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Sample records for surgical prostate cancer

  1. Evaluation Of Surgical Castration For Prostate Cancer At Nnewi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To evaluate the average time of follow-up of patients with advanced prostate cancer after surgical castration and to assess the difficulties associated with follow-up of patients. Patients and Methods. 89 case notes of patients who had surgical castration for advanced prostate cancer were reviewed. Information on ...

  2. How surgical innovation reduced death and suffering from prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patrick C

    2013-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy for the cure of prostate cancer never gained widespread popularity because of severe side effects: all men were impotent, many were totally incontinent, and when performed by the retropubic approach, bleeding was often life threatening. When I arrived at Johns Hopkins in 1974 as the new director of the Brady Urological Institute, I embarked upon a series of anatomic studies to determine the source of this morbidity. Using the operating room as an anatomy laboratory and performing dissections in stillborn male infants, it was possible to define important, previously unrecognized anatomic structures. Application of these discoveries to the surgical technique made it possible to preserve sexual function, reduce urinary continence to a minimum, and perform the procedure in a relative bloodless field. Armed with the ability to cure prostate cancer more safely with surgery and with fewer side effects, radical prostatectomy was rapidly adopted and in the following decade death from prostate cancer declined by 40%.

  3. Locally advanced prostate cancer: the role of surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Kelly L; Chang, Sam S

    2009-08-01

    Among the heterogeneous population of patients with prostate cancer, a high-risk group with locally advanced prostate cancer (LAPC) present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Although the incidence of LAPC has decreased with screening since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, significantly many patients are still diagnosed with LAPC. These patients are by definition at higher risk of metastatic disease and worse outcomes. The role of radical prostatectomy (RP) in this population has been debated, as the combination of radiotherapy and hormonal therapy is becoming used more frequently for LAPC. Unfortunately, the clinical staging and evaluation of LAPC is a challenge that results in possibly understaging or overstaging these patients. This further complicates therapeutic decision-making, and as a result no established standard treatment has been proposed. Like other patients with prostate cancer, individualized therapeutic choices are essential and depend on a multitude of factors. Herein we examine the role of RP for managing LAPC and attempt to emphasize how the risk of distant disease and difficulty with clinical staging might favour incorporating a surgical approach as part of the therapy for patients with LAPC.

  4. Surgical treatment of high-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, R; Eden, C G

    2015-03-01

    High-risk prostate cancer (HRPC) currently comprises 17-35% of newly diagnosed cases and has the highest rate of metastasis and cancer-related death, making its management a top priority for improving prostate cancer outcomes. The definition of HRPC is not consensual and several risk stratification criteria have been used, which hinders the interpretation of data and the comparison of different studies. All classifications include prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, biopsy Gleason score and clinical stage as criteria, but others have been added in an attempt to make stratification more accurate and clinically useful, to enable identification of the patients that can be cured by local treatment of the disease. HRPC was traditionally treated with radiotherapy (RT) and/or androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), but radical prostatectomy (RP) has slowly gained more importance in this context. This article aims to discuss the role of surgery in HRPC, highlighting the advantages of RP as primary treatment option: the ability to provide a definitive stage and grade of the cancer; allowing an early detection of treatment failure by having an undetectable PSA as treatment target; providing excellent local control of the disease; reducing the risk of metastatic progression to a greater extent than does RT. We will try to show the benefits and risks of a "surgery first" approach, keeping in mind that, despite the curative intent, a significant number of patients will still need adjuvant or salvage RT and/or ADT.

  5. Understanding variation in the quality of the surgical treatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeck, Florian R; Jacobs, Bruce L; Hollenbeck, Brent K

    2013-01-01

    More than 80% of men with prostate cancer undergo active treatment, which can be associated with significant morbidity. Outcomes of surgical treatment vary widely depending on who treated the patient and where the patient was treated, implying that there is room for improvement. Factors influencing outcomes include patient characteristics as well as some measure of procedure volume. Although relationships between volume and outcomes for prostatectomy can most likely be explained by differences between surgeons (e.g., experience, technical skill), the hospital environment (e.g., team communication, safety culture) has the potential to either amplify or dampen the effects. Although most patient factors are immutable, these other aspects of surgical care and the delivery environment provide opportunities for quality improvement. Collaborative quality improvement initiatives may prove to be an important vehicle for achieving better prostate cancer care. These grass roots organizations, driven largely by urologists dedicated to providing prostate cancer care, have had initial successes in improving some aspects of quality in prostate cancer care, including reducing unwarranted use of imaging and perioperative morbidity. However, much of the variation in functional outcomes after prostate cancer surgery arises from differences in technical skill. Evaluating and improving intraoperative surgeon performance will inevitably be challenging, as they require acquisition and interpretation of data collected in the operating room. To this end, several methods have been described to objectively assess what happens in the operating room.

  6. Risk factors associated with positive surgical margins following radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Martin Andreas; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of preoperative and surgical parameters, including nerve-sparing technique, on the risk of positive surgical margins (PSM) following radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective...... consecutive single-institution Danish cohort of 1148 patients undergoing RP between 1995 and 2011 was investigated. To analyse the impact of covariates on risk of PSM, a multivariate logistic regression model was used, including cT category, biopsy Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), percentage...... positive biopsies for cancer (PPB), surgeon and surgical technique. RESULTS: The overall rate of PSM was 31.4%. The risk of PSM depended (p value for Wald χ(2)) on PSA (p

  7. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R.; Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results

  8. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  9. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  10. Impact of positive surgical margin on biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy in locally advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavit Ceylan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of surgical margin positivity on biochemical recurrence (BCR in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP. The medical records of all patients with locally advanced PCa that underwent RRP were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, digital rectal examination findings, prostate biopsy Gleason score, prostate volume, pre- and post-treatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels, definitive pathology Gleason score, surgical margin status, seminal vesicle invasion, perineural invasion, absence or presence of BCR, and the time to BCR were analyzed. The study included 130 patients. The final pathologic examination showed that seven (5.4% patients had T3a disease and 123 (94.6% had T3b disease. In all, 93 (71.5% patients had a positive surgical margin [SM(+], whereas 37 (28.5% patients had a negative surgical margin [SM(−]. Among the seven patients with pT3a disease, four (57.1% had SM(+, whereas 89 (72.4% of the 123 patients with pT3b disease had SM(−. BCR occurred in 11.8% (11 of 93 of patients with SM(+ and in 45.9% (17 of 37 of those with SM(− (p < 0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that SM(+ was the only significant predictor of BCR following RRP (relative risk, 0.163; 95% confidence interval (0.062–0.433; p < 0.001. SM(+ in RRP specimens is not always indicative of BCR in patients with locally advanced PCa. RRP should be considered an effective treatment choice for selected patients with locally advanced PCa, despite the associated high SM(+ rate.

  11. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spera, G.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  12. Risk factors associated with positive surgical margins following radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Martin Andreas; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2014-01-01

    consecutive single-institution Danish cohort of 1148 patients undergoing RP between 1995 and 2011 was investigated. To analyse the impact of covariates on risk of PSM, a multivariate logistic regression model was used, including cT category, biopsy Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), percentage...... positive biopsies for cancer (PPB), surgeon and surgical technique. RESULTS: The overall rate of PSM was 31.4%. The risk of PSM depended (p value for Wald χ(2)) on PSA (p PSA, the risk of PSM...... to the referent surgeon. Nerve-sparing surgery increased the risk of PSM by 50% compared to wide resection (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.1, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Both preoperative and surgical parameters affect the risk of PSM after radical prostatectomy. Surgeon and high preoperative PSA, PPB and cT category were...

  13. Accessibility to surgical robot technology and prostate-cancer patient behavior for prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Toru; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matsui, Hiroki; Nagao, Go; Ishikawa, Akira; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Ohori, Makoto; Homma, Yukio

    2017-07-01

    To examine how surgical robot emergence affects prostate-cancer patient behavior in seeking radical prostatectomy focusing on geographical accessibility. In Japan, robotic surgery was approved in April 2012. Based on data in the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database between April 2012 and March 2014, distance to nearest surgical robot and interval days to radical prostatectomy (divided by mean interval in 2011: % interval days to radical prostatectomy) were calculated for individual radical prostatectomy cases at non-robotic hospitals. Caseload changes regarding distance to nearest surgical robot and robot introduction were investigated. Change in % interval days to radical prostatectomy was evaluated by multivariate analysis including distance to nearest surgical robot, age, comorbidity, hospital volume, operation type, hospital academic status, bed volume and temporal progress. % Interval days to radical prostatectomy became wider for distance to nearest surgical robot robot emerged within 30 and 10 km, the prostatectomy caseload in non-robot hospitals reduced by 13 and 18% within 6 months, respectively, while the robot hospitals gained +101% caseload (P robotic minimally invasive radical prostatectomies in 483 non-robot hospitals revealed a significant inverse association between distance to nearest surgical robot and % interval days to radical prostatectomy (B = -17.3% for distance to nearest surgical robot ≥30 km and -11.7% for 10-30 km versus distance to nearest surgical robot Robotic surgery accessibility within 30 km would make patients less likely select conventional surgery. The nearer a robot was, the faster the caseload reduction was. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. [High-risk prostate cancer surgical margins during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperron, C; Moulin, M; Koutlidis, N; Mourey, E; Cormier, L

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in high risk prostate cancer (HR). The rate of positive surgical margins (PSM) was compared between anticipated HR cancer according to D'Amico risk classification and discovered postoperative HR cancer. A retrospective study was conducted between 2006 and 2013 on patients who underwent RARP. Before surgery, patients were divided according to the D'Amico risk classification. After surgery, HR was defined as pT3a or pT3b, or Gleason score≥8 or positive lymph nodes. The rate of PSM was compared according to the D'Amico risk classification and postoperative HR. During the study, 485 patients were reviewed. Before surgery, 10 % of cancers were classified as D'Amico 3 (49/485). After surgery, 27.6 % (134/485) were classified as HR. There was a significant difference between the rate of PSM in HR/D'Amico 3 and HR/non D'Amico 3 cancer, respectively 22.9 % and 34.3 % (P<0.001). The RARP is feasible in HR with an average of 30 % of PSM as in open surgery. However, the accurate assessment of preoperative HR will allow a more adapted dissection and a decrease of rate of PSM. So it is necessary to improve the detection of HR and so to select the most suitable cancer for surgery. Level 5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate cancer A man whose father, brother, or son has had prostate cancer has a higher-than- ... known if these drugs lower the risk of death from prostate cancer. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial ( ...

  16. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Maria Carlsen; Andersen, Morten Heebøll; Høyer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is an accepted alternative to active treatment. However, the conventional diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-bx) underestimate PCa aggressiveness in almost half of the cases, when compared with the surgical...... lesions. Significant cancer was defined as GS > 6 or GS 6 (3 + 3) lesions with ≥ 6 mm maximal cancer core length (MCCL). Results A total of 78 patients were included and in 21 patients a total of 22 PIRADS-score 4 or 5 lesions were detected. MRGB pathology revealed that 17 (81%) of these and 22......% of the entire AS population harbored significant cancers at AS inclusion. In eight (38%) cases, the GS was upgraded. Also, nine patients (43%) had GS 6 (3 + 3) foci with MCCL ≥ 6 mm. Conclusion In an AS cohort based on TRUS and TRUS-bx diagnostic strategies, supplemental mpMRI and in-bore MRGB were able...

  17. Prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who eat a diet high in fat, especially animal fat Obese men Tire plant workers Painters Men ... your doctor Radical prostatectomy - discharge Images Male reproductive anatomy Male urinary tract BPH Prostate cancer PSA blood ...

  18. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bey, P.; Beckendorf, V.; Stines, J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with a curative intent implies to treat the whole prostate at high dose (at least 66 Gy). According to clinical stage, PSA level, Gleason's score, the clinical target volume may include seminal vesicles and less often pelvic lymph nodes. Microscopic extra-capsular extension is found in 15 to 60% of T1-T2 operated on, specially in apex tumors. On contrary, cancers developing from the transitional zone may stay limited to the prostate even with a big volume and with a high PSA level. Zonal anatomy of the prostate identifies internal prostate, including the transitional zone (5% of the prostate in young people). External prostate includes central and peripheral zones. The inferior limit of the prostate is not lower than the inferior border of the pubic symphysis. Clinical and radiological examination: ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), CT-scan identify prognostic factors as tumor volume, capsule effraction, seminal vesicles invasion and lymph node extension. The identification of the clinical target volume is now done mainly by CT-Scan which identifies prostate and seminal vesicles. NMR could be helpful to identify more precisely prostate apex. The definition of margins around the clinical target volume has to take in account daily reproducibility and organ motion and of course the maximum tolerable dose for organs at risk. (authors)

  19. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  20. Understanding Prostate Cancer: Newly Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vs Cancer Contact Us Newly Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Basics About the Prostate Risk Factors Prostate ... when my.. Donors Patient Stories About the Prostate Cancer Foundation The Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) is the world’s leading philanthropic ...

  1. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer FAQs Top 10 Things You Should Know About ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...

  2. Patient Preferences for Outcomes Associated with Surgical Management of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catalona, William

    2002-01-01

    .... We used utility assessment to quantify patient preferences. Methods: We measured preferences in 209 community volunteers enrolled in a prostate cancer screening study who had radical prostatectomy between 1994 and 1998...

  3. Patient Preferences for Outcomes Associated with Surgical Management of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catalona, WIlliam

    2001-01-01

    .... We used utility assessment to quantify patient preferences. We measured preferences in 209 community volunteers enrolled in a prostate cancer screening study who had radical prostatectomies between 1994 and 1998...

  4. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force reviewed research studies on the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening test for prostate cancer. It concluded that ... used to screen for prostate cancer: • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test: This test looks for PSA, a ...

  5. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics About the ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early warning ...

  6. Single Positive Lymph Node Prostate Cancer Can Be Treated Surgically without Recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Keun Kim

    Full Text Available To investigate pN1 prostate cancer (PCa patients treated surgically without immediate adjuvant treatment.We analyzed the database of 2316 patients at our institution who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP/radical prostatectomy (RP between July 2005 and November 2012. 87 patients with pN1 PCa and received no neoadjuvant and immediate adjuvant therapy were included in the study. Included pN1 PCa patients were followed up for median of 60 months. Biochemical recurrence (BCR-free survival, metastasis-free survival (MFS, cancer specific survival (CSS, and overall survival (OS rates were determined by using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cox regression analysis was performed to investigate the impact of prostate-specific antigen (PSA level, Gleason score, extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, perineural invasion, lymphovascular invasion, positive surgical margin, tumor volume, early post-operative PSA(6 weeks, PSA nadir, lymph node yield, and number of pathologically positive lymph nodes on survival.The 5-year OS rate of patients was 86.1%, while the CSS rate was 89.6%. The metastasis-free and BCR-free survival rates were 71% and 19.1%, respectively, and each was significantly correlated with the number of positive lymph nodes on log rank tests (p = 0.004 and p = 0.039, respectively. The presence of 2 or more pathologically positive LNs (HR:2.20; 95% CI 1.30-3.72; p = 0.003 and a Gleason score ≥8 (HR: 2.40;95% CI: 1.32-4.38; p = 0.04 were significant negative predictors of BCR free survival on multivariable regression analysis. Furthermore, the presence of 2 or more positive lymph nodes (HR: 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11; p = 0.029 were significant negative predictors of metastasis-free survival on multivariable regression analysis. Additionally, in the patients who had no BCR without adjuvant treatment 9 patients out of 10 (90% had single positive LN and 5 patients out of 10 (50% had Gleason score 7. Therefore, single positive LN

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  8. Light Reflectance Spectroscopy to Detect Positive Surgical Margins on Prostate Cancer Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Monica S C; Lay, Aaron H; Wang, Xinlong; Kapur, Payal; Ozayar, Asim; Sayah, Maryam; Zeng, Li; Liu, Hanli; Roehrborn, Claus G; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A

    2016-02-01

    Intraoperative frozen section analysis is not routinely performed to determine positive surgical margins at radical prostatectomy due to time requirements and unproven clinical usefulness. Light reflectance spectroscopy, which measures light intensity reflected or backscattered from tissues, can be applied to differentiate malignant from benign tissue. We used a novel light reflectance spectroscopy probe to evaluate positive surgical margins on ex vivo radical prostatectomy specimens and correlate its findings with pathological examination. Patients with intermediate to high risk disease undergoing radical prostatectomy were enrolled. Light reflectance spectroscopy was performed on suspected malignant and benign prostate capsule immediately following organ extraction. Each light reflectance spectroscopy at 530 to 830 nm was analyzed and correlated with pathological results. A regression model and forward sequential selection algorithm were developed for optimal feature selection. Eighty percent of light reflectance spectroscopy data were selected to train a logistic regression model, which was evaluated by the remaining 20% data. This was repeated 5 times to calculate averaged sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Light reflectance spectroscopy analysis was performed on 17 ex vivo prostate specimens, on which a total of 11 histologically positive and 22 negative surgical margins were measured. Two select features from 700 to 830 nm were identified as unique to malignant tissue. Cross-validation when performing the predictive model showed that the optical probe predicted positive surgical margins with 85% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 86% accuracy and an AUC of 0.95. Light reflectance spectroscopy can identify positive surgical margins accurately in fresh ex vivo radical prostatectomy specimens. Further study is required to determine whether such analysis may be used in real time to improve surgical decision making and decrease positive surgical margin rates

  9. Risk of biochemical recurrence and positive surgical margins in patients with pT2 prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Martin Andreas; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Berg, Kasper Drimer

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk factors associated with positive surgical margins (PSM) and biochemical recurrence (BR) in organ confined tumors (pT2) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: Between 1995 and 2011, 1,649 patients underwent RP...... trended (P = 0.08) to increase the risk of BR compared to PSM and non-NS surgery. CONCLUSION: Several factors influence the risk of pT2 PSMs in radical prostatectomy. In our cohort pT2 PSM is associated with NS surgery and trend to increase risk of BR compared to non-NS surgery. The optimal selection...

  10. Challenges in the Analysis of Outcomes for Surgical Compared to Radiotherapy Treatment of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Scott M; Kalash, Ronny; Bongiorni, Dante R; Roberts, Mark S; Balasubramani, Goundappa K; Jacobs, Bruce L; Beriwal, Sushil; Heron, Dwight E; Greenberger, Joel S

    2018-01-01

    Prostate cancer can be treated with radical prostatectomy (RP), external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT), or brachytherapy (BT). These modalities have similar cancer-related outcomes. We used an innovative method to analyze the cost of such treatment. We queried our Institution's Insurance Division [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Health Plan] beneficiaries from 2003-2008, who were diagnosed with prostate cancer and also queried the UPMC tumor registry for all patients with prostate cancer treated at our Institution. In a de-identified manner, data from the Health Plan and Tumor Registry were merged. A total of 354 patients with non-metastatic disease with treatment initiated within 9 months of diagnosis were included (RP=236, EBRT=55, and BT=63). Radiotherapy-treated patients tended to be older, higher-risk, and have more comorbidities. Unadjusted median total health care expenditures during the first year after diagnosis were: RP: $16,743, EBRT: $47,256, and BT: $23,237 (p<0.0005). A propensity score-matched model comparing RP and EBRT demonstrated median total health care expenditures during year one: RP: $8,189, EBRT: $10,081; p=0.48. In a propensity-matched model comparing RP and BT, the median total health care expenditures during year one were: RP: $18,143, BT: $26,531; p=0.015 and per year during years 2 through 5 from diagnosis were: RP: $5,913, BT: $6,110; p=0.68. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of combining healthcare costs from the payer's perspective with clinical data from a Tumor Registry within an IDFS and represents a novel approach to investigating the economic impact of cancer treatment. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000907.htm Cryotherapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features ... first treatment for prostate cancer. What Happens During Cryotherapy Before the procedure, you will be given medicine ...

  12. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  13. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  14. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treatment for your prostate cancer is chosen after a thorough evaluation. Your doctor ...

  15. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND REHABILITATION TREATMENT OF DYSURIA AFTER SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Markosyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the latest neurophysiological technologies for the recognition and treatment of neurogenic disorders of urination and erection in a group of patients operated on for prostate cancer (PC. Acicular electromyography of pelvic floor muscles with transcranial magnetic stimulation of micturition and erectile centers has been put into practice to examine this category of patients. The basic neurophysiological parameters of the muscles examined (cortical and segmental evoked motor response the latency, central motor conduction time (CMCT, and motor unit potential (MUP amplitude and duration were estimated. To develop a normative base, the neurophysiological features of the pelvic floor were studied in healthy volunteers (n = 12 who formed a control group. Examinations were made in 17 patients who had undergone operations for PC at Moscow hospitals 3 to 18 months before, such as retropubic prostatectomy (n = 11 and transurethral resection plus high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU ablation (n = 6. Spontaneous urination was absent in 4 (23.5% of cases; urinary incontinence was observed in 6 (35.2% patients. The study group patients were found to have significant disorders of corticospinal tract conduction and those of perineal muscle contraction as potential fibrillation and positive pointed waves, as well as considerable CMCM prolongation and MUP polyphasia. Denervation alterations in PC patients after surgery and delayed reinnervation processes, nerve control recovery are determined by not only the surgery itself, but also by the features of the course of the underlying cancer process. Pelvic floor muscle studies indicated that HIFU was a very traumatic treatment for PC due to the fact that physical exposure spread outside the prostate to the neuromuscular structures. The denervation alterations detected in the pelvic floor muscles became essential in the elaboration of adequate treatment policy. The use of agents improving the

  16. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND REHABILITATION TREATMENT OF DYSURIA AFTER SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Markosyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the latest neurophysiological technologies for the recognition and treatment of neurogenic disorders of urination and erection in a group of patients operated on for prostate cancer (PC. Acicular electromyography of pelvic floor muscles with transcranial magnetic stimulation of micturition and erectile centers has been put into practice to examine this category of patients. The basic neurophysiological parameters of the muscles examined (cortical and segmental evoked motor response the latency, central motor conduction time (CMCT, and motor unit potential (MUP amplitude and duration were estimated. To develop a normative base, the neurophysiological features of the pelvic floor were studied in healthy volunteers (n = 12 who formed a control group. Examinations were made in 17 patients who had undergone operations for PC at Moscow hospitals 3 to 18 months before, such as retropubic prostatectomy (n = 11 and transurethral resection plus high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU ablation (n = 6. Spontaneous urination was absent in 4 (23.5% of cases; urinary incontinence was observed in 6 (35.2% patients. The study group patients were found to have significant disorders of corticospinal tract conduction and those of perineal muscle contraction as potential fibrillation and positive pointed waves, as well as considerable CMCM prolongation and MUP polyphasia. Denervation alterations in PC patients after surgery and delayed reinnervation processes, nerve control recovery are determined by not only the surgery itself, but also by the features of the course of the underlying cancer process. Pelvic floor muscle studies indicated that HIFU was a very traumatic treatment for PC due to the fact that physical exposure spread outside the prostate to the neuromuscular structures. The denervation alterations detected in the pelvic floor muscles became essential in the elaboration of adequate treatment policy. The use of agents improving the

  17. [Last resort surgical management of postradiation urinary cystitis after external beam radiation for prostate cancer: a monocentric analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seisen, T; Rouprêt, M; Phé, V; Bosset, P-O; Parra, J; Drouin, S J; Simon, J-M; Chartier-Kastler, E

    2013-01-01

    To assess functional outcomes obtained after surgical management of post-radiation urinary incontinence after prostate cancer. A retrospective review of the data from patients treated in our centre between September 2004 and February 2012 by surgery for vesicosphincteric injuries after prostatic external beam radiation therapy was performed. A total of seven men with a median age of 70 years ± 4.1 were included. Mean follow-up was 32.3 months ± 29 (3-86). All patients underwent a partial cystectomy and augmentation enterocystoplasty. The vesicocutaneous fistula rate was 33% occurring within a mean time of 18.5 days ± 2.1 (17-20). The mean length of urinary catheter and hospital stay were respectively 16 days ± 8.4 (12-35) and 18 days ± 7.8 (13-37). Five patients underwent asynchronous insertion of artificial urinary sphincter. The success rate of partial cystectomy and augmentation enterocystoplasty with asynchronous implantation of artificial urinary sphincter to treat post-radiation urinary incontinence was 71.5%. The median time between partial cystectomy and augmentation enterocystoplasty and artificial urinary sphincter implantation was 27.6months ± 26.4 (7-72). Surgical management of post-radiation urinary cystitis offers good functional outcomes albeit its morbidity is not negligible. It should be proposed only in expert surgical centres. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Screening for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirich, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite recent advances in both the survival and cure rates for many forms of cancer, unfortunately the same has not been true for prostate cancer. In fact, the age-adjusted death rate from prostate cancer has not significantly improved since 1949, and prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in American men, causing the second highest cancer mortality rate. Topics discussed include the following: serum testosterone levels; diagnosis; mortality statistics; prostate-sppecific antigen (PSA) tests; and the Occupational Medicine Services policy at LeRC.

  19. Risk of cardiovascular thrombotic events after surgical castration versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in Chinese men with prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy YC Teoh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the cardiovascular thrombotic risk after surgical castration (SC versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa in Chinese men with prostate cancer. All Chinese prostate cancer patients who were treated with SC or GnRHa from year 2000 to 2009 were reviewed and compared. The primary outcome was any new-onset of cardiovascular thrombotic events after SC or GnRHa, which was defined as any event of acute myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. The risk of new-onset cardiovascular thrombotic event was compared between the SC group and the GnRHa group using Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for other potential confounding factors. A total of 684 Chinese patients was included in our study, including 387 patients in the SC group and 297 patients in the GnRHa group. The mean age in the SC group (75.3 ± 7.5 years was significantly higher than the GnRHa group (71.8 ± 8.3 years (P < 0.001. There was increased risk of new cardiovascular thrombotic events in the SC group when compared to the GnRHa group upon Kaplan-Meier analysis (P = 0.014. Upon multivariate Cox regression analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.072, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.11, P< 0.001, hyperlipidemia (HR 2.455, 95% CI 1.53-3.93, P< 0.001, and SC (HR 1.648, 95% CI 1.05-2.59, P= 0.031 were significant risk factors of cardiovascular thrombotic events. In conclusion, SC was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular thrombotic events when compared to GnRHa. This is an important aspect to consider while deciding on the method of androgen deprivation therapy, especially in elderly men with known history of hyperlipidemia.

  20. Effect of surgical procedures on prostate tumor gene expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Yin, Chang-Jun; Pavlovich, Christian; Luo, Jun; Getzenberg, Robert; Zhang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Current surgical treatment of prostate cancer is typically accomplished by either open radical prostatectomy (ORP) or robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP). Intra-operative procedural differences between the two surgical approaches may alter the molecular composition of resected surgical specimens, which are indispensable for molecular analysis and biomarker evaluation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of different surgical procedures on RNA quali...

  1. [Prostate cancer. Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, G; Valeri, A; Mangin, P; Cussenot, O

    2004-10-01

    The discovery and the utilisation of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) that allows early diagnosis of prostate cancer, have considerably improved the management of this disease. Before the PSA era, prostate cancer was just a disease of the old man, generally detected at an advanced stage and incurable, with a fatal outcome delayed by the androgenic deprivation. Since early 1990's, prostate cancer has become primarily a disease of the man of 60 years, detectable earlier, and curable provided no extraprostatic dissemination has occurred. Early treatment of prostate cancer has benefited from important advances in surgical and radio-therapeutic techniques (conformational irradiation, brachytherapy), with, as principal goal, the combination of a better survival and the reduction of the potential adverse effects that alter quality of life. A better definition of the characteristics of the tumours in terms of progression regarding various parameters (clinical stage, PSA, tumoral differentiation) have resulted, despite the heterogeneity of the disease, in the determination of subgroups of tumours with different prognosis, which leads to an improved therapeutic strategy. The assessment of men's life expectancy ( 10 years) is the second primary parameter on which is based the indication for curative or non curative therapy in case of localized tumour. Roughly, before the age of 75, a curative therapy is indicated whereas after this age a surveillance is reasonable as first-line treatment, followed by hormone therapy in case of onset of symptoms indicating some progression of the disease (urinary symptoms, bone lesion). At a Later stage, in case of a metastatic or locally advanced cancer, hormone therapy by androgenic deprivation is highly indicated. The hormone sensitivity characterizes prostate cancer; it has been discovered more than 50 years ago by Charles Huggins (Nobel prize-winner). This hormone therapy is a palliative treatment since its efficacy is transient

  2. On cribriform prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kweldam, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThis general aim of the thesis is to study the clinical relevance, interobserver reproducibility, and genetics of cribriform growth in prostate cancer. More specifically, the aims and outline of this thesis are • To study the metastatic potential of modified Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer in radical prostatectomies. (Chapter 2) • To examine the prognostic value of individual Gleason grade 4 patterns in prostate cancer in radical prostatectomy and diagnostic biopsy specimens...

  3. Danish Prostate Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, J Thomas; Klemann, Nina; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2016-01-01

    of the prostate (TUR-Ps), and the remaining 22,028 (13.6%) specimens were derived from radical prostatectomies, bladder interventions, etc. A total of 48,078 (42.2%) males had histopathologically verified prostate cancer, and of these, 78.8% and 16.8% were diagnosed on prostate biopsies and TUR-Ps, respectively....... FUTURE PERSPECTIVES: A validated algorithm was successfully developed to convert complex prostate SNOMED codes into clinical useful data. A unique database, including males with both normal and cancerous histopathological data, was created to form the most comprehensive national prostate database to date...

  4. [Benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourey, Loïc; Doumerc, Nicolas; Gaudin, Clément; Gérard, Stéphane; Balardy, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Prostatic diseases are extremely common, especially in older men. Amongst them, benign prostatic hypertrophy may affect significantly the quality of life of patients by the symptoms it causes. It requires appropriate care. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men after lung cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It affects preferentially older men. An oncogeriatric approach is required for personalised care.

  5. [Consensus of prostate cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer is increasing rapidly in China, the clinical stage of prostate cancer patients is comparatively late and the overall survival rate is inferior to that reported in the developed countries. Prostate cancer screening is an effective measure to reduce the risk of death through early detection. In order to identify the best way of prostate cancer screening in China, the Chinese Anti-Cancer Association Genitourinary Cancer Committee Prostate Cancer Working Group reviewed all published data concerning the benefits and harms of screening for prostate caner and created the consensus. The consensus include the following points: screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer by prostate specific antigen(PSA)testing in the general population is the potential measure to reduce mortality rates through early detection, PSA testing should be offered earlier in men with life expectancy over 10 years and men at high risk of prostate cancer.

  6. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantine Albany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a “normal” epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  7. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bisphosphonate drugs to prevent or slow the growth of bone metastases is being studied in clinical trials. There are treatments for bone pain caused by bone metastases or hormone therapy. Prostate cancer that has spread to the ...

  8. Imaging and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    1996-01-01

    The use of imaging in evaluating patients with prostate cancer is highly dependent upon the purpose of the evaluation. Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, TC-99m Bone Scanning, and Positron Emission Tomography may all be utilized for imaging in prostate cancer. The utility of each of these modalities depends upon the intended purpose: for instance, screening, staging, or evaluating for progression of disease in patients with prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasound is performed by placing a 5MHz to 7.5 MHz transducer in the rectum and imaging the prostate in the coronal and sagittal planes. Prostate cancer generally appears as an area of diminished echogenocity in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland. However, up to 24% of prostate cancers are isoechoic and cannot be well distinguished from the remainder of the peripheral zone. In addition, the incidence of malignancy in a lesion judged to be suspicious on ultrasound is between 20% and 25%. Therefore, while ultrasound is the least expensive of the three cross sectional imaging modalities, its relatively low specificity precludes it from being used as a screening examination. Investigators have also looked at the ability of ultrasound to evaluate the presence and extent of extracapsular spread of prostate cancer. The RDOG (Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group) multi-institutional cooperative trial reported a disappointing overall accuracy of ultrasound of 58% for staging prostate cancer. The accuracy was somewhat higher 63%, for patients with advanced disease. The other cross-sectional imaging modalities available for imaging the prostate include Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Computed Tomography is useful as an 'anatomic' imaging technique to detect lymph node enlargement. It is not sensitive in detecting microscopic nodal involvement with tumor, or tumor in non-enlarged pelvic lymph nodes. The primary prostate neoplasm is generally the same attenuation as the normal

  9. Potency following high-dose three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and the impact of prior major urologic surgical procedures in patients treated for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinn, Daniel M.; Holland, John; Crownover, Richard L.; Roach, Mack

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of high-dose three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) on potency in patients treated for clinically localized prostate cancer and to identify factors that might predict the outcome of sexual function following treatment. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty-four consecutive patients treated with 3DCRT for localized prostate cancer at UCSF between 1991-1993 were included in this retrospective analysis. Patient responses were obtained from a mailed questionnaire, telephone interviews, or departmental records. Median follow-up was 21 months. Results: Sixty patients reported having sexual function prior to 3DCRT, including 47 who were fully potent and 13 who were marginally potent. Of the remaining 64 patients, 45 were impotent, 7 were on hormones, 1 was status-postorchiectomy, and 11 were not evaluable. Following 3DCRT, 37 of 60 patients (62%) retained sexual function sufficient for intercourse. Of those with sexual function before irradiation, 33 of 47 (70%) of patients fully potent and 4 of 13 (31%) of patients marginally potent maintained function sufficient for intercourse (p < 0.01). Potency was retained in 6 of 15 (40%) patients with a history of a major urologic surgical procedure (MUSP) and in 31 of 45 (69%) with no history of a MUSP (p < 0.04). Transurethral resection of the prostate was the MUSP in eight of these patients, with four (50%) maintaining sexual function. Conclusions: Patients who receive definitive 3DCRT for localized prostate cancer appear to maintain potency similar to patients treated with conventional radiotherapy. However, patients who are marginally potent at presentation or who have a history of a MUSP appear to be at increased risk of impotence following 3DCRT

  10. Understanding your prostate cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older. Family history. Having a father, brother, or son with prostate cancer increases your risk. Having one immediate family member with prostate cancer doubles a man's own risk. A man who has 2 or ...

  11. Hyaluronan Biosynthesis in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, James B

    2006-01-01

    Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the last several years metastasis represents the major cause of frustration and failure in the successful treatment of prostate cancer patients. Hyaluronan (HA...

  12. Hyaluronan Biosynthesis in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, James B

    2005-01-01

    Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the last several years, metastasis represents the major cause of frustration and failure in the successful treatment of prostate cancer patients. Hyaluronan (HA...

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trock, Bruce J

    2005-01-01

    .... The objective of this case-control study is to determine whether oxidative damage is a risk factor for prostate cancer, and whether this mechanism mediates the association between dietary fat and prostate cancer risk...

  14. Angiogenesis Regulates Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pettaway, Curtis

    1999-01-01

    .... We are evaluating the relationship of the expression of the angiogenesis factors bFGF, VEGF, and IL-8 with prostate cancer growth and metastasis, using our orthotopic model of metastatic prostate cancer in nude mice...

  15. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  16. [Sexuality and prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droupy, S; Al Said, B; Lechevallier, E; Colson, M-H; Giuliano, F

    2013-07-01

    All treatments for prostate cancer have a negative impact on sexuality. The objective of this review is to highlight recent developments in the management of sexual dysfunction associated with prostate cancer. We performed a literature search in the Pubmed database to select relevant articles. There is a specific profile of changes in the fields of sexual, urinary, bowel and general quality of life, according to the treatment modalities chosen. Maintenance of a satisfying sex life is a major concern of a majority of men facing prostate cancer and its treatments. It is essential to assess the couple's sexuality before treating prostate cancer in order to deliver comprehensive information and consider early therapeutic solutions adapted to the couple's expectations. The results of randomized studies show that robotic radical prostatectomy allows a faster recovery of natural erections compared to classic laparoscopy. Active pharmacological erectile rehabilitation (intracavernous injections or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors [PDE5i] on demand, during the month following surgery) or passive (daily PDE5i after surgery) might improve the quality of erections especially in response to PDE5i. Unimpaired aspects of sexual response (orgasm) may, when the erection is not yet recovered, represent an alternative allowing the couple to preserve intimacy and complicity. Androgen blockade is a major barrier to maintain or return to a satisfying sex. After the treatment of prostate cancer, one specific support sometimes assisted by networking will optimize satisfying sex life recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Osteoporosis and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads Hvid; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of osteoporosis and risk factors of osteoporotic fractures before androgen deprivation in Danish men. Treatment and prognosis of prostate cancer necessitate management of long-term consequences of androgen deprivation therapy...... (ADT), including accelerated bone loss resulting in osteoporosis. Osteoporotic fractures are associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Material and methods. Patients with prostate cancer awaiting initiation of ADT were consecutively included. Half of the patients had localized disease and were...... level was 30.5 g/l (1-5714 g/l). The average Gleason score was 7.8 (range 5-10, SD 1.1). Fifty patients had localized prostate cancer and the other 55 patients had disseminated disease. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10% and the prevalence of osteopenia was 58% before ADT. There was no significant...

  18. [Epidemiology of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, N

    2011-11-01

    Since a number of years, prostate cancer has been the most frequent cancer site among men in Germany and has replaced lung cancer as the leading position. Among the most frequent cancer sites, it is the one with the lowest available knowledge about etiology. Smoking and alcohol apparently do not play a role. Regarding food intake, indications exist for a protective association to tomatoes or lycopene consumption and a protective association was also seen with high physical activity, while risk seems to be elevated in obese men. Associations to hormonal factors have been observed and are under consideration. Trials with potential chemopreventive agents have been unsuccessful so far. For early detection, digital rectal examination has been part of the German statutory early detection program" from the very beginning in 1971 and the test for prostate specific antigen (PSA) is being used in the framework of the so-called individual health services, both without scientific evidence of effectiveness. The available data show that the progression of prostate cancer to the leading male cancer site was chiefly driven by the unstructured introduction of the PSA test as a screening tool. Cynically addressed, the figures indicate that the most efficient known preventive intervention was not to attend screening. This delicate situation should, however, not discourage from further examinations of prostate cancer screening. Recent results including the European randomized prostate cancer screening study (ERSPC) indicated that intelligently structured screening, possibly even using the PSA test, might be effective. Before routine application the novel approaches also have to be scrutinized in a research setting.

  19. [Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy for Patients with Prostatic Cancer and Factors Promoting Installation of the Robotic Surgical Equipment-Questionnaire Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Taiji; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey of hospitals with robot-assisted surgical equipment to study changes of the surgical case loads after its installation and the managerial strategies for its purchase. The study included 154 hospitals (as of April 2014) that were queried about their radical prostatectomy case loads from January 2009 to December 2013, strategies for installation of the equipment in their hospitals, and other topics related to the study purpose. The overall response rate of hospitals was 63%, though it marginally varied according to type and area. The annual case load was determined based on the results of the questionnaire and other modalities. It increased from 3,518 in 2009 to 6,425 in 2013. The case load seemed to be concentrated in hospitals with robot equipment since the increase of their number was very minimal over the 5 years. The hospitals with the robot treated a larger number of newly diagnosed patients with the disease than before. Most of the patients were those having localized cancer that was indicated for radical surgery, suggesting again the concentration of the surgical case loads in the hospitals with robots. While most hospitals believed that installation of a robot was necessary as an option for treatment procedures, the future strategy of the hospital, and other reasons, the action of the hospital to gain prestige may be involved in the process of purchasing the equipment. In conclusion, robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy has become popular as a surgical procedure for prostate cancer in our society. This may lead to a concentration of the surgical case load in a limited number of hospitals with robots. We also discuss the typical action of an acute-care hospital when it purchases expensive clinical medical equipment.

  20. On cribriform prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F. Kweldam (Charlotte)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThis general aim of the thesis is to study the clinical relevance, interobserver reproducibility, and genetics of cribriform growth in prostate cancer. More specifically, the aims and outline of this thesis are • To study the metastatic potential of modified Gleason score 3+3

  1. Characterising Castrate Tolerant Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    ASHLEE KATE CLARK

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a prevalent disease in aging males. This thesis explores prostate cancer cells that escape current therapy and give rise to end-stage disease. Using sophisticated experimental approaches, this important cancer cell population was identified and characterised in human prostate cancer tissues.  Our discoveries will eventually lead to improved cancer treatments for men with prostate cancer.

  2. Review article: Prostate cancer screening using prostate specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with prostate cancer than ...

  3. Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0056 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bruce J. Trock, Ph.D... Pathology Resource Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0056 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Bruce J. Trock, Ph.D. Betty...The Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network (which has since been renamed the Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network or PCBN) is a collaboration

  4. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao; Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-01-01

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  5. Prostate cancer brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Vita; Silva, Joao L. F.; Srougi, Miguel; Nesrallah, Adriano

    1999-01-01

    The transperineal brachytherapy with 125 I/Pd 103 seed implantation guided by transurethral ultrasound must be presented as therapeutical option of low urinary morbidity in patients with localized prostate cancer. The combined clinical staging - including Gleason and initial PSA - must be encouraged, for definition of a group of low risk and indication of exclusive brachytherapy. Random prospective studies are necessary in order to define the best role of brachytherapy, surgery and external beam radiation therapy

  6. The Early Prostate Cancer program: bicalutamide in nonmetastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Roder, Martin Andreas; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The Early Prostate Cancer program is investigating the addition of bicalutamide 150 mg to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer. The third program analysis, at 7.4 years' median follow-up, has shown that bicalutamide 150 mg does not benefit patients...

  7. BTG2 Antiproliferative Gene and Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walden, Paul D

    2007-01-01

    Levels of the BTG2 tumor suppressor protein diminish during the transition of normal prostate epithelial cells into prostate cancer cells and restoration of BTG2 expression in prostate cancer cells...

  8. Photoacoustic imaging of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanjin Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic imaging (PAI, also known as optoacoustic imaging, is a rapidly growing imaging modality with potential in medical diagnosis and therapy monitoring. This paper focuses on the techniques of prostate PAI and its potential applications in prostate cancer detection. Transurethral light delivery combined with transrectal ultrasound detection overcomes light scattering in the surrounding tissue and provides optimal photoacoustic signals while minimizing invasiveness. While label-free PAI based on endogenous contrast has promising potential for prostate cancer detection, exogenous contrast agents can further enhance the sensitivity and specificity of prostate cancer PAI. Further in vivo studies are required in order to achieve the translation of prostate PAI to clinical implementation. The minimal invasiveness, relatively low cost, high specificity and sensitivity, and real-time imaging capability are valuable advantages of PAI that may improve the current prostate cancer management in clinic.

  9. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer...... care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. MAIN VARIABLES: The DAPROCAdata...... registers clinical data and selected characteristics for patients with prostate cancer at diagnosis. Data are collected from the linkage of nationwide health registries and supplemented with online registration of key clinical variables by treating physicians at urological and oncological departments. Main...

  10. Blood lipids and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Caroline J; Bonilla, Carolina; Holly, Jeff M P

    2016-01-01

    Genetic risk scores were used as unconfounded instruments for specific lipid traits (Mendelian randomization) to assess whether circulating lipids causally influence prostate cancer risk. Data from 22,249 prostate cancer cases and 22,133 controls from 22 studies within the international PRACTICAL...... into logistic regression models to estimate the presence (and direction) of any causal effect of each lipid trait on prostate cancer risk. There was weak evidence for an association between the LDL genetic score and cancer grade: the odds ratio (OR) per genetically instrumented standard deviation (SD) in LDL.......95, 3.00; P = 0.08). The rs12916-T variant in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) was inversely associated with prostate cancer (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.00; P = 0.03). In conclusion, circulating lipids, instrumented by our genetic risk scores, did not appear to alter prostate cancer risk...

  11. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... short-term androgen deprivation for localized prostate cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 2011; 365(2):107-118. [PubMed Abstract] Studer ... survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy. New England Journal of Medicine 2012; 367(13):1187-1197. [PubMed Abstract] Beer ...

  12. Focal therapy in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, W.

    2016-01-01

    Interesting developments took place in the treatment of prostate cancer including focal therapy for less aggressive organ-confined prostate cancer. Fortunately, curative treatment is often still an option for patients suffering from the lower staged tumors. In carefully selected patients, the

  13. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  14. Biomarkers in localized prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Buonerba, Carlo; Terracciano, Daniela; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Bottero, Danilo; Deliu, Victor M; Ditonno, Pasquale; Perdonà, Sisto; Autorino, Riccardo; Coman, Ioman; De Placido, Sabino; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; De Cobelli, Ottavio

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers can improve prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment. Accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early diagnosis of prostate cancer is not satisfactory, as it is an organ- but not cancer-specific biomarker, and it can be improved by using models that incorporate PSA along with other test results, such as prostate cancer antigen 3, the molecular forms of PSA (proPSA, benign PSA and intact PSA), as well as kallikreins. Recent reports suggest that new tools may be provided by metabolomic studies as shown by preliminary data on sarcosine. Additional molecular biomarkers have been identified by the use of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. We review the most relevant biomarkers for early diagnosis and management of localized prostate cancer. PMID:26768791

  15. Vitamin D in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-04-13

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  16. [Interdisciplinary and individualized therapy of prostate cancer : International prostate cancer symposium Bonn 2013 - challenges and targets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwardt, M; Debus, J; Feick, G; Hadaschik, B; Hohenfellner, M; Schüle, R; Zacharias, J-P; Combs, S E

    2015-11-01

    Multimodal treatment of prostate cancer is based on specific staging via imaging, clinical parameters, tumor markers and histopathological grading. Risk-adapted therapy encompasses wait and see, active surveillance, surgical intervention, radiotherapy and hormone therapy. Some patients also need a combination of these treatment options. Even though clinical parameters guide the treatment plan, patient wishes and preferences are incorporated. Against this background leading basic research scientists, urologists, radiotherapists, epidemiologists and members of other associated disciplines discussed state of the art treatment concepts, innovative trial designs and translational research projects at the international meeting "Challenges and Chances in Prostate Cancer Research" organized by the German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe).

  17. Radical prostatectomy for clinically localised prostate cancer at Rigshospitalet 1995-2011 - an analysis of surgical and oncological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røder, Martin Andreas

    2013-12-01

    RP for localized PCa was introduced at Rigshospitalet in 1995. Since then, the incidence of PCa and number of RPs performed every year has increased enormously. Presently, RP is performed a six different hospitals in Denmark. No previous studies have meticulously described outcomes of RP in Denmark. This PhD-thesis focuses on surgical and oncological outcome after RP at Rigshospitalet. The primary purpose was to describe biochemical outcome, risk factors associated with positive surgical margins, and the impact of margin location on risk of biochemical recurrence. The PhD-thesis is based on results from approximately 1,300 men who underwent RP between 1995 and 2011 at Rigshospitalet. The patients have been followed prospectively in a local database. BR was defined as the first PSA ≥ 0.2 ng/ml and time to BR was calculated from the date of surgery. Analysis of time to BR was done using Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox regression analysis including both pre- and postoperative parameters. The association between preoperative and surgical parameters, including surgeon and nerve-sparing surgery, and PSM was analysed using logistic regression analysis. The 10-year estimated BRFS was 75%, 60% and 39% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients, respectively. An in-depth analysis of high-risk patients demonstrated a 10-year metastasis-free and cancer-specific survival of 85% and 90%, respectively. A PSM was demonstrated to increase the risk of BR up to 3 fold. The location of PSM was found to be associated with the risk of BR, i.e. non-apical PSM had the highest risk of BR compared to margin negative and apical PSM, especially in pT2 tumours. A number of factors were found to correlate with the risk of PSM, especially preoperative PSA, surgeon and nerve-sparing surgery. This thesis demonstrates that outcome of RP at Rigshospitalet is comparable to international results. Our studies confirm the prognostic importance of PSM, also in pT2 disease, and indicate that

  18. Prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Sherer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As patients with end-stage renal disease are receiving renal allografts at older ages, the number of male renal transplant recipients (RTRs being diagnosed with prostate cancer (CaP is increasing. Historically, the literature regarding the management of CaP in RTR's is limited to case reports and small case series. To date, there are no standardized guidelines for screening or management of CaP in these complex patients. To better understand the unique characteristics of CaP in the renal transplant population, we performed a literature review of PubMed, without date limitations, using a combination of search terms including prostate cancer, end stage renal disease, renal transplantation, prostate cancer screening, prostate specific antigen kinetics, immuno-suppression, prostatectomy, and radiation therapy. Of special note, teams facilitating the care of these complex patients must carefully and meticulously consider the altered anatomy for surgical and radiotherapeutic planning. Active surveillance, though gaining popularity in the general low risk prostate cancer population, needs further study in this group, as does the management of advance disease. This review provides a comprehensive and contemporary understanding of the incidence, screening measures, risk stratification, and treatment options for CaP in RTRs.

  19. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-2-0183 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Colm Morrissey CONTRACTING...1. REPORT DATE October 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 09/30/2016 - 09/29/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate Cancer Biorepository...DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Genitourinary Cancer

  20. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  1. Vitamins, metabolomics, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius

    2017-06-01

    How micronutrients might influence risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been the focus of a large body of research (especially regarding vitamins E, A, and D). Metabolomic profiling has the potential to discover molecular species relevant to prostate cancer etiology, early detection, and prevention, and may help elucidate the biologic mechanisms through which vitamins influence prostate cancer risk. Prostate cancer risk data related to vitamins E, A, and D and metabolomic profiling from clinical, cohort, and nested case-control studies, along with randomized controlled trials, are examined and summarized, along with recent metabolomic data of the vitamin phenotypes. Higher vitamin E serologic status is associated with lower prostate cancer risk, and vitamin E genetic variant data support this. By contrast, controlled vitamin E supplementation trials have had mixed results based on differing designs and dosages. Beta-carotene supplementation (in smokers) and higher circulating retinol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations appear related to elevated prostate cancer risk. Our prospective metabolomic profiling of fasting serum collected 1-20 years prior to clinical diagnoses found reduced lipid and energy/TCA cycle metabolites, including inositol-1-phosphate, lysolipids, alpha-ketoglutarate, and citrate, significantly associated with lower risk of aggressive disease. Several active leads exist regarding the role of micronutrients and metabolites in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and risk. How vitamins D and A may adversely impact risk, and whether low-dose vitamin E supplementation remains a viable preventive approach, require further study.

  2. BTG2 Antiproliferative Gene and Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walden, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    .... During this study we showed that BTG2 protein expression is lost as an early event in prostate carcinogenesis and that prostate cancer cells degrade BTG2 at a greater rate than noncancerous prostate cells...

  3. Palliative Radiofrequency Ablation for Recurrent Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jindal, Gaurav; Friedman, Marc; Locklin, Julia; Wood, Bradford J.

    2006-01-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive local therapy for cancer. Its efficacy is now becoming well documented in many different organs, including liver, kidney, and lung. The goal of RFA is typically complete eradication of a tumor in lieu of an invasive surgical procedure. However, RFA can also play an important role in the palliative care of cancer patients. Tumors which are surgically unresectable and incompatible for complete ablation present the opportunity for RFA to be used in a new paradigm. Cancer pain runs the gamut from minor discomfort relieved with mild pain medication to unrelenting suffering for the patient, poorly controlled by conventional means. RFA is a tool which can potentially palliate intractable cancer pain. We present here a case in which RFA provided pain relief in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer with pain uncontrolled by conventional methods

  4. [Oncological outcomes of prostate cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulié, M; Salomon, L

    2015-11-01

    Review of the oncological results of the radical prostatectomy as initial treatment of prostate cancer, according to the surgical approach and the risk stratification using D'Amico risk groups. Review of literature using Medline databases and MedScience based on scientific relevance. Research focused on the oncological results of the radical prostatectomy in series and meta-analysis published since 10 years, taking into consideration the surgical approach if mentioned. The characteristics of the operated tumor highly impact the local control authenticated by the pathologic stage and the rates of positive surgical margins (PSM), in addition to the survival and the biochemical recurrence. Surgical technique adapted according to the tumor treated, was a constant challenge to the urologist, who counter balance between the oncological control and the conservation of urinary and sexual function by conditioning the type of radical prostatectomy. Results of radical prostatectomy acceptable in terms of PSM and survival are not influenced by the surgical approach but by the degree of surgical experience. Results of radical prostatectomy show the efficient local control of prostate cancer, taking into consideration the oncological rules and indications validated by multidisciplinary meetings, based on the national (CCAFU) and European oncological guidelines. Tendency is going toward considering radical prostatectomy indicated for patients with higher risk of disease progression, so integrating surgery in a multidisciplinary personalized approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Prostate inflammation. Association with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Meguid, Taha A; Mosli, Hisham A; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah A

    2009-12-01

    To study the association and possible relationship of prostate inflammation with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. The medical records and pathological findings of all Saudi patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostatic needle biopsies in King Abdulaziz University Medical City, Jeddah,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from June 2003 to June 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. The indications for biopsy were elevated levels of serum prostate specific antigen, abnormal findings on digital rectal examination, or both. The specimens harboring inflammation, adenocarcinoma, BPH, or their combinations, were selected and included in the study. A total of 214 patients were selected with an age ranging from 37-100 years (median=68). Inflammation was histologically evident in 88 patients. Of them, only one demonstrated acute inflammation, while 87/88 demonstrated chronic inflammation with, or without acute inflammation. Histopathologic features were categorized into 3 main categories: inflammation alone (12/214, 5.6%), BPH category (126/214, 58.9%), and cancer category (76/214, 35.5%) patients. The last 2 categories also included cases associated with inflammation. In the overall analysis of 214 specimens, BPH with inflammation was more prevalent than cancer with inflammation (43/214 [20.1%] versus 33/214 [15.4%]). In a subgroup analysis within each category, inflammation was less prevalent in the BPH category compared to the cancer category (43/126 [34.1%] versus 33/76 [43.4%]). The association between chronic inflammation and both BPH and cancer is obvious in our study. Further studies are needed to substantiate this observation, and to clarify the magnitude of association of inflammation with BPH compared to cancer.

  6. [Concomitant oncopathological changes in the prostate of urinary bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystoprostateectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komyakov, B K; Sergeev, A V; Fadeev, V A; Ismailov, K I; Ulyanov, A Yu; Shmelev, A Yu; Onoshko, M V

    2017-09-01

    To determine the incidence of spreading bladder transitional cell carcinoma and primary adenocarcinoma to the prostate in patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy. From 1995 to 2016, 283 men underwent radical cystectomy with removal of the bladder, perivesical tissue, prostate, seminal vesicles and pelvic lymph nodes. Prostate sparing cystectomy was performed in 45 (13.7%) patients. The whole prostate and the apex of the prostate were preserved in 21 (6.4%) and 24 (7.3%) patients, respectively. The spread of transitional cell cancer of the bladder to the prostate occurred in 50 (15.2%) patients. Twelve (3.6%) patients were found to have primary prostate adenocarcinoma. Clinically significant prostate cancer was diagnosed in 4 (33.3%) patients. We believe that the high oncological risk of prostate sparing cystectomy, despite some functional advantages, dictates the need for complete removal of the prostate in the surgical treatment of bladder cancer.

  7. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  8. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  9. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  10. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Junxuan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of the biochemical pathways and molecular targets for the selective induction of apoptosis signaling and execution of prostate cancer (PCa...

  11. Contemporary Management of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Katherine; Konety, Badrinath; Ordonez, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer represents a spectrum ranging from low-grade, localized tumors to devastating metastatic disease. We discuss the general options for treatment and recent developments in the field. PMID:26949522

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bisphosphonate drugs to prevent or slow the growth of bone metastases is being studied in clinical trials. There are treatments for bone pain caused by bone metastases or hormone therapy. Prostate cancer that has spread to the ...

  13. General Information about Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bisphosphonate drugs to prevent or slow the growth of bone metastases is being studied in clinical trials. There are treatments for bone pain caused by bone metastases or hormone therapy. Prostate cancer that has spread to the ...

  14. Economical impact of orchiectomy for advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Adriano A. P. de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the economical impact of surgical castration in comparison to the medical castration for patients with advanced prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 2001 and December 2001, 32 patients with advanced prostate cancer underwent bilateral sub-capsular orchiectomy at our Hospital. The costs of this procedure were compared to the costs of medical castration with LH-RH analogues. RESULTS: The costs of the surgical procedure were extremely reduced when compared to published data on the medical treatment. Surgical castration did not have any stronger negative impact on the evolution of these patients when compared to medical castration. CONCLUSION: Surgical castration is an efficient and low cost treatment for advanced prostate cancer.

  15. Effect of surgical procedures on prostate tumor gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Yin, Chang-Jun; Pavlovich, Christian; Luo, Jun; Getzenberg, Robert; Zhang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    Current surgical treatment of prostate cancer is typically accomplished by either open radical prostatectomy (ORP) or robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP). Intra-operative procedural differences between the two surgical approaches may alter the molecular composition of resected surgical specimens, which are indispensable for molecular analysis and biomarker evaluation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of different surgical procedures on RNA quality and genome-wide expression signature. RNA integrity number (RIN) values were compared between total RNA samples extracted from consecutive LRP (n=11) and ORP (n=24) prostate specimens. Expression profiling was performed using the Agilent human whole-genome expression microarrays. Expression differences by surgical type were analyzed by Volcano plot analysis and gene ontology analysis. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used for expression validation in an independent set of LRP (n=8) and ORP (n=8) samples. The LRP procedure did not compromise RNA integrity. Differential gene expression by surgery types was limited to a small subset of genes, the number of which was smaller than that expected by chance. Unexpectedly, this small subset of differentially expressed genes was enriched for those encoding transcription factors, oxygen transporters and other previously reported surgery-induced stress-response genes, and demonstrated unidirectional reduction in LRP specimens in comparison to ORP specimens. The effect of the LRP procedure on RNA quality and genome-wide transcript levels is negligible, supporting the suitability of LRP surgical specimens for routine molecular analysis. Blunted in vivo stress response in LRP specimens, likely mediated by CO(2) insufflation but not by longer ischemia time, is manifested in the reduced expression of stress-response genes in these specimens.

  16. Osteoblast-Prostate Cancer Cell Interaction in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Navone, Nora

    2001-01-01

    .... This suggests that prostate cancer cells interact with cells from the osteoblastic lineage. To understand the molecular bases of prostatic bone metastases, we established two prostate cancer cell lines, MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b (1...

  17. Obesity and prostate enlargement in men with localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Ryan P; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Freedland, Stephen J; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Obesity is associated with prostate enlargement in men without prostate cancer. This study demonstrates an association between obesity and prostate enlargement in men with prostate cancer, and leads to possible implications for prostate cancer screening and diagnosis. • To determine if obesity is associated with prostate size in men with prostate cancer. • We examined preoperative body mass index (BMI) and whole prostate weight in a cohort of 16,325 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer from 1975 to 2008 at a single institution. • We used multivariable regression modelling adjusting for age, year of surgery, preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), pathological stage and Gleason grade. • Of the entire cohort, 13,343 (82%) patients had a prostate weight of at least 40 g. These men were older (P men with BMI men with a BMI ≥35 kg/m(2) had a 40% (odds ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.01-1.95) increased risk of prostate weight of at least 40 g and a 70% (odds ratio 1.70, 95% CI 1.32-2.20) increased risk of prostate weight of at least 50 g. • In men with localized prostate cancer, obesity is associated with an increased risk of prostate enlargement. • These data validate other observations linking obesity with prostate enlargement and may have important ramifications for prostate cancer diagnosis in obese men. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  18. Immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F Slovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer remains a challenge as a target for immunological approaches. The approval of the first cell-based immune therapy, Sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer introduced prostate cancer as a solid tumor with the potential to be influenced by the immune system. Methods: We reviewed articles on immunological management of prostate cancer and challenges that lie ahead for such strategies. Results: Treatments have focused on the identification of novel cell surface antigens thought to be unique to prostate cancer. These include vaccines against carbohydrate and blood group antigens, xenogeneic and naked DNA vaccines, and pox viruses used as prime-boost or checkpoint inhibitors. No single vaccine construct to date has resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect. The checkpoint inhibitor, anti-CTLA-4 has resulted in several long-term remissions, but phase III trials have not demonstrated an antitumor effect or survival benefit. Conclusions: Multiple clinical trials suggest that prostate cancer may not be optimally treated by single agent immune therapies and that combination with biologic agents, chemotherapies, or radiation may offer some enhancement of benefit.

  19. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0168 TITLE: Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jackilen...Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0168 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...overexpression, lipid accumulation, lipid oxidation, and tumor aggressiveness will be explored using metabolomics. Plan: Employing a cross-sectional

  20. Predicting prostate cancer risk through incorporation of prostate cancer gene 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankerst, Donna Pauler; Groskopf, Jack; Day, John R; Blase, Amy; Rittenhouse, Harry; Pollock, Brad H; Tangen, Cathy; Parekh, Dipen; Leach, Robin J; Thompson, Ian

    2008-10-01

    The online Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator combines prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination, family and biopsy history, age and race to determine the risk of prostate cancer. In this report we incorporate the biomarker prostate cancer gene 3 into the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator. Methodology was developed to incorporate new markers for prostate cancer into the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator based on likelihood ratios calculated from separate case control or cohort studies. The methodology was applied to incorporate the marker prostate cancer gene 3 into the risk calculator based on a cohort of 521 men who underwent prostate biopsy with measurements of urinary prostate cancer gene 3, serum prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination and biopsy history. External validation of the updated risk calculator was performed on a cohort of 443 European patients, and compared to Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risks, prostate specific antigen and prostate cancer gene 3 by area underneath the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity and specificity. The AUC of posterior risks (AUC 0.696, 95% CI 0.641-0.750) was higher than that of prostate specific antigen (AUC 0.607, 95% CI 0.546-0.668, p = 0.001) and Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risks (AUC 0.653, 95% CI 0.593-0.714, p 0.05). Sensitivities of posterior risks were higher than those of prostate cancer gene 3, prostate specific antigen and Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risks. New markers for prostate cancer can be incorporated into the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator by a novel approach. Incorporation of prostate cancer gene 3 improved the diagnostic accuracy of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator.

  1. Perceived causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Oort, van I.M.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate self-reported causes of prostate cancer among prostate cancer survivors in the Netherlands to obtain insight into the common beliefs and perceptions of risk factors for prostate cancer. Materials and methods A total of 956 prostate cancer survivors,

  2. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen-Nielsen M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mary Nguyen-Nielsen,1,2 Søren Høyer,3 Søren Friis,4 Steinbjørn Hansen,5 Klaus Brasso,6 Erik Breth Jakobsen,7 Mette Moe,8 Heidi Larsson,9 Mette Søgaard,9 Anne Nakano,9,10 Michael Borre1 1Department of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, 3Department of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, 5Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 6Copenhagen Prostate Cancer Center and Department of Urology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 7Department of Urology, Næstved Hospital, Næstved, 8Department of Oncology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, 9Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, 10Competence Centre for Health Quality and Informatics (KCKS-Vest, Aarhus, Denmark Aim of database: The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. Study population: All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. Main variables: The DAPROCAdata registers clinical data and selected characteristics for patients with prostate cancer at diagnosis. Data are collected from the linkage of nationwide health registries and supplemented with online registration of key clinical variables by treating physicians at urological and oncological departments. Main variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine

  3. Multiple primary cancers: Simultaneously occurring prostate cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We also reviewed the existing literatures for possible biologic links between prostatic carcinoma and other primary tumors. ... The primary tumors co-existing with prostate cancer were colonic adenocarcinoma, rectal adenocarcinoma, urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, primary liver cell carcinoma, and thyroid ...

  4. Contemporary surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ricardo Luís Vita; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel; Constantin, Davi Souza

    2017-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition in adult men and its incidence increases progressively with aging. It has an important impact on the individual's physical and mental health and its natural progression can lead to serious pathological situations. Although the initial treatment is pharmacological, except in specific situations, the tendency of disease progression causes a considerable portion of the patients to require surgical treatment. In this case, there are several options available today in the therapeutic armamentarium. Among the options, established techniques, such as open surgery and endoscopic resection using monopolar energy, still prevail in the choice of surgeons because they are more accessible, both from a socioeconomic standpoint in the vast majority of medical services and in terms of training of medical teams. On the other hand, new techniques and technologies arise sequentially in order to minimize aggression, surgical time, recovery and complications, optimizing results related to the efficacy/safety dyad. Each of these techniques has its own peculiarities regarding availability due to cost, learning curve and scientific consolidation in order to achieve recognition as a cutting-edge method in the medical field. The use of bipolar energy in endoscopic resection of the prostate, laser vaporization and enucleation techniques, and videolaparoscopy are examples of new options that have successfully traced this path. Robot-assisted surgery has gained a lot of space in the last decade, but it still needs to dodge the trade barrier. Other techniques and technologies will need to pass the test of time to be able to conquer their space in this growing market.

  5. Prostate Cancer Gene Discovery Using ROMA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isaacs, William B

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that a subset of men who develop prostate cancer (PCa) do so as a result of an inherited chromosomal deletion or amplification affecting the function of one or more critical prostate cancer susceptibility genes...

  6. Role of Obesity in Prostate Cancer Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleary, Margot P

    2008-01-01

    .... Also, mortality from prostate cancer is increased with elevated body weights and obesity recently was reported to be associated with higher prostate cancer grade at diagnosis and with higher recurrence rates...

  7. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Tests, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Tests, and Treatment Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Linkedin Pin it Email Print Risk factors for prostate cancer include family history, age and race; but new ...

  8. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen...... therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological...... studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH...

  9. Prostate-specific antigen density: correlation with histological diagnosis of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, M. P.; Witjes, W. P.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Oosterhof, G. O.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the additional value of prostate-specific antigen density in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients who undergo prostate biopsies. The study comprised 376 patients with symptoms of prostatism who were undergoing prostate biopsy. Digital rectal examination (DRE) and transrectal

  10. The prostate health index selectively identifies clinically significant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Sanda, Martin G; Broyles, Dennis L; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Bangma, Chris H; Wei, John T; Partin, Alan W; Klee, George G; Slawin, Kevin M; Marks, Leonard S; van Schaik, Ron H N; Chan, Daniel W; Sokoll, Lori J; Cruz, Amabelle B; Mizrahi, Isaac A; Catalona, William J

    2015-04-01

    The Prostate Health Index (phi) is a new test combining total, free and [-2]proPSA into a single score. It was recently approved by the FDA and is now commercially available in the U.S., Europe and Australia. We investigate whether phi improves specificity for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer and can help reduce prostate cancer over diagnosis. From a multicenter prospective trial we identified 658 men age 50 years or older with prostate specific antigen 4 to 10 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination who underwent prostate biopsy. In this population we compared the performance of prostate specific antigen, % free prostate specific antigen, [-2]proPSA and phi to predict biopsy results and, specifically, the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer using multiple criteria. The Prostate Health Index was significantly higher in men with Gleason 7 or greater and "Epstein significant" cancer. On receiver operating characteristic analysis phi had the highest AUC for overall prostate cancer (AUCs phi 0.708, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.648, [-2]proPSA 0.550 and prostate specific antigen 0.516), Gleason 7 or greater (AUCs phi 0.707, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.661, [-2]proPSA 0.558, prostate specific antigen 0.551) and significant prostate cancer (AUCs phi 0.698, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.654, [-2]proPSA 0.550, prostate specific antigen 0.549). At the 90% sensitivity cut point for phi (a score less than 28.6) 30.1% of patients could have been spared an unnecessary biopsy for benign disease or insignificant prostate cancer compared to 21.7% using percent free prostate specific antigen. The new phi test outperforms its individual components of total, free and [-2]proPSA for the identification of clinically significant prostate cancer. Phi may be useful as part of a multivariable approach to reduce prostate biopsies and over diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research

  11. Prostate cancer may trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Zakharia, Elias Raja; Boysen, Anders Kindberg

    2012-01-01

    -Hu antibody test the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to prostate cancer. The patient died within 6 months. We review the literature on prostate cancer-related paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. High-risk prostate cancer can trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis...

  12. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, where the mortality rate of prostate cancer is lower than in Western countries, radical prostatectomy or hormonal therapy has been applied more frequently than radiation therapy. However, the number of patients with prostate cancer has been increasing recently and the importance of radiation therapy has rapidly been recognized. Although there have been no randomized trials, results from several institutions in Western countries suggest that similar results of cancer control are achieved with either radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. For higher-risk cases, conformal high-dose therapy or adjuvant hormonal therapy is more appropriate. In this article, the results of radiation therapy for prostate cancer were reviewed, with a view to the appropriate choice of therapy in Japan. (author)

  13. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  14. Prostate Cancer Ambassadors: Process and Outcomes of a Prostate Cancer Informed Decision-Making Training Program

    OpenAIRE

    Vines, Anissa I.; Hunter, Jaimie C.; Carlisle, Veronica A.; Richmond, Alan N.

    2016-01-01

    African American men bear a higher burden of prostate cancer than Caucasian men, but knowledge about how to make an informed decision about prostate cancer screening is limited. A lay health advisor model was used to train “Prostate Cancer Ambassadors” on prostate cancer risk and symptoms, how to make an informed decision for prostate-specific antigen screening, and how to deliver the information to members of their community. Training consisted of two, 6-hour interactive sessions and was imp...

  15. Prostatic Artery Embolization as an Alternative to Indwelling Bladder Catheterization to Manage Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Poor Surgical Candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampoldi, Antonio; Barbosa, Fabiane, E-mail: fabiane001@hotmail.com [Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Department of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Secco, Silvia [Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Department of Urology (Italy); Migliorisi, Carmelo [Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Department of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Galfano, Antonio; Prestini, Giovanni [Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Department of Urology (Italy); Harward, Sardis Honoria [Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice (United States); Trapani, Dario Di [Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Department of Urology (Italy); Brambillasca, Pietro Maria; Ruggero, Vercelli; Solcia, Marco [Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Department of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Carnevale, Francisco Cesar [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Department of Interventional Radiology (Brazil); Bocciardi, Aldo Massimo [Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Department of Urology (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    PurposeTo prospectively assess discontinuation of indwelling bladder catheterization (IBC) and relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) following prostate artery embolization (PAE) in poor surgical candidates.MethodsPatients ineligible for surgical intervention were offered PAE after at least 1 month of IBC for management of urinary retention secondary to BPH; exclusion criteria for PAE included eligibility for surgery, active bladder cancer or known prostate cancer. Embolization technical and clinical success were defined as bilateral prostate embolization and removal of IBC, respectively. Patients were followed for at least 6 months and evaluated for International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life, prostate size and uroflowmetric parameters.ResultsA total of 43 patients were enrolled; bilateral embolization was performed in 33 (76.7%), unilateral embolization was performed in 8 (18.6%), and two patients could not be embolized due to tortuous and atherosclerotic pelvic vasculature (4.7%). Among the patients who were embolized, mean prostate size decreased from 75.6 ± 33.2 to 63.0 ± 23.2 g (sign rank p = 0.0001, mean reduction of 19.6 ± 17.3%), and IBC removal was achieved in 33 patients (80.5%). Clavien II complications were reported in nine patients (21.9%) and included urinary tract infection (three patients, 7.3%) and recurrent acute urinary retention (six patients, 14.6%). Nine patients (22.0%) experienced post-embolization syndrome.ConclusionsPAE is a safe and feasible for the relief of LUTS and IBC in highly comorbid patients without surgical treatment options.

  16. Gene therapy for prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tangney, Mark

    2012-01-31

    Cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in understanding, detection, and treatment, it accounts for almost one-fourth of all deaths per year in Western countries. Prostate cancer is currently the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer in men in Europe and the United States, accounting for 15% of all cancers in men. As life expectancy of individuals increases, it is expected that there will also be an increase in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer may be inoperable at initial presentation, unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or recur following appropriate treatment. At the time of presentation, patients may already have metastases in their tissues. Preventing tumor recurrence requires systemic therapy; however, current modalities are limited by toxicity or lack of efficacy. For patients with such metastatic cancers, the development of alternative therapies is essential. Gene therapy is a realistic prospect for the treatment of prostate and other cancers, and involves the delivery of genetic information to the patient to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. Therapeutics can act directly (eg, by inducing tumor cells to produce cytotoxic agents) or indirectly by upregulating the immune system to efficiently target tumor cells or by destroying the tumor\\'s vasculature. However, technological difficulties must be addressed before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved (primarily by developing a means of delivering genes to the target cells or tissue safely and efficiently). A wealth of research has been carried out over the past 20 years, involving various strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer at preclinical and clinical trial levels. The therapeutic efficacy observed with many of these approaches in patients indicates that these treatment modalities will serve as an important component of urological malignancy treatment in the clinic, either in isolation or

  17. Prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis: differential diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lima Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a very rare condition; however, it may express as a typical benign prostatic hyperplasia or a simulating prostatic adenocarcinoma. This case report presents PCM mimicking prostatic adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this paper is to call the general physician's attention to this important differential diagnosis.

  18. Integrin Inhibitors in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Maylein C. Juan-Rivera; Magaly Martínez-Ferrer

    2018-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third highest cause of cancer-related deaths in men in the U.S. The development of chemotherapeutic agents that can bind PCa tumor cells with high specificity is critical in order to increase treatment effectiveness. Integrin receptors and their corresponding ligands have different expression patterns in PCa cells. They have been identified as promising targets to inhibit pathways involved in PCa progression. Currently, sev...

  19. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    2010). Therapeutic Potential of Curcumin : Inhibition of MIC-1/GDF-15 Expression in Prostate Cancer Cells Exposed to Heavy Metal Carcinogen. UNMC...to monitor "What effect do Curcumin , NiCl2, and CoCl2 has on PC3M, LnCap, RWPE1, and PC3 cell lines." She plans on using the knowledge gained during...of Curcumin : Inhibition of MIC-1/GDF-15 Expression in Prostate Cancer Cells Exposed to Heavy Metal Carcinogen Brittany T. Jones, Poomy Pandey

  20. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M. [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia); University of New South Wales, Kensington Campus, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersen, Desiree C., E-mail: dpetersen@ccia.unsw.edu.au [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia)

    2010-06-08

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk.

  1. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M.; Petersen, Desiree C.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk

  2. Regulating Cancer Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT There is an urgent need to develop both new approaches to the treatment of prostate cancer. Analysis of human prostate...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0512 TITLE: Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew...CONTRACT NUMBER Regulating Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Biology in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0512 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  3. BPH and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Catto, James

    2014-04-01

    With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healthy debate amongst the urological community. Here, we try to address this conundrum with clinical and basic science evidence. Data from an online search and contemporary data presented at international urological congresses was reviewed. BPH and PCa can be linked together at a molecular and cellular level on genetic, hormonal, and inflammatory platforms suggesting that these prostatic diseases have common pathophysiological driving factors. Epidemiological studies are weighted towards the presence of BPH having a greater risk for a man to develop PCa in his lifetime; however, a conclusion of causality cannot be confidently stated. The future workload healthcare practitioners will face regarding BPH, and PCa will substantially increase. Further basic science and large epidemiological studies using a global cohort of men are required prior to the urological community confidently counseling their patients with BPH with regards to their PCa risk.

  4. REVIEW ARTICLE: PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    ABSTRACT. Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with ...

  5. Improving Screening Strategies for Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wolters (Tineke)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTh is thesis describes research on screening for prostate cancer. To improve understanding of the thesis, some background information will be provided in this introduction. First, a short description of the prostate and of prostate cancer will be given in Chapter 1, followed by

  6. Treating Localized Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the future can talk with their doctor about "banking" their sperm before surgery to remove the prostate ... 1-800-358-9295 or place your order online on the AHRQ Publications Clearinghouse Web page. When ...

  7. Learning about Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov] There are companies that will soon be marketing and selling genetic tests that will predict a ... enzyme made by the prostate gland, and a digital rectal examination (DRE) are two tests that are ...

  8. Prostate Cancer Foundation News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and getting big traps, six-pack abs and “gun show” biceps, your prostate would like to disagree. ... Guides Receive PCF news in your inbox Spam Control Text: Please leave this field empty EIN #95- ...

  9. Characteristics of prostate cancers detected at prostate specific antigen levels less than 2.5 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Joshua J; Loeb, Stacy; Helfand, Brian T; Kan, Donghui; Smith, Norm D; Catalona, William J

    2009-06-01

    The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial reported that 15% of men with a prostate specific antigen less than 4 ng/ml and a normal digital rectal examination have biopsy detectable prostate cancer. However, limited published data describe the tumor features of prostate cancer detected at low prostate specific antigen levels (less than 2.5 ng/ml). A total of 1,278 men underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy by 1 surgeon between 2003 and 2008. We describe the clinicopathological features of 77 patients with a preoperative prostate specific antigen of less than 2.5 ng/ml. Of the men with a low prostate specific antigen (less than 2.5 ng/ml) tumor 51 (66%) had findings suspicious for prostate cancer on digital rectal examination. Indications for prostate biopsy in the remainder of men included an increased prostate specific antigen velocity, hematospermia and abnormal transrectal ultrasound findings. Prostate cancer was detected at transurethral resection of the prostate in the remaining 8% of men. Despite having a low prostate specific antigen at diagnosis 8 (10.4%) and 20 (26%) men, respectively, had biopsy and radical retropubic prostatectomy Gleason grade 7 disease or greater, while 7 (9%) and 6 (7.8%), respectively, had extracapsular tumor extension or positive surgical margins. Compared to men with a normal digital rectal examination mean tumor volume was significantly higher in those with a suspicious digital rectal examination (3.3 vs 1.7 cc, p = 0.018). Despite having a prostate specific antigen of less than 2.5 ng/ml at diagnosis, a considerable proportion of men had aggressive pathological features at radical retropubic prostatectomy. Digital rectal examination remains an important component of early prostate cancer detection.

  10. Screening spectroscopy of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolenko, S. B.; Voloshynskyy, D. I.; Fedoruk, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the state of prostate cancer and choosing the best personal treatment. The objects of study were selected venous blood plasma of patient with prostate cancer, histological sections of rat prostate gland in the postoperative period. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5-25 microns) dry residue of plasma by spectral diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of prostate cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and characteristics of prostate cancer among participants of a communitybased screening in Nigeria using serum prostate specific antigen and digital rectal examination. SO Ikuerowo, OA Omisanjo, MJ Bioku, MO Ajala, VPN Mordi, JO Esho ...

  12. Dietary Phytoestrogens and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurzer, Mindy S; Slaton, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer...

  13. Prostate cancer and inflammation: the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfanos, Karen S; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is now known to contribute to several forms of human cancer, with an estimated 20% of adult cancers attributable to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents, chronic noninfectious inflammatory diseases and / or other environmental factors. Indeed, chronic inflammation is now regarded as an ‘enabling characteristic’ of human cancer. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for a role for chronic inflammation in prostate cancer aetiology, with a specific focus on recent advances regarding the following: (i) potential stimuli for prostatic inflammation; (ii) prostate cancer immunobiology; (iii) inflammatory pathways and cytokines in prostate cancer risk and development; (iv) proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) as a risk factor lesion to prostate cancer development; and (v) the role of nutritional or other antiinflammatory compounds in reducing prostate cancer risk. PMID:22212087

  14. Treatment Choices for Men with Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  15. Ultrasonography and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Shcherbyina, O.V.; Yatsik, V.Yi.; Gladka, L.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the work is analysis of diagnostic possibilities of transrectal ultrasonography and PSA in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. 142 patients have been investigated by transrectal ultrasonography. he transrectal ultrasonography and PSA are sensible tests in diagnosis of prostate cancer and in differential diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

  16. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Khan then phoned Dr. Lin regarding the conclusion of meeting with students’ evaluation and expressed students’ positive attitude toward research...nitrocellulose membrane, membranes were blocked with 5% non-fat milk Novel Imidazopyridines in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer PLOS ONE | DOI

  17. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  18. Molecular Characterization of Indolent Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    prostate-specific antigen ( PSA ) test, and treated aggressively following diagnosis, leading to the contemporary problem of prostate cancer over-diagnosis... PSA ᝺ng/m; Gleason score <=6; and no more than 2 cores containing cancer, and <=50% of core involved with cancer; PSA density ɘ.15ng/ml/g). A...Applications: Title: Reducing Prostate Cancer Overdiagnosis and Overtreatment (NIH P01, PI : Pienta) Supporting Agency: NIH/NCI Performance Period

  19. Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron A. Wade; Natasha Kyprianou

    2018-01-01

    The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival ...

  20. Surgical therapy for benign prostatic hypertrophy/bladder outflow obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikesh Thiruchelvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP with endoscopic electrocautery remains the gold standard surgical technique for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH by which all new procedures are compared. We reviewed the current literature, and international urological guidelines and consensus opinion on various surgical options for BPH and present a brief overview of alternative techniques including bipolar TURP, transurethral incision of the prostate, transurethral vaporization of the prostate, laser prostatectomy (with holmium, thulium and potassium titanyl phosphate greenlight lasers and open prostatectomy (with mention of new techniques including laparoscopic and robotic prostatectomy. Emerging, experimental and less established techniques are also described including endoscopic heat generation (transurethral microwave thermotherapy, radiofrequency transurethral needle ablation of the prostate, high intensity focused ultrasound, hot water induced thermotherapy, pulsed electromagnetic radiofrequency, injection therapy (transurethral ethanol ablation and botulinum toxin and mechanical devices (intraprostatic stents and urethral lift devices. Despite a plethora of surgical options, none have realistically improved outcomes in the long-term compared with TURP. Improvements have been made on improving surgical morbidity and time in hospital. Questions remain in this area, including what specific elements of bladder outflow obstruction (BOO result in damage to the urinary tract, how does BPH contribute to BOO and how much prostate volume reduction is necessary to relieve BOO or lower urinary tract symptoms. Given these unanswered questions and the multitude of procedures available, it is clear that appropriate counselling is necessary in all men who undergo BPH surgery.

  1. Surgical therapy for benign prostatic hypertrophy/bladder outflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruchelvam, Nikesh

    2014-04-01

    Monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with endoscopic electrocautery remains the gold standard surgical technique for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) by which all new procedures are compared. We reviewed the current literature, and international urological guidelines and consensus opinion on various surgical options for BPH and present a brief overview of alternative techniques including bipolar TURP, transurethral incision of the prostate, transurethral vaporization of the prostate, laser prostatectomy (with holmium, thulium and potassium titanyl phosphate greenlight lasers) and open prostatectomy (with mention of new techniques including laparoscopic and robotic prostatectomy). Emerging, experimental and less established techniques are also described including endoscopic heat generation (transurethral microwave thermotherapy, radiofrequency transurethral needle ablation of the prostate, high intensity focused ultrasound, hot water induced thermotherapy, pulsed electromagnetic radiofrequency), injection therapy (transurethral ethanol ablation and botulinum toxin) and mechanical devices (intraprostatic stents and urethral lift devices). Despite a plethora of surgical options, none have realistically improved outcomes in the long-term compared with TURP. Improvements have been made on improving surgical morbidity and time in hospital. Questions remain in this area, including what specific elements of bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) result in damage to the urinary tract, how does BPH contribute to BOO and how much prostate volume reduction is necessary to relieve BOO or lower urinary tract symptoms. Given these unanswered questions and the multitude of procedures available, it is clear that appropriate counselling is necessary in all men who undergo BPH surgery.

  2. Pancreatic Metastasis from Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreas is an unusual location for metastases from other primary cancers. Rarely, pancreatic metastases from kidney or colorectal cancers have been reported. However, a variety of other cancers may also spread to the pancreas. We report an exceptional case of pancreatic metastasis from prostate cancer. Differences in management between primary and secondary pancreatic tumors make recognition of metastases to the pancreas an objective of first importance. Knowledge of unusual locations for metastatic spread will reduce diagnostic delay and lead to a timely delivery of an appropriate treatment.

  3. Prostate Cancer Screening: Should You Get a PSA Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staff Cancer screening tests — including the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to look for signs of prostate cancer — ... to the person undergoing the testing. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by both cancerous (malignant) ...

  4. Can microfocal prostate cancer be regarded as low-risk prostate cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Lee

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: Based on higher rates of Gleason score upgrading or stage upgrading cases in microfocal prostate cancer group, compared with nonmicrofocal prostate cancer group, active surveillance should be cautiously applied to these patients.

  5. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy mimicking prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Białek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis is a widely used therapeutic option in patients with non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A rare complication of intravesical therapy with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is granulomatous prostatitis, which due to increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen and abnormalities found in transrectal examination of the prostate may suggest concomitant prostate cancer. A case of extensive granulomatous prostatitis in a 61-year-old patient which occurred after the first course of a well-tolerated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy is presented. Due to abnormalities found in rectal examination and an abnormal transrectal ultrasound image of the prostate with extensive infiltration mimicking neoplastic hyperplasia a core biopsy of the prostate was performed. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory infiltration sites of tuberculosis origin.

  6. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Archana, E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org; Vaishampayan, Ulka [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Lum, Lawrence G., E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-05-24

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies.

  7. Role of transurethral resection of the prostate in the management of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szollosi Attila

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in men, after lung cancer. The gold standard procedure in prostate cancer (PCa diagnosis is the ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP used in solving the bladder outlet obstruction, can have a role in detection of PCa. The aim of this retrospective study is to examine the role of transurethral resection of the prostate in the diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer.

  8. Clinical survey of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Hatano, Koji; Satoh, Mototaka; Tsujimoto, Yuichi; Honda, Masahito; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Fujioka, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    Treatment trends and outcomes for prostate cancer in our hospital were reported. A total of 482 patients with prostate cancer treated in our hospital between January, 1990 and December, 2004. The age distribution was from 51 to 99 years-old, with the mean age of 72.9 years-old at onset. The number of prostate cancer patients, especially asymptomatic patients with prostatic specific antigen (PSA) elevation, have increased recently. As for the clinical stage, 92 cases (19.1%), 238 cases (49.4%), 48 cases (10.0%) and 104 cases (21.6%) were stage A, B, C and D, respectively. 425 cases (88.2%) received some form of endocrine therapy. Retropubic prostatectomy or external beam radiation therapy was performed in 77 and 57 cases, respectively all cases. The cause-specific 5-year survival rate of the 482 cases was 79.7%, comprising 100% for stage A1, 96.8% for stage A2, 89.4% for stage B, 79.9% for stage C and 42.9% for stage D. The cause-specific 5-year survival was significantly better in the latter patients (1997-2004) than the former patients (1990-1996) in stage C (p=0.0226), D (p=0.0448). In stage C patients, the retropubic prostatectomy (with endocrine therapy) group, increased in the latter period and showed longer cause-specific 5-year survival than the endocrine therapy group (p=0.0027). In stage D2 patients, chemo-endocrine therapy with etoposide (VP-16), adriamycin (ADM) and cisplatin (CDDP) refractory and cause-specific 5-year survival was longer than endocrine therapy alone (p=0.0467, P=0.0381). Our results suggest that retropubic prostatectomy with endocrine therapy and chemo-endocrine therapy are useful for stage C and D prostate cancer patients, respectively. (author)

  9. Risk of biochemical recurrence and timing of radiotherapy in pT3a N0 prostate cancer with positive surgical margin. A single center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegemann, Nina-Sophie; Morcinek, Sebastian; Corradini, Stefanie; Li, Minglun; Belka, Claus; Ganswindt, Ute; Buchner, Alexander; Karl, Alexander; Stief, Christian; Knuechel, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Despite improved biochemical recurrence-free survival rates by the use of immediate adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, disagreement about the need and timing of RT remains. From 2005-2009, 94 patients presenting with a stage pT3a N0 and microscopic positive resection margin were retrospectively analyzed after radical prostatectomy. Special attention was given to patients' outcome, the frequency of additive RT, and its efficacy. Median follow-up was 80 months. A total of 71 patients had a negative postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (<0.07 ng/ml). Thirty-six of them did not experience any PSA relapse (subgroup 1). Fourteen of them received additive RT and during follow-up all 36 patients remained PSA negative. Of 71 initially PSA-negative patients, 35 had a biochemical relapse (subgroup 2); 28 patients underwent salvage RT. The median PSA value before salvage RT was 0.24 ng/ml and was subsequently negative (<0.07 ng/ml) in 23 patients after RT. Of the entire cohort, 23 patients had persisting PSA after surgery (subgroup 3). Of these, 18 patients received salvage RT at a median PSA level of 0.4 ng/ml. One patient in subgroup 1, 5 patients in subgroup 2, and 9 patients in subgroup 3 had ongoing androgen deprivation therapy. The present study of 94 pT3a N0 R1 prostate cancer patients provides insight into medical care of this patient cohort and underlines the need for additive RT for the majority of patients to achieve long-term biochemical control. Although immediate adjuvant RT was applied with restraint (20 %), during the observation period 60 of 94 patients (63.8 %) received RT - highlighting the need of postoperative treatment. (orig.) [de

  10. Prioritizing genes associated with prostate cancer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlov, Ivan P; Logothetis, Christopher J; Sircar, Kanishka; Zhao, Hongya; Maity, Sankar N; Navone, Nora M; Gorlova, Olga Y; Troncoso, Patricia; Pettaway, Curtis A; Byun, Jin Young

    2010-01-01

    The genetic control of prostate cancer development is poorly understood. Large numbers of gene-expression datasets on different aspects of prostate tumorigenesis are available. We used these data to identify and prioritize candidate genes associated with the development of prostate cancer and bone metastases. Our working hypothesis was that combining meta-analyses on different but overlapping steps of prostate tumorigenesis will improve identification of genes associated with prostate cancer development. A Z score-based meta-analysis of gene-expression data was used to identify candidate genes associated with prostate cancer development. To put together different datasets, we conducted a meta-analysis on 3 levels that follow the natural history of prostate cancer development. For experimental verification of candidates, we used in silico validation as well as in-house gene-expression data. Genes with experimental evidence of an association with prostate cancer development were overrepresented among our top candidates. The meta-analysis also identified a considerable number of novel candidate genes with no published evidence of a role in prostate cancer development. Functional annotation identified cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, and cell motility as the top functions associated with prostate cancer development. We identified 10 genes--CDC2, CCNA2, IGF1, EGR1, SRF, CTGF, CCL2, CAV1, SMAD4, and AURKA--that form hubs of the interaction network and therefore are likely to be primary drivers of prostate cancer development. By using this large 3-level meta-analysis of the gene-expression data to identify candidate genes associated with prostate cancer development, we have generated a list of candidate genes that may be a useful resource for researchers studying the molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer development

  11. RET Signaling in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Kechen; Feng, Shu; Shao, Longjiang; Ittmann, Michael

    2017-08-15

    Purpose: Large diameter perineural prostate cancer is associated with poor outcomes. GDNF, with its coreceptor GFRα1, binds RET and activates downstream pro-oncogenic signaling. Because both GDNF and GFRα1 are secreted by nerves, we examined the role of RET signaling in prostate cancer. Experimental Design: Expression of RET, GDNF, and/or GFRα1 was assessed. The impact of RET signaling on proliferation, invasion and soft agar colony formation, perineural invasion, and growth in vivo was determined. Cellular signaling downstream of RET was examined by Western blotting. Results: RET is expressed in all prostate cancer cell lines. GFRα1 is only expressed in 22Rv1 cells, which is the only line that responds to exogenous GDNF. In contrast, all cell lines respond to GDNF plus GFRα1. Conditioned medium from dorsal root ganglia contains secreted GFRα1 and promotes transformation-related phenotypes, which can be blocked by anti-GFRα1 antibody. Perineural invasion in the dorsal root ganglion assay is inhibited by anti-GFRα antibody and RET knockdown. In vivo , knockdown of RET inhibits tumor growth. RET signaling activates ERK or AKT signaling depending on context, but phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase is markedly increased in all cases. Knockdown of p70S6 kinase markedly decreases RET induced transformed phenotypes. Finally, RET is expressed in 18% of adenocarcinomas and all three small-cell carcinomas examined. Conclusions: RET promotes transformation associated phenotypes, including perineural invasion in prostate cancer via activation of p70S6 kinase. GFRα1, which is secreted by nerves, is a limiting factor for RET signaling, creating a perineural niche where RET signaling can occur. Clin Cancer Res; 23(16); 4885-96. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated

  13. Targeting Prostate Cancer with Multifunctional Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    claudin-3 and claudin-4 are expressed in subsets of aggressive prostate cancer. Finally, we produced our first two batches of nanoparticles during year...1 and we were able to show that these nanoparticles bind to prostate cancer cells. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, superparamagnetic iron oxide...degradable polymer that is approved by the FDA, and is used in the development of our nanoparticle system. Our nanoparticles encapsulate

  14. Interstitially implanted I125 for prostate cancer using transrectal ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenburg, S.; Petersen, J.; Hansen-Peters, I.; Baylinson, W.

    1990-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among men in the United States. Traditional treatments for prostate cancer are prostatectomy, external beam irradiation, and interstitial implantation of Iodine125 (I125) via laparotomy. These treatments are associated with significant morbidity and limitations. Based on experience with I125 interstitial implantation by transrectal ultrasound guidance for early-stage prostate cancer, it seems that this newer method of treatment has greater accuracy of placement and distribution of the isotope and has had few reported complications. The need for a surgical incision has been eliminated. Hospitalization time also has been decreased, creating the need for ambulatory and inpatient nurses to understand the importance of their respective roles in providing coordinated quality care for these patients. Nurses in these departments must have knowledge of the procedure, radiation safety, and common side effects related to the implant

  15. Transrectal ultrasound imaging and prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossen, Tjerk; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most important causes of death from cancer in men. Ultrasound imaging is frequently used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. This paper presents an overview of currently available ultrasound imaging techniques. The underlying principles and methods are discussed

  16. Prostate cancer screening: tests and algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAlthough the concept of early detection of cancer sounds intuitively logical it is not automatically so in the case of prostate cancer despite the fact that the data on incidence and mortality show that it is an important health problem. The fact that prostate cancer is in general a

  17. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  18. Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillessen, S; Omlin, A; Attard, G

    2015-01-01

    The first St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) Expert Panel identified and reviewed the available evidence for the ten most important areas of controversy in advanced prostate cancer (APC) management. The successful registration of several drugs for castration......-resistant prostate cancer and the recent studies of chemo-hormonal therapy in men with castration-naïve prostate cancer have led to considerable uncertainty as to the best treatment choices, sequence of treatment options and appropriate patient selection. Management recommendations based on expert opinion...

  19. Cancer of the prostate - role of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shittu, O.B.

    1999-02-01

    Since 1979 when prostate specific antigen (PSA), found in the cytoplasm of benign and malignant prostatic cells, was first purified, it has attained world wide popularity in prostate cancer detection. It is also a sensitive test for skeletal meta states from carcinoma of the prostate. Prostate cancer has become the number one cancer in men and constitutes 11% of all cancers. Approximately 50% of men over 50 years have symptoms referable to the lower urinary tract. 50% or more of patients at Ibadan present an advanced stage of the disease and are therefore not curable. Thus, lacking the skill to manage advanced manifestations, early detection and screening programs are the best means to reduce mortality due to prostate cancer

  20. The genomic landscape of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvan eBaca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men, with a markedly variable clinical course. Somatic alterations in DNA drive the growth of prostate cancers and may underlie the behavior of aggressive versus indolent tumors. The accelerating application of genomic technologies over the last two decades has identified mutations that drive prostate cancer formation, progression, and therapeutic resistance. Here, we discuss exemplary somatic mutations in prostate cancer, and highlight mutated cellular pathways with biological and possible therapeutic importance. Examples include mutated genes involved in androgen signaling, cell cycle regulation, signal transduction and development. Some genetic alterations may also predict the clinical course of disease or response to therapy, although the molecular heterogeneity of prostate tumors poses challenges to genomic biomarker identification. The widespread application of massively parallel sequencing technology to the analysis of prostate cancer genomes should continue to advance both discovery-oriented and diagnostic avenues.

  1. Toll-like Receptors and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu eZhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men after lung cancer. Immune responses clearly play a critical role in the tumorigenesis and in the efficacy of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in prostate cancer; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a well-known family of pattern recognition receptors that play a key role in host immune system. Recent studies demonstrate that there are links between TLRs and cancer; however, the function and biological importance of TLRs in prostate cancer seems complex. To elucidate the role of TLRs and innate immunity in prostate cancer might provide us with a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this disease. Moreover, utilizing the agonists or antagonists of TLRs might represent a promising new strategy against prostate cancer. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the studies of association between TLR signaling and prostate cancer, TLR polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk, and provide some insights about TLRs as potential targets for prostate cancer immunotherapy.

  2. Surgical Management of a Locally Advanced Symptomatic Recurrence of Penile Sarcoma Secondary to Prostate Brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq S. Hakky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The surgical management of patients with symptomatic metastatic or locally advanced recurrences involving the penis remains poorly characterized. The aim of the present abstract and video is to detail our experience in the surgical management of a specific patient with a locally advanced symptomatic recurrence of penile sarcoma secondary to prostate cancer treated with primary brachytherapy. Materials and Methods A 70 year old male patient initially treated for localized prostate cancer with interstitial brachytherapy at an outside facility developed an unfortunate secondary malignancy consisting of a locally advanced penile sarcoma involving as well the prostate and base of the bladder. Despite our best efforts to control his pain, he developed a very symptomatic local recurrence with a secondary penile abscess and purulent periurethral drainage. At this time, it was felt a surgical resection consisting of a total penectomy, urethrectomy, cystoprostatectomy, and ileal conduit urinary diversion would be the best option for local cancer control in this particular patient. Results The patient underwent the surgical resection without any complications as illustrated in this surgical video, with a jejunal intestinal mass identified at the time of surgery which was resected with a primary bowel anastomosis performed. The patient was discharged from hospital uneventfully with his symptomatic local recurrence being successfully managed and the patient no longer requiring oral narcotics for pain control. The pathological report confirmed a locally advanced sarcoma involving the penile, prostate, and bladder which was resected with negative surgical margins and the jejunal mass was confirmed to represent a small bowel sarcoma metastatic site. Conclusion As highlighted in the present video, the treatment of a symptomatic sarcoma local recurrence contiguously involving the penis can be successfully managed provided the patient is informed of the

  3. [Active surveillance of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploussard, G; Hennequin, C; Rozet, F

    2017-10-01

    Several prospective studies have demonstrated the safety of active surveillance as a first treatment of prostate cancer. It spares many patients of a useless treatment, with its potential sequelae. Patients with a low-risk cancer are all candidates for this approach, as recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). Some patients with an intermediate risk could be also concerned by active surveillance, but this is still being discussed. Currently, the presence of grade 4 lesions on biopsy is a contra-indication. Modalities included a repeated prostate specific antigen test and systematic rebiopsy during the first year after diagnosis. MRI is now proposed to better select patients at inclusion and also during surveillance. No life style changes or drugs are significantly associated with a longer duration of surveillance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. Prostate cancer trends in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Onozawa, Mizuki; Hinotsu, Shiro

    2017-06-01

    Differences in the incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer between East and West are clearly defined, with higher rates in the West and lower rates in the East. Treatment methods are generally selected in accordance with general practice guidelines, but the current reality in Asia is that there is not sufficient clinical data to set Asia-specific guidelines for treatment. This leads to a situation whereby for the large part guidelines based on scientific evidence accumulated in Western countries are followed, but from time to time cases are encountered when such guidelines may not be considered to be the most appropriate for the case at hand. Although there is a relatively large volume of clinical evidence relating to endocrine therapy in Asia, the treatment choices and effects differ to those in the West. These regional differences are thought to be due to various factors, including not only differences in genetic background, but also distinct differences in the living and healthcare environments. If the differences between East and West in terms of trends in prostate cancer could be examined, with positive aspects being adopted and negative aspects being improved, this could also be expected to be of use in developing a better treatment strategy for prostate cancer. The exchanging of information on a broader, global level will enable improvements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. It is in pursuit of this objective that it is important to promote high-quality clinical trials and joint epidemiological studies in Asia and work to accumulate data that are comparable to data available in Western countries.

  5. Adjuvant therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinsky, P.

    2009-01-01

    Outcomes of radical prostatectomy (RP) in high risk prostate cancer are suboptimal. Intensification of local therapy as well as early administration of systemic treatment adjuvant to RP is subject of clinical research. Results of randomised studies are presented. Improvement in overall survival has been reported in adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in pT3 (extracapsular extension and seminal vesicles invasion) or positive resection margin (R1) and in adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in pN+ disease. (author)

  6. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    the research program by each mentor will certainly produce important research findings, aided in part by the summer research of...our "translational" research in the form of clinical trials of our adenovirus vaccine in men with prostate cancer. Important in these trials is the ...epidemiology, and treatment. Living in Iowa City for the Summer Housing and Meals - All students will be housed in the one of the residence halls on the

  7. [Therapeutic innovations in urology for localized prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, L; Créhange, G

    2017-10-01

    The management of localized prostate cancer has been marked over these last years by the importance of Active Surveillance for low risk forms. Indeed, the long follow-up and the quality of the results are now sufficient to offer this option even in relatively young people. However, the question is still under investigation concerning intermediate risk of prostate cancer. Patients' selection and follow-up management are of very high importance. Another major evolution is the robotic assistance for radical prostatectomy. Even if the level of evidence is still low, the global utilization all over the world of robotic assistance is a major fact of these last years mostly explained by the difficulty to correctly perform manual laparoscopic surgical procedure. Lastly, the focal therapy of prostate cancer is a new concept. The development of this approach is authorized by the improvement of the quality of prostate MRI and the accuracy of prostate biopsy. Presently, the focal treatment has to be performed in clinical trials or maybe with the help of national database validated by all the actors concerned by the treatment of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of New Treatments for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, R. S.; Abate-Shen, C.; Hait, W. N.

    2005-02-01

    The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center (GPCC) was established with the goal of eradicating prostate cancer and improving the lives of men at risk for the disease through research, treatment, education and prevention. GPCC was founded in the memory of Dean Gallo, a beloved New Jersey Congressman who died tragically of prostate cancer diagnosed at an advanced stage. GPCC unites a team of outstanding researchers and clinicians who are committed to high-quality basic research, translation of innovative research to the clinic, exceptional patient care, and improving public education and awareness of prostate cancer. GPCC is a center of excellence of The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, which is the only NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in the state. GPCC efforts are now integrated well as part of our Prostate Program at CINJ, in which Dr. Robert DiPaola and Dr. Cory Abate-Shen are co-leaders. The Prostate Program unites 19 investigators from 10 academic departments who have broad and complementary expertise in prostate cancer research. The overall goal and unifying theme is to elucidate basic mechanisms of prostate growth and oncogenesis, with the ultimate goal of promoting new and effective strategies for the eradication of prostate cancer. Members' wide range of research interests collectively optimize the chances of providing new insights into normal prostate biology and unraveling the molecular pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Cell culture and powerful animal models developed by program members recapitulate the various stages of prostate cancer progression, including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma, androgen-independence, invasion and metastases. These models promise to further strengthen an already robust program of investigator-initiated therapeutic clinical trials, including studies adopted by national cooperative groups. Efforts to translate laboratory results into clinical studies of early detection and

  9. Neoadjuvant Systemic Therapy Before Radical Prostatectomy in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Does Not Increase Surgical Morbidity: Contemporary Results Using the Clavien System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen B; Davis, John W; Wang, Xuemei; Achim, Mary F; Zurita-Saavedra, Amado; Matin, Surena F; Pisters, Louis L; Ward, John F; Pettaway, Curtis A; Chapin, Brian F

    2016-04-01

    Multimodality therapies for men with high- and very high-risk prostate cancer, including neoadjuvant systemic therapy followed by subsequent radical prostatectomy (RP) are being increasingly explored despite the lack of adequate morbidity data. We analyzed the data from 215 consecutive patients with high- and very high-risk prostate cancer who were previously untreated or had received neoadjuvant systemic therapy. All patients underwent RP with extended pelvic lymph node dissection from 2006 to 2010 at a single tertiary care academic center. All complications within 90 days of surgery were defined and categorized by a 5-grade and 10-domain modification of the Clavien system. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify preoperative predictors for complications. Of the 215 patients, 29% experienced a complication of any grade ≤ 90 days after surgery; 6% experienced grade ≥ 3, with no significant difference between either cohort (P = .50). On multivariate analysis, open RP (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.90; P = .02) and preoperative hemoglobin (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.05-3.72; P = .03) were independent predictors of the occurrence of any grade complication. For major complications (Clavien ≥ 3), a Charlson comorbidity index of 6 to 7 versus 3 to 5 (OR, 5.45; 95% CI, 1.57-18.98; P = .008) and the most recent year of surgery (OR, 4.73; 95% CI, 1.36-16.39; P = .01) were significant predictors on multivariable analysis. The use of neoadjuvant systemic therapy did not appear to increase the risk of perioperative complications. These findings support current clinical trials, which might elucidate the oncologic benefit of this multimodality approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Shared care in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anette Svarre; Lund, Lars; Jønler, Morten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate 3 year follow-up in patients with stable prostate cancer (PCa) managed in a shared care program by general practitioners (GPs) in collaboration with urological departments. PCa patients who have undergone curative treatment or endocrine therapy...... require long-term follow-up. Until recently, follow-up has primarily been managed by urologists at hospital-based outpatient clinics. However, new organizational strategies are needed to meet the needs of the growing number of elderly, comorbid cancer patients. These new organizational strategies target...

  11. Methylselenium and Prostate Cancer Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    MMAC1/TEP1 involvement in primary prostate cancers. Oncogene, 16, 2879--2883. 22.Feilotter,H.E., Nagai,M.A., Boag,A.H., Eng,C. and Mulligan ,L.M. (1998...bearing phosphatidylinositol ether lipid analogues and carbonate surro- gates block PI3-K, Akt, and cancer cell growth. J. Med. Chem., 43, 3045--3051. 37...incubated at 37jC for 15 minutes. Fluorescence intensity was measured using a Becton Dickinson flow cytometer with excitation at 488 nm and emission at

  12. Genomic rearrangements of PTEN in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheap ePhin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatase and tensin homolog gene on chromosome 10q23.3 (PTEN is a negative regulator of the PIK3/Akt survival pathway and is the most frequently deleted tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer. Monoallelic loss of PTEN is present in up to 60% of localized prostate cancers and complete loss of PTEN in prostate cancer is linked to metastasis and androgen independent progression. Studies on the genomic status of PTEN in prostate cancer initially used a two-color fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH assay for PTEN copy number detection in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue preparations. More recently, a four-color FISH assay containing two additional control probes flanking the PTEN locus with a lower false-positive rate was reported. Combined with the detection of other critical genomic biomarkers for prostate cancer such as ERG, AR, and MYC, the evaluation of PTEN genomic status has proven to be invaluable for patient stratification and management. Although less frequent than allelic deletions, point mutations in the gene and epigenetic silencing are also known to contribute to loss of PTEN function, and ultimately to prostate cancer initiation. Overall, it is clear that PTEN is a powerful biomarker for prostate cancer. Used as a companion diagnostic for emerging therapeutic drugs, FISH analysis of PTEN is promisingly moving human prostate cancer closer to more effective cancer management and therapies.

  13. The Metabolic Phenotype of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Eidelman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men in the United States. Cancer metabolism has emerged as a contemporary topic of great interest for improved mechanistic understanding of tumorigenesis. Prostate cancer is a disease model of great interest from a metabolic perspective. Prostatic tissue exhibits unique metabolic activity under baseline conditions. Benign prostate cells accumulate zinc, and this excess zinc inhibits citrate oxidation and metabolism within the citric acid cycle, effectively resulting in citrate production. Malignant cells, however, actively oxidize citrate and resume more typical citric acid cycle function. Of further interest, prostate cancer does not exhibit the Warburg effect, an increase in glucose uptake, seen in many other cancers. These cellular metabolic differences and others are of clinical interest as they present a variety of potential therapeutic targets. Furthermore, understanding of the metabolic profile differences between benign prostate versus low- and high-grade prostate cancers also represents an avenue to better understand cancer progression and potentially develop new diagnostic testing. In this paper, we review the current state of knowledge on the metabolic phenotypes of prostate cancer.

  14. Vietnam military service history and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Lin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three decades after US and Australian forces withdrew from Vietnam, there has been much public interest in the health consequences of service in Vietnam. One controversial question is whether the risk of prostate cancer amongst Vietnam veterans is increased. This paper examines relationships between military history, family history and risk of prostate cancer in a population-based case control study. Methods Cases were selected from the Cancer Registry of Western Australia as incident cases of histologically-confirmed prostate cancer, and controls were age-matched and selected from the Western Australian electoral roll. Study participants were asked to report any military service history and details about that service. Results Between January 2001 and September 2002, 606 cases and 471 controls aged between 40–75 years were recruited. An increased prostate cancer risk was observed in men reporting they were deployed in Vietnam although this was not statistically significant (OR = 2.12; 95% CI 0.88–5.06. An increased risk was also observed in men reporting prostate cancer in fathers (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.20–3.00 or brothers (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.20–3.50 diagnosed with prostate cancer. Conclusion These findings support a positive association between prostate cancer and military service history in the Vietnam war and a first degree relative family history of prostate cancer.

  15. The Genomic Evolution of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    demonstrates that coincident low and high grade disease are distantly related, indicating that an early parental clone can give rise to both low grade...focus and the metastatic focus and not also shared with the high grade focus. Gray = uninvolved prostate; blue = low grade focus; green = high grade...prostate cancer foci that were laser microdissected. Two cancer foci and uninvolved prostate glands were isolated from PrCa 18 (a), PrCa 14 (b), PrCa

  16. Genetically engineered mouse models of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, Martijn C.; Bergman, Andreas M.; van der Poel, Henk G.

    Objectives: Mouse models of prostate cancer are used to test the contribution of individual genes to the transformation process, evaluate the collaboration between multiple genetic lesions observed in a single tumour, and perform preclinical intervention studies in prostate cancer research. Methods:

  17. Management of Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillessen, Silke; Attard, Gerhardt; Beer, Tomasz M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In advanced prostate cancer (APC), successful drug development as well as advances in imaging and molecular characterisation have resulted in multiple areas where there is lack of evidence or low level of evidence. The Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2017 address...

  18. Role of Mitochondria in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    smoking, obesity, high fat diet and environmental toxins have been associated with both prostate cancer and increased ROS generation [2]. However...significant amounts of ROS when glycerophosphate is supplied as a respiratory substrate [10, 11]. Mitochondrial FAD -dependent...obesity, high fat diet , and environmental toxins have been associated with both prostate cancer and in- creased ROS generation [2]. However

  19. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer ... because of timely detection and treatment of his prostate cancer. He participated in an NIH-sponsored clinical trial. ...

  20. Leptin increases prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Fontana, Constanza M; Maselli, María E; Pérez Elizalde, Rafael F; Di Milta Mónaco, Nicolás A; Uvilla Recupero, Ana L; López Laur, José D

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that adipose tissue and adipocytokines might affect the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Leptin would have a stimulating effect on prostate cancer cells by inducing promotion and progression, whereas adiponectin would have a protective effect. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between body composition, leptin, and adiponectin levels with the prevalence and aggressiveness of PCa in men of Mendoza, Argentina. Seventy volunteers between 50 and 80 years (35 healthy men as control group and 35 with PCa) were selected. The PCa group was subclassified according to the Gleason Score (GS). Digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostatic biopsy were performed; PSA, testosterone, leptin, and adiponectin levels were determined; and a nutritional interview including anthropometric measurements and a food frequency questionnaire was carried out. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test, ANOVA I, and Bonferroni (p Body mass index and percentage of body fat mass were not statistically different between PCa and control groups. However, body fat mass was higher in subjects with more aggressive tumors (p = 0.032). No differences were observed regarding leptin levels between the groups. Nevertheless, leptin levels were higher in subjects with high GS (p consumption and nutrient intake did not differ in the studied groups. In conclusion, body composition and leptin are related to the PCa aggressiveness but not with its prevalence.

  1. FDA Approves Apalutamide for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apalutamide (Erleada) is a hormone therapy that counteracts resistance to androgen deprivation therapy. Learn more about the FDA approval of apalutamide for men with castration-resistant nonmetastatic prostate cancer in this Cancer Currents blog post.

  2. Abiraterone for Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog post on results from two clinical trials that showed adding abiraterone to androgen-deprivation therapy improved survival for men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.

  3. Prostate carcinomas; Cancer de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G

    2005-11-15

    Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)

  4. Nutrition and prostate cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Venita H

    2014-11-01

    There is increasing evidence for a link between nutrition, lifestyle and prostate cancer development. There is also growing interest from patients, with significant numbers of men using complementary and alternative medicines, such as vitamins and types of diet. Obesity and metabolic syndrome are important risk factors for prostate cancer and their management is key. The amount and type of fats consumed are also clearly related to prostate cancer risk. Saturated fats and trans fats are identified as having a negative impact. Nutraceuticals and supplements, particularly antioxidants, polyphenols and soy have evidence for benefit for prevention of prostate cancer and progression of the disease. A selection of nutrients is highlighted in this article. Nutritional therapists advise patients on how to incorporate these beneficial nutrients into their diet and guide them on supplement use. Further research is required to elucidate the connection between diet, nutrients and prostate cancer, including the field of nutrigenetics.

  5. Management of Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillessen, Silke; Attard, Gerhardt; Beer, Tomasz M

    2018-01-01

    some of these topics. OBJECTIVE: To present the report of APCCC 2017. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Ten important areas of controversy in APC management were identified: high-risk localised and locally advanced prostate cancer; "oligometastatic" prostate cancer; castration-naïve and castration......-resistant prostate cancer; the role of imaging in APC; osteoclast-targeted therapy; molecular characterisation of blood and tissue; genetic counselling/testing; side effects of systemic treatment(s); global access to prostate cancer drugs. A panel of 60 international prostate cancer experts developed the program...... literature review or meta-analysis. The outcomes of the voting had varying degrees of support, as reflected in the wording of this article, as well as in the detailed voting results recorded in Supplementary data. CONCLUSIONS: The presented expert voting results can be used for support in areas of management...

  6. Prostate cancer in Denmark. Incidence, morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Iversen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Denmark are reviewed for a 50-year period from 1943 to 1992. The prostate cancer incidence rate nearly tripled and prostate cancer mortality rate increased during this period. Until recently in Denmark the routine management of prostate cancer has...... been by deferred hormonal therapy. Morbidity and mortality associated with prostate cancer are analysed in a group of 1459 patients aged 55-74 years, who were diagnosed as having clinically localized prostate cancer in the 5-year period 1983 to 1987. In this group of patients prostate cancer...

  7. Statistical volumetric model for characterization and visualization of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianping; Srikanchana, Rujirutana; McClain, Maxine A.; Wang, Yue J.; Xuan, Jian Hua; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    2000-04-01

    To reveal the spatial pattern of localized prostate cancer distribution, a 3D statistical volumetric model, showing the probability map of prostate cancer distribution, together with the anatomical structure of the prostate, has been developed from 90 digitally-imaged surgical specimens. Through an enhanced virtual environment with various visualization modes, this master model permits for the first time an accurate characterization and understanding of prostate cancer distribution patterns. The construction of the statistical volumetric model is characterized by mapping all of the individual models onto a generic prostate site model, in which a self-organizing scheme is used to decompose a group of contours representing multifold tumors into localized tumor elements. Next crucial step of creating the master model is the development of an accurate multi- object and non-rigid registration/warping scheme incorporating various variations among these individual moles in true 3D. This is achieved with a multi-object based principle-axis alignment followed by an affine transform, and further fine-tuned by a thin-plate spline interpolation driven by the surface based deformable warping dynamics. Based on the accurately mapped tumor distribution, a standard finite normal mixture is used to model the cancer volumetric distribution statistics, whose parameters are estimated using both the K-means and expectation- maximization algorithms under the information theoretic criteria. Given the desired number of tissue samplings, the prostate needle biopsy site selection is optimized through a probabilistic self-organizing map thus achieving a maximum likelihood of cancer detection. We describe the details of our theory and methodology, and report our pilot results and evaluation of the effectiveness of the algorithm in characterizing prostate cancer distributions and optimizing needle biopsy techniques.

  8. Hormone therapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebelameli P

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Only orchiectomy is still commonly used today either as a single therapy or in combination regimens. Hypophysectomy & adrenalectomy showed such devastating effects on the endocrine equilibrium as to be inconsistent with an acceptable quality of life or even with survival. Chemical adrenalectomy was also tried with drugs (eg. aminoglutethmide, spironolactone leading to consequences superimposable to those of surgical adrenalectomy. Along with orchiectomy, three groups of substances are commonly used today for the hormonal therapy of prostate cancer: estrogens, LHRH agonists & anti androgens. Bilateral orchiectomy removes 90-95% of circulating testosterone. Clinical studies document 60-80% of positive responders to castration, on continued evaluation, relapse occurs usually within 6-24 months in responders, with a death rate of 50% within 6 months. The androgenic activity still remaining after castration may explain the partial & progressively decreasing effectiveness of this & other testosterone reducing therapies. Antiandrogens define substances that act directly at the target site, where interacting with steroid hormone receptors, they impede the binding of androgens. A trend towards the combination of testosterone-reducing & androgen-blocking treatment is developing in modern therapy of prostate cancer. This is due to the complementary characteristics of the two different pharmacological mechanisms that are involved. In this study castration+antiandrogen is compared to castration alone. The results demonstrate a significantly greater percentage of positive objective & subjective responses with antiandrogen than with placebo. In addition survival time was increased in patients treated with castration+antiandrogen than castration+placebo.

  9. Studies of a novel photosensitizer palladium-bacteriopheophorbide (Tookad) for the treatment of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Brun, Pierre-Herve; Wilson, Brian C.; Scherz, Avigdor; Salomon, Yoram; Luck, David L.; Beckers, Jill; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2003-06-01

    In this study, photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with a novel, second generation photosensitizer Tookad (palladium-bacteriopheophorbide, WST09, STEBA Biotech, France), is investigated as an alternative modality in the treatment of prostate cancer. In vivo normal canine prostate and spontaneous advanced prostate cancer are used as the animal model. PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostates with a diode laser (763 nm, 150 mW/cm) to activate the i.v. infused photosensitizer. The effects of drug concentration, drug-light interval, and light fluence rate on the PDT efficacy were studied. The prostates and adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were harvested and subjected to histopathological examination. During the one-week to 3-month period post PDT treatment, the dogs recovered well with little or no urethral complications. Prostatic urethra and prostate adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were well preserved. Light irradiation delivered during drug infusion or within 15 min post drug infusion induced the similar extend of damages. PDT induced prostate lesions in both normal and cancerous prostate were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis and atrophy. Maximum lesion size of over 3 cm in dimension could be achieved with a single 1-cm interstitial treatment, suggesting the therapy is very effective in ablating cancerous prostatic tissue. In conclusion, the second generation photosensitizer Tookad mediated PDT may provide an effective alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  10. Vitamins and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Y.F. Young

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Its prevention and treatment remain a challenge to clinicians. Here we review the relationship of vitamins to PC risk. Many vitamins and related chemicals, including vitamin A, retinoids, several B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin E have shown their anti-cancer activities as anti-oxidants, activators of transcription factors or factors influencing epigenetic events. Although laboratory tests including the use of animal models showed these vitamins may have anti-PC properties, whether they can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of PC in humans remains to be intensively studied subjects. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory, epidemiology and/or clinical trials on the effects of vitamins on PC prevention and/or treatment.

  11. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S Hedgire

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, prostate cancer has an incidence rate of 3.9 per 100,000 men and is responsible for 9% of cancer-related mortality. It is the only malignancy that is diagnosed with an apparently blind technique, i.e., transrectal sextant biopsy. With increasing numbers of high-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI equipment being installed in India, the radiologist needs to be cognizant about endorectal MRI and multiparametric imaging for prostate cancer. In this review article, we aim to highlight the utility of multiparamteric MRI in prostate cancer. It plays a crucial role, mainly in initial staging, restaging, and post-treatment follow-up.

  12. Prostate cancer outcome in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yameogo Clotaire

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction African-American black men race is one of non-modifiable risk factors confirmed for prostate cancer. Many studies have been done in USA among African- American population to evaluate prostate cancer disparities. Compared to the USA very few data are available for prostate cancer in Sub-Saharan African countries. The objective of this study was to describe incident prostate cancer (PC diagnosis characteristics in Burkina Faso (West Africa. Methods We performed a prospective non randomized patient’s cohort study of new prostate cancer cases diagnosed by histological analysis of transrectal prostate biopsies in Burkina Faso. Study participants included 166 patients recruited at the urology division of the university hospital of Ouagadougou. Age of the patients, clinical symptoms, digital rectal examination (DRE result, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level, histological characteristics and TNM classification were taking in account in this study. Results 166 transrectal prostate biopsies (TRPB were performed based on high PSA level or abnormal DRE. The prostate cancer rate on those TRPB was 63, 8 % (n=106. The mean age of the patients was 71, 5 years (52 to 86. Urinary retention was the first clinical patterns of reference in our institution (55, 7 %, n = 59. Most patients, 56, 6 % (n = 60 had a serum PSA level over than 100 ng/ml. All the patients had adenocarcinoma on histological study of prostate biopsy cores. The majority of cases (54, 7 % n = 58 had Gleason score equal or higher than 7. Conclusion Prostate cancer is diagnosed at later stages in our country. Very high serum PSA level and poorly differentiated tumors are the two major characteristics of PC at the time of diagnosis.

  13. Prostate atypia: does repeat biopsy detect clinically significant prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Ryan P; Wiener, Scott; Harris, Cory D; Wagner, Joseph R

    2015-05-01

    While the treatment pathway in response to benign or malignant prostate biopsies is well established, there is uncertainty regarding the risk of subsequently diagnosing prostate cancer when an initial diagnosis of prostate atypia is made. As such, we investigated the likelihood of a repeat biopsy diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in patients in which an initial biopsy diagnosed prostate atypia. We reviewed our prospectively maintained prostate biopsy database to identify patients who underwent a repeat prostate biopsy within one year of atypia (atypical small acinar proliferation; ASAP) diagnosis between November 1987 and March 2011. Patients with a history of PCa were excluded. Chart review identified patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), radiotherapy (RT), or active surveillance (AS). For some analyses, patients were divided into two subgroups based on their date of service. Ten thousand seven hundred and twenty patients underwent 13,595 biopsies during November 1987-March 2011. Five hundred and sixty seven patients (5.3%) had ASAP on initial biopsy, and 287 (50.1%) of these patients underwent a repeat biopsy within one year. Of these, 122 (42.5%) were negative, 44 (15.3%) had atypia, 19 (6.6%) had prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and 102 (35.6%) contained PCa. Using modified Epstein's criteria, 27/53 (51%) patients with PCa on repeat biopsy were determined to have clinically significant tumors. 37 (36.3%) proceeded to RP, 25 (24.5%) underwent RT, and 40 (39.2%) received no immediate treatment. In patients who underwent surgery, Gleason grade on final pathology was upgraded in 11 (35.5%), and downgraded 1 (3.2%) patient. ASAP on initial biopsy was associated with a significant risk of PCa on repeat biopsy in patients who subsequently underwent definitive local therapy. Patients with ASAP should be counseled on the probability of harboring both clinically significant and insignificant prostate cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Presence of PSA auto-antibodies in men with prostate abnormalities (prostate cancer/benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostatitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokant, M T; Naz, R K

    2015-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by the prostate, liquefies post-ejaculate semen. PSA is detected in semen and blood. Increased circulating PSA levels indicate prostate abnormality [prostate cancer (PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis (PTIS)], with variance among individuals. As the prostate has been proposed as an immune organ, we hypothesise that variation in PSA levels among men may be due to presence of auto-antibodies against PSA. Sera from healthy men (n = 28) and men having prostatitis (n = 25), BPH (n = 30) or PC (n = 29) were tested for PSA antibody presence using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) values converted to standard deviation (SD) units, and Western blotting. Taking ≥2 SD units as cut-off for positive immunoreactivity, 0% of normal men, 0% with prostatitis, 33% with BPH and 3.45% with PC demonstrated PSA antibodies. One-way analysis of variance (anova) performed on the mean absorbance values and SD units of each group showed BPH as significantly different (P prostatitis. All others were nonsignificant (P prostate abnormalities, especially differentiating BPH from prostate cancer and prostatitis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Testosterone Therapy in Men With Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alan L.; Hu, Jim C.; Morgentaler, Abraham; Mulhall, John P.; Schulman, Claude C.; Montorsi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Context The use of testosterone therapy in men with prostate cancer was previously contraindicated, although recent data challenge this axiom. Over the past 2 decades, there has been a dramatic paradigm shift in beliefs, attitude, and treatment of testosterone deficiency in men with prostate cancer. Objective To summarize and analyze current literature regarding the effect of testosterone replacement in men with prostate cancer. Evidence acquisition We conducted a Medline search to identify all publications related to testosterone therapy in both treated and untreated prostate cancer. Evidence synthesis The historical notion that increasing testosterone was responsible for prostate cancer growth was based on elegant yet limited studies from the 1940s and anecdotal case reports. Current evidence reveals that high endogenous androgen levels do not increase the risk of a prostate cancer diagnosis. Similarly, testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency does not appear to increase prostate cancer risk or the likelihood of a more aggressive disease at prostate cancer diagnosis. Androgen receptor saturation (the saturation model) appears to account for this phenomenon. Men who received testosterone therapy after treatment for localized prostate cancer do not appear to suffer higher rates of recurrence or worse outcomes; although studies to date are limited. Early reports of men on active surveillance/watchful waiting treated with testosterone have not identified adverse progression events. Conclusions An improved understanding of the negative effects of testosterone deficiency on health and health-related quality of life—and the ability of testosterone therapy to mitigate these effects—has triggered a re-evaluation of the role testosterone plays in prostate cancer. An important paradigm shift has occurred within the field, in which testosterone therapy may now be regarded as a viable option for selected men with prostate cancer suffering from testosterone

  16. Radiation therapy for prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akira; Minowada, Shigeru; Tomoishi, Junzo; Kinoshita, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadayoshi

    1983-01-01

    A conformation radiotherapy system with collimators, whose openings can be controlled symmetrically by computerized techniques during rotational irradiation by a linear accelerator, has been developed for routine use in our hospital. Forty-four patients underwent radiation therapy, including this particular modality of radiotherapy, for prostatic cancer during the period of July 1976 through December 1981. Eight patients were classified as stage A, 10 stage B, 10 stage C, and 16 as stage D. Twenty-nine patients underwent conformation radiotherapy, two rotation radiotherapy, eight 2-port opposing technique radiotherapy, one 4-field radiotherapy, and four underwent a combination of 2-port opposing technique and conformation radiotherapy. Transient mild side effects such as diarrhea occurred in seven cases, while severe side effects such as rectal stricture or contracted bladder occurred in three cases. The latter occurred only in one case among 29 of conformation radiotherapy and in two among eight of 2-port opposing technique radiotherapy. The results of the treatment of short intervals in stage B, C, and D are as follows: prostatic size was reduced in 26 cases among 36, serum acid phosphatase level was reduced in 15 among 18 who had showed high acid phosphatase levels before treatment, although almost all cases underwent simultaneous hormonal therapy. The effects of radiotherapy alone were verified in two cases of stage B in which radiotherapy preceded hormonal therapy. Prostatic size and serum acid phosphatase level were reduced by radiotherapy alone. (author)

  17. Comparison of telomerase activity in prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that synthesizes telomeric DNA on chromosome ends. The enzyme is important for the immortalization of cancer cells because it maintains the telomeres. METHODS: Telomerase activity (TA was measured by fluorescence-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (FTRAP assay in prostate carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. RESULTS: TA was present in 91.4% of 70 prostate cancers, 68.8% of 16 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, 43.3% of 30 BPH*, 21.4% of 14 atrophy and 20% of 15 normal samples adjacent to tumor. There was not any significant correlation between TA, histopathological tumor stage or gleason score. In contrast to high TA in the BPH* tissue from the cancer-bearing gland, only 6.3% of 32 BPH specimens from patients only diagnosed with BPH were telomerase activity-positive. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that TA is present in most prostate cancers. The high rate of TA in tissue adjacent to tumor may be attributed either to early molecular alteration of cancer that was histologically unapparent, or to the presence of occult cancer cells. Our findings suggest that the re-expression of telomerase activity could be one step in the transformation of BPH to PIN. KEY WORDS: Telomerase activity, prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  18. Paraneoplastic jaundice and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Claudia; Alvarenga, Maria Joana; Santos, Jose Carlos; Silva, Alberto Mello

    2017-04-22

    Cholestasis has numerous causes. We present the case of a 78-year-old man with a common diagnosis in this age group and gender but with an unusual presentation. There are only 11 articles published of patients with jaundice due to a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with prostate cancer. Interleukin 6 and other proinflammatory cytokines appear to contribute to the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Our patient remains symptom free 4 months after treatment initiation. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Current opinions on chemotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luptak, J.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men. Because of the long latency period of prostate cancer, and the economic burden and morbidity associated with its treatment, there is a strong rationale for interventions to reduce the risk of developing this malignancy. The terms „prevention“ or „chemo prevention“ refers to efforts to prevent or delay the development of cancer by taking medicines, vitamins or other agents. There are many agents that may decrease the risk of prostate cancer. It requires careful study of the agents in specific populations to determine whether risk is reduced, magnitude of the risk reduction and the spectrum of side effects associated with the agent. The ideal preventive agent will not significantly alter quality of life, is inexpensive, safe, well tolerated, and effective. The purpose of this article is to review recent developments in the field of prostate cancer prevention. (author)

  20. Role of Reactive Stroma in Prostate Cancer Progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowley, David R

    2006-01-01

    ...) receptor 1 in reactive stroma during prostate tumorigenesis. The authors are using a novel approach to target transgene expression specifically to the reactive stroma of experimental prostate cancer...

  1. Development of the Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A. M

    2006-01-01

    African Americans (AA) are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer (PCa) for reasons including, biologic tumor differences, genetic predisposition, differential exposures, lack of access to prostate specific antigen (PSA...

  2. Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0212 TITLE: Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David Takeda CONTRACTING...ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02215 REPORT DATE: November 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research...Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0212 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Takeda 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  3. AR Alternative Splicing and Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Res 2009;69:2912–8. 15. Culig Z, Bartsch G. Androgen axis in prostate cancer. J Cell Biochem...such as MLPA are useful for identifying deletions or duplications that involve probe-binding sites, this study has illustrated that unbiased...the AR locus is illustrated at the top. Paired-end sequence reads were mapped to the hg19 build of the human genome using Burrows --Wheeler Alignment

  4. Progress in Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Kamran A.; Davis, Brian J.; Wilson, Torrence M.; Wiseman, Gregory A.; Federspiel, Mark J.; Morris, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy has held promise to correct various disease processes. Prostate cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. A number of clinical trials involving gene therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer have been reported. The ability to efficiently transduce tumors with effective levels of therapeutic genes has been identified as a fundamental barrier to effective cancer gene therapy. The approach utilizing gene therapy in prostate cancer patients at our institution attempts to address this deficiency. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for the ability of the thyroid gland to transport and concentrate iodide. The characteristics of the NIS gene suggest that it could represent an ideal therapeutic gene for cancer therapy. Published results from Mayo Clinic researchers have indicated several important successes with the use of the NIS gene and prostate gene therapy. Studies have demonstrated that transfer of the human NIS gene into prostate cancer using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo results in efficient uptake of radioactive iodine and significant tumor growth delay with prolongation of survival. Preclinical successes have culminated in the opening of a phase I trial for patients with advanced prostate disease which is currently accruing patients. Further study will reveal the clinical promise of NIS gene therapy in the treatment of prostate as well as other malignancies.

  5. Metabolomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer Progression During Active Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    cancer or a history of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for benign prostatic hypertrophy are excluded. Somewhat surprisingly...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0451 TITLE: Metabolomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer...29 September 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Metabolomic Profiling of Prostate Cancer Progression During Active Surveillance 5b

  6. Predicting prostate cancer: analysing the clinical efficacy of prostate cancer risk calculators in a referral population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, R W; Lundon, D J; Murphy, K; Murphy, T B; Galvin, D J; Watson, R W G

    2015-09-01

    The decision to proceed to biopsy for the diagnosis of prostate cancer in clinical practice is a difficult one. Prostate cancer risk calculators allow for a systematic approach to the use of patient information to predict a patient's likelihood of prostate cancer. In this paper, we validate the two leading prostate cancer risk calculators, the prostate cancer prevention trial (PCPT) and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) in an Irish population. Data were collected for 337 men referred to one tertiary referral center in Ireland. Calibration analysis, ROC analysis and decision curve analysis were undertaken to ascertain the performance of the PCPT and the ERSPC risk calculators in this cohort. Of 337 consecutive biopsies, cancer was subsequently diagnosed in 146 men (43 %), 98 (67 %) of which were high grade. The AUC for the PCPT and ERSPC risk calculators were 0.68 and 0.66, respectively for the prediction of prostate cancer. Each calculator was sufficiently calibrated in this cohort. Decision curve analysis demonstrated a net benefit via the use of the PCPT and ERSPC risk calculators in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The PCPT and ERSPC risk calculators achieve a statistically significant prediction of prostate cancer in this Irish population. This study provides external validation for these calculators, and therefore these tools can be used to aid in clinical decision making.

  7. A Unifying Theory of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    aging akin in rivo. Proc. NatI. Acad. Sci. USA. 92: 35. Peehl. D. M. Culture of human prostatic epithelial cells. In: R. 1. Freshney led.). 9363...in: Culture of Epithelial Cells. Edited by R. I. 10: 1054, 1996 Freshney . Wiley-Liss, Inc.: New York, p 159, 1992 4. Girinsky, T., Koumenis, C...volume estimation in prostate cancer. Am J Surg Pathol 1992; 16:184-91. 14. Peehl DM. Culture of human prostatic epithelial cells. In: Freshney RI, ed

  8. Prostatic irradiation is not associated with any measurable increase in the risk of subsequent rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendal, Wayne S.; Eapen, Libni; MacRae, Robert; Malone, Shawn; Nicholas, Garth

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate a putative increased risk of rectal cancer subsequent to prostatic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: In an analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry, we compared men who had radiotherapy for prostatic carcinoma with those treated surgically and those treated with neither modality. Kaplan-Meier analyses for the time to failure from rectal cancer were performed between age-matched subgroups of the three cohorts. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to ascertain what influences might affect the incidence of subsequent rectal cancer. Results: In all, 33,831 men were irradiated, 167,607 were treated surgically, and 36,335 received neither modality. Rectal cancers developed in 243 (0.7%) of those irradiated (mean age, 70.7 years), 578 (0.3%) of those treated surgically (68.7 years), and 227 (0.8%) of those treated with neither modality (74.2 years). When age effects and the differences between the surgical and untreated cohorts were controlled for, we were unable to demonstrate any significant increased incidence of rectal cancer in men irradiated for prostatic cancer. Conclusions: An increased frequency of rectal cancer after prostatic irradiation, apparent on crude analysis, could be attributed to age confounding and other unmeasured confounders associated with prostate cancer treatment and rectal cancer risk

  9. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) and Prostate Volume: Better Predictor of Prostate Cancer for Bosnian and Herzegovina Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coric, Jozo; Mujic, Jasminka; Kucukalic, Elma; Ler, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The serum prostate specific antigen for the early detection and screening for prostate cancer are very common used among physicians as the best screening tool for prostate cancer. The result of prostate specific antigen levels discriminates whether or not a prostate biopsy should be performed. The lack of specificity is a limitation of PSA as tumor marker, increased PSA concentrations are found not only in patients with prostate cancer but also in patients with benign prostatic disease. The object of this study was to improve the specificity and sensitivity of prostatic cancer detection. We evaluated total PSA levels, free PSA levels and the prostate volume in asymptomatic patients which came for routine check without medical history of prostate cancer. We received medical record of 90 patients between 50-60 years. Total and free PSA in serum was measured with the analyzer Architeckt i2000 SR. Prostate volume was determined by transrectal ultrasound. The ratio of total and free PSA levels to prostate volume was significantly (p PSA in serum. Early studies have demonstrated the advantage of measuring prostate volume with PSA total and free levels in serum as a useful tool for early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Data from this study on 90 patients with total PSA in the range from 0,22-7,0 ng/ml confirmed the well known correlation. All three parameters total PSA, free PSA and prostate volume showed significant correlation and a useful tool in prediction of prostate cancer for Bosnia and Herzegovina men.

  10. Intraductal Carcinoma of the Prostate on Diagnostic Needle Biopsy Predicts Prostate Cancer Mortality: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeter, Thorstein; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Waaler, Gudmund; Servoll, Einar; Nesland, Jahn M; Axcrona, Karol; Axcrona, Ulrika

    2017-06-01

    Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) is a distinct histopathologic feature associated with high-grade, advanced prostate cancer. Although studies have shown that IDC-P is a predictor of progression following surgical or radiation treatment for prostate cancer, there are sparse data regarding IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy as a prognosticator of prostate cancer mortality. This was a population-based study of all prostate cancer patients diagnosed using needle biopsy and without evidence of systemic disease between 1991 and 1999 within a defined geographic region of Norway. Patients were identified by cross-referencing the Norwegian Cancer Registry. Of 318 eligible patients, 283 had biopsy specimens available for central pathology review. Clinical data were obtained from medical charts. We examined whether IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy was associated with adverse clinicopathological features and prostate cancer mortality. Patients with IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy had a more advanced stage and a higher Gleason score compared to patients without IDC-P. IDC-P was also associated with an intensively reactive stroma. The 10-year prostate cancer-specific survival was 69% for patients with IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy and 89% for patients without IDC-P (Log rank P-value prostate cancer mortality after adjustments for clinical prognostic factors and treatment. After adjustment for the newly implemented Grade Group system of prostate cancer, IDC-P showed a strong tendency toward statistical significance. However, IDC-P did not remain a statistically significant predictor in the multivariable analysis. IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy is an indicator of prostate cancer with a high risk of mortality. Accordingly, a diagnosis of IDC-P on needle biopsy should be reported and considered a feature of high-risk prostate cancer. Moreover, the association between IDC-P and reactive stroma provides evidence in support of the idea that stromal factors

  11. Minimally invasive surgical therapies for benign prostatic hypertrophy: The rise in minimally invasive surgical therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Christidis, Daniel; McGrath, Shannon; Perera, Marlon; Manning, Todd; Bolton, Damien; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) causing bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms increases with our ageing population. Treatment of BPH traditionally begins with medical therapy and surgical intervention is then considered for those whose symptoms progress despite treatment. Minimally invasive surgical therapies have been developed as an intermediary in the treatment of BPH with the aim of decreasing the invasiveness of interventions. These therapies also aim to reduce mor...

  12. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results

  13. Calcium channel blockers and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Kevin R

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between calcium channel blockers and prostate cancer has been an area of increased interest to investigators. Calcium channel blockers have been shown to influence cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Clinically, the association between calcium channel blockers and the development of prostate cancer has been controversial. However, on a basic science level, there is evidence that calcium channel blockers induce cytotoxicity in androgen receptor positive cell lines and may offer an innovative strategy for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. African-American Prostate Cancer Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary L; Eggener, Scott E; Murphy, Adam B

    2017-08-14

    The purpose of this review is to examine prostate cancer racial disparities specific to the African-American population. African-American men are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer, present at an earlier age; are more likely to have locally advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis; and have suboptimal outcomes to standard treatments. Prostate cancer treatment requires a nuanced approach, particularly when applying screening, counseling, and management of African-American men. Oncological as well as functional outcomes may differ and are potentially due to a combination of genetic, molecular, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors.

  15. Risk-based prostate cancer screening: Who and how?

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, AS; Cary, KC; Cooperberg, MR

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to identify clinical risk factors for prostate cancer and to assess the utility and limitations of our current tools for prostate cancer screening. Prostate-specific antigen is the single most important factor for identifying men at increased risk of prostate cancer but is best assessed in the context of other clinical factors; increasing age, race, and family history are well-established risk factors for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. In addition to clinical ...

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Murff, Harvey J; Zeng, Chenjie

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate associations with prostate cancer risk per one standard deviation (s.d.) increase in genetically-predicted plasma PUFA levels using multivariable-adjusted unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: No overall association was observed between the genetically-predicted PUFAs evaluated in this study......BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common cancer worldwide with no established modifiable lifestyle factors to guide prevention. The associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation, we evaluated associations...... between PUFAs and prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We used individual-level data from a consortium of 22 721 cases and 23 034 controls of European ancestry. Externally-weighted PUFA-specific polygenic risk scores (wPRSs), with explanatory variation ranging from 0.65 to 33.07%, were constructed and used...

  17. Localized prostate cancer: result of radical treatment with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Villalba, S.; Magallon Sebastian, R.; Gonzalez Garcia-Cuellar, I.; Velasco Jimenez, J.; Valcarcel Sancho, F.; Millan Santos, I.; Torre Tomas, A. de la; Aragon de la Cruz, G.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate the long-term survival and the patterns of failure of clinically localized prostate cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy. Methods and materials: We reviewed 118 patients with localized biopsy proven prostate cancer without previous irradiation or radical prostatectomy who were treated radical radiotherapy at the Department of Radiation Oncology between July 1964 and December 1991. Results: The adjusted survival probability was 69% at 5 years and 62% at 10 years. The disease free survival probability was 56% at years and 48% at 10 years. The local relapse free survival probability (prostatic and peri prostatic tissue failure) was 91% at 5 and 10 years. The locoregional relapse free survival probability (local and lymph pelvic pelvic nodes recurrence) was 85% at 5 years 75% at 10 years. The distant relapse free survival probability was 68% at 5 years and 65% at 10 years. Conclusion: External-beam radiotherapy is a highly effective modality of therapy for patients with localized prostate cancer. This curative therapy can now be offered with little morbidity and good results, equal to the survival rates reported in surgical series. External-beam radiation therapy achieves high rates of locoregional control and the outcome of patients with advanced disease is determined by the risk of developing distant metastases. (65 refs.)

  18. Role of Growth Hormone in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    We have established a GH-deficient prostate cancer model (Tag/Ghdr/dr rat) indicating that a reduction in GH and/or IGF-I can significantly inhibit prostate carcinogenesis in this model in contrast to GH wild-type controls...

  19. Prospects in radionuclide imaging of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutje, Susanne; Boerman, Otto C.; van Rij, Catharina M.; Sedelaar, Michiel; Helfrich, Wijnand; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Mulders, Peter F. A.

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men in the Western world and represents a major health problem with substantial morbidity and mortality. Sensitivity and specificity of digital rectal examination (DRE) and evaluation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) are excellent methods for

  20. PROSTATIC CANCER AFTER PROSTATECTOMY FOR BENIGN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-01

    Dec 1, 2000 ... peripheral zone, the central zone, the transition zone and the periurethral gland zone(1,2). There is a ... prostatic transition zone have also been described(7). The epidemiology of prostate cancer is ..... Brawn P.N., Ayala A.G., Von Eschenbach A.C., Hussey D.H. and. Johnson D.E. Histologic grading study ...

  1. PSA, PSA derivatives, proPSA and prostate health index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Ayyıldız, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Currently, prostate- specific antigen (PSA) is the most common oncological marker used for prostate cancer screening. However, high levels of PSA in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis decrease the specificity of PSA as a cancer marker. To increase the specificity of PSA, PSA derivatives and PSA kinetics have been used. However, these new techniques were not able to increase the diagnostic specificity for prostate cancer. Therefore, the search for new molecules and derivatives of PSA...

  2. Interactions between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer in large prostates: a retrospective data review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalil, Shadi; Boothe, David; Durdin, Trey; Sunkara, Sowmya; Watkins, Phillip; Yang, Shengping; Haynes, Allan; de Riese, Werner

    2016-01-01

    To study the interaction between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). In this study, we performed a chart review of a cohort of 448 biopsy naive men. These men received a multi-core biopsy at our institution due to increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels (>4 ng/ml) and/or suspicious findings on digital rectal examination in the years between 2008 and 2013. Utilizing PSA and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) prostate volume, we obtained the PSA density (PSAD) for each individual. PSAD was calculated by dividing serum PSA concentration by TRUS prostate volume. Large prostates >65 g may secrete enough PSA to have a PSAD above the suggested cutoff of 0.15, yet 50 % patients have no histologic evidence of PCa, whereas prostates prostates may be protective of PCa. The interaction of the different prostate zones, in particular the transition zone and peripheral zone, may play a significant role in the phenomenon observed in this study. However, sampling error may introduce bias that 12-16 core biopsies in larger prostates may be more likely missing the cancer lesion.

  3. Serum Autoantibodies in Chronic Prostate Inflammation in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlick, Bettina; Massoner, Petra; Lueking, Angelika; Charoentong, Pornpimol; Blattner, Mirjam; Schaefer, Georg; Marquart, Klaus; Theek, Carmen; Amersdorfer, Peter; Zielinski, Dirk; Kirchner, Matthias; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Rubin, Mark A.; Müllner, Stefan; Schulz-Knappe, Peter; Klocker, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation is frequently observed on histological analysis of malignant and non-malignant prostate specimens. It is a suspected supporting factor for prostate diseases and their progression and a main cause of false positive PSA tests in cancer screening. We hypothesized that inflammation induces autoantibodies, which may be useful biomarkers. We aimed to identify and validate prostate inflammation associated serum autoantibodies in prostate cancer patients and evaluate the expression of corresponding autoantigens. Methods Radical prostatectomy specimens of prostate cancer patients (N = 70) were classified into high and low inflammation groups according to the amount of tissue infiltrating lymphocytes. The corresponding pre-surgery blood serum samples were scrutinized for autoantibodies using a low-density protein array. Selected autoantigens were identified in prostate tissue and their expression pattern analyzed by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The identified autoantibody profile was cross-checked in an independent sample set (N = 63) using the Luminex-bead protein array technology. Results Protein array screening identified 165 autoantibodies differentially abundant in the serum of high compared to low inflammation patients. The expression pattern of three corresponding antigens were established in benign and cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry and qPCR: SPAST (Spastin), STX18 (Syntaxin 18) and SPOP (speckle-type POZ protein). Of these, SPAST was significantly increased in prostate tissue with high inflammation. All three autoantigens were differentially expressed in primary and/or castration resistant prostate tumors when analyzed in an inflammation-independent tissue microarray. Cross-validation of the inflammation autoantibody profile on an independent sample set using a Luminex-bead protein array, retrieved 51 of the significantly discriminating autoantibodies. Three autoantibodies were significantly upregulated in both screens, MUT

  4. ING4 Loss in Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    4. Luo W, Rodriguez M, Valdez JM, Zhu X, Tan K, Li D, Siwko S, Xin L, Liu M. Lgr4 is a key regulator of prostate development and prostate stem cell...Chang HY, Simon MD, Kutateladze TG, Gozani O. ING4 mediates crosstalk between histone H3 K4 trimethylation and H3 acetyla- tion to attenuate cellular...e6529. Carvalho, F. L., Simons , B. W., Eberhart, C. G. and Berman, D. M. (2014). Notch signaling in prostate cancer: a moving target. The Prostate

  5. Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantamango-Bartley, Yessenia; Knutsen, Synnove F; Knutsen, Raymond; Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Fan, Jing; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabate, Joan; Hadley, David; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Penniecook, Jason; Herring, Patti; Butler, Terry; Bennett, Hanni; Fraser, Gary

    2016-01-01

    According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer accounts for ∼27% of all incident cancer cases among men and is the second most common (noncutaneous) cancer among men. The relation between diet and prostate cancer is still unclear. Because people do not consume individual foods but rather foods in combination, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and prostate cancer risk. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary patterns (nonvegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and prostate cancer incidence among 26,346 male participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. In this prospective cohort study, cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate HRs by using age as the time variable. In total, 1079 incident prostate cancer cases were identified. Around 8% of the study population reported adherence to the vegan diet. Vegan diets showed a statistically significant protective association with prostate cancer risk (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.85). After stratifying by race, the statistically significant association with a vegan diet remained only for the whites (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86), but the multivariate HR for black vegans showed a similar but nonsignificant point estimate (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.18). Vegan diets may confer a lower risk of prostate cancer. This lower estimated risk is seen in both white and black vegan subjects, although in the latter, the CI is wider and includes the null. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Farming, reported pesticide use, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragin, Camille; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Tadesse, Helina; Daniels, Dennis; Bunker, Clareann H; Jackson, Maria; Ferguson, Trevor S; Patrick, Alan L; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Taioli, Emanuela

    2013-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the leading cancer type diagnosed in American men and is the second leading cancer diagnosed in men worldwide. Although studies have been conducted to investigate the association between prostate cancer and exposure to pesticides and/or farming, the results have been inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the association of farming and prostate cancer. The PubMed database was searched to identify all published case-control studies that evaluated farming as an occupational exposure by questionnaire or interview and prostate cancer. Ten published and two unpublished studies were included in this analysis, yielding 3,978 cases and 7,393 controls. Prostate cancer cases were almost four times more likely to be farmers compared with controls with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH; meta odds ratio [OR], crude = 3.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96-7.48, Q-test p value = .352; two studies); similar results were obtained when non-BPH controls were considered, but with moderate heterogeneity between studies (meta OR crude = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.16-1.64, Q-test p value = .216, I (2) = 31% [95% CI = 0-73]; five studies). Reported pesticide exposure was inversely associated with prostate cancer (meta OR crude = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.49-0.96, Q-test p value = .331; four studies), whereas no association with exposure to fertilizers was observed. Our findings confirm that farming is a risk factor for prostate cancer, but this increased risk may not be due to exposure to pesticides.

  7. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  8. MR imaging of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, A.; Scheidler, J.; Sommer, B.; Graser, A.; Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Massmann, J.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer (PC) is developing into an important health care issue in light of the high incidence of PC and the improvements in stage-adapted therapy. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the current role of MR imaging and MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis and staging of PC.Material and methods Pertinent literature was searched and evaluated to collect information on current clinical indications, study techniques, diagnostic value, and limitations of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Major indications for MR imaging of patients with supected PC are to define tumor location before biopsy when clinical or TRUS findings are inconclusive, and to provide accurate staging of histologically proven PC to ascertain effective therapy. Current MR imaging techniques for the evaluation of PC include multiplanar high-resolution T2-weighted FSE and T1-weighted SE sequences using combined endorectal and phased-array coils. Using these techniques, the reported accuracy of MR imaging for the diagnosis of extracapsular tumor extension ranges between 82 and 88% with sensitivities between 80 and 95%, and specificities between 82 and 93%. Typical MR findings of PC in different stages of disease, as well as diagnostic problems, such as chronic prostatitis, biopsy-related hemorrhage and therapy-related changes of prostatic tissue are discussed. In addition, the current perspectives and limitations of MR spectroscopy in PC are summarized. Current MR imaging techniques provide important diagnostic information in the pretherapeutic workup of PC including a high staging accuracy, and is superior to TRUS. (orig.) [de

  9. Gene Delivery for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pang, Shen

    2001-01-01

    .... Enhanced by the bystander effect, the specific expression of the DTA gene causes significant cell death in prostate cancer cell cultures, with very low background cell eradication in control cell lines...

  10. Effects of Presurgical Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, men diagnosed with androgen-sensitive prostate cancer with intermediate- or high-risk features will be examined with mpMRI, undergo targeted biopsies, and be treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy.

  11. Abiraterone Improves Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multinational phase III trial found that the drug abiraterone acetate prolonged the median survival of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer by 4 months compared with patients who received a placebo.

  12. [Testosterone replacement therapy for prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, A; Sperling, H

    2010-01-01

    During the male 40s total testosterone levels decrease continuously. If clinical symptoms like decreasing libido, erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, altered distribution of body fat, reduction in physical strength, or alterations in psychological mood are combined with a decreased serum testosterone level late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is obvious. Before the substitution of testosterone is initiated, it is essential to exclude prostate cancer because the progress of prostate cancer depends on androgens. The question is now how to treat patients who suffer from androgen deficiency but have cured prostate cancer in their history? Concerning this there are only a few studies with a small number of patients which show that testosterone substitution therapy is possible without an increased risk for recurrence of prostate cancer. As long as the patient was cured it does not matter if he underwent a radical prostatectomy or brachytherapy. Absolutely necessary is that the patient is well informed about the therapy and regularly controlled during the therapy.

  13. Radiotherapy for prostate cancer and sexual health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Incrocci (Luca)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSexual dysfunction is very common after treatment of prostate cancer. Radiation therapy together with radical prostatectomy is the most effective treatment for localized disease. Percentages of erectile dysfunction (ED) reported in prospective studies after external-beam radiotherapy

  14. Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jett, Marti

    2000-01-01

    We have shown that there is a distinct pattern of fatty acid binding protein (FAEP) expression in prostate cancer vs normal cells and that finding has be confirmed in patient samples of biopsy specimens...

  15. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up...... to investigate bicalutamide as a treatment option for local prostate cancer (localized or locally advanced disease). METHODS: The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer program comprises three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of similar design that are being conducted in distinct geographical...... areas (North America; Australia, Europe, Israel, South Africa and Mexico; and Scandinavia). Men with T1b-4N0-1M0 (TNM 1997) prostate cancer have been randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive bicalutamide 150 mg daily or placebo. Recruitment to the program closed in July 1998, and follow-up is ongoing. Study...

  16. Sanguinarine: A Novel Agent Against Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmad, Nihal

    2007-01-01

    ..., has been shown to possess anti-microbial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Our earlier studies suggested that sanguinarine may be developed as an agent for the management of prostate cancer...

  17. Sanguinarine: A Novel Agent Against Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmad, Nihal

    2008-01-01

    ..., has been shown to possess anti-microbial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Our earlier studies suggested that sanguinarine may be developed as an agent for the management of prostate cancer...

  18. Risk-based prostate cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.D. Zhu (Xiaoye); P.C. Albertsen (Peter); G.L. Andriole (Gerald); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A.J. Vickers (Andrew)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContext: Widespread mass screening of prostate cancer (PCa) is not recommended because the balance between benefits and harms is still not well established. The achieved mortality reduction comes with considerable harm such as unnecessary biopsies, overdiagnoses, and overtreatment.

  19. Treatment Options by Stage (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bisphosphonate drugs to prevent or slow the growth of bone metastases is being studied in clinical trials. There are treatments for bone pain caused by bone metastases or hormone therapy. Prostate cancer that has spread to the ...

  20. Prostate cancer in the elderly patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Chunkit; Dale, William; Mohile, Supriya Gupta

    2014-08-20

    Treatment for prostate cancer (PCa) has evolved significantly over the last decade. PCa is the most prevalent non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in men, and it has an increased incidence and prevalence in older men. As a result, physicians and patients are faced with the challenge of identifying optimal treatment strategies for localized, biochemical recurrent, and advanced PCa in the older population. When older patients are appropriately selected, treatment for PCa results in survival benefits and toxicity profiles similar to those experienced in younger patients. However, underlying health status and age-related changes can have an impact on tolerance of hormonal therapy and chemotherapy in men with advanced disease. Therefore, the heterogeneity of the elderly population necessitates a multidimensional assessment to maximize the benefit of medical and/or surgical options. Providing clinicians with the requisite health status data on which to base treatment decisions would help ensure that older patients with PCa receive optimal therapy if it will benefit them and/or active surveillance or best supportive care if it will not. We provide a review of the existing evidence to date on the management of PCa in the older population.

  1. President's categorical course on prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibel, Steven A.

    1996-01-01

    Impressive advances in medical technology allow earlier diagnosis and better treatment of localized prostatic cancer. Prostate cancer has also been a subject of considerable discussion in the lay press. Therefore, it is timely that we review this subject in a comprehensive fashion. This course is designed to meet the broad educational needs required for the effective care of prostate cancer patients. The faculty includes many of the leaders in the various clinical disciplines dealing with prostate cancer, and they will address a variety of scientific and clinical topics. A highlight of the course will be a discussion on the funding of new prostate cancer research initiatives. The course begins with discussions of biology, genetics, tumor markers, pathology and imaging of prostate cancer. It will cover the state-of-the-art in the management of localized prostatic cancer, including the outcomes of external beam irradiation, brachytherapy, and prostatectomy. The technique and outcome of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy will be discussed. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group clinical trials for locally advanced prostatic cancer will be updated, and the biological rationale for combining anti-androgen therapy with radiation therapy will be presented. The use of PSA for the early detection of failure following radiation therapy is an important clinical issue. This topic will be the subject of an ASTRO consensus conference, and the conclusions will be summarized here. With the prospect for early detection of recurrences after surgery and radiotherapy using PSA, the discussions of external irradiation after surgery and of prostatectomy after radiotherapy are especially important. The course concludes with an overview of the treatment of metastatic disease

  2. Reduction of Racial Disparities in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    African Americans and whites revealed increased risks among men who reported a history of gonorrhea or syphilis or who had positive serology for...cancer, of 1.49 to 2.64 for syphilis, and 1.16 to 1.50 for gonorrhea .16 The meta-analysis also found an association be- tween prostate cancer and...tients with prostatitis include Chlamydia trachoma- tis, Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma, Neisseria gonorrhea , Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, and

  3. Enhancing Therapeutic Cellular Prostate Cancer Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    a cystatin -like molecule, inhibits ERK-dependent lymphocyte proliferation. Mech Ageing Dev 126:1284-91 7. Gomez, C.R., Acuña-Castillo, C ., Nishimura...the development of better prostate cancer cell vaccines 2. Gomez, C.R., Kosari, F., Munz, J.M., Schreiber, C ., Knutson, G., Charlesworth, C ., Karnes...TITLE: Enhancing Therapeutic Cellular Prostate Cancer Vaccines PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Christian R. Gomez, Ph.D

  4. Diagnostic characteristics of lethal prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, John Thomas; Røder, Martin Andreas; Klemann, Nina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic characteristics of men who eventually die from prostate cancer (PCa) and the extent to which early diagnostic strategies have affected these characteristics are unclear. We aimed to investigate trends in survival and clinical presentation at diagnosis in men who...... eventually died from PCa. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Based on the national database, the Danish Prostate Cancer Registry, a nationwide population-based study of all 19,487 men who died from PCa in Denmark between 1995 and 2013 was conducted. Trends in median survival and trends in age, prostate-specific antigen...

  5. The politics of prostate cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffenberger, Samuel D; Penson, David F

    2014-05-01

    The controversial recent recommendation by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for early-stage prostate cancer has caused much debate. Whereas USPSTF recommendations against routine screening mammography in younger women resulted in fierce public outcry and eventual alteration in the language of the recommendation, the same public and political response has not been seen with PSA screening for prostate cancer. It is of paramount importance to ensure improved efficiency and transparency of the USPSTF recommendation process, and resolution of concerns with the current USPSTF recommendation against PSA screening for all ages. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Radioisotopes in management of metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Amar; Dan, Tu D; Williams, Noelle L; Pridjian, Andrew; Den, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in men with prostate cancer. Over the last decade, the treatment landscape for patients with castrate-resistant disease has drastically changed, with several novel agents demonstrating an improvement in overall survival in large, multi-institutional randomized trials. Traditional treatment with radioisotopes has largely been in the palliative setting. However, the first in class radiopharmaceutical radium-223 has emerged as the only bone-directed treatment option demonstrating an improvement in overall survival. Medline publications from 1990 to 2016 were searched and reviewed to assess the use of currently approved radioisotopes in the management of prostate cancer including emerging data regarding integration with novel systemic therapies. New positron emission tomography-based radiotracers for advanced molecular imaging of prostate cancer were also queried. Radioisotopes play a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the definitive and metastatic setting. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer and theranostics are currently being investigated in the clinical arena. The use of modern radioisotopes in selected patients with mCRPC is associated with improvements in overall survival, pain control, and quality of life.

  7. Prostate extracellular vesicles in patient plasma as a liquid biopsy platform for prostate cancer using nanoscale flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Colleen N; Siddiqui, Khurram M; Al-Zahrani, Ali A; Pardhan, Siddika; Brett, Sabine I; Guo, Qiu Q; Yang, Jun; Wolf, Philipp; Power, Nicholas E; Durfee, Paul N; MacMillan, Connor D; Townson, Jason L; Brinker, Jeffrey C; Fleshner, Neil E; Izawa, Jonathan I; Chambers, Ann F; Chin, Joseph L; Leong, Hon S

    2016-02-23

    Extracellular vesicles released by prostate cancer present in seminal fluid, urine, and blood may represent a non-invasive means to identify and prioritize patients with intermediate risk and high risk of prostate cancer. We hypothesize that enumeration of circulating prostate microparticles (PMPs), a type of extracellular vesicle (EV), can identify patients with Gleason Score≥4+4 prostate cancer (PCa) in a manner independent of PSA. Plasmas from healthy volunteers, benign prostatic hyperplasia patients, and PCa patients with various Gleason score patterns were analyzed for PMPs. We used nanoscale flow cytometry to enumerate PMPs which were defined as submicron events (100-1000nm) immunoreactive to anti-PSMA mAb when compared to isotype control labeled samples. Levels of PMPs (counts/µL of plasma) were also compared to CellSearch CTC Subclasses in various PCa metastatic disease subtypes (treatment naïve, castration resistant prostate cancer) and in serially collected plasma sets from patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. PMP levels in plasma as enumerated by nanoscale flow cytometry are effective in distinguishing PCa patients with Gleason Score≥8 disease, a high-risk prognostic factor, from patients with Gleason Score≤7 PCa, which carries an intermediate risk of PCa recurrence. PMP levels were independent of PSA and significantly decreased after surgical resection of the prostate, demonstrating its prognostic potential for clinical follow-up. CTC subclasses did not decrease after prostatectomy and were not effective in distinguishing localized PCa patients from metastatic PCa patients. PMP enumeration was able to identify patients with Gleason Score ≥8 PCa but not patients with Gleason Score 4+3 PCa, but offers greater confidence than CTC counts in identifying patients with metastatic prostate cancer. CTC Subclass analysis was also not effective for post-prostatectomy follow up and for distinguishing metastatic PCa and localized PCa patients

  8. Multiparametric MRI in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futterer, Jurgen J. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 50 years and older in developed countries and the third leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Multiparametric prostate MR imaging is currently the most accurate imaging modality to detect, localize, and stage prostate cancer. The role of multi-parametric MR imaging in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer are discussed. In addition, insights are provided in imaging techniques, protocol, and interpretation.

  9. The relationship between Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) and prostate cancer significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, Hein; Haese, Alexander; Graefen, Markus; de la Taille, Alexandre; Irani, Jacques; de Reijke, Theo; Remzi, Mesut; Marberger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) and prostate cancer significance. PATIENTS AND METHODS Clinical data from two multi-centre European open-label, prospective studies evaluating the clinical utility of the PCA3 assay in guiding initial and repeat biopsy

  10. Metallated DNA Aptamers for Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    different cancers including a high percentage of bladder 8 , gastric and colorectal 9 , as well as hepatocellular, renal, breast and ovarian cancer ...12 and have been utilized for cancer imaging. PSMA inhibitors have been used to deliver theranostic NPs to cancer cells. 13 The A10-3 RNA...used as a chemotherapeutic for the treatment of diverse malignancies, including breast and prostate cancer . Serious toxicities, including an

  11. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Schans, van de S.A.; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. Methods Data from the

  12. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.; Schans, S.A. van de; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. METHODS: Data from

  13. Preneoplastic prostate lesions: an opportunity for prostate cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W G; De Marzo, A M; Deweese, T L; Lin, X; Brooks, J D; Putzi, M J; Nelson, C P; Groopman, J D; Kensler, T W

    2001-12-01

    Environmental factors, especially the diet, play a prominent role in the epidemic of prostate cancer (PCA), in the United States. Many candidate dietary components have been proposed to influence human prostatic carcinogenesis, including fat, calories, fruits and vegetables, anti-oxidants, and various micronutrients, but the specific roles dietary agents play in promoting or preventing PCA remain controversial. We have collected evidence to suggest that GSTP1, the gene encoding the pi-class glutathione S-transferase (GST), may serve a "caretaker" function for prostatic cells. Although GSTP1 can be detected in normal prostatic epithelium, in almost all PCA cases, PCA cells fail to express GSTP1 polypeptides, and lack of GSTP1 expression most often appears to be the result of somatic "CpG island" DNA methylation changes. Loss of GSTP1 function also appears to be characteristic of prostatic epithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions, thought to represent PCA precursors. We have recently learned that a new candidate early PCA precursor lesion, proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA), characterized by proliferating prostatic cells juxtaposed to inflammatory cells, contains epithelial cells that express high levels of GSTP1. These findings have formed the basis for a new model of prostatic carcinogenesis, in which prostatic cells in PIA lesions, subjected to a barrage of inflammatory oxidants, induce GSTP1 expression as a defense against oxidative genome damage. When cells with defective GSTP1 genes appear amongst the PIA cells, such cells become vulnerable to oxidants and electrophiles that inflict genome damage that tends to promote neoplastic transformation to PIN and PCA cells. Subsequently, PIN and PCA cells with defective GSTPI genes remain vulnerable to similar stresses tending to promote malignant progression. This new model for prostatic carcinogenesis has implications for the design of new prostate cancer prevention strategies. Rational prevention approaches might

  14. Hedgehog Signaling in Prostate Development, Regeneration and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade Bushman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The prostate is a developmental model system study of prostate growth regulation. Historically the research focus was on androgen regulation of development and growth and instructive interactions between the mesenchyme and epithelium. The study of Hh signaling in prostate development revealed important roles in ductal morphogenesis and in epithelial growth regulation that appear to be recapitulated in prostate cancer. This overview of Hh signaling in the prostate will address the well-described role of paracrine signaling prostate development as well as new evidence suggesting a role for autocrine signaling, the role of Hh signaling in prostate regeneration and reiterative activities in prostate cancer.

  15. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Tomasz M; Armstrong, Andrew J; Rathkopf, Dana E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in whom the disease has progressed after chemotherapy. New treatment options are needed for patients with metastatic prostate cancer who have...... the most common clinically relevant adverse events associated with enzalutamide treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Enzalutamide significantly decreased the risk of radiographic progression and death and delayed the initiation of chemotherapy in men with metastatic prostate cancer. (Funded by Medivation and Astellas...... skeletal-related event (hazard ratio, 0.72), a complete or partial soft-tissue response (59% vs. 5%), the time until prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression (hazard ratio, 0.17), and a rate of decline of at least 50% in PSA (78% vs. 3%) (P

  16. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  17. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years. PMID:21992488

  18. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atawodi, Sunday Eneojo

    2011-09-23

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years.

  19. [COCHRANE SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS ON PROSTATE CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, D

    2016-12-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor of the elderly, which accounts for a significant proportion of total morbidity but very low of mortality. In Croatia, it is the second most common cancer in men. Currently, there are many doubts concerning screening, early detection and treatment of prostate cancer. Therefore, this article brings results of Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) on the topic of prostate cancer published in the last eight years. In June 2016, Cochrane database of systematic reviews was searched using the following keywords: Systematic Reviews, and Prostate Cancer (Malignancy, Neoplasm). Inclusion criterion was publication date of the Cochrane SR or its update in the last eight years. The abstracts were initially screened and those that matched the topic were included in further analysis. Then full texts of all SRs involved were obtained. SRs were classified into four topics: prevention, screening, treatment and psychosocial aspects. Our search retrieved a total of 19 Cochrane SRs on the topic of prostate cancer. Excluded were four articles that did not match the specific topic, and the remaining 15 full texts were obtained. One of these was on screening, two on prevention, the majority, i.e. eleven were on treatment, and one on the psychosocial aspects related to prostate cancer. Based on the results of the Cochrane SRs on prostate cancer, instead of mass/population screening, the individualized/opportunistic screening approach should be applied in men aged 55-69, always providing full information to the patient and taking into account the potential benefits and harms of this procedure.

  20. Use of patient-specific MRI-based prostate mold for validation of multiparametric MRI in localization of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Hari; Turkbey, Baris; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R; Benjamin, Compton J; Bernardo, Marcelino; Pohida, Thomas; Shah, Vijay; Merino, Maria J; Wood, Bradford J; Linehan, W Marston; Venkatesan, Aradhana M; Choyke, Peter L; Pinto, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the use of a patient-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based prostate mold to generate histologic sections that directly correlate to axial MRI slices in a patient with anteriorly located prostate cancer. Anteriorly located prostate cancer has traditionally been difficult to detect on digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. Multiparametric MRI has potential as a valuable tool for the diagnosis and focal treatment of prostate cancer. A significant difficulty to date has been accurate correlation between the magnetic resonance images and histopathologic specimens. A patient-specific mold from a preoperative T2-weighted MRI scan was created to hold and shape the prostate specimen. Slots for slicing were positioned at 6-mm increments coplanar to the axial MRI slices. After surgical excision, the specimen was inked to maintain the orientation and fixed in formalin. The seminal vesicles were excised, and the prostate was oriented in the mold such that the color-coding matched the anatomic labels on the mold. The specimen was sliced with a single blade and the resultant 6-mm tissue blocks were used for histologic analysis. Preoperative multiparametric MRI revealed a lesion in the right anterior transition zone that was positive on T2-weighed MRI, apparent diffusion coefficient maps of diffusion-weighted MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. The histologic sections obtained using the mold demonstrated a similar Gleason score 6 (3+3) lesion in the right anterior transition zone, correlating with the MRI findings. The use of patient-specific prostate molds to register the MRI findings with the histopathologic specimen in prostate cancer could offer several benefits compared with current specimen processing techniques. This technique might further validate MRI as an accurate tool for prostate cancer localization and staging. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Micrornas in prostate cancer: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Sabrina; Cavaliere, Carla; D'Aniello, Carmine; Di Franco, Rossella; Romano, Francesco Jacopo; Montanari, Micaela; La Mantia, Elvira; Piscitelli, Raffaele; Nocerino, Flavia; Cappuccio, Francesca; Grimaldi, Giovanni; Izzo, Alessandro; Castaldo, Luigi; Pepe, Maria Filomena; Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Iovane, Gelsomina; Ametrano, Gianluca; Stiuso, Paola; Quagliuolo, Lucio; Barberio, Daniela; Perdonà, Sisto; Muto, Paolo; Montella, Maurizio; Maiolino, Piera; Veneziani, Bianca Maria; Botti, Gerardo; Caraglia, Michele; Facchini, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second highest cause of cancer mortality after lung tumours. In USA it affects about 2.8 million men and the incidence increases with age in many countries. Therefore, early diagnosis is a very important step for patient clinical evaluation and for a selective and efficient therapy. The study of miRNAs' functions and molecular mechanisms has brought new knowledge in biological processes of cancer. In prostate cancer there is a deregulation of several miRNAs that may function as tumour suppressors or oncogenes. The aim of this review is to analyze the progress made to our understanding of the role of miRNA dysregulation in prostate cancer tumourigenesis. PMID:28445135

  2. Psychosocial Intervention In Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potočníková Jana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide for males, and the fifth most common cancer overall. Using of autogenic training could reduce the influence of ADT and raise quality of prostate cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of autogenic training in patients with prostate cancer. Patients were divided to experimental and control group. Experimental group participated in fourteen weeks long autogenic training program. Control group performed usual daily activities. Every subject of research performed input and output diagnostics which monitored psychical states of patients by psychological standardized tests - Differential questionnaire of depression (DDF and Questionnaire of anxiety (STAI X1. Our data showed autogenic training program significant improved depressions symptoms and anxiety in experimental research group (p ≤ 0.05, however there was no main change of depression symptoms and anxiety values for control group (p = n.s..

  3. Weight change, obesity and risk of prostate cancer progression among men with clinically localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerman, Barbra A; Ahearn, Thomas U; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir J; Nguyen, Paul L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Wilson, Kathryn M

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of fatal prostate cancer. We aimed to elucidate the importance and relevant timing of obesity and weight change for prostate cancer progression. We identified 5,158 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (clinical stage T1/T2) from 1986 to 2012 in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Men were followed for biochemical recurrence and lethal prostate cancer (development of distant metastasis or prostate cancer-specific mortality) until 2012. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for body mass index (BMI) at age 21, BMI at diagnosis, "long-term" weight change from age 21 to diagnosis and "short-term" weight change over spans of 4 and 8 years preceding diagnosis. Because weight, weight change and mortality are strongly associated with smoking, we repeated analyses among never smokers only (N = 2,559). Among all patients, neither weight change nor BMI (at age 21 or at diagnosis) was associated with lethal prostate cancer. Among never smokers, long-term weight gain was associated with an increased risk of lethal disease (HR for gaining >30 pounds vs. stable weight [±10 pounds] 1.59, 95% CI, 1.01-2.50, p-trend = 0.06). Associations between weight change, BMI and lethal prostate cancer were stronger for men with BMI ≥ 25 at age 21 compared to those with BMI obesity were not associated with an increased risk of biochemical recurrence. Our findings among never smoker men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer suggest a positive association between long-term weight gain and risk of lethal prostate cancer. Metabolic changes associated with weight gain may promote prostate cancer progression. © 2017 UICC.

  4. Tumor Restrictive Gene Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardner, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    ...) to specifically target and lyse cells of an androgen independent prostate cancer osseous metastasis, which account for a majority of the morbidity and mortality experience by men with prostate cancer...

  5. Tumor Restrictive Gene Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardner, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...) to specifically target and lyse cells of an androgen independent prostate cancer osseous metastasis, which account for a majority of the morbidity and mortality experience by men with prostate cancer...

  6. The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hait, William

    2004-01-01

    The Dean and Betty Gallo Prostate Cancer Center (GPCC) was established with the goal of eradicating prostate cancer and improving the lives of men at risk for the disease through research, treatment, education and prevention...

  7. CHK2, A Candidate Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Gene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Wanguo

    2005-01-01

    .... However, this area has been understudied in prostate cancer. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that genetic defects in this pathway may confer susceptibility to prostate cancer using a mutation screening of candidate gene approach...

  8. 75 FR 54453 - National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... several factors that may increase a man's risk of developing prostate cancer, including age, race, and..., husbands, and sons battling prostate cancer, as well as their families and the health care providers...

  9. Proto-oncogene PML and Tumor Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zheng, Pan

    2000-01-01

    ... determined. We have proposed to identify the antigen presentation defects in prostate cancer, to examine the role of proto-oncogene PML in HLA class I down regulation in prostate cancer, and to study the immune...

  10. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familial prostate cancer is associated with certain inherited gene mutations (variants). Learn about the hereditary prostate cancer genes, genetic testing, clinical management, and psychosocial issues in this expert-reviewed summary.

  11. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  12. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  13. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  14. Multispectral Photoacoustic Imaging of Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Ex-vivo Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Vikram S; Chinni, Bhargava K; Valluru, Keerthi S; Joseph, Jean V; Ghazi, Ahmed; Yao, Jorge L; Evans, Katie; Messing, Edward M; Rao, Navalgund A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to validate if ex-vivo multispectral photoacoustic (PA) imaging can differentiate between malignant prostate tissue, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and normal human prostate tissue. Institutional Review Board's approval was obtained for this study. A total of 30 patients undergoing prostatectomy for biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer were included in this study with informed consent. Multispectral PA imaging was performed on surgically excised prostate tissue and chromophore images that represent optical absorption of deoxyhemoglobin (dHb), oxyhemoglobin (HbO2), lipid, and water were reconstructed. After the imaging procedure is completed, malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate regions were marked by the genitourinary pathologist on histopathology slides and digital images of marked histopathology slides were obtained. The histopathology images were co-registered with chromophore images. Region of interest (ROI) corresponding to malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate were defined on the chromophore images. Pixel values within each ROI were then averaged to determine mean intensities of dHb, HbO2, lipid, and water. Our preliminary results show that there is statistically significant difference in mean intensity of dHb (P imaging system were found to be 81.3%, 96.2%, 92.9% and 89.3% respectively. Our preliminary results of ex-vivo human prostate study suggest that multispectral PA imaging can differentiate between malignant prostate, BPH and normal prostate tissue.

  15. Bisphosphonates for advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macherey, Sascha; Monsef, Ina; Jahn, Franziska; Jordan, Karin; Yuen, Kwok Keung; Heidenreich, Axel; Skoetz, Nicole

    2017-12-26

    The prevalence and incidence of pain and skeletal complications of metastatic bone disease such as pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia is high and an important contributor to morbidity, poor performance status and decreased quality of life. Moreover, pathologic fractures are associated with increased risk of death in people with disseminated malignancies. Therefore, prevention of pain and fractures are important goals in men with prostate cancer at risk for skeletal complications. To assess the effects of bisphosphonates in men with bone metastases from prostate cancer. We identified studies by electronic search of bibliographic databases including the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and MEDLINE on 13 July 2017 and trial registries. We handsearched the Proceedings of American Society of Clinical Oncology (to July 2017) and reference lists of all eligible trials identified. This is an update of a review last published in 2006. We included randomized controlled studies comparing the effectiveness of bisphosphonates in men with bone metastases from prostate cancer. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of trials. We defined the proportion of participants with pain response as the primary end point; secondary outcomes were skeletal-related events, mortality, quality of life, adverse events, analgesic consumption and disease progression. We assessed the quality of the evidence for the main outcomes using the GRADE approach. We included 18 trials reporting on 4843 participants comparing the effect of bisphosphonate administration to control regimens. there was no clear difference in the proportion of participants with pain response (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.43; P = 0.20; I 2 = 0%; 3 trials; 876 participants; low quality evidence). In absolute terms, bisphosphonates resulted in a pain response in 40 more participants per 1000 (19 fewer to 114 more). bisphosphonates probably reduced the incidence of

  16. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  17. Primary radiation therapy in the treatment of localized prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensuu, T.K.; Blomqvist, C.P.; Kajanti, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma is one of the leading causes of male cancer deaths. However, the routine diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have not yet been established. Although the outcome of surgical and radiotherapeutical approaches has frequently been reported to be comparable, the profile of side effects is different. This could offer the basis for selecting the treatment of choice in individual cases. During the last decade the radiotherapeutical technique has markedly improved, in part due to the achievements in the field of computer assisted tomography planning and conformal technique; the outcome of side-effects has decreased with concurrent increase in the rate of local control. The prescribing, recording and reporting of irradiation have also recently developed, as well as the staging of the disease. Therefore we consider it timely to review progress in this subject and to emphasize the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of localized prostatic cancer. (orig.)

  18. Radical prostatectomy for locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeratterapillay, R; Goonewardene, S S; Barclay, J; Persad, R; Bach, C

    2017-04-01

    The management of advanced prostate cancer remains challenging. Traditionally, radical prostatectomy was discouraged in patients with locally advanced or node positive disease owing to the increased complication rate and treatment related morbidity. However, technical advances and refinements in surgical techniques have enabled the outcomes for patients with high risk prostate cancer to be improved. More recently, the concept of cytoreductive prostatectomy has been described where surgery (often Combined with an extended lymph node dissection) is performed in the setting of metastatic disease. Indirect evidence suggests an advantage using the cytoreductive approach. Hypothetical explanations for this observed benefit include decreased tumour burden, immune modulation, improved response to secondary treatment and avoidance of secondary complications attributable to local tumour growth. Nevertheless, prospective trials are required to investigate this further.

  19. Organoid cultures derived from patients with advanced prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Dong; Vela, Ian; Sboner, Andrea; Iaquinta, Phillip J; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gopalan, Anuradha; Dowling, Catherine; Wanjala, Jackline N; Undvall, Eva A; Arora, Vivek K; Wongvipat, John; Kossai, Myriam; Ramazanoglu, Sinan; Barboza, Luendreo P; Di, Wei; Cao, Zhen; Zhang, Qi Fan; Sirota, Inna; Ran, Leili; MacDonald, Theresa Y; Beltran, Himisha; Mosquera, Juan-Miguel; Touijer, Karim A; Scardino, Peter T; Laudone, Vincent P; Curtis, Kristen R; Rathkopf, Dana E; Morris, Michael J; Danila, Daniel C; Slovin, Susan F; Solomon, Stephen B; Eastham, James A; Chi, Ping; Carver, Brett; Rubin, Mark A; Scher, Howard I; Clevers, Hans; Sawyers, Charles L; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The lack of in vitro prostate cancer models that recapitulate the diversity of human prostate cancer has hampered progress in understanding disease pathogenesis and therapy response. Using a 3D organoid system, we report success in long-term culture of prostate cancer from biopsy specimens and

  20. Height, selected genetic markers and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence on height and prostate cancer risk is mixed, however, recent studies with large data sets support a possible role for its association with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. METHODS: We analysed data from the PRACTICAL consortium consisting of 6207 prostate cancer cases ...

  1. CDK5 A Novel Role in Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    combination with immunotherapies, including immune checkpoint blockers, a prostate cancer vaccine , and other agents will be conducted and optimized...combination with immunotherapies, including immune checkpoint blockers, a prostate cancer vaccine , and other agents based on our findings in Specific...KEYWORDS: Prostate cancer, CDK5, immunotherapy, vaccine , tumor microenvironment 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS: What were the major goals of the project? Major

  2. Height, selected genetic markers and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2017-01-01

    Background:Evidence on height and prostate cancer risk is mixed, however, recent studies with large data sets support a possible role for its association with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.Methods:We analysed data from the PRACTICAL consortium consisting of 6207 prostate cancer cases and...

  3. Expression of KLK2 gene in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Shafai

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The expression of KLK2 gene in people with prostate cancer is the higher than the healthy person; finally, according to the results, it could be mentioned that the KLK2 gene considered as a useful factor in prostate cancer, whose expression is associated with progression and development of the prostate cancer.

  4. Prostate cancer diagnosis: the impact on patients' mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, Ida J.; de Koning, Harry J.; Roobol, Monique; Schröder, Fritz H.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2006-01-01

    Because the introduction of PSA testing has increased the reported incidence of prostate cancer, this study assessed the mental impact on men after receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Participants in a prostate cancer screening trial (ERSPC) completed a questionnaire on health and, if

  5. Neck mass: An unusual presentation of prostate cancer metastasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, prostate cancer is a disease of public health importance and it is most common among men between 60 to 70 years of age. Distant primaries involving supraclavicular nodes secondary to prostate cancer is very rare. This report is a case of an unusual presentation of prostate cancer manifesting as a huge neck ...

  6. Advantages of high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy in treatment of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molokov, A. A.; Vanina, E. A.; Tseluyko, S. S.

    2017-09-01

    One of the modern methods of preserving organs radiation treatment is brachytherapy. This article analyzes the results of prostate brachytherapy. These studies of the advantages of high dose brachytherapy lead to the conclusion that this method of radiation treatment for prostate cancer has a favorable advantage in comparison with remote sensing methods, and is competitive, preserving organs in comparison to surgical methods of treatment. The use of the method of polyfocal transperineal biopsy during the brachytherapy session provides information on the volumetric spread of prostate cancer and adjust the dosimetry plan taking into account the obtained data.

  7. Psychosocial Consequences of Overdiagnostic of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigrid Brisson

    by opportunistic PSA screening in General Practice. It is recommended that men ≥ 60 year old diagnosed with prostate cancer and a Gleason score ≤ 6 are monitored with active surveillance. This is due to the probability of this type of cancer metastasizing is very small as approximately 90 % of them is assumed...... to be overdiagnosed. The purpose of active surveillance described above is to spare patients from sequlae due to possible overtreatment. The problem with this approach is that there can be severe negative psychosocial consequences with being overdiagnosed with prostate cancer. In international literature a Canadian...... of this study was to examine qualitative which psychosocial consequences men diagnosed with prostate cancer Gleason score ≤ 6 who is under active surveillance experiences. The informants was divided into three sub groups. The first group was men

  8. Genomes of early onset prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Korbel, Jan O.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Prostate cancer is a disease of the elderly but a clinically relevant subset occurs early in life. In the current review, we discuss recent findings and the current understanding of the molecular underpinnings associated with early-onset prostate cancer (PCa) and the evidence...... supporting age-specific differences in the cancer genomes. Recent findings Recent surveys of PCa patient cohorts have provided novel age-dependent links between germline and somatic aberrations which points to differences in the molecular cause and treatment options. Summary Identifying the earliest...

  9. Baseline Prostate Atrophy is Associated with Reduced Risk of Prostate Cancer in Men Undergoing Repeat Prostate Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Daniel M; Bostwick, David G; Andriole, Gerald L; Peterson, Bercedis L; Cohen, Harvey J; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Freedland, Stephen J

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated whether the presence and severity of baseline prostate atrophy in men with initial biopsy negative for prostate cancer was associated the risk of subsequent prostate cancer detection in a clinical trial with scheduled study mandated biopsies. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 3,084 men 50 to 75 years old with prostate specific antigen between 2.5 and 10 ng/ml, and a prior negative biopsy in the placebo arm of the REDUCE (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) study who completed at least 1 per-protocol biopsy. Prostate cancer (defined as present or absent) and prostate atrophy (graded as absent, mild or moderate/marked) was assessed by central pathology review. The association of baseline atrophy with positive 2 and 4-year repeat biopsies was evaluated with logistic regression, controlling for baseline covariates. Baseline prostate atrophy was detected in 2,143 men (70%) and graded as mild and moderate/marked in 1,843 (60%) and 300 (10%) baseline biopsies, respectively. Patients with atrophy were older and had a larger prostate, and more acute and chronic prostate inflammation. At 2-year biopsy the prostate cancer incidence was 17% (508 cases). Baseline atrophy was significantly associated with lower prostate cancer risk (univariable and multivariable OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.50-0.74 and OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.54-0.83, p atrophy the prostate cancer risk at the 2-year repeat biopsy was lower for mild atrophy (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.86) and moderate/marked atrophy (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34-0.76, each p atrophy in men with a prostate biopsy negative for prostate cancer was independently associated with subsequent lower prostate cancer detection. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. COPING STRATEGIES IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Gardanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of psycho-emotional disorders of patients with malignant diseases of the prostate is not doubt, because timely correction contributes to the shortening of rehabilitation period and restoration of the quality of life of patients after treatment. Detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer for many patients is stressful and causes changes in the affective sphere, and manifests itself in increased levels of anxiety and depression in men. To cope with stress is possible due to the used coping strategies.Purpose. Studying the coping mechanisms in prostate cancer patients.Materials and methods. 56 men treated in FGBU "LRTS" Russian Ministry of Health. The average age was 65.7 ± 6.1 years. The average duration of the disease prostate cancer is 3 ± 2 months. All men were subjected to the standard algorithm for the evaluation of hormonal status, the PSA, taking a history, inspection and physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy of bones of a skeleton. All the patients underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Psychological testing with the use of the method of "Coping test" the scale of reactive and personal anxiety for the differentiated evaluation of anxiety. Results. The most common for prostate cancer revealed constructive coping strategies are "planning solve", "selfcontrol" and "search of social support". According to the scale Spielberg–Hanin a high level of situational anxiety was revealed.Conclusion. According to the results of the research, patients with prostate cancer are likely to use constructive coping strategies, that leads to stabilization of psycho-emotional state of men and promotes more effective adaptation in the terms of stress, that is caused by treatment of prostate cancer.

  11. The Role of Dietary Fat throughout the Prostate Cancer Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M. Di Sebastiano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed world-wide; however, patients demonstrate exceptionally high survival rates. Many lifestyle factors, including obesity and diet, are considered risk factors for advanced prostate cancer. Dietary fat is a fundamental contributor to obesity and may be specifically important for prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer treatment can result in changes in body composition, affecting quality of life for survivors by increasing the risk of co-morbidities, like cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We aim to examine dietary fat throughout the prostate cancer treatment trajectory, including risk, cancer development and survivorship. Focusing on one specific nutrient throughout the prostate cancer trajectory provides a unique perspective of dietary fat in prostate cancer and the mechanisms that may exacerbate prostate cancer risk, progression and recurrence. Through this approach, we noted that high intake of dietary fat, especially, high intake of animal and saturated fats, may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk. In contrast, a low-fat diet, specifically low in saturated fat, may be beneficial for prostate cancer survivors by reducing tumor angiogenesis and cancer recurrence. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF/Akt signaling pathway appears to be the key pathway moderating dietary fat intake and prostate cancer development and progression.

  12. Predictive value of prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Leah; Borges, Alvaro Humberto; Ravn, Lene

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics and predict......INTRODUCTION: Although prostate cancer (PCa) incidence is lower in HIV+ men than in HIV- men, the usefulness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in this population is not well defined and may have higher false negative rates than in HIV- men. We aimed to describe the kinetics...... and predictive value of PSA in HIV+ men. METHODS: Men with PCa (n=21) and up to two matched controls (n=40) with prospectively stored plasma samples before PCa (or matched date in controls) were selected. Cases and controls were matched on date of first and last sample, age, region of residence and CD4 count...... at first sample date. Total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Conditional logistic regression models investigated associations between markers and PCa. Sensitivity and specificity of using tPSA >4 µg/L to predict PCa was calculated. Mixed...

  13. FDA Expands Abiraterone Approval for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The FDA has expanded the approval of abiraterone (Zytiga) to treat men with metastatic prostate cancer. The agency approved abiraterone, in combination with prednisone, for men whose cancer that is responsive to hormone-blocking treatments (also known as castration-sensitive) and is at high risk of progressing.

  14. Cytoreductive prostatectomy in metastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Joachim Aidt; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The impact of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy on oncological outcome in patients with prostate cancer and limited number of bone metastases is unclear. Data from cancer registries, multi-institutional databases and a single institutional case-control study indicate a possible benefit...

  15. Efficacy and safety of photoselective vaporization of the prostate in patients with prostatic obstruction induced by advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Tso Cheng

    2011-07-01

    Conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that PVP is a safe and effective procedure for relieving prostatic obstruction without intraoperative blood transfusion, water intoxication, or other complications in patients with advanced prostate cancer.

  16. Combined androgen blockade in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer--an overview. The Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1997-01-01

    The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed.......The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed....

  17. Prostate Specific Antigen and Prostate Cancer in Chinese Men Undergoing Initial Prostate Biopsies Compared with Western Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Huang, Yiran; Xie, Liping; Zhou, Liqun; He, Dalin; Vickers, Andrew J; Sun, Yinghao

    2017-01-01

    We determined the characteristics of Chinese men undergoing initial prostate biopsy and evaluated the relationship between prostate specific antigen levels and prostate cancer/high grade prostate cancer detection in a large Chinese multicenter cohort. This retrospective study included 13,904 urology outpatients who had undergone biopsy for the indications of prostate specific antigen greater than 4.0 ng/ml or prostate specific antigen less than 4.0 ng/ml but with abnormal digital rectal examination results. The prostate specific antigen measurements were performed in accordance with the standard procedures at the respective institutions. The type of assay used was documented and recalibrated to the WHO standard. The incidence of prostate cancer and high grade prostate cancer was lower in the Chinese cohort than the Western cohorts at any given prostate specific antigen level. Around 25% of patients with a prostate specific antigen of 4.0 to 10.0 ng/ml were found to have prostate cancer compared to approximately 40% in U.S. clinical practice. Moreover, the risk curves were generally flatter than those of the Western cohorts, that is risk did not increase as rapidly with higher prostate specific antigen. The relationship between prostate specific antigen and prostate cancer risk differs importantly between Chinese and Western populations, with an overall lower risk in the Chinese cohort. Further research should explore whether environmental or genetic differences explain these findings or whether they result from unmeasured differences in screening or benign prostate disease. Caution is required for the implementation of prostate cancer clinical decision rules or prediction models for men in China or other Asian countries with similar genetic and environmental backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging of the prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Guojin; Gong Honghan; Zeng Xianjun; Jiang Jian; Zhou Fuqing; Hu Zhenzhen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of DTI for prostate cancer. Methods: From October 2009 to December 2010,44 patients suspected of prostate cancer received MRI and DTI. The data of MRI and DTI were analyzed retrospectively. By histopathology, prostate cancer was proved in 16 patients,and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was proved in 28 patients. Differences in ADC and FA values between prostate cancer and BPH were compared by independent samples t test. Diagnostic accuracy of FA value and ADC value for prostate cancer was analyzed by using ROC curve, and the diagnostic threshold of FA value and ADC value for prostate cancer was determined. Results: The mean FA value of the tumor regions and BPH were 0.308±0.084 and 0.203 ±0.029, respectively. The mean ADC value of the tumor regions and BPH were (0.883±0.192) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s and ( 1.408 ±0.130) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in ADC and FA values between tumor regions and BPH (t values were 4.833 and 10.779 respectively, P<0.01). The ADC value area under curve of ROC was 0.996 (95% CI was 0.984 to 1.007); the FA value area under curve of ROC was 0.904 (95% CI was 0.812 to 0.996); Combined the FA and ADC value area under curve of ROC is 0.996 (95% CI was 0.984 to 1.007); Using the ADC value of 0.725 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s as the ROC cut off point, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% and 96.0%, respectively; Using the FA value of 0.311 as the ROC cut off point,the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity was 100.0% and 68.7%, respectively. Conclusion: DTI imaging can provide valuable information for prostate cancer diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and improve the diagnosis ability of prostate cancer. (authors)

  19. Prostate radiation in non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer provides an interesting insight into biology of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoe Abigail C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural history of non-metastatic castrate refractory prostate cancer is unknown and treatment options are limited. We present a retrospective review of 13 patients with locally advanced or high risk prostate cancer, initially treated with hormone monotherapy and then treated with prostate radiation after becoming castration refractory. Findings Median PSA response following prostate radiation was 67.4%. Median time to biochemical progression following radiotherapy was 15 months and to detection of metastatic disease was 18.5 months. Median survival from castration resistance (to date of death or November 2011 was 60 months, with median survival from RT 42 months. Conclusion Prostate radiation appears to be beneficial even in patients with potential micrometastatic disease, which supports the hypothesis that the primary tumour is important in the progression of prostate cancer. These results are an interesting addition to the literature on the biology of prostate cancer especially as this data is unlikely to be available in the future due to combined prostate radiation and androgen deprivation therapy now being the standard of care.

  20. [Surgery of prostate cancer: Technical principles and perioperative complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, L; Rozet, F; Soulié, M

    2015-11-01

    To describe the surgical procedure of localized prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy. Bibliography search was performed from the Medline database (National Library of Medicine, PubMed) selected according to the scientific relevance. The research was focused on historic of radical prostatectomy, surgical anatomy, surgical technics of radical prostatectomy and lymph nodes excision, and complications. During the last 30 years, evolution of radical prostatectomy was important, from open to mini-invasive surgery with or without robotic assistance. Anatomical knowledge of the prostate was useful to describe the different anatomical structure as urinary sphincter and fascias, and to develop different procedure of neurovascular bundles preservation to ameliorate functional results. Complications are well-known and their taking-over more precise. Results of radical prostatectomy depend less of the surgical approach but more of the attitude of the surgeon according to the characteristics of the tumor and the functional status of the patient. Radical prostatectomy is an elaborate and challenging procedure when carcinological risk balances with functional results. Nevertheless, complications are quite rare. Improvement of results is due to adequation between surgical procedure and oncological and functional status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Individual Risk Assessment on Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. van Vugt (Heidi)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCurrent prostate-specific antigen screening practice leads to two important unwanted side effects; first of all screening induces many unnecessary prostate biopsies and secondly it leads to overdiagnosis and overtreatment of prostate cancer. The large amount of unnecessary prostate

  2. Unfoldomics of prostate cancer: on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Kevin S; Na, Insung; Schenck, Ryan O; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic diseases such as prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are highly prevalent among men. The number of studies focused on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer is rather limited. The goal of this study is to analyze the prevalence and degree of disorder in proteins that were previously associated with the prostate cancer pathogenesis and to compare these proteins to the entire human proteome. The analysis of these datasets provides means for drawing conclusions on the roles of disordered proteins in this common male disease. We also hope that the results of our analysis can potentially lead to future experimental studies of these proteins to find novel pathways associated with this disease. PMID:27453073

  3. From Prostate to Bone: Key Players in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thobe, Megan N.; Clark, Robert J.; Bainer, Russell O.; Prasad, Sandip M.; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W.

    2011-01-01

    Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of primary prostate tumors, our knowledge of how and why secondary tumors derived from prostate cancer cells preferentially localize bone remains limited. The physiochemical properties of bone, and signaling molecules including specific chemokines and their receptors, are distinct in nature and function, yet play intricate and significant roles in prostate cancer bone metastasis. Examining the impact of these facets of bone metastasis in vivo remains a significant challenge, as animal models that mimic the natural history and malignant progression clinical prostate cancer are rare. The goals of this article are to discuss (1) characteristics of bone that most likely render it a favorable environment for prostate tumor cell growth, (2) chemokine signaling that is critical in the recruitment and migration of prostate cancer cells to the bone, and (3) current animal models utilized in studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. Further research is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the extravasation of disseminated prostate cancer cells into the bone and to provide a better understanding of the basis of cancer cell survival within the bone microenvironment. The development of animal models that recapitulate more closely the human clinical scenario of prostate cancer will greatly benefit the generation of better therapies

  4. Primary cilia are lost in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia B Hassounah

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Little is known about the role of primary cilia in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. However, reduced cilia expression has been observed in human cancers including pancreatic cancer, renal cell carcinoma, breast cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, and melanoma. The aim of this study was to characterize primary cilia expression in preinvasive and invasive human prostate cancer, and to investigate the correlation between primary cilia and the Wnt signaling pathway. Human prostate tissues representative of stages of prostate cancer formation (normal prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, and invasive prostate cancer (including perineural invasion were stained for ciliary proteins. The frequency of primary cilia was determined. A decrease in the percentage of ciliated cells in PIN, invasive cancer and perineural invasion lesions was observed when compared to normal. Cilia lengths were also measured to indirectly test functionality. Cilia were shorter in PIN, cancer, and perineural invasion lesions, suggesting dysfunction. Primary cilia have been shown to suppress the Wnt pathway. Increased Wnt signaling has been implicated in prostate cancer. Therefore, we investigated a correlation between loss of primary cilia and increased Wnt signaling in normal prostate and in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. To investigate Wnt signaling in our cohort, serial tissue sections were stained for β-catenin as a measure of Wnt signaling. Nuclear β-catenin was analyzed and Wnt signaling was found to be higher in un-ciliated cells in the normal prostate, PIN, a subset of invasive cancers, and perineural invasion. Our results suggest that cilia normally function to suppress the Wnt signaling pathway in epithelial cells and that cilia loss may play a role in increased Wnt signaling in some prostate cancers. These results suggest that cilia are dysfunctional in human

  5. Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy for Patients with Prostatic Cancer and Factors Promoting Installation of the Robotic Surgical Equipment-Questionnaire Survey

    OpenAIRE

    塚本, 泰司; 田中, 滋

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey of hospitals with robot-assisted surgical equipment to study changes of the surgical case loads after its installation and the managerial strategies for its purchase. The study included 154 hospitals (as of April 2014) that were queried about their radical prostatectomy case loads from January 2009 to December 2013, strategies for installation of the equipment in their hospitals, and other topics related to the study purpose. The overall response rate of ho...

  6. Prostate Cancer Genetics: Variation by Race, Ethnicity, and Geography

    OpenAIRE

    Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer rates vary substantially by race, ethnicity, and geography. These disparities can be explained by variation in access to screening and treatment, variation in exposure to prostate cancer risk factors, and variation in the underlying biology of prostate carcinogenesis (including genomic propensity of some groups to develop biologically aggressive disease). It is clear that access to screening and treatment are critical influencers of prostate cancer rates, yet even among geogra...

  7. LIGHT: A Novel Immunotherapy for Primary and Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    1  AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0518 TITLE: LIGHT: A Novel Immunotherapy for Primary and Metastatic Prostate Cancer...COVERED 1 Sep 2011 - 31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LIGHT: A Novel Immunotherapy for Primary and Metastatic Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...prostate, immunotherapy may be the only way to treat it [6, 7]. A majority of clinical trials for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer have yielded

  8. Prostate cancer mortality in screen and clinically detected prostate cancer : Estimating the screening benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J.; Connolly, David; Gavin, Anna; Roobol, Monique J.; Black, Amanda; Bangma, Chris H.; Schroder, Fritz H.

    Background: To estimate the benefits of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening on prostate cancer (Pca) metastasis and Pca-specific mortality, we compared two populations with a well-defined difference in intensity of screening. Methods: Between 1997 and 1999, a total of 11,970 men, aged 55-74

  9. Pubertal development and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J; Martin, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have observed a positive association between an earlier age at sexual development and prostate cancer, but markers of sexual maturation in boys are imprecise and observational estimates are likely to suffer from a degree of uncontrolled confounding. To obtain...... causal estimates, we examined the role of pubertal development in prostate cancer using genetic polymorphisms associated with Tanner stage in adolescent boys in a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. METHODS: We derived a weighted genetic risk score for pubertal development, combining 13 SNPs...... associated with male Tanner stage. A higher score indicated a later puberty onset. We examined the association of this score with prostate cancer risk, stage and grade in the UK-based ProtecT case-control study (n = 2,927), and used the PRACTICAL consortium (n = 43,737) as a replication sample. RESULTS...

  10. Glucocorticoids and prostate cancer treatment: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Bruce; Cheng, Heather H; Drechsler, James; Mostaghel, Elahe A

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have been used in the treatment of prostate cancer to slow disease progression, improve pain control and offset side effects of chemo- and hormonal therapy. However, they may also have the potential to drive prostate cancer growth via mutated androgen receptors or glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). In this review we examine historical and contemporary use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of prostate cancer, review potential mechanisms by which they may inhibit or drive prostate cancer growth, and describe potential means of defining their contribution to the biology of prostate cancer. PMID:24625881

  11. A novel minimally invasive dual-modality fiber optic probe for prostate cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikrant

    Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in males, and is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in United States. In prostate cancer diagnostics and therapy, there is a critical need for a minimally invasive tool for in vivo evaluation of prostate tissue. Such a tool finds its niche in improving TRUS (trans-rectal ultrasound) guided biopsy procedure, surgical margin assessment during radical prostatectomy, and active surveillance of patients with a certain risk levels. This work is focused on development of a fiber-based dual-modality optical device (dMOD), to differentiate prostate cancer from benign tissue, in vivo. dMOD utilizes two independent optical techniques, LRS (light reflectance spectroscopy) and AFLS (auto-fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy). LRS quantifies scattering coefficient of the tissue, as well as concentrations of major tissue chromophores like hemoglobin derivatives, β-carotene and melanin. AFLS was designed to target lifetime signatures of multiple endogenous fluorophores like flavins, porphyrins and lipo-pigments. Each of these methods was independently developed, and the two modalities were integrated using a thin (1-mm outer diameter) fiber-optic probe. Resulting dMOD probe was implemented and evaluated on animal models of prostate cancer, as well as on human prostate tissue. Application of dMOD to human breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma) identification was also evaluated. The results obtained reveal that both LRS and AFLS are excellent techniques to discriminate prostate cancer tissue from surrounding benign tissue in animal models. Each technique independently is capable of providing near absolute (100%) accuracy for cancer detection, indicating that either of them could be used independently without the need of implementing them together. Also, in case of human breast cancer, LRS and AFLS provided comparable accuracies to dMOD, LRS accuracy (96%) being the highest for the studied population. However, the

  12. [Radiotherapy in node-positive prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, D; Bartkowiak, D; Bolenz, C; Wiegel, T

    2016-03-01

    There are numerous randomized trials to guide the management of patients with localized (and metastatic) prostate cancer, but only a few (mostly retrospective) studies have specifically addressed node-positive patients. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding optimal treatment in this situation. Current guidelines recommend long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone or radiotherapy plus long-term ADT as treatment options. This overview summarizes the existing literature on the use of radiotherapy for node-positive prostate cancer as definitive treatment and as adjuvant or salvage therapy after radical prostatectomy. In this context, we also discuss several PET tracers in the imaging evaluation of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. As for definitive treatment, retrospective studies suggest that ADT plus radiotherapy improves overall survival compared with ADT alone. These studies also consistently demonstrated that many patients with node-positive prostate cancer can achieve long-term survival - and are likely curable - with aggressive therapy. The beneficial impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in patients with pN1 prostate cancer seems to be highly influenced by tumor characteristics. Men with ≤ 2 positive lymph nodes in the presence of intermediate- to high-grade disease, or positive margins, and those with 3 or 4 positive lymph nodes are the ideal candidates for adjuvant radiotherapy (plus long-term ADT) after surgery. There is a need for randomized trials to further examine the potential role of radiotherapy as either definitive or adjuvant treatment, for patients with node-positive prostate cancer.

  13. CXCL5 Promotes Prostate Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesa A Begley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available CXCL5 is a proangiogenic CXC-type chemokine that is an inflammatory mediator and a powerful attractant for granulocytic immune cells. Unlike many other chemokines, CXCL5 is secreted by both immune (neutrophil, monocyte, and macrophage and nonimmune (epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cell types. The current study was intended to determine which of these cell types express CXCL5 in normal and malignant human prostatic tissues, whether expression levels correlated with malignancy and whether CXCL5 stimulated biologic effects consistent with a benign or malignant prostate epithelial phenotype. The results of these studies show that CXCL5 protein expression levels are concordant with prostate tumor progression, are highly associated with inflammatory infiltrate, and are frequently detected in the lumens of both benign and malignant prostate glands. Exogenous administration of CXCL5 stimulates cellular proliferation and gene transcription in both nontransformed and transformed prostate epithelial cells and induces highly aggressive prostate cancer cells to invade through synthetic basement membrane in vitro. These findings suggest that the inflammatory mediator, CXCL5, may play multiple roles in the etiology of both benign and malignant proliferative diseases in the prostate.

  14. Characterization of adenoviral transduction profile in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jianzhong; Tai, Phillip W L; Lu, Yi; Li, Jia; Ma, Hong; Su, Qin; Wei, Qiang; Li, Hong; Gao, Guangping

    2017-09-01

    Prostate diseases are common in males worldwide with high morbidity. Gene therapy is an attractive therapeutic strategy for prostate diseases, however, it is currently underdeveloped. As well known, adeno virus (Ad) is the most widely used gene therapy vector. The aims of this study are to explore transduction efficiency of Ad in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue, thus further providing guidance for future prostate pathophysiological studies and therapeutic development of prostate diseases. We produced Ad expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), and characterized the transduction efficiency of Ad in both human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines in vitro, as well as prostate tumor xenograft, and wild-type mouse prostate tissue in vivo. Ad transduction efficiency was determined by EGFP fluorescence using microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell type-specific transduction was examined by immunofluorescence staining of cell markers. Our data showed that Ad efficiently transduced human and mouse prostate cancer cells in vitro in a dose dependent manner. Following intratumoral and intraprostate injection, Ad could efficiently transduce prostate tumor xenograft and the major prostatic cell types in vivo, respectively. Our findings suggest that Ad can efficiently transduce prostate tumor cells in vitro as well as xenograft and normal prostate tissue in vivo, and further indicate that Ad could be a potentially powerful toolbox for future gene therapy of prostate diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Targeting neuroendocrine differentiation for prostate cancer radiosensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    progression. Prostate, 2007. 67(7): p. 764-73. 17. Deeble, P.D., et al., Interleukin-6- and cyclic AMP -mediated signaling potentiates neuroendocrine...intracellular cyclic AMP . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1994. 91(12): p. 5330-4. 25. Amorino, G.P. and S.J. Parsons, Neuroendocrine cells in prostate cancer...Aggarwal S, Kim SW, Ryu SH, Chung WC and Koo JS. Growth suppression of lung cancer cells by targeting cyclic AMP response ele- ment-binding protein

  16. TRPM4 protein expression in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Soldini, Davide; Jung, Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 (TRPM4) messenger RNA (mRNA) has been shown to be upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and might be a new promising tissue biomarker. We evaluated TRPM4 protein expression and correlated the expression level.......79-2.62; p = 0.01-0.03 for the two observers) when compared to patients with a lower staining intensity. CONCLUSIONS: TRPM4 protein expression is widely expressed in benign and cancerous prostate tissue, with highest staining intensities found in PCa. Overexpression of TRPM4 in PCa (combination of high...

  17. Inuit are protected against prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewailly, Eric; Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2003-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer are reported to be low among Inuit, but this finding must be additionally supported given the difficulty of obtaining a precise medical diagnosis in the Arctic. We conducted an autopsy study in 1990–1994 among 61 deceased males representative of all...... deaths occurring in Greenland and found only one invasive prostate cancer. Histological data were available for 27 autopsies and revealed no latent carcinoma. Our results suggest that in situ carcinoma is rare among Inuit and that their traditional diet, which is rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty...

  18. Targeted Elimination of PCDH-PC Expressing Prostate Cancer Cells for Control of Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Protocadherin-PC (PCDH-PC or PCDH11Y) is a human-, male-specific gene product that is upregulated in prostate cancer cells by androgen deprivation...therapy. Silencing of this gene product with PCDH-PC-specific siRNA drastically induced the death of prostate cancer cells cultured in the absence of...antibody preferentially recognizes prostate cancer cells in human prostate specimens. Knockdown of PCDH-PC expression by the shRNA vectors is more

  19. Effect of endocrine treatment on voiding and prostate size in men with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise L; Klarskov, Peter; Mommsen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up.......The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up....

  20. Is Preoperative Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio a Reliable Prognostic Parameter for Localized Prostate Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tümay İpekçi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In spite of all efforts, prostate cancer is still the 2nd highest cause of cancer-related deaths in men. For this reason new developments are needed in diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of prostate cancer. Neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L ratio is a cheap and effective parameter used for research into many solid tumors; but there are not enough studies on the reliability of this parameter in prostate cancer. In this study we researched the efficacy of N/L ratio in localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Between March 9, 2012 and April 23, 2017, the data of 140 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy with localized prostate cancer were screened retrospectively. The patients’ ages, preoperative prostate specific antigen (PSA and N/L ratio, pathologic stage, pathologic Gleason score, tumor volume, lymph node involvement, surgical margin positivity and presence or absence of 3rd month biochemical recurrence were noted. The correlations between N/L ratio with age, PSA, pathologic parameters, surgical margin positivity and biochemical recurrence were investigated. Results: The mean age of patients was 63.0±5.9 years, mean PSA value was 10.8±8.5 ng/mL and mean N/L ratio was 2.5±1.9. There was no correlation found between N/L ratio and PSA, pathologic stage, Gleason score, lymph node involvement, tumor volume, surgical margin positivity and biochemical recurrence (p>0.05. Conclusion: In our study investigating 140 patients with localized prostate cancer, we did not identify any correlation between N/L ratio and PSA, surgical stage and Gleason score, surgical margin positivity, and 3rd month biochemical recurrence. When the literature is investigated, it appears that N/L ratio is effective for metastatic prostate cancer. To provide a more accurate judgment of the role of N/L ratio in localized prostate cancer, there is a need for new studies with broader patient series.

  1. Non-apical positive surgical margins after radical prostatectomy for pT2 prostate cancer is associated with the highest risk of recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roder, Martin Andreas; Kawa, Sandra; Scheike, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate how location of positive surgical margins (PSM) in pT2 tumors affect the risk of biochemical recurrence (BR). METHODS: The study includes 1,133 consecutive patients from 1995 until end of 2011, who had organ-confined disease (pT2) following RP. The locatio...

  2. Feasibility of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy for very-high risk prostate cancer: surgical and oncological outcomes in men aged ≥70 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyo Chul Koo

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: RALP-PLND is a feasible option for VHPCa in elderly patients with satisfactory oncologic outcomes; however, functional outcomes were not as favorable. Patients who are unable to accept the risk of adjuvant therapy and its side effects or incontinence should be deterred from surgical treatment, and other options such as radiation therapy could be an alternative.

  3. External beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, Jeffrey D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The intent of this course is to review the issues involved in the management of non-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. -- The value of pre-treatment prognostic factors including stage, grade and PSA value will be presented, and their value in determining therapeutic strategies will be discussed. -- Controversies involving the simulation process and treatment design will be presented. The value of CT scanning, Beams-Eye View, 3-D planning, intravesicle, intraurethral and rectal contrast will be presented. The significance of prostate and patient movement and strategies for dealing with them will be presented. -- The management of low stage, low to intermediate grade prostate cancer will be discussed. The dose, volume and timing of irradiation will be discussed as will the role of neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy, neutron irradiation and brachytherapy. The current status of radical prostatectomy and cryotherapy will be summarized. Treatment of locally advanced, poorly differentiated prostate cancer will be presented including a discussion of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormones, dose-escalation and neutron irradiation. -- Strategies for post-radiation failures will be presented including data on cryotherapy, salvage prostatectomy and hormonal therapy (immediate, delayed and/or intermittent). New areas for investigation will be reviewed. -- The management of patients post prostatectomy will be reviewed. Data on adjuvant radiation and therapeutic radiation for biochemical or clinically relapsed patients will be presented. This course hopes to present a realistic and pragmatic overview for treating patients with non-metastatic prostatic cancer

  4. Management and survival in advances prostate cancer in Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the management and survival of patients with advanced prostate cancer in this locality. Design: A prospective case study. Setting: Kenyatta National Referral Hospital and the Nairobi and Mater Hospitals. Patients: Fifty nine patients with advanced cancer of prostate (extra prostatic locally advanced ...

  5. Prostate cancer metastasis to the mandible: case report | Parkins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prostate cancer is recognised to be the commonest type of malignancy in the male in many parts of the world. Prostate cancer has a propensity to metastasize to bone, however metastasis to the jaw is uncommon and indeed among metastatic tumours of the jaws which are a rarity, only about 9% originate from a prostatic ...

  6. Survival after radical prostatectomy for clinically localised prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Martin Andreas; Brasso, Klaus; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe survival and cause of death in a nationwide cohort of Danish patients with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). To describe risk factors associated with prostate cancer mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Observational study of 6489 men with localised prostate...

  7. [Treatments around surgery of prostate cancer and surgery of recurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, L; Ploussard, G; Hennequin, C; Richaud, P; Soulié, M

    2015-11-01

    To describe neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatments to surgery and the place of surgery in the recurrence after primary treatments. Bibliography search was performed from the database Medline (National Library of Medicine, Pubmed), selected according to the scientific relevance. The research was focused on treatments before and after surgery, biological recurrence and surgery as the procedure in case of failure of other treatments of non-metastatic prostate cancer. Main oncological objectif of surgery is to decrease positive surgical margins by good adequation between technics and tumor and patient status. Neoadjuvant treatments are today disappointing; however, adjuvant radiotherapy and hormonotherapy demonstrated their interest in case of extracapsular extension, positive margins or invasion of lymph nodes. Nevertheless, superiority of adjuvant treatment to salvage treatment is still debated. Radical prostatectomy is still the only curative treatment in case of failure of another localized treatment. Radical prostatectomy has to be one of the main references of localized prostate cancer treatments especially in case of multimodal approach. Pathological exam of specimen and postoperative PSA value should precise the optimal management of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Stromal Androgen Receptor Roles in the Development of Normal Prostate, Benign Prostate Hyperplasia, and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Simeng; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Tian, Jing; Shang, Zhiqun; Niu, Yuanjie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2016-01-01

    The prostate is an androgen-sensitive organ that needs proper androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signals for normal development. The progression of prostate diseases, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa), also needs proper androgen/AR signals. Tissue recombination studies report that stromal, but not epithelial, AR plays more critical roles via the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions to influence the early process of prostate development. However, in BPH and PCa, much more attention has been focused on epithelial AR roles. However, accumulating evidence indicates that stromal AR is also irreplaceable and plays critical roles in prostate disease progression. Herein, we summarize the roles of stromal AR in the development of normal prostate, BPH, and PCa, with evidence from the recent results of in vitro cell line studies, tissue recombination experiments, and AR knockout animal models. Current evidence suggests that stromal AR may play positive roles to promote BPH and PCa progression, and targeting stromal AR selectively with AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, may allow development of better therapies with fewer adverse effects to battle BPH and PCa. PMID:25432062

  9. Urinary prostate cancer 3 test: toward the age of reason?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaeminck-Guillem, Virginie; Ruffion, Alain; André, Jean; Devonec, Marian; Paparel, Philippe

    2010-02-01

    The prostate cancer 3 (PCA3) gene was discovered in 1999, on the basis of differential expression between cancer and noncancerous prostate tissue. Including the first study published in 2003, 11 clinical studies have evaluated its utility for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by measuring the number of PCA3 RNA copies in urine enriched with prostate cells. Although the sensitivity of the PCA3 test was less than that of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), its specificity appeared to be much better, particularly in patients with a previous negative biopsy. Recent studies also have suggested that this test could be used to predict cancer prognosis. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Cancer Moonshot Genomic Data Commons National Clinical Trials ...

  11. Risk-based prostate cancer screening: who and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Allison S; Cary, K Clint; Cooperberg, Matthew R

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to identify clinical risk factors for prostate cancer and to assess the utility and limitations of our current tools for prostate cancer screening. Prostate-specific antigen is the single most important factor for identifying men at increased risk of prostate cancer but is best assessed in the context of other clinical factors; increasing age, race, and family history are well-established risk factors for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. In addition to clinical risk calculators, novel tools such as multiparametric imaging, serum or urinary biomarkers, and genetic profiling show promise in improving prostate cancer diagnosis and characterization. Optimal use of existing and future tools will help alleviate the problems of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer without reversing the substantial mortality declines that have been achieved in the screening era.

  12. Sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer: Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fouad Kotb

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity can affect prostate cancer pathogenesis in a variety of ways; including the proposed high androgen status, risk of sexually transmitted infections and the potential effect of retained carcinogens within the prostatic cells. Methods: PubMed review of all publications concerning sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer was done by two researchers. Results: Few publications could be detected and data were classified as a prostate cancer risk in association with either heterosexual or homosexual activities. Conclusion: Frequent ejaculation seems to be protective from the development of prostate cancer. Multiple sexual partners may be protective from prostate cancer, excluding the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Homosexual men are at a greater risk for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  13. Androgen receptor signaling is required for androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Wanda V

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgens and androgen receptors (AR regulate normal prostate development and growth. They also are involved in pathological development of prostatic diseases, including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostate cancer (PCa. Antiandrogen therapy for PCa, in conjunction with chemical or surgical castration, offers initial positive responses and leads to massive prostate cell death. However, cancer cells later appear as androgen-independent PCa. To investigate the role of AR in prostate cell proliferation and survival, we introduced a vector-based small interfering RNA (siRNA. This siRNA targeted 5'-untranslated region of AR mRNA for extended suppression of AR expression in androgen-sensitive human prostate LNCaP cells. Results The siRNA design successfully suppressed endogenous AR expression, as revealed by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining in LNCaP cells. LNCaP cells did not proliferate in the absence of AR and underwent apoptosis, based on elevated phospho-Histone H2B expression and higher number of apoptotic body as compared to control cells. Conclusion We demonstrated that AR is vital for prostate cell proliferation and survival in this androgen-sensitive prostate cell line. These results further strengthen the hypothesis that AR can be a therapeutic target for treating androgen-sensitive stages of PCa. Unlike antiandorgens, however, siRNA targeting AR provides a direct inactivation of AR function through the suppression of AR protein expression.

  14. SoyCaP: Soy and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamilton-Reeves, Jim M; Kurzer, Mindy S; Slaton, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer...

  15. Proto-oncogene PML and Tumor Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zheng, Pan

    2001-01-01

    ...) to study the immune regulation and immune tolerance in prostate cancer. In the past funding period, we have shown that thymic clonal deletion is a major mechanism for immune tolerance to tumor antigens that previously regarded as prostate specific...

  16. Prostate Cancer Screening: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anything unusual. Another test is the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test. Your PSA level may be high ... Education and Research) Also in Spanish Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish PSA ...

  17. PSA Velocity Does Not Improve Prostate Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels is not grounds for automatically recommending a prostate biopsy, according to a study published online February 24, 2011, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  18. Development of a Gene Therapy Trial for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardner, Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    .... The Phase I trial under development employs a prostate restricted replicative adenovirus (PRRA) with excellent preclinical performance in vitro and in vivo in relevant animal models of human prostate cancer...

  19. SoyCaP: Soy and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamilton-Reeves, Jill M; Kurzer, Mindy S; Slaton, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer...

  20. Case selection and outcome of radical perineal prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Holzbeierlein

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Radical prostatectomy continues to play a central role in the management of localized prostate cancer. The majority of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer will undergo radical prostatectomy. A decrease in the morbidity of this surgical procedure has been accomplished through an improved understanding of pelvic anatomy and a greater understanding of the natural history of prostate cancer. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been applied to radical prostatectomy (laparoscopic prostatectomy in order to further decrease the morbidity of this operation. What remains to be determined is whether this approach confers the same long term surgical outcomes as the open approach. One method which offers known long term outcomes coupled with decreased morbidity is the radical perineal prostatectomy. The purpose of this paper is to review the criteria for patient selection as well as outcomes of the radical perineal prostatectomy.

  1. [Analysis and prognostic factors of the specimen of radical prostatectomy in prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromont, G; Molinié, V; Soulié, M; Salomon, L

    2015-11-01

    Handling and pathologic analysis of radical prostatectomy specimens are crucial to confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer and evaluate prognostic criteria. A systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (PubMed), using different associations of the following keywords: prostate cancer; prostatectomy; specimen; handling; pathology; tumor staging; Gleason score; surgical margin; prognosis; frozen section; lymph node; biomarkers. A particular search was done on specimen management and characterization of tissue prognostic factors. Handling of both radical prostatectomy specimen and lymph node dissection is standardized according to international criteria. Although the main histoprognostic factors are still Gleason score, pathologic staging and margin status, these criteria have been refined these last 10 years, allowing to improve the prediction of relapse after surgical treatment. The standardization of handling and pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens will be mandatory for treatment uniformization according to risk stratification in prostate cancer and personalization of therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Socioeconomic position and mortality among patients with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Brasso, Klaus; Christensen, Jane

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Men with low socioeconomic position experience higher mortality after a prostate cancer diagnosis compared to men with a higher socioeconomic position, however, the specific mediators of this association are unclear. We therefore evaluated the influence of potential mediators...... on the association between socioeconomic position, and prostate cancer-specific and all-cause death in prostate cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of prostate cancer patients in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. All patients completed questionnaires and anthropometric...... ratios (HR) for all-cause and prostate cancer-specific death according to socioeconomic position and potential mediators. RESULTS: We included 953 prostate cancer patients identified among 27 179 male participants in the Diet, Cancer and Health study who were followed for a median of 6.5 years...

  3. The Role of MRI in Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in American men, excluding skin cancer. The clinical behavior of prostate cancer varies from low-grade, slow growing tumors to high-grade aggressive tumors that may ultimately progress to metastases and cause death. Given the high incidence of men diagnosed with prostate cancer, conservative treatment strategies such as active surveillance are critical in the management of prostate cancer to reduce therapeutic complications of radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. In this review, we will review the role of multiparametric MRI in the selection and follow-up of patients on active surveillance.

  4. Accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia: comparison with prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Takei, Toshiki; Shiga, Tohru; Nakada, Kunihiro; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita 15, Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Kuge, Yuji; Katoh, Chietsugu [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shinohara, Nobuo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography (PET) has been reported to be of clinical value for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, no detailed analysis has yet been carried out on the physiological accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in the prostate. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the physiological accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in the prostate using dynamic PET. The study included 30 subjects without prostate cancer [21 with normal prostate and nine with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)] and six patients with prostate cancer. A dynamic PET study was performed for 20 min after intravenous administration of 555 MBq of [{sup 11}C]acetate. The standardised uptake value (SUV) at 16-20 min post tracer administration and the early-to-late-activity ratio of the SUV (E/L ratio), which was determined by dividing the SUV{sub 6-10} {sub min} by the SUV {sub 16-20min}, were calculated to evaluate the accumulation of [ {sup 11}C]acetate. The prostate was clearly visualised and distinguished from adjacent organs in PET images in most of the cases. The SUV of the prostate (2.6 {+-}0.8) was significantly higher than that of the rectum (1.7 {+-}0.4) or bone marrow (1.3 {+-}0.3) (P <0.0001 in each case). The SUV of the normal prostate of subjects aged <50 years (3.4 {+-}0.7) was significantly higher than both the SUV for the normal prostate of subjects aged {>=}50 years (2.3 {+-}0.7) and that of subjects with BPH (2.1 {+-}0.6) (P <0.01 in each case). The primary prostate cancer in six cases was visualised by [ {sup 11}C]acetate PET. However, the difference in the SUV between subjects aged {>=}50 with normal prostate or with BPH and the patients with prostate cancer (1.9 {+-}0.6) was not statistically significant. There was also no significant difference in the E/L ratio between subjects aged {>=}50 with normal prostate (0.98 {+-}0.04) or BPH (0.96 {+-}0.08) and patients with prostate cancer (1.02 {+-}0.12). In conclusion, a normal prostate exhibits age

  5. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation of tumor cells that can self-renew and give rise to more differentiated tumor cells. It is thought that these stem cells survive initial therapies (such as chemotherapy and hormone therapy) and then generate new tumor cells that are resistant to these standard treatments. If prostate cancer stem cells could be identified and characterized, it might be possible to design treatments that prevent resistance.

  6. Heteronormativity and prostate cancer: A discursive paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel; Sakellariou, Dikaios; Fry, Sarah; Vougioukalou, Sofia

    2018-01-01

    To discuss the risks that heteronormative assumptions play in prostate cancer care and how these may be addressed. There is international evidence to support the case that LGBT patients with cancer are less likely to report poor health or self-disclose sexual orientation. Gender-specific cancers, such as prostate cancer, require particular interventions in terms of supportive care. These may include advice about side-effect management (such as incontinence or erectile dysfunction), treatment choices and social and emotional issues. In this paper, we discuss and analyse the heteronormative assumptions and culture that exist around this cancer. We argue that this situation may act as a barrier to effective supportive care for all Lesbian women, Gay, Transgender and Bisexual patients, in this case men who have sex with men. [Correction added on 21 September 2017, after first online publication: The first sentence of the Background section has been revised for clarity in this current version.] DESIGN: Theoretical exploration of heteronormativity considered against the clinical context of prostate cancer. Identification and inclusion of relevant international evidence combined with clinical discussion. This paper posits a number of questions around heteronormativity in relation to prostate cancer information provision, supportive care and male sexuality. While assumptions regarding sexual orientation should be avoided in clinical encounters, this may be difficult when heteronormative assumptions dominate. Existing research supports the assertion that patient experience, including the needs of LGBT patients, should be central to service developments. Assumptions about sexual orientation should be avoided and recorded accurately and sensitively, and relational models of care should be promoted at the start of cancer treatment in an appropriate manner. These may assist in reducing the risks of embarrassment or offence to nonheterosexual patients, or to professionals who

  7. Promising Tools in Prostate Cancer Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, Silvia; Hansen, Cecilie H; Petrunak, Elyse M

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is an important target in the treatment of prostate cancer because it produces androgens required for tumour growth. The FDA has approved only one CYP17A1 inhibitor, abiraterone, which contains a steroidal scaffold similar to the endogenous CYP17A1 substrates...

  8. Management of synchronous rectal and prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, D O

    2012-11-01

    Although well described, there is limited published data related to management on the coexistence of prostate and rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to describe a single institution\\'s experience with this and propose a treatment algorithm based on the best available evidence.

  9. Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Berg, Kasper D; Røder, M Andreas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evidence supports active surveillance (AS) as a means to reduce overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The consequences of close and long-standing follow-up with regard to outpatient visits, tests and repeated biopsies are widely unknown. This study investigated the trajectory...

  10. Targeting Neuroendocrine Differentiation for Prostate Cancer Radiosensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    doses when ACREB was expressed (Fig. 6A). Because clonogenic assay assesses the reproductive ability of cells after a single exposure, which is...29] Slovin SF. Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer: a sheep in wolf’s clothing? Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2006;3:138-144. [30] Lilleby W

  11. Clinical adenoviral gene therapy for prostate cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schenk, E.; Essand, M.; Bangma, Ch. H.; Barber, Ch.; Behr, J.-P.; Briggs, S.; Carlisle, R.; Cheng, W.-S.; Danielsson, A.; Dautzenberg, I. J. C.; Dzojic, H.; Erbacher, P.; Fisher, K.; Frazier, A.; Georgopoulos, L. J.; Hoeben, R.; Kochanek, S.; Koppers-Lalic, D.; Kraaij, R.; Kreppel, F.; Lindholm, L.; Magnusson, M.; Maitland, N.; Neuberg, P.; Nilsson, B.; Ogris, M.; Remy, J.-S.; Scaife, M.; Schooten, E.; Seymour, L.; Totterman, T.; Uil, T. G.; Ulbrich, Karel; Veldhoven-Zweistra, J. L. M.; de Vrij, J.; van Weerden, W.; Wagner, E.; Willemsen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2010), s. 807-813 ISSN 1043-0342 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 512087 - GIANT Keywords : adenovirus * gene delivery * prostate cancer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.829, year: 2010

  12. Mitochondrial mutations drive prostate cancer aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Julia F.; Sabelnykova, Veronica Y.; Weischenfeldt, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear mutations are well known to drive tumor incidence, aggression and response to therapy. By contrast, the frequency and roles of mutations in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome are poorly understood. Here we sequence the mitochondrial genomes of 384 localized prostate cancer...

  13. More α Than β for Prostate Cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendler, Wolfgang P.; Cutler, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy for prostate cancer started more than 70 y ago (1). Nuclear medicine has since evolved considerably to provide a multitude of new imaging and therapy options. The past decade witnessed an unprecedented expansion of radioligands for prostate cancer. Milestones include the first α-emitter for treatment of symptomatic bone metastases (2) and theranostic vectors directed at the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) or bombesin receptor (3–5). However, current radionuclide therapies are applied at a late stage of the disease aiming at palliation. Despite recent advances for treatment of metastatic prostate cancer, cure remains an unmet need of the 21st century. Cancer spreads early and develops slowly as submillimeter occult lesions. Lesions grow at distant sites and become detectable only when significant morphologic or metabolic alterations have formed, often years to decades after the initial spread (6). Effective ablation of small metastases is critical for cure and presents a specific challenge for β-emitting radionuclide therapy. Millimeter-range β-particles deliver insufficient amounts of radiation to millimeter-size tumor lesions, as energy deposition extends and dilutes beyond lesion boundaries (Fig. 1). α-radiation, because of its micrometer range, targets millimeter-size tumor volumes at higher relative yield (Fig. 1). Further evidence points to a superior biologic effectiveness for α-therapy based on high-linear-energy transfer resulting in frequent double-strand DNA breaks (7). However, are basic advantages of α-therapy associated with a clinical benefit?

  14. New genetic variants associated with prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have newly identified 23 common genetic variants -- one-letter changes in DNA known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs -- that are associated with risk of prostate cancer. These results come from an analysis of more than 10 million SNP

  15. Screening for prostatic cancer. Investigational models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Torp-Pedersen, S T

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic cancer has a long natural history and a significant preclinical period, during which the disease is detectable. Thus, this common malignancy in males fulfills some of the most important criteria for initiating screening programs. However, the still enigmatic epidemiology also includes...

  16. gene polymorphisms in Iranian prostate cancer subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... 1Genetic Research Group, Molecular and Bioinformatics Unit, Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health ... GSTM1 (odds ratio 0.54, 95% CI 0.27 - 1.08) genes and higher risk of prostate cancer among Iranian ..... transferase; mechanism and relevance to variations in human risk.

  17. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P

    2001-01-01

    areas (North America; Australia, Europe, Israel, South Africa and Mexico; and Scandinavia). Men with T1b-4N0-1M0 (TNM 1997) prostate cancer have been randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive bicalutamide 150 mg daily or placebo. Recruitment to the program closed in July 1998, and follow-up is ongoing. Study...

  18. Knowledge of Prostate Cancer Screening Among Native African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prostate cancer is the must commonlydiagnosed cancer in men worldwide and ranked second as the cause of death in cancer-related diseases. Objective: To evaluate the awareness and attitude of the populace to screening for cancer of the prostate. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study involving 156 ...

  19. Prostate Stem Cells in the Development of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer: Emerging Role and Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Prajapati, Akhilesh; Gupta, Sharad; Mistry, Bhavesh; Gupta, Sarita

    2013-01-01

    Benign Prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa) are the most common prostatic disorders affecting elderly men. Multiple factors including hormonal imbalance, disruption of cell proliferation, apoptosis, chronic inflammation, and aging are thought to be responsible for the pathophysiology of these diseases. Both BPH and PCa are considered to be arisen from aberrant proliferation of prostate stem cells. Recent studies on BPH and PCa have provided significant evidence for the origin ...

  20. Early prostate cancer: particularities of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction of prostate cancer screening using PSA leads to a disproportional increase of cancer incidence. Most of those tumors are small and indolent in behavior. When diagnosed, they are usually managed by radical treatment modalities despite the growth of serious adverse events of such therapy. Active surveillance appears to be an alternative treatment approach for the majority of those patients. Author stresses on the particularities of the prostate cancer diagnosed in the PSA era. Show the importance of patient stratification and the utility of the use of nomograms in clinical praxis. The clinical importance of treatment choices based on life expectancy of patient, concomitant diseases on one side and cancer biological behavior in the other side is discussed. Critically discuss the new approach of radiation with proton beams advertising that it remains an experimental therapeutic choice. (author)

  1. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzi, Roberto [Marie Curie Research Wing, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: robertoalonzi@btinternet.com; Padhani, Anwar R. [Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood, Middlesex, HA6 2RN (United Kingdom); Synarc Inc. 575 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States)], E-mail: anwar.padhani@paulstrickland-scannercentre.org.uk; Allen, Clare [Department of Imaging, University College Hospital, London, 235 Euston Road, NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.allen@uclh.nhs.uk

    2007-09-15

    Angiogenesis is an integral part of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is associated with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and is key to the growth and for metastasis of prostate cancer. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using small molecular weight gadolinium chelates enables non-invasive imaging characterization of tissue vascularity. Depending on the technique used, data reflecting tissue perfusion, microvessel permeability surface area product, and extracellular leakage space can be obtained. Two dynamic MRI techniques (T{sub 2}*-weighted or susceptibility based and T{sub 1}-weighted or relaxivity enhanced methods) for prostate gland evaluations are discussed in this review with reference to biological basis of observations, data acquisition and analysis methods, technical limitations and validation. Established clinical roles of T{sub 1}-weighted imaging evaluations will be discussed including lesion detection and localisation, for tumour staging and for the detection of suspected tumour recurrence. Limitations include inadequate lesion characterisation particularly differentiating prostatitis from cancer, and in distinguishing between BPH and central gland tumours.

  2. Brachytherapy and radical prostatectomy in patients with early prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Souza Sérgio Ferreira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: this study analyzes the survival of prostate cancer patients cared for at a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil according to one of the following treatments: iodine-125 seed implantation or radical prostatectomy. From January 2002 to December 2005, 129 patients underwent either brachytherapy (64 patients or surgery (65 patients. Methods: all had prostate-specific antigen, Gleason scores and clinical stage recorded prior to treatment. Biochemical relapse was defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA>0.4ng/mL for radical prostatectomy, and any elevation equal or higher than 2ng/mL over the PSA nadir for implanted patients. To analyze the effect of treatment on biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS, Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were generated. Mean follow-up time was 56.1 months for patients with the implant, and 26.6 months for those operated on. BRFS in 5 years was 69% (95% CI: 58.18-77.45 for the whole cohort. Discussion: when stratified according to treatment, survival of patients who had undergone brachytherapy (79.70% was higher to those operated on (44.30%; pvalue= 0.0056. Upon multivariate analysis, independent predictors were iPSA (HR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1,32-6,42, Gleason score (HR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1,00-4,81 and treatment modality (HR: 2.61, 95% CI: 1.18-5,75. Risk of biochemical failure was higher with surgery than brachytherapy, which may be related to the failure criteria adopted, which is different for each therapy, as well as the high rate of histological progression between preoperative prostate biopsy and surgical specimen. Conclusion: it was found that brachytherapy is a good therapeutic option for low risk prostate cancer.

  3. Increasing Early Detection of Prostate Cancer in African American Men through a Culturally Targeted Print Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    cancer . There are two forms of hormone therapy. One approach involves surgically removing the testicles . The other form of hormone therapy involves... Cancer in African American Men through a Culturally Targeted Print Intervention PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hayley Thompson, Ph.D...COVERED (From - To) 1 Mar 2004 – 31 May 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Increasing Early Detection of Prostate Cancer in African

  4. Vaccine Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    investigational) product, whether or not related to the medicinal (investigational) product. This will also include intercurrent diseases and accidents ...definitive radiotherapy in patients with localized prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res, 11:3353-3362, 2005 50. Small, EJ, Fratesi, P, Reese, DM, at al...diseases and accidents observed during the research intervention period as well as corresponding events during drug-free, pre- and post- intervention

  5. Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    balance between these functionally opposite lineages are just beginning to be elucidated. We recently found that hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1...inhibition in treatment of prostate cancer, and identify novel immune pathways and therapeutic targets for cancer therapy. Key Words: Hypoxia -inducible...effector and memory CD8+ T cell subsets.   5 Figure 3. RNA-seq analysis of gene expression (Log2 expression level) by CD8+ T cells isolated from

  6. Prostate cancer in Saudi Arabia in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosli, Hisham A.

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies revealed that there are variations in the geographic and ethnic distribution of cancer of prostate (CaP) gland. This cancer varies drmatically between being very common in black American men, to rare in Asian and Chinese men. Genetic, familial predisposition and environmental factors in addition to methods of cancer detection and reporting contribute to these variations. Prostate cancer is the 9th most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world yet stands first in USA where resources allow large epidemiological studies. The health policy makers take major decisions such as mass population screening according to data derived from such studies that include information on disease specific mortality rates and incidence rates for each of ethnic sub-population living in USA. Untill now we do not have similr information in KSA; therefore the policy decisions should consider the possibility of the difference in situations since genetic, familial and environmetal conditions are different.Our current local data indicates that prostate cancer occurs at lower incidence rate than western countries. The objective of this article is to provide all the available information on the different aspects of CaP gland in KSA. A second more important objective is to attract the attention of future expectations that need preparation since the possibility of disease prevention does exist. (author)

  7. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Symptoms Prostate cancer has no symptoms in its early stages. They ...

  8. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M; Martin, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this study......, we investigated the associations of genetic variants in alcohol-metabolising genes with prostate cancer incidence and survival. We analysed data from 23,868 men with prostate cancer and 23,051 controls from 25 studies within the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Study-specific associations of 68...... single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 alcohol-metabolising genes (Alcohol Dehydrogenases (ADHs) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases (ALDHs)) with prostate cancer diagnosis and prostate cancer-specific mortality, by grade, were assessed using logistic and Cox regression models, respectively. The data across...

  9. Comparison of Two Prostate Cancer Risk Calculators that Include the Prostate Health Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); M.M. Vedder (Moniek); D. Nieboer (Daan); A. Houlgatte (Alain); S. Vincendeau (Sébastien); M. Lazzeri (Massimo); G. Guazzoni (Giorgio); C. Stephan (Carsten); A. Semjonow (Axel); A. Haese (Alexander); M. Graefen (Markus); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Risk prediction models for prostate cancer (PCa) have become important tools in reducing unnecessary prostate biopsies. The Prostate Health Index (PHI) may increase the predictive accuracy of such models. Objectives: To compare two PCa risk calculators (RCs) that include PHI.

  10. TISSUE POLYPEPTIDE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN - A DISCRIMINATIVE PARAMETER BETWEEN PROSTATE-CANCER AND BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARRINK, J; OOSTEROM, R; BONFRER, HMG; SCHRODER, FH; MENSINK, HJA

    1993-01-01

    The serum concentration of the cell proliferation marker TPS (tissue polypeptide-specific antigen) was compared with the tumour marker PSA (prostate specific antigen). PSA was found elevated in 50% of the benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) patients, in 88% of the patients with active prostate cancer

  11. Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, Mathias; Thomsen, Frederik B; Iversen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of active surveillance (AS) is to reduce overtreatment of men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) without compromising survival. The objective of this study was to update a large Scandinavian single-center AS cohort. Furthermore, the use of curative treatment and subsequent...... risk of biochemical recurrence were investigated and compared in men with very low-risk, low-risk and intermediate-risk PCa in the cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 451 men were followed on AS and monitored with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, digital rectal examinations and rebiopsies...

  12. Increased cancer cell proliferation in prostate cancer patients with high levels of serum folate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: A recent clinical trial revealed that folic acid supplementation is associated with an increased incidence of prostate cancer (1). The present study evaluates serum and prostate tissue folate levels in men with prostate cancer, compared to histologically normal prostate glands from can...

  13. Therapeutic Value of PLK1 Knockdown in Combination with Prostate Cancer Drugs in PIM-1 Overexpressing Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-13

    of tumor cells on its activity in mitosis (Fink et al., 2007). Silencing of PLK1 has been shown to enhance drug sensitivity in some cancer cells...crucial role at various steps of mitosis and is overexpressed in many tumor types including prostate cancer , where PLK1 overexpression was found to...induction of apoptosis and impairment of mitosis machinery in human prostate cancer cells: implications for the treatment of prostate cancer . Faseb J

  14. Pomegranate and Its Components as Alternative Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. There is a major need for less toxic but yet effective therapies to treat prostate cancer. Pomegranate fruit from the tree Punica granatum has been used for centuries for medicinal purposes and is described as “nature’s power fruit”. Recent research has shown that pomegranate juice (PJ) and/or pomegranate extracts (PE) significantly inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells in culture. In preclinical murine models, PJ and/or PE inhibit growth and angiogenesis of prostate tumors. More recently, we have shown that three components of PJ, luteolin, ellagic acid and punicic acid together, have similar inhibitory effects on prostate cancer growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Results from clinical trials are also promising. PJ and/or PE significantly prolonged the prostate specific antigen (PSA) doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. In this review we discuss data on the effects of PJ and PE on prostate cancer. We also discuss the effects of specific components of the pomegranate fruit and how they have been used to study the mechanisms involved in prostate cancer progression and their potential to be used in deterring prostate cancer metastasis. PMID:25158234

  15. Differential CARM1 expression in prostate and colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Rang; Lee, Byung Kook; Park, Ra-Young; Nguyen, Nguyen Thi Xuan; Bae, Jeong A; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Jung, Chaeyong

    2010-01-01

    Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) functions as a transcriptional coactivator of androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signaling. Correspondingly, overexpression of CARM1 has been associated with the development of prostate cancer (PCa) and its progression to androgen-independent PCa. In our preliminary study, however, the promoting effects of CARM1, with regard to androgen-stimulated AR target gene expression were minimal. These results suggested that the AR target gene expression associated with CARM1 may result primarily from non-hormone dependent activity. The goal of this study was to confirm the pattern of expression of CARM1 in human tumors and determine the mechanism of action in CARM1 overexpressed tumors. Tissue microarray was used to determine the pattern of expression of CARM1 in human cancers by immunohistochemistry. CARM1 expression was also evaluated in prostate and colorectal surgical specimens and the clinical records of all cases were reviewed. In addition, a reporter transcription assay using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) promoter was used to identify the signaling pathways involved in non-hormone-mediated signal activation associated with CARM1. The tissue microarray showed that CARM1 was particularly overexpressed in the colorectal cancers while CARM1 expression was not prevalent in the prostate and breast cancers. Further studies using surgical specimens demonstrated that CARM1 was highly overexpressed in 75% of colorectal cancers (49 out of 65) but not in the androgen-independent PCa. In addition, CARM1's coactivating effect on the entire PSA promoter was very limited in both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent PCa cells. These results suggest that there are other factors associated with CARM1 expression in PSA regulation. Indeed, CARM1 significantly regulated both p53 and NF-κB target gene transcription. The results of this study suggest that, in addition to its role in activation of steroid receptors

  16. Does amount or type of alcohol influence the risk of prostate cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Katrine; Grønbaek, Morten; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2002-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men, and it is unknown whether alcohol is associated with the development of prostate cancer.......Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men, and it is unknown whether alcohol is associated with the development of prostate cancer....

  17. High-risk prostate cancer: the role of radical prostatectomy for local therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavamian, Reza; Williams, Steve K; Hakimi, A Ari

    2011-04-01

    The management of high-risk prostate cancer can pose a unique challenge to the urologic oncologist. High-risk prostate cancer remains a real entity, especially in the inner-city urban population centers with high-risk ethnic groups. Although the role of radical prostatectomy is well defined for localized, low-to-intermediate-risk prostate cancer, its role in high-risk disease is more controversial. This is compounded by a lack of a universally accepted definition for 'high-risk' disease and the stage migration that has occurred in prostate cancer in the PSA era, rendering some historical perspectives less relevant. However, what has been accepted is the role of multimodal therapy in the management of this challenging group of patients. This article offers the reader an up-to-date detailed review of this topic, with specific emphasis on the role of radical prostatectomy in this clinical setting, including surgical considerations and outcomes. The advantages in terms of accurate pathologic staging with radical prostatectomy are presented. The role of robotic radical prostatectomy, which is increasingly utilized in the USA for the surgical treatment of prostate cancer in this clinical scenario, is discussed. In addition, we address the shortcomings of adequate clinical staging in this group of patients and discuss advances in imaging that might improve our capabilities in the future.

  18. Sonic Hedgehog signaling in advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S; Datta, M W

    2006-02-01

    The Hedgehog family of growth factors activate a highly conserved signaling system for cell-cell communication that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation during development. Abnormal activation of the Hedgehog pathway has been demonstrated in a variety of human tumors, including those of the skin, brain, lung and digestive tract. Hedgehog pathway activity in these tumors is required for cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. Recent studies have uncovered the role for Hedgehog signaling in advanced prostate cancer and demonstrated that autocrine signaling by tumor cells is required for proliferation, viability, and invasive behavior. The level of Hedgehog activity correlates with the severity of the tumor and is both necessary and sufficient for metastatic behavior. Blockade of Hedgehog signaling leads to tumor shrinkage and remission in preclinical tumor xenograft models. Thus, Hedgehog signaling represents a novel pathway in prostate cancer that offers opportunities for prognostic biomarker development, drug targeting and therapeutic response monitoring.

  19. PI-RADS Version 2: Detection of Clinically Significant Cancer in Patients With Biopsy Gleason Score 6 Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Won; Shin, Su-Jin; Taik Oh, Young; Jung, Dae Chul; Cho, Nam Hoon; Choi, Young Deuk; Park, Sung Yoon

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the utility of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) in the detection of a clinically significant cancers in patients with prostate cancers with a biopsy Gleason score of 6. A group of 182 consecutively registered patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 6 underwent MRI and radical prostatectomy. Clinically significant cancer was surgically defined as Gleason score of 7 or greater, tumor volume of 0.5 cm 3 or greater, or tumor category T3 or greater. Clinical parameters (prostate-specific antigen level, greatest percentage of biopsy core, and percentage of positive cores) and the PI-RADSv2 ratings by three independent readers (experienced readers 1 and 2, inexperienced reader 3) were investigated. Cutoffs and the diagnostic performance of PI-RADSv2 for clinically significant cancer were analyzed. Clinically significant cancer was found in 87.4% (159/182) of patients. The cutoff PI-RADSv2 score for clinically significant cancer was 4 for readers 1 and 2 and 5 for reader 3. The AUCs were 0.829 and 0.853 for readers 1 and 2 (p PI-RADSv2 may help experienced readers identify clinically significant prostate cancers in patients with a biopsy Gleason score of 6. However, some small (PI-RADSv2 is used.

  20. [Update on genetic predisposition to prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussenot, Olivier; Cancel-Tassin, Géraldine

    2015-01-01

    Genetic predisposition to prostate cancer rarely corresponds to a high penetrance Mendelian pattern of inheritance. These hereditary forms are specific entities for which mutations in the BRCA2 gene, the HOXB13 gene (variant G84E) or, to a lesser extent BRCA1 gene, must be researched. In contrast, the genetic component of the majority of prostate cancer is polygenic, involving an unfavorable combination of common genetic variants, resulting from a mixture of the genetic inheritance of the father and the mother. One hundred of these genetic susceptibility variants have now been identified and validated. The main phenotypic trait associated with hereditary predisposition is the younger age at onset, which warrants special monitoring in order to stay in the window of curability at diagnosis. The psychological impact of a family history of prostate cancer or breast cancer favors the establishment of a dedicated monitoring and procedures for early diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Differentially expressed androgen-regulated genes in androgen-sensitive tissues reveal potential biomarkers of early prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Dogus Murat; Allioli, Nathalie; Decaussin, Myriam; de Bernard, Simon; Ruffion, Alain; Samarut, Jacques; Vlaeminck-Guillem, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    Several data favor androgen receptor implication in prostate cancer initiation through the induction of several gene activation programs. The aim of the study is to identify potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) among androgen-regulated genes (ARG) and to evaluate comparative expression of these genes in normal prostate and normal prostate-related androgen-sensitive tissues that do not (or rarely) give rise to cancer. ARG were selected in non-neoplastic adult human prostatic epithelial RWPE-1 cells stably expressing an exogenous human androgen receptor, using RNA-microarrays and validation by qRT-PCR. Expression of 48 preselected genes was quantified in tissue samples (seminal vesicles, prostate transitional zones and prostate cancers, benign prostatic hypertrophy obtained from surgical specimens) using TaqMan® low-density arrays. The diagnostic performances of these potential biomarkers were compared to that of genes known to be associated with PCa (i.e. PCA3 and DLX1). By crossing expression studies in 26 matched PCa and normal prostate transitional zone samples, and 35 matched seminal vesicle and PCa samples, 14 genes were identified. Similarly, 9 genes were overexpressed in 15 benign prostatic hypertrophy samples, as compared to PCa samples. Overall, we selected 8 genes of interest to evaluate their diagnostic performances in comparison with that of PCA3 and DLX1. Among them, 3 genes: CRYAB, KCNMA1 and SDPR, were overexpressed in all 3 reference non-cancerous tissues. The areas under ROC curves of these genes reached those of PCA3 (0.91) and DLX1 (0.94). We identified ARG with reduced expression in PCa and with significant diagnostic values for discriminating between cancerous and non-cancerous prostatic tissues, similar that of PCA3. Given their expression pattern, they could be considered as potentially protective against prostate cancer. Moreover, they could be complementary to known genes overexpressed in PCa and included along

  2. Clinical Usefulness of Chlormadinone Acetate as an Alternative Antiandrogen Therapy for Prostate Cancer Relapse after Combined Androgen Blockade Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    江原, 英俊; 加藤, 成一; 中根, 慶太; 加藤, 卓; 高田, 俊彦; 小島, 圭太郎; 亀井, 信吾; 萩原, 徳康; 柚原, 一哉; 高橋, 義人; 藤本, 佳則; 藤広, 茂; 蟹本, 雄右; 出口, 隆

    2009-01-01

    We prospectively studied the usefulness of chlormadinone acetate (CMA) as an alternative therapy for prostate cancer relapse after combined androgen blockade (CAB) therapy. Sixteen patients with relapsed prostate cancer after treatment with CAB, including surgical or medical castration and nonsteroidal antiandrogens, 80 mg bicalutamide daily or 375 mg flutamide daily, were enrolled. After discontinuing the antiandrogen for evaluating the patient for the antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome, we ad...

  3. Does positive family history of prostate cancer increase the risk of prostate cancer on initial prostate biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafei, Ahmed; Moussa, Ayman Salah; Hatem, Asmaa; Ethan, Vargo; Panumatrassamee, Kamol; Hernandez, Adrian V; Jones, J Stephen

    2013-04-01

    To assess the role of family history (FH) in the risk of a positive prostate biopsy (PBx) in a large North American biopsy population as earlier reports showed increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa) in men with a FH, but the risk has been limited to low grade prostate cancer in smaller studies, and the REDUCE trial found no such risk in North American patients. We evaluated 4360 men undergoing initial extended biopsy (8-14 cores). Indications were elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and/or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE). Variables including age, FH of PCa, race, PSA, and DRE results were included in our analysis to assess risk factors associated with PCa, high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa), and low-grade prostate cancer (LGPCa). Two hundred sixty-eight patients had an FH of PCa whereas 4092 had negative FH. Positive biopsy was found in 1976 patients with HGPCa in 1149 and LGPCa in 827. Among 268 patients with an FH, overall PCa was found in 144 of 268 patients (54%); HGPCa in 79 of 144 patients (55%) and LGPCa in 65 of 144 patients (45%). FH was a significant risk factor for PCa, HGPCa, and LGPCa in univariate and multivariate analysis (P = .0001, .02, and .02, respectively). Also, FH was associated with high-risk benign pathology in the form of atypical small acinar cell proliferation (ASAP) or high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasm (HGPIN) (P = .04). Men in North America with an FH of PCa who undergo prostate biopsy are more likely to be diagnosed with both HGPCa and LGPCa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Micaela; Rossetti, Sabrina; Cavaliere, Carla; D'Aniello, Carmine; Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Vanacore, Daniela; Franco, Rossella Di; Mantia, Elvira La; Iovane, Gelsomina; Piscitelli, Raffaele; Muscariello, Raffaele; Berretta, Massimiliano; Perdonà, Sisto; Muto, Paolo; Botti, Gerardo; Bianchi, Attilio Antonio Montano; Veneziani, Bianca Maria; Facchini, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a main urological disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy are potentially curative for localized prostate cancer, while androgen deprivation therapy is the initial systemic therapy for metastatic prostate disease. However, despite temporary response, most patients relapse and evolve into castration resistant cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex gradual process that occurs during embryonic development and/or tumor progression. During this process, cells lose their epithelial characteristics and acquire mesenchymal features. Increasing evidences indicate that EMT promotes prostate cancer metastatic progression and it is closely correlated with increased stemness and drug resistance. In this review, we discuss the main molecular events that directly or indirectly govern the EMT program in prostate cancer, in order to better define the role and the mechanisms underlying this process in prostate cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. PMID:28430640

  5. The contemporary management of prostate cancer in the United States: lessons from the cancer of the prostate strategic urologic research endeavor (CapSURE), a national disease registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperberg, Matthew R; Broering, Jeanette M; Litwin, Mark S; Lubeck, Deborah P; Mehta, Shilpa S; Henning, James M; Carroll, Peter R

    2004-04-01

    The epidemiology and treatment of prostate cancer have changed dramatically in the prostate specific antigen era. A large disease registry facilitates the longitudinal observation of trends in disease presentation, management and outcomes. The Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE) is a national disease registry of more than 10000 men with prostate cancer accrued at 31 primarily community based sites across the United States. Demographic, clinical, quality of life and resource use variables are collected on each patient. We reviewed key findings from the data base in the last 8 years in the areas of disease management trends, and oncological and quality of life outcomes. Prostate cancer is increasingly diagnosed with low risk clinical characteristics. With time patients have become less likely to receive pretreatment imaging tests, less likely to pursue watchful waiting and more likely to receive brachytherapy or hormonal therapy. Relatively few patients treated with radical prostatectomy in the database are under graded or under staged before surgery, whereas the surgical margin rate is comparable to that in academic series. CaPSURE data confirm the usefulness of percent positive biopsies in risk assessment and they have further been used to validate multiple preoperative nomograms. CaPSURE results strongly affirm the necessity of patient reported quality of life assessment. Multiple studies have compared the quality of life impact of various treatment options, particularly in terms of urinary and sexual function, and bother. The presentation and management of prostate cancer have changed substantially in the last decade. CaPSURE will continue to track these trends as well as oncological and quality of life outcomes, and will continue to be an invaluable resource for the study of prostate cancer at the national level.

  6. Case of prostate cancer with anterior localization multiparametric MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer most often originates from acinar epithelium. Most of the clinically palpable carcinomas are located predominantly in the rear/dorzo-lateraI zones of the gland, but the tumors in the transition zone anatomical may spread to the periphery. The detection of a neoplastic process in the front parts of the gland is rare and poses difficulties in diagnosis. We present a rare case of anterior location of prostate carcinoma with invasion of bladder, blood vessels and seminal vesicles. At present, diagnosis of prostate cancer in most men is demonstrated by elevated serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), or positive rectal examination or ultrasonography. Multi parametric MR study is a promising method for detecting prostate cancer. When used in conjunction with PSA values and rectal examination, MRI is increasingly accepted as a standard for the diagnosis and characterization of prostate carcinoma. Key words; Prostate Cancer. Anterior Localization. Multi Parametric MRI

  7. Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen test: are patients making informed decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, K J; Volk, R J; Cass, A R; Spann, S J

    1999-09-01

    The benefits of early detection of prostate cancer are uncertain, and the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend individual decision making in prostate cancer screening. This study reports the knowledge of male primary care patients about prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and examines how that knowledge is related to PSA testing, preferences for testing in the future, and desire for involvement in physician-patient decision making. The sample included 160 men aged 45 to 70 years with no history of prostate cancer who presented for care at a university-based family medicine clinic. Before scheduled office visits, patients completed a questionnaire developed for this study that included a 10-question measure of prostate cancer knowledge, the Deber-Kraestchmer Problem-Solving Decision-Making Scale, sociodemographic indicators, and questions on PSA testing. In general, patients who were college graduates were more knowledgeable about prostate cancer and early detection than those with a high school education or less. Aside from college graduates, most patients could not identify the principle advantages and disadvantages of PSA testing. Patients indicating previous or future plans for PSA testing demonstrated greater knowledge than other patients. Desire for involvement in decision making varied by patient education but was not related to past PSA testing. Patients lack knowledge about prostate cancer and early detection. This knowledge deficit may impede the early detection of prostate cancer and is a barrier to making an informed decision about undergoing PSA testing.

  8. Potency after permanent prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potters, Louis; Torre, Taryn; Fearn, Paul A.; Leibel, Steven A.; Kattan, Michael W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The evaluation of potency preservation after treatment of localized prostate cancer with transperineal permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) and the efficacy of sildenafil were studied. Methods and Materials: This study comprised 482 patients who were able to maintain an erection suitable for intercourse before treatment from a cohort of 1166 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with PPB. All patients have been followed prospectively, and actuarial analysis was performed to assess potency preservation over time. Patients treated with sildenafil were evaluated as to its efficacy. Results: The median follow-up of this cohort was 34 months (6-92), with a median age of 68 years (47-80). Potency was preserved in 311 of the 482 patients, with a 5-year actuarial potency rate of 52.7%. The 5-year actuarial potency rate for patients treated with PPB as monotherapy was 76%, and, for those treated with combination external beam radiotherapy (EBT) + PPB, 56% (p=0.08). Patients treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (NAAD) + PPB had a 5-year potency rate of 52%, whereas those with combination EBT + PPB + NAAD had a potency rate of 29% (p=0.13). Cox regression analysis identified that pretreatment use of NAAD and patient age predicted for impotence (p=0.0001 and 0.04, respectively). Of 84 patients treated with sildenafil, 52 had a successful outcome (62%). The response to sildenafil was significantly better in those patients not treated with NAAD (p=0.04). Conclusions: The actuarial potency rates at 5 years for patients treated with PPB are lower than generally acknowledged, except for those patients treated with PPB as monotherapy. Patients who received sildenafil exhibited improved potency in a majority of cases

  9. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  10. Urinary microbiota in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haining; Meng, Hongzhou; Zhou, Feng; Ni, Xiaofeng; Shen, Shengrong; Das, Undurti N

    2015-04-25

    Inflammation is associated with promotion of the initiation of various malignancies, partly due to bacterial infection-induced microenvironmental changes. However, the exact association between microbiota in urine, seminal fluid and the expressed prostatic secretions and benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer is not clear. In the present study, we investigated the type of microbiota in the expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) of patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method using universal bacterial primers. In order to understand the possible association between various bacteria and prostate cancer, quantitative real-time PCR assay was performed to quantify the amount of strains of bacteria in urine, EPS and seminal fluid. The prostate cancer group had a significantly increased number of Bacteroidetes bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes bacteria, Lachnospiraceae, Propionicimonas, Sphingomonas, and Ochrobactrum, and a decrease in Eubacterium and Defluviicoccus compared to the BPH group. The number of Escherichia coli in the prostate cancer group was significantly decreased in urine and increased in the EPS and seminal fluid, while the number of Enterococcus was significantly increased in the seminal fluid with little change in urine and EPS. Based on these results, we suggest that there are significant changes in the microbial population in EPS, urine and seminal fluid of subjects with prostate cancer and BPH, indicating a possible role for these bacteria in these two conditions.

  11. A Possible Association between Melanoma and Prostate Cancer. Results from a Case-Control-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Goldenberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma and prostate cancer are the fifth and first most common cancers in men within the United States, respectively. The association between the two cancers lies in the mutual androgen-dependence. However, the relationship between prostate cancer history and melanoma development remains to be further elucidated. We aim to determine the odds of history of prostate cancer among men with melanoma as compared to time-frame, clinic, and provider-matched controls without melanoma within a single academic surgical center. We present a case-control study comparing men treated for melanoma and non-melanoma cancer by a single provider between 2010 and 2014 within an academic dermatologic surgical center. Overall, there were nine cases of prostate cancer among the melanoma group and two cases amongst the controls—a statistically significant difference in both uni- and multivariable analyses (p = 0.057 [95% CI 1, 23.5], p = 0.042 [95% CI 1.1, 129], respectively. Body mass index, alcohol use, and skin type II were significant risk factors for melanoma (p = 0.011 [95% CI 1, 1.3], 0.005 [95% CI 1.4, 7], 0.025 [95% CI 1.1, 3.3], respectively. There were more immunosuppressed controls (p = 0.002; however, the melanoma patients had a significantly longer duration of immunosuppression (11.6 vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.001 [95% CI 0.03, 0.5]. Melanoma screenings for men should include questions on prostate cancer history. Prostate cancer patients may benefit from more frequent and comprehensive melanoma screening.

  12. Studies of vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad for the photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Blanc, Dominique; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2005-01-01

    In this pre-clinical study, photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with a vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad (palladium-bacteriopheophorbide) is investigated as an alternative treatment modality for the ablation of prostate cancer. Canine prostate was used as the animal model. PDT was performed by interstitially irradiating the surgically exposed prostates with a diode laser (763 nm) to activate the IV infused photosensitizer. The effects of drug dose, drug-light interval, and light fluence rate on PDT efficacy were evaluated. The prostates and adjacent tissues were harvested at one-week post PDT and subjected to histopathological examination. The dogs recovered well with little or no urethral complications. Urinalysis showed trace blood. Histological examination showed minimal damage to the prostatic urethra. These indicated that the urethra was well preserved. PDT induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis with a clear demarcation. Maximum lesion volume of ~3 cm3 could be achieved with a single 1-cm diffuser fiber at a dose level of 1 mg/kg and 200 J/cm, suggesting the therapy is very effective in ablating prostatic tissue. PDT induced lesion could reach the capsule layers but adjacent tissues were well preserved. The novel photosensitizer is a vascular drug and cleared rapidly from the circulation. Light irradiation can be performed during drug infusion thereby eliminating waiting time. The novel vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad-mediated PDT could provide an effective alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  13. Altered male physiologic function after surgery for prostate cancer: couple perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tsivian,Matvey; Janice M.,Mayes; Krupski,Tracey L.; Mouraviev,Vladimir; Donatucci,Craig F.; Polascik,Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Both the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and the physiologic outcomes of surgical treatment impact the male’s psychological sphere. However, current research advocates a refocusing of outcomes directed to the PCa “couple”. Herein we acquire insight into perspective and concordance regarding male physiological function from the standpoint of a couple recovering from PCa surgery. Materials and methods: Couples whereby the male partner had undergone primary surgical...

  14. Identifying DNA Methylation Features that Underlie Prostate Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Profiles Primary Aim #1: Determine if methylation profiles differ by race/ancestry Primary Aim #2: Identify ethnicity-specific markers of prostate...cancer Primary Aim #3: Identify methylation Quantitative Trait Loci In the U.S., there are pronounced racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence...vary by ethnicity and to identify ethnicity-specific methylation features of prostate cancer that could contribute the racial disparities that exist in

  15. Molecular Epidemiology Investigation of Obesity and Lethal Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    compelling evidence linking obesity to aggressive prostate cancer, but the underlying causes of this relationship are unclear. In this study we used whole...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0250 TITLE: Molecular Epidemiology Investigation of Obesity and Lethal Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ericka...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Molecular Epidemiology Investigation of Obesity and Lethal Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0250

  16. Oxidative Stress and DNA Methylation in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena; Charles Y. F. Young; Donald J. Tindall

    2010-01-01

    The protective effects of fruits, vegetables, and other foods on prostate cancer may be due to their antioxidant properties. An imbalance in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status is observed in prostate cancer patients. Genome oxidative damage in prostate cancer patients is associated with higher lipid peroxidation and lower antioxidant levels. Oxygen radicals are associated with different steps of carcinogenesis, including structural DNA damage, epigenetic changes, and protein and lipid al...

  17. Side effects of curative radiotherapy of the prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, F.; Metzger, H.; Huebener, K.H.; Kurtz, B.

    1984-01-01

    The side effects of primary percutaneous radiotherapy in 100 patients with prostatic cancer were evaluated and classified into different degrees of gravity. It was shown that especially chronic side effects are benign in most of all cases. Severe - but not vitally dangerous - complications in bladder and intestine are rare (3%); their percentage corresponds roughly to the average mortality rate of surgical intervention (radical prostatectomy). Contrary to operation, troubles of the sexual function appear only in one third of the patients. Taking into consideration the similar therapeutic results of intervention and radiotherapy, radiotherapy is more favorable with respect to side effects. This essential aspects should be considered when making a decision whether to apply a surgical or radiotherapeutic treatment. (orig.) [de

  18. What about sexual life after therapy for prostate cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosset, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The precise assessment of sexual dysfunction after treatment of prostatic cancer cannot be avoided in 2002. These iatrogenic complications may significantly alter the quality of life of the patients. In addition, sexual toxicity is progressively becoming a cardinal parameter for the treatment choice, both for the patient and the physician. Significant efforts allowed to reduce sexual toxicity after therapy in the recent years. As an example, nerve-sparing surgical techniques have been proposed, whenever reasonable. However, in spite of these surgical advances, data suggest that overall, the new irradiation techniques (conformal radiotherapy and brachytherapy) are responsible for less alteration of sexual life than surgery. Another potential advantage is that sildenafil (Viagra) is able to restore potency in a majority of cases after radiotherapy, while it is usually poorly effective after surgery. (author)

  19. Oct-4 expression maintained stem cell properties in prostate cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in males. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy play significant and crucial roles in clinical prostate cancer treatment to achieve prolonged patient survival. Autopsy studies show that many older men (and even younger men) who died of other diseases also ...

  20. [Hormone therapy in prostate cancer; a pharmacotherapeutic challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westdorp, H.; Benoist, G.E.; Schers, H.J.; Erp, P.H. van; Gerritsen, W.R.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Kramers, C.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in men in the Western world. One-third of the patients with localised prostate cancer will develop recurrent disease, localised disease spread or distant metastases. The presence of distant metastases is an indication for primary palliative hormone

  1. Hormone-refractory prostate cancer and the skeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, Vidija

    2006-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men in the UK. Androgen ablation with luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRH agonists) alone, or in combination with anti-androgens is the standard treatment for men with metastatic prostate cancer. Unfortunately, despite maximal

  2. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer in the Western Cape | Heyns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Early stage prostate cancer does not cause symptoms, and even metastatic disease may exist for years without causing symptoms or signs. Whereas early stage prostate cancer can be cured with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy, the prognosis of patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancer is ...

  3. Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    metastasis and responses to curcumin 19 Goals: This proposal tests the hypothesis that chemokine biomarkers that predict biochemical recurrence of...prostate cancer regulate metastatic progression of the cancer and curcumin can inhibit metastasis of prostate cancer by antagonizing inflammatory signaling

  4. Organoid culture systems for prostate epithelial and cancer tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Jarno; Karthaus, Wouter R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/37034958X; Gao, Dong; Driehuis, Else; Sawyers, Charles L.; Chen, Yu; Clevers, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07164282X

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes a strategy for the generation of 3D prostate organoid cultures from healthy mouse and human prostate cells (either bulk or FACS-sorted single luminal and basal cells), metastatic prostate cancer lesions and circulating tumor cells. Organoids derived from healthy material

  5. Prognostic Implications of Important Genetic Alterations in Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Boormans (Joost)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe prostate is a walnut-sized gland that is located caudally from the urinary bladder. It excretes fluid as a part of the semen of men. Prostatic neoplasia is common; in Western developed countries prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy in men and it is the

  6. Diagnosis of prostate cancer with needle biopsy: Should all cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The triad of digital rectal examination (DRE), serum prostate specific antigen, and transrectal ultrasound‑guided prostate biopsy is used in the detection of prostate cancer (PCa). It is recommended that all cases of PCa should be diagnosed with needle biopsy before treatment. The exclusion criteria for those ...

  7. Organoid culture systems for prostate epithelial and cancer tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Jarno; Karthaus, Wouter R; Gao, Dong; Driehuis, Else; Sawyers, Charles L; Chen, Yu; Clevers, Hans

    This protocol describes a strategy for the generation of 3D prostate organoid cultures from healthy mouse and human prostate cells (either bulk or FACS-sorted single luminal and basal cells), metastatic prostate cancer lesions and circulating tumor cells. Organoids derived from healthy material

  8. Increased PSA expression on prostate cancer exosomes in in vitro condition and in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logozzi, Mariantonia; Angelini, Daniela F; Iessi, Elisabetta; Mizzoni, Davide; Di Raimo, Rossella; Federici, Cristina; Lugini, Luana; Borsellino, Giovanna; Gentilucci, Alessandro; Pierella, Federico; Marzio, Vittorio; Sciarra, Alessandro; Battistini, Luca; Fais, Stefano

    2017-09-10

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is the most common, clinically validated test for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). While neoplastic lesions of the prostate may cause aberrant levels of PSA in the blood, the quantitation of free or complexed PSA poorly discriminates cancer patients from those developing benign lesions, often leading to invasive and unnecessary surgical procedures. Microenvironmental acidity increases exosome release by cancer cells. In this study we evaluated whether acidity, a critical phenotype of malignancy, could influence exosome release and increase the PSA expression in nanovesicles released by PCa cells. To this aim, we exploited Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA), an immunocapture-based ELISA, and nanoscale flow-cytometry. The results show that microenvironmental acidity induces an increased release of nanovesicles expressing both PSA and the exosome marker CD81. In order to verify whether the changes induced by the local selective pressure of extracellular acidity may correspond to a clinical pathway we used the same approach to evaluate the levels of PSA-expressing exosomes in the plasma of PCa patients and controls, including subjects with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). The results show that only PCa patients have high levels of nanovesicles expressing both CD81 and PSA. This study shows that tumor acidity exerts a selective pressure leading to the release of extracellular vesicles that express both PSA and exosome markers. A comparable scenario was shown in the plasma of prostate cancer patients as compared to both BPH and healthy controls. These results suggest that microenvironmental acidity may represent a key factor which determines qualitatively and quantitatively the release of extracellular vesicles by malignant tumors, including prostate cancer. This condition leads to the spill-over of nanovesicles into the peripheral blood of prostate cancer patients, where the levels of tumor biomarkers expressed by

  9. Prostate Cancer Severity Associations with Neighborhood Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charnita M. Zeigler-Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this paper was to examine neighborhood deprivation and prostate cancer severity. Methods. We studied African American and Caucasian prostate cancer cases from the Pennsylvania State Cancer Registry. Census tract-level variables and deprivation scores were examined in relation to diagnosis stage, grade, and tumor aggressiveness. Results. We observed associations of low SES with high Gleason score among African Americans residing in neighborhoods with low educational attainment (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.13–1.60, high poverty (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.15–1.67, low car ownership (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.20–1.78, and higher percentage of residents on public assistance (OR = 1.32, 95% = 1.08–1.62. The highest quartile of neighborhood deprivation was also associated with high Gleason score. For both Caucasians and African Americans, the highest quartile of neighborhood deprivation was associated with high Gleason score at diagnosis (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.19–1.52; OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.21–2.40, resp.. Conclusion. Using a neighborhood deprivation index, we observed associations between high-grade prostate cancer and neighborhood deprivation in Caucasians and African-Americans.

  10. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang BJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Benedict J Kang,1,2,* Minhong Jeun,1,2,* Gun Hyuk Jang,1,2 Sang Hoon Song,3 In Gab Jeong,3 Choung-Soo Kim,3 Peter C Searson,4 Kwan Hyi Lee1,2 1KIST Biomedical Research Institute, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST, 3Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.Keywords: bioassay, nanomaterial, nanodevice, PSA, non-PSA biomarker, bodily fluid

  11. [Economic evaluation of the treatments of non-metastatic prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlbarg, J; Rabetrano, H; Soulié, M; Salomon, L; Durand-Zaleski, I

    2015-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in men in France. The development of treatment for prostate cancer is fast and sometimes relies on costly innovations. Medico-economic studies are however rare in this area. This literature review aims to summarize available medico-economic data on the initial management of localized prostate cancer and discuss the quality and usability of existing economic studies on the subject. Literature review was done using PubMed and Cochrane databases. Studies and articles were selected based on several criteria: population with initial treatment for localized prostate cancer (without metastasis), comparative studies with surgery as control treatment, studies in countries members of the OECD, articles in English or French published between 2004 and 2014. The surgical robot, one of the newest innovations, is more expensive than conventional open surgery or no robotic laparoscopy, even if it is associated with a reduction of the original period of stay. Radiation therapy seems more expensive than surgery as initial therapy of localized prostate cancer. Conclusions remain limited because of the rarity of reliable health economic studies on the subject. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of amino acids in urine of patients with prostate cancer and benign prostate growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Wiktor D; Boughton, Berin A; Reddy, Priyanka; Roessner, Ute; Słupski, Piotr; Jarzemski, Piotr; Dąbrowska, Anita; Markuszewski, Michał J; Marszałł, Michał P

    2017-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the leading type of cancer diagnosed in men. Serum prostate-specific antigen levels and digital rectal exam are far from perfect when it comes to differentiation of patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this study, we attempt to determine whether amino acids can be used as prostate cancer biomarkers. Concentrations of derivatized amino acids and amines were quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 100 urine samples from the two groups including samples provided before and after prostate massage were examined quantitatively for amino acid and amine concentrations with 50 urine samples collected from cancer patients and 50 samples from patients diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Arginine, homoserine, and proline were more abundant in urine samples of cancer patients compared with arginine, homoserine, and proline levels determined in urine collected from patients with benign growth. We also show that sarcosine is not a definitive indicator of prostate cancer when analyzed in urine samples collected either before or after prostate massage.

  13. An update on the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, P M

    2007-09-01

    To obtain an update of the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Review of all published literature on advanced prostate cancer was carried out through medline and index medicus search. Published data on advanced prostate cancer from June 2005 to June 2007 was included in the review. Abstracts of articles identified were assessed, read and analysed to determine relevance to the title under review. After establishing relevance from the abstract, the entire paper was read, and significant points included in the review. The mainstay of treatment of advanced prostate cancer remains hormone withdrawal. The introduction of docetaxel based chemotherapy has caused a paradigm shift.

  14. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2008-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) was a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  15. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2007-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  16. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2006-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  17. Fatherhood and incident prostate cancer in a prospective US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael L; Park, Yikyung; Brinton, Louise A; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2011-04-01

    Fatherhood status has been hypothesized to affect prostate cancer risk but the current evidence is limited and contradictory. We prospectively evaluated the relationship between offspring number and the risk of prostate cancer in 161,823 men enrolled in the National Institues of Health - American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Participants were aged 50-71 years without a cancer diagnosis at baseline in 1995. Analysing 8134 cases of prostate cancer, Cox regression was used to estimate the association between offspring number and prostate cancer incidence while accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. When examining the entire cohort, there was no relationship between fatherhood and incident prostate cancer [hazard ratio (HR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.02]. However, after stratifying for prostate cancer screening, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) unscreened childless men had a lower risk of prostate cancer (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.91) compared with fathers due to the interaction between PSA screening and fatherhood (P for interaction fatherhood status and offspring gender is associated with a man's prostate cancer risk.

  18. Translational Hyperactivity as a Target for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terrian, David

    2003-01-01

    ...) gene family contribute to the translational hyperactivity that accompanies the unrestrained cell cycle reentry and unlimited replicative potential of prostate cancer cells Experiments designed...

  19. Prostatic MR imaging. Accuracy in differentiating cancer from other prostatic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, S.; Kivisaari, L.; Tervahartiala, P. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept of Radiology; Vehmas, T. [Finnish Inst. of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland); Taari, K.; Rannikko, S. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept of Urology

    2001-03-01

    Purpose: We assessed the accuracy of MR imaging in differentiating between cancer and other prostatic disorders, and evaluated the diagnostic criteria for various prostatic diseases. Material and Methods: A total of 74 endorectal coil MR studies were performed on 72 patients. Twenty patients had prostatic cancer, 20 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 4 acute bacterial prostatitis, 5 chronic bacterial prostatitis (2 also belonging to the previous category), 19 chronic non-bacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and 6 were symptomless voluntary controls. All studies were interpreted by two experienced radiologists in random order. Radiologists were blinded to all clinical data including the age of the patients. Based on MR findings, both radiologists filled in a form covering diagnostic criteria and diagnosis. Results: Accuracy in diagnosing prostate cancer was 74%. Sensitivity was 50% and specificity 83%, and positive and negative predictive values were 53 and 82%, respectively. Bacterial prostatitis showed some features similar to carcinoma. Abundant BPH rendered cancer detection more difficult. No diagnostic criterion was clearly better than the others. Interobserver agreement on the MR diagnosis ranged from moderate to good. Conclusion: Without knowledge of accurate clinical data, MR seems to be too insensitive in detecting prostate cancer to be used as a primary diagnostic tool.

  20. Epigenetics in breast and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2015-01-01

    Most recent investigations into cancer etiology have identified a key role played by epigenetics. Specifically, aberrant DNA and histone modifications which silence tumor suppressor genes or promote oncogenes have been demonstrated in multiple cancer models. While the role of epigenetics in several solid tumor cancers such as colorectal cancer are well established, there is emerging evidence that epigenetics also plays a critical role in breast and prostate cancer. In breast cancer, DNA methylation profiles have been linked to hormone receptor status and tumor progression. Similarly in prostate cancer, epigenetic patterns have been associated with androgen receptor status and response to therapy. The regulation of key receptor pathways and activities which affect clinical therapy treatment options by epigenetics renders this field high priority for elucidating mechanisms and potential targets. A new set of methylation arrays are now available to screen epigenetic changes and provide the cutting-edge tools needed to perform such investigations. The role of nutritional interventions affecting epigenetic changes particularly holds promise. Ultimately, determining the causes and outcomes from epigenetic changes will inform translational applications for utilization as biomarkers for risk and prognosis as well as candidates for therapy.

  1. Accumulation of [11C]acetate in normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia: comparison with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Takei, Toshiki; Shiga, Tohru; Nakada, Kunihiro; Tamaki, Nagara; Kuge, Yuji; Katoh, Chietsugu; Shinohara, Nobuo

    2002-01-01

    Carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography (PET) has been reported to be of clinical value for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, no detailed analysis has yet been carried out on the physiological accumulation of [ 11 C]acetate in the prostate. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the physiological accumulation of [ 11 C]acetate in the prostate using dynamic PET. The study included 30 subjects without prostate cancer [21 with normal prostate and nine with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)] and six patients with prostate cancer. A dynamic PET study was performed for 20 min after intravenous administration of 555 MBq of [ 11 C]acetate. The standardised uptake value (SUV) at 16-20 min post tracer administration and the early-to-late-activity ratio of the SUV (E/L ratio), which was determined by dividing the SUV 6-10 min by the SUV 16-20min , were calculated to evaluate the accumulation of [ 11 C]acetate. The prostate was clearly visualised and distinguished from adjacent organs in PET images in most of the cases. The SUV of the prostate (2.6 ±0.8) was significantly higher than that of the rectum (1.7 ±0.4) or bone marrow (1.3 ±0.3) (P 11 C]acetate PET. However, the difference in the SUV between subjects aged ≥50 with normal prostate or with BPH and the patients with prostate cancer (1.9 ±0.6) was not statistically significant. There was also no significant difference in the E/L ratio between subjects aged ≥50 with normal prostate (0.98 ±0.04) or BPH (0.96 ±0.08) and patients with prostate cancer (1.02 ±0.12). In conclusion, a normal prostate exhibits age-related physiological accumulation of [ 11 C]acetate. Careful interpretation of [ 11 C]acetate PET images of prostate cancer is necessary because the SUV and the E/L ratio for the normal prostate and for BPH overlap significantly with those for prostate cancer. (orig.)

  2. Management Options for Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrejahani, Farhad; Madan, Ravi A; Dahut, William L

    2017-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common solid tumor malignancy in men worldwide. Treatment with surgery and radiation can be curative in organ-confined disease. Unfortunately, about one third of men develop biochemically recurrent disease based only on rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the absence of visible disease on conventional imaging. For these patients with biochemical recurrent prostate cancer, there is no uniform guideline for subsequent management. Based on available data, it seems prudent that biochemical recurrent prostate cancer should initially be evaluated for salvage radiation or prostatectomy, with curative intent. In selected cases, high-intensity focused ultrasound and cryotherapy may be considered in patients that meet very narrow criteria as defined by non-randomized trials. If salvage options are not practical or unsuccessful, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a standard option for disease control. While some patients prefer ADT to manage the disease immediately, others defer treatment because of the associated toxicity. In the absence of definitive randomized data, patients may be followed using PSA doubling time as a trigger to initiate ADT. Based on retrospective data, a PSA doubling time of less than 3-6 months has been associated with near-term development of metastasis and thus could be used signal to initiate ADT. Once treatment is begun, patients and their providers can choose between an intermittent and continuous ADT strategy. The intermittent approach may limit side effects but in patients with metastatic disease studies could not exclude a 20% greater risk of death. In men with biochemical recurrence, large studies have shown that intermittent therapy is non-inferior to continuous therapy, thus making this a reasonable option. Since biochemically recurrent prostate cancer is defined by technological limitations of radiographic detection, as new imaging (i.e., PSMA) strategies are developed, it may alter how the disease is

  3. Prostate Health Index improves multivariable risk prediction of aggressive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Broyles, Dennis L; Wei, John T; Sanda, Martin; Klee, George; Partin, Alan W; Sokoll, Lori; Chan, Daniel W; Bangma, Chris H; van Schaik, Ron H N; Slawin, Kevin M; Marks, Leonard S; Catalona, William J

    2017-07-01

    To examine the use of the Prostate Health Index (PHI) as a continuous variable in multivariable risk assessment for aggressive prostate cancer in a large multicentre US study. The study population included 728 men, with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 2-10 ng/mL and a negative digital rectal examination, enrolled in a prospective, multi-site early detection trial. The primary endpoint was aggressive prostate cancer, defined as biopsy Gleason score ≥7. First, we evaluated whether the addition of PHI improves the performance of currently available risk calculators (the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial [PCPT] and European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer [ERSPC] risk calculators). We also designed and internally validated a new PHI-based multivariable predictive model, and created a nomogram. Of 728 men undergoing biopsy, 118 (16.2%) had aggressive prostate cancer. The PHI predicted the risk of aggressive prostate cancer across the spectrum of values. Adding PHI significantly improved the predictive accuracy of the PCPT and ERSPC risk calculators for aggressive disease. A new model was created using age, previous biopsy, prostate volume, PSA and PHI, with an area under the curve of 0.746. The bootstrap-corrected model showed good calibration with observed risk for aggressive prostate cancer and had net benefit on decision-curve analysis. Using PHI as part of multivariable risk assessment leads to a significant improvement in the detection of aggressive prostate cancer, potentially reducing harms from unnecessary prostate biopsy and overdiagnosis. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Androgen Receptor Mutations and Polymorphisms in African American Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Koochekpour, Shahriar; Buckles, Erick; Shourideh, Mojgan; Hu, SiYi; Chandra, Dhyan; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Attwood, Kristopher

    2014-01-01

    The Androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the normal development of the prostate gland, in prostate carcinogenesis, and in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) to advanced metastatic disease. African American (AA) men with PCa present with higher tumor volume, more advanced tumor stage, and higher Gleason score. This could be in part related to the AR expression or activity in the prostate tissue of AA men, or to unique mutations or polymorphisms of the AR. In Caucasian Americans...

  5. PTEN Loss and Reactive Microenvironments in Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Cookson, M.S., Concepcion , R., Chang, S.S., Wills, M.L., Smith Jr., J.A., 2007a. The association between body size, prostate volume and prostate...specific antigen. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 10, 137–142. Fowke, J.H., Motley, S.S., Cookson, M.S., Concepcion , R., Chang, S.S., Wills, M.L., Smith Jr

  6. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon, C.; Galli, M.; Meoli, P.; Mariani, L.; Novelli, L.; Gonzalez, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To analyze the feasibility of high dose assessing acute and late toxicities both rectal and genitourinary in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Material and methods: Between April 2006 and April 2008 90 patients diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with MRT technique in the Department of Radiotherapy. The analysis included 80 patients, 10 of them in treatment. The total dose received was 80 Gy. One patient received 70.2 Gy (because of previous pelvic radiotherapy). Age average: 65 (r 43-85 years). Stage: T1c: 43 p (53.75%), T2: 35 p (43.75%), T3: 1 p (1.25%). Score of Gleason 10 ng/ml and [es

  7. Current early diagnostic biomarkers of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Qu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa has become to have the highest incidence and the second mortality rate in western countries, affecting men's health to a large extent. Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA was discovered to help diagnose the cancer in an early stage for decades, its specificity is relative low, resulting in unnecessary biopsy for healthy people and over-treatment for patients. Thus, it is imperative to identify more and more effective biomarkers for early diagnosis of PCa in order to distinguish patients from healthy populations, which helps guide an early treatment to lower disease-related mortality by noninvasive or minimal invasive approaches. This review generally describes the current early diagnostic biomarkers of PCa in addition to PSA and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of these biomarkers.

  8. Metabolic Syndrome and Aggressive Prostate Cancer at Initial Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Simona; Tenaglia, Raffaele L

    2017-07-01

    Links between metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer after androgen deprivation therapy are emerging. The aim of the research was to investigate the association of metabolic syndrome and aggressive prostate malignancy, at initial diagnosis, without the influence of hormonal treatment. Retrospective analysis of 133 patients with prostate tumor diagnosis between 2007 and 2009 was conducted. Patients with prostate cancer were subdivided in 2 groups according to Gleason score: Gleason score≥7 as high-grade prostate tumor (Group 1) and Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute definition. Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with aggressive prostate cancer (OR 1.87, pmetabolic syndrome were more likely to present with more aggressive prostate carcinoma vs. patients without metabolic syndrome. Further research should elucidate these relations in larger samples to confirm these associations and to stabilize future prevention and therapeutic strategies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Targeted Gold Nanoparticles for Theranostics of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangadlao, Joey Dacula; Wang, Xinning; McCleese, Christopher; Escamilla, Maria; Ramamurthy, Gopalakrishnan; Wang, Ziying; Govande, Mukul; Basilion, James P; Burda, Clemens

    2018-04-24

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers and among the leading causes of cancer deaths in the United States. Men diagnosed with the disease typically undergo radical prostatectomy, which often results in incontinence and impotence. Recurrence of the disease is often experienced by most patients with incomplete prostatectomy during surgery. Hence, the development of a technique that will enable surgeons to achieve a more precise prostatectomy remains an open challenge. In this contribution, we report a theranostic agent (AuNP-5kPEG-PSMA-1-Pc4) based on prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA-1)-targeted gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) loaded with a fluorescent photodynamic therapy (PDT) drug, Pc4. The fabricated nanoparticles are well-characterized by spectroscopic and imaging techniques and are found to be stable over a wide range of solvents, buffers, and media. In vitro cellular uptake experiments demonstrated significantly higher nanoparticle uptake in PSMA-positive PC3pip cells than in PSMA-negative PC3flu cells. Further, more complete cell killing was observed in Pc3pip than in PC3flu cells upon exposure to light at different doses, demonstrating active targeting followed by Pc4 delivery. Likewise, in vivo studies showed remission on PSMA-expressing tumors 14 days post-PDT. Atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed that targeted AuNPs accumulate 4-fold higher in PC3pip than in PC3flu tumors. The nanoparticle system described herein is envisioned to provide surgical guidance for prostate tumor resection and therapeutic intervention when surgery is insufficient.

  10. High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are present in benign prostate tissues before development of HPV associated prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Wendy K; Ngan, Christopher C; Amos, Timothy G; Edwards, Richard J; Swift, Joshua; Lutze-Mann, Louise; Shang, Fei; Whitaker, Noel J; Lawson, James S

    2017-01-01

    Although high risk HPVs are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer it is not known if they have a causal role. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential role of human papilloma viruses (HPVs) in prostate cancer. The aims are (i) to investigate the presence and confirm the identity of high risk HPVs in benign prostate tissues prior to the development of HPV positive prostate cancer in the same patients, and (ii) to determine if HPVs are biologically active. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify HPVs in specimens from 52 Australian men with benign prostate biopsies who 1 to 10 years later developed prostate cancer. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to assess the expression of HPV E7 oncoproteins, cytokeratin and prostate specific antigen (PSA). We used RNASeq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to identify possible HPV RNA sequences in prostate cancer. HPV screening using standard PCR was conducted on 28 of the 52 sets of benign and later prostate cancers. HPV L1 genes were identified in 13 (46%) benign and 8 (29%) of 28 later prostate cancers in the same patients. HPV E7 genes were identified in 23 (82%) benign and 19 (68%) of 28 subsequent prostate cancers in the same patients. The same HPV types were present in both the benign and subsequent prostate cancers in 9 sets of specimens. HPV type 16 was identified in 15% of benign and 3% of prostate cancers. HPV type 18 was identified in 26% of benign and 16% of prostate cancers. Small numbers of HPV types 45, 47, 76 and 115 were also identified. High confidence RNA-Seq evidence for high risk HPV types 16 and 18 was identified in 12 (2%) of the 502 TCGA prostate cancer transcriptomes. High risk HPV E7 oncoprotein was positively expressed in 23 (82%) of 28 benign prostate specimens but only in 8 (29%) of 28 of the later prostate cancer specimens. This difference is statistically significant ( p  = 0.001). Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was more highly expressed in 26

  11. Molecular Determinants of Radioresponse in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    was hired as the technician for the technical aspects of the grant as outlined in the original budget. She came to our lab from the private...As different laboratories may contain variants of original cell stocks, we initially determined the p53 status of the malignant prostate epithelial...542-547 28 Ambrosini, G, Adida , C & Altieri, DC. A novel anti-apoptosis gene, survivin, expressed in cancer and lymphoma. Nat Med 1997; 3: 917-921 29

  12. Targeting TMPRSS2-ERG in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    in E . coli and purified using Ni-NTA agarose. Eluted protein was analyzed by SDS- PAGE and Coomassie Blue staining. Left lane shows molecular...5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E -Mail: 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...TMPRSS2. The TMPRSS2-ERG fusion results in ERG becoming aberrantly activated in prostate cells, which contributes to the development of cancer. However

  13. Role of Obesity in Prostate Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    samples for testosterone and estradiol levels in relationship to obesity status and in relationship to age of tumor detection. However, in general these...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Obesity in Prostate Cancer Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0292 5c. PROGRAM...public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Prospective epidemiological studies suggest that obesity increases

  14. A recommender system for prostate cancer websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteman, Holly; Chignell, Mark; Krahn, Murray

    2008-11-06

    One of the challenges for people seeking health information online is the difficulty in locating health Websites that are personally relevant, credible and useful. We developed a Web-based recommender system in order to help address this problem in the context of prostate cancer. We are conducting an online randomized controlled trial to evaluate the accuracy of its recommendations and to compare the efficacy of content-based and collaborative filtering.

  15. Intra-Prostate Cancer Vaccine Inducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    intratumoral injection of the fol- lowing experimental products: oncolytic viruses ,24 suicide genes,25;26 tumor-suppressor,27;28 and cy- tokine genes... pathogenetic factor in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Endocrine Pathol 1998;3:201–8. 40. Martin BK, Chin KC, Olsen JC, et al. Induction of MHC class I expression by...of murine prostate tumor growth and activation of immunoregulatory cells with recombinant canary- pox viruses . J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 93, 998–1007

  16. Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    which is needed to prevent tumor growth. Studies in autoimmune diseases, atherosclerosis , and wound healing have identified mediators of...An orthotropic bone model for prostate cancer in mice was used to study the effects of trabectedin. A single administration of trabectedin 7 days...a new post-doctoral fellow, the TGFβ studies using the mouse model will be used to get a more in-depth understanding of the process of efferocytosis

  17. Summer Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    the research program by each mentor will certainly produce important research findings, aided in part by the summer research of the ...adenovirus vaccine in men with prostate cancer. Important in these trials is the safety of the vaccine and its ability to induce anti-tumor immunity... Living in Iowa City for the Summer Housing and Meals - All students will be housed in the Mayflower Residence Hall on the Campus of the University

  18. Impact of Phosphoproteomics in the Era of Precision Medicine for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny R. Ramroop

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men in the United States. While androgen deprivation therapy results in tumor responses initially, there is relapse and progression to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Currently, all prostate cancer patients receive essentially the same treatment, and there is a need for clinically applicable technologies to provide predictive biomarkers toward personalized therapies. Genomic analyses of tumors are used for clinical applications, but with a paucity of obvious driver mutations in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, other applications, such as phosphoproteomics, may complement this approach. Immunohistochemistry and reverse phase protein arrays are limited by the availability of reliable antibodies and evaluates a preselected number of targets. Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics has been used to profile tumors consisting of thousands of phosphopeptides from individual patients after surgical resection or at autopsy. However, this approach is time consuming, and while a large number of candidate phosphopeptides are obtained for evaluation, limitations are reduced reproducibility, sensitivity, and precision. Targeted mass spectrometry can help eliminate these limitations and is more cost effective and less time consuming making it a practical platform for future clinical testing. In this review, we discuss the use of phosphoproteomics in prostate cancer and other clinical cancer tissues for target identification, hypothesis testing, and possible patient stratification. We highlight the majority of studies that have used phosphoproteomics in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines and propose ways forward to apply this approach in basic and clinical research. Overall, the implementation of phosphoproteomics via targeted mass spectrometry has tremendous potential to aid in the development of more rational, personalized therapies that will result in increased survival

  19. [Preoperative assessment of patient candidate to prostate cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauval, J-B; Mazerolles, M; Salomon, L; Soulié, M

    2015-11-01

    To determine the tools of therapeutic decision that push towards surgical treatment in non metastatic prostate cancer eligible to local treatment. The optimized assessment of the disease and eventual comorbidities improves the selection of patients. Patient's files will be presented in the uro-oncological multidisciplinary discussions to validate the customized therapeutic approach proposed. Literature review using Medline (National library of medicine, Pubmed) and Med Science databases based on the scientific pertinence. Research was focused on the diagnosis of prostate cancer, the evaluation of the disease and patient's characteristics, and finally the elements that are with a surgical treatment (past medical history, past surgical history, functional status, patient's comorbidities, and life expectancy). The pretherapeutic oncologic evaluation allows to estimate the risks associated with prostate cancer; it is an essential aspect of therapeutic decision. Several clinical, biological, imaging and pathological criteria allow to guide decision-making according to tumor aggressiveness and risk of recurrence, estimating the results of the different treatments proposed. On the other hand, the evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary continence and sexual function, the integration of anatomical data, past medical and past surgical history are all essential for the therapeutic decision, in addition to the comorbidities (Charlson, ASA, ICD). These elements should be taken all together in order to decide for a radical or conservative management of PCa, they guide decision-making in patients candidate for surgery. For example, age plays a key role in the choice of treatment, even in older men at risk of developing high-risk PCa that can affect overall survival. The combined evaluation of the patient and disease characteristics is of utmost importance in oncology, and especially in the treatment of non-metastatic PCa. The role of the anesthesiologist in the

  20. The characteristics and spatial distributions of initially missed and rebiopsy-detected prostate cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Won You

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of initially missed and rebiopsy-detected prostate cancers following 12-core transrectal biopsy. Methods: A total of 45 patients with prostate cancers detected on rebiopsy and 45 patients with prostate cancers initially detected on transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy were included in the study. For result analysis, the prostate was divided into six compartments, and the cancer positive rates, estimated tumor burden, and agreement rates between biopsy and surgical specimens, along with clinical data, were evaluated. Results: The largest mean tumor burden was located in the medial apex in both groups. There were significantly more tumors in this location in the rebiopsy group (44.9% than in the control group (30.1%, P=0.015. The overall sensitivity of biopsy was significantly lower in the rebiopsy group (22.5% vs. 43.4%, P<0.001. The agreement rate of cancer positive cores between biopsy and surgical specimens was significantly lower in the medial apex in the rebiopsy group compared with that of the control group (50.0% vs. 65.6%, P=0.035. The cancer positive rates of target biopsy cores and premalignant lesions in the rebiopsy group were 63.1% and 42.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Rebiopsy-detected prostate cancers showed different spatial distribution and lower cancer detection rate of biopsy cores compared with initially diagnosed cancers. To overcome lower cancer detection rate, target biopsy of abnormal sonographic findings, premalignant lesions and medial apex which revealed larger tumor burden would be recommended when performing rebiopsy.

  1. Nutrigenetics and prostate cancer: 2011 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yinan; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer runs in families and shows a clear dietary involvement. Until recently, the key risk gene(s) have proved elusive. We summarise current understandings of nutrient-gene interactions in prostate cancer risk and progression. A MEDLINE-based literature search was conducted. Hypothesis-directed candidate gene approaches provide plausible, albeit statistically weak, nutrient-gene interactions. These are based on early understandings of factors likely to impact on carcinogenesis, including both nutrient and genetic effects on androgen biosynthesis and action, xenobiotic metabolism, DNA damage and DNA repair. Non-hypothesis-directed genome-wide association studies provide much stronger evidence for other genes, not hitherto suspected for involvement. Although only a few of these have been formally tested for dietary associations in well-designed epidemiologic studies, the nature of many of the genes suggests that their activity may be regulated by nutrients. These effects may not only be relevant to prostate cancer susceptibility, but also to disease progression. It will be important to move beyond studying single nucleotide polymorphisms, into more complex chromosomal rearrangements and to epigenetic changes. For future progress, large international cohorts will not only need to provide proof of individual nutrient-gene interactions, but also to relate these to more complex nutrient-gene-gene interactions, as parts of pathways. Bioinformatics and biostatistics will be increasingly important tools in nutrigenetic studies beyond 2011. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Three-dimensional reconstruction for genomic analysis of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Arthur W.; Gilbertson, John; Zheng, Lei; Gilespie, John; Swalwell, Jennifer; Yagi, Yukako; Kim, Sujin; Emmert-Buck, Michael; Becich, Michael J.

    2000-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths and is the most frequently detected form of cancer of males in the US. Death rate scan be greatly reduced by early treatment. Consequently, it is important to understand the cause and progression of this disease in order to improve detection and treatment methods. As part of the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project work is underway to produce a 'molecular finger print' of prostate cancer.

  3. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    how chromatin structure participates in the transcriptional regulation of cancer related genes including oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes...signaling pathways related to cancer progression to various approaches for therapeutic intervention in these pathways including large molecule...diseases, focused on molecular epidemiology, HPV effects on the development of genital and other cancers ; hormones and risk of HPV detection and

  4. NY-ESO-1 expression and immunogenicity in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gati, Asma; Lajmi, Nesrine; Derouiche, Amine; Marrakchi, Raja; Chebil, Mohamed; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel

    2011-10-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of men cancer-related death. Cancer immunotherapy has been investigated as a treatment which might be instituted at the point of detection of androgen-independent metastatic disease. to investigate the expression and humoral response against NYESO-1 in patients with prostate cancer (PC) and to analyze the relationship between expression of NY-ESO-1 and clinicopathological features. NY-ESO-1 mRNA in surgically resected PC and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were examined by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. The antibody response to NY-ESO-1 was examined by enzyme-linked Elisa assay using recombinant NYESO-1 protein. NY-ESO-1 mRNA was detected in 9 of 23 (39%) PC patients. Antibodies against NY-ESO-1 protein were detected in 12 of 23 (52%) sera of PC patients and in 5 of 9 (55%) of NY-ESO-1 expressing tumors. However, no mRNA copy or NY-ESO-1 antibodies were detected in all BPH patients tested. The present study has demonstrated the expression of NY-ESO-1mRNA in prostate Cancer patients and NY-ESO-1 antibody production. Our data suggest that NY-ESO-1 could be used as a tumor marker and constitute a good candidate for vaccine-based immunotherapy for hormonal resistant prostate cancer patients.

  5. Prostate cancer incidence in Australia correlates inversely with solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Tim W; Seyfi, Doruk; Sevfi, Doruk; Khadra, Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Increased sun exposure and blood levels of vitamin D have been postulated to be protective against prostate cancer. This is controversial. We investigated the relationship between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation in non-urban Australia, and found a lower incidence in regions receiving more sunlight. In landmark ecological studies, prostate cancer mortality rates have been shown to be inversely related to ultraviolet radiation exposure. Investigators have hypothesised that ultraviolet radiation acts by increasing production of vitamin D, which inhibits prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, analyses of serum levels of vitamin D in men with prostate cancer have failed to support this hypothesis. This study has found an inverse correlation between solar radiation and prostate cancer incidence in Australia. Our population (previously unstudied) represents the third group to exhibit this correlation. Significantly, the demographics and climate of Australia differ markedly from those of previous studies conducted on men in the United Kingdom and the United States. • To ascertain if prostate cancer incidence rates correlate with solar radiation among non-urban populations of men in Australia. • Local government areas from each state and territory were selected using explicit criteria. Urban areas were excluded from analysis. • For each local government area, prostate cancer incidence rates and averaged long-term solar radiation were obtained. • The strength of the association between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation was determined. • Among 70 local government areas of Australia, age-standardized prostate cancer incidence rates for the period 1998-2007 correlated inversely with daily solar radiation averaged over the last two decades. •  There exists an association between less solar radiation and higher prostate cancer incidence in Australia. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU

  6. Molecular diagnosis of prostate cancer: PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salagierski, M.; Schalken, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Widespread prostate specific antigen screening together with the increase in the number of biopsy cores has led to increased prostate cancer incidence. Standard diagnostic tools still cannot unequivocally predict prostate cancer progression, which often results in a significant

  7. C-type natriuretic peptide in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Soeren Junge; Iversen, Peter; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2009-01-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is expressed in the male reproductive organs in pigs. To examine whether the human prostate also expresses the CNP gene, we measured CNP and N-terminal proCNP in prostate cancer tissue extracts and performed immunohistochemical biopsy staining. Additionally, pro......CNP-derived peptides were quantitated in plasma from patients with prostate cancer. Blood was collected from healthy controls and patients before surgery for localized prostate cancer. Tissue extracts were prepared from tissue biopsies obtained from radical prostatectomy surgery. N-terminal proCNP, proCNP (1...... demonstrated the presence of the peptides in prostatic epithelial cells. The N-terminal proCNP concentrations in plasma were marginally lower in patients with localized prostate cancer compared with control subjects [13.8 pmol/l (11.0-17.2) vs. 15.1 pmol/l (10.4-23.2), p=0.002] but not enough to justify...

  8. Human prostate cancer ZIP1/zinc/citrate genetic/metabolic relationship in the TRAMP prostate cancer animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Leslie C; Franklin, Renty B; Zou, Jing; Feng, Pei; Bok, Robert; Swanson, Mark G; Kurhanewicz, John

    2011-12-15

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men. The availability of animal models that represent the events and factors that exist in the natural history and biology of human prostate cancer is essential in dealing with prostate cancer. In recent decades and presently, emphasis has been directed at the development and employment of prostate cancer induced in transgenic mice. However, the important consistent hallmark characteristic and event of decrease in zinc and citrate and downregulation of ZIP1 zinc transporter in prostate malignancy has not been studied or identified in any animal model. We investigated the status of these parameters in TRAMP tumors as compared with human prostate cancer. The results show that citrate levels are markedly decreased in the developing and advancing stages of malignancy in TRAMP. Zinc levels are also decreased and ZIP1 transporter is lost in TRAMP tumors. In vitro studies show that zinc treatment of TRAMP C2 cells exhibits cytotoxic effects. Collectively, these results mimic the ZIP1, zinc, and citrate status and relationship that exist in human prostate cancer. This is the first report that establishes the existence of the human prostate zinc/citrate hallmark characteristic and relationship in an animal model. It now appears that the TRAMP model will be suitable for studies relating to the implications and role of zinc- and citrate-related metabolism in the development and progression of human prostate cancer.

  9. A Case of Advanced Submandibular Gland Cancer in Which Increased Prostate-Specific Antigen and Multiple Bone Metastases Wrongly Suggested Concurrent Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yoko Fukasawa; Takeshi Honda; Maika Natsume; Terunobu Haruyama; Masashi Ishihara; Takahiko Sakamoto; Ryo Usui; Shigeru Tanzawa; Shuji Ota; Yasuko Ichikawa; Kiyotaka Watanabe; Koji Saito; Nobuhiko Seki

    2017-01-01

    A 73-year-old man, followed for prostatic hyperplasia, developed submandibular gland cancer. Initially, because of the concurrent presence of elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and multiple bone metastases, he was clinically determined as having stage IV prostate cancer in addition to stage II submandibular gland cancer, and radical surgery for his submandibular gland cancer was performed first. However, subsequent detailed examinations of the prostate gland showed no prostate can...

  10. Solidago Vigaurea for Prostate Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    oncogene in prostate cancer, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101 (2009) 519–532. [33] A. Vazquez -Martin, R. Colomer, J. Brunet, R. Lupu, J.A. Menendez, Overexpression...and scramble sequence for control were obtained from Cell Signaling. siRNA for siSREBP was purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology. Western blot. The...Bioscience), SREBP 1 (1:200; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), phospho Akt (1:200; Ser473; Cell Signaling), Akt (1:200; Cell Signaling), and phospho SREBP (0.5 Ag

  11. PET/CT Imaging and Radioimmunotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Tagawa, Scott T; Goldsmith, Stanley J

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men and continues to be a major health problem. Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of patients with prostate cancer. An important goal for prostate cancer imaging is more accurate disease characterization through the synthesis...... of anatomic, functional, and molecular imaging information. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in oncology is emerging as an important imaging tool. The most common radiotracer for PET/CT in oncology, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), is not very useful in the imaging of prostate cancer....... However, in recent years other PET tracers have improved the accuracy of PET/CT imaging of prostate cancer. Among these, choline labeled with (18)F or (11)C, (11)C-acetate, and (18)F-fluoride has demonstrated promising results, and other new radiopharmaceuticals are under development and evaluation...

  12. Sciatic neuropathy as first sign of metastasising prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Rastiemadabadi, Zoreh; Smith, Torben Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    idiopathic neuropathy. Here we describe a patient who was initially diagnosed with idiopathic sciatic neuropathy but who was eventually diagnosed with prostate cancer. This is an uncommon manifestation of prostate cancer, and the diagnostic was difficult because prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was normal...... and the positron emission tomography scan negative. Changes in PSA should always raise the suspicion of prostate cancer, just as idiopathic progressive neuropathy should always raise the suspicion of an underlying malignancy, even when standard diagnostics fail to explain the patient's symptoms....

  13. Active surveillance strategy for patients with localised prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Active surveillance - an initial observational strategy - offers a tailored management of patients with localised prostate cancer. The aim of the strategy is to appoint patients with potentially lethal prostate cancer to curatively intended treatment, while patients with slowly evolving...... in the management of prostate cancer patients on active surveillance is emphasised....... measurements, repeated biopsies, and regular digital rectal examinations. The programme recommended change of management from active surveillance to curatively intended treatment based on PSA doubling time, deteriorating histopathology in repeated prostatic biopsies, and increased clinical tumour category...

  14. Chromosomal radiosensitivity of prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRobbie, M.L.; Riches, A.; Baxby, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from prostate cancer patients is being investigated using the G2 assay and the Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus(CBMN)assay. The G2 assay evaluates chromosomal damage caused by irradiating cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. The CBMN assay quantifies the post mitotic micronuclei, which are the expression of damage incurred during G0. An association between hypersensitivity to the chromosome damaging effects of ionising radiation and cancer predispostion has been demonstrated in a number of heritable conditions by using the aforementioned techniques. Recently, increased chromosomal radiosensitivity has been demonstrated in a significant proportion of patients with no obvious family history of malignancy. The aim of this study is to establish whether a group of prostatic carcinoma patients exists and if so whether there are any correlations between their G2 and G0 sensitivities. The study has shown there is no correlation between G2 and G0 sensitivity, confirming the general trend that individuals exhibiting chromosomal radiosensitivity are defective in only one mechanism and G2 and G0 sensitivity are largely independent. Current data indicates that there is an identifiable group of men within the prostate cancer population with increased chromosomal radiosensitivity. Using the G2 assay and the 90th percentile of the controls as a cut off point for sensitivity, no significant difference between the controls and the patient population has been found. However, using the CBMN assay and again the 90th percentile, approximately 11% of the control group are sensitive compared with approximately 40% of the carcinoma cases. The implications of this increased radiosensitivity are as yet unclear, but it is indicative of increased chromosomal fragility and therefore, possibly associated with malignant transformation. Hence, it may prove a useful tool in identifying individuals at increased risk of developing

  15. Prostate cancer detection rate in patients with fluctuating prostate-specific antigen levels on the repeat prostate biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yong Hyun; Lee, Jung Keun; Jung, Jin-Woo; Lee, Byung Ki; Lee, Sangchul; Jeong, Seong Jin; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the risk of prostate cancer was different according to the pattern of fluctuation in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in patients undergoing repeat transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx). Methods: From March 2003 to December 2012, 492 patients underwent repeat TRUS-Bx. The patients were stratified into 3 groups based on the PSA fluctuation pattern: group 1 (continuous elevation of PSA, n=169), group 2 (PSA fluctuation with PSA velocity [PSAV...

  16. WSTO9 (TOOKAD) mediated photodynamic therapy as an alternative modality in the treatment of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun; Huang, Zheng; Luck, David L.; Beckers, Jill; Brun, Pierre-Herve; Wilson, Brian C.; Scherz, Avigdor; Salomon, Yoram; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2002-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizes optical energy to activate a pre-administered photosensitizer drug to achieve a localized tumor control. In the presented study, PDT mediated with a second-generation photosensitizer, WST09 (TOOKAD, Steba Biotech, The Netherlands), is investigated as an alternative therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. In vivo canine prostate is used as the animal model. PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostates both superficially and interstitially with a diode laser (763 nm) to activate the intra-operatively i.v. infused photosensitizer. During light irradiation, tissue optical properties, and temperature were monitored. During the one-week to 3-month period post PDT treatment, the dogs recovered well with little or no complications. The prostates were harvested and subjected to histopathological evaluations. Maximum lesion size of over 3 cm in dimension could be achieved with a single treatment, suggesting the therapy is extremely effective in destroying prostatic tissue. Although we found there was loss of epithelial lining in prostatic urethra, there was no evidence it had caused urinary tract side effects as reported in those studies utilizing transurethral irradiation. In conclusion, we found second generation photosensitizer WST09 mediated PDT may provide an excellent alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  17. Molecular Indicators of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    with these drugs,7-9 both agents were ap- proved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate... testosterone (អ ng per deciliter [1.73 nmol per liter]) with continued androgen- deprivation therapy, and documented metastases, as confirmed on...clinical trials for patients with progressive prostate cancer and castrate levels of testosterone : recommendations of the Prostate Cancer Clinical

  18. PVAMU/XULA/BCM Summer Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    and malignant prostate cells. The growth of prostate cancer is influenced by a category of steroid hormones called androgens. Testosterone, a form...Human immunodeficiency virus type 1, or HIV-1, is a retrovirus that require an aspartyl protease to cleave polypeptide chains into individual functional ...exists to target, ERG directly, PRMT5 can potentially function as a lethal drug target to repress prostate cancer proliferation since the two co- exist in

  19. A Case of Advanced Submandibular Gland Cancer in Which Increased Prostate-Specific Antigen and Multiple Bone Metastases Wrongly Suggested Concurrent Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Yoko; Honda, Takeshi; Natsume, Maika; Haruyama, Terunobu; Ishihara, Masashi; Sakamoto, Takahiko; Usui, Ryo; Tanzawa, Shigeru; Ota, Shuji; Ichikawa, Yasuko; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Saito, Koji; Seki, Nobuhiko

    2017-01-01

    A 73-year-old man, followed for prostatic hyperplasia, developed submandibular gland cancer. Initially, because of the concurrent presence of elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and multiple bone metastases, he was clinically determined as having stage IV prostate cancer in addition to stage II submandibular gland cancer, and radical surgery for his submandibular gland cancer was performed first. However, subsequent detailed examinations of the prostate gland showed no prostate cancer, and a diagnosis of advanced submandibular gland cancer with increased PSA and multiple bone metastases was established. Serum PSA is highly specific for prostate diseases and is widely used as a tumor marker of prostate cancer. However, clinicians should be aware that, in patients with non-prostate cancer, the detection of increased PSA and multiple bone metastases does not necessarily indicate the concurrent presence of prostate cancer.

  20. A Case of Advanced Submandibular Gland Cancer in Which Increased Prostate-Specific Antigen and Multiple Bone Metastases Wrongly Suggested Concurrent Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Fukasawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 73-year-old man, followed for prostatic hyperplasia, developed submandibular gland cancer. Initially, because of the concurrent presence of elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA and multiple bone metastases, he was clinically determined as having stage IV prostate cancer in addition to stage II submandibular gland cancer, and radical surgery for his submandibular gland cancer was performed first. However, subsequent detailed examinations of the prostate gland showed no prostate cancer, and a diagnosis of advanced submandibular gland cancer with increased PSA and multiple bone metastases was established. Serum PSA is highly specific for prostate diseases and is widely used as a tumor marker of prostate cancer. However, clinicians should be aware that, in patients with non-prostate cancer, the detection of increased PSA and multiple bone metastases does not necessarily indicate the concurrent presence of prostate cancer.

  1. Changes in Initial Treatment for Prostate Cancer Among Medicare Beneficiaries, 1999–2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinan, Michaela A.; Robinson, Timothy J.; Zagar, Timothy M.; Scales, Charles D.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Reed, Shelby D.; Lee, W. Robert; Schulman, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the absence of evidence from large clinical trials, optimal therapy for localized prostate cancer remains unclear; however, treatment patterns continue to change. We examined changes in the management of patients with prostate cancer in the Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective claims-based analysis of the use of radiation therapy, surgery, and androgen deprivation therapy in the 12 months after diagnosis of prostate cancer in a nationally representative 5% sample of Medicare claims. Patients were Medicare beneficiaries 67 years or older with incident prostate cancer diagnosed between 1999 and 2007. Results: There were 20,918 incident cases of prostate cancer between 1999 and 2007. The proportion of patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy decreased from 55% to 36%, and the proportion of patients receiving no active therapy increased from 16% to 23%. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy replaced three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy as the most common method of radiation therapy, accounting for 77% of external beam radiotherapy by 2007. Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy began to replace open surgical approaches, being used in 49% of radical prostatectomies by 2007. Conclusions: Between 2002 and 2007, the use of androgen deprivation therapy decreased, open surgical approaches were largely replaced by minimally invasive radical prostatectomy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy replaced three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy as the predominant method of radiation therapy in the Medicare population. The aging of the population and the increasing use of newer, higher-cost technologies in the treatment of patients with prostate cancer may have important implications for nationwide health care costs.

  2. [Impact of prostate volume on the diagnostic value of prostate cancer with different biopsy strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Pattar, Abudurahman; He, Qun; Shan, Gang-zhi; Jin, Jie

    2010-08-18

    To assess impact of different prostate biopsy strategies according to prostate volume on tumor detection. A total of 323 consecutive men with suspected prostate cancer were included in the study. Indications for transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy were: abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE, 52 cases) and/or a total prostate specific antigen (PSA) over 4.0 microg/L (305 cases). In the subjects, their ages were between 49 years and 90 years, the mean: 69 years; PSAs were between 0.6 microg/L and 142.5 microg/L, the mean: 20.8 microg/L; and the prostate volumes were between 12.3 mL and 255.5 mL, the mean: 60.4 mL. Transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy of 13 core scheme was conducted in each patient. The cancer detection rate for each biopsy core was calculated. The sensitivities of different combinations of biopsy cores were compared with a 13 core biopsy protocol and the prostate volumes were divided into two groups (or=50 mL). The optimum number of biopsy cores was determined in patients with different prostate volumes. Of the 323 patients 120 (37.2%) were positive for prostate cancer. Compared to the patients with a prostate volumeor=50 mL decreased significantly (51.0% vs 26.1%). In patients with a prostate volume smaller than 50 mL, the 8 core biopsy protocol consisting of the apex, mid gland, base, lateral mid gland or of the apex, mid gland, lateral mid gland, lateral base of the prostate revealed the results similar to those of the 13 core biopsy protocol (sensitivities: 98.6% and 97.3%, both P>0.05). In the larger prostate volume group, 10 core biopsy protocol that included cores at the apex, mid gland, base, lateral mid gland and lateral base detected 97.6% of cancers (P>0.05). Patients with larger prostates have lower cancer detection rates. For patients with prostate volume smaller than 50 mL, 8 core biopsy protocol consisting of the apex, mid gland, base, lateral mid gland or of the apex, mid gland, lateral mid gland, lateral base of

  3. Childhood height increases the risk of prostate cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult body size is positively associated with aggressive and fatal prostate cancers. It is unknown whether these associations originate in early life. Therefore, we investigated if childhood height, body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and growth are associated with prostate cancer-specific...

  4. Digital rectal examination for prostate cancer: Attitude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Prostate cancer which tends to take an aggressive course in black populations can be detected by digital rectal examination (DRE). There are concerns however that medical students are not acquiring the necessary DRE skills. We therefore studied their experience and attitude towards DRE for prostate cancer to ...

  5. Prostate cancer screening in Ghana - a clinical benefit? | Arthur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana and most African countries, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males after hepatocellular carcinoma. Whereas in the advanced countries, screening for prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to early detection and management of the disease, screening has been very low in Ghana, thus leading to low ...

  6. A Neighborhood-Based Intervention to Reduce Prostate Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    West Allegheny, Strawberry Mansion), and West (Wynnefield, Overbrook and Cobbs Creek, Cedar Park) regions of the city. o Tables were created to...reported having no family history of prostate cancer (those with a personal history of prostate cancer were excluded), while 12 had a brother, father

  7. High-Fat Diet Linked to Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study in mice has revealed a molecular link between a high-fat diet and the growth and spread of prostate cancer. As this Cancer Currents post explains, researchers also showed that an anti-obesity drug that targets a protein that controls fat synthesis could potentially be used to treat metastatic prostate cance

  8. The Isolation and Characterization of Human Prostate Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    only a small subset of cells from established prostate cancer cell lines and xeno - grafts possess tumor initiating ability [6,7]. At present, no group...Reiter RE, Sawyers CL. Evidence for clonal outgrowth of androgen -independent prostate cancer cells from androgen - dependent tumors through a two-step

  9. Utilizing a Narrative Approach to Increasing Intimacy after Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Megan; Stinson, Morgan A.; Bermudez, J. Maria; Gladney, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Attitudes about sexual intimacy are an important aspect of relationship satisfaction, especially for couples dealing with prostate cancer. Prostate cancer can have profound effects on men and their partners, and more research is needed to better understand potential sexual barriers for these couples. Five major themes identified in the literature…

  10. Oct-4 expression maintained stem cell properties in prostate cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oct-4 expression maintained stem cell properties in prostate cancer-derived CD133+MDR1+ cells. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... volunteers and prostate cancer patients (CD133+) which also express MDR1 and to ascertain the influence of Oct-4 on 'stem-ness' and differentiation of these CD133+ cells ...

  11. A RATIONALE FOR PROSTATE CANCER DETECTION IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was conducted to compare the results of community based screening program for prostate cancer with case finding among urologic patients. Patients and Methods: Two programs for prostate cancer detection were conducted based on PSA assay (cutoff value 4ng/ml) and DRE for men aged 50 to 75 ...

  12. Prostate cancer among different racial groups in the Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. We aimed to compare the presenting features and management of prostate cancer among different racial groups. Patients and methods. We studied all patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at the Urological Oncology Clinic, Tygerberg Hospital, from January 1995 to December 2005. Most presented ...

  13. Prostate cancer in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: features and outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To present the clinical features and outcome of management of patients with prostate cancer in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective study of patients with prostate cancer managed in 14 years at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Results: Of 154,594 men above 40 years old who ...

  14. Awareness and knowledge of prostate cancer among men in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer of the prostate is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly male population. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of prostate cancer among men in Benin City, Nigeria. This cross sectional study included 402 men above 40 years. A structured questionnaire was administered to each ...

  15. Antitumor effects of chrysanthemin in PC-3 human prostate cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... caspase-3, 8 and 9 in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions: The study concluded that chrysanthemin ledanticancer effects in PC-3 prostate cancer cells by inducing apoptosis, activating caspasesignaling pathway and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Keywords: Chrysanthemin, anthocyanin, prostate cancer, ...

  16. Radiobiological Impact of Planning Techniques for Prostate Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of RapidArc planning techniques for prostate cancer in terms of TCP and normal NTCP. Subjects and Methods: A computed tomography data set of ten cases involving low.risk prostate cancer was selected for this retrospective study. For each case, two RapidArc plans were created in Eclipse treatment planning system.

  17. Cancer Of The Prostate: Experience At Nnewi, Southeast, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical presentation, method of diagnosis, treatment and outcome of prostate cancer patients. Patients and Methods: A 5-year retrospective study of all patients seen with the diagnosis of cancer of the prostate at the Urology Unit of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi from ...

  18. A Perspective of Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Ida; Cattarino, Susanna; Giantulli, Sabrina; Nazzari, Cristina; Collalti, Giulia; Sciarra, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    In cancer patients, the immune system is often altered with an excess of inhibitory factors, such as immunosuppressive cytokines, produced by regulatory T cells (Treg) or myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). The manipulation of the immune system has emerged as one of new promising therapies for cancer treatment, and also represents an attractive strategy to control prostate cancer (PCa). Therapeutic cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been the most investigated in clinical trials. Many trials are ongoing to define the effects of immune therapy with established treatments: androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy (CT) or radiotherapy (RT). This article discusses some of these approaches in the context of future treatments for PCa. PMID:27399780

  19. Achieving Quality Assurance of Prostate Cancer Surgery During Reorganisation of Cancer Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Paul; Sridhara, Ashwin; Ramachandran, Navin; Briggs, Timothy; Nathan, Senthil; Kelly, John

    2015-07-01

    National Health Service England recently oversaw a whole-scale reconfiguration of cancer services in London, UK, for a number of different cancer pathways. Centralisation of cancer surgery has occurred with prostate cancer (PCa) surgery only being commissioned at a single designated pelvic cancer surgical centre. This process has required surgeons to work in teams providing a hub-and-spoke model of care. To report the extent to which the initiation of a quality assurance programme (QAP) can improve the quality of PCa surgical care during reorganisation of cancer services in London. A pre- and postintervention study was initiated with 732 men undergoing robot-assisted radical PCa surgery over a 3-yr period, 396 men before the introduction of the QAP and 336 afterwards. Image-based surgical planning of cancer surgery and monthly peer review of individual surgeon outcomes incorporating rating and assessment of edited surgical video clips. We observed margin status (positive/negative), complication rate of surgery, 3-mo urinary continence, use of nerve-sparing surgery, and potency at 12 mo after surgery. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to compare outcomes before and after initiation of the QAP. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the return of potency over time. Demographics of patients undergoing surgery did not change following the reorganisation of cancer services. Patient-reported 3-mo urinary continence improved following the initiation of the QAP, both in terms of requirement for incontinence pads (57% continent vs 67% continent; odds ratio [OR]: 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-4.46; p=0.02) and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire score (5.6 vs 4.2; OR: 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95; p=0.009). Concurrently, use of nerve-sparing surgery increased significantly (OR: 2.99; 95% CI, 2.14-4.20; pQAP improved quality of care in terms of consistency of patient selection and outcomes of surgery during a period of major

  20. Anxiety and Distress During Active Surveillance for Early Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Roderick C. N.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Roobol, Monique J.; Wolters, Tineke; Schröder, Fritz H.; Bangma, Chris H.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients on active surveillance (AS) for early prostate cancer (PC) may experience feelings of anxiety and distress while living with "untreated" cancer. In this study, these feelings were quantified, and their associations with various psychologic, medical, demographic, and

  1. Quality of Life and Cost Effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2008-01-01

    ...: Controlling for stage at diagnosis and co-morbidity, (1) analyze progression of cancer, HRQoL, incremental cost and satisfaction with care of prostate cancer patients across two ethnic groups, (2...

  2. Quality of Life and Cost Effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2007-01-01

    ...: Controlling for stage at diagnosis and co-morbidity, (1) analyze progression of cancer, HRQoL, incremental cost and satisfaction with care of prostate cancer patients across two ethnic groups, (2...

  3. Slow zoledronic acid releasing testis prostheses in the treatment of prostate cancer patients with bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Balbay, M Derya

    2009-09-01

    Surgical castration is still considered the 'gold standard' for androgen deprivation therapy which have become the mainstay for the management of advanced prostate cancer. The main drawback of this safe operation is that it may have a negative psychological effect, thus, in recent years, a decline in the utilization of bilateral orchiectomy which is the most cost-effective form of androgen deprivation therapy can be witnessed. Testicular prostheses have been shown to reduce the psychological impact resulting from loss or absence of a testicle in those patients. Besides, patients with advanced prostate cancer are at risk of skeletal complications and bisphosphonates are used in treatment. Zoledronic acid is the only bisphosphonate agent demonstrated to effectively reduce skeletal related events in patients with advanced prostate cancer metastatic to bone. Therefore, zoledronic acid releasing testicular prostheses can be used in the treatment of prostate cancer patients with bone metastases after bilateral orchiectomy. This technology has the potential to become the preferred clinical management tool for prostate cancer patients with bone metasthases after bilateral orchiectomy.

  4. Descriptive Epidemiology, Molecular Biology and Genetics of Hereditary Prostate Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, Diem Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    A search for markers that can differentiate indolent prostate cancers from more aggressive forms. Assessment of clinical differences between hereditary and sporadicc prostate cancer.......A search for markers that can differentiate indolent prostate cancers from more aggressive forms. Assessment of clinical differences between hereditary and sporadicc prostate cancer....

  5. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: prognostic findings of two subsequent screening rounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Postma (Renske)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is nowadays the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men in the Western world. Since the introduction of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing in the last decade, prostate cancer incidence increased dramatically. In addition, the population is aging, and prostate cancer

  6. Influence of the neural microenvironment on prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coarfa, Christian; Florentin, Diego; Putluri, NagiReddy; Ding, Yi; Au, Jason; He, Dandan; Ragheb, Ahmed; Frolov, Anna; Michailidis, George; Lee, MinJae; Kadmon, Dov; Miles, Brian; Smith, Christopher; Ittmann, Michael; Rowley, David; Sreekumar, Arun; Creighton, Chad J; Ayala, Gustavo

    2018-02-01

    Nerves are key factors in prostate cancer (PCa), but the functional role of innervation in prostate cancer is poorly understood. PCa induced neurogenesis and perineural invasion (PNI), are associated with aggressive disease. We denervated rodent prostates chemically and physically, before orthotopically implanting cancer cells. We also performed a human neoadjuvant clinical trial using botulinum toxin type A (Botox) and saline in the same patient, before prostatectomy. Bilateral denervation resulted in reduced tumor incidence and size in mice. Botox treatment in humans resulted in increased apoptosis of cancer cells in the Botox treated side. A similar denervation gene array profile was identified in tumors arising in denervated rodent prostates, in spinal cord injury patients and in the Botox treated side of patients. Denervation induced exhibited a signature gene profile, indicating translation and bioenergetic shutdown. Nerves also regulate basic cellular functions of non-neoplastic epithelial cells. Nerves play a role in the homeostasis of normal epithelial tissues and are involved in prostate cancer tumor survival. This study confirms that interactions between human cancer and nerves are essential to disease progression. This work may make a major impact in general cancer treatment strategies, as nerve/cancer interactions are likely important in other cancers as well. Targeting the neural microenvironment may represent a therapeutic approach for the treatment of human prostate cancer. © 2017 The Authors. The Prostate Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Prostate Cancer Probability Prediction By Machine Learning Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Srđan; Miljković, Milica; Ivanović, Miljan; Šaranović, Milena; Arsić, Milena

    2017-11-26

    The main goal of the study was to explore possibility of prostate cancer prediction by machine learning techniques. In order to improve the survival probability of the prostate cancer patients it is essential to make suitable prediction models of the prostate cancer. If one make relevant prediction of the prostate cancer it is easy to create suitable treatment based on the prediction results. Machine learning techniques are the most common techniques for the creation of the predictive models. Therefore in this study several machine techniques were applied and compared. The obtained results were analyzed and discussed. It was concluded that the machine learning techniques could be used for the relevant prediction of prostate cancer.

  8. Molecular Biomarkers in the Clinical Management of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udager, Aaron M; Tomlins, Scott A

    2018-01-08

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common noncutaneous malignancies in men, is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical outcome. Although the majority of patients harbor indolent tumors that are essentially cured by local therapy, subsets of patients present with aggressive disease or recur/progress after primary treatment. With this in mind, modern clinical approaches to prostate cancer emphasize the need to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment via personalized medicine. Advances in our understanding of prostate cancer pathogenesis, coupled with recent technologic innovations, have facilitated the development and validation of numerous molecular biomarkers, representing a range of macromolecules assayed from a variety of patient sample types, to help guide the clinical management of prostate cancer, including early detection, diagnosis, prognostication, and targeted therapeutic selection. Herein, we review the current state of the art regarding prostate cancer molecular biomarkers, emphasizing those with demonstrated utility in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  9. Overcoming Autophagy to Induce Apoptosis in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0529 TITLE: Overcoming Autophagy to Induce Apoptosis in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...survival mechanism and led cells to undergo apoptosis . Survival mechanisms elicited by CRPC C4-2B cells when treated with Enza may be blocked by...Targeting cancer cell metabolism: the combination of metformin and 2-deoxyglucose induces p53-dependent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Cancer

  10. Meharry-Johns Hopkins Center for Prostate Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    questionnaire to assess their prostate cancer health seeking behavior. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, Dietary risk factors, Lycopene, Genetic ... predisposition , African-Americans, Cancer research training, Quality of life, Community outreach, Recruiting study participants, Cell line inhibition...Institute (NCI) state cancer profiles, the mortality rate is almost three times that of CA men (73.9 per 100,000 AA / 25.6 per 100,000 C). Genetic and

  11. Use of nomograms for early detection in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Devon C; Klein, Eric A

    2010-02-01

    Since the first introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a screening tool in the 1980s, the accurate diagnoses of clinically significant prostate cancer remains a challenge. Analysis of a correlation between PSA levels and prostate biopsies of men with PSA 3 ng/mL or less in the placebo group of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial suggested that no "normal" PSA level exists. With the acknowledgement that PSA level is considered a continuum rather than a dichotomous marker, accurately diagnosing clinically significant prostate cancer is even more challenging. Nomograms are increasingly being used as tools in the clinical setting to address this challenge. Through incorporating multiple clinical factors, such as PSA, digital rectal examination, age, race, prostate volume, family history, and previous negative biopsy, risk calculators can improve sensitivity of diagnosis over using a PSA cutoff alone. This article discusses the rational for the use of nomograms and the advantages and limitations for the most commonly used nomograms.

  12. Lifetime economic burden of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokes Michael E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer (PCa is the most common cancer affecting men in the United States. The initial treatment and subsequent monitoring of PCa patients places a large burden on U.S. health care systems. The objectives of this study were to estimate the total and disease-related per-patient lifetime costs using a phase-based model of cancer care for PCa patients enrolled in Medicare. Methods A model was developed to estimate life-time costs for patients diagnosed with PCa. Patients ≥ 65 years old and diagnosed with PCa between calendar years 1991-2002 were selected from the SEER database. Using SEER, we estimated survival times for PCa patients from diagnosis until death. The period of time patients contributed to treatment phases was determined using an algorithm designed to model the natural history of PCa. Costs were obtained from the US SEER-Medicare database and estimated during specific phases of care. Cost estimates were then combined with survival data to yield total and PCa-related life-time costs. Results Overall, the model estimated life-time costs of $110,520 (95% CI 110,324-110,739 per patient. PCa-related costs made up approximately 31% of total costs ($34,432. Conclusions Prostate cancer places a significant burden on U.S. health-care systems with average life-time PCa-related costs in excess of $30,000.

  13. Radium 223 dichloride for prostate cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshayes E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Emmanuel Deshayes,1,2 Mathieu Roumiguie,3 Constance Thibault,4 Philippe Beuzeboc,5 Florent Cachin,6 Christophe Hennequin,7 Damien Huglo,8 François Rozet,9 Diana Kassab-Chahmi,10 Xavier Rebillard,11 Nadine Houédé1,12 1Radiobiology Unit, INSERM U1194, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier (ICM, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier (ICM, Montpellier, 3Urology Department, Andrology and Renal Transplantation, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse, 4Medical Oncology Department, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, 5Oncology Department, Institut Curie, 6Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU, Clermont-Ferrand, 7Radiotherapy Department, Hôpital Saint Louis, Paris, 8Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHRU, Lille, 9Urology Department, Institut Mutualiste Montsouris, 10Intergroupe coopérateur francophone de recherche en onco-urologie, Paris, 11Urology Department, Clinique BeauSoleil, Montpellier, 12Medical Oncology Department, Institut de Cancérologie du Gard – CHU Caremeau, Nîmes, France Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most common malignant disease in men. Several therapeutic agents have been approved during the last 10 years. Among them, radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo® is a radioactive isotope that induces irreversible DNA double-strand breaks and consequently tumor cell death. Radium-223 dichloride is a calcium-mimetic agent that specifically targets bone lesions. Radium-223 dichloride has been approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases, without known visceral metastases. In this review, first we summarize the interplay between prostate tumor cells and bone microenvironment; then, we discuss radium-223 dichloride mechanism of action and present the results of the available clinical trials and future developments for this new drug. Keywords: bone metastasis, mCRPC, mechanism, drug, agents, development 

  14. Review of Animal Models of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Simmons

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer bone metastases are associated with a poor prognosis and are considered incurable. Insight into the formation and growth of prostate cancer bone metastasis is required for development of new imaging and therapeutic strategies to combat this devastating disease. Animal models are indispensable in investigating cancer pathogenesis and evaluating therapeutics. Multiple animal models of prostate cancer bone metastasis have been developed, but few effectively model prostatic neoplasms and osteoblastic bone metastases as they occur in men. This review discusses the animal models that have been developed to investigate prostate cancer bone metastasis, with a focus on canine models and also includes human xenograft and rodent models. Adult dogs spontaneously develop benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer with osteoblastic bone metastases. Large animal models, such as dogs, are needed to develop new molecular imaging tools and effective focal intraprostatic therapy. None of the available models fully reflect the metastatic disease seen in men, although the various models have provided important insight into the metastatic process. As additional models are developed and knowledge from the different models is combined, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer bone metastasis can be deciphered and targeted for development of novel therapies and molecular diagnostic imaging.

  15. Risk Analysis of Prostate Cancer in PRACTICAL, a Multinational Consortium, Using 25 Known Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin Al Olama, Ali; Benlloch, Sara; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic variants associated with prostate cancer risk which explain a substantial proportion of familial relative risk. These variants can be used to stratify individuals by their risk of prostate cancer. METHODS: We genotyped 2...

  16. Prostate cancer-specific anxiety in Dutch patients on active surveillance: validation of the memorial anxiety scale for prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Roderick C. N.; Korfage, Ida J.; Borsboom, Gerard J. J. M.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Men with prostate cancer (PC) may show specific disease-related anxiety. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Dutch adaptation of the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC). METHODS: The MAX-PC was translated using standardized forward-backward procedures. Patients

  17. Unusual giant prostatic urethral calculus | Bello | Journal of Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant vesico-prostatic urethral calculus is uncommon. Urethral stones rarely form primarily in the urethra, and they are usually associated with urethral strictures, posterior urethral valve or diverticula. We report a case of a 32-year-old man with giant vesico-prostatic (collar-stud) urethral stone presenting with sepsis and ...

  18. Activation of the hedgehog pathway in advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCormick Frank

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hedgehog pathway plays a critical role in the development of prostate. However, the role of the hedgehog pathway in prostate cancer is not clear. Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent cause of cancer death in American men. Therefore, identification of novel therapeutic targets for prostate cancer has significant clinical implications. Results Here we report that activation of the hedgehog pathway occurs frequently in advanced human prostate cancer. We find that high levels of hedgehog target genes, PTCH1 and hedgehog-interacting protein (HIP, are detected in over 70% of prostate tumors with Gleason scores 8–10, but in only 22% of tumors with Gleason scores 3–6. Furthermore, four available metastatic tumors all have high expression of PTCH1 and HIP. To identify the mechanism of the hedgehog signaling activation, we examine expression of Su(Fu protein, a negative regulator of the hedgehog pathway. We find that Su(Fu protein is undetectable in 11 of 27 PTCH1 positive tumors, two of them contain somatic loss-of-function mutations of Su(Fu. Furthermore, expression of sonic hedgehog protein is detected in majority of PTCH1 positive tumors (24 out of 27. High levels of hedgehog target genes are also detected in four prostate cancer cell lines (TSU, DU145, LN-Cap and PC3. We demonstrate that inhibition of hedgehog signaling by smoothened antagonist, cyclopamine, suppresses hedgehog signaling, down-regulates cell invasiveness and induces apoptosis. In addition, cancer cells expressing Gli1 under the CMV promoter are resistant to cyclopamine-mediated apoptosis. All these data suggest a significant role of the hedgehog pathway for cellular functions of prostate cancer cells. Conclusion Our data indicate that activation of the hedgehog pathway, through loss of Su(Fu or overexpression of sonic hedgehog, may involve tumor progression and metastases of prostate cancer. Thus, targeted inhibition of hedgehog signaling may have

  19. A Qualitative Investigation on Patient Empowerment in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Renzi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Men with prostate cancer often describe low levels of empowerment. eHealth interventions may represent useful tools to deliver care and education and to meet patients' needs within an empowerment framework. In order to design a platform for cancer patients' empowerment within the H2020 iManageCancer project, the perspective of the target population for the platform was assessed. The present study aims to assess the qualitative experience of prostate cancer patients during treatment in order to provide insights for clinical practice with a particular focus on the design of a web platform to promote cancer patients' empowerment.Methods: Ten patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment took part in a semi-structured interview to explore different aspects of patient empowerment. Four main thematic areas were addressed: patient-healthcare providers' communication, decision-making, needs, and resources. A qualitative approach using thematic analysis was followed.Results: Half of the patients reported little to no possibility to share information and questions with healthcare providers. With regards to decision-making, the role of healthcare providers was perceived as directive/informative, but half of the patients perceived to assume an active role in at least one interaction. Difficulties and needs included the choice of the specialist or of the structure after diagnosis, clinicians' support in self-management, surgical consequences, and side effects, preparation for radiation therapy. Resources included family and social support both from a practical and from an emotional perspective, coping style, and work schedule management.Conclusions: These results suggest that relations with healthcare providers should be supported, especially immediately after diagnosis and after surgery. Support to self-management after surgery and at the beginning of radiation therapy treatment also constitutes a priority. The adoption of a personalized approach

  20. Symptom management strategies for men with early-stage prostate cancer: results from the Prostate Cancer Patient Education Program (PC PEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Alok; Kowalkowski, Marc A; Hart, Tae; Goltz, Heather Honoré; Hoffman, David J; Knight, Sara J; Caroll, Peter R; Latini, David M

    2013-12-01

    While the literature on prostate cancer health-related quality of life has grown extensively, little is known about symptom management strategies used by men to manage treatment-related side effects and the effectiveness of those strategies. We collected 628 symptom management reports from 98 men treated for localized prostate cancer. Participants were recruited from email lists and a prostate cancer clinic in Northern California. Data were collected using the Critical Incident Technique. Symptom management reports were assigned to categories of urinary, sexual, bowel, mental health, systemic, or "other." We calculated descriptive statistics by symptom type and management strategy effectiveness. The most common symptoms were urinary (26 %) and sexual (23 %). Participants' symptom management strategies varied widely, from medical and surgical interventions (20 %) to behavioral strategies (11 %) to diet and lifestyle interventions (12 %). The effectiveness of symptom management strategies varied, with sexual symptoms being managed effectively only 47 % of the time to mental health symptom management strategies considered effective 89 % of the time. Doing nothing was a commonly reported (15 %) response to symptoms and was effective only 14 % of the time. Men report the least effectiveness in symptom management for sexual dysfunction after prostate cancer treatment. Including men's experience with managing treatment side effects may be an important way to improve survivorship programs and make them more acceptable to men. More work is needed to find out why men frequently do nothing in response to symptoms when effective solutions exist and how providers can successfully engage such men.