.

  20. Epidural anaesthesia and analgesia - effects on surgical stress responses and implications for postoperative nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgical injury leads to an endocrine-metabolic and inflammatory response with protein catabolism, increased cardiovascular demands, impaired pulmonary function and paralytic ileus, the most important release mechanisms being afferent neural stimuli and inflammatory mediators. RESULTS......: Epidural local anaesthetic blockade of afferent stimuli reduces endocrine metabolic responses, and improve postoperative catabolism. Furthermore, dynamic pain relief is achieved with improved pulmonary function and a pronounced reduction of postoperative ileus, thereby providing optimal conditions...

  1. Management of pulmonary aspiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janda, Matthias; Scheeren, Thomas W L; Nöldge-Schomburg, Gabriele F E

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents in the perioperative phase is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. For the management of aspiration, differentiation between acid-associated aspiration pneumonitis and aspiration pneumonia as a consequence of a secondary bacterial

  2. Pulmonary neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caplin, M E; Baudin, E; Ferolla, P

    2015-01-01

    carried out in PubMed for the terms 'pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial carcinoid tumors', 'pulmonary carcinoid', 'pulmonary typical/atypical carcinoid', and 'pulmonary carcinoid and diagnosis/treatment/epidemiology/prognosis'. A systematic review...... of the relevant literature was carried out, followed by expert review. RESULTS: PCs are well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors and include low- and intermediate-grade malignant tumors, i.e. typical (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC), respectively. Contrast CT scan is the diagnostic gold standard for PCs......, particularly of low-grade TC and AC. Locoregional or radiotargeted therapies should be considered for metastatic disease. Systemic chemotherapy is used for progressive PCs, although cytotoxic regimens have demonstrated limited effects with etoposide and platinum combination the most commonly used, however...

  3. Pulmonary valve stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valvuloplasty - pulmonary Images Heart valves References Carabello BA. Valvular heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... Saunders; 2016:chap 69. Otto CM, Bownow RO. Valvular heart disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow ...

  4. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Oxhøj, H; Andersen, P E

    1999-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease with a high prevalence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs). The first symptom of HHT may be stroke or fatal hemoptysis associated with the presence of PAVM....

  5. Neonatal pulmonary artery thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh Jadhav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery thrombosis in neonates is a rare entity. We describe two neonates with this diagnosis; their presentation, evaluation, and management. These cases highlight the importance of this differential diagnosis when evaluating the cyanotic neonate.

  6. Pulmonary Valve Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growths called carcinoid tumors in the digestive system. Rheumatic fever. This complication of an infection caused by streptococcus ... valve stenosis later in life, including: Carcinoid syndrome Rheumatic fever Noonan's syndrome Mild to moderate pulmonary valve stenosis ...

  7. [Pulmonary Manifestations of Vasculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Vietinghoff, S

    2016-11-01

    The variable symptoms and signs of pulmonary vasculitis are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Vasculitis should be considered in rapidly progressing, severe and unusual manifestations of pulmonary disease. Clinical examination of other organ systems typically affected by vasculitis such as skin and kidney and autoantibody measurements are complementary approaches to manage this situation. Pulmonary involvement is common in small vessel vasculitis including anti-GBM disease (Goodpasture syndrome) and the ANCA-associated vasculitides. Life threatening pulmonary hemorrhage and irreversible damage of other organs, frequently the kidney, are important complications necessitating rapid diagnosis of these conditions.Vasculitides are rare diseases of multiple organs and therapies including biologics are evolving rapidly, requiring cooperation of specialities and with specialized centres to achieve best patient care. All involved physicians should be aware of typical complications of immunosuppressive therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Reperfusion pulmonary edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klausner, J.M.; Paterson, I.S.; Mannick, J.A.; Valeri, C.R.; Shepro, D.; Hechtman, H.B. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1989-02-17

    Reperfusion following lower-torso ischemia in humans leads to respiratory failure manifest by pulmonary hypertension, hypoxemia, and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. The mechanism of injury has been studied in the sheep lung lymph preparation, where it has been demonstrated that the reperfusion resulting in pulmonary edema is due to an increase in microvascular permeability of the lung to protein. This respiratory failure caused by reperfusion appears to be an inflammatory reaction associated with intravascular release of the chemoattractants leukotriene B{sub 4} and thromboxane. Histological studies of the lung in experimental animals revealed significant accumulation of neutrophils but not platelets in alveolar capillaries. The authors conclude that thromboxane generated and released from the ischemic tissue is responsible for the transient pulmonary hypertension. Second, it is likely that the chemoattractants are responsible for leukosequestration, and third, neutrophils, oxygen-derived free radicals, and thromboxane moderate the altered lung permeability.

  9. Pulmonary mycosis in AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busi Rizzi, Elisa; Schinina, Vincenzo; Bellussi, Angelo; De Santis, Andrea; Mazzuoli, Giovanna; Giosue, Sandro; Bibbolino, Corrado

    2001-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed our series of 35 pulmonary mycosis in patients with AIDS, observed from 1987 to 1999, to correlate the imaging and pathologic findings. We further evaluated the frequency of fungal pneumonia before and after the use of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Early recognition of pulmonary mycosis is imperative in these patients and improved survival can be achieved with early CT detection and prompt institution of high-dose antifungal therapy.

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008430 Effect of gas exchange at maximal intensity on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. WANG Haoyan(王浩彦), et al. Dept Respir Dis, Beijing Friendship Hosp, Capital Med Sci Univ, Beijing 100050. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2008;31(6):414-416. Objective To investigate the effect of gas exchange at maximal intensity on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

  11. Reexpansion pulmonary edema

    OpenAIRE

    Genofre Eduardo Henrique; Vargas Francisco S.; Teixeira Lisete R.; Vaz Marcelo Alexandre Costa; Marchi Evaldo

    2003-01-01

    Reexpansion pulmonary edema (RPE) is a rare, but frequently lethal, clinical condition. The precise pathophysiologic abnormalities associated with this disorder are still unknown, though decreased pulmonary surfactant levels and a pro-inflammatory status are putative mechanisms. Early diagnosis is crucial, since prognosis depends on early recognition and prompt treatment. Considering the high mortality rates related to RPE, preventive measures are still the best available strategy for patient...

  12. Traumatic pulmonary pseudocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neeraj; George, Jacob; Gupta, Rakesh C; Dixit, Ramakant

    2013-04-01

    Blunt thoracic trauma manifests in various ways, depending on the structures injured and type of injury. Commonly manifested as parenchymal contusion, at times, pseudacavitation may also been seen on the chest X ray. They are to be differentiated from other causes of pulmonary cavitations which are often done based on history. The so called pulmonary pseudo cysts usually have a benign course and needs only observation.

  13. Traumatic pulmonary pseudocyst

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Neeraj; George, Jacob; Gupta, Rakesh C; Dixit, Ramakant

    2013-01-01

    Blunt thoracic trauma manifests in various ways, depending on the structures injured and type of injury. Commonly manifested as parenchymal contusion, at times, pseudacavitation may also been seen on the chest X ray. They are to be differentiated from other causes of pulmonary cavitations which are often done based on history. The so called pulmonary pseudo cysts usually have a benign course and needs only observation.

  14. Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism pathologically showing homogeneous cellular alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Seiichi; Shirai, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Kaida, Yusuke; Suda, Takafumi; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Chida, Kingo

    2011-01-01

    A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of general malaise. Examination of arterial blood gases on room air revealed hypoxia. Pulmonary function test showed restrictive abnormality. Chest high-resolution CT showed diffuse mosaic attenuation without evident pulmonary artery abnormality on contrast chest CT. Based on these findings, interstitial pneumonia or chronic pulmonary thromboembolism was suspected. The findings of bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 4.4×10(5) cells/mL, including 89.6% macrophages, 9.4% lymphocytes, and 1.0% neutrophils. TBLB showed marked alveolitis. Moreover video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical biopsy was performed. Biopsies of the lung specimen showed focal infarct with surrounding mild mononuclear cell infiltrates (homogenous cellular alveolitis). (99m)Tc pulmonary perfusion and (81m)Kr ventilation scintigraphy showed V/Q mismatch. Furthermore, pulmonary angiography also revealed inadequate artery flow corresponding to the mismatch area of scintigraphy. Collagen vascular diseases and abnormality of coagulation factors were not detected. Multiple perfusion defects persisted for more than 6 months. Thus, finally the patient was diagnosed with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, pathologically showing homogenous cellular alveolitis.

  15. 持续性静脉滤过在老年危重急性下肢动脉栓塞患者取栓术后治疗的作用%Efficiency of continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration in elderly patients withcriticalacute lower extremity arterial embolism after embolectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭清旭; 黄乐刚

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize our experience in treating the elderly patients suffering from critical acute lower extremity arterial embolism (CALEAE) and determine the role of continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHD) in improving the prognosis of these patients after arterial embolectomy. Methods Clinical data of 47 elderly patients suffering from CALEAE admitted in our department from June 2008 to May 2015 were collected in this study. According to the intentions of the patients or their families for taking CVVHD, they were divided into treatment group (n=21) and control group (n=26). Their clinical data, length of stay, hospital mortality, especially postoperative renal function were compared between the 2 groups. Results There were more patients having peripheral cyanosis and muscle stiffness in the treatment group vs the control group before embolectomy (P<0.05). The times of the serum levels of potassium, creatinine and urea nitrogen recovering to normal levels were significantly shorter in the patients of the treatment group than in the control group (P<0.05). The treatment group had remarkably shorter length of stay [(13.5±1.6) vs (18.2±2.1)d, P= 0.043] and lower hospital mortality (9.5% vs 19.2%, P= 0.027). Conclusion CVVHD can shorten the recovery duration, obviously reduce the mortality and length of stay, and improve the prognosis for the elderly patients suffering from CALEAE after operation.%目的:总结老年危重急性动脉栓塞患者取栓术后的诊治经验,探讨持续性静脉滤过(CVVHD)治疗在此类患者动脉栓塞取栓术后改善预后的作用。方法回顾性地分析2008年6月至2015年5月北京军区总医院血管外科收治的47例急性下肢动脉栓塞患者的临床资料。术后按照患者或家属意愿,根据是否采用CVVHD治疗将所有患者分为两组:治疗组(n=21)和对照组(n=26)。对比分析两组患者的临床资料、住院时间、住院期间死亡率等情况,

  16. Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return in an Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Koester

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR is an uncommon congenital abnormality, which may present in the adult population. It is often associated with sinus venosus defect (SVD. The diagnosis and therapy for this condition may be challenging. Case Presentation. We describe a case of an elderly woman who presented with NYHA Class IV dyspnea and was suspected to have symptomatic pulmonary hypertension. She was later found to have anomalous right upper pulmonary vein return to the superior vena cava and associated SVD with bidirectional shunting. Therapeutic options were discussed and medical management alone with aggressive diuresis and sildenafil was adopted. Follow-up visits revealed success in the planned medical therapy. Conclusions. PAPVR is a rare congenital condition that may present during late adulthood. The initial predominant left-to-right shunting associated with this anomaly may go undetected for years with the gradual development of pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure due to right heart volume overload. Awareness of the condition is important, as therapy is time-sensitive with early detection potentially leading to surgical therapy as a viable option.

  17. Isolated lung perfusion with gemcitabine for the treatment of pulmonary metastases : Experimental study in a rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putte, B.P. van

    2003-01-01

    Isolated lung perfusion is an experimental surgical technique for the treatment of pulmonary metastases in order to improve the current 5-year survival of approximately 40 % after surgical resection of manually palpable metastases. Several drugs have been tested in animals models and five phase I st

  18. Tática para cirurgia de correção da coarctação da artéria pulmonar sem uso de circulação extracorpórea Approach for surgical correction of pulmonary artery coarctation without cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denoel Marcelino de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A coarctação de artéria pulmonar é comum em pacientes com atresia pulmonar. A correção tem sido com CEC e no período neonatal, quando influencia o desenvolvimento das artérias pulmonares e o prognóstico. Foram corrigidos três pacientes por esternotomia mediana com atresia pulmonar dependentes do ducto arterioso (PCA sem uso de CEC. O PCA mantinha a saturação durante a confecção do Blalock Taussig na artéria pulmonar contralateral. Arterioplastia foi realizada com sutura de pericárdio autólogo com PDS 7-0 e saturação mantida pelo Blalock. Todos pacientes tiveram boa evolução e alta hospitalar com avaliação de controle demonstrando bom alargamento da área coarctada.Pulmonary artery coarctation often happens in patients with pulmonary atresia. The correction has been usually performed using cardiopulmonary bypass and during the neonatal period, influencing pulmonary artery development and prognosis. Three patients with pulmonary atresia with PDA underwent correction using median sternotomy without cardiopulmonary bypass. The PDA maintained the arterial saturation during Blalock Taussig anastomoses upon the contralateral pulmonary artery. Arterioplasty was performed using an autologous pericardium with 7-0 PDS running suture and saturation was maintained by Blalock shunt. All patients presented good follow-up and where discharged with good enlargment of coarctation area.

  19. Isolated absence of right pulmonary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhi Anil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Absence of right pulmonary artery (RPA is a rare congenital abnormality with variable presentation. The diagnosis is often missed in infants Objective : The aim of this study was to describe infantile presentation of isolated absence of RPA along with a brief review of the literature. Methods : The details of five patients diagnosed with isolated absence of RPA from April 2007 to October 2009 were reviewed retrospectively Results : Five patients were identified with this anomaly. The median age of presentation was 86 days (range, 40-120 days and the median weight was 3.65 kg (range, 3.1-5.5 kg. All patients presented with breathing difficulty and had severe pulmonary hypertension (PHT along with absent RPA on echocardiography. A multidetector computed tomographic scan was performed to confirm the diagnosis in four cases. Three patients had major aortopulmonary collateral and the hilar RPA was not well developed in all. A correct diagnosis was made before referral in one patient only. Differential vascularity in chest X-ray, a useful clue, was seen in four of five cases. Surgical correction was not considered in view of the small hilar pulmonary artery. The patients were all managed medically with diuretics and Sildenafil. Conclusion : Isolated absence of RPA is a rare congenital abnormality with varied presentation. Infantile presentation is marked with congestive cardiac failure and PHT. Specific diagnostic clue includes differential vascularity on the chest X-ray.

  20. Pulmonary function in children with idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiligiannis Theofanis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic scoliosis, a common disorder of lateral displacement and rotation of vertebral bodies during periods of rapid somatic growth, has many effects on respiratory function. Scoliosis results in a restrictive lung disease with a multifactorial decrease in lung volumes, displaces the intrathoracic organs, impedes on the movement of ribs and affects the mechanics of the respiratory muscles. Scoliosis decreases the chest wall as well as the lung compliance and results in increased work of breathing at rest, during exercise and sleep. Pulmonary hypertension and respiratory failure may develop in severe disease. In this review the epidemiological and anatomical aspects of idiopathic scoliosis are noted, the pathophysiology and effects of idiopathic scoliosis on respiratory function are described, the pulmonary function testing including lung volumes, respiratory flow rates and airway resistance, chest wall movements, regional ventilation and perfusion, blood gases, response to exercise and sleep studies are presented. Preoperative pulmonary function testing required, as well as the effects of various surgical approaches on respiratory function are also discussed.

  1. A unique case of pulmonary artery catheter bleeding from the oximetry connection port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Rajagopalan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery catheter is an invasive monitor usually placed in high-risk cardiac surgical patients to optimize the cardiac functions. We present this case of blood oozing from the oximetry connection port of the pulmonary artery catheter that resulted in the inability to monitor continuous cardiac output requiring replacement of the catheter. The cause of this abnormal bleeding was later confirmed to be due to a manufacturing defect.

  2. Indications, Results and Mortality of Pulmonary Artery Banding Procedure: a Brief Review and Five- year Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Hoseinikhah; Aliasghar Moeinipour; Ahmadreza Zarifian; Mohammad Sobhan Sheikh Andalibi; Yasamin Moeinipour; Mohammad Abbassi Teshnisi; Abbas Bahreini

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary artery banding (PAB) is a technique of palliative surgical therapy used by congenital heart surgeons as a staged approach to operative correction of congenital heart defects. Materials and Methods We report 5- year experiences from January 2011 to January 2016 of Imam Reza Hospital center (a tertiary referral hospital in Mashhad city, North East of Iran) that consist of 50 patients with congenital heart disease with left to right shunt that pulmonary artery banding proced...

  3. Pulmonary valve papillary fibroelastoma. A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, R S; Galvis, C O; Bshara, W; Liddicoat, J; Dabbs, D J

    2001-07-01

    Papillary fibroelastomas are rare and benign cardiac tumors that typically affect the cardiac valves. To the best of our knowledge, the English literature contains only 1 case report of pulmonary valve fibroelastoma diagnosed by echocardiogram and confirmed by surgical resection. There is a paucity of pathology literature on this subject. We describe an additional case of pulmonary valve fibroelastoma diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed by pathologic examination in a patient who also had a thymoma.

  4. Surgical ethics: surgical virtue and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercler, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    The encounter between a patient and her surgeon is unique for several reasons. The surgeon inflicts pain upon a patient for the patient's own good. An operative intervention is irreducibly personal, such that the decisions about and performance of operations are inseparable from the idiosyncrasies of the individual surgeon. Furthermore, there is a chasm of knowledge between the patient and surgeon that is difficult to cross. Hence, training in the discipline of surgery includes the inculcation of certain virtues and practices to safeguard against abuses of this relationship and to make sure that the best interests of the patient are prioritized. The stories in this issue are evidence that in contemporary practice this is not quite enough, as surgeons reflect on instances they felt were ethically challenging. Common themes include the difficulty in communicating surgical uncertainty, patient-surgeon relationships, ethical issues in surgical training, and the impact of the technological imperative on caring for dying patients.

  5. Earlier Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Down Syndrome Patients Following Tetralogy of Fallot Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rachel T; Frommelt, Peter C; Hill, Garick D

    2017-08-01

    The association between Down syndrome and pulmonary hypertension could contribute to more severe pulmonary regurgitation after tetralogy of Fallot repair and possibly earlier pulmonary valve replacement. We compared cardiac magnetic resonance measures of pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular dilation as well as timing of pulmonary valve replacement between those with and without Down syndrome after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Review of our surgical database from 2000 to 2015 identified patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis. Those with Down syndrome were compared to those without. The primary outcome of interest was time from repair to pulmonary valve replacement. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary regurgitation and indexed right ventricular volume on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The cohort of 284 patients included 35 (12%) with Down syndrome. Transannular patch repair was performed in 210 (74%). Down syndrome showed greater degree of pulmonary regurgitation (55 ± 14 vs. 37 ± 16%, p = 0.01) without a significantly greater rate of right ventricular dilation (p = 0.09). In multivariable analysis, Down syndrome (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.5, p = 0.02) and transannular patch repair (HR 5.5, 95% CI 1.7-17.6, p = 0.004) were significant risk factors for valve replacement. Those with Down syndrome had significantly lower freedom from valve replacement (p = 0.03). Down syndrome is associated with an increased degree of pulmonary regurgitation and earlier pulmonary valve replacement after tetralogy of Fallot repair. These patients require earlier assessment by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine timing of pulmonary valve replacement and evaluation for and treatment of preventable causes of pulmonary hypertension.

  6. CT findings of pulmonary aspergillosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Jung Eun; Im, Jung Gi; Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Hong Dae; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    The fungus aspergillus can cause a variety of pulmonary disorders. Aspergilloma is a noninvasive aspergillus colonization of virtually any type of preexisting pulmonary cavity or cystic space. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is serious, usually fatal infection in patients being treated with immunosuppressants or who have chronic debilitating disease. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is characterized clinically by asthma, blood and sputum eosinophilia and positive immunologic reaction to aspergillus antigen. Awareness of the radiographic and CT findings of pulmonary aspergillosis is important in making the diagnosis of aspergillus-caused pulmonary disorders. In this pictorial essay, we illustrated various radiological findings of pulmonary aspergillosis focused on CT findings correlated with gross pathologic specimens.

  7. Multiscale Surgical Telerobots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R R; Seward, K P; Benett, W J; Tendick, F; Bentley, L; Stephan, P L

    2002-01-23

    A project was undertaken to improve robotic surgical tools for telerobotic minimally invasive surgery. The major objectives were to reduce the size of the tools to permit new surgical procedures in confined spaces such as the heart and to improve control of surgical tools by locating positional sensors and actuators at the end effector rather than external to the patient as is currently the state of the technology. A new compact end-effector with wrist-like flexibility was designed. Positional sensors based on MEMS microfabrication techniques were designed.

  8. Giant, Dissecting, High-Pressure Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalcelj, Anton; Brida, Vojtjeh; Samarzija, Miroslav; Matana, Ante; Margetic, Eduard; Drinkovic, Niksa

    2005-01-01

    We report the rare subchronic clinical course of a giant, dissecting pulmonary artery aneurysm in an oligosymptomatic middle-aged woman who had idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Diagnosis was simple with the use of echocardiography and multislice computed tomography. Conversely, deciding on the treatment was difficult, because prominent surgeons declined to perform surgical repair of the aneurysm and recommended heart–lung transplantation. Therefore, we were forced to treat our patient medically. She survived for 1 year, including 8 months of treatment with sildenafil, and then died suddenly while awaiting transplantation. Our patient, who had a dissecting, high-pressure pulmonary artery aneurysm, had an unexpectedly stable and uneventful clinical course for 1 year, which, under more favorable circumstances, might have provided enough time for heart–lung transplantation to be performed. PMID:16429912

  9. [Pancoast tumors ; modified surgical approaches and techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunezuka, Yoshio; Yachi, T; Waseda, R; Yamamoto, D

    2010-01-01

    The surgical treatment of Pancoast tumors is associated with difficulties related to its anatomical locations. Different surgical approaches have been reported but every approaches have some advantages and disadvantages. We report 2 Pancoast tumors cases with unique surgical approaches and our techniques. Case 1 : A 38-year-old man complained of face edema. The chest computed tomography (CT) revealed an right anterior apical tumor with direct invasion of the 1st and 2nd rib. Preoperative chemotherapy with 2 courses of carboplatin [area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) 6, day 1] and paclitaxel (80 mg/m2, day1, 8, 15) and concurrent extracorporeal radiation (70 Gy) was used to treat the adenocarcinoma. The skin incision was performed according to Masaoka's anterior approach, and a proximal median sternotomy communicated with an incision in the 4th intercostal space. The clavicula was freed by the L-shaped incision on the manubrium and the 1st cartilage section according to Grunenwald method to retract the section. Case 2 : A 65-year-old man complained back pain. The chest CT revealed an right superior sulcus tumor, displaced bronchus (B1+B3 tracheal bronchus, B2) and pulmonary arteries anomalies. Combined Shaw-Paulson incision and 4 intercostal lateral thoracotomy was performed to right upper lobectomy and systematic lymph nodes dissection.

  10. Guide to Surgical Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have expertise in the following areas of responsibility: neonatal surgery (specialized knowledge in the surgical repair of ... and non-operative management of certain types of pain. Common conditions managed by neurologic surgeons include disorders ...

  11. Surgical Critical Care Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Surgical Critical Care Initiative (SC2i) is a USU research program established in October 2013 to develop, translate, and validate biology-driven critical care....

  12. Ambulatory Surgical Measures - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Ambulatory Surgical Center Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program seeks to make care safer and more efficient through quality reporting. ASCs eligible for this...

  13. Ambulatory Surgical Measures - Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Ambulatory Surgical Center Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program seeks to make care safer and more efficient through quality reporting. ASCs eligible for this...

  14. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and mortality as well as significant financial implications. Worldwide it has ... common nosocomial infection amongst surgical patients with up to 38% .... antibiotics as soon as the sensitivity results are available. ... Breast surgery. Staph Aureus/ ...

  15. Malformación arteriovenosa pulmonar: Características clínicas, diagnóstico y rol del tratamiento quirúrgico en pacientes tratados con cirugía resectiva pulmonar Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: Clinical features, diagnosis and role of surgical management in patients with lung resection surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO GONZÁLEZ L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las malformaciones arteriovenosas pulmonares (MAVP son infrecuentes y la cirugía tiene un rol en casos seleccionados. Objetivos: Describir las características clínicas, métodos diagnósticos y rol del tratamiento quirúrgico en pacientes tratados con cirugía por MAVP. Materialy Método: Revisión retrospectiva, incluyendo todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de MAVP en quienes se realizó cirugía en el Instituto Nacional del Tórax, desde febrero de 2005 a febrero de 2010. El seguimiento fue por control médico o contacto telefónico. Resultados: Se analizó 8 pacientes, seis mujeres (relación 3:1, edad entre 16 y 68 años. Los síntomas y signos más frecuentes fueron: disnea, cianosis y acropaquia. La localización más frecuente fue el lóbulo inferior derecho. Cuatro pacientes tenían MAVP múltiples y cuatro cumplían con criterios de Enfermedad de Rendu-Osler-Weber Seis tenían policitemia y dos anemia. La radiografía fue anormal en todos los casos y la tomogrqfía computada definió la anatomía en siete. Angiogrqfia se realizó en tres casos. Dos tenían ecocardiograma con contraste y cuatro cintigrama. La cirugía más frecuente fue la lobectomía. La indicación de cirugía fue: tamaño de la MAVP en cinco, falla de embolización en dos y hallazgo intra operatorio en uno, intervenido por otra razón. Uno presentó hemorragia post-operatoria. La estadía post-operatoria fue entre 2 y 10 días. No hubo mortalidad. En el último control todos los pacientes estaban asintomáticos. Conclusión: Las MAVPpueden presentarse en un amplio espectro clínico y anatómico. Pueden generar síntomas y complicaciones graves, por esto se recomienda tratarlas. El estudio pre-operatorio se basa en demostrar el shunt y en determinar las características anatómicas de la lesión. En algunos casos seleccionados está indicada la cirugía resectiva pulmonar.Background: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PA VM are rare and surgery

  16. Hemodynamics of patient-specific aorta-pulmonary shunt configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkan, Kerem; Pişkin, Senol; Altın, H. Fırat; Yıldız, Okan; Bakır, İhsan

    2017-01-01

    Optimal hemodynamics in aorta-pulmonary shunt reconstruction is essential for improved post-operative recovery of the newborn congenital heart disease patient. However, prior to in vivo execution, the prediction of post-operative hemodynamics is extremely challenging due to the interplay of multiple confounding physiological factors. It is hypothesized that the post-operative performance of the surgical shunt can be predicted through computational blood flow simulations that consider patient ...

  17. An Unusual Case of Pulmonary Nocardiosis in Immunocompetent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Yaşar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary nocardiosis is a subacute or chronic necrotizing pneumonia caused by aerobic actinomycetes of the genus Nocardia and rare in immune-competent patients. A 35-year-old male, who had treated with antituberculosis drugs, presented with cough, dyspnea, and expectoration with episodes of hemoptysis with purulent sputum. The diagnosis of nocardiosis was made by microscopic examination of the surgically resected portion of the lung and revealed filamentous Gram-positive bacteria.

  18. Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshtkar Jahromi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is the most common cause of infection-related death worldwide. Children represent 5 to 15% of all TB cases around the world and are more frequently infected and more easily affected by the most severe forms of the disease such as meningitis and disseminated form .Here, we reviewed TB in children with impact on the routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, treatment, control, and prophylaxis. Electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus were searched from June1995 to May 2014 by using key words (pulmonaryTB,epidemiology,transmission,clinical manifestations,treatment,control, and prophylaxis . Pulmonary tuberculosis may manifest in several forms, including endobronchial TB with focal lymphadenopathy, progressive pulmonary disease, pleural involvement, and reactivated pulmonary disease . Symptoms of primary pulmonary disease in the pediatric population are often insignificant. Gastric aspirates are used instead of sputum in children younger than 6 years. BCG vaccination is used in many parts of the world and the major role of vaccination is the prevention of life-threatening illness such as disseminated TB and meningitis in children.Treatment is the same as for adults. Most people infected with M .tuberculosis do not develop active disease. In healthy individuals, the lifetime risk of developing infection to disease is 5-10%. Reactivation of TB often occurs in older children and adolescent and is more common in patients who acquire TB at age 7 years and older.

  19. Pulmonary thromboembolism in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babyn, Paul S.; Gahunia, Harpal K. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Massicotte, Patricia [Stollery Children' s Hospital and University of Alberta, Departments of Pediatric Hematology and Cardiology, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-03-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is uncommonly diagnosed in the pediatric patient, and indeed often only discovered on autopsy. The incidence of pediatric PTE depends upon the associated underlying disease, diagnostic tests used, and index of suspicion. Multiple risk factors can be found including: peripartum asphyxia, dyspnea, haemoptysis, chest pain, dehydration, septicemia, central venous lines (CVLs), trauma, surgery, ongoing hemolysis, vascular lesions, malignancy, renal disease, foreign bodies or, uncommonly, intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, burns, or nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Other types of embolism can occur uncommonly in childhood and need to be recognized, as the required treatment will vary. These include pulmonary cytolytic thrombi, foreign bodies, tumor and septic emboli, and post-traumatic fat emboli. No single noninvasive test for pulmonary embolism is both sensitive and specific. A combination of diagnostic procedures must be used to identify suspect or confirmed cases of PTE. This article reviews the risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment of pulmonary embolism in children. It also highlights the current diagnostic tools and protocols used to evaluate pulmonary embolism in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  20. Lung biopsy diagnosis of operative indication in secundum atrial septal defect with severe pulmonary vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Shigeo; Kumate, Munetaka; Yonesaka, Susumu; Maeda, Katsuhide; Endo, Masato; Tabayashi, Koichi

    2004-10-01

    Surgical indication was determined by lung biopsy in 91 patients with secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) and severe pulmonary hypertension > 70 mm Hg of pulmonary arterial peak pressure and/or pulmonary vascular resistance of > 8 U/m(2). Pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) in ASD was classified into four types: (1) Musculoelastosis consisting of longitudinal muscle bundles and elastic fibers; surgery is indicated no matter how severely the peripheral small pulmonary arteries are occluded. Surgery was performed in all of the 20 patients, and the postoperative course was uneventful. (2) Plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy: surgery is indicated for a PVD index < or = 2.3. Surgery was performed in 25 of the 32 patients. The remaining seven patients for whom surgery was not indicated are under follow-up observation. No deaths have occurred among the 32 patients. (3) Thromboembolism of small pulmonary arteries: Surgery is indicated for all such cases. Surgery was indicated in all of the five patients. (4) Mixed type of plexogenic pulmonary arteriopathy and musculoelastosis: Surgery is indicated if the collateral is not observed. Surgery was performed in 15 of the 25 patients. The remaining 10 patients for whom surgery was not indicated are under follow-up observation. Nine of these 91 patients associated with primary pulmonary hypertension were eliminated from this study. No deaths due to PVD occurred among the 82 patients who underwent lung biopsy diagnosis. Lung biopsy diagnosis is concluded to be very effective.

  1. [Pulmonary. High tech in pulmonary medicine: GeneXpert, coils and bronchial thermoplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Thierrry; Chappuis-Gisin, Emilie; Ongaro, Gioele; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Soccal, Paola M

    2014-01-15

    We discuss here three recent applications of high technology in pulmonary medicine. GeneXpert has considerably improved the diagnosis of active tuberculosis. However, the test has also its limits so that clinical assessment, radiology, and sputum microscopy remain fundamental. Treatment of severe emphysema by lung volume reduction is no longer confined to surgical approach, but is now possible by bronchoscopy. Implantation of Nitinol coils in the most diseased parts of the emphysematous lung is a promising technique. Finally, several clinical trials on bronchial thermoplasty have been reported for intractable asthma. The recent publication of the long term effects of this technique is the occasion to update on this matter.

  2. Lung irradiation induces pulmonary vascular remodelling resembling pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghobadi, G.; Bartelds, B.; van der Veen, S. J.; Dickinson, M. G.; Brandenburg, S.; Berger, R. M. F.; Langendijk, J. A.; Coppes, R. P.; van Luijk, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a commonly fatal pulmonary vascular disease that is often diagnosed late and is characterised by a progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance resulting from typical vascular remodelling. Recent data suggest that vascular damage plays an impo

  3. OBESITY AS A RISK FACTOR FOR PULMONARY EMBOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ya. Vasiltseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study. Based on the data of the Register of new cases of hospital pulmonary embolism (PE in hospitals in Tomsk (2003–2012, to explore the contribution of obesity to the development of venous thromboembolism.Material and Methods. Study were subjected to medical history and records of autopsies of patients treated in hospitals in Tomsk in 2003–2012, who at patologoanatomic and/or instrumental study revealed pulmonary embolism. The degree of obesity was assessed according to WHO criteria (1997. Statistical processing of the results was carried out using the software package for PC Statistica 8.0 for Windows. To test the normality of the distribution of quantitative traits using the Shapiro–Wilk test and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov with the adjusted Lillieforsa. Check the equality of the population variance was performed using Fisher's exact test and Cochran. Was considered statistically significant level of p < 0.05.The results of the study. In Western Siberia, Tomsk, a register of hospital pulmonary embolism (2003–2012. In the register included 720 patients with in vivo and/or post mortem revealed pulmonary embolism (PE. Analyzed data from medical records and autopsy reports. Revealed statistically significant differences in BMI (p = 0.033 and the presence of obesity (p = 0.002 in patients with pulmonary embolism, holding medical and surgical beds. As of medical, surgical and among patients with thromboembolism, obesity is significantly more common in women than men (p = 0.050 and p = 0.041 respectively. According to the study, obesity grade 1 or 2 alone (at the isolated presence of the patient is not significantly increased the odds of a massive thromboembolism. However, grade 3 obesity increased the odds of a massive pulmonary embolism by more than 2.7 times (OR = 2.708, CI: 1,461–5,020.

  4. Postoperative Pulmonary Dysfunction and Mechanical Ventilation in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Badenes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative pulmonary dysfunction (PPD is a frequent and significant complication after cardiac surgery. It contributes to morbidity and mortality and increases hospitalization stay and its associated costs. Its pathogenesis is not clear but it seems to be related to the development of a systemic inflammatory response with a subsequent pulmonary inflammation. Many factors have been described to contribute to this inflammatory response, including surgical procedure with sternotomy incision, effects of general anesthesia, topical cooling, and extracorporeal circulation (ECC and mechanical ventilation (VM. Protective ventilation strategies can reduce the incidence of atelectasis (which still remains one of the principal causes of PDD and pulmonary infections in surgical patients. In this way, the open lung approach (OLA, a protective ventilation strategy, has demonstrated attenuating the inflammatory response and improving gas exchange parameters and postoperative pulmonary functions with a better residual functional capacity (FRC when compared with a conventional ventilatory strategy. Additionally, maintaining low frequency ventilation during ECC was shown to decrease the incidence of PDD after cardiac surgery, preserving lung function.

  5. Perioperative management of pulmonary hypertension during lung transplantation (a lesson for other anaesthesia settings).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabanal, J M; Real, M I; Williams, M

    2014-10-01

    Patients with pulmonary hypertension are some of the most challenging for an anaesthesiologist to manage. Pulmonary hypertension in patients undergoing surgical procedures is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to right ventricular failure, arrhythmias and ischaemia leading to haemodynamic instability. Lung transplantation is the only therapeutic option for end-stage lung disease. Patients undergoing lung transplantation present a variety of challenges for anaesthesia team, but pulmonary hypertension remains the most important. The purpose of this article is to review the anaesthetic management of pulmonary hypertension during lung transplantation, with particular emphasis on the choice of anaesthesia, pulmonary vasodilator therapy, inotropic and vasopressor therapy, and the most recent intraoperative monitoring recommendations to optimize patient care. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Pulmonary Mucormycosis in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Diagnostic and Treatment Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chang Hung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary mucormycosis is commonly encountered in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis, hematologic malignancies, neutropenia, organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and malignancy, but it rarely occurs in high-risk patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. We present the case of a 40-year-old SLE female with fulminant pneumonia after remission of nephritis treated with rituximab, who developed severe pulmonary mucormycosis that led to her rapid death from acute respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Pulmonary mucormycosis has a high mortality rate. However, with early diagnosis and antifungal therapy with lipid formulation-liposomal amphotericin B and surgical removal of the infected area, the outcome can be improved.

  7. Main pulmonary artery aneurysm: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazio, Massimo; Cecchi, Enrico; Giammaria, Massimo; Pomari, Franco; Tabasso, Maria Donata; Ghisio, Aldo; Forsennati, Pier Giuseppe; Beqaraj, Federico; Favro, Elisa; Trinchero, Rita; Brusca, Antonio

    2004-03-01

    Main pulmonary artery aneurysms are a rare entity with few available published data. As reported in the literature, operative treatment is commonly recommended but the relation between the size of the aneurysm, its localization, and the risk of rupture is not as well defined as for aortic aneurysms. Proximal lesions that involve the main branches of the pulmonary artery are usually apparent on chest radiographs and must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal masses. An early diagnosis allows timely surgical treatment. We report an unusual case of a main pulmonary artery aneurysm presenting with persistent non-productive cough and provide a review of the pertinent published data.

  8. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney presenting with pulmonary tumor embolism: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sathya; Chinnaa; Chandan; J; Das; Sanjay; Sharma; Prabhjot; Singh; Amlesh; Seth; Suvendu; Purkait; Sandeep; R; Mathur

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor(PNET) of the kidney is a rare, aggressive tumor known for its recurrence and metastatic potential. Despite the frequency of venous extension to the renal veins and inferior vena cava, pulmonary tumor embolism at the initial presentation is not common. We report a case of 22-year-old female with PNET of the kidney who presented with tumor embolism in the inferior vena cava(IVC) and bilateral pulmonary artery. The patient underwent surgical resection and histopathological analysis confirmed the presence of tumor within the IVC and pulmonary arteries. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and is currently doing well on follow-up.

  9. Aortic and Pulmonary Root Aneurysms in a Child With Loeys-Dietz Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Stefania; Stellin, Giovanni; Milanesi, Ornella; Padalino, Massimo; Vricella, Luca A; Thiene, Gaetano; Cameron, Duke E; Basso, Cristina; Vida, Vladimiro L

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of an 11-year-old boy with Loeys-Dietz syndrome, with both aortic and pulmonary aneurysms requiring cardiac operation because of progressive valve incompetence resulting from loss of coaptation of the cusps. Arterial medial changes, consisting of disarray of elastic fibers and increased collagen deposition, were observed in surgical specimens from both the aorta and the pulmonary artery of our patient, and the strong pSmad2 nuclear staining of smooth muscle cells of both aortic and pulmonary tunica media are the best evidence of transforming growth factor-β pathway activation in Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

  10. Pulmonary pathophysiology and lung mechanics in anesthesiology: a case-based overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Melo, Marcos F; Musch, Guido; Kaczka, David W

    2012-12-01

    Anesthesia, surgical requirements, and patients' unique pathophysiology all combine to make the accumulated knowledge of respiratory physiology and lung mechanics vital in patient management. This article take a case-based approach to discuss how the complex interactions between anesthesia, surgery, and patient disease affect patient care with respect to pulmonary pathophysiology and clinical decision making. Two disparate scenarios are examined: a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing a lung resection, and a patient with coronary artery disease undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. The impacts of important concepts in pulmonary physiology and respiratory mechanics on clinical management decisions are discussed.

  11. Simultaneous kissing stent in a patient with severe bifurcation pulmonary vein stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeddu, Roberto J; Gulati, Vishal K

    2015-02-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a late and rare complication of pulmonary vein isolation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. The ideal approach to the management of PVS has not yet been established, however, corrective procedures may include both surgical and percutaneous techniques. We describe the case of a complex bifurcation lesion involving the left superior pulmonary vein. The condition required percutaneous intervention using a modified kissing stent technique with bare metal stents that resulted in an excellent post-operative course, sustained symptomatic relief, and uncomplicated 1-year follow-up. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Quan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features, management, and prognosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients. METHOD: 24 cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis with accurate pathological diagnosis were retrospectively studied. RESULTS: 15 male patients and nine female patients were diagnosed at the first affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from November 1999 to November 2011. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 44.2 ± 11.3 years (range: 24 to 65 years. Among these patients, 13 had other comorbidities. 15 were symptomatic and the other nine were asymptomatic. The most common presenting symptoms were cough, chest tightness, expectoration, and fever. None had concurrent cryptococcal meningitis. The most frequent radiologic abnormalities on chest computed tomography (CT scans were solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules, and masses or consolidations, and most lesions were located in the lower lobes. All patients had biopsies for the accurate diagnosis. Among the 24 patients, nine patients underwent surgical resections (eight had pneumonectomy via thoracotomy and one had a pneumonectomy via thoracoscopy. Five of the patients who underwent surgery also received antifungal drug therapy (fluconazole for one to three months after the surgery. The other 15 only received antifungal drug therapy (fluconazole or voriconazole for three to six months (five patients are still on therapy. The follow-up observation of 19 patients who had already finished their treatments lasted from two to 11 years, and there was no relapse, dissemination, or death in any of these patients. CONCLUSION: Non-AIDS patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis have a good prognosis with appropriate management.

  13. Pulmonary Hypertension: Diagnosis and Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunlap, Beth; Weyer, George

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a common, complex group of disorders that result from different pathophysiologic mechanisms but are all defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mm Hg or greater...

  14. Update in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía Chew, C R; Alcolea Batres, S; Ríos Blanco, J J

    2016-11-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare and progressive disease that mainly affects the pulmonary arterioles (precapillary), regardless of the triggering aetiology. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension in Spain is estimated at 19.2 and 16 cases per million inhabitants, respectively. The diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension is based on haemodynamic criteria (mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25mmHg, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤15mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance >3 Wood units) and therefore requires the implementation of right cardiac catheterisation. Sequential therapy with a single drug has been used in clinical practice. However, recent European guidelines recommend combined initial therapy in some situations. This review conducts a critical update of our knowledge of this disease according to the latest guidelines and recommendations.

  15. Lung Transplantation for Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the page. Answers about Lung Transplantation for PULMONARY HYPERTENSION Part One: Overview From the development of epoprostenol ... decades, expansion of medical treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has improved survival and quality of life ...

  16. Endovascular embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng-yong; WANG Mao-qiang; FAN Qing-sheng; DUAN Feng; WANG Zhi-jun; SONG Peng

    2010-01-01

    Background The major consequence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) is the direct inflow of blood from the pulmonary artery to the pulmonary vein which induces hypoxemia. Severe complications include transient ischemic attacks, paradoxical embolization in the central nervous system, massive hemoptysis or hemothorax, etc. The conventional treatment is surgical intervention. However, this can be very traumatic and dangerous. Endovascular embolization has advantages over surgery such as a faithful therapeutic effect, a low complication rate, repeatability, etc. Methods Patients (n=23) with symptomatic PAVMs underwent endovascular embolization; 11 were males and 12 were females, with ages ranging from 6 months to 58 years. During the embolization, microcoils were applied in 6 cases and standard steel coils were used in 17 cases.Results Multiple PAVMs lesions were found in 16 cases and single PAVMs lesion was found in 7 cases. Embolotherapy was carried out 28 times for 23 patients. The success rate was 100%. The results of pulmonary arteriography after treatment showed that single lesion disappeared completely while the main abnormal vessels in multiple lesions also disappeared. The mean blood oxygen saturation increased from (78.04±8.22)% to (95.13±3.67)% after the procedure. A correlated groups t test showed changes in blood oxygen saturation before and after embolization (fe=9.101, P <0.001). Symptoms of cardiac insufficiency disappeared in 5 cases and vascular murmur in the chest disappeared in 13 cases. After embolization, mild chest pain occurred in 11 cases, small amounts of pleural effusion occurred in 5 cases, and 1 patient died 2 months later because of a pyogenic infection secondary to the pulmonary infarction. Among the 22 remaining cases, with overall follow-up ranging from 18 months to 12 years, general conditions were fine, daily lives were normal and there were no neurologic symptoms or signs, except for 3 patients with diffused PAVMs who

  17. Pulmonary embolism; Lungenarterienembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarski, Sonja; Henzler, Thomas [Heidelberg Univ., Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2016-09-15

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) requires a quick diagnostic algorithm, as the untreated disease has a high mortality and morbidity. Crucial for the diagnostic assessment chosen is the initial clinical likelihood of PE and the individual risk profile of the patient. The overall goal is to diagnose or rule out PE as quickly and safely as possible or to initiate timely treatment if necessary. CT angiography of the pulmonary arteries (CTPA) with multi-slice CT scanner systems presents the actual diagnostic reference standard. With CTPA further important diagnoses can be made, like presence of right ventricular dysfunction. There are different scan and contrast application protocols that can be applied in order to gain diagnostic examinations with sufficient contrast material enhancement in the pulmonary arteries while avoiding all kinds of artifacts. This review article is meant to be a practical guide to examine patients with suspected PE according to the actual guidelines.

  18. Pulmonary manifestations of heartworm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, C A; Rawlings, C A

    1985-09-01

    The clinical signs associated with heartworm disease are the result of changes in the pulmonary arterial system. These clinical signs are the result of either pulmonary hypertension or lung parenchymal disease associated with vascular changes. An increase in pulmonary arterial pressure produces an increase in right ventricular afterload, which may lead to exercise intolerance, syncope, and right-sided congestive heart failure. Coughing, dyspnea, and hemoptysis are the results of pulmonary parenchymal disease.

  19. Pulmonary artery sling: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Gil Hyun; Lee, Sun Wha; Cha, Sung Ho [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    Aberrant left-sided pulmonary artery(pulmonary artery sling) is an uncommon anomaly,which may cause significant respiratory abnormality. We report a case of pulmonary artery sling which is combined with persistent left superior vena cava and dextrocardia. This case were identified by esophagogram and CT and confirmed by MRI and angiography. We consider that MRI is a valuable new method for the diagnosis of aberrant left-sided pulmonary artery.

  20. Surgical Treatment of Patent Ductus Arteriosus Associated with Pulmonary Hypertension under Profound Hypothermia and Extracorporal Circulation with Low Flow Perfusion%深低温低流量体外循环下动脉导管未闭合并肺动脉高压的手术治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秉仁; 姚忠喜; 张志芳; 高百顺; 辛军; 岳凤珍

    1991-01-01

    本文报告了36例动脉导管未闭合并重度肺动脉高压采用深低温低流量体外循环下手术治疗的体会.全组中死亡1例,其余随访6年至半年,均获满意疗效.本文着重讨论了手术安全性,适应证,心肌保护和灌注肺的预防等问题.%This paper reports the operations on 36 cases of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) associated with severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) under profound hypothermia and cardiopulmonary by-pass (CPB) with low flow perfusion.Thirty five cases recovered promptly but one died of ventricular fibrillation which was nothing to do with hypothermia and low flow perfusion.Vertical incision on the anterior wall of pulmonary artery was made to expose the orifice of PDA.Mattress sutures and pledget were used for repair.Sutures bite the prominent posterior edge of PDA orifice,passing through the anterior wall of the pulmonary artery,and tied on the pledget outside the vessel.Open-heart surgery is preferable to PDA with severe pulmonary hypertension.The authers emphasize the importance of myocardial protection and "infusion lung" prevention.

  1. Methamphetamine Use and Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other problems, diagnosing a case of pulmonary hyper- tension can be difficult and may require a specialist. Once pulmonary hyperten- sion is diagnosed, however, treatment can begin immediately. One form of PH is called pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In PAH, the blood vessels that ...

  2. Pulmonary Artery Dissection: A Fatal Complication of Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanchen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery dissection is extremely rare but it is a really life-threatening condition when it happens. Most patients die suddenly from major bleeding or tamponade caused by direct rupture into mediastinum or retrograde into the pericardial sac. What we are reporting is a rare case of a 46-year-old female patient whose pulmonary artery dissection involves both the pulmonary valve and right pulmonary artery. The patient had acute chest pain and severe dyspnea, and the diagnosis of pulmonary artery dissection was confirmed by ultrasonography and CT angiography. Moreover, its etiology, clinical manifestations, and management are also discussed in this article.

  3. Effect of postoperative epidural analgesia on surgical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, K; Holte, Kathrine

    2002-01-01

    Pain relief allowing sufficient mobilization after major surgical procedures can only be achieved by continuous epidural analgesia with local anesthetics, which also reduces the stress response to surgery. However, the role of postoperative epidural analgesia on postoperative morbidity is controv......Pain relief allowing sufficient mobilization after major surgical procedures can only be achieved by continuous epidural analgesia with local anesthetics, which also reduces the stress response to surgery. However, the role of postoperative epidural analgesia on postoperative morbidity...... is controversial. We therefore update the effects of postoperative analgesia on surgical outcome. After major abdominal surgery, postoperative epidural analgesia with local anesthetics significantly reduces postoperative ileus and pulmonary complications while effects on cardiac morbidity are debatable. Continuous...... regimen does not contain a sufficient amount of local anesthetics. Future evaluation of the effects of epidural analgesia on postoperative outcome also requires integration of epidural analgesia within a multimodal rehabilitation programme....

  4. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  5. Comparative pulmonary functional recovery after Nuss and Ravitch procedures for pectus excavatum repair: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhenguang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pectus excavatum (PE is a common chest wall malformation, with surgery being the only method known to correct the defect. Although the Nuss and Ravitch procedures are commonly used, there is no consensus as to whether surgical repair improves pulmonary function. We therefore investigated whether pulmonary function recovers after surgical repair, and if recovery is dependent on the type of procedure or time after surgery. Methods Literature searches were performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Health Periodicals Database, and CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Index from January 1990 to December 2007. The following keywords were used: pectus excavatum, chest wall deformity, funnel chest, pulmonary function, respiratory, lung function, and pectus severity index. The primary outcome of interest was possible changes in pulmonary function following surgical repair. Results Meta-analysis of 23 studies showed that, although there was evidence of statistically significant heterogeneity among studies (Chi-square, 17.11, p  Conclusions Pulmonary function tends to improve after the surgical correction of pectus excavatum. Although the Nuss procedure was not significantly better 1 year after surgery, long-term postoperative pulmonary function improvement was significantly better after bar removal.

  6. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2012-01-01

    The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... and 28 students from 2010). Our results show that anxiety levels in veterinary students are significantly higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course (p...

  7. Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Jørgen; Willesen, Jakob Lundgren

    2009-01-01

    Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis is an emerging snail-borne disease causing verminous pnemonia and coagulopathy in dogs. The parasite is fund in Europe, North and South America and Africa, covering tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. Its distribution has been characterised by isolated ...

  8. Primary Pulmonary Hodgkin Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Shumaila Tanveer; Ahmed El Damati; Ayman El Baz; Ahmed Alsayyah; Tarek ElSharkawy; Mohamed Regal

    2015-01-01

    Primary pulmonary Hodgkin lymphoma (PPHL) is a rare disease. Herein, we report a case of PPHL with diagnostic concerns encountered during initial evaluation which is of paramount importance to keep the differential diagnosis in cases with high index of sus- picion for this rare entity.

  9. Solitary pulmonary nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest x-ray Granulomatosis with polyangiitis Histoplasmosis Lung cancer - small cell Pulmonary tuberculosis Skin nodules Valley fever Review Date 8/1/2015 Updated by: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, ... Cancer Lung Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  10. An unexpected pulmonary bystander

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, M.; Vorm, van der P. A.; Koning, K. J.; van der Werf, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old man from Eritrea was admitted with a pulmonary bacterial abscess. Unexpectedly, histopathology of the resected lobe also revealed an infection with Schistosoma mansoni with surrounding granulomatous tissue and fibrosis. Patients from endemic areas are often asymptomatic with blood eosi

  11. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Pulmonary Hypertension - High Blood Pressure in the Heart-to-Lung System Updated:Sep ... Pressure" This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  12. Pulmonary function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or lung disease. Some lung diseases (such as emphysema, asthma, chronic bronchitis, and infections) can make the lungs ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Asthma Breathing Problems COPD Emphysema Interstitial Lung Diseases Lung Diseases Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis ...

  13. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-14

    Dr. Adam MacNeil, epidemiologist with Viral Special Pathogens Branch at CDC, discusses hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.  Created: 7/14/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  14. Pathogenesis of pulmonary vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P; Schreiber, A; Falk, RJ; Jennette, JC

    2004-01-01

    Vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessels and can affect any type of vessel in any organ. Pulmonary vasculitis usually is a component of a systemic small vessel vasculitis. Three major forms of small vessel vasculitis that often affect the lungs are Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiit

  15. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaubet, Antoni; Ancochea, Julio; Molina-Molina, María

    2017-02-23

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia associated with the radiological and/or histological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. Its aetiology is unknown, but probably comprises the action of endogenous and exogenous micro-environmental factors in subjects with genetic predisposition. Its diagnosis is based on the presence of characteristic findings of high-resolution computed tomography scans and pulmonary biopsies in absence of interstitial lung diseases of other aetiologies. Its clinical evolution is variable, although the mean survival rate is 2-5 years as of its clinical presentation. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may present complications and comorbidities which modify the disease's clinical course and prognosis. In the mild-moderate disease, the treatment consists of the administration of anti-fibrotic drugs. In severe disease, the best therapeutic option is pulmonary transplantation. In this paper we review the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulmonary lobectomy - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/presentations/100094.htm Pulmonary lobectomy - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 3 Go to slide 2 out of 3 Go to slide 3 out of 3 Overview The lungs are comprised of lobes. The right lung has ...

  17. [Pulmonary involvements of sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmichi, M; Hiraga, Y; Hirasawa, M

    1990-01-01

    We reported about intrathoracic changes and prognosis of 686 patients with sarcoidosis diagnosed in our hospital between 1963 and 1988. We evaluated CT findings in 135 patients with sarcoidosis and found pulmonary involvements in 81. We analyzed CT findings according to the classification by Tuengerthal which classified radiographic findings combining ILO classification of pneumoconiosis and characteristic findings of bronchovascular sheath with sarcoidosis. The CT findings were as follows: small opacities (44 out of 81 cases, 54.3%), large opacities (37 cases, 46.7%). Additional findings were as follows: peribronchial marking (42 cases, 51.9%), contraction (17 cases, 21.0%), pleural involvement (9 cases, 11.1%), bulla (5 cases, 6.2%). The characteristic CT findings of serious sarcoidosis were extasis of bronchus, thickening of the bronchial wall, unclearness of vascular shadow, atelectasis and thickening of pleura. Concerning the prognosis of pulmonary involvement, according to age, patients younger than 30 years old at initial diagnosis were better than those of 30 years and over in terms of disappearance of pulmonary involvements. According to stage, patients of stage I and stage II were better than those of stage III. Among the patients we were able to observe chest X-ray findings during five years according to the character of shadow, ill-defined shadow of small opacities and rounded shadows of large opacities had a higher disappearance rate of pulmonary involvements than irregular shadows of large opacities, atelectasis and contraction.

  18. Unilateral pulmonary agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcon, Maura Cavada; Malcon, Claudio Mattar; Cavada, Marina Neves; Caruso, Paulo Eduardo Macedo; Real, Lara Flório

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy with left lung agenesis, without any other congenital malformations. When the patient presented symptoms, including cough, wheezing, and dyspnea, with no clinical improvement after a period of 30 days, imaging studies were conducted and the diagnosis was made.

  19. Primary pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, A; Lehrman, S; Romano, P; Frishman, W; Dobkin, J; Reichel, J

    2000-01-01

    Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a condition characterized by sustained elevation of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) without demonstrable cause. The most common symptom at presentation is dyspnea. Other complaints include fatigue, chest pain, syncope, leg edema, and palpitations. Right heart catheterization is diagnostic, showing a mean PAP >25 mmHg at rest and >30 mmHg during exercise, with a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. In the National Institutes of Health-PPH registry, the median survival period was 2.8 years. Treatment is aimed at lowering PAP, increasing cardiac output, and decreasing in situ thrombosis. Vasodilators have been used with some success in the treatment of PPH. They include prostacyclin, calcium-channel blockers, nitric oxide and adenosine. Anticoagulation has also been advised for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and in situ thromboses of the lungs. New drug treatments under investigation include L-arginine, plasma endothelin-I, and bosentan. Use of oxygen, digoxin, and diuretics for symptomatic relief have also been recommended. Patients with severe PPH refractory to medical management should be considered for surgery.

  20. Pathogenesis of pulmonary vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P; Schreiber, A; Falk, RJ; Jennette, JC

    2004-01-01

    Vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessels and can affect any type of vessel in any organ. Pulmonary vasculitis usually is a component of a systemic small vessel vasculitis. Three major forms of small vessel vasculitis that often affect the lungs are Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic

  1. Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suri Harpreet S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH is a relatively uncommon lung disease that generally, but not invariably, occurs in cigarette smokers. The pathologic hallmark of PLCH is the accumulation of Langerhans and other inflammatory cells in small airways, resulting in the formation of nodular inflammatory lesions. While the overwhelming majority of patients are smokers, mechanisms by which smoking induces this disease are not known, but likely involve a combination of events resulting in enhanced recruitment and activation of Langerhans cells in small airways. Bronchiolar inflammation may be accompanied by variable lung interstitial and vascular involvement. While cellular inflammation is prominent in early disease, more advanced stages are characterized by cystic lung destruction, cicatricial scarring of airways, and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Pulmonary function is frequently abnormal at presentation. Imaging of the chest with high resolution chest CT scanning may show characteristic nodular and cystic abnormalities. Lung biopsy is necessary for a definitive diagnosis, although may not be required in instances were imaging findings are highly characteristic. There is no general consensus regarding the role of immunosuppressive therapy in smokers with PLCH. All smokers must be counseled on the importance of smoking cessation, which may result in regression of disease and obviate the need for systemic immunosuppressive therapy. The prognosis for most patients is relatively good, particularly if longitudinal lung function testing shows stability. Complications like pneumothoraces and secondary pulmonary hypertension may shorten life expectancy. Patients with progressive disease may require lung transplantation.

  2. Pulmonary Hemorrhagic Infarction due to Fat Embolism and Thromboembolism after Maxillofacial Plastic Surgery: a Rare Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Dong-hua; SHAO Yu; ZHANG Jian-hua; QIN Zhi-qiang; LIU Ning-guo; HUANG Ping; CHEN Yi-jiu

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary fat embolism (PFE) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) are common post-operative complications of orthopedic surgical procedures,but are reported less often following maxillofacial plastic surgical procedures,especially with respect to PFE.Thrombi,or together with fat emboli in pulmonary vessels can induce hemorrhagic infarction and cause death.Herein this report introduced a death due to pulmonary hemorrhagic infarction following maxillofacial plastic surgery.The female patient underwent several osteotomies of the mandible,zygomas and autologous bone grafting within a single operation.The operative time was longer than normal and no preventive strategies for pulmonary embolism were implemented.The patient died 20 days after hospital discharge.The autopsy confirmed pulmonary hemorrhagic infarction.The fat emboli and thrombi were also noted in the pulmonary vessels,which were thought to have resulted from the maxillofacial osteotomy.Suggestions were offered to forensic pathologists that risk factors of PFE and PTE,such as the type and length of surgery,the surgical sites,and the preventive strategies,should be considered when handling deaths after maxillofacial operations.

  3. Surgical bleeding in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M. R.; Billica, R. D.; Johnston, S. L. 3rd

    1993-01-01

    A surgical procedure performed during space flight would occur in a unique microgravity environment. Several experiments performed during weightlessness in parabolic flight were reviewed to ascertain the behavior of surgical bleeding in microgravity. Simulations of bleeding using dyed fluid and citrated bovine blood, as well as actual arterial and venous bleeding in rabbits, were examined. The high surface tension property of blood promotes the formation of large fluid domes, which have a tendency to adhere to the wound. The use of sponges and suction will be adequate to prevent cabin atmosphere contamination with all bleeding, with the exception of temporary arterial droplet streams. The control of the bleeding with standard surgical techniques should not be difficult.

  4. Surgical management of presbyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torricelli AA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available André AM Torricelli, Jackson B Junior, Marcony R Santhiago, Samir J BecharaDivision of Ophthalmology, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Presbyopia, the gradual loss of accommodation that becomes clinically significant during the fifth decade of life, is a physiologic inevitability. Different technologies are being pursued to achieve surgical correction of this disability; however, a number of limitations have prevented widespread acceptance of surgical presbyopia correction, such as optical and visual distortion, induced corneal ectasia, haze, anisometropy with monovision, regression of effect, decline in uncorrected distance vision, and the inherent risks with invasive techniques, limiting the development of an ideal solution. The correction of the presbyopia and the restoration of accommodation are considered the final frontier of refractive surgery. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update about current procedures available for presbyopia correction, their advantages, and disadvantages.Keywords: presbyopia, surgical correction, treatment

  5. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be asked whether you have been exposed to asbestos or other toxins and if you have been ... lupus, or scleroderma Open lung (surgical) lung biopsy Treatment There is no known cure for IPF. Treatment ...

  6. Post-operative serious adverse events in a mixed surgical population - a retrospective register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M S; Petersen, E E; Dahl, J B;

    2016-01-01

    ; pulmonary embolism; stroke; gastrointestinal bleeding; dialysis or reoperation. METHODS: Data of surgical procedures in the period from January 1, 2012 to June 30, 2012 were retrieved from the Danish Anaesthesia Database (DAD). Follow-up of all patients undergoing hip or knee replacement, abdominal...

  7. Complicated hydatid cysts of the lung:surgical treatment in Kurdistan of Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdulqadir Maghded Zangana; Bashar Hanna Saqat

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To review the problems encountered in surgical treatment of complicated pulmonary hydatid cysts and to evaluate the functional results in the surgery of complicated hydatid cysts.Methods:The medical re-cords for 89 patients with complicated pulmonary hydatidosis were retrospectively investigated.The series con-sisted of 47 male and 42 female patients with a mean age of 32 ±8 years.Study performed during January 2000 to December 2007,all patients were treated surgically.Data related to surgical procedures performed,postop-erative morbidity,hospitalization time,and cyst recurrence were collected from each individual's records,and the group findings were compared.Results:Among these cysts,58 were perforated,23 were infected,and 13 were cysts with pleural complications.Cystotomy plus capitonnage was the most frequently performed operative technique (n =43),followed by cystotomy plus closure of bronchial openings (n =28),pericystectomy plus capitonnage (n =13),decortications (n =7),lobectomy and segmentectomy (n =3).The 11 cases with co-existing liver cysts were approached by right thoracophrenotomy.Postoperative complications developed in 12 patients (13.4%).Conclusion:Surgery is the primary mode of treatment for patients with pulmonary hydatid disease.Complicated cases have higher rates of preoperative and postoperative complications and require longer hospitalization time and more extensive surgical procedures than uncomplicated cases.This underlines the need for immediate surgery in any patient who is diagnosed with pulmonary hydatidosis when it is indicated.

  8. The Ross II procedure: pulmonary autograft in the mitral position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Thanos; Cherian, Ashok; Ross, Donald

    2004-10-01

    The surgical management of mitral valve disease in women of childbearing age, young patients, and children with congenital mitral valve defects is made difficult by the prospect of lifelong anticoagulation. We suggest the use of a pulmonary autograft in the mitral position (Ross II procedure) as an alternative surgical technique. We present a review of the literature, historical perspectives, indications, selection criteria, and surgical technique for the Ross II procedure. Our literature search identified 14 studies that reported results from the Ross II operation. Performed in 103 patients, the overall in-hospital mortality was 7 (6.7%), with a late mortality of 10 (9%). Although further research is needed, current evidence suggests the Ross II operation is a valuable alternative in low-risk young patients where valve durability and the complication rate from other procedures is unsatisfactory and anticoagulation not ideal.

  9. Anaesthesia Management of Surgical Treatment for Atrial Fibrillation using Ultrasound Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaijayanti N Gadre

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Atrial Fibrillation is commonly associated with Mitral Valve Disease. Valve replacement, associated with surgical correction of atrial fibrillation, is considered as a definitive cure for such condition. In this article, anaesthesia management of four cases is discussed where AF was surgically treated using Ultrasound energy. Patients were diagnosed cases of Mitral Stenosis and/or Regurgitation. Procedure for ablation of AF was done after midline sternotomy on beating heart followed by Mitral valve replacement on Cardio-Pulmonary bypass. Various surgical methods of treating AF are also discussed.

  10. Chronic post-embolic pulmonary hypertension: a new target for medical therapies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Delcroix

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The rationale for the use of pulmonary arterial hypertension-targeted drugs in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is based on four bundles of evidence, as follows: 1 the pathobiology of the disease, with a distal component of pre-capillary arteriopathy that is very similar to pulmonary arterial hypertension; 2 the inoperability of some patients, and the persistence or recurrence of pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy in others; 3 the short-term efficacy and safety of pulmonary arterial hypertension-targeted drugs in these patients; and 4 their potential effect on survival. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is essentially a surgical disease, curable by pulmonary endarterectomy, with acceptable procedural mortality in experienced centres. Patient selection for surgery is extremely complex and results in 30–50% of patients considered inoperable. A large clinical experience has been built up with endothelin receptor antagonists and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, while evidence from controlled trials is running far behind schedule. More recently, a randomised controlled trial with the guanylate cyclase stimulator, riociguat, achieved its target and showed haemodynamic, as well as functional, improvements within 4 months of therapy. The place of this therapy in the therapeutic arsenal needs to be further defined, but should be strictly limited to inoperable patients.

  11. Applications of Video-assisted Thoracic Surgery for the Diagnosis and Treatment 
of Patients with Small Pulmonary Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun SHAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Chest computed tomography (CT, particularly thin-slice high resolution CT, has low sensitivity and specificity for detecting pulmonary nodules <10 mm in size. This limitation leads to challenges in clinical diagnosis and treatment of small pulmonary nodules. This study introduces the use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS for the diagnosis and treatment of small pulmonary nodules. Methods From November 2009 to May 2012, 64 patients with small pulmonary nodules without prior preoperative pathologic diagnosis were treated by pulmonary wedge resection through VATS. The diagnosis of small pulmonary nodules was established from rapid frozen section. The type of operation depends on the pathology and the condition of the patients. Twenty patients with primary lung cancer were subjected to lobectomy and radical resection of the lymph nodes by complete thoracospic lobectomy or video-assisted thoracoscopic invasive lobectomy. Pulmonary wedge resection was performed in 44 patients, among whom 21 have benign nodule, 18 have precancerous lesion, 3 have metastatic nodule, and 2 have primary lung cancer for which lobectomy was not fit. Results Confirmative diagnosis is difficult to obtain among patients with small pulmonary nodules. VATS is effective in the diagnosis and treatment of small pulmonary nodules. With VATS, patients with benign small pulmonary nodules can be cured, and patients with primary lung cancer can receive definite diagnosis and effective treatment in time. Conclusion CT-guided hook-wire fixation is useful in precise lesion localization for surgical resection.

  12. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  13. [Optimizing surgical hand disinfection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, G; Kramer, A; Rotter, M; Widmer, A

    2006-08-01

    For more than 110 years hands of surgeons have been treated before a surgical procedure in order to reduce the bacterial density. The kind and duration of treatment, however, has changed significantly over time. Recent scientific evidence suggests a few changes with the aim to optimize both the efficacy and the dermal tolerance. Aim of this article is the presentation and discussion of new insights in surgical hand disinfection. A hand wash should be performed before the first disinfection of a day, ideally at least 10 min before the beginning of the disinfection as it has been shown that a 1 min hand wash significantly increases skin hydration for up to 10 min. The application time may be as short as 1.5 min depending on the type of hand rub. Hands and forearms should be kept wet with the hand rub for the recommended application time in any case. A specific rub-in procedure according to EN 12791 has been found to be suitable in order to avoid untreated skin areas. The alcohol-based hand rub should have a proven excellent dermal tolerance in order to ensure appropriate compliance. Considering these elements in clinical practice can have a significant impact to optimize the high quality of surgical hand disinfection for prevention of surgical site infections.

  14. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension. The Journey from a Curiosity to a Cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, William R; Mandel, Jess; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a progressive and life-threatening condition that is believed to be related to inadequate dissolution of acute pulmonary thromboemboli, followed by fibrotic organization. Without appropriate treatment, progressive pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure, and death may occur. While the disorder was initially described nearly a century ago in autopsy studies, antemortem diagnosis became feasible with the advent of cardiac catheterization and angiography techniques in the 1940s, while surgical thromboendarterectomy was not attempted until the 1960s. However, this procedure initially had high mortality rates until refinements in management and surgical techniques resulted in much improved outcomes starting in the 1980s. Many questions remain about the pathophysiology and epidemiology of this condition, with unclear contributions of genetics and environmental exposures. The optimal approach to diagnosis also continues to evolve, with improvements in preoperative imaging and hemodynamic assessment. Treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension has not remained static, as surgical techniques continue to improve and newer pharmacological treatments and percutaneous catheter-based interventions may play therapeutic roles in selected patients. This is the introductory article of a series that provides a state-of-the-art review of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

  15. [da Vinci surgical system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Gou; Ishikawa, Norihiro

    2014-07-01

    The da Vinci surgical system was developed by Intuitive Surgical Inc. in the United States as an endoscopic surgical device to assist remote control surgeries. In 1998, the Da Vinci system was first used for cardiothoracic procedures. Currently a combination of robot-assisted internal thoracic artery harvest together with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) through a mini-incision (ThoraCAB) or totally endoscopic procedures including anastomoses under robotic assistance (TECAB) are being conducted for the treatment of coronary artery diseases. With the recent advances in catheter interventions, hybrid procedures combining catheter intervention with ThoraCAB or TECAB are anticipated in the future.On the other hand, with the decrease in number of coronary artery bypass surgeries, the share of valvular surgeries is expected to increase in the future. Among them, mitral valvuloplasty for mitral regurgitation is anticipated to be conducted mainly by low-invasive procedures, represented by minimally invasive cardiac surgery( MICS) and robot-assisted surgery. Apart from the intrinsic good surgical view, robotic-assisted systems offer additional advantages of the availability of an amplified view and the easy to observe the mitral valve in the physiological position. Thus, robotic surgical surgeries that make complicated procedures easier are expected to accomplish further developments in the future. Furthermore, while the number of surgeries for atrial septal defects has decreased dramatically following the widespread use of Amplatzer septal occluder, robotic surgery may become a good indication for cases in which the Amplatzer device is not indicated. In Japan, clinical trial of the da Vinci robotic system for heart surgeries has been completed. Statutory approval of the da Vinci system for mitral regurgitation and atrial septal defects is anticipated in the next few years.

  16. Current practice for pulmonary hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toru Satoh

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current practice of pulmonary hypertension including current epidemiology,diagnosis and treatment.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and guidelines.Study selection Articles with high level of evidence or current best evidence in each issue were selected to be reviewed.Results Overall prevalence of pulmonary hypertension was 0.3% to 6% with left heart disease occupying the most proportion,followed by pulmonary disease,pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.In diagnosis,a flow diagram of diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension,differential diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension and how to determine the severity of pulmonary hypertension are explained including recent development of magnetic resonance imaging and gene abnormality study on bone morphogenetic protein receptor Ⅱ.In treatment,newlydeveloped pulmonary vasodilators and the way to use them are shown to treat pulmonary hypertension.Conclusion Safer and more effective treatment algorithm and basic researches and clinical trials are warranted to be explored.

  17. Pulmonary manifestations of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, H James; Roubey, Robert A S

    2010-09-01

    A broad spectrum of pulmonary disease may occur in antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. The most common pulmonary manifestations are pulmonary thromboembolism and pulmonary hypertension. In this article the authors review these manifestations, as well as less common findings including acute respiratory distress syndrome, alveolar hemorrhage, and pulmonary capillaritis.

  18. Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery: Report of an Adult Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso K. Takimura

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical findings, pathophysiology, diagnostic characteristics, and surgical repair of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in a 26-year-old female patient with a clinical diagnosis of coronary heart disease.

  19. Left Pulmonary Artery Thrombosis in a Neonate with Left Lung Hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias P. van Schendel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic events in neonates may origin from fetal life. A 4-day-old newborn infant with a family history of heterozygous type 1 protein C deficiency was diagnosed with left lung hypoplasia and left pulmonary artery thrombosis. Its source was prenatally closed ductus arteriosus. Surgical removal of the thrombus was performed.

  20. Mediastinal lung herniation associated with pulmonary sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Hidefumi; Tanaka, Eriko; Kushihashi, Tamio; Baba, Maiko; Usui, Nobutaka; Ukisu, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Hiroki; Kamio, Yoshito; Kitami, Akihiko; Nakajima, Hiroaki; Shiokawa, Akira

    2007-11-01

    Mediastinal lung herniation is a rare condition characterized by protrusion of 1 lower lung through behind the heart into the opposite side of the chest, usually from right to left. We present a case of mediastinal lung herniation associated with pulmonary sequestration, which was confirmed both surgically and pathologically in a 13-year-old girl initially admitted with a diagnosis of pneumonia. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic images using a multidetector-row computed tomography clearly demonstrated the right lung herniation toward the left and 2 aberrant systemic arteries supplying the sequestered lung mass. These arteries run through the herniated lung from right to left. Additionally, on the basis of pleural anatomy, we discuss herein the difference between a mediastinal lung herniation and horseshoe lung.

  1. A case of pulmonary hydatid cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Yong; Choi, Young Chill; Park, Cheol Min; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Chung, Kyu Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm genus Echinococcus. In man, the two main forms are due to E. granulosus and, lee frequently, E. multilocularis. Man becomes infected by contact with a definite host or by consuming contaminated water or vegetable. Hydatid disease is prevalent throughout much of the world such as the middle east, eastern Australia, central Europe, south America, Alaska, but it is very rare in Korea. We experienced one case of pulmonary hydatid disease. Chest films revealed ovoid mass in the left lower lobe and seen as unilocular water-density cystic lesion on chest CT, which was removed surgically, and then the pathology confirmed the diagnosis.

  2. Persistent diffuse pulmonary interstitial emphysema mimicking pulmonary emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Demura, Y.; Ishizaki, T; Nakanishi, M; Ameshima, S; Itoh, H.

    2009-01-01

    A 69-year-old male non-smoker with a history of atopic asthma presented with symptoms suggestive of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and this appeared to be corroborated by lung function testing and a chest radiograph. However, a chest CT showed no evidence of pulmonary emphysema and instead demonstrated free air along the bronchovascular sheaths indicative of pulmonary interstistial emphysema, possibly caused by repeated prior exacerbations of asthma. His lung function tests and symptom...

  3. Pulmonary Strongyloidiasis Masquerading as Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Gourahari; Behera, Priyadarshini; Bhuniya, Sourin; Mohapatra, Prasanta Raghab; Turuk, Jyotirmayee; Mohanty, Srujana

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary strongyloidiasis is an uncommon presentation of Strongyloides infection, usually seen in immunocompromised hosts. The manifestations are similar to that of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, the diagnosis of pulmonary strongyloidiasis could be challenging in a COPD patient, unless a high index of suspicion is maintained. Here, we present a case of Strongyloides hyperinfection in a COPD patient mimicking acute exacerbation, who was on chronic steroid therapy. PMID:27790284

  4. Management of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Robert A; Chauhan, Aman; Gimenez, Juan; Thomas, Katharine E H; Kokodis, Ioni; Voros, Brianne A

    2017-09-04

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the lung are divided into 4 major types: small cell lung cancer (SCLC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), atypical carcinoid (AC) or typical carcinoid (TC). Each classification has distinctly different treatment paradigms, making an accurate initial diagnosis essential. The inconsistent clinical presentation of this disease, however, makes this difficult. The objective of this manuscript is to detail the diagnosis and management of the well differentiated pulmonary carcinoid (PC) tumors. A multidisciplinary approach to work up and treatment should be utilized for each patient. A multimodal radiological work-up is used for diagnosis, with contrast enhanced CT predominantly utilized and functional imaging techniques. A definitive diagnosis is based on tissue findings. Surgical management remains the mainstay of therapy and can be curative. In those with advanced disease, medical treatments consist of somatostatin analog (SSA) therapy, targeted therapy, chemotherapy or peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. SSAs are the standard of care in those with metastatic NETs, using either Octreotide long acting repeatable (LAR) or lanreotide as reasonable options, despite a scarcity of prospective data in PCs. Targeted therapies consist of everolimus which is approved for use in PCs, with various studies showing mixed results with other targeted agents. Additionally, radionuclide therapy may be used and has been shown to increase survival and to reduce symptoms in some studies. Prospective trials are needed to determine other strategies that may be beneficial in PCs as well as sequencing of therapy. Successful diagnosis and optimal treatment relies on a multidisciplinary approach in patients with lung NETs. Clinical trials should be used in appropriate patients.

  5. Pulmonary sarcoidosis: management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma O

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades many advances have been made in the field of sarcoidosis. The disease is now recognised as a multisystem disorder occurring in patients with a genetic predisposition and an exposure to yet unknown transmissible environmental agent/s. The diagnosis is based on a compatible clinical and/or radiological picture, histological evidence of non-caseating granuloma and exclusion of other diseases capable of producing a similar clinical or histological picture. Treatment primarily consists of administration of corticosteroids, although there are valuable alternative drugs. Treatment should be considered in symptomatic patients with evidence of radiologic or lung function deterioration. The patients with extra-pulmonary involvement particularly with ocular, myocardial, and neuro-sarcoidosis almost always need treatment. For asymptomatic pulmonary sarcoidosis patients no therapy is needed.

  6. Update in pulmonary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, John H

    2013-04-01

    Pulmonary disorders are common and important causes of morbidity and even mortality in adolescents. Conditions that are considered in this article include asthma, cystic fibrosis, and vocal cord dysfunction. Chronic and recurrent exacerbations may occur in youth with such disorders; therefore, they must adhere to potentially many pharmacologic agents and therapeutic procedures on a regular basis for maximum medical and psychosocial outcomes. It is important that physicians use au courant evidence-based guidelines in the management of adolescents. It is also critical that physicians educate adolescents about these regimens to help them maximize management outcomes. If disease control is inadequate, referral to a pulmonary specialist can be helpful to verify the correct diagnosis(es) and ensure that the most appropriate therapies are used.

  7. Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanfranchi, Michael [Creighton University Medical School, Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Allbery, Sandra M.; Wheelock, Lisa [Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Omaha, NE (United States); Perry, Deborah [Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Although bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common cause of interstitial lung disease in chronically intubated premature neonates, other interstitial lung disease in nonintubated infants is rare. We present a case of pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis that developed in a nonintubated, 31-week gestation infant in whom infectious etiologies had been excluded. The infant was well initially and then developed respiratory distress at 18 days of life. Radiographs at first day of life were normal, but CT and radiographic findings at 18 days of life showed severe interstitial lung disease, mimicking BPD. Lung biopsy showed pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. This entity is not well described in the pediatric radiology literature and is important to consider, as the condition is responsive to a course of corticosteroids. (orig.)

  8. "Vanishing" pulmonary valve stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofil I Arain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Both spontaneous resolution and progression of mild pulmonary valve stenosis (PS have been reported. We reviewed characteristics of the pulmonary valve (PV to determine factors that could influence resolution of mild PS. Methods: Fifteen asymptomatic pediatric patients with spontaneous resolution of isolated mild PS were retrospectively reviewed. Results: There was no correlation between the PV gradient, clinical presentation, age at diagnosis, or PV morphology. The PV annulus was small at initial presentation, which normalized at follow up. When corrected for the body surface area (z-score, the PV annulus was normal in all patients, including at initial evaluation. Conclusions: Based on our observation, neither age at diagnosis, nor PV-morphology-influenced resolution of mild PS. The variable clinical presentation makes it difficult to categorize and observe mild PS by auscultation alone. The PV annulus z-score could be a useful adjunct to determine the course and serial observation of mild PS.

  9. Pulmonary sequestration: a (131)I whole body scintigraphy false-positive result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinapolice, Elena Giulia; Chytiris, S; Fuccio, C; Leporati, P; Volpato, G; Villani, L; Trifirò, G; Chiovato, L

    2014-08-01

    A 35-year-old woman affected by a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma was referred to our hospital to perform a (131)Iodine ((131)I) whole body scintigraphy for restaging purpose. The patient had been previously treated with total thyroidectomy and three subsequent doses of (131)I for the ablation of a remnant jugular tissue and a suspected metastatic focus at the superior left hemi-thorax. In spite of the previous treatments with (131)I, planar and tomographic images showed the persistence of an area of increased uptake at the superior left hemi-thorax. This finding prompted the surgical resection of the lesion. Histological examination of the surgical specimen showed the presence of a pulmonary tissue consistent with pulmonary sequestration. Even though rare, pulmonary sequestration should be included in the potential causes of false-positive results of radioiodine scans.

  10. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is thought to result from incomplete resolution of pulmonary thromboemboli that undergo organisation into fibrous tissue within pulmonary arterial branches, filling pulmonary arterial lumina with collagenous obstructions. The treatment of choice is pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA in CTEPH centres, which has low post-operative mortality and good long-term survival. For patients ineligible for PEA or who have recurrent or persistent pulmonary hypertension after surgery, medical treatment with riociguat is beneficial. In addition, percutaneous balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA is an emerging option, and promises haemodynamic and functional benefits for inoperable patients. In contrast to conventional angioplasty, BPA with undersized balloons over guide wires exclusively breaks intraluminal webs and bands, without dissecting medial vessel layers, and repeat sessions are generally required. Observational studies report that BPA improves haemodynamics, symptoms and functional capacity in patients with CTEPH, but controlled trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Complications include haemoptysis, wire injury, vessel dissection, vessel rupture, reperfusion pulmonary oedema, pulmonary parenchymal bleeding and haemorrhagic pleural effusions. This review summarises the available evidence for BPA, patient selection, recent technical refinements and periprocedural imaging, and discusses the potential future role of BPA in the management of CTEPH.

  11. Isolated Pulmonary Valve Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hatamizadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is one of the most severe complications of parenteral drug abuse. The outstanding clinical feature of infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers is the high incidence of right-sided valve infection, and the tricuspid valve is involved in 60% to 70% of the cases. We herein report a case of isolated pulmonic valve infective endocarditis with a native pulmonary valve.

  12. Common lung conditions: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzell, John E

    2013-06-01

    The etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is chronic lung inflammation. In the United States, this inflammation most commonly is caused by smoking. COPD is diagnosed when an at-risk patient presents with respiratory symptoms and has irreversible airway obstruction indicated by a forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio of less than 0.7. Management goals for COPD include smoking cessation, symptom reduction, exacerbation reduction, hospitalization avoidance, and improvement of quality of life. Stable patients with COPD who remain symptomatic despite using short-acting bronchodilators should start inhaled maintenance drugs to reduce symptoms and exacerbations, avoid hospitalizations, and improve quality of life. A long-acting anticholinergic or a long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) can be used for initial therapy; these drugs have fewer adverse effects than inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). If patients remain symptomatic despite monotherapy, dual therapy with a long-acting anticholinergic and a LABA, or a LABA and an ICS, may be beneficial. Triple therapy (ie, a long-acting anticholinergic, a LABA, and an ICS) also is used, but it is unclear if triple therapy is superior to dual therapy. Roflumilast, an oral selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, is used to manage moderate to severe COPD. Continuous oxygen therapy is indicated for patients with COPD who have severe hypoxemia (ie, PaO2 less than 55 mm Hg or an oxygen saturation less than 88% on room air). Nonpharmacologic strategies also are useful to improve patient outcomes. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves dyspnea and quality of life. Pulmonary rehabilitation after an acute exacerbation reduces hospitalizations and mortality, and improves quality of life and exercise capacity. Smoking cessation is the most effective management strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with COPD. Lung volume reduction surgery, bullectomy, and lung transplantation are

  13. Complex pulmonary aspergilloma treated by cavernostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula dos Santos Marsico Pereira da Silva

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of cavernostomy in patients with complex fungal balls.Methods: We analyzed the medical records of patients undergoing cavernostomy between January 2005 and May 2013, evaluating: age, gender, preoperative signs and symptoms, predisposing disease, preoperative tests, location of the aspergilloma, etiologic agent, cavernostomy indication, postoperative outcome.Results: Ten patients were male. The mean age was 42.9 years (34-56. The most frequent symptom was repeated pulmonary bleeding. Cavernostomy was proposed for patients at high risk for lung resection. It was performed in 17 patients and all of them had pulmonary tuberculosis sequelae, with cavitations. The indication in all cases was hemoptysis and elimination of phlegm. The cavernostomies were performed in a single surgical procedure. In all 17 patients the cavity was left open after the withdrawal of the mycetoma. In all patients hemoptysis ceased immediately. Operative mortality was 9.5% (1.Conclusion: cavernostomy is an effective treatment alternative in patients at high risk. It may be useful in some patients with complex aspergilloma, irrespective of lung function or bilateral disease. It is technically easy, has low-risk, saves parenchyma, and may be performed in a single operative time.

  14. Pulmonary radiofrequency ablation (Part 1): current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasencia Martínez, J M

    2015-01-01

    The risks involved in surgical treatment and conventional radiotherapy in patients with early lung cancer or lung metastases often make these treatments difficult to justify. However, on the other hand, it is also unacceptable to allow these lesions to evolve freely because, left untreated, these neoplasms will usually lead to the death of the patient. In recent years, alternative local therapies have been developed, such as pulmonary radiofrequency ablation, which has proven to increase survival with a minimal risk of complications. There are common recommendations for these treatments, and although the specific indications for using one technique or another have yet to be established, there are clearly defined situations that will determine the outcome of the treatment. It is important to know these situations, because appropriate patient selection is essential for therapeutic success. This article aims to describe the characteristics and constraints of pulmonary radiofrequency ablation and to outline its role in thoracic oncology in light of the current evidence. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Respiratory Conditions Update: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, Daphne J

    2016-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as persistent airflow limitation due to irritant-induced chronic inflammation. A postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio of 0.7 or less is diagnostic in a patient with dyspnea, chronic cough or sputum production, and a history of irritant exposure. Tobacco smoking is the most significant etiology, and smoking cessation is the only intervention shown to slow disease progression. Long-acting beta2-agonists and long-acting muscarinic antagonists are first-line treatments for patients with persistently symptomatic COPD with an FEV1 of 80% or less of predicted. When COPD is uncontrolled with a long-acting bronchodilator, combination therapy with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist-long-acting beta2-agonist or long-acting beta2-agonist-inhaled corticosteroid should be prescribed. Patients with COPD and reduced exercise tolerance should undergo pulmonary rehabilitation and be evaluated for supplemental oxygen therapy. Other treatment options for persistently symptomatic COPD include inhaler triple therapy (ie, long-acting muscarinic antagonist, long-acting beta2-agonist, inhaled corticosteroid), phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitors, oxygen, and surgical interventions.

  16. Pulmonary trichomoniasis and Trichomonas tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, S M

    1985-08-01

    Pulmonary trichomoniasis is usually caused by aspirated Trichomonas tenax. Adult men with chronic purulent or necrotic pulmonary disease are usually affected. Sixty-eight patients were previously described. A Russian study demonstrated pulmonary trichomoniasis in 19 of 112 patients (17%), mostly in patients with lung cancer, lung abscess, or bronchiectasis. Rarely, pulmonary trichomoniasis may be caused by an intra-abdominal (T. hominis) or genitourinary (T. vaginalis) infection. T. tenax is usually regarded as a harmless commensal of the human mouth. Its prevalence ranges from 4% to 53% and may exceed that of vaginal infection with T. vaginalis in adult females. It is frequently found in patients with poor oral hygiene. Cultural identification is superior to microscopic examination of wet-smear, gram-stained and Papanicolaou-stained preparations. Aspirated pulmonary trichomoniasis is an opportunistic infection. Until the question of possible pathogenicity is resolved, metronidazole should be given. The underlying pulmonary disease should be vigorously treated.

  17. Pulmonary edema: radiographic differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Dong Soo; Choi, Young Hi; Kim, Seung Cheol; An, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jee Young; Park, Hee Hong [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using chest radiography to differentiate between three different etiologies of pulmonary edema. Plain chest radiographs of 77 patients, who were clinically confirmed as having pulmonary edema, were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were classified into three groups : group 1 (cardiogenic edema : n = 35), group 2 (renal pulmonary edema : n = 16) and group 3 (permeability edema : n = 26). We analyzed the radiologic findings of air bronchogram, heart size, peribronchial cuffing, septal line, pleural effusion, vascular pedicle width, pulmonary blood flow distribution and distribution of pulmonary edema. In a search for radiologic findings which would help in the differentiation of these three etiologies, each finding was assessed. Cardiogenic and renal pulmonary edema showed overlapping radiologic findings, except for pulmonary blood flow distribution. In cardiogenic pulmonary edema (n=35), cardiomegaly (n=29), peribronchial cuffing (n=29), inverted pulmonary blood flow distribution (n=21) and basal distribution of edema (n=20) were common. In renal pulmonary edema (n=16), cardiomegaly (n=15), balanced blood flow distribution (n=12), and central (n=9) or basal distribution of edema (n=7) were common. Permeability edema (n=26) showed different findings. Air bronchogram (n=25), normal blood flow distribution (n=14) and peripheral distribution of edema (n=21) were frequent findings, while cardiomegaly (n=7), peribronchial cuffing (n=7) and septal line (n=5) were observed in only a few cases. On plain chest radiograph, permeability edema can be differentiated from cardiogenic or renal pulmonary edema. The radiographic findings which most reliably differentiated these two etiologies were air bronchogram, distribution of pulmonary edema, peribronchial cuffing and heart size. Only blood flow distribution was useful for radiographic differentiation of cardiogenic and renal edema.

  18. Vitiligo- A surgical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Ghia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objective- To describe the spectrum of surgical modalities for stable vitiligo patients Methods- Patients having stable vitiligo since past 2 years with no improvement with medical line of treatment were enrolled for surgery after informed consent. Depending upon the size and location of vitiligo patch different modalities were performed. Suction blister, mini-punch grafting, split thickness skin grafting, trypsinised melanocyte-keratinocyte transfer and non-trypsinised melanocyte- keratinocyte transfer (Jodhpur technique and follicular grafting technique have been described photographically which have been performed at a tertiary care hospital. Conclusion- Vitiligo is often difficult to treat, stable patches resistant to medical line of management do respond to surgical treatment; however it is very important to choose the modality of surgery according location of the patch, size of the lesion and available resources.

  19. Spacecraft surgical scrub system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, M.

    1980-01-01

    Ease of handling and control in zero gravity and minimizing the quantity of water required were prime considerations. The program tasks include the selection of biocidal agent from among the variety used for surgical scrub, formulation of a dispensing system, test, and delivery of flight dispensers. The choice of an iodophore was based on effectiveness on single applications, general familiarity among surgeons, and previous qualification for space use. The delivery system was a choice between the squeeze foamer system and impregnated polyurethane foam pads. The impregnated foam pad was recommended because it is a simpler system since the squeeze foamer requires some applicator to effectively clean the skin surfaces, whereas the form pad is the applicator and agent combined. Testing demonstrated that both systems are effective for use as surgical scrubs.

  20. Gossypiboma—Retained Surgical Sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Shun Sun

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Intra-abdominal retained surgical sponge is an uncommon surgical error. Herein, we report a 92-year-old woman who was brought to the emergency room for acute urinary retention. She had a history of vaginal hysterectomy for uterine prolapse 18 years previously, performed at our hospital. Retained surgical sponge in the pelvic cavity was suspected by abdominal computed tomography. The surgical gauze was removed by laparotomy excision and the final diagnosis was gossypiboma.

  1. Hepatic surgical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panajiotis N; Mirilas, Petros

    2004-04-01

    The liver, the largest organ in the body, has been misunderstood at nearly all levels of organization, and there is a tendency to ignore details that do not fit the preconception. A complete presentation of the surgical anatomy of the liver includes the study of hepatic surfaces, margins, and fissures; the various classifications of lobes and segments; and the vasculature and lymphatics. A brief overview of the intrahepatic biliary tract is also presented.

  2. Infective endocarditis following Melody valve implantation: comparison with a surgical cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Clare; Holloway, Rhonda; Tilton, Elizabeth; Stirling, John; Finucane, Kirsten; Wilson, Nigel

    2017-03-01

    Infective endocarditis has been reported post Melody percutaneous pulmonary valve implant; the incidence and risk factors, however, remain poorly defined. We identified four cases of endocarditis from our first 25 Melody implants. Our aim was to examine these cases in the context of postulated risk factors and directly compare endocarditis rates with local surgical valves. We conducted a retrospective review of patients post Melody percutaneous pulmonary valve implant in New Zealand (October, 2009-May, 2015) and also reviewed the incidence of endocarditis in New Zealand among patients who have undergone surgical pulmonary valve implants. In total, 25 patients underwent Melody implantation at a median age of 18 years. At a median follow-up of 2.9 years, most were well with low valve gradient (median 27 mmHg) and only mild regurgitation. Two patients presented with life-threatening endocarditis and obstructive vegetations at 14 and 26 months post implant, respectively. Two additional patients presented with subacute endocarditis at 5.5 years post implant. From 2009 to May, 2015, 178 surgical pulmonic bioprostheses, largely Hancock valves and homografts, were used at our institution. At a median follow-up of 2.9 years, four patients (2%) had developed endocarditis in this group compared with 4/25 (16%) in the Melody group (p=0.0089). Three surgical valves have been replaced. The Melody valve offers a good alternative to surgical conduit replacement in selected patients. Many patients have excellent outcomes in the medium term. Endocarditis, however, can occur and if associated with obstruction can be life threatening. The risk for endocarditis in the Melody group was higher in comparison with that in a contemporaneous surgical pulmonary implant cohort.

  3. Pulmonary alterations in cocaine users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Terra Filho

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Brazilian researchers have recently recognized a marked increase in the number of people using abusable drugs and the consequences of this habit. It has become a major public health problem in a potentially productive segment of the general population. In the last few years, several medical articles have given special emphasis to pulmonary complications related to cocaine use. This review is based on this information and experience acquired with groups of cocaine users. OBJECTIVE: To present to physicians the pulmonary aspects of cocaine use and warn about the various effects this drug has on the respiratory system, stressing those related to long-term use. DESIGN: Narrative review. METHOD: Pulmonary complications are described. These may include infections (Staphylococcus aureus, pulmonary tuberculosis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/aids, etc., aspiration pneumonia, lung abscess, empyema, septic embolism, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, barotrauma, pulmonary granulomatosis, bronchiolitis obliterans and organizing pneumonia, pneumonitis and interstitial fibrosis, pneumonitis hypersensitivity, lung infiltrates and eosinophilia in individuals with bronchial hyperreactivity, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, vasculitis, pulmonary infarction, pulmonary hypertension and alterations in gas exchange. It is concluded that physicians should give special attention to the various pulmonary and clinical manifestations related to cocaine use, particularly in young patients.

  4. Varicosity of the pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leicher-Dueber, A.; Lindner, P.; Schild, H.; Plewe, G.

    1986-04-01

    Varicosity of the pulmonary veins is a rare anomaly of the pulmonary vascular system. The varices do not usually change in size over years, do not cause symptoms and need no therapy. However, raised left atrial pressure can cause increase in the diameter of pulmonary vein varices. A case of lung vein varicosity in the right middle and upper lobe associated with coarctation of the aorta and an anomalous upper-middle lobe vein was observed over a period of 10 years. Increase in left atrial pressure (aortic and relative mitral regurgitation) led to enlargement of the pulmonary veins.

  5. Prenatal prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebwasser, Jourdan E; Treadwell, Marjorie C

    2017-03-15

    Pulmonary hypoplasia, although rare, is associated with significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Conditions associated with pulmonary hypoplasia include those which limit normal thoracic capacity or movement, including skeletal dysplasias and abdominal wall defects; those with mass effect, including congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pleural effusions; and those with decreased amniotic fluid, including preterm, premature rupture of membranes, and genitourinary anomalies. The ability to predict severe pulmonary hypoplasia prenatally aids in family counseling, as well as obstetric and neonatal management. The objective of this review is to outline the imaging techniques that are widely used prenatally to assess pulmonary hypoplasia and to discuss the limitations of these methods.

  6. Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, T.J.P., E-mail: timothyjpbray@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom); Mortensen, K.H., E-mail: mortensen@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom); University Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Box 318, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Gopalan, D., E-mail: deepa.gopalan@btopenworld.com [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A plethora of pulmonary and systemic disorders, often associated with grave outcomes, may cause pulmonary infarction. • A stereotypical infarct is a peripheral wedge shaped pleurally based opacity but imaging findings can be highly variable. • Multimodality imaging is key to diagnosing the presence, aetiology and complications of pulmonary infarction. • Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction together with any ancillary features often guide to early targeted treatment. • CT remains the principal imaging modality with MRI increasingly used alongside nuclear medicine studies and ultrasound. - Abstract: The impact of absent pulmonary arterial and venous flow on the pulmonary parenchyma depends on a host of factors. These include location of the occlusive insult, the speed at which the occlusion develops and the ability of the normal dual arterial supply to compensate through increased bronchial arterial flow. Pulmonary infarction occurs when oxygenation is cut off secondary to sudden occlusion with lack of recruitment of the dual supply arterial system. Thromboembolic disease is the commonest cause of such an insult but a whole range of disease processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the pulmonary arterial and venous lumen may also result in infarcts. Recognition of the presence of infarction can be challenging as imaging manifestations often differ from the classically described wedge shaped defect and a number of weighty causes need consideration. This review highlights aetiologies and imaging appearances of pulmonary infarction, utilising cases to illustrate the essential role of a multimodality imaging approach in order to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis.

  7. Systemic and Pulmonary Vascular Remodelling in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Muñoz-Esquerre

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is associated with subclinical systemic atherosclerosis and pulmonary vascular remodelling characterized by intimal hyperplasia and luminal narrowing. We aimed to determine differences in the intimal thickening of systemic and pulmonary arteries in COPD subjects and smokers. Secondary aims include comparisons with a non-smokers group; determining the clinical variables associated with systemic and pulmonary intimal thickening, and the correlations between systemic and pulmonary remodelling changes.All consecutive subjects undergoing lung resection were included and divided into 3 groups: 1 COPD, 2 smokers, and 3 non-smokers. Sections of the 5th intercostal artery and muscular pulmonary arteries were measured by histo-morphometry. Four parameters of intimal thickening were evaluated: 1 percentage of intimal area (%IA, 2 percentage of luminal narrowing, 3 intimal thickness index, and 4 intima-to-media ratio.In the adjusted analysis, the systemic arteries of COPD subjects showed greater intimal thickening (%IA than those of smokers (15.6±1.5% vs. 14.2±1.6%, p = 0.038. In the pulmonary arteries, significant differences were observed for %IA between the 2 groups (37.3±2.2% vs. 29.3±2.3%, p = 0.016. Among clinical factors, metabolic syndrome, gender and COPD status were associated with the systemic intimal thickening, while only COPD status was associated with pulmonary intimal thickening. A correlation between the %IA of the systemic and pulmonary arteries was observed (Spearman's rho = 0.46, p = 0.008.Greater intimal thickening in systemic and pulmonary arteries is observed in COPD patients than in smokers. There is a correlation between systemic and pulmonary vascular remodelling in the overall population.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions pulmonary arterial hypertension pulmonary arterial hypertension Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally high ...

  9. Louis Pasteur surgical revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) is considered the most notable medical scientist of his time and perhaps one of the most distinguished of all times in the history of medicine. From Dole in France to Paris, from a student of crystals to "living ferments," and from chemistry to biology and medicine, Pasteur changed the world for the benefit of humanity. The genius of Pasteur dealt with the most pressing issues of his time, basing the germ theory on the effects that microorganisms had on fermentation and putrefaction of organic matter, which gave birth to the science of bacteriology. Many other difficult problems in medicine and biology were tackled by Pasteur, culminating in the spectacular results seen with the treatment of rabies. Surgery was no exception to the scientific conquests of Pasteur. The transformation of the surgical world arose from the antiseptic concepts of Lister that were based on the germ theory of the disease, which had been derived from the germ theory of fermentation and putrefaction discovered by Pasteur. The acceptance of these principles represented the surgical revolution brought on by the science of Pasteur, a revolution that is now accepted in our daily care of surgical patients.

  10. Guideline implementation: Surgical attire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-02-01

    Surgical attire helps protect patients from microorganisms that may be shed from the hair and skin of perioperative personnel. The updated AORN "Guideline for surgical attire" provides guidance on scrub attire, shoes, head coverings, and masks worn in the semirestricted and restricted areas of the perioperative setting, as well as how to handle personal items (eg, jewelry, backpacks, cell phones) that may be taken into the perioperative suite. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel adhere to facility policies and regulatory requirements for attire. The key points address the potential benefits of wearing scrub attire made of antimicrobial fabric, covering the arms when in the restricted area of the surgical suite, removing or confining jewelry when wearing scrub attire, disinfecting personal items that will be taken into the perioperative suite, and sending reusable attire to a health care-accredited laundry facility after use. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  11. [Hydatidosis simulating a cardiac tumour with pulmonary metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Izquierdo, Marta; Martín-Trenor, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The presence of multiple symptomatic pulmonary nodules and one cardiac tumour in a child requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Until a few decades ago, the diagnosis of a cardiac tumour was difficult and was based on a high index of suspicion from indirect signs, and required angiocardiography for confirmation. Echocardiography and other imaging techniques have also helped in the detection of cardiac neoplasms. However, it is not always easy to make the correct diagnosis. The case is presented of a 12 year-old boy with pulmonary symptoms, and diagnosed with a cardiac tumour with lung metastases. The presence of numerous pulmonary nodules was confirmed in our hospital. The echocardiogram detected a solid cardiac nodule in the right ventricle. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the findings and the diagnosis. Puncture-aspiration of a lung nodule gave the diagnosis of hydatidosis. He underwent open-heart surgery with cardiac cyst resection and treated with anthelmintics. The lung cysts were then excised, and he recovered uneventfully. This child had multiple pulmonary nodules and a solid cardiac nodule, and was suspected of having a cardiac tumour with pulmonary metastases. However, given the clinical history, background and morphology of pulmonary nodules, another possible aetiology for consideration is echinococcosis. The clinical picture of cardiac hydatidosis and its complications is highly variable. The clinical history is essential in these cases, as well as having a high index of suspicion. Hydatidosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a solid, echogenic, cardiac nodule. The treatment for cardiopulmonary hydatid cysts is surgical, followed by anthelmintics. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgical navigation with QR codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katanacho Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented work is an alternative to established measurement systems in surgical navigation. The system is based on camera based tracking of QR code markers. The application uses a single video camera, integrated in a surgical lamp, that captures the QR markers attached to surgical instruments and to the patient.

  13. Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: Risk Factors and Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrek, Sarah; Safdar, Zeenat

    2016-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) occurs when thromboemboli travel to the pulmonary vasculature, fail to resolve, and cause elevated pulmonary arterial pressure. Untreated, this disease leads to progressive right heart failure and death. It develops in approximately 1% to 5% of patients who suffer an acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and has an overall incidence of 3 to 30 per million in the general population. While it is not entirely evident why most but not all people are able to clear this clot burden, there are known risk factors for the development of CTEPH. These include signs of right heart strain at the time of incident PE, inherited coagulopathies, inflammatory conditions, hypothyroidism, and a history of splenectomy. Since CTEPH can be treated both surgically and medically, it is critical to understand the pathophysiology of the disease so affected patients can be identified and diagnosed appropriately.

  14. Mixed total anomalous pulmonary venous connection: Case report with bilateral venous collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayre, Raul O; Civetta, Julio D; Roldan, Alberto O; Rousseau, Juan J; Knudson, Ole A; Valdes-Cruz, Lilliam M

    2003-01-01

    We present a case report of a 3-month-old boy with a mixed total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. The patient had situs solitus, small atrial septal defect, and 2 separate venous collectors. The right pulmonary veins drained through a right-sided venous collector into the coronary sinus. The left-sided pulmonary veins drained through the left-sided venous collector directly into the right superior vena cava. The use of the echocardiogram and Doppler color flow mapping to establish a detailed morphologic analysis, the sites of connection, and the presence of pulmonary venous obstructions as well as the value of this information to facilitate a successful surgical repair are discussed.

  15. Debridement for surgical wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, Nancy; Smith, Fiona; Donaldson, Jayne; Mitchell, Melloney

    2008-07-16

    Surgical wounds that become infected are often debrided because clinicians believe that removal of this necrotic or infected tissue will expedite wound healing. There are numerous methods available but no consensus on which one is most effective for surgical wounds. The aim of this review is to determine the effect of different methods of debridement on the rate of debridement and healing of surgical wounds. We developed a search strategy to search the following electronic databases: Wounds Group Specialised Trials Register (searched 3/3/08) , Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2008, issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to February Week 3 2008 ), EMBASE (1980 to 2008 Week 09) and CINHAL (1982 to February Week 4 2008). We checked the citations within obtained studies to identify additional papers and also relevant conference proceedings. We contacted manufactures of wound debridement agents to ascertain the existence of published, unpublished and ongoing trials. Our search was not limited by language or publication status. We included relevant randomised controlled trials (RCT) with outcomes including at least one of the following: time to complete debridement, or time to complete healing. Two authors independently reviewed the abstracts and titles obtained from the search, two extracted data independently using a standardised extraction sheet, and two independently assessed methodological quality. One author was involved in all stages of the data collection and extraction process, thus ensuring continuity. Five RCTs were eligible for inclusion; all compared treatments for infected surgical wounds and reported time required to achieve a clean wound bed (complete debridement). One trial compared an enzymatic agent (Streptokinase/streptodornase) with saline-soaked dressings and reported the time to complete debridement. Four of the trials compared the effectiveness of dextranomer beads or paste with other products (different comparator

  16. Pulmonary mycoses among the clinically suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshering Ongmu Bhutia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried with the main objectives: (1 to find out the occurrence of pulmonary mycoses in clinically suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases at central referral hospital, Tadong, Sikkim. (2 To find out the various fungi causing pulmonary mycoses in clinically suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases. Methods: 200 clinically suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases who visited the department of microbiology for the diagnostic microscopic examination of sputum sample for acid fast bacilli were included in this cross sectional study, carried out under the department of microbiology, Sikkim Manipal institute of medical sciences, over one year. Smears of sputum samples were examined microscopically for acid fast bacilli and fungal elements. Sputum samples were also plated onto different fungal culture media. Results: Out of 200 patients, various types of pathogens were detected in 54 (27% patients. Fourteen (7% patients were positive only for AFB, while fungus as a primary etiological agent was detected in 16(8% patients. Fungus as a secondary etiological agent was detected in 4 (2% patients [AFB with fungus in 2 (1%, AFB with fungus and bacteria in 1 (0.5% and bacteria with fungus in 1 (0.5% patient]. Conclusion: Pulmonary mycosis can be a primary infection in non- tuberculosis cases or co-infection in pulmonary tuberculosis cases. Investigation for fungal cause in clinically suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis will prevent misdiagnosis and mistreatment of cases. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 260-268

  17. Endothelial HIF signaling regulates pulmonary fibrosis-associated pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Andrew J; Carrick, Ryan P; McConaha, Melinda E; Jones, Brittany R; Shay, Sheila D; Moore, Christy S; Blackwell, Thomas R; Gladson, Santhi; Penner, Niki L; Burman, Ankita; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Hemnes, Anna R; Karwandyar, Ayub K; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Talati, Megha A; Dong, Hui-Jia; Gleaves, Linda A; Carrier, Erica J; Gaskill, Christa; Scott, Edward W; Majka, Susan M; Fessel, Joshua P; Haase, Volker H; West, James D; Blackwell, Timothy S; Lawson, William E

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating chronic parenchymal lung disease, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, results in significant morbidity and mortality. Since the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling pathway is important for development of pulmonary hypertension in chronic hypoxia, we investigated whether HIF signaling in vascular endothelium regulates development of PH related to pulmonary fibrosis. We generated a transgenic model in which HIF is deleted within vascular endothelial cells and then exposed these mice to chronic intraperitoneal bleomycin to induce PH associated with lung fibrosis. Although no differences in the degree of fibrotic remodeling were observed, we found that endothelial HIF-deficient mice were protected against development of PH, including right ventricle and pulmonary vessel remodeling. Similarly, endothelial HIF-deficient mice were protected from PH after a 4-wk exposure to normobaric hypoxia. In vitro studies of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells isolated from the HIF-targeted mice and controls revealed that endothelial HIF signaling increases endothelial cell expression of connective tissue growth factor, enhances vascular permeability, and promotes pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and wound healing ability, all of which have the potential to impact the development of PH in vivo. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that vascular endothelial cell HIF signaling is necessary for development of hypoxia and pulmonary fibrosis associated PH. As such, HIF and HIF-regulated targets represent a therapeutic target in these conditions.

  18. Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia presenting as severe pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Jindal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE is an easily diagnosed and treatable disease. Patients with TPE usually present with respiratory symptoms that include paroxysmal cough, breathlessness, wheeze and chest pain, often misdiagnosed as bronchial asthma. This case highlights one of the unusual presentations of TPE and discusses the association between TPE and pulmonary hypertension.

  19. Fatal dissection of the pulmonary artery in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Degano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A 41-yr-old patient with chronic stable idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH presented with sudden chest pain and unusual dyspnoea during physical exertion. The patient had been diagnosed with PAH at the age of 12 yrs and was in New York Heart Association functional class I/II. The patient was being treated with an anticoagulant regimen, low-dose diuretics and continuous intravenous epoprostenol therapy. A computed tomography scan showed ancient massive thrombi in dilated central pulmonary arteries, which were not haemodynamically significant (perfusion lung scans did not demonstrate segmental or larger defects, and extensive dissection of the right pulmonary artery starting from the intermediate branch. Due to the extensiveness of the dissection, the patient was immediately considered for heart–lung transplantation, but died 72 h after the onset of symptoms. Permission for post mortem examination was denied. Pulmonary artery dissection should be suspected in PAH patients presenting with chest pain and worsening dyspnoea. In the current case, the factors possibly associated with increased risk for dissection may include dilatation of the pulmonary artery, local inflammation favoured by in situ thrombosis, and acute increase of pulmonary pressure secondary to physical exertion. Extensive pulmonary artery dissection is a life-threatening complication of PAH, and urgent heart/lung transplantation might be the treatment of choice in eligible patients. In addition, better identification of the risk factors for pulmonary artery dissection may help in considering transplantation for selected patients at risk.

  20. Pulmonary MRA: Differentiation of pulmonary embolism from truncation artefact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannas, Peter [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Schiebler, Mark L.; Motosugi, Utaroh; Francois, Christopher J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Reeder, Scott B. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States); Nagle, Scott K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Pediatrics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Truncation artefact (Gibbs ringing) causes central signal drop within vessels in pulmonary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) that can be mistaken for emboli, reducing diagnostic accuracy for pulmonary embolism (PE). We propose a quantitative approach to differentiate truncation artefact from PE. Twenty-eight patients who underwent pulmonary computed tomography angiography (CTA) for suspected PE were recruited for pulmonary MRA. Signal intensity drops within pulmonary arteries that persisted on both arterial-phase and delayed-phase MRA were identified. The percent signal loss between the vessel lumen and central drop was measured. CTA served as the reference standard for presence of pulmonary emboli. A total of 65 signal intensity drops were identified on MRA. Of these, 48 (74 %) were artefacts and 17 (26 %) were PE, as confirmed by CTA. Truncation artefacts had a significantly lower median signal drop than PE on both arterial-phase (26 % [range 12-58 %] vs. 85 % [range 53-91 %]) and delayed-phase MRA (26 % [range 11-55 %] vs. 77 % [range 47-89 %]), p < 0.0001 for both. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses revealed a threshold value of 51 % (arterial phase) and 47 % signal drop (delayed phase) to differentiate between truncation artefact and PE with 100 % sensitivity and greater than 90 % specificity. Quantitative signal drop is an objective tool to help differentiate truncation artefact and pulmonary embolism in pulmonary MRA. (orig.)

  1. Detailed statistical analysis plan for the pulmonary protection trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggeskov, Katrine B; Jakobsen, Janus C; Secher, Niels H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary dysfunction complicates cardiac surgery that includes cardiopulmonary bypass. The pulmonary protection trial evaluates effect of pulmonary perfusion on pulmonary function in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This paper presents the statistical plan...

  2. New Frontiers in Surgical Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ryan S; Schmalbach, Cecelia E

    2017-08-01

    It is an exciting time for head and neck surgical innovation with numerous advances in the perioperative planning and intraoperative management of patients with cancer, trauma patients, and individuals with congenital defects. The broad and rapidly changing realm of head and neck surgical innovation precludes a comprehensive summary. This article highlights some of the most important innovations from surgical planning with sentinel node biopsy and three-dimensional, stereolithic modeling to intraoperative innovations, such as transoral robotic surgery and intraoperative navigation. Future surgical innovations, such as intraoperative optical imaging of surgical margins, are also highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk Factors for Postoperative Pulmonary Complications after Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nertila Kodra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC in patients undergoing non-cardiothoracic surgery remains high and the occurrence of these complications has enormous implications for the patient and the health care system. AIM: The aim of the study was to identify risk factors for PPC in patients undergoing abdominal surgical procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study in abdominal surgical patients, admitted to the emergency and surgical ward of the UHC of Tirana, Albania, was conducted during the period: March 2014-March 2015. We collected data on the occurrence of a symptomatic and clinically significant PPC using clinical, laboratory, and radiology data. We evaluated the relations between PPCs and various pre-operative or intra-operative factors to identify risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 450 postoperative patients admitted to the surgical emergency and surgical ward were studied. The mean age were 59.85 ±13.64 years with 59.3% being male. Incidence of PPC was 27.3% (123 patients and hospital length of stay was 4.93 ± 4.65 days. Length of stay was substantially prolonged for those patients who developed PPC (7.48 ± 2.89 days versus 3.97± 4.83 days, p 2 (OR 6.37; 95% CI: 1.54-26.36, P = 0.01. CONCLUSION: We must do some efforts in reducing postoperative pulmonary complications, firstly to identify which patients are at increased risk, and then following more closely high-risk patients because those patients are most likely to benefit.

  4. Surgical correction of acquired unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis by plication technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos F. Kampolis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Acquired diaphragmatic paralysis may compromise lung mechanics and cause dyspnoea and/or lead to respiratory failure in the long term. A 76 year-old female patient presented with progressive worsening of dyspnoea and spirometric indices, and imaging studies revealed elevation of the left hemidiaphragm. Surgical correction was carried out by diaphragmatic plication technique, through a mini-thoracotomy approach. Immediate alleviation (within days of her symptoms was observed, while improvement of radiological and pulmonary function tests occurred some weeks later. Pneumon 2013,26(2

  5. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF PULMONARY SARCOMA AND BLASTOMA WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晋峰; 张力建; 刘静贤

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary sarcoma and blastoma. Methods: Seven cases of pulmonary sarcoma (including 1 case of pulmonary carcinosarcoma, 1 case of pulmonary malignant fibroneuroma, 1 case of pulmonary malignant fibrous tissue tumor and 1 case of pulmonary blastoma from August 1995 to June 2002 in our hospital) were retrospectively summarized the histological characteristics, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment. Results: Pulmonary sarcoma and blastoma both are rare malignant tumors and can be easily misdiagnosed or mistreated. The main symptoms of both diseases are cough and expectoration. X ray or CT shows node or focus in lung. They both are diagnosed by histological pathology. Because the symptoms of these diseases are not typical, it is difficult for patients to be diagnosed without pathology. Conclusion: These two kinds of diseases are often easy to be misdiagnosed. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to improve the efficiency of treatment. Surgical resection is the best method of treatment, and it is important to combine with chemotherapy and radiation treatment.

  6. [Inter-organ neural communications in the innervation of bronchi and pulmonary circulation vessels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriesh, V N

    1987-04-01

    By means of V.P. Vorobiov's preparation in complex of the thoracic cavity organs of persons at various age and sex in fetuses, sources of innervation of bronchi and vessels of the pulmonary circulation have been stated. They make the composition of the cardiac nerves getting off the superior, middle cervical, cervico-thoracic (stellate) and from 3 to 5 thoracic nodes of the sympathetic trunk, superior and inferior cardiac branches of the nervus vagus. Connection between the nerves of the bronchi and vessels of the pulmonary circulation with the cardiac and esophageal nerves and formation of interorganic nervous plexuses are demonstrated. Not always the diaphragmal nerve participates in the innervation of the bronchi and pulmonary vessels. In total preparations and flat sections, elective revealing of the nervous elements with Shiff reagent in M. G. Shubich and A. B. Khodos modification and Gomori thiocholine method, makes it possible to follow connections of the pulmonary veins nerves with the left atrium, intrapulmonary connection of the perivascular and peribronchial plexuses, as well as participation of nervous elements of the pulmonary trunk in innervation of the right ventricle walls. There are multiple vegetative communications participating in innervation of the bronchi and vessels of the pulmonary circulation. The relations of the pulmonary nerves with the nerves of other thoracic organs are very complex; this explains the nature of the repercussive reactions of the lungs after surgical interventions performed in the other organs of the thoracic cavity.

  7. Embolic stroke after ligation of the pulmonary artery in patients with functional single ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oski, J A; Canter, C E; Spray, T L; Kan, J S; Cameron, D E; Murphy, A M

    1996-10-01

    In the setting of functional single ventricle with pulmonary overcirculation, pulmonary artery banding is frequently used to alleviate symptoms and to prepare for staged repair. At subsequent cavopulmonary anastomosis or Fontan procedure, the pulmonary artery may be ligated at the site of the pulmonary band. This article describes the association of embolic stroke and thrombus in a ligated or divided pulmonary artery stump in three patients with functional single ventricle. These events occurred from 1990 through 1992 among the 1700 inpatient pediatric cardiology admissions at two institutions. The patients, ranging in age from 15 months to 9 years, had cerebral infarctions documented by computed axial tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging associated with the echocardiographic finding of thrombus in the proximal pulmonary artery stump after the embolic strokes. The strokes occurred 5 days to 5 years after surgery. Two patients had a second infarction within 2 to 5 weeks of the initial stroke. It is concluded that the presence of the ligated pulmonary artery stump may place patients at risk for embolic stroke. Surgical approaches to reduce the risk of thrombus formation should be considered prospectively in this patient group.

  8. 54. Radiofrequency perforation of pulmonary valve and PDA stenting in a preterm neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Khaymaf

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcatheter radiofrequency perforation of the pulmonary valve and PDA stenting is considered as a modality for pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum with mildly hypoplastic tripartate right ventricle. We present a preterm neonate who has undergone this procedure. we assume that transcatheter radiofrequency perforation of pulmonary valve and PDA stenting is a safer approach for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum in preterm newborns, than surgical approach.We present 5 days old, preterm (36 weeks gestation baby girl, with 2.2 kg. She was reffered to our centre with the diagnosis of pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, mildly hypoplastic tripartate right ventricle. Right ventricle angiography showed tripartate right ventricle with no sinusoids. She underwent successful radiofrequency perforation of pulmonary valve followed by balloon dilatation. At the same time prograde PDA stenting was done. Repeat right ventricle angiography showed good right ventricular outflow tract forward flow, and descending aorta angiography showed good PDA flow supplying both pulmonary arteries. The baby was extubated on same day, and prosoglandin E1 was discontinued immediately after the procedure.The baby mainatined saturation more than 80% on room air. The baby was discharged after 2 days. Our case is pecular because to our knowledge this is the lowest weight for wich radiofrequency perforation and PDA stenting is done as well as being preterm.

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to FVC (forced vital capacity ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure, hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity, bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia, stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, V K

    2013-02-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations.

  11. Pulmonary arterial wall distensibility assessed by intravascular ultrasound in children with congenital heart disease : an indicator for pulmonary vascular disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Rolf M F; Cromme-Dijkhuis, Adri H; Hop, Wim C J; Kruit, Marco N; Hess, John; Berger, Rudolphus

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary overflow are associated with functional and structural changes of the pulmonary arterial wall. Current techniques to evaluate the pulmonary vasculature neglect the pulsatile nature of pulmonary flow. STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the dyn

  12. [Pulmonary-renal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, Jorge A; Mazzocchi, Octavio; De All, Jorge; Gnocchi, César A

    2009-01-01

    The pulmonary-renal syndrome is defined as a combination of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis. The coexistence of these two clinical conditions is due to diseases with different pathogenic mechanisms. Primary systemic vasculitis and Goodpasture syndrome are the most frequent etiologies. Systemic lupus erythematosus, connective tissue diseases, negative anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis and those secondary to drugs are far less common causes. An early diagnosis based on clinical, radiologic, laboratory and histologic criteria enables early treatment, thus diminishing its high morbidity-mortality rate. Therapy is based on high doses of corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, tumor necrosis factor inhibitors and plasmapheresis.

  13. Analysis of surgical intervention populations using generic surgical process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumuth, Thomas; Jannin, Pierre; Schlomberg, Juliane; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Wiedemann, Peter; Burgert, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    According to differences in patient characteristics, surgical performance, or used surgical technological resources, surgical interventions have high variability. No methods for the generation and comparison of statistical 'mean' surgical procedures are available. The convenience of these models is to provide increased evidence for clinical, technical, and administrative decision-making. Based on several measurements of patient individual surgical treatments, we present a method of how to calculate a statistical 'mean' intervention model, called generic Surgical Process Model (gSPM), from a number of interventions. In a proof-of-concept study, we show how statistical 'mean' procedure courses can be computed and how differences between several of these models can be quantified. Patient individual surgical treatments of 102 cataract interventions from eye surgery were allocated to an ambulatory or inpatient sample, and the gSPMs for each of the samples were computed. Both treatment strategies are exemplary compared for the interventional phase Capsulorhexis. Statistical differences between the gSPMs of ambulatory and inpatient procedures of performance times for surgical activities and activity sequences were identified. Furthermore, the work flow that corresponds to the general recommended clinical treatment was recovered out of the individual Surgical Process Models. The computation of gSPMs is a new approach in medical engineering and medical informatics. It supports increased evidence, e.g. for the application of alternative surgical strategies, investments for surgical technology, optimization protocols, or surgical education. Furthermore, this may be applicable in more technical research fields, as well, such as the development of surgical workflow management systems for the operating room of the future.

  14. Rate and Outcomes of Pulmonary Stenosis and Functional Pulmonary Atresia in Recipient Twins with Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Javier U; Masoller, Narcís; Gómez, Olga; Bennasar, Mar; Eixarch, Elisenda; Lobmaier, Silvia M; Crispi, Fàtima; Gratacos, Eduard; Martinez, Josep María

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the rate of pulmonary stenosis and functional pulmonary atresia (PS/PA) in recipient twins prior to fetal surgery for twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and their pre- and postnatal outcomes. We carried out a prospective study including 260 cases of TTTS. Echocardiography was performed before laser surgery to detect the presence of PS/PA. The outcomes of recipients with and without PS/PA were compared. The need of postnatal cardiac interventions and the survival rate at 6 months of age were also evaluated. PS was observed in 16/260 (6.2%) of recipient twins and PA in 12/260 (4.6%). After fetal surgery, 10/28 (35.7%) recipients died, 9/28 (32.1%) showed in utero regression, and 9/28 (32.1%) had persistence of PS/PA. Postnatally, seven recipients underwent percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty, one required surgical valvotomy and one palliative surgery. Pregnancies with recipient twins with PS/PA had lower survival of at least one twin (67.9 vs. 83.6%, p = 0.045) and lower overall survival (57.1 vs. 72.8%, p = 0.015) at 6 months of age. PS and PA were observed in 10.8% of recipients. Among these, about one third showed persistence of pulmonary valve pathology after delivery, which stresses the need for strict follow-up. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Fluoxetin-induced pulmonary granulomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kerviler, E; Trédaniel, J; Revlon, G; Groussard, O; Zalcman, G; Ortoli, J M; Espié, M; Hirsch, A; Frija, J

    1996-03-01

    A patient treated with fluoxetin for a manic depressive disorder developed pulmonary inflammatory nodules with noncaseating giant cell granulomas, interstitial pneumonia and non-necrotizing vasculitis, whilst remaining asymptomatic. A progressive resolution of pulmonary nodules occurred after withdrawal of the offending agent, and the chest radiograph returned to normal in 9 months. The diagnosis was assessed by an open lung biopsy.

  16. Pulmonary edema following lumbar puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta D

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available In a boy of 17 years with disseminated tuberculosis, sudden onset of pulmonary edema following lumbar puncture is described. Possible pat ho-mechanisms have been discussed. The link bet-ween the lumbar puncture and the development of pulmonary edema is not casual.

  17. [Fatal pulmonary mycosis in a diabetic and cirrhotic patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi-Kaddour, Aïda; Braham, Emna; Marghli, Adel; Ismail, Olfa; Helal, Imen; Mlika, Mona; Kilani, Tarak; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary mucormycosis is a rare, devastating, opportunistic fungal infection, caused by the ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the Mucorales order of the class of Zygomycetes. This infection occurs principally in some particular conditions, specially in diabetic patients and immunocompromised host, and rarely in cirrhotic patients. The diagnosis of mucormycosis can only be confirmed by pathological and mycological examination of biopsy specimens. We report a case of pulmonary mucormycosis in a 68-year-old woman with underlying liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus. Endoscopic and radiologic findings supported the diagnosis of hydatid cyst of the lung. The patient underwent surgical resection and was started on amphotericin B, after pathological examination. Unfortunately, she succumbed to the infection within one month of surgery.

  18. PULMONARY LEIOMYOSARCOMA——REPORT OF THREE CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗齐; 崔全才; 张志庸; 徐乐天; 于洪泉; 任华

    1996-01-01

    Three cases of pulmonary leiomyosarcoma were presented.The characteristic clinical features were described with review of literature.In comparison with bronchogenic carcinoma,the leiomyosarcoma has some characteristics;1)On chest X-ray,it usually appears as a sharply demarcated,even density round mass,growing rapidly within the lung,it rarely accompanies with hilar or mediastinal lymph node merastasis.2)The preoperative cytological or pathological diagnosis is difficult either by sputum smear or by bronchoscopic biopsy or by fine needle percutaneous aspiration biopsy.3)Pathological differential diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma of lung from apaplastic lung cancer is difficult.In conclusion,the primary pulmonary leioyosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor,detecting the present illness seriously,paying attention to the chest X-ray films characterise,early surgical resection is the only way to get diagnosis and effective treatment method.

  19. Type II congenital cystic pulmonary malformation in an esophageal lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Blanca E; Furuya, María Elena Yuriko; Martínez-Muñiz, Irma; Vargas, Mario H; Flores-Salgado, Rosalinda

    2013-01-01

    A seven-month-old girl, born prematurely (birth weight 1000 g) from a twin pregnancy, was admitted to hospital due to recurrent pneumonia and atelectasis. She experienced cough and respiratory distress during feeding. The right hemithorax was smaller than the left, with diminished breath sounds and dullness. Chest x-rays revealed decreased lung volume and multiple radiolucent images in the right lung, as well as overdistention of the left lung. An esophagogram revealed three bronchial branches arising from the lower one-third of the esophagus, corresponding to the right lung and ending in a cul-de-sac. A diagnosis of esophageal lung was established. On bronchography, the right lung was absent and the trachea only continued into the left main bronchus. Echocardiography and angiotomography revealed agenesis of the pulmonary artery right branch. The surgical finding was an esophageal right lung, which was removed; the histopathological diagnosis was type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation in an esophageal lung.

  20. October 2015 Phoenix pulmonary journal club: lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew M

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The October 2015 pulmonary journal club focused on the review of older studies evaluating lung volume reduction surgery and how this has transitioned toward the development of non-surgical modes of lung volume reduction. The physiology behind dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a complex process. One of the proposed mechanisms has been hyperinflation associated with air trapping. In the mid 1990s studies by Cooper and Peterson (1 offered a promising approach in which lung volume reduction (LVR could improve ventilatory mechanics and improve dyspnea. As the procedure gained more popularity, additional larger scale trials were performed to support its validity. We reviewed 2 studies looking at lung volume reduction. The first was "The Effect of Lung Volume Reduction Surgery In Patients With Severe Emphysema” (2 . This was a smaller, randomized controlled trial (RCT that looked at 2 groups of 24 patients. Once group received LVR while the ...

  1. [Duane vertical surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, M L; Gómez de Liaño, P; Merino, P; Franco, G

    2014-04-01

    We report 3 cases with a vertical incomitance in upgaze, narrowing of palpebral fissure, and pseudo-overaction of both inferior oblique muscles. Surgery consisted of an elevation of both lateral rectus muscles with an asymmetrical weakening. A satisfactory result was achieved in 2 cases, whereas a Lambda syndrome appeared in the other case. The surgical technique of upper-insertion with a recession of both lateral rectus muscles improved vertical incomitance in 2 of the 3 patients; however, a residual deviation remains in the majority of cases. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Diverticulitis: selective surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugtiv, G M

    1975-08-01

    The surgical treatment of complications of diverticulitis remains most challenging. A review of twenty years' experience with one hundred fifteen cases is presented with one proved anastomotic leak and no deaths. Interval primary resection with anastomosis for chronic recurrent disease including colovesical fistula and mesocolic abscess was proved sate with low morbidity. The three-stage procedure for perforated diverticulitis with spreading peritonitis or pericolic abscess was associated with a high rate of complications and morbidity. An aggressive approach with resection without anastomosis in two stages is indicated.

  3. [Pulmonary manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Justyna; Domysławska, Izabela; Bagrowska, Magdalena; Sierakowski, Stanislaw

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by destructive cartilages, bones and other structures formed joints. RA belongs to connective tissue diseases represented by systemic nature, internal illness, extra-articular features and rapidly progress of atherosceirosis. The extra-articular complications cause the reduction of patient longevity. The frequency of symptoms in patient with RA and respiratory disorders occur in 10-20% of cases. Pulmonary complications are the second most common cause of premature of patient deaths. Respiratory disorders associated with RA are devided into 3 groups: infection, lung disease caused by drugs and pulmonary manifestation connected by RA. These last affect interstitial tissue, bronchioli, pulmonary vessels, pleura, also are presented by pulmonary rheumatoid nodules and pulmonary hypertension.

  4. Negative-Pressure Pulmonary Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Mallar; Kallet, Richard H; Ware, Lorraine B; Matthay, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) or postobstructive pulmonary edema is a well-described cause of acute respiratory failure that occurs after intense inspiratory effort against an obstructed airway, usually from upper airway infection, tumor, or laryngospasm. Patients with NPPE generate very negative airway pressures, which augment transvascular fluid filtration and precipitate interstitial and alveolar edema. Pulmonary edema fluid collected from most patients with NPPE has a low protein concentration, suggesting hydrostatic forces as the primary mechanism for the pathogenesis of NPPE. Supportive care should be directed at relieving the upper airway obstruction by endotracheal intubation or cricothyroidotomy, institution of lung-protective positive-pressure ventilation, and diuresis unless the patient is in shock. Resolution of the pulmonary edema is usually rapid, in part because alveolar fluid clearance mechanisms are intact. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and management of negative-pressure or postobstructive pulmonary edema.

  5. Anesthetic Implications of Obesity in the Surgical Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dority, Jeremy; Hassan, Zaki-Udin; Chau, Destiny

    2011-01-01

    The obese patient presents many challenges to both anesthesiologist and surgeon. A good understanding of the pathophysiologic effects of obesity and its anesthetic implications in the surgical setting is critical. The anesthesiologist must recognize increased risks and comorbidities inherent to the obese patient and manage accordingly, optimizing multisystem function in the perioperative period that leads to successful outcomes. Addressed from an organ systems approach, the purpose of this review is to provide surgical specialists with an overview of the anesthetic considerations of obesity. Minimally invasive surgery for the obese patient affords improved analgesia, postoperative pulmonary function, and shorter recovery times at the expense of a more challenging intraoperative anesthetic course. The physiologic effects of laparoscopy are discussed in detail. Although laparoscopy's physiologic effects on various organ systems are well recognized, techniques provide means for compensation and reversing such effects, thereby preserving good patient outcomes. PMID:23204937

  6. Pulmonary sporotrichosis: case series and systematic analysis of literature on clinico-radiological patterns and management outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar Kar; Teh, Bing Mei; McGrath, Christopher; Thompson, Philip J

    2013-07-01

    Pulmonary infections by Sporothrix spp. manifest radiologically as cavitary or non-cavitary disease depending on whether the infection is primary pulmonary or multifocal sporotrichosis. Despite current guidelines, the optimal management for pulmonary sporotrichosis remains unclear. In order to clarify this, we present two cases of pulmonary sporotrichosis, as well as the results of a comprehensive literature review of treatment outcomes based on clinico-radiological presentation patterns of the disease. A literature search of all case reports in English language over the last 50 years (1960-2010) was conducted. Data on patient characteristics, risk factors, clinico-radiological patterns, treatment modalities and outcomes were collected and analyzed. A total of 86 cases were identified, i.e., 64 (74.4%) primary pulmonary and 22 (25.6%) multifocal sporotrichosis. Radiologically, primary pulmonary disease was commonly characterized by cavity formation which was lacking in multifocal infections (P = 0.0001). Immunosuppressant use was more common in multifocal sporotrichosis (P = 0.0001), while hemoptysis was more common in primary pulmonary form (P = 0.01). No other differences in patient characteristics or risk factors were noted. Extra-pulmonary multifocal sporotrichosis most commonly involved skin (81.8%) and joints (45.4%). For patients with cavitary primary pulmonary sporotrichosis, outcomes from medical therapy alone were inferior to surgical intervention (P = 0.02). However, for both primary pulmonary and multifocal sporotrichosis with non-cavitary disease, medical therapy alone provided good outcomes. Only 12 (16.7%) cases were treated with itraconazole. Treatment of pulmonary sporotrichosis should be guided by the clinico-radiological patterns of presentation. Medical therapy alone is likely sufficient for non-cavitary disease while early surgery should be considered for cavitary primary pulmonary sporotrichosis. The experience in treating cavitary disease

  7. Pulmonary manifestation of leptospirosis

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    Im, Jung Gi; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan; Lee, Jung Sang; Kim, Suhng Gwon; Han, Yong Chol; Chang, Woo Hyun; Chi, Je Geun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    Authors analysed and present chest X-ray findings of serologically proven leptospirosis from Seoul National University Hospital, either admitted or referred for serological verification, during recent 2 years. Radiological findings were correlated with the lung specimen findings of experimentally induced leptospirosis in guinea pig. The results are as follows: 1. 24 cases (56%) showed positive X-ray findings. 2. Predominant radiological patterns of involved lung were tiny dot, small nodule, rosette density in 11 cases, massive confluent consolidation in 4 cases, and diffuse ill-defined velly increased density in 9 cases. 3. Distribution of pulmonary lesions were bilateral (100%), non-lobar, non-segmental (95%), and there were conspicuous tendency of peripheral lung predominance. 4. Extrapulmonary manifestation, such as pleural effusion or cardiomegaly was rate. 5. Pulmonary lesions resolved completely usually 5 to 10 days after their appearance. 6. From the gross and microscopic findings of serially sacrificed guinea pig's lung and a case of autopsy, authors concluded that fine dot-like density in chest X-ray was due to paleolithic hemorrhage in intraalveolar space at initial stage, growing up to ressette density or confluent consolidation as the pathetic extends to surrounding lung forming purpura and coalescent hemorrhage.

  8. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Crestani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP is a rare pulmonary disease characterised by alveolar accumulation of surfactant. It may result from mutations in surfactant proteins or granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF receptor genes, it may be secondary to toxic inhalation or haematological disorders, or it may be auto-immune, with anti-GM-CSF antibodies blocking activation of alveolar macrophages. Auto-immune alveolar proteinosis is the most frequent form of PAP, representing 90% of cases. Although not specific, high-resolution computed tomography shows a characteristic “crazy paving” pattern. In most cases, bronchoalveolar lavage findings establish the diagnosis. Whole lung lavage is the most effective therapy, especially for auto-immune disease. Novel therapies targeting alveolar macrophages (recombinant GM-CSF therapy or anti-GM-CSF antibodies (rituximab and plasmapheresis are being investigated. Our knowledge of the pathophysiology of PAP has improved in the past 20 yrs, but therapy for PAP still needs improvement.

  9. Proteomics in pulmonary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Russell P; Ellison, Misoo C; Reisdorph, Nichole

    2006-08-01

    Proteomics is the study of the entire protein complement of the genome (the proteome) in a biological system. Proteomic studies require a multidisciplinary approach and have only been practical with the convergence of technical and methodologic improvements including the following: advances in mass spectrometry and genomic sequencing that now permit the identification and relative quantization of small amounts (femtomole) of nearly any single protein; new methods in gel electrophoresis that allow the detection of subtle changes in protein expression, including posttranslational modifications; automation and miniaturization that permit high-throughput analysis of clinical samples; and new bioinformatics and computational methods that facilitate analysis and interpretation of the abundant data that are generated by proteomics experiments. This convergence makes proteomics studies practical for pulmonary researchers using BAL fluid, lung tissue, blood, and exhaled breath condensates, and will facilitate the research of complex, multifactorial lung diseases such as acute lung injury and COPD. This review describes how proteomics experiments are conducted and interpreted, their limitations, and how proteomics has been used in clinical pulmonary medicine.

  10. Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campisi Corradino

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia (PL is a rare developmental disorder involving the lung, and characterized by pulmonary subpleural, interlobar, perivascular and peribronchial lymphatic dilatation. The prevalence is unknown. PL presents at birth with severe respiratory distress, tachypnea and cyanosis, with a very high mortality rate at or within a few hours of birth. Most reported cases are sporadic and the etiology is not completely understood. It has been suggested that PL lymphatic channels of the fetal lung do not undergo the normal regression process at 20 weeks of gestation. Secondary PL may be caused by a cardiac lesion. The diagnostic approach includes complete family and obstetric history, conventional radiologic studies, ultrasound and magnetic resonance studies, lymphoscintigraphy, lung functionality tests, lung biopsy, bronchoscopy, and pleural effusion examination. During the prenatal period, all causes leading to hydrops fetalis should be considered in the diagnosis of PL. Fetal ultrasound evaluation plays a key role in the antenatal diagnosis of PL. At birth, mechanical ventilation and pleural drainage are nearly always necessary to obtain a favorable outcome of respiratory distress. Home supplemental oxygen therapy and symptomatic treatment of recurrent cough and wheeze are often necessary during childhood, sometimes associated with prolonged pleural drainage. Recent advances in intensive neonatal care have changed the previously nearly fatal outcome of PL at birth. Patients affected by PL who survive infancy, present medical problems which are characteristic of chronic lung disease.

  11. Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoj, Ziga; Kocijancic, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the study was to establish whether there are different clinical entities of primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma (PPC) that deserve different diagnostic approach and the most optimal treatment. Patients and methods A systematic review with PubMed search was conducted to identify studies that reported cases of PPC. The eligibility criteria were histological diagnosis of pulmonary choriocarcinoma and thorough examination of the reproductive organs to exclude potential primary choriocarcinoma in the gonads. Furthermore, to illustrate the review we additionally present a patient referred at our institution. Results 55 cases (17 men) were included in the review with a median age of 34 years. Women with the history of gestational event showed better survival outcome than women without the history of gestational event. Patients treated with combined modality treatment (surgery and chemotherapy) survived longer than the patients without combined modality treatment. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of prognostic factors showed that the combined modality treatment had independent prognostic significance. Size of the tumour showed significant prognostic influence in univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusions PPC is an extreme rarity with variable clinical characteristics and outcome. It is important to capture and treat patients in the early stages of the disease. Women with the history of gestational event may show better survival, therefore genetic examination could help us to predict patient’s prognosis. Surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy appears to represent the best treatment for PPC.

  12. October 2013 pulmonary journal club: pulmonary artery hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Pulido T, Adzerikho I, Channick RN, Delcroix M, Galiè N, Ghofrani HA, Jansa P, Jing ZC, Le Brun FO, Mehta S, Mittelholzer CM, Perchenet L, Sastry BK, Sitbon O, Souza R, Torbicki A, Zeng X, Rubin LJ, Simonneau G; SERAPHIN Investigators. Macitentan and morbidity and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(9:809-18. The October pulmonary journal club was focused on pulmonary hypertension. We reviewed a total of 5 articles on pulmonary hypertension. The 2 articles on riociguat that appeared in the New England Journal of Medicine have been reviewed and summarized in the September Pulmonary Journal Club (1-3. Current therapies in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension have been based on their efficacy in improving exercise tolerance and 6 minute walk time. Macitentan is a new endothelin receptor antagonist that has now been approved by the FDA for the treatment of Class I pulmonary hypertension. The trial was …

  13. Virtual surgical modification for planning tetralogy of Fallot repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasencia, Jonathan; Babiker, Haithem; Richardson, Randy; Rhee, Edward; Willis, Brigham; Nigro, John; Cleveland, David; Frakes, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Goals for treating congenital heart defects are becoming increasingly focused on the long-term, targeting solutions that last into adulthood. Although this shift has motivated the modification of many current surgical procedures, there remains a great deal of room for improvement. We present a new methodological component for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair that aims to improve long-term outcomes. The current gold standard for TOF repair involves the use of echocardiography (ECHO) for measuring the pulmonary valve (PV) diameter. This is then used, along with other factors, to formulate a Z-score that drives surgical preparation. Unfortunately this process can be inaccurate and requires a mid-operative confirmation that the pressure gradient across the PV is not excessive. Ideally, surgeons prefer not to manipulate the PV as this can lead to valve insufficiency. However, an excessive pressure gradient across the valve necessitates surgical action. We propose the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to improve preparation for TOF repair. In our study, pre-operative CT data were segmented and reconstructed, and a virtual surgical operation was then performed to simulate post-operative conditions. The modified anatomy was used to drive CFD simulation. The pressure gradient across the pulmonary valve was calculated to be 9.24mmHg, which is within the normal range. This finding indicates that CFD may be a viable tool for predicting post-operative pressure gradients for TOF repair. Our proposed methodology would remove the need for mid-operative measurements that can be both unreliable and detrimental to the patient.

  14. Minimally invasive surgical technique for tethered surgical drains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane R Hess

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A feared complication of temporary surgical drain placement is from the technical error of accidentally suturing the surgical drain into the wound. Postoperative discovery of a tethered drain can frequently necessitate return to the operating room if it cannot be successfully removed with nonoperative techniques. Formal wound exploration increases anesthesia and infection risk as well as cost and is best avoided if possible. We present a minimally invasive surgical technique that can avoid the morbidity associated with a full surgical wound exploration to remove a tethered drain when other nonoperative techniques fail.

  15. Persistent diffuse pulmonary interstitial emphysema mimicking pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, Y; Ishizaki, T; Nakanishi, M; Ameshima, S; Itoh, H

    2009-01-01

    A 69-year-old male non-smoker with a history of atopic asthma presented with symptoms suggestive of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and this appeared to be corroborated by lung function testing and a chest radiograph. However, a chest CT showed no evidence of pulmonary emphysema and instead demonstrated free air along the bronchovascular sheaths indicative of pulmonary interstistial emphysema, possibly caused by repeated prior exacerbations of asthma. His lung function tests and symptoms improved within months of being treated for his airways disease but the CT findings were unchanged after 2 years.

  16. Peri-operative chemotherapy in the management of resectable colorectal cancer pulmonary metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Eliza A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery is often advocated in patients with resectable pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC. Our study aims to evaluate peri-operative chemotherapy in patients with metastastic CRC undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy. Methods Patients treated for CRC who underwent pulmonary metastasectomy by a single surgeon were identified. Outcome measures included survival, peri-operative complications, radiological and histological evidence of chemotherapy-induced lung toxicities. Results Between 1997 and 2009, 51 eligible patients were identified undergoing a total of 72 pulmonary resections. Thirty-eight patients received peri-operative chemotherapy, of whom 9 received an additional biological agent. Five-year overall survival rate was 72% in the whole cohort - 74% and 68% in those who received peri-operative chemotherapy (CS and those who underwent surgery alone (S respectively. Five-year relapse free survival rate was 31% in the whole cohort - 38% and ≤18% in CS and S groups respectively. Only 8% had disease progression during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. There were no post-operative deaths. Surgical complications occurred in only 4% of patients who received pre-operative chemotherapy. There was neither radiological nor histological evidence of lung toxicity in resected surgical specimens. Conclusions Peri-operative chemotherapy can be safely delivered to CRC patients undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy. Survival in this selected group of patients was favourable.

  17. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: Experience from a Single Center in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naamani, Nadine; Espitia H, Gaudalupe; Velazquez-Moreno, Hugo; Macuil-Chazaro, Benjamin; Serrano-Lopez, Arturo; Vega-Barrientos, Ricardo S; Hill, Nicholas S; Preston, Ioana R

    2016-04-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by precapillary pulmonary hypertension secondary to vaso-occlusive pulmonary vasculopathy and is classified as Pulmonary Hypertension Group 4. The aim of this study is to report the clinical experience of CTEPH in Mexico. Consecutive patients diagnosed with CTEPH were identified from the Registro de Pacientes con Hipertension Pulmonar del Instituto de Seguridad y Servicio Social de los Trabajadores del Estado (REPHPISSSTE) registry between January 2009 and February 2014. Right heart catheterization was not routinely performed prior to August 2010 in the work-up of CTEPH. We identified 50 patients with CTEPH; their median age was 63 years and 58 % were female. Patients had multiple associated co-morbidities and moderate hemodynamic impairment. All patients were treated with anticoagulation. Despite surgical evaluation for pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), only one patient underwent PEA given the lack of infrastructure for post-operative care and lack of insurance for this procedure. Most of the patients were treated with sildenafil, bosentan, or both, with increasing use of rivaroxaban and sildenafil in recent years. The overall survival of the cohort was similar to that reported in other international registries, despite the limitations of care imposed by drug availability and surgical feasibility. This is the first report on the CTEPH experience in Mexico. It highlights the similarity of patients in the REPHPISSSTE registry to those in international registries as well as the challenges that clinicians face in a resource-limited setting.

  18. Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: Experience from a Single Center in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naamani, Nadine; Espitia H, Gaudalupe; Velazquez-Moreno, Hugo; Macuil-Chazaro, Benjamin; Serrano-Lopez, Arturo; Vega-Barrientos, Ricardo S.; Hill, Nicholas S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by precapillary pulmonary hypertension secondary to vaso-occlusive pulmonary vasculopathy and is classified as Pulmonary Hypertension Group 4. The aim of this study is to report the clinical experience of CTEPH in Mexico. Methods Consecutive patients diagnosed with CTEPH were identified from the Registro de Pacientes con Hipertension Pulmonar del Instituto de Seguridad y Servicio Social de los Trabajadores del Estado (REPHPISSSTE) registry between January 2009 and February 2014. Right heart catheterization was not routinely performed prior to August 2010 in the work-up of CTEPH. Results We identified 50 patients with CTEPH; their median age was 63 years and 58 % were female. Patients had multiple associated co-morbidities and moderate hemodynamic impairment. All patients were treated with anticoagulation. Despite surgical evaluation for pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), only one patient underwent PEA given the lack of infrastructure for post-operative care and lack of insurance for this procedure. Most of the patients were treated with sildenafil, bosentan, or both, with increasing use of rivaroxaban and sildenafil in recent years. The overall survival of the cohort was similar to that reported in other international registries, despite the limitations of care imposed by drug availability and surgical feasibility. Conclusion This is the first report on the CTEPH experience in Mexico. It highlights the similarity of patients in the REPHPISSSTE registry to those in international registries as well as the challenges that clinicians face in a resource-limited setting. PMID:26748498

  19. [Cerebral oximetry in pulmonary thromboendarterectomy with circulatory arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán Escudero, P; González Román, A; Serra Ruiz, C N; Barbero Mielgo, M; García Fernández, J

    2014-02-01

    Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is an uncommon procedure and should be performed with circulatory arrest. One of the major concerns is the postoperative central neurological injuries. Perioperative brain oxygen monitoring is advisable in this surgical procedure for the early detection of brain hypoperfusion episodes and their intensity as well as any other postoperative episodes that can deteriorate the neurological outcome. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute Pulmonary Edema Caused by a Giant Atrial Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fisicaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial myxoma is the most common primary cardiac tumor. Its clinical presentation spreads from asymptomatic incidental mass to serious life-threatening cardiovascular complications. We report the case of a 44-year-old man with evening fever and worsening dyspnea in the last weeks, admitted to our hospital for acute pulmonary edema. The cardiac auscultation was very suspicious for mitral valve stenosis, but the echocardiography revealed a huge atrial mass with a diastolic prolapse into mitral valve orifice causing an extremely high transmitral gradient pressure. Awareness of this uncommon acute presentation of atrial myxoma is necessary for timely diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention.