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Sample records for surgical mask induced

  1. Disposable surgical face masks for preventing surgical wound infection in clean surgery

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    Allyson Lipp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surgical face masks were originally developed to contain and filter droplets containing microorganisms expelled from the mouth and nasopharynx of healthcare workers during surgery, thereby providing protection for the patient. However, there are several ways in which surgical face masks could potentially contribute to contamination of the surgical wound, e.g. by incorrect wear or by leaking air from the side of the mask due to poor string tension. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether disposable surgical face masks worn by the surgical team during clean surgery prevent postoperative surgical wound infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 14 September 2011; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3; Ovid MEDLINE (2008 to August Week 5 2011; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process &Other Non-Indexed Citations September 13, 2011; Ovid EMBASE (2008 to 2011 Week 35; and EBSCO CINAHL (2008 to 9 September 2011. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing the use of disposable surgical masks with the use of no mask. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors extracted data independently. MAIN RESULTS: Three trials were included, involving a total of 2113 participants. There was no statistically significant difference in infection rates between the masked and unmasked group in any of the trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: From the limited results it is unclear whether the wearing of surgical face masks by members of the surgical team has any impact on surgical wound infection rates for patients undergoing clean surgery.

  2. Mask-induced aberration in EUV lithography

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    Nakajima, Yumi; Sato, Takashi; Inanami, Ryoichi; Nakasugi, Tetsuro; Higashiki, Tatsuhiko

    2009-04-01

    We estimated aberrations using Zernike sensitivity analysis. We found the difference of the tolerated aberration with line direction for illumination. The tolerated aberration of perpendicular line for illumination is much smaller than that of parallel line. We consider this difference to be attributable to the mask 3D effect. We call it mask-induced aberration. In the case of the perpendicular line for illumination, there was a difference in CD between right line and left line without aberration. In this report, we discuss the possibility of pattern formation in NA 0.25 generation EUV lithography tool. In perpendicular pattern for EUV light, the dominant part of aberration is mask-induced aberration. In EUV lithography, pattern correction based on the mask topography effect will be more important.

  3. 76 FR 63942 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Surgical Mask With a Protective Eye Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Determination Concerning a Surgical Mask With a Protective Eye Shield AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... country of origin of a Surgical Mask with a Protective Eye Shield. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that Turkey is the country of origin of the Surgical Mask with a...

  4. Surgical Face Masks Worn by Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

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    Mphahlele, Matsie; Stoltz, Anton; Venter, Kobus; Mathebula, Rirhandzu; Masotla, Thabiso; Lubbe, Willem; Pagano, Marcello; First, Melvin; Jensen, Paul A.; van der Walt, Martie; Nardell, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Drug-resistant tuberculosis transmission in hospitals threatens staff and patient health. Surgical face masks used by patients with tuberculosis (TB) are believed to reduce transmission but have not been rigorously tested. Objectives: We sought to quantify the efficacy of surgical face masks when worn by patients with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Methods: Over 3 months, 17 patients with pulmonary MDR-TB occupied an MDR-TB ward in South Africa and wore face masks on alternate days. Ward air was exhausted to two identical chambers, each housing 90 pathogen-free guinea pigs that breathed ward air either when patients wore surgical face masks (intervention group) or when patients did not wear masks (control group). Efficacy was based on differences in guinea pig infections in each chamber. Measurements and Main Results: Sixty-nine of 90 control guinea pigs (76.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 68–85%) became infected, compared with 36 of 90 intervention guinea pigs (40%; 95% CI, 31–51%), representing a 56% (95% CI, 33–70.5%) decreased risk of TB transmission when patients used masks. Conclusions: Surgical face masks on patients with MDR-TB significantly reduced transmission and offer an adjunct measure for reducing TB transmission from infectious patients. PMID:22323300

  5. Respiratory source control using a surgical mask: An in vitro study.

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    Patel, Rajeev B; Skaria, Shaji D; Mansour, Mohamed M; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2016-07-01

    Cough etiquette and respiratory hygiene are forms of source control encouraged to prevent the spread of respiratory infection. The use of surgical masks as a means of source control has not been quantified in terms of reducing exposure to others. We designed an in vitro model using various facepieces to assess their contribution to exposure reduction when worn at the infectious source (Source) relative to facepieces worn for primary (Receiver) protection, and the factors that contribute to each. In a chamber with various airflows, radiolabeled aerosols were exhaled via a ventilated soft-face manikin head using tidal breathing and cough (Source). Another manikin, containing a filter, quantified recipient exposure (Receiver). The natural fit surgical mask, fitted (SecureFit) surgical mask and an N95-class filtering facepiece respirator (commonly known as an "N95 respirator") with and without a Vaseline-seal were tested. With cough, source control (mask or respirator on Source) was statistically superior to mask or unsealed respirator protection on the Receiver (Receiver protection) in all environments. To equal source control during coughing, the N95 respirator must be Vaseline-sealed. During tidal breathing, source control was comparable or superior to mask or respirator protection on the Receiver. Source control via surgical masks may be an important adjunct defense against the spread of respiratory infections. The fit of the mask or respirator, in combination with the airflow patterns in a given setting, are significant contributors to source control efficacy. Future clinical trials should include a surgical mask source control arm to assess the contribution of source control in overall protection against airborne infection.

  6. Surgical face masks worn by patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: impact on infectivity of air on a hospital ward.

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    Dharmadhikari, Ashwin S; Mphahlele, Matsie; Stoltz, Anton; Venter, Kobus; Mathebula, Rirhandzu; Masotla, Thabiso; Lubbe, Willem; Pagano, Marcello; First, Melvin; Jensen, Paul A; van der Walt, Martie; Nardell, Edward A

    2012-05-15

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis transmission in hospitals threatens staff and patient health. Surgical face masks used by patients with tuberculosis (TB) are believed to reduce transmission but have not been rigorously tested. We sought to quantify the efficacy of surgical face masks when worn by patients with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Over 3 months, 17 patients with pulmonary MDR-TB occupied an MDR-TB ward in South Africa and wore face masks on alternate days. Ward air was exhausted to two identical chambers, each housing 90 pathogen-free guinea pigs that breathed ward air either when patients wore surgical face masks (intervention group) or when patients did not wear masks (control group). Efficacy was based on differences in guinea pig infections in each chamber. Sixty-nine of 90 control guinea pigs (76.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 68-85%) became infected, compared with 36 of 90 intervention guinea pigs (40%; 95% CI, 31-51%), representing a 56% (95% CI, 33-70.5%) decreased risk of TB transmission when patients used masks. Surgical face masks on patients with MDR-TB significantly reduced transmission and offer an adjunct measure for reducing TB transmission from infectious patients.

  7. A 3D-RBS study of irradiation-induced deformation and masking properties of ordered colloidal nanoparticulate masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolnai, Z.; Deak, A.; Nagy, N.; Toth, A.L.; Kotai, E.; Battistig, G.

    2010-01-01

    The 500 keV Xe 2+ irradiation-induced anisotropic deformation of ordered colloidal silica nanoparticulate masks is followed using 2 MeV 4 He + Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) with different measurement geometries and the improved data analysis capabilities of the RBS-MAST spectrum simulation code. The three-dimensional (3D) geometrical transformation from spherical to oblate ellipsoidal and polygonal shape and the decrease of the mask's hole size is described. The masking properties of the silica monolayer and the depth distribution of Xe in the underlying Si substrate vs. the irradiated Xe 2+ fluence are discussed. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) is applied as complementary characterization tool. Our results give contribution to clarify the impact of ion-nanoparticle interactions on the potentials and limits of nanosphere lithography. We also show the capability of the conventional RBS technique to characterize laterally ordered submicron-sized three-dimensional structures.

  8. Masked rat: an x-ray-induced mutant with chronic blepharitis, alopecia, and pasteurellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, R.L.; Lutzner, M.A.; Hansen, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    An autosomal recessive mutation had been previously x-ray-induced in the rat and named the masked rat (genotype mk/mk). This study describes the mutant's appearance, histology, and microflora. The rat's eyelids were swollen, often to the point of closure, and its face was partially covered by a brownish crust, giving the mutant a mask-like appearance. The chronic blepharitis was also accompanied by alopecia that appeared as bare patches across the mutant's back. Pasteurella pneumotropica was found in eyelids and on skin from all masked rats. The normal rat demonstrated a resistance to Pasteurella pneumotropica infection, or, conversely, the masked rat appeared to be genetically predisposed to pasteurellosis

  9. Advantages, Disadvantages, Indications, Contraindications and Surgical Technique of Laryngeal Airway Mask.

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    Jannu, Anubhav; Shekar, Ashim; Balakrishna, Ramdas; Sudarshan, H; Veena, G C; Bhuvaneshwari, S

    2017-12-01

    The beauty of the laryngeal mask is that it forms an air tight seal enclosing the larynx rather than plugging the pharynx, and avoid airway obstruction in the oropharynx. The goal of its development was to create an intermediate form of airway management face mask and endotracheal tube. Indication for its use includes any procedure that would normally involve the use of a face mask. The laryngeal mask airway was designed as a new concept in airway management and has been gaining a firm position in anesthetic practice. Despite wide spread use the definitive role of the laryngeal mask airway is yet to be established. In some situations, such as after failed tracheal intubation or in oral surgery its use is controversial. There are several unresolved issues, for example the effect of the laryngeal mask on regurgitation and whether or not cricoids pressure prevents placement of mask. We review the techniques of insertion, details of misplacement, and complications associated with use of the laryngeal mask. We then attempt to clarify the role of laryngeal mask in air way management during anesthesia, discussing the advantages and disadvantages as well as indications and contraindications of its use in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  10. Efficient analysis of three dimensional EUV mask induced imaging artifacts using the waveguide decomposition method

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    Shao, Feng; Evanschitzky, Peter; Fühner, Tim; Erdmann, Andreas

    2009-10-01

    This paper employs the Waveguide decomposition method as an efficient rigorous electromagnetic field (EMF) solver to investigate three dimensional mask-induced imaging artifacts in EUV lithography. The major mask diffraction induced imaging artifacts are first identified by applying the Zernike analysis of the mask nearfield spectrum of 2D lines/spaces. Three dimensional mask features like 22nm semidense/dense contacts/posts, isolated elbows and line-ends are then investigated in terms of lithographic results. After that, the 3D mask-induced imaging artifacts such as feature orientation dependent best focus shift, process window asymmetries, and other aberration-like phenomena are explored for the studied mask features. The simulation results can help lithographers to understand the reasons of EUV-specific imaging artifacts and to devise illumination and feature dependent strategies for their compensation in the optical proximity correction (OPC) for EUV masks. At last, an efficient approach using the Zernike analysis together with the Waveguide decomposition technique is proposed to characterize the impact of mask properties for the future OPC process.

  11. A quantitative assessment of the efficacy of surgical and N95 masks to filter influenza virus in patients with acute influenza infection.

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    Johnson, D F; Druce, J D; Birch, C; Grayson, M L

    2009-07-15

    We assessed the in vivo efficacy of surgical and N95 (respirator) masks to filter reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-detectable virus when worn correctly by patients with laboratory-confirmed acute influenza. Of 26 patients with a clinical diagnosis of influenza, 19 had the diagnosis confirmed by RT-PCR, and 9 went on to complete the study. Surgical and N95 masks were equally effective in preventing the spread of PCR-detectable influenza.

  12. Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks in protecting health care workers from acute respiratory infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Smith, Jeffrey D.; MacDougall, Colin C.; Johnstone, Jennie; Copes, Ray A.; Schwartz, Brian; Garber, Gary E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Conflicting recommendations exist related to which facial protection should be used by health care workers to prevent transmission of acute respiratory infections, including pandemic influenza. We performed a systematic review of both clinical and surrogate exposure data comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks for the prevention of transmissible acute respiratory infections. Methods: We searched various electronic databases and the grey literature for relevant studies published from January 1990 to December 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies and case–control studies that included data on health care workers wearing N95 respirators and surgical masks to prevent acute respiratory infections were included in the meta-analysis. Surrogate exposure studies comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks using manikins or adult volunteers under simulated conditions were summarized separately. Outcomes from clinical studies were laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection, influenza-like illness and workplace absenteeism. Outcomes from surrogate exposure studies were filter penetration, face-seal leakage and total inward leakage. Results: We identified 6 clinical studies (3 RCTs, 1 cohort study and 2 case–control studies) and 23 surrogate exposure studies. In the meta-analysis of the clinical studies, we found no significant difference between N95 respirators and surgical masks in associated risk of (a) laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection (RCTs: odds ratio [OR] 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64–1.24; cohort study: OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.03–6.41; case–control studies: OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.25–3.36); (b) influenza-like illness (RCTs: OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.19–1.41); or (c) reported workplace absenteeism (RCT: OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.57–1.50). In the surrogate exposure studies, N95 respirators were associated with less filter penetration, less face-seal leakage and less total inward leakage under laboratory experimental conditions

  13. Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks in protecting health care workers from acute respiratory infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey D; MacDougall, Colin C; Johnstone, Jennie; Copes, Ray A; Schwartz, Brian; Garber, Gary E

    2016-05-17

    Conflicting recommendations exist related to which facial protection should be used by health care workers to prevent transmission of acute respiratory infections, including pandemic influenza. We performed a systematic review of both clinical and surrogate exposure data comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks for the prevention of transmissible acute respiratory infections. We searched various electronic databases and the grey literature for relevant studies published from January 1990 to December 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies and case-control studies that included data on health care workers wearing N95 respirators and surgical masks to prevent acute respiratory infections were included in the meta-analysis. Surrogate exposure studies comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks using manikins or adult volunteers under simulated conditions were summarized separately. Outcomes from clinical studies were laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection, influenza-like illness and workplace absenteeism. Outcomes from surrogate exposure studies were filter penetration, face-seal leakage and total inward leakage. We identified 6 clinical studies (3 RCTs, 1 cohort study and 2 case-control studies) and 23 surrogate exposure studies. In the meta-analysis of the clinical studies, we found no significant difference between N95 respirators and surgical masks in associated risk of (a) laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection (RCTs: odds ratio [OR] 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-1.24; cohort study: OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.03-6.41; case-control studies: OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.25-3.36); (b) influenza-like illness (RCTs: OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.19-1.41); or (c) reported workplace absenteeism (RCT: OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.57-1.50). In the surrogate exposure studies, N95 respirators were associated with less filter penetration, less face-seal leakage and less total inward leakage under laboratory experimental conditions, compared with surgical masks. Although N95

  14. Surgical smoke.

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    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown.

  15. Microbial Contamination on Used Surgical Masks among Hospital Personnel and Microbial Air Quality in their Working Wards: A Hospital in Bangkok.

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    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Aiempradit, Natkitta; Vatanasomboon, Pisit

    2014-09-01

    To assess the relationship of bacterial and fungal contamination on used surgical masks worn by the hospital personnel and microbial air quality in their working wards. This is a cross-sectional study of 230 used surgical masks collected from 214 hospital personnel, and 215 indoor air samples collected from their working wards to culture for bacterial and fungal counts. This study was carried out at the hospital in Bangkok. Group or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Gram's stain and lacto-phenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient at the significant level of pcontamination on inside area of the used masks were 47 ± 56 and 15 ± 9 cfu/ml/piece, and on outside area were 166 ± 199 and 34 ± 18 cfu/ml/piece, respectively, pcontamination on used masks from hospital personnel working in the male and female medical wards and out-patient department, as well as the bacterial and fungal counts of the indoor air sample collected from the same area were relatively higher than the other wards. The predominant isolated bacteria and fungi contaminated on inside and outside areas of the used masks and air samples were similar (Staphylococcus spp. and Aspergillus spp.; respectively). For its relationship, results found that bacterial and fungal counts in air samples showed significantly positive correlation with the bacterial contamination load on outside area of the used masks, r=0.16, p=0.018 and r=0.21, p=0.003, respectively. High bacterial contamination on outside area of the used masks was demonstrated, and it showed a significant correlation with microbial air quality of working wards.

  16. Microbial Contamination on Used Surgical Masks among Hospital Personnel and Microbial Air Quality in their Working Wards: A Hospital in Bangkok

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    Pipat Luksamijarulkul

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship of bacterial and fungal contamination on used surgical masks worn by the hospital personnel and microbial air quality in their working wards. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 230 used surgical masks collected from 214 hospital personnel, and 215 indoor air samples collected from their working wards to culture for bacterial and fungal counts. This study was carried out at the hospital in Bangkok. Group or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Gram’s stain and lacto-phenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient at the significant level of p<0.050. Results: Means and standard deviation of bacterial and fungal contamination on inside area of the used masks were 47 ± 56 and 15 ± 9 cfu/ml/piece, and on outside area were 166 ± 199 and 34 ± 18 cfu/ml/piece, respectively, p<0.001. The bacterial and fungal contamination on used masks from hospital personnel working in the male and female medical wards and out-patient department, as well as the bacterial and fungal counts of the indoor air sample collected from the same area were relatively higher than the other wards. The predominant isolated bacteria and fungi contaminated on inside and outside areas of the used masks and air samples were similar (Staphylococcus spp. and Aspergillus spp.; respectively. For its relationship, results found that bacterial and fungal counts in air samples showed significantly positive correlation with the bacterial contamination load on outside area of the used masks, r=0.16, p=0.018 and r=0.21, p=0.003, respectively. Conclusion: High bacterial contamination on outside area of the used masks was demonstrated, and it showed a significant correlation with microbial air quality of working wards.

  17. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway: An alternative to endotracheal intubation in paediatric patients for short duration surgical procedures

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    Jaya Lalwani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The laryngeal mask airway (LMA is a supraglottic airway management device. The LMA is preferred for airway management in paediatric patients for short duration surgical procedures. The recently introduced ProSeal (PLMA, a modification of Classic LMA, has a gastric drainage tube placed lateral to main airway tube which allows the regurgitated gastric contents to bypass the glottis and prevents the pulmonary aspiration. This study was done to compare the efficacy of ProSeal LMA with an endotracheal tube in paediatric patients with respect to number of attempts for placement of devices, haemodynamic responses and perioperative respiratory complications. Sixty children, ASA I and II, weighing 10-20 kg between 2 and 8 years of age group of either sex undergoing elective ophthalmological and lower abdominal surgeries of 30-60 min duration, randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients each were studied. The number of attempts for endotracheal intubation was less than the placement of PLMA. Haemodynamic responses were significantly higher (P<0.05 after endotracheal intubation as compared to the placement of PLMA. There were no significant differences in mean SpO 2 (% and EtCO 2 levels recorded at different time intervals between the two groups. The incidence of post-operative respiratory complications cough and bronchospasm was higher after extubation than after removal of PLMA. The incidence of soft tissue trauma was noted to be higher for PLMA after its removal. There were no incidences of aspiration and hoarseness/sore throat in either group. It is concluded that ProSeal LMA can be safely considered as a suitable and effective alternative to endotracheal intubation in paediatric patients for short duration surgical procedures.

  18. Assessment and statistics of surgically induced astigmatism.

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    Naeser, Kristian

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the thesis was to develop methods for assessment of surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) in individual eyes, and in groups of eyes. The thesis is based on 12 peer-reviewed publications, published over a period of 16 years. In these publications older and contemporary literature was reviewed(1). A new method (the polar system) for analysis of SIA was developed. Multivariate statistical analysis of refractive data was described(2-4). Clinical validation studies were performed. The description of a cylinder surface with polar values and differential geometry was compared. The main results were: refractive data in the form of sphere, cylinder and axis may define an individual patient or data set, but are unsuited for mathematical and statistical analyses(1). The polar value system converts net astigmatisms to orthonormal components in dioptric space. A polar value is the difference in meridional power between two orthogonal meridians(5,6). Any pair of polar values, separated by an arch of 45 degrees, characterizes a net astigmatism completely(7). The two polar values represent the net curvital and net torsional power over the chosen meridian(8). The spherical component is described by the spherical equivalent power. Several clinical studies demonstrated the efficiency of multivariate statistical analysis of refractive data(4,9-11). Polar values and formal differential geometry describe astigmatic surfaces with similar concepts and mathematical functions(8). Other contemporary methods, such as Long's power matrix, Holladay's and Alpins' methods, Zernike(12) and Fourier analyses(8), are correlated to the polar value system. In conclusion, analysis of SIA should be performed with polar values or other contemporary component systems. The study was supported by Statens Sundhedsvidenskabeligt Forskningsråd, Cykelhandler P. Th. Rasmussen og Hustrus Mindelegat, Hotelejer Carl Larsen og Hustru Nicoline Larsens Mindelegat, Landsforeningen til Vaern om Synet

  19. Surgical revascularization induces angiogenesis in orthotopic bone allograft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Wouter F.; Kremer, Thomas; Friedrich, Patricia; Bishop, Allen T.

    2012-01-01

    Remodeling of structural bone allografts relies on adequate revascularization, which can theoretically be induced by surgical revascularization. We developed a new orthotopic animal model to determine the technical feasibility of axial arteriovenous bundle implantation and resultant angiogenesis. We

  20. Ambu AuraOnce versus i-gel laryngeal mask airway in infants and children undergoing surgical procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Alzahem, Abdulrahman M.; Aqil, Mansoor; Alzahrani, Tariq A.; Aljazaeri, Ayman H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the efficacy and performance of the pediatric Ambu AuraOnce (Ambu AO) mask (Ambu, Copenhagen, Denmark) and i-gel mask (Intersurgical Ltd., Wokingham, United Kingdom). Methods: From May 2015 to September 2016, 112 patients, 0-14 years old, underwent elective surgery at a tertiary university hospital (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia). They were randomly assigned to the Ambu AO or i-gel group. Three groups underwent a subgroup analysis: ?5 kg (group 1), 5.1?10.0 kg (group 2), and >10...

  1. [Diverticulosis of the colon end its complications under the mask of emergency surgical abdomen--10 years experience].

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    Jaramov, N; Sokolov, M; Angelov, K; Toshev, S; Petrov, B

    2009-01-01

    estimating the prevalence of colonic diverticulosis and its complications studied at the clinic for 10-years period as well as the approaches for its operative treatment and analysis of the subsequent results. CASES AND APPROACHES: During the period 1998-2008 56 patients were hospitalized (31 women and 25 men) at the Surgical department of the University hospital "Alexandrovska". They had different forms of colonic diverticulosis. The average age of the patients was 66.7. The retrospective analysis divides the patients into three clinical groups: 1st group--peritonitis and pericolic abscess caused by diverticulosis--present in 49 patients. 2nd group--chronic non-specific inflammatory infiltrate and fistula--present in 5 patients. 3rd group--severe haemorrhage and anaemic syndrome--present in 2 patients Mortality-rate is 12.5% (7 patients). 10 patients with complications were registered--5 with suppuration of the surgical wound and 5 with pneumonia and pleural effusion. Colonic diverticulosis is a disease of great surgical interest because of its complicated forms requiring conventional or surgical treatment. Various forms of peritonitis which are part of the emergency surgical abdomen domain are relatively frequent complication of the gastrointestinal (in particular of the colon) diverticulosis. They are difficult to diagnose in the pre-operative period and its not easy to take a decision about the particular operative approach. All that is related with the relatively high morbidity and mortality.

  2. Effect of surgical skill on surgically-induced astigmatism in cataract surgery

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    Numan Eraslan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the effect of surgical experience on surgically-induced astigmatism(SIAin patients with uncomplicated phacoemulsification surgery.METHODS:Fifty-three eyes of fifty patients, mean age 64.5±10.8y, were randomly divided into two groups(23 eyes and 30 eyes. First group was underwent surgery by cataract specialists and the second was by residents. At baseline all the patients were underwent a complete opthalmological examination including keratometry and autorefractometer measurements. Vector analysis programme including the Alpins' method was used for the calculation of SIA. All the measurements were repeated postoperative first day, first month and second month and changes were recorded. Shapiro Wilk and Mann-Whitney tests were applied for determining the statistical differences between the SIA with two groups.RESULTS:There were no significant differences in demographic data of the groups. Intergroup analysis showed, first group was more effective results in SIA postoperative first day(P=0.002, first month(P=0.004and the second month(P=0.001. For the first group, SIA were 0.79±0.41 diopter(Dat the first postoperative day, 0.54±0.41 D at the first postoperative month and 0.47±0.37 D at the second postoperative month. Second one was 1.27±0.66 D, 0.98±0.56 D and 0.94±0.54 D, respectively.CONCLUSION:According to the results, surgical experience was one of the factors that affects SIA. Residents would perform more phacoemilcification surgery to obtain more surgical experience.

  3. Fluid loading and norepinephrine infusion mask the left ventricular preload decrease induced by pleural effusion.

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    Wemmelund, Kristian Borup; Ringgård, Viktor Kromann; Vistisen, Simon Tilma; Hyldebrandt, Janus Adler; Sloth, Erik; Juhl-Olsen, Peter

    2017-09-11

    Pleural effusion (PLE) may lead to low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output. Low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output are often treated with fluid loading and vasopressors. This study aimed to determine the impact of fluid loading and norepinephrine infusion on physiologic determinants of cardiac function obtained by ultrasonography during PLE. In this randomised, blinded, controlled laboratory study, 30 piglets (21.9 ± 1.3 kg) had bilateral PLE (75 mL/kg) induced. Subsequently, the piglets were randomised to intervention as follows: fluid loading (80 mL/kg/h for 1.5 h, n = 12), norepinephrine infusion (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 μg/kg/min (15 min each, n = 12)) or control (n = 6). Main outcome was left ventricular preload measured as left ventricular end-diastolic area. Secondary endpoints included contractility and afterload as well as global measures of circulation. All endpoints were assessed with echocardiography and invasive pressure-flow measurements. PLE decreased left ventricular end-diastolic area, mean arterial pressure and cardiac output (p values  0.05) to baseline. Left ventricular contractility increased with norepinephrine infusion (p = 0.002), but was not affected by fluid loading (p = 0.903). Afterload increased in both active groups (p values > 0.001). Overall, inferior vena cava distensibility remained unchanged during intervention (p values ≥ 0.085). Evacuation of PLE caused numerical increases in left ventricular end-diastolic area, but only significantly so in controls (p = 0.006). PLE significantly reduced left ventricular preload. Both fluid and norepinephrine treatment reverted this effect and normalised global haemodynamic parameters. Inferior vena cava distensibility remained unchanged. The haemodynamic significance of PLE may be underestimated during fluid or norepinephrine administration, potentially masking the presence of PLE.

  4. Congenital heart malformations induced by hemodynamic altering surgical interventions

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    Madeline eMidgett

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic heart formation results from a dynamic interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Blood flow during early embryonic stages plays a critical role in heart development, as interactions between flow and cardiac tissues generate biomechanical forces that modulate cardiac growth and remodeling. Normal hemodynamic conditions are essential for proper cardiac development, while altered blood flow induced by surgical manipulations in animal models result in heart defects similar to those seen in humans with congenital heart disease. This review compares the altered hemodynamics, changes in tissue properties, and cardiac defects reported after common surgical interventions that alter hemodynamics in the early chick embryo, and shows that interventions produce a wide spectrum of cardiac defects. Vitelline vein ligation and left atrial ligation decrease blood pressure and flow; and outflow tract banding increases blood pressure and flow velocities. These three surgical interventions result in many of the same cardiac defects, which indicate that the altered hemodynamics interfere with common looping, septation and valve formation processes that occur after intervention and that shape the four-chambered heart. While many similar defects develop after the interventions, the varying degrees of hemodynamic load alteration among the three interventions also result in varying incidence and severity of cardiac defects, indicating that the hemodynamic modulation of cardiac developmental processes is strongly dependent on hemodynamic load.

  5. Fluid loading and norepinephrine infusion mask the left ventricular preload decrease induced by pleural effusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wemmelund, Kristian Borup; Ringgård, Viktor Kromann; Vistisen, Simon Tilma

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion (PLE) may lead to low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output. Low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output are often treated with fluid loading and vasopressors. This study aimed to determine the impact of fluid loading and norepinephrine infusion on physiologic d...... global haemodynamic parameters. Inferior vena cava distensibility remained unchanged. The haemodynamic significance of PLE may be underestimated during fluid or norepinephrine administration, potentially masking the presence of PLE....

  6. Reducing depth induced spherical aberration in 3D widefield fluorescence microscopy by wavefront coding using the SQUBIC phase mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwary, Nurmohammed; Doblas, Ana; King, Sharon V.; Preza, Chrysanthe

    2014-03-01

    Imaging thick biological samples introduces spherical aberration (SA) due to refractive index (RI) mismatch between specimen and imaging lens immersion medium. SA increases with the increase of either depth or RI mismatch. Therefore, it is difficult to find a static compensator for SA1. Different wavefront coding methods2,3 have been studied to find an optimal way of static wavefront correction to reduce depth-induced SA. Inspired by a recent design of a radially symmetric squared cubic (SQUBIC) phase mask that was tested for scanning confocal microscopy1 we have modified the pupil using the SQUBIC mask to engineer the point spread function (PSF) of a wide field fluorescence microscope. In this study, simulated images of a thick test object were generated using a wavefront encoded engineered PSF (WFEPSF) and were restored using space-invariant (SI) and depth-variant (DV) expectation maximization (EM) algorithms implemented in the COSMOS software4. Quantitative comparisons between restorations obtained with both the conventional and WFE PSFs are presented. Simulations show that, in the presence of SA, the use of the SIEM algorithm and a single SQUBIC encoded WFE-PSF can yield adequate image restoration. In addition, in the presence of a large amount of SA, it is possible to get adequate results using the DVEM with fewer DV-PSFs than would typically be required for processing images acquired with a clear circular aperture (CCA) PSF. This result implies that modification of a widefield system with the SQUBIC mask renders the system less sensitive to depth-induced SA and suitable for imaging samples at larger optical depths.

  7. IL-7 Induces an Epitope Masking of γc Protein in IL-7 Receptor Signaling Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Sik Goh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IL-7 signaling via IL-7Rα and common γ-chain (γc is necessary for the development and homeostasis of T cells. Although the delicate mechanism in which IL-7Rα downregulation allows the homeostasis of T cell with limited IL-7 has been well known, the exact mechanism behind the interaction between IL-7Rα and γc in the absence or presence of IL-7 remains unclear. Additionally, we are still uncertain as to how only IL-7Rα is separately downregulated by the binding of IL-7 from the IL-7Rα/γc complex. We demonstrate here that 4G3, TUGm2, and 3E12 epitope masking of γc protein are induced in the presence of IL-7, indicating that the epitope alteration is induced by IL-7 binding to the preassembled receptor core. Moreover, the epitope masking of γc protein is inversely correlated with the expression of IL-7Rα upon IL-7 binding, implying that the structural alteration of γc might be involved in the regulation of IL-7Rα expression. The conformational change in γc upon IL-7 binding may contribute not only to forming the functional IL-7 signaling complex but also to optimally regulating the expression of IL-7Rα.

  8. IL-7 Induces an Epitope Masking of γc Protein in IL-7 Receptor Signaling Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Tae Sik; Jo, Yuna; Lee, Byunghyuk; Kim, Geona; Hwang, Hyunju; Ko, Eunhee; Kang, Seung Wan; Oh, Sae-Ock; Baek, Sun-Yong; Yoon, Sik; Lee, Jung Sub

    2017-01-01

    IL-7 signaling via IL-7Rα and common γ-chain (γc) is necessary for the development and homeostasis of T cells. Although the delicate mechanism in which IL-7Rα downregulation allows the homeostasis of T cell with limited IL-7 has been well known, the exact mechanism behind the interaction between IL-7Rα and γc in the absence or presence of IL-7 remains unclear. Additionally, we are still uncertain as to how only IL-7Rα is separately downregulated by the binding of IL-7 from the IL-7Rα/γc complex. We demonstrate here that 4G3, TUGm2, and 3E12 epitope masking of γc protein are induced in the presence of IL-7, indicating that the epitope alteration is induced by IL-7 binding to the preassembled receptor core. Moreover, the epitope masking of γc protein is inversely correlated with the expression of IL-7Rα upon IL-7 binding, implying that the structural alteration of γc might be involved in the regulation of IL-7Rα expression. The conformational change in γc upon IL-7 binding may contribute not only to forming the functional IL-7 signaling complex but also to optimally regulating the expression of IL-7Rα. PMID:28127156

  9. Shape induced magnetic vortex state in hexagonal ordered cofe nanodot arrays using ultrathin alumina shadow mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellarajan, B.; Saravanan, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Nagaraja, H. S.; Barshilia, Harish C.; Chowdhury, P.

    2018-04-01

    The magnetization reversal process of hexagonal ordered CoFe nanodot arrays was investigated as a function of nanodot thickness (td) varying from 10 to 30 nm with fixed diameter. For this purpose, ordered CoFe nanodots with a diameter of 80 ± 4 nm were grown by sputtering using ultra-thin alumina mask. The vortex annihilation and the dynamic spin configuration in the ordered CoFe nanodots were analyzed by means of magnetic hysteresis loops in complement with the micromagnetic simulation studies. A highly pinched hysteresis loop observed at 20 nm thickness suggests the occurrence of vortex state in these nanodots. With increase in dot thickness from 10 to 30 nm, the estimated coercivity values tend to increase from 80 to 175 Oe, indicating irreversible change in the nucleation/annihilation field of vortex state. The measured magnetic properties were then corroborated with the change in the shape of the nanodots from disk to hemisphere through micromagnetic simulation.

  10. Laser-induced nanostructures on a polymer irradiated through a contact mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neděla, O. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Slepička, P., E-mail: petr.slepicka@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Malý, J.; Štofík, M. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkyně University, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Švorčík, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • The unique nanopatterning method of PEN was proposed. • Laser treatment through micrometer slit was utilized. • Dimensions of nanostructures can be precisely controlled. • Laser treatment changes the PEN surface chemistry and morphology (sensor applications). - Abstract: The nanopatterning method applied through micrometer slit for polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate was proposed in this paper. Surface roughness, formation of nanoscale ripple-like structures and the dependence of their dimensions on the value of laser fluence was determined by atomic force and laser confocal microscopy, and compared with values obtained from samples irradiated directly (without a contact mask) under similar conditions. The morphology of the unirradiated surface of the substrate in between the slits is also studied, as well as the morphology of the transitional area between the irradiated and unirradiated surface. Thin layer of gold was deposited on selected samples. Chemical composition of the surface was determined from XPS spectra. The potential application of this research can be found predominantly in the field of selective sensor applications, where the designated area for the consecutive grafting procedures is of great importance.

  11. Articular chondrocyte alignment in the rat after surgically induced osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideaki; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Onishi, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Chondrocytes in articular cartilage are aligned as columns from the joint surface. Notably, loss of chondrocyte and abnormalities of differentiation factors give rise to osteoarthritis (OA). However, the relationship between chondrocyte alignment and OA progression remains unclear. This study was performed to investigate temporal alterations in surgically-induced OA rats. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen-week-old Wistar rats (n=30) underwent destabilized medial meniscus surgery in their right knee and sham surgery in their left knee. Specimens (n=5) were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. Histological analysis with Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scores, cell density ratios, cell alignments and correlation between OARSI scores and cell density/alignment was performed. [Results] OARSI scores were significantly higher at 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks in the DMM group than in the control. Cell density ratios were decreased significantly in the DMM group at 2, 4 and 8 weeks compared with the control. Chondrocyte alignment was decreased significantly in the DMM group at 4 and 8 weeks. There were negative correlations between OA severity and cell density / cell alignment. [Conclusion] The results suggest a relationship between chondrocyte alignment and cartilage homeostasis, which plays an important role in OA progression. PMID:28533592

  12. Difficult mask ventilation in general surgical population: observation of risk factors and predictors [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/47z

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Cattano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are few predictors of difficult mask ventilation and a simple, objective, predictive system to identify patients at risk of difficult mask ventilation does not currently exist. We present a retrospective - subgroup analysis aimed at identifying predictive factors for difficult mask ventilation (DMV in patients undergoing pre-operative airway assessment before elective surgery at a major teaching hospital. Methods: Data for this retrospective analysis were derived from a database of airway assessments, management plans, and outcomes that were collected prospectively from August 2008 to May 2010 at a Level 1 academic trauma center. Patients were stratified into two groups based on the difficulty of mask ventilation and the cohorts were analyzed using univariate analysis and stepwise selection method. Results: A total of 1399 pre-operative assessments were completed with documentation stating that mask ventilation was attempted. Of those 1399, 124 (8.9% patients were found to be difficult to mask ventilate. A comparison of patients with and without difficult mask ventilation identified seven risk factors for DMV: age, body mass index (BMI, neck circumference, history of difficult intubation, presence of facial hair, perceived short neck and obstructive sleep apnea. Although seven risk factors were identified, no individual subject had more than four risk factors. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm that in a real world clinical setting, the incidence of DMV is not negligible and suggest the use of a simple bedside predictive score to improve the accuracy of DMV prediction, thereby improving patient safety. Further prospective studies to validate this score would be useful.

  13. Cloning of MASK, a novel member of mammalian germinal center kinase-III subfamily, with apoptosis-inducing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Ippeita; Ong, Shao-En; Watanabe, Norinobu M

    2002-01-01

    We have cloned a novel human GCK family kinase that has been designated as MASK (Mst3 and SOK1-related kinase). MASK is widely expressed and encodes a protein of 416 amino acid residues, with an N-terminal kinase domain and a unique C-terminal region. Like other GCK-III subfamily kinases, MASK do...... apoptosis upon overexpression in mammalian cells that is abrogated by CrmA, suggesting involvement of MASK in the apoptotic machinery in mammalian cells. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Feb-22...

  14. Suction Cup Induced Palatal Fistula: Surgical Closure by Palatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Pediatrics, Pragna Children's Hospital, Hyderabad, ... Eluru, 4Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, KIMS Dental College and ... The surgical closure of palatal fistula planned under general anesthesia.

  15. Comparison of expandable endotracheal stents in the treatment of surgically induced piglet tracheomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, E A; Parsons, D S; Lally, K P; Van Dellen, A F

    1991-09-01

    Present surgical alternatives for pediatric tracheobronchomalacia are limited and associated with many potentially undesirable complications. The feasibility of different intraluminal expandable endotracheal stents for the treatment of surgically induced tracheomalacia was analyzed in 27 piglets. A potentially fatal tracheomalacia was surgically created. Either a stainless steel "zig-zag" stent or a woven polymeric stent was then implanted. Tracheal patency, mucosal function, histopathologic respiratory tract changes, and effects of the stent on esophageal motility were evaluated over a 16-week period. Piglets with steel stents uniformly experienced intense inflammation leading to tracheal dysfunction and death. Piglets with polymeric stents experienced minimal respiratory symptoms. Expandable polymeric endotracheal stents alleviate surgically induced piglet tracheomalacia, were easy to insert, allowed for tracheal growth, and reduced the need for high-risk surgical procedures with prolonged ventilatory support.

  16. Surgical management of BCG vaccine-induced regional axillary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The age of the patient and mode of presentation, imaging findings, and results of tuberculin skin testing (Mantoux test) ... Primary surgical treatment (incisional drainage or biopsy) is therefore not considered an ideal form of management in BCG lymphadenitis because of the high fistulisation and poor wound healing, ...

  17. Plasma-Induced, Self-Masking, One-Step Approach to an Ultrabroadband Antireflective and Superhydrophilic Subwavelength Nanostructured Fused Silica Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Shao, Ting; Sun, Laixi; Wu, Jingjun; Wang, Fengrui; He, Junhui; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Wei-Dong; Zheng, Wanguo

    2018-04-25

    In this work, antireflective and superhydrophilic subwavelength nanostructured fused silica surfaces have been created by one-step, self-masking reactive ion etching (RIE). Bare fused silica substrates with no mask were placed in a RIE vacuum chamber, and then nanoscale fluorocarbon masks and subwavelength nanostructures (SWSs) automatically formed on these substrate after the appropriate RIE plasma process. The mechanism of plasma-induced self-masking SWS has been proposed in this paper. Plasma parameter effects on the morphology of SWS have been investigated to achieve perfect nanocone-like SWS for excellent antireflection, including process time, reactive gas, and pressure of the chamber. Optical properties, i.e., antireflection and optical scattering, were simulated by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Calculated data agree well with the experiment results. The optimized SWS show ultrabroadband antireflective property (up to 99% from 500 to 1360 nm). An excellent improvement of transmission was achieved for the deep-ultraviolet (DUV) range. The proposed low-cost, highly efficient, and maskless method was applied to achieve ultrabroadband antireflective and superhydrophilic SWSs on a 100 mm optical window, which promises great potential for applications in the automotive industry, goggles, and optical devices.

  18. Clay Mask Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Masks can represent so many things, such as emotions (happy, sad, fearful) and power. The familiar "comedy and tragedy" masks, derived from ancient Greek theater, are just one example from mask history. Death masks from the ancient Egyptians influenced the ancient Romans into creating similar masks for their departed. Masks can represent many…

  19. Surgical management of irradiation-induced small bowel damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.T.; Seski, J.C.; Copeland, L.J.; Gershenson, D.M.; Edwards, C.L.; Herson, J.

    1985-04-01

    Seventy-seven patients, presenting with radiation small bowel injuries at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston between 1962 and 1978, were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two categories: bowel bypass without resection, and resection of irradiated bowel. Each group was then analyzed for its short- and long-term complications. Ileocolectomy with end-to-end anastomosis was the surgical procedure of choice in those people undergoing resection. There was no difference in short-term complications noted between the two groups. The long-term complications of fistula formation and continued small bowel necrosis could be prevented by resection, as a primary procedure. The surgical details of ileocolectomy with end-to-end anastomosis are presented, along with an analysis of the complications encountered in both groups.

  20. Surgical management of irradiation-induced small bowel damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.T.; Seski, J.C.; Copeland, L.J.; Gershenson, D.M.; Edwards, C.L.; Herson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy-seven patients, presenting with radiation small bowel injuries at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston between 1962 and 1978, were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two categories: bowel bypass without resection, and resection of irradiated bowel. Each group was then analyzed for its short- and long-term complications. Ileocolectomy with end-to-end anastomosis was the surgical procedure of choice in those people undergoing resection. There was no difference in short-term complications noted between the two groups. The long-term complications of fistula formation and continued small bowel necrosis could be prevented by resection, as a primary procedure. The surgical details of ileocolectomy with end-to-end anastomosis are presented, along with an analysis of the complications encountered in both groups

  1. Pre- and postoperative dexamethasone does not reduce bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity: A randomized, triple-masked clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Márcia; Bonafé, Elize; Vochikovski, Laína; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Reis, Alessandra; Kossatz, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Tooth sensitivity (TS) is the most common side effect of dental bleaching therapies. Dexamethasone has been used with tooth bleaching to reduce TS. The efficacy of dexamethasone for this purpose has not been well studied. The authors conducted a triple-masked, randomized, clinical trial with a parallel design involving 63 healthy participants who received either a placebo or dexamethasone. The placebo or dexamethasone (8 milligrams) was administered 1 hour before the in-office bleaching (35% hydrogen peroxide) and extra doses of 4 mg were administered every 6 hours for a total of 48 hours. TS was recorded on 2 scales: visual analog scale (0-10) and numeric rating scale (0-4) in different periods. The color evaluations were performed before and 1 month after dental bleaching with visual shade guides VITA Classical (VITA Zahnfabrik) and VITA Bleachedguide 3D-MASTER (VITA Zahnfabrik), and for a shade guide evaluation, the authors used a digital spectrophotometer, VITA Easyshade (VITA Zahnfabrik). The absolute risk of TS was evaluated by a Fisher exact test. Data of TS intensity using the NRS scale for the 2 groups were compared with Mann-Whitney and Friedman tests, whereas data from the visual analog scale were evaluated by 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance. The color changes between groups were compared using a t test (α = .05). In both groups, the authors detected a high risk of TS, which was approximately 90%. No significant difference was observed in terms of TS intensity. A whitening of approximately 3 shade guide units of the VITA Classical was detected in both groups, which were statistically similar. The use of dexamethasone before bleaching did not reduce the risk and intensity of bleaching-induced TS. The use of the steroidal anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone was not capable of preventing TS arising from in-office dental bleaching. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  3. venice: Mask utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupon, Jean

    2018-02-01

    venice reads a mask file (DS9 or fits type) and a catalogue of objects (ascii or fits type) to create a pixelized mask, find objects inside/outside a mask, or generate a random catalogue of objects inside/outside a mask. The program reads the mask file and checks if a point, giving its coordinates, is inside or outside the mask, i.e. inside or outside at least one polygon of the mask.

  4. Povidone-iodine induced post-surgical irritant contact dermatitis localized outside of the surgical incision area. Report of 27 cases and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Leopoldo; Hernández, Noelia; Hernández, Zaida; Peñate, Yeray

    2016-05-01

    Povidone-iodine solution is an antiseptic that is used worldwide as surgical paint and is considered to have a low irritant potential. Post-surgical severe irritant dermatitis has been described after the misuse of this antiseptic in the surgical setting. Between January 2011 and June 2013, 27 consecutive patients with post-surgical contact dermatitis localized outside of the surgical incision area were evaluated. Thirteen patients were also available for patch testing. All patients developed dermatitis the day after the surgical procedure. Povidone-iodine solution was the only liquid in contact with the skin of our patients. Most typical lesions were distributed in a double lumbar parallel pattern, but they were also found in a random pattern or in areas where a protective pad or an occlusive medical device was glued to the skin. The patch test results with povidone-iodine were negative. Povidone-iodine-induced post-surgical dermatitis may be a severe complication after prolonged surgical procedures. As stated in the literature and based on the observation that povidone-iodine-induced contact irritant dermatitis occurred in areas of pooling or occlusion, we speculate that povidone-iodine together with occlusion were the causes of the dermatitis epidemic that occurred in our surgical setting. Povidone-iodine dermatitis is a problem that is easily preventable through the implementation of minimal routine changes to adequately dry the solution in contact with the skin. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Surgical treatment of radiation induced injuries of the intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, E.H.; Symmonds, R.E.

    1981-12-01

    In the patient who has received high dose irradiation of the pelvis and abdomen, all abdominopelvic operations should be avoided, unless it is absolutely essential. Persisting obstruction, hemorrhage, intestinal perforation with peritonitis and with abscess and fistula formation are valid indications for surgical intervention. Ninety-three patients have been operated upon for these complications after irradiation. Some anastomotic dehiscence occurred in ten patients. Six operative deaths occurred. Of the 93 patients, 65 were managed by means of complete resection of the involved segment of intestine, followed by restoration of intestinal continuity by means of an end-to-end anastomosis. This is the treatment of choice when the involved area can be safely resected. In the absence of actual intestinal necrosis and when segments of strictured small intestine are adherent deep in the pelvis, and intestinal bypass procedure may represent the treatment of choice. This was accomplished in 20 patients, two of whom eventually required a second operation for resection of the bypassed segment of intestine.

  6. Surgical treatment of radiation induced injuries of the intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, E.H.; Symmonds, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    In the patient who has received high dose irradiation of the pelvis and abdomen, all abdominopelvic operations should be avoided, unless it is absolutely essential. Persisting obstruction, hemorrhage, intestinal perforation with peritonitis and with abscess and fistula formation are valid indications for surgical intervention. Ninety-three patients have been operated upon for these complications after irradiation. Some anastomotic dehiscence occurred in ten patients. Six operative deaths occurred. Of the 93 patients, 65 were managed by means of complete resection of the involved segment of intestine, followed by restoration of intestinal continuity by means of an end-to-end anastomosis. This is the treatment of choice when the involved area can be safely resected. In the absence of actual intestinal necrosis and when segments of strictured small intestine are adherent deep in the pelvis, and intestinal bypass procedure may represent the treatment of choice. This was accomplished in 20 patients, two of whom eventually required a second operation for resection of the bypassed segment of intestine

  7. Surgical treatment of 2 cases of irradiation induced constrictive pericarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Wataru; Yoshii, Shinpei [Yamanashi Medical Univ., Tamaho (Japan)] (and others)

    1999-11-01

    A 72-years-old man underwent radiation therapy (62 Gy) for esophageal carcinoma. Twelve months later, symptoms of heart failure such as syncope, cough and hepatomegaly manifested. On catheter study, a dip and plateau pattern of right ventricular pressure curve was evident. Pericardiectomy without extracorporeal circulation was performed. Operative findings and pathological results were compatible with radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis. He recovered from the heart failure, and has been doing well 3 months after the surgery. A 54-years-old man underwent thymectomy for malignant thymoma. He underwent a radiation therapy (52 Gy) postoperatively. After 12 months from the irradiation, syncope and dyspnea manifested. On catheter study, a dip and plateau pattern of right ventricular pressure curve was observed. Pericardiectomy with extracorporeal circulation was performed. He recovered from the heart failure after pericardiectomy, however he died of radiation-induced pneumonitis 6 months later. (author)

  8. Ga+ focused-ion-beam implantation-induced masking for H2 etching of ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hsin-Chiao; Huang, Jun-Han; Chu, Wen-Huei; Liu, Chuan-Pu

    2010-01-01

    Gallium implantation of ZnO by a focused-ion beam is used to create a mask for ZnO dry etching with hydrogen. Effects of Ga + fluence on the etch stop properties and the associated mechanisms are investigated. The fluence of 2.8 x 10 16 cm -2 is determined to be optimum to render the best mask quality. While lower fluences would cause less etching selectivity, higher fluences would cause erosion of the surface and particles to be precipitated on the surface after H 2 treatment at high temperature. In contrast to the commonly adopted gallium oxide formation on Si, transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals that, for the fluences ≤ 2.8 x 10 16 cm -2 , Ga + ions are incorporated as dopants into ZnO without any second phases or precipitates, indicating the Ga-doped ZnO layer behaves as a mask for H 2 etching due to the higher electronegativity of Ga + towards oxygen. However, for the fluences ≥ 4.6 x 10 16 cm -2 , the surface particles are responsible for the etch stop and are identified as ZnGa 2 O 4 . We finally demonstrate a complicated pattern of 'NCKU' on ZnO by using this technique. The study not only helps clarify the related mechanisms, but also suggests a feasible extension of the etch stop process that can be applied to more functional material.

  9. Radiation-induced intestinal lesions. Prognosis and surgical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Haecke, P.; Vitaux, J.; Michot, F.; Hay, J.-M.; Flamant, Y.; Maillard, J.-N.

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen patients with intestinal lesions consecutive to radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterus were operated upon between 1973 and 1979. The small bowel was involved in 9 patients and the colon and rectum in 4 patients. Urinary tract lesions were associated in 3 patients of each group. Intestinal necrosis, progression of the lesions and extensive pelvic fibrosis were the only criteria of poor prognosis. Twenty-two operations were performed: 4 for urinary tract lesions and 18 for intestinal lesions. Five patients died during the immediate post-operative period and five died within 2 to 30 months after surgery, including 4 whose carcinoma recurred. The operative technique should be selected according to the extent and severity of radiation-induced damage, as determined by pre-operative examination and thorough exploration of the abdominal cavity once opened. Limited lesions of the small bowel can be treated by resection, but intestinal bypass with latero-lateral anastomosis seems to be preferable in cases with extensive lesions. Patients with colorectal lesions should have defunctioning colostomy prior to any other procedure dictated by the state of affairs. Multiple anastomosis, extensive resections and excessive dissections should be avoided [fr

  10. Hyaluronan-induced masking of ErbB2 and CD44-enhanced trastuzumab internalisation in trastuzumab resistant breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pályi-Krekk, Zsuzsanna; Barok, Márk; Isola, Jorma; Tammi, Markku; Szöllosi, János; Nagy, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Although trastuzumab, a recombinant humanised anti-ErbB2 antibody, is widely used in the treatment of breast cancer, neither its mechanism of action, nor the factors leading to resistance are fully understood. We have previously shown that antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity is pivotal in the in vivo effect of trastuzumab against JIMT-1, a cell line showing in vitro resistance to the antibody, and suggested that masking of the trastuzumab-binding epitope by MUC-4, a cell surface mucin, took place. Here, we further explored the role of masking of ErbB2 in connection with CD44 expression and synthesis of its ligand, hyaluronan. We show that high expression of CD44 observed in JIMT-1 cells correlates with ErbB2 downregulation in vivo, while siRNA-mediated inhibition of CD44 expression leads to decreased rate of trastuzumab internalisation and low cell proliferation in vitro. An inhibitor of hyaluronan synthesis, 4-methylumbelliferon (4-MU) significantly reduced the hyaluronan level of JIMT-1 cells both in vivo and in vitro leading to enhanced binding of trastuzumab to ErbB2 and increased ErbB2 down-regulation. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of trastuzumab on the growth of JIMT-1 xenografts was significantly increased by 4-MU treatment. Our results point to the importance of the CD44-hyaluronan pathway in the escape of tumour cells from receptor-oriented therapy.

  11. The effect of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine on rats subjected to surgically induced global cerebral ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto Henrik; Abelson, Klas; Koch, Janne

    2010-01-01

    in buprenorphine-treated and untreated animals. A part from a slightly higher hyperthermia immediately after surgery and typical opiate-associated behaviour, the buprenorphine treatment had no apparent adverse effects on the experimental model. In contrast, the analgesic treatment improved the model by minimizing......The effect of perioperatively administered buprenorphine analgesia on rats subjected to surgically induced global ischaemia was assessed. Rats supplied with buprenorphine, mixed in nut paste for voluntary ingestion, displayed significant reductions in postoperative excretions of faecal...

  12. Peripheral surgical wounding may induce cognitive impairment through interlukin-6-dependent mechanisms in aged mice

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yuanlin; Xu, Zhipeng; Huang, Lining; Zhang, Yiying; Xie, Zhongcong

    2016-01-01

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with morbidity, mortality and increased cost of medical care. However, the neuropathogenesis and targeted interventions of POCD remain largely to be determined. We have found that the peripheral surgical wounding induces an age-dependent A? accumulation, neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pro-inflammatory cytokine interlukin-6 (IL-6) has been reported to be associated with cognitive impairment in rodents and human...

  13. Ipsilateral masking between acoustic and electric stimulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Payton; Turner, Christopher W; Gantz, Bruce J; Djalilian, Hamid R; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-08-01

    Residual acoustic hearing can be preserved in the same ear following cochlear implantation with minimally traumatic surgical techniques and short-electrode arrays. The combined electric-acoustic stimulation significantly improves cochlear implant performance, particularly speech recognition in noise. The present study measures simultaneous masking by electric pulses on acoustic pure tones, or vice versa, to investigate electric-acoustic interactions and their underlying psychophysical mechanisms. Six subjects, with acoustic hearing preserved at low frequencies in their implanted ear, participated in the study. One subject had a fully inserted 24 mm Nucleus Freedom array and five subjects had Iowa/Nucleus hybrid implants that were only 10 mm in length. Electric masking data of the long-electrode subject showed that stimulation from the most apical electrodes produced threshold elevations over 10 dB for 500, 625, and 750 Hz probe tones, but no elevation for 125 and 250 Hz tones. On the contrary, electric stimulation did not produce any electric masking in the short-electrode subjects. In the acoustic masking experiment, 125-750 Hz pure tones were used to acoustically mask electric stimulation. The acoustic masking results showed that, independent of pure tone frequency, both long- and short-electrode subjects showed threshold elevations at apical and basal electrodes. The present results can be interpreted in terms of underlying physiological mechanisms related to either place-dependent peripheral masking or place-independent central masking.

  14. Visual masking & schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herzog

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual masking is a frequently used tool in schizophrenia research. Visual masking has a very high sensitivity and specificity and masking paradigms have been proven to be endophenotypes. Whereas masking is a powerful technique to study schizophrenia, the underlying mechanisms are discussed controversially. For example, for more than 25 years, masking deficits of schizophrenia patients were mainly attributed to a deficient magno-cellular system (M-system. Here, we show that there is very little evidence that masking deficits are magno-cellular deficits. We will discuss the magno-cellular and other approaches in detail and highlight their pros and cons.

  15. Surgical treatment of tumor-induced osteomalacia: a retrospective review of 40 cases with extremity tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-jian; Jin, Jin; Qiu, Gui-xing; Gao, Peng; Liu, Yong

    2015-02-26

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare syndrome typically caused by mesenchymal tumors. It has been shown that complete tumor resection may be curative. However, to our knowledge, there has been no report of a large cohort to exam different surgical approaches. This study was aimed to assess outcomes of different surgical options of patients with tumor-induced osteomalacia at a single institution. Patients with extremity tumors treated in our hospital from January, 2004 to July, 2012 were identified. The minimum follow-up period was 12 months. Patient's demography, tumor location, preoperative preparation, type of surgeries were summarized, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Successful treatment was defined as significant symptom improvement, normal serum phosphorus and significant improvement or normalization of bone mineral density at the last follow-up. Differences between patients with soft tissue tumors and bone tumors were compared. There were 40 (24 male and 16 female) patients identified, with an average age of 44 years. The tumors were isolated in either soft tissue (25 patients) or bone (12 patients) and combined soft tissue and bone invasion was observed in 3 patients. For the primary surgery, tumor resection and tumor curettage were performed. After initial surgical treatment, six patients then received a second surgery. Four patients were found to have malignant tumors base on histopathology. With a minimum follow-up period of 12 months, 80% of patients (32/40) were treated successfully, including 50% of patients (2/4) with malignant tumors. Compared to patients with bone tumor, surgical results were better in patient with soft tissue tumor. Surgical treatment was an effective way for TIO. Other than tumor curettage surgery, tumor resection is the preferred options for these tumors.

  16. Binaural masking level differences in nonsimultanuous masking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohlrausch, A.G.; Fassel, R.; Gilkey, R.H.; Anderson, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter investigates the extent to which binaural unmasking occurs with nonsimultaneous presentation of masker and signal, particularly in forward masking. The majority of previous studies that addressed this question found that there is a substantial binaural masking level difference (BMLD) in

  17. Akathisia masked by hypokinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuisku, K; Lauerma, H; Holi, M M; Honkonen, T; Rimon, R

    2000-07-01

    Here, we will discuss the concept of subjective akathisia and present a patient case. Our patient was suffering from neuroleptic-induced hypokinesia and akathisia at the same time. The typical motor manifestations of akathisia were masked by hypokinesia, which made the diagnosis difficult. However, the subjective symptoms of akathisia were evident and distressing. Although not observable to bare eye, the pathognomonic pattern of motor activity detected in akathisia was demonstrated by actometric recording. Changing the conventional neuroleptic to an atypical one brought relief to the subjective symptoms of akathisia and hypokinesia, while the motor activity was clearly diminished in actometric recording. Actometric recording may be useful in diagnosing akathisia masked by hypokinesia, but the typical subjective symptoms of akathisia should not be ignored, even when actometry is not available to demonstrate the missing motor component of akathisia. Not only akathisia defined by DSM-IV but also subjective akathisia should be adequately treated to relieve the subjective distress, and to diminish the unfavorable effects on psychotic symptoms, behavior, and drug compliance.

  18. Masks in Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, David

    2016-01-01

    In Drama Education mask work is undertaken and presented as both a methodology and knowledge base. There are numerous workshops and journal articles available for teachers that offer knowledge or implementation of mask work. However, empirical examination of the context or potential implementation of masks as a pedagogical tool remains…

  19. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  20. Animal models of surgically manipulated flow velocities to study shear stress-induced atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Leah C; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Xing, Ruoyu; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Van der Heiden, Kim

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial tree that develops at predisposed sites, coinciding with locations that are exposed to low or oscillating shear stress. Manipulating flow velocity, and concomitantly shear stress, has proven adequate to promote endothelial activation and subsequent plaque formation in animals. In this article, we will give an overview of the animal models that have been designed to study the causal relationship between shear stress and atherosclerosis by surgically manipulating blood flow velocity profiles. These surgically manipulated models include arteriovenous fistulas, vascular grafts, arterial ligation, and perivascular devices. We review these models of manipulated blood flow velocity from an engineering and biological perspective, focusing on the shear stress profiles they induce and the vascular pathology that is observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 2013 mask industry survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive survey was sent to merchant and captive mask shops to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. 2013 marks the 12th consecutive year for this process. Historical topics including general mask profile, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, maintenance, and returns were included and new topics were added. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. While each year's survey includes minor updates based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics, the bulk of the survey and reporting structure have remained relatively constant. A series of improvements is being phased in beginning in 2013 to add value to a wider audience, while at the same time retaining the historical content required for trend analyses of the traditional metrics. Additions in 2013 include topics such as top challenges, future concerns, and additional details in key aspects of mask masking, such as the number of masks per mask set per ground rule, minimum mask resolution shipped, and yield by ground rule. These expansions beyond the historical topics are aimed at identifying common issues, gaps, and needs. They will also provide a better understanding of real-life mask requirements and capabilities for comparison to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).

  2. [Successful treatment of surgically induced necrotizing sclerokeratitis (SINS) with systemic immunosuppresive agents and amniotic membrane grafting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Coma, M; Franco-Benito, M; García-Ruiz-de-Morales, J M; Alonso-Orcajo, N; Del Barrio-Manso, I

    2009-11-01

    We report the case of a 74-year-old female who developed a necrotizing sclerokeratitis affecting her left eye after uncomplicated cataract surgery. She had no previous history of systemic autoimmune disease. Histopathology of the lesion revealed necrotic granulomatosis with an increased number of plasma cells. Surgically induced necrotizing sclerokeratitis (SINS) is a serious entity which requires prompt and aggressive therapy to prevent its potential devastating ocular consequences. Conjunctival resection and amniotic membrane grafting may be necessary to temporarily interrupt local immunologic events in severe cases. However, associated systemic immunomodulatory therapy seems to be mandatory (Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol 2009; 84: 577-580).

  3. Prevention of radiation induced xerostomia by surgical transfer of submandibular salivary gland into the submental space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Naresh; Seikaly, Hadi; Harris, Jeff; Williams, David; Liu, Richard; McGaw, Timothy; Hofmann, Henry; Robinson, Don; Hanson, John; Barnaby, Pam

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Xerostomia is a significant morbidity of radiation treatment in the management of head and neck cancers. We hypothesized that the surgical transfer of one submandibular salivary gland to the submental space, where it can be shielded from radiation treatment (XRT), would prevent xerostomia. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective Phase II clinical trial and the patients were followed clinically with salivary flow studies and the University of Washington Quality of Life questionnaire. Results: We report the results on 76 evaluable patients. The salivary gland transfer was done in 60 patients. Nine patients (of 60) did not have postoperative XRT and in eight patients (of 60) the transferred gland was not shielded from XRT due to proximity of disease. The median follow up is 14 months. Of the 43 patients with the salivary gland transfer and post-operative XRT with protection of the transferred gland, 81% have none or minimal xerostomia, and 19% developed moderate to severe xerostomia. Three patients (6.9%) developed local recurrence, five patients (11.6%) developed distant metastases and five patients (11.6%) have died. There were no complications attributed to the surgical procedure. Conclusion: Surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the submental space preserves its function and prevents the development of radiation induced xerostomia

  4. No. 360-Induced Abortion: Surgical Abortion and Second Trimester Medical Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costescu, Dustin; Guilbert, Édith

    2018-06-01

    This guideline reviews evidence relating to the provision of surgical induced abortion (IA) and second trimester medical abortion, including pre- and post-procedural care. Gynaecologists, family physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, and other health care providers who currently or intend to provide and/or teach IAs. Women with an unintended or abnormal first or second trimester pregnancy. PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Database were searched using the key words: first-trimester surgical abortion, second-trimester surgical abortion, second-trimester medical abortion, dilation and evacuation, induction abortion, feticide, cervical preparation, cervical dilation, abortion complications. Results were restricted to English or French systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational studies published from 1979 to July 2017. National and international clinical practice guidelines were consulted for review. Grey literature was not searched. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology framework. The summary of findings is available upon request. IA is safe and effective. The benefits of IA outweigh the potential harms or costs. No new direct harms or costs identified with these guidelines. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of molecular contamination in mask pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foray, Jean Marie; Dejaune, Patrice; Sergent, Pierre; Gough, Stuart; Cheung, D.; Davenet, Magali; Favre, Arnaud; Rude, C.; Trautmann, T.; Tissier, Michel; Fontaine, H.; Veillerot, M.; Avary, K.; Hollein, I.; Lerit, R.

    2008-04-01

    Context/ study Motivation: Contamination and especially Airbone Molecular Contamination (AMC) is a critical issue for mask material flow with a severe and fairly unpredictable risk of induced contamination and damages especially for 193 nm lithography. It is therefore essential to measure, to understand and then try to reduce AMC in mask environment. Mask material flow was studied in a global approach by a pool of European partners, especially within the frame of European MEDEA+ project, so called "MUSCLE". This paper deals with results and assessment of mask pod environment in term of molecular contamination in a first step, then in a second step preliminary studies to reduce mask pod influence and contamination due to material out gassing. Approach and techniques: A specific assessment of environmental / molecular contamination along the supply chain was performed by all partners. After previous work presented at EMLC 07, further studies were performed on real time contamination measurement pod at different sites locations (including Mask manufacturing site, blank manufacturing sites, IC fab). Studies were linked to the main critical issues: cleaning, storage, handling, materials and processes. Contamination measurement campaigns were carried out along the mask supply chain using specific Adixen analyzer in order to monitor in real time organic contaminants (ppb level) in mask pods. Key results would be presented: VOC, AMC and humidity level on different kinds of mask carriers, impact of basic cleaning on pod outgassing measurement (VOC, NH3), and process influence on pod contamination... In a second step, preliminary specific pod conditioning studies for better pod environment were performed based on Adixen vacuum process. Process influence had been experimentally measured in term of molecular outgassing from mask pods. Different AMC experimental characterization methods had been carried out leading to results on a wide range of organic and inorganic

  6. Linear correlation for identification of materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: Improvement via spectral filtering and masking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gornushkin, I.B., E-mail: igor.gornushkin@bam.d [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany); Panne, U. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany); Winefordner, J.D. [University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this work is to improve the performance of a linear correlation method used for material identification in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. The improved correlation procedure is proposed based on the selection and use of only essential spectral information and ignoring empty spectral fragments. The method is tested on glass samples of forensic interest. The 100% identification capability of the new method is demonstrated in contrast to the traditional approach where the identification rate falls below 100% for many samples.

  7. Injection-induced gluteus muscle contractures: diagnosis with the "reverse Ober test" and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, William F; White, Klane K; Song, Kit M; Mosca, Vincent S

    2015-03-01

    Adoption rates are increasing in the United States and other developed countries. A large proportion of adopted children have been found to have unsuspected medical diagnoses, including orthopedic problems. One condition, termed injection-induced gluteus maximus contracture, has been previously described in several case series and can be difficult to diagnose if unfamiliar with this condition. By reviewing the etiology and pathoanatomy of this problem, as well as the typical examination findings, including the near-pathognomonic-positive "reverse Ober test," treating providers will be better prepared to recognize and properly treat this condition. This is a retrospective review of 4 patients treated at our institution for injection-induced gluteus maximus contracture. Patient history, physical examination findings, and treatment outcomes were recorded. All had undergone surgical treatment through a longitudinal incision along the posterior margin of the iliotibial band, with division of thickened, contracted gluteus tissue down to the ischial tuberosity. All 4 of the patients were adopted from orphanages in developing countries. Chief complaints of the patients varied, but physical examination findings were very consistent. Three of the 4 patients had undergone rotational osteotomies for presumed femoral retroversion before their diagnosis and treatment for injection-induced gluteus maximus contracture. All patients had concave, atrophic buttock contours and numerous punctate buttock scars. All walked with an out-toed gait and had marked apparent femoral retroversion. Each patient was found to have full hip adduction when the hip was extended but a hip abduction contracture when the hip was flexed. This finding of increasing abduction as an extended/adducted hip is flexed to 90 degrees is described as a positive "reverse Ober test." After surgical treatment, all hips could adduct to neutral from full extension to full flexion. Although common in some countries

  8. Traditional Chinese Masks Reveal Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE masks are undoubtedly an important component in the worldwide mask culture. Minority nationality masks are a major component of China’s mask culture. Traditional Chinese masks, or nuo, represent a cultural component which originated from religious rites in prehistoric times. Various types of nuo are highly valuable for studies of Chinese customs.

  9. How the global layout of the mask influences masking strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Tandra; Hermens, Frouke; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-12-10

    In visual backward masking, the perception of a target is influenced by a trailing mask. Masking is usually explained by local interactions between the target and the mask representations. However, recently it has been shown that the global spatial layout of the mask rather than its local structure determines masking strength (Hermens & Herzog, 2007). Here, we varied the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues. We presented a vernier target followed by a mask with 25 elements. Performance deteriorated when the length of the two mask elements neighboring the target vernier was doubled. However, when the length of every second mask element was doubled, performance improved. When the luminance of the neighboring elements was doubled, performance also deteriorated but no improvement in performance was observed when every second element had a double luminance. For temporal manipulations, a complex nonmonotonic masking function was observed. Hence, changes in the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues lead to highly different results.

  10. Mask Phenomenon in Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎丽璇

    2013-01-01

    People sometimes wear masks. Abusive expression may be used to convey love while polite words can be exchanged among enemies. This essay describes and discusses this special phenomenon in communication and analyzes the elements that con-tribute to the success of a mask communication.

  11. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...

  12. Mask materials in powderblasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1999-01-01

    Powderblasting has the opportunity to become a standard technology in micromachining. To machine small details with powderbalsting, it is necessary to use a suiabled mask. In this paper four mask types ares examined. BF400 resist foil is most suitable for standard use in powderblasting for reason of

  13. The Moody Mask Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarke Alexander; Andkjær, Kasper Ingdahl; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new relation model, called "The Moody Mask model", for Interactive Digital Storytelling (IDS), based on Franceso Osborne's "Mask Model" from 2011. This, mixed with some elements from Chris Crawford's Personality Models, is a system designed for dynamic interaction between ch...

  14. What's in a mask? Information masking with forward and backward visual masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2011-10-01

    Three experiments tested how the physical format and information content of forward and backward masks affected the extent of visual pattern masking. This involved using different types of forward and backward masks with target discrimination measured by percentage correct in the first experiment (with a fixed target duration) and by an adaptive threshold procedure in the last two. The rationale behind the manipulation of the content of the masks stemmed from masking theories emphasizing attentional and/or conceptual factors rather than visual ones. Experiment 1 used word masks and showed that masking was reduced (a masking reduction effect) when the forward and backward masks were the same word (although in different case) compared to when the masks were different words. Experiment 2 tested the extent to which a reduction in masking might occur due to the physical similarity between the forward and backward masks by comparing the effect of the same content of the masks in the same versus different case. The result showed a significant reduction in masking for same content masks but no significant effect of case. The last experiment examined whether the reduction in masking effect would be observed with nonword masks--that is, having no high-level representation. No reduction in masking was found from same compared to different nonword masks (Experiment 3). These results support the view that the conscious perception of a rapidly displayed target stimulus is in part determined by high-level perceptual/cognitive factors concerned with masking stimulus grouping and attention.

  15. Fractal analysis of the surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Kun; Kim, Jin Soo

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs using fractal analysis. Also, the capabilities of fractal analysis as bone analysis techniques were compared with those of histomorphometric analysis. A total of 24 implants were inserted in 6 dogs. After a 3-months, experimental periimplantitis characterized by a bone loss of about 3 mm was established by inducing with wires. Surgical treatment involving flap procedure, debridement of implants surface with chlorhexidine and saline (group 1), guided bone regeneration (GBR) with absorbable collagen membrane and mineralized bone graft (group 2), and CO2 laser application with GBR (group 3) were performed. After animals were sacrificed in 8 and 16 weeks respectively, bone sections including implants were made. Fractal dimensions were calculated by box-counting method on the skeletonized images, made from each region of interest, including five screws at medial and distal aspects of implant, were selected. Statistically significant differences in the fractal dimensions between the group 1 (0.9340 ± 0.0126) and group 3 (0.9783 ± 0.0118) at 16 weeks were found (P<0.05). The fractal dimension was statistically significant different between 8 (0.9395 ± 0.0283) and 16 weeks in group 3 (P<0.05). These results were similar with the result of the evaluation of new bone formation in histomorphometric analysis. Treatment of experimental peri-implantitis by using CO2 laser with GBR is more useful than other treatments in the formation of new bone and also the tendency of fractal dimension to increase relative to healing time may be a useful means of evaluating.

  16. Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Elizabeth G; Grossman, Daniel; Weaver, Mark A; Toti, Stephanie; Winikoff, Beverly

    2014-11-01

    The recent surge of new legislation regulating induced abortion in the United States is ostensibly motivated by the desire to protect women's health. To provide context for interpreting the risk of abortion, we compared abortion-related mortality to mortality associated with other outpatient surgical procedures and selected nonmedical activities. We calculated the abortion-related mortality rate during 2000-2009 using national data. We searched PubMed and other sources for contemporaneous data on mortality associated with other outpatient procedures commonly performed on healthy young women, marathon running, bicycling and driving. The abortion-related mortality rate in 2000-2009 in the United States was 0.7 per 100,000 abortions. Studies in approximately the same years found mortality rates of 0.8-1.7 deaths per 100,000 plastic surgery procedures, 0-1.7deaths per 100,000 dental procedures, 0.6-1.2 deaths per 100,000 marathons run and at least 4 deaths among 100,000 cyclists in a large annual bicycling event. The traffic fatality rate per 758 vehicle miles traveled by passenger cars in the United States in 2007-2011 was about equal to the abortion-related mortality rate. The safety of induced abortion as practiced in the United States for the past decade met or exceeded expectations for outpatient surgical procedures and compared favorably to that of two common nonmedical voluntary activities. The new legislation restricting abortion is unnecessary; indeed, by reducing the geographic distribution of abortion providers and requiring women to travel farther for the procedure, these laws are potentially detrimental to women's health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fractal analysis of the surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Kun; Kim, Jin Soo [School of Dentisity, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs using fractal analysis. Also, the capabilities of fractal analysis as bone analysis techniques were compared with those of histomorphometric analysis. A total of 24 implants were inserted in 6 dogs. After a 3-months, experimental periimplantitis characterized by a bone loss of about 3 mm was established by inducing with wires. Surgical treatment involving flap procedure, debridement of implants surface with chlorhexidine and saline (group 1), guided bone regeneration (GBR) with absorbable collagen membrane and mineralized bone graft (group 2), and CO2 laser application with GBR (group 3) were performed. After animals were sacrificed in 8 and 16 weeks respectively, bone sections including implants were made. Fractal dimensions were calculated by box-counting method on the skeletonized images, made from each region of interest, including five screws at medial and distal aspects of implant, were selected. Statistically significant differences in the fractal dimensions between the group 1 (0.9340 {+-} 0.0126) and group 3 (0.9783 {+-} 0.0118) at 16 weeks were found (P<0.05). The fractal dimension was statistically significant different between 8 (0.9395 {+-} 0.0283) and 16 weeks in group 3 (P<0.05). These results were similar with the result of the evaluation of new bone formation in histomorphometric analysis. Treatment of experimental peri-implantitis by using CO2 laser with GBR is more useful than other treatments in the formation of new bone and also the tendency of fractal dimension to increase relative to healing time may be a useful means of evaluating.

  18. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-08-10

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during semiconductor manufacturing for deep reactive etches. Such a manufacturing process may include depositing a first mask material on a substrate; depositing a second mask material on the first mask material; depositing a third mask material on the second mask material; patterning the third mask material with a pattern corresponding to one or more trenches for transfer to the substrate; transferring the pattern from the third mask material to the second mask material; transferring the pattern from the second mask material to the first mask material; and/or transferring the pattern from the first mask material to the substrate.

  19. Surgical techniques in radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfotih, Gobran Taha Ahmed; Zheng, Mei Guang; Cai, Wang Qing; Xu, Xin Ke; Hu, Zhen; Li, Fang Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Radiation induced brain injury ranges from acute reversible edema to late, irreversible radiation necrosis. Radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis is associated with permanent neurological deficits and occasionally progresses to death. We present our experience with surgery on radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis (RTLN) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with special consideration of clinical presentation, surgical technique, and outcomes. This retrospective study includes 12 patients with RTLN treated by the senior author between January 2010 and December 2014. Patients initially sought medical treatment due to headache; other symptoms were hearing loss, visual deterioration, seizure, hemiparesis, vertigo, memory loss and agnosia. A temporal approach through a linear incision was performed for all cases. RTLN was found in one side in 7 patients, and bilaterally in 5. 4 patients underwent resection of necrotic tissue bilaterally and 8 patients on one side. No death occurred in this series of cases. There were no post-operative complications, except 1 patient who developed aseptic meningitis. All 12 patients were free from headache. No seizure occurred in patients with preoperative epilepsy. Other symptoms such as hemiparesis and vertigo improved in all patients. Memory loss, agnosia and hearing loss did not change post-operatively in all cases. The follow-up MR images demonstrated no recurrence of necrotic lesions in all 12 patients. Neurosurgical intervention through a temporal approach with linear incision is warranted in patients with radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis with significant symptoms and signs of increased intracranial pressure, minimum space occupying effect on imaging, or neurological deterioration despite conservative management. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  20. 2012 Mask Industry Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt; Litt, Lloyd C.

    2012-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to semiconductor industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. 2012 marks the 11th consecutive year for the mask industry survey. This year's survey and reporting structure are similar to those of the previous years with minor modifications based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics. Categories include general mask information, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, and maintenance and returns. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. Results, initial observations, and key comparisons between the 2011 and 2012 survey responses are shown here, including multiple indications of a shift towards the manufacturing of higher end photomasks.

  1. Mask quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Larry; Paulson, Neil; Reynolds, James A.

    1994-02-01

    Product quality and timely delivery are two of the most important parameters, determining the success of a mask manufacturing facility. Because of the sensitivity of this data, however, very little is known about industry performance in these areas. Using Arthur Andersen & Co. to protect contributor identity, the authors have conducted a blind quality survey of mask shops which represents over 75% of the total merchant and captive mask volume in the US. Quantities such as return rate, plate survival yield, performance to schedule and reason for return were requested from 1988 through Q2 1993. Data is analyzed and conclusions are presented.

  2. Bladder changes after several coverage modalities in the surgically induced model of myelomeningocele in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, L; Encinas, J L; García-Cabezas, M Á; Peiró, J L; López-Santamaría, M; Jaureguízar, E

    2014-01-01

    To assess the presence of early bladder abnormalities in a prenatally corrected and uncorrected animal model of Myelomeningocele (MMC). A MMC-like lesion was surgically created in 18 fetal lambs between the 60th and the 80th day of gestation. Eight of them did not undergo fetal repair (group A), three were repaired with an open two-layer closure (group B), three using BioGlue® (groupC) and four fetoscopically (group D). At term, bladders were examined macroscopically and histopathological changes were assessed using H-E and Masson Trichrome. Five animals in group A (5/8, 62%), two in group B (2/3, 66%), one in group C (1/3, 33%) and one in group D (1/4, 25%) survived. Macroscopically bladders in group A were severely dilated and showed thinner walls. Microscopically they showed a thin layer of colagenous tissue (Blue layer. BL) lying immediately subjacent to the urothelium. The muscular layers were thinner. Non compliant pattern with thick wall and low capacity was also found in the non corrected model. Group B and the control showed preservation of muscular layers and absence of BL. Groups C and D presented BL but also preservation of muscular layers. Bladder changes in a surgically-induced model of MMC can be described using histopathological data. Both extremes of bladder changes can be observed in the model. These changes were completely prevented with open fetal surgery and partially with other coverage modalities. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Masked Photocathode for Photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2010-01-01

    In this research note, we propose a scheme to insert a photocathode inside a photoinjector for generating high brightness electron beam. Instead of mounting the photocathode onto the electrode, a masked electrode with small hole is used to shield the photocathode from the accelerating vacuum chamber. Using such a masked photocathode will make the replacement of photocathode material very simple by rotating the photocathode behind the mask into the hole. This will significantly increase the usage lifetime of a photocathode. Furthermore, this also helps reduce the dark current or secondary electron emission from the photocathode. The hole on the mask also provides a transverse cut-off to the Gaussian laser profile which can be beneficial from the beam dynamics point of view.

  4. Gilded Silver Mask

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    This gilded silver mask from the Liao Dynasty is 31 cm long and 22.2 cm wide. The plump oval face was designed with a protruding brow ridge, narrow eyes, high-bridged nose and closed mouth. The chin is slightly round against a thin neck, the ears are long and the hair can be clearly seen from the finely carved lines. The use of masks was recorded as

  5. Masks: The Artist in Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Whether masks are made from cardboard, papier-mache, metal, wood, leather, fabric, clay or any combination of these materials, they bring out the artist in people. Young children like to wear masks when they play to pretend they were another person or animal. Masks let them fantasize and be creative. The author's students made masks representing…

  6. Effects of Bee Venom Acupuncture on Surgically Induced Endometriosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hyun Lee

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Bee Venom Acupuncture(BVA is known to affect inflammation and immune system. This study examined the macroscopic, hormonal and immunological effects of BVA on rats with surgically induced endometriosis. Method : Endometrial tissue was implanted in the serosal wall of the small intestine in rats. The rats were divided randomly into an experimental and control group. The experimental group was treated with BVA injection on kwanwon(CV4 three times per week, and the control group was given an oral dose of normal saline every day. 6 weeks later, the size of the ectopic uterine tissue was estimated, and the serum progesterone, estradiol and cytokine(TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 concentrations were analyzed. Result : The size of the ectopic uterine implants in the experimental group was much smaller than that in the control group. The estradiol, IL-2 concentrations were significantly lower and the IL-6, IL-10 concentrations were significantly higher in the serum of the experimental group than in the control group. there was no significant difference in the concentration of the other cytokine. Conclusion : These results suggest that BVA is an effective treatment for endometriosis.

  7. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism in various incisions in manual small incision cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Nidhi; Chopra, Deepak; Chaurasia, Rajan Kumar; Agarwal, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    To determine the surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) in Straight, Frown and Inverted V shape (Chevron) incisions in manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS). A prospective cross sectional study was done on a total of 75 patients aged 40y and above with senile cataract. The patients were randomly divided into three groups (25 each). Each group received a particular type of incision (Straight, Frown or Inverted V shape incisions). Manual SICS with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation was performed. The patients were compared 4wk post operatively for uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and SIA. All calculations were performed using the SIA calculator version 2.1, a free software program. The study was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 statistical analysis software. The study found that 89.5% of patients in Straight incision group, 94.2% in Frown incision group and 95.7% in Inverted V group attained BCVA post-operatively in the range of 6/6 to 6/18. Mean SIA was minimum (-0.88±0.61D×90 degrees) with Inverted V incision which was statistically significant. Inverted V (Chevron) incision gives minimal SIA.

  8. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  9. Surgical treatment is effective in severe cases of exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, Katarina; Johansson, Henrik; Jansson, Christer; Nordvall, Lennart; Nordang, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is an effective treatment in severe cases of supraglottic exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (E-ILO). Conservatively treated subjects and subjects tested negative for E-ILO, who still experience breathing problems 1-3 years after diagnosis, tend to adjust their physical activity to a greater extent than surgically treated subjects. To investigate how symptoms and level of physical activity change over time in patients with E-ILO who have undergone surgery, patients with E-ILO treated conservatively and patients who tested negative for laryngeal obstruction at continuous laryngoscopy exercise-test (CLE-test). Patients referred for exercise-induced breathing difficulties answered questionnaires at diagnostic CLE-test and at follow-up. Questions regarded exercise-induced breathing problems, current physical activity level, and medical history of asthma and perennial allergy. Out of 84 invited subjects, 59 (70%) answered both questionnaires. Surgically treated subjects had less breathing problems at follow-up compared with conservatively treated subjects and subjects who tested negative (p < 0.001). None of the surgically treated subjects were less physically active or had changed sport due to exercise-induced dyspnoea, whereas 41.7% of the conservatively treated subjects had made such adjustments (p < 0.001).

  10. Robust source and mask optimization compensating for mask topography effects in computational lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Lam, Edmund Y

    2014-04-21

    Mask topography effects need to be taken into consideration for a more accurate solution of source mask optimization (SMO) in advanced optical lithography. However, rigorous 3D mask models generally involve intensive computation and conventional SMO fails to manipulate the mask-induced undesired phase errors that degrade the usable depth of focus (uDOF) and process yield. In this work, an optimization approach incorporating pupil wavefront aberrations into SMO procedure is developed as an alternative to maximize the uDOF. We first design the pupil wavefront function by adding primary and secondary spherical aberrations through the coefficients of the Zernike polynomials, and then apply the conjugate gradient method to achieve an optimal source-mask pair under the condition of aberrated pupil. We also use a statistical model to determine the Zernike coefficients for the phase control and adjustment. Rigorous simulations of thick masks show that this approach provides compensation for mask topography effects by improving the pattern fidelity and increasing uDOF.

  11. Individuals and Their Masks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Altuna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay works on the opposition between face and mask, where ‘face’ is understood as that which makes every human being singular, and makes visible her or his unique worth, while ‘mask’ is understood as whatever hides that singularity, and refers to a category, stereotype or cliché. The etymological history that relates face and mask to the concept of person, and the history of modern portrait painting, which alternates representations of face and mask, both lead to a discussion with authors who diagnose a contemporary “defeat of the face” as a result of the crisis of humanism and of ethical individualism, which give meaning and dignity to that face.

  12. Professional and home-made face masks reduce exposure to respiratory infections among the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sande, Marianne; Teunis, Peter; Sabel, Rob

    2008-07-09

    Governments are preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. Therefore they need data to assess the possible impact of interventions. Face-masks worn by the general population could be an accessible and affordable intervention, if effective when worn under routine circumstances. We assessed transmission reduction potential provided by personal respirators, surgical masks and home-made masks when worn during a variety of activities by healthy volunteers and a simulated patient. All types of masks reduced aerosol exposure, relatively stable over time, unaffected by duration of wear or type of activity, but with a high degree of individual variation. Personal respirators were more efficient than surgical masks, which were more efficient than home-made masks. Regardless of mask type, children were less well protected. Outward protection (mask wearing by a mechanical head) was less effective than inward protection (mask wearing by healthy volunteers). Any type of general mask use is likely to decrease viral exposure and infection risk on a population level, in spite of imperfect fit and imperfect adherence, personal respirators providing most protection. Masks worn by patients may not offer as great a degree of protection against aerosol transmission.

  13. Competing for Consciousness: Prolonged Mask Exposure Reduces Object Substitution Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C.; Visser, Troy A. W.; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Dux, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    In object substitution masking (OSM) a sparse, temporally trailing 4-dot mask impairs target identification, even though it has different contours from, and does not spatially overlap with the target. Here, we demonstrate a previously unknown characteristic of OSM: Observers show reduced masking at prolonged (e.g., 640 ms) relative to intermediate…

  14. A survey of Alberta physicians' use of and attitudes toward face masks and face shields in the operating room setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip J; Spady, Donald; Forgie, Sarah E D

    2007-09-01

    There is little evidence that surgical mask use by physicians in the operating room (OR) reduces surgical site infections (SSIs), but masks do protect the wearer from potentially infectious splashes. Face shields offer even more protection because they cover the eyes, but they may be perceived as offering less protection to the patient than do masks. The objectives of this study were to ascertain if there were predictors to determine which OR physicians are continuing to use masks and what their reasons are for doing so, and which OR physicians would accept face shields and their reasons for doing so. We surveyed the province of Alberta's surgeons, general practice (GP) surgeons, anesthesiologists, and GP anesthetists to determine how many physicians in the OR wear surgical masks, their reasons for wearing surgical masks (ethical, legal, protection of the patient, protection of the wearer), and if they believe that face shields offer more protection to the patient or to the wearer. We also sought to examine which demographic factors affected their responses. The data were examined with chi(2) analysis to assess the relationships of age and practitioner type, and for various outcome variables. A significance level of P masks; masks are worn to prevent the spread of disease, not because it is tradition to do so; masks protect the wearer more than do face shields; and wearing face shields alone will subject the patient to higher rates of SSIs. Surgeons are more likely than are anesthesiologists to wear surgical masks in the OR and wear a surgical mask and a face shield if the patient has risk factors for a blood borne infection. According to our survey, age and profession were the most important variables that affected the potential use of surgical masks and face shields. Younger OR physicians likely would be amenable to using face shields in addition to masks in the OR to protect themselves from exposure to blood or bodily fluids.

  15. Surgically induced astigmatism after phacoemulsification by temporal clear corneal and superior clear corneal approach: a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikose AS

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Archana Sunil Nikose, Dhrubojyoti Saha, Pradnya Mukesh Laddha, Mayuri Patil Department of Ophthalmology, N.K.P. Salve Institute and LMH, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Introduction: Cataract surgery has undergone various advances since it was evolved from ancient couching to the modern phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA remains one of the most common complications. The introduction of sutureless clear corneal incision has gained increasing popularity worldwide because it offers several advantages over the traditional sutured limbal incision and scleral tunnel. A clear corneal incision has the benefit of being bloodless and having an easy approach, but SIA is still a concern.Purpose: In this study, we evaluated the SIA in clear corneal incisions with temporal approach and superior approach phacoemulsification. Comparisons between the two incisions were done using keratometric readings of preoperative and postoperative refractive status.Methodology: It was a hospital-based prospective interventional comparative randomized control trial of 261 patients conducted in a rural-based tertiary care center from September 2012 to August 2014. The visual acuity and detailed anterior segment and posterior segment examinations were done and the cataract was graded according to Lens Opacification Classification System II. Patients were divided for phacoemulsification into two groups, group A and group B, who underwent temporal and superior clear corneal approach, respectively. The patients were followed up on day 1, 7, 30, and 90 postoperatively. The parameters recorded were uncorrected visual acuity, best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp examination, and keratometry. The mean difference of SIA between 30th and 90th day was statistically evaluated using paired t-test, and all the analyses were performed using SPSS 18.0 (SPSS Inc. software.Results: The mean postoperative SIA in group A was 0.998 D on the 30th day, which

  16. Ni-Al Alloys as Alternative EUV Mask Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Luong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Extreme ultraviolet (EUV lithography is being industrialized as the next candidate printing technique for high-volume manufacturing of scaled down integrated circuits. At mask level, the combination of EUV light at oblique incidence, absorber thickness, and non-uniform mirror reflectance through incidence angle, creates photomask-induced imaging aberrations, known as mask 3D (M3D effects. A possible mitigation for the M3D effects in the EUV binary intensity mask (BIM, is to use mask absorber materials with high extinction coefficient κ and refractive coefficient n close to unity. We propose nickel aluminide alloys as a candidate BIM absorber material, and characterize them versus a set of specifications that a novel EUV mask absorber must meet. The nickel aluminide samples have reduced crystallinity as compared to metallic nickel, and form a passivating surface oxide layer in neutral solutions. Composition and density profile are investigated to estimate the optical constants, which are then validated with EUV reflectometry. An oxidation-induced Al L2 absorption edge shift is observed, which significantly impacts the value of n at 13.5 nm wavelength and moves it closer to unity. The measured optical constants are incorporated in an accurate mask model for rigorous simulations. The M3D imaging impact of the nickel aluminide alloy mask absorbers, which predict significant M3D reduction in comparison to reference absorber materials. In this paper, we present an extensive experimental methodology flow to evaluate candidate mask absorber materials.

  17. Overlay improvement by exposure map based mask registration optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Irene; Guo, Eric; Chen, Ming; Lu, Max; Li, Gordon; Li, Rivan; Tian, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Along with the increased miniaturization of semiconductor electronic devices, the design rules of advanced semiconductor devices shrink dramatically. [1] One of the main challenges of lithography step is the layer-to-layer overlay control. Furthermore, DPT (Double Patterning Technology) has been adapted for the advanced technology node like 28nm and 14nm, corresponding overlay budget becomes even tighter. [2][3] After the in-die mask registration (pattern placement) measurement is introduced, with the model analysis of a KLA SOV (sources of variation) tool, it's observed that registration difference between masks is a significant error source of wafer layer-to-layer overlay at 28nm process. [4][5] Mask registration optimization would highly improve wafer overlay performance accordingly. It was reported that a laser based registration control (RegC) process could be applied after the pattern generation or after pellicle mounting and allowed fine tuning of the mask registration. [6] In this paper we propose a novel method of mask registration correction, which can be applied before mask writing based on mask exposure map, considering the factors of mask chip layout, writing sequence, and pattern density distribution. Our experiment data show if pattern density on the mask keeps at a low level, in-die mask registration residue error in 3sigma could be always under 5nm whatever blank type and related writer POSCOR (position correction) file was applied; it proves random error induced by material or equipment would occupy relatively fixed error budget as an error source of mask registration. On the real production, comparing the mask registration difference through critical production layers, it could be revealed that registration residue error of line space layers with higher pattern density is always much larger than the one of contact hole layers with lower pattern density. Additionally, the mask registration difference between layers with similar pattern density

  18. Mask industry quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strott, Al; Bassist, Larry

    1994-12-01

    Product quality and timely delivery are two of the most important parameters in determining the success of a mask manufacturing facility. Because of the sensitivity of this data, very little was known about industry performance in these areas until an assessment was authored and presented at the 1993 BACUS Symposium by Larry Regis of Intel Corporation, Neil Paulsen of Intel Corporation, and James A. Reynolds of Reynolds Consulting. This data has been updated and will be published and presented at this year's BACUS Symposium. Contributor identities will again remain protected by utilizing Arthur Andersen & Company to compile the submittals. Participation was consistent with last year's representation of over 75% of the total merchant and captive mask volume in the United States. The data compiled includes shipments, customer return rate, customer return reasons from 1988 through Q2, 1994, performance to schedule, plate survival yield, and throughput time (TPT).

  19. Mask strategy at International SEMATECH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2002-08-01

    International SEMATECH (ISMT) is a consortium consisting of 13 leading semiconductor manufacturers from around the globe. Its objective is to develop the infrastructure necessary for its member companies to realize the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) through efficiencies of shared development resources and knowledge. The largest area of effort is lithography, recognized as a crucial enabler for microelectronics technology progress. Within the Lithography Division, most of the efforts center on mask-related issues. The development strategy at International SEMATCH will be presented and the interlock of lithography projects clarified. Because of the limited size of the mask production equipment market, the business case is weak for aggressive investment commensurate with the pace of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. With masks becoming the overwhelming component of lithography cost, new ways of reducing or eliminating mask costs are being explored. Will mask technology survive without a strong business case? Will the mask industry limit the growth of the semiconductor industry? Are advanced masks worth their escalating cost? An analysis of mask cost from the perspective of mask value imparted to the user is presented with examples and generic formulas for the reader to apply independently. A key part to the success for both International SEMATECH and the industry globally will be partnerships on both the local level between mask-maker and mask-user, and the macro level where global collaborations will be necessary to resolve technology development cost challenges.

  20. Use of face masks by non-scrubbed operating room staff: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Croger, Sarah; Lister, Carolyn; Doidge, Michelle; Terry, Michael J; Jones, Ian

    2010-03-01

    Ambiguity remains about the effectiveness of wearing surgical face masks. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact on surgical site infections (SSIs) when non-scrubbed operating room staff did not wear surgical face masks. Eight hundred twenty-seven participants undergoing elective or emergency obstetric, gynecological, general, orthopaedic, breast or urological surgery in an Australian tertiary hospital were enrolled. Complete follow-up data were available for 811 patients (98.1%). Operating room lists were randomly allocated to a 'Mask group' (all non-scrubbed staff wore a mask) or 'No Mask group' (none of the non-scrubbed staff wore masks). The primary end point, SSI was identified using in-patient surveillance; post discharge follow-up and chart reviews. The patient was followed for up to six weeks. Overall, 83 (10.2%) surgical site infections were recorded; 46/401 (11.5%) in the Masked group and 37/410 (9.0%) in the No Mask group; odds ratio (OR) 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 1.21), p = 0.151. Independent risk factors for surgical site infection included: any pre-operative stay (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.43 (95% CI, 0.20; 0.95), high BMI aOR, 0.38 (95% CI, 0.17; 0.87), and any previous surgical site infection aOR, 0.40 (95% CI, 0.17; 0.89). Surgical site infection rates did not increase when non-scrubbed operating room personnel did not wear a face mask.

  1. Surgically Induced Interpregnancy Weight Loss and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willmer, Mikaela; Berglind, Daniel; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2013-01-01

    According to the fetal overnutrition hypothesis, obesity in pregnancy predisposes the offspring to obesity. Previous studies have suggested that after biliopancreatic surgery for obesity, the offspring is less likely to be obese. This study aims to further compare the BMI development of children...... born before and after maternal surgical weight loss....

  2. Persistent sciatica induced by quadratus femoris muscle tear and treated by surgical decompression: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanakakis George

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Quadratus femoris tear is an uncommon injury, which is only rarely reported in the literature. In the majority of cases the correct diagnosis is delayed due to non-specific symptoms and signs. A magnetic resonance imaging scan is crucial in the differential diagnosis since injuries to contiguous soft tissues may present with similar symptoms. Presentation with sciatica is not reported in the few cases existing in the English literature and the reported treatment has always been conservative. Case presentation We report here on a case of quadratus femoris tear in a 22-year-old Greek woman who presented with persistent sciatica. She was unresponsive to conservative measures and so was treated with surgical decompression. Conclusion The correct diagnosis of quadratus muscle tear is a challenge for physicians. The treatment is usually conservative, but in cases of persistent sciatica surgical decompression is an alternative option.

  3. Blocking Surgically Induced Lysyl Oxidase Activity Reduces the Risk of Lung Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Rachman-Tzemah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgery remains the most successful curative treatment for cancer. However, some patients with early-stage disease who undergo surgery eventually succumb to distant metastasis. Here, we show that in response to surgery, the lungs become more vulnerable to metastasis due to extracellular matrix remodeling. Mice that undergo surgery or that are preconditioned with plasma from donor mice that underwent surgery succumb to lung metastases earlier than controls. Increased lysyl oxidase (LOX activity and expression, fibrillary collagen crosslinking, and focal adhesion signaling contribute to this effect, with the hypoxic surgical site serving as the source of LOX. Furthermore, the lungs of recipient mice injected with plasma from post-surgical colorectal cancer patients are more prone to metastatic seeding than mice injected with baseline plasma. Downregulation of LOX activity or levels reduces lung metastasis after surgery and increases survival, highlighting the potential of LOX inhibition in reducing the risk of metastasis following surgery.

  4. Mask fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Gregory F.

    2000-01-01

    A method for fabricating masks and reticles useful for projection lithography systems. An absorber layer is conventionally patterned using a pattern and etch process. Following the step of patterning, the entire surface of the remaining top patterning photoresist layer as well as that portion of an underlying protective photoresist layer where absorber material has been etched away is exposed to UV radiation. The UV-exposed regions of the protective photoresist layer and the top patterning photoresist layer are then removed by solution development, thereby eliminating the need for an oxygen plasma etch and strip and chances for damaging the surface of the substrate or coatings.

  5. X-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.C.; Satchell, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacture, where X-ray irradiation is used, a thin silicon membrane can be used as an X-ray mask. This membrane has areas on which are patterns to define the regions to be irradiated. These regions are of antireflection material. With the thin, in the order of 3 microns, membranes used, fragility is a problem. Hence a number of ribs of silicon are formed integral with the membrane, and which are relatively thick, 5 to 10 microns. The ribs may be formed by localised deeper boron deposition followed by a selective etch. (author)

  6. Mask alignment system for semiconductor processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Weaver, William T.; Grant, Christopher N.

    2017-02-14

    A mask alignment system for providing precise and repeatable alignment between ion implantation masks and workpieces. The system includes a mask frame having a plurality of ion implantation masks loosely connected thereto. The mask frame is provided with a plurality of frame alignment cavities, and each mask is provided with a plurality of mask alignment cavities. The system further includes a platen for holding workpieces. The platen may be provided with a plurality of mask alignment pins and frame alignment pins configured to engage the mask alignment cavities and frame alignment cavities, respectively. The mask frame can be lowered onto the platen, with the frame alignment cavities moving into registration with the frame alignment pins to provide rough alignment between the masks and workpieces. The mask alignment cavities are then moved into registration with the mask alignment pins, thereby shifting each individual mask into precise alignment with a respective workpiece.

  7. Migration from full-head mask to "open-face" mask for immobilization of patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Lovelock, D Michael; Mechalakos, James; Rao, Shyam; Della-Biancia, Cesar; Amols, Howard; Lee, Nancy

    2013-09-06

    To provide an alternative device for immobilization of the head while easing claustrophobia and improving comfort, an "open-face" thermoplastic mask was evaluated using video-based optical surface imaging (OSI) and kilovoltage (kV) X-ray radiography. A three-point thermoplastic head mask with a precut opening and reinforced strips was developed. After molding, it provided sufficient visible facial area as the region of interest for OSI. Using real-time OSI, the head motion of ten volunteers in the new mask was evaluated during mask locking and 15minutes lying on the treatment couch. Using a nose mark with reference to room lasers, forced head movement in open-face and full-head masks (with a nose hole) was compared. Five patients with claustrophobia were immobilized with open-face masks, set up using OSI and kV, and treated in 121 fractions, in which 61 fractions were monitored during treatment using real-time OSI. With the open-face mask, head motion was found to be 1.0 ± 0.6 mm and 0.4° ± 0.2° in volunteers during the experiment, and 0.8 ± 0.3 mm and 0.4° ± 0.2° in patients during treatment. These agree with patient motion calculated from pre-/post-treatment OSI and kV data using different anatomical landmarks. In volunteers, the head shift induced by mask-locking was 2.3 ± 1.7 mm and 1.8° ± 0.6°, and the range of forced movements in the open-face and full-head masks were found to be similar. Most (80%) of the volunteers preferred the open-face mask to the full-head mask, while claustrophobic patients could only tolerate the open-face mask. The open-face mask is characterized for its immobilization capability and can immobilize patients sufficiently (< 2 mm) during radiotherapy. It provides a clinical solution to the immobilization of patients with head and neck (HN) cancer undergoing radiotherapy, and is particularly beneficial for claustrophobic patients. This new open-face mask is readily adopted in radiotherapy clinic as a superior alternative to

  8. Universal Mask Usage for Reduction of Respiratory Viral Infections After Stem Cell Transplant: A Prospective Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Anthony D; Sung, Julia A M; Thomas, Samantha; Hyslop, Terry; Gasparetto, Cristina; Long, Gwynn; Rizzieri, David; Sullivan, Keith M; Corbet, Kelly; Broadwater, Gloria; Chao, Nelson J; Horwitz, Mitchell E

    2016-10-15

    Respiratory viral infections (RVIs) are frequent complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Surgical masks are a simple and inexpensive intervention that may reduce nosocomial spread. In this prospective single-center study, we instituted a universal surgical mask policy requiring all individuals with direct contact with HSCT patients to wear a surgical mask, regardless of symptoms or season. The primary endpoint was the incidence of RVIs in the mask period (2010-2014) compared with the premask period (2003-2009). RVIs decreased from 10.3% (95/920 patients) in the premask period to 4.4% (40/911) in the mask period (P mask group compared with the premask group (0.19-0.85, P = .02). In contrast, no decrease was observed during this same period in an adjacent hematologic malignancy unit, which followed the same infection control practices except for the mask policy. The majority of this decrease was in parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) (8.3% to 2.2%, P mask is associated with a reduction in RVIs, particularly PIV3, during the most vulnerable period following HSCT. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The implementation of Mask-Ed: reflections of academic participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid-Searl, Kerry; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Cooper, Simon; Happell, Brenda

    2014-09-01

    This paper profiles the findings from a study that explored the perspectives and experiences of nurse educators who implemented a novel simulation approach termed Mask-Ed. The technique involves the educator wearing a silicone mask and or body parts and transforming into a character. The premise of this approach is that the masked educator has domain specific knowledge related to the simulation scenario and can transmit this to learners in a way that is engaging, realistic, spontaneous and humanistic. Nurse educators charged with the responsibility of implementing Mask-Ed in three universities were invited to participate in the study by attending an introductory workshop, implementing the technique and then journaling their experiences, insights and perspectives over a 12 month period. The journal entries were then thematically analysed. Key themes were categorised under the headings of Preparation, Implementation and Impact; Reflexivity and Responsiveness; Student Engagement and Ownership; and Teaching and Learning. Mask-Ed is a simulation approach which allows students to interact with the 'characters' in humanistic ways that promote person-centred care and therapeutic communication. This simulation approach holds previously untapped potential for a range of learning experiences, however, to be effective, adequate resourcing, training, preparation and practice is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. SEMATECH EUVL mask program status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Henry; Goodwin, Frank; Huh, Sungmin; Orvek, Kevin; Cha, Brian; Rastegar, Abbas; Kearney, Patrick

    2009-04-01

    As we approach the 22nm half-pitch (hp) technology node, the industry is rapidly running out of patterning options. Of the several lithography techniques highlighted in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the leading contender for the 22nm hp insertion is extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). Despite recent advances with EUV resist and improvements in source power, achieving defect free EUV mask blank and enabling the EUV mask infrastructure still remain critical issues. To meet the desired EUV high volume manufacturing (HVM) insertion target date of 2013, these obstacles must be resolved on a timely bases. Many of the EUV mask related challenges remain in the pre-competitive stage and a collaborative industry based consortia, such as SEMATECH can play an important role to enable the EUVL landscape. SEMATECH based in Albany, NY is an international consortium representing several of the largest manufacturers in the semiconductor market. Full members include Intel, Samsung, AMD, IBM, Panasonic, HP, TI, UMC, CNSE (College of Nanoscience and Engineering), and Fuller Road Management. Within the SEMATECH lithography division a major thrust is centered on enabling the EUVL ecosystem from mask development, EUV resist development and addressing EUV manufacturability concerns. An important area of focus for the SEMATECH mask program has been the Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC). At the MBDC key issues in EUV blank development such as defect reduction and inspection capabilities are actively pursued together with research partners, key suppliers and member companies. In addition the mask program continues a successful track record of working with the mask community to manage and fund critical mask tools programs. This paper will highlight recent status of mask projects and longer term strategic direction at the MBDC. It is important that mask technology be ready to support pilot line development HVM by 2013. In several areas progress has been

  11. Fumonisins B, A and C profile and masking in Fusarium verticillioides strains on fumonisin-inducing and maize-based media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Irene; Falavigna, Claudia; Dall'asta, Chiara; Proctor, Robert H; Galaverna, Gianni; Battilani, Paola

    2012-10-01

    The production of fumonisin B, A and C and hidden and partially hydrolysed fumonisin occurrence was investigated in 3 strains of Fusarium verticillioides isolated from maize, cultured for 21-45days on malt extract medium at 25°C and 0.955-0.990 water activity (a(w)). Fumonisin A-B and C series were produced by all the strains in all conditions studied, with B-fumonisin≫C-fumonisin>A-fumonisin following a similar trend. The dynamic of fumonisin production was significantly influenced by factors considered and their interaction, with a(w)=0.990 as favourable condition in ITEM 10026 and ITEM 10027. All fumonisins were maximised at 30days incubation in ITEM 10027 and ITEM 1744 and at 45days incubation in ITEM 10026. Partially hydrolysed fumonisins were detected only for the B-group. Hidden fumonisins were never observed in Fusarium cultures grown on malt extract medium but were detected in the additional trial on maize-based medium, suggesting that the masking phenomenon can occur only in a complex matrix. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Management of cannabis-induced periodontitis via resective surgical therapy: A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Kang, Philip

    2017-03-01

    There is a lack of clinical research on the potential effect of cannabis use on the periodontium as well as its effect on treatment outcomes. The aim of this case report is to illustrate the clinical presentation of periodontal disease in a young woman who was a chronic cannabis user, as well as successful treatment involving motivating the patient to quit cannabis use and undergo nonsurgical and surgical therapy. A 23-year-old woman sought care at the dental clinic for periodontal treatment. During a review of her medical history, the patient reported using cannabis frequently during a 3-year period, which coincided with the occurrence of gingival inflammation. She used cannabis in the form of cigarettes that were placed at the mandibular anterior region of her mouth for prolonged periods. Localized prominent papillary and marginal gingival enlargement of the anterior mandible were present. The mandibular anterior teeth showed localized severe chronic periodontitis. The clinicians informed the patient about the potentially detrimental consequences of continued cannabis use; she was encouraged to quit, which she did. The clinicians performed nonsurgical therapy (scaling and root planing) and osseous surgery. The treatment outcome was evaluated over 6 months; improved radiographic and clinical results were observed throughout the follow-up period. Substantial availability and usage of cannabis, specifically among young adults, requires dentists to be vigilant about clinical indications of cannabis use and to provide appropriate treatments. Behavioral modification, nonsurgical therapy, and surgical therapy offer the potential for successful management of cannabis-related periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effective EUVL mask cleaning technology solutions for mask manufacturing and in-fab mask maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Uwe; Dress, Peter; Waehler, Tobias; Singh, Sherjang; Jonckheere, Rik; Baudemprez, Bart

    2011-03-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is considered the leading lithography technology choice for semiconductor devices at 16nm HP node and beyond. However, before EUV Lithography can enter into High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) of advanced semiconductor devices, the ability to guarantee mask integrity at point-of-exposure must be established. Highly efficient, damage free mask cleaning plays a critical role during the mask manufacturing cycle and throughout the life of the mask, where the absence of a pellicle to protect the EUV mask increases the risk of contamination during storage, handling and use. In this paper, we will present effective EUVL mask cleaning technology solutions for mask manufacturing and in-fab mask maintenance, which employs an intelligent, holistic approach to maximize Mean Time Between Cleans (MBTC) and extend the useful life span of the reticle. The data presented will demonstrate the protection of the capping and absorber layers, preservation of pattern integrity as well as optical and mechanical properties to avoid unpredictable CD-linewidth and overlay shifts. Experiments were performed on EUV blanks and pattern masks using various process conditions. Conditions showing high particle removal efficiency (PRE) and minimum surface layer impact were then selected for durability studies. Surface layer impact was evaluated over multiple cleaning cycles by means of UV reflectivity metrology XPS analysis and wafer prints. Experimental results were compared to computational models. Mask life time predictions where made using the same computational models. The paper will provide a generic overview of the cleaning sequence which yielded best results, but will also provide recommendations for an efficient in-fab mask maintenance scheme, addressing handling, storage, cleaning and inspection.

  14. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  15. Surgically induced astigmatism after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal clear corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hwan Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the corneal refractive changes induced after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: This prospective study comprised a consecutive case series of 60 eyes from 30 patients with bilateral phacoemulsification that were implanted with a 6.0 mm foldable intraocular lens through a 3.0 mm horizontal clear corneal incision (temporal in the right eyes, nasal in the left eyes. The outcome measures were surgically induced astigmatism (SIA and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA 1 and 3 months, post-operatively. Results: At 1 month, the mean SIA was 0.81 diopter (D for the temporal incisions and 0.92 D for nasal incisions (P = 0.139. At 3 months, the mean SIA were 0.53 D for temporal incisions and 0.62 D for nasal incisions (P = 0.309. The UCVA was similar in the 2 incision groups before surgery, and at 1 and 3 months post-operatively. Conclusion: After bilateral cataract surgery using 3.0 mm temporal and nasal horizontal corneal incisions, the induced corneal astigmatic change was similar in both incision groups. Especially in Asian eyes, both temporal and nasal incisions (3.0 mm or less would be favorable for astigmatism-neutral cataract surgery.

  16. EUV mask manufacturing readiness in the merchant mask industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael; Choi, Yohan; Ham, Young; Kamberian, Henry; Progler, Chris; Tseng, Shih-En; Chiou, Tsann-Bim; Miyazaki, Junji; Lammers, Ad; Chen, Alek

    2017-10-01

    As nodes progress into the 7nm and below regime, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) becomes critical for all industry participants interested in remaining at the leading edge. One key cost driver for EUV in the supply chain is the reflective EUV mask. As of today, the relatively few end users of EUV consist primarily of integrated device manufactures (IDMs) and foundries that have internal (captive) mask manufacturing capability. At the same time, strong and early participation in EUV by the merchant mask industry should bring value to these chip makers, aiding the wide-scale adoption of EUV in the future. For this, merchants need access to high quality, representative test vehicles to develop and validate their own processes. This business circumstance provides the motivation for merchants to form Joint Development Partnerships (JDPs) with IDMs, foundries, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and other members of the EUV supplier ecosystem that leverage complementary strengths. In this paper, we will show how, through a collaborative supplier JDP model between a merchant and OEM, a novel, test chip driven strategy is applied to guide and validate mask level process development. We demonstrate how an EUV test vehicle (TV) is generated for mask process characterization in advance of receiving chip maker-specific designs. We utilize the TV to carry out mask process "stress testing" to define process boundary conditions which can be used to create Mask Rule Check (MRC) rules as well as serve as baseline conditions for future process improvement. We utilize Advanced Mask Characterization (AMC) techniques to understand process capability on designs of varying complexity that include EUV OPC models with and without sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs). Through these collaborations, we demonstrate ways to develop EUV processes and reduce implementation risks for eventual mass production. By reducing these risks, we hope to expand access to EUV mask capability for

  17. Surgical Assisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... instruction, including: Microbiology Pathophysiology Pharmacology Anatomy and physiology Medical terminology Curriculum . Course content includes: Advanced surgical anatomy Surgical microbiology Surgical pharmacology Anesthesia methods and agents Bioscience Ethical ...

  18. Assessment of a respiratory face mask for capturing air pollutants and pathogens including human influenza and rhinoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S Steve; Lukula, Salimatu; Chiossone, Cory; Nims, Raymond W; Suchmann, Donna B; Ijaz, M Khalid

    2018-03-01

    Prevention of infection with airborne pathogens and exposure to airborne particulates and aerosols (environmental pollutants and allergens) can be facilitated through use of disposable face masks. The effectiveness of such masks for excluding pathogens and pollutants is dependent on the intrinsic ability of the masks to resist penetration by airborne contaminants. This study evaluated the relative contributions of a mask, valve, and Micro Ventilator on aerosol filtration efficiency of a new N95 respiratory face mask. The test mask was challenged, using standardized methods, with influenza A and rhinovirus type 14, bacteriophage ΦΧ174, Staphylococcus aureus ( S . aureus ), and model pollutants. The statistical significance of results obtained for different challenge microbial agents and for different mask configurations (masks with operational or nonoperational ventilation fans and masks with sealed Smart Valves) was assessed. The results demonstrate >99.7% efficiency of each test mask configuration for exclusion of influenza A virus, rhinovirus 14, and S . aureus and >99.3% efficiency for paraffin oil and sodium chloride (surrogates for PM 2.5 ). Statistically significant differences in effectiveness of the different mask configurations were not identified. The efficiencies of the masks for excluding smaller-size (i.e., rhinovirus and bacteriophage ΦΧ174) vs. larger-size microbial agents (influenza virus, S . aureus ) were not significantly different. The masks, with or without features intended for enhancing comfort, provide protection against both small- and large-size pathogens. Importantly, the mask appears to be highly efficient for filtration of pathogens, including influenza and rhinoviruses, as well as the fine particulates (PM 2.5 ) present in aerosols that represent a greater challenge for many types of dental and surgical masks. This renders this individual-use N95 respiratory mask an improvement over the former types of masks for protection against

  19. [Respiratory distress in three newborns after mask disinfection with Endosporine. Probable role of glutaraldehyde].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, F; Bubnic, A; Valancogne, A; Assaf, G; Vray, C; Cottin, X; Bourgeois, J; Descotes, J

    2000-05-01

    Disinfectants for medical devices are uncommonly a cause of iatrogenic adverse effects. Nevertheless, when misused, they can induce severe complications. Three cases of acute respiratory distress in newborns probably induced by glutaraldehyde are reported. Three children born by Caesarean section between 8 and 19 May 1999 in the same hospital presented acute respiratory distress requiring hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit; one child was premature. The clinical appearance, which was initially normal, deteriorated with a respiratory distress in 30 to 60 minutes. Recovery was uneventful in all cases. The diagnosis considered was a hyaline membrane disease. The enquiry conducted after this cluster onset identified, as a main contributing factor, the disinfection procedure recently introduced in the surgical theater. Review of toxicologic data on glutaraldehyde shows this is a highly irritating chemical for the respiratory tract, even at low concentrations. Clinical and radiologic features in these three neonates are compatible with a pulmonary sub-edema on an immature alveolar setting. The hypothesis proposed is that glutaraldehyde, the active ingredient of the biocidal formula used to disinfect the respiratory masks, was massively desorbed from the rubber and foam of which masks are made.

  20. Variation of perimplant biofilm induced by non surgical periodontal therapy and the use of probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Gatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to improved surgical tecniques the use of dental implants has increased greatly. However, high rates of osseointegrated correctly implants, over the years are undermined by disease of bacterial etiology in the perimplant zone, especially by Gram negative anaerobes such as in gingivitis and periodontitis, in particular: Fusobacterium spp.(F., Treponema denticola (T.d., Tannerella forsythensis (T.f., Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a., Prevotella intermedia (P.i. e Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.. The mechanic treatment (MS results in a reduction of the total bacterial count (TBC and a slight change in the subgingival bacterial microflora towards the less pathogenic species and more like those of a healthy periodontium.Also the use of a probiotic in the form of buccal tablets of Lactobacillus reuteri (L.r., as demonstrated in this study, is thought to improve and modulate the composition of plaque, as it is able to exert an inhibitory effect on oral bacteria that support caries, gingivitis, periodontal and perimplant disease with a combination of different mechanisms.

  1. Surgical trauma induces overgrowth in lower limb gigantism: regulation with use of rapamycin is promising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rohan Sebastian; Harrison, William David; Graham, Kenneth; Nayagam, Durai

    2018-01-04

    We describe an unclassified overgrowth syndrome characterised by unregulated growth of dermal fibroblasts in the lower limbs of a 35-year-old woman. A PIK3CA gene mutation resulted in lower limb gigantism. Below the waist, she weighed 117 kg with each leg measuring over 100 cm in circumference. Her total adiposity was 50% accounted for by her legs mainly. Liposuction and surgical debulking were performed to reduce the size of the limbs but had exacerbated the overgrowth in her lower limbs. Systemic sepsis from an infected foot ulcer necessitated treatment by an above-knee amputation. Postoperatively, the stump increased in size by 19 kg. A trial of rapamycin to reverse the growth of the stump has shown promise. We discuss the clinical and genetic features of this previously unclassified disorder and the orthopaedic considerations involved. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, G; Goldsmith, J; Kearney, P A; Larson, C; Moore, C E; Prisbrey, S; Tong, W; Vernon, S P; Weber, F; Yan, P-Y.

    1998-01-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the technology specific requirements on the mask are a direct consequence of the utilization of radiation in the spectral region between 10 and 15 nm. At these wavelengths, all condensed materials are highly absorbing and efficient radiation transport mandates the use of all-reflective optical systems. Reflectivity is achieved with resonant, wavelength-matched multilayer (ML) coatings on all of the optical surfaces - including the mask. The EUV mask has a unique architecture - it consists of a substrate with a highly reflective ML coating (the mask blank) that is subsequently over-coated with a patterned absorber layer (the mask). Particulate contamination on the EUVL mask surface, errors in absorber definition and defects in the ML coating all have the potential to print in the lithographic process. While highly developed technologies exist for repair of the absorber layer, no viable strategy for the repair of ML coating defects has been identified. In this paper the state-of-the-art in ML deposition technology, optical inspection of EUVL mask blank defects and candidate absorber patterning approaches are reviewed

  3. Thermal stress analysis of the SLAC moveable mask. Addendum 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray beams emerging from the new SLAC electron-positron storage ring (PEP) can impinge on the walls of tangential divertor channels. A moveable mask made of 6061-T6 aluminum is installed in the channel to limit wall heating. The mask is cooled with water flowing axially at 30 0 C. Beam strikes on the mask cause highly localized heating in the channel structure. Analyses were completed to determine the temperatures and thermally-induced stresses due to this heating. The current design and operating conditions should result in the entrance to the moveable mask operating at a peak temperature of 88 0 C with a peak thermal stress at 19% of the yield of 6061-T6 aluminum

  4. Face Masks and Cough Etiquette Reduce the Cough Aerosol Concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in People with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michelle E; Stockwell, Rebecca E; Johnson, Graham R; Ramsay, Kay A; Sherrard, Laura J; Jabbour, Nassib; Ballard, Emma; O'Rourke, Peter; Kidd, Timothy J; Wainwright, Claire E; Knibbs, Luke D; Sly, Peter D; Morawska, Lidia; Bell, Scott C

    2018-02-01

    People with cystic fibrosis (CF) generate Pseudomonas aeruginosa in droplet nuclei during coughing. The use of surgical masks has been recommended in healthcare settings to minimize pathogen transmission between patients with CF. To determine if face masks and cough etiquette reduce viable P. aeruginosa aerosolized during coughing. Twenty-five adults with CF and chronic P. aeruginosa infection were recruited. Participants performed six talking and coughing maneuvers, with or without face masks (surgical and N95) and hand covering the mouth when coughing (cough etiquette) in an aerosol-sampling device. An Andersen Cascade Impactor was used to sample the aerosol at 2 meters from each participant. Quantitative sputum and aerosol bacterial cultures were performed, and participants rated the mask comfort levels during the cough maneuvers. During uncovered coughing (reference maneuver), 19 of 25 (76%) participants produced aerosols containing P. aeruginosa, with a positive correlation found between sputum P. aeruginosa concentration (measured as cfu/ml) and aerosol P. aeruginosa colony-forming units. There was a reduction in aerosol P. aeruginosa load during coughing with a surgical mask, coughing with an N95 mask, and cough etiquette compared with uncovered coughing (P masks during coughing; yet, participants rated the surgical masks as more comfortable (P = 0.013). Cough etiquette provided approximately half the reduction of viable aerosols of the mask interventions during voluntary coughing. Talking was a low viable aerosol-producing activity. Face masks reduce cough-generated P. aeruginosa aerosols, with the surgical mask providing enhanced comfort. Cough etiquette was less effective at reducing viable aerosols.

  5. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  6. Masking responses to light in period mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Julie S; Yamazaki, Shin

    2011-10-01

    Masking is an acute effect of an external signal on an overt rhythm and is distinct from the process of entrainment. In the current study, we investigated the phase dependence and molecular mechanisms regulating masking effects of light pulses on spontaneous locomotor activity in mice. The circadian genes, Period1 (Per1) and Per2, are necessary components of the timekeeping machinery and entrainment by light appears to involve the induction of the expression of Per1 and Per2 mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). We assessed the roles of the Per genes in regulating masking by assessing the effects of light pulses on nocturnal locomotor activity in C57BL/6J Per mutant mice. We found that Per1(-/-) and Per2(-/-) mice had robust negative masking responses to light. In addition, the locomotor activity of Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice appeared to be rhythmic in the light-dark (LD) cycle, and the phase of activity onset was advanced (but varied among individual mice) relative to lights off. This rhythm persisted for 1 to 2 days in constant darkness in some Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice. Furthermore, Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice exhibited robust negative masking responses to light. Negative masking was phase dependent in wild-type mice such that maximal suppression was induced by light pulses at zeitgeber time 14 (ZT14) and gradually weaker suppression occurred during light pulses at ZT16 and ZT18. By measuring the phase shifts induced by the masking protocol (light pulses were administered to mice maintained in the LD cycle), we found that the phase responsiveness of Per mutant mice was altered compared to wild-types. Together, our data suggest that negative masking responses to light are robust in Per mutant mice and that the Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) SCN may be a light-driven, weak/damping oscillator.

  7. Mechanical alignment of substrates to a mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Honan, Michael; Amato, Luigi G.; Grant, Christopher Neil; Strassner, James D.

    2016-11-08

    A plurality of masks is attached to the underside of a mask frame. This attachment is made such that each mask can independently move relative to the mask frame in three directions. This relative movement allows each mask to adjust its position to align with respective alignment pins disposed on a working surface. In one embodiment, each mask is attached to the mask frame using fasteners, where the fasteners have a shaft with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the mounting hole disposed on the mask. A bias element may be used to allow relative movement between the mask and the mask frame in the vertical direction. Each mask may also have kinematic features to mate with the respective alignment pins on the working surface.

  8. Co-micronized palmitoylethanolamide/polydatin treatment causes endometriotic lesion regression in a rodent model of surgically-induced endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Di Paola

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a chronic, painful disease characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, an endogenous fatty acid amide, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. PEA lacks free radical scavenging activity, unlike polydatin (PLD, a natural precursor of resveratrol. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of orally administered co-micronized PEA/polydatin (m(PEA/PLD in an autologous rat model of surgically-induced endometriosis. Endometriosis was induced in female Wistar albino rats by auto-transplantation of uterine squares (implants into the intestinal mesentery and peritoneal cavity. Rats were distributed into one control group and one treatment group (10 animals each: m(PEA/PLD 10 mg/kg/day. At 28 days after surgery the relative volume of the endometrioma was determined. Endometrial-like tissue was confirmed by histology: Masson trichrome and toluidine blue were used to detect fibrosis and mast cells, respectively. The treated group displayed a smaller cyst diameter, with improved fibrosis score and mast cell number decrease. m(PEA/PLD administration decreased angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor, nerve growth factor, intercellular adhesion molecule, matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression and lymphocyte accumulation. m(PEA/PLD treatment also reduced peroxynitrite formation, (poly-ADPribose polymerase activation, IkBα phosphorylation and nuclear facor-kB traslocation in the nucleus. Our results suggested that m(PEA/PLD may be of use to inhibit development of endometriotic lesions in rats.

  9. Influence of mask type and mask position on the effectiveness of bag-mask ventilation in a neonatal manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deindl, Philipp; O'Reilly, Megan; Zoller, Katharina; Berger, Angelika; Pollak, Arnold; Schwindt, Jens; Schmölzer, Georg M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical face mask with an air cushion rim might be placed accidentally in a false orientation on the newborn's face or filled with various amounts of air during neonatal resuscitation. Both false orientation as well as variable filling may reduce a tight seal and therefore hamper effective positive pressure ventilation (PPV). We aimed to measure the influence of mask type and mask position on the effectiveness of PPV. Twenty neonatal staff members delivered PPV to a modified, leak-free manikin. Resuscitation parameters were recorded using a self-inflatable bag PPV with an Intersurgical anatomical air cushion rim face mask (IS) and a size 0/1 Laerdal round face mask. Three different positions of the IS were tested: correct position, 90° and 180° rotation in reference to the midline of the face. IS masks in each correct position on the face but with different inflation of the air cushion (empty, 10, 20 and 30 mL). Mask leak was similar with mask rotation to either 90° or 180° but significantly increased from 27 (13-73) % with an adequate filled IS mask compared to 52 (16-83) % with an emptied air cushion rim. Anatomical-shaped face mask had similar mask leaks compared to round face mask. A wrongly positioned anatomical-shaped mask does not influence mask leak. Mask leak significantly increased once the air cushion rim was empty, which may cause failure in mask PPV.

  10. Image differencing using masked CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrooke, J.G.; Ansorge, R.E.; Webber, C.J. St. J.

    1987-01-01

    A charge coupled device has some of its ''pixels'' masked by a material which is opaque to the radiation to which the device is to be exposed, each masked region being employed as a storage zone into which the charge pattern from the unmasked pixels can be transferred to enable a subsequent charge pattern to be established on further exposure of the unmasked pixels. The components of the resulting video signal corresponding to the respective charge patterns read-out from the CCD are subtracted to produce a video signal corresponding to the difference between the two images which formed the respective charge patterns. Alternate rows of pixels may be masked, or chequer-board pattern masking may be employed. In an X-ray imaging system the CCD is coupled to image intensifying and converting means. (author)

  11. Vibrotactile masking through the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2014-09-01

    Touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at contralateral locations on the opposite side of the body. These interactions suggest an intimate connection between the two sides of the body. Here, we explore the effect of masking not across the body but through the body by measuring the effect of a masking stimulus on the back on the tactile sensitivity of the corresponding point on the front. Tactile sensitivity was measured on each side of the stomach, while vibrotactile masking stimulation was applied to one side of the front and to points on the back including the point directly behind the test point on the front. Results were compared to sensitivity, while vibrotactile stimulation was applied to a control site on the shoulder. A reduction in sensitivity of about .8 dB was found that required the masking stimulus to be within about 2 cm of the corresponding point on the back.

  12. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-01-01

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during

  13. Rapid iconic erasure without masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijus, Charles Albert; Reeves, Adam

    2004-01-01

    We report on the erasure of the iconic memory of an array of 12 black letters flashed on a continuously- present white field. Erasure is accomplished by replacing the 16 ms letter array (frame 1) with a blank white frame for 16 ms (frame 2). The letter array returns in frame 3, with from one to six letters missing. Report of the missing letters is accurate without the blank white frame but is impoverished with it, as if interposing the blank erases the icon. Erasure occurs without any obvious luminance masking, 'mud splashes', pattern masking (backward, forward, or metacontrast), lateral masking, or masking by object substitution. Erasure is greatly decreased if the blank is presented one frame earlier or later. We speculate that erasure is due to a rapid reset of the icon produced by an informational mis-match.

  14. Propagation of resist heating mask error to wafer level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, S. V.; Karklin, Linard

    2006-10-01

    As technology is approaching 45 nm and below the IC industry is experiencing a severe product yield hit due to rapidly shrinking process windows and unavoidable manufacturing process variations. Current EDA tools are unable by their nature to deliver optimized and process-centered designs that call for 'post design' localized layout optimization DFM tools. To evaluate the impact of different manufacturing process variations on final product it is important to trace and evaluate all errors through design to manufacturing flow. Photo mask is one of the critical parts of this flow, and special attention should be paid to photo mask manufacturing process and especially to mask tight CD control. Electron beam lithography (EBL) is a major technique which is used for fabrication of high-end photo masks. During the writing process, resist heating is one of the sources for mask CD variations. Electron energy is released in the mask body mainly as heat, leading to significant temperature fluctuations in local areas. The temperature fluctuations cause changes in resist sensitivity, which in turn leads to CD variations. These CD variations depend on mask writing speed, order of exposure, pattern density and its distribution. Recent measurements revealed up to 45 nm CD variation on the mask when using ZEP resist. The resist heating problem with CAR resists is significantly smaller compared to other types of resists. This is partially due to higher resist sensitivity and the lower exposure dose required. However, there is no data yet showing CD errors on the wafer induced by CAR resist heating on the mask. This effect can be amplified by high MEEF values and should be carefully evaluated at 45nm and below technology nodes where tight CD control is required. In this paper, we simulated CD variation on the mask due to resist heating; then a mask pattern with the heating error was transferred onto the wafer. So, a CD error on the wafer was evaluated subject to only one term of the

  15. Breast tissue stiffness estimation for surgical guidance using gravity-induced excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesenauer, Rebekah H; Weis, Jared A; Arlinghaus, Lori R; Meszoely, Ingrid M; Miga, Michael I

    2017-06-21

    Tissue stiffness interrogation is fundamental in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, biomechanical models for predicting breast deformations have been created for several breast cancer applications. Within these applications, constitutive mechanical properties must be defined and the accuracy of this estimation directly impacts the overall performance of the model. In this study, we present an image-derived computational framework to obtain quantitative, patient specific stiffness properties for application in image-guided breast cancer surgery and interventions. The method uses two MR acquisitions of the breast in different supine gravity-loaded configurations to fit mechanical properties to a biomechanical breast model. A reproducibility assessment of the method was performed in a test-retest study using healthy volunteers and was further characterized in simulation. In five human data sets, the within subject coefficient of variation ranged from 10.7% to 27% and the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.91-0.944 for assessment of fibroglandular and adipose tissue stiffness. In simulation, fibroglandular content and deformation magnitude were shown to have significant effects on the shape and convexity of the objective function defined by image similarity. These observations provide an important step forward in characterizing the use of nonrigid image registration methodologies in conjunction with biomechanical models to estimate tissue stiffness. In addition, the results suggest that stiffness estimation methods using gravity-induced excitation can reliably and feasibly be implemented in breast cancer surgery/intervention workflows.

  16. Surgical therapy of radiation-induced lesions of the colon and rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miholic, J.; Schwarz, C.; Moeschl, P.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-six operations for late sequelae of radiotherapy were carried out in 31 patients from 1971 to 1986. The most frequent indications for surgery were stricture (58 percent) and fistula (29 percent). In the first 8 year period from 1971 through 1978, 13 of 14 operations were diversions (colostomy or by-pass). From 1979 through 1986, a more aggressive approach prevailed. Only 32 percent of the operations were diversions. This more aggressive strategy was accompanied by a decrease of the postoperative mortality rate from 21 percent through 1978 to 0 in the later period. The overall complication rate was 23 percent. Complications were relatively more frequent after two-layer sutured or stapled anastomoses and after resection or fistula closure without temporary colostomy. We conclude that in radiation-induced colonic and rectal lesions, diversion should be performed in patients with unproved cure of disease or tumor persistence. Resection and fistula closure can be carried out safely, and a temporary colostomy is strongly recommended

  17. Breast tissue stiffness estimation for surgical guidance using gravity-induced excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesenauer, Rebekah H.; Weis, Jared A.; Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Meszoely, Ingrid M.; Miga, Michael I.

    2017-06-01

    Tissue stiffness interrogation is fundamental in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, biomechanical models for predicting breast deformations have been created for several breast cancer applications. Within these applications, constitutive mechanical properties must be defined and the accuracy of this estimation directly impacts the overall performance of the model. In this study, we present an image-derived computational framework to obtain quantitative, patient specific stiffness properties for application in image-guided breast cancer surgery and interventions. The method uses two MR acquisitions of the breast in different supine gravity-loaded configurations to fit mechanical properties to a biomechanical breast model. A reproducibility assessment of the method was performed in a test-retest study using healthy volunteers and was further characterized in simulation. In five human data sets, the within subject coefficient of variation ranged from 10.7% to 27% and the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.91-0.944 for assessment of fibroglandular and adipose tissue stiffness. In simulation, fibroglandular content and deformation magnitude were shown to have significant effects on the shape and convexity of the objective function defined by image similarity. These observations provide an important step forward in characterizing the use of nonrigid image registration methodologies in conjunction with biomechanical models to estimate tissue stiffness. In addition, the results suggest that stiffness estimation methods using gravity-induced excitation can reliably and feasibly be implemented in breast cancer surgery/intervention workflows.

  18. Bubble masks for time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, Erik; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter; Nowack, Aaron B.; Steele, John T.; Sweany, Melinda; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2013-09-01

    Time-encoded imaging is an approach to directional radiation detection that is being developed at SNL with a focus on fast neutron directional detection. In this technique, a time modulation of a detected neutron signal is inducedtypically, a moving mask that attenuates neutrons with a time structure that depends on the source position. An important challenge in time-encoded imaging is to develop high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capabilities; building a mechanically moving high-resolution mask presents challenges both theoretical and technical. We have investigated an alternative to mechanical masks that replaces the solid mask with a liquid such as mineral oil. Instead of fixed blocks of solid material that move in pre-defined patterns, the oil is contained in tubing structures, and carefully introduced air gapsbubblespropagate through the tubing, generating moving patterns of oil mask elements and air apertures. Compared to current moving-mask techniques, the bubble mask is simple, since mechanical motion is replaced by gravity-driven bubble propagation; it is flexible, since arbitrary bubble patterns can be generated by a software-controlled valve actuator; and it is potentially high performance, since the tubing and bubble size can be tuned for high-resolution imaging requirements. We have built and tested various single-tube mask elements, and will present results on bubble introduction and propagation as a function of tubing size and cross-sectional shape; real-time bubble position tracking; neutron source imaging tests; and reconstruction techniques demonstrated on simple test data as well as a simulated full detector system.

  19. Hyperinsulinemia Promotes Esophageal Cancer Development in a Surgically-Induced Duodeno-Esophageal Reflux Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diletta Arcidiacono

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperinsulinemia could have a role in the growing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC and its pre-cancerous lesion, Barrett’s Esophagus, a possible consequence of Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease. Obesity is known to mediate esophageal carcinogenesis through different mechanisms including insulin-resistance leading to hyperinsulinemia, which may mediate cancer progression via the insulin/insulin-like growth factor axis. We used the hyperinsulinemic non-obese FVB/N (Friend leukemia virus B strain MKR (muscle (M-IGF1R-lysine (K-arginine (R mouse model to evaluate the exclusive role of hyperinsulinemia in the pathogenesis of EAC related to duodeno-esophageal reflux. FVB/N wild-type (WT and MKR mice underwent jejunum-esophageal anastomosis side—to end with the exclusion of the stomach. Thirty weeks after surgery, the esophagus was processed for histological, immunological and insulin/Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 signal transduction analyses. Most of the WT mice (63.1% developed dysplasia, whereas most of the MKR mice (74.3% developed squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinomas, both expressing Human Epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. Hyperinsulinemia significantly increased esophageal cancer incidence in the presence of duodenal-reflux. Insulin receptor (IR and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R were overexpressed in the hyperinsulinemic condition. IGF1R, through ERK1/2 mitogenic pattern activation, seems to be involved in cancer onset. Hyperinsulinemia-induced IGF1R and HER2 up-regulation could also increase the possibility of forming of IGF1R/HER2 heterodimers to support cell growth/proliferation/progression in esophageal carcinogenesis.

  20. Hyperinsulinemia Promotes Esophageal Cancer Development in a Surgically-Induced Duodeno-Esophageal Reflux Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcidiacono, Diletta; Dedja, Arben; Giacometti, Cinzia; Fassan, Matteo; Nucci, Daniele; Francia, Simona; Fabris, Federico; Zaramella, Alice; Gallagher, Emily J; Cassaro, Mauro; Rugge, Massimo; LeRoith, Derek; Alberti, Alfredo; Realdon, Stefano

    2018-04-14

    Hyperinsulinemia could have a role in the growing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its pre-cancerous lesion, Barrett's Esophagus, a possible consequence of Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease. Obesity is known to mediate esophageal carcinogenesis through different mechanisms including insulin-resistance leading to hyperinsulinemia, which may mediate cancer progression via the insulin/insulin-like growth factor axis. We used the hyperinsulinemic non-obese FVB/N (Friend leukemia virus B strain) MKR (muscle (M)-IGF1R-lysine (K)-arginine (R) mouse model to evaluate the exclusive role of hyperinsulinemia in the pathogenesis of EAC related to duodeno-esophageal reflux. FVB/N wild-type (WT) and MKR mice underwent jejunum-esophageal anastomosis side-to end with the exclusion of the stomach. Thirty weeks after surgery, the esophagus was processed for histological, immunological and insulin/Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signal transduction analyses. Most of the WT mice (63.1%) developed dysplasia, whereas most of the MKR mice (74.3%) developed squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinomas, both expressing Human Epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Hyperinsulinemia significantly increased esophageal cancer incidence in the presence of duodenal-reflux. Insulin receptor (IR) and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) were overexpressed in the hyperinsulinemic condition. IGF1R, through ERK1/2 mitogenic pattern activation, seems to be involved in cancer onset. Hyperinsulinemia-induced IGF1R and HER2 up-regulation could also increase the possibility of forming of IGF1R/HER2 heterodimers to support cell growth/proliferation/progression in esophageal carcinogenesis.

  1. A masking index for quantifying hidden glitches

    OpenAIRE

    Berti-Equille, Laure; Loh, J. M.; Dasu, T.

    2015-01-01

    Data glitches are errors in a dataset. They are complex entities that often span multiple attributes and records. When they co-occur in data, the presence of one type of glitch can hinder the detection of another type of glitch. This phenomenon is called masking. In this paper, we define two important types of masking and propose a novel, statistically rigorous indicator called masking index for quantifying the hidden glitches. We outline four cases of masking: outliers masked by missing valu...

  2. Treatment of surgical brain injury by immune tolerance induced by intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injection of brain antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weijian; Liu, Yong; Liu, Baolong; Tan, Huajun; Lu, Hao; Wang, Hong; Yan, Hua

    2016-08-24

    Surgical brain injury (SBI) defines complications induced by intracranial surgery, such as cerebral edema and other secondary injuries. In our study, intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injection of allogeneic myelin basic protein (MBP) or autogeneic brain cell suspensions were administered to a standard SBI model. Serum pro-inflammatory IL-2, anti-inflammatory IL-4 concentrations and the CD4(+)T/CD8(+)T ratio were measured at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after surgery to verify the establishment of immune tolerance. Furthermore, we confirmed neuroprotective effects by evaluating neurological scores at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after SBI. Anti-Fas ligand (FasL) immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays of brain sections were tested at 21 d after surgery. Intrathymic injections of MBP or autogeneic brain cell suspensions functioned by both suppressing secondary inflammatory reactions and improving prognoses, whereas hepatic portal vein injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions exerted a better effect than MBP. Intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injections of MBP had equal effects on reducing secondary inflammation and improving prognoses. Otherwise, hepatic portal vein injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions had better outcomes than intrathymic injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions. Moreover, the benefit of injecting antigens into the thymus was outweighed by hepatic portal vein injections.

  3. Surgically induced astigmatism after phacoemulsification with and without correction for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion: randomized controlled study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ian

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To report the impact of posture-related ocular cyclotorsion on one surgeon\\'s surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) results and the variance in SIA. SETTING: Institute of Eye Surgery, Whitfield Clinic, Waterford, Ireland. METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled study included eyes that had phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. Eyes were randomly assigned to have (intervention group) or not have (control group) correction for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion. In the intervention group, the clear corneal incision was placed precisely at the 120-degree meridian with instruments designed to correct posture-related ocular cyclotorsion. In the control group, the surgeon endeavored to place the incision at the 120-degree meridian, but without markings. RESULTS: The intervention group comprised 41 eyes and the control group, 61 eyes. The mean absolute SIA was 0.74 diopters (D) in the intervention group and 0.78 D in the control group; the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P>.5, unpaired 2-tailed Student t test). The variance in SIA was 0.29 D(2) and 0.31 D(2), respectively; the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P>.5, unpaired F test). CONCLUSIONS: Attempts to correct for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion did not influence SIA or its variance in a single-surgeon series. These results should be interpreted with full appreciation of the limitations of currently available techniques to correct for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion in the clinical setting.

  4. Hyaluronic Acid-Modified Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for MR Imaging of Surgically Induced Endometriosis Model in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Hu, Yong; Zhang, Guofu; Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine, which may affect nearly 60% of women in reproductive age. Deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) defined as an endometriotic lesion penetrating into the retroperitoneal space or the wall of the pelvic organs to a depth of at least 5 mm represents the most diagnostic challenge. Herein, we reported the use of hyaluronic acid (HA)-modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (HA-Fe3O4 NPs) for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of endometriotic lesions in the rodent model. Sixteen endometriotic lesions were surgically induced in eight rats by autologous transplantation. Four weeks after lesion induction, three rats were scanned via MR imaging after tail vein injection of the HA-Fe3O4 NPs. Accordingly, the remaining five mice were sacrificed in the corresponding time points. The ectopic uterine tissues (EUTs) were confirmed by histological analysis. Quantification of Fe in the EUT was also performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Our results showed that by using the HA-Fe3O4 NPs, the EUTs were able to be visualized via T2-weighted MR imaging at 2 hours post injection, corroborating the Prussian blue staining results. The developed HA-Fe3O4 NPs could be used as negative contrast agents for sensitively detecting endometriosis in a mouse model and may be applied for future hyperthermia treatment of endometriosis. PMID:24722347

  5. Hyaluronic acid-modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for MR imaging of surgically induced endometriosis model in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhang

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine, which may affect nearly 60% of women in reproductive age. Deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE defined as an endometriotic lesion penetrating into the retroperitoneal space or the wall of the pelvic organs to a depth of at least 5 mm represents the most diagnostic challenge. Herein, we reported the use of hyaluronic acid (HA-modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (HA-Fe3O4 NPs for magnetic resonance (MR imaging of endometriotic lesions in the rodent model. Sixteen endometriotic lesions were surgically induced in eight rats by autologous transplantation. Four weeks after lesion induction, three rats were scanned via MR imaging after tail vein injection of the HA-Fe3O4 NPs. Accordingly, the remaining five mice were sacrificed in the corresponding time points. The ectopic uterine tissues (EUTs were confirmed by histological analysis. Quantification of Fe in the EUT was also performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Our results showed that by using the HA-Fe3O4 NPs, the EUTs were able to be visualized via T2-weighted MR imaging at 2 hours post injection, corroborating the Prussian blue staining results. The developed HA-Fe3O4 NPs could be used as negative contrast agents for sensitively detecting endometriosis in a mouse model and may be applied for future hyperthermia treatment of endometriosis.

  6. Bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis after cardiac surgery: ventilatory assistance by nasal mask continuous positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, B; Zschocke, A; Barth, H; Leonhardt, A

    2001-01-01

    The case of an 8-month-old boy with bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis after surgical reoperation for congenital heart disease is presented. In order to avoid repeated intubation and long-term mechanical ventilation or tracheotomy, we used nasal mask continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as an alternative method for assisted ventilation. Within 24 hours the boy accepted the nasal mask and symptoms such as dyspnea and sweating disappeared. Respiratory movements became regular and oxygen saturation increased. Nasal mask CPAP may serve as an alternative treatment of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis in infants, thereby avoiding tracheotomy or long-term mechanical ventilation.

  7. Contralateral tactile masking between forearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2014-03-01

    Masking effects have been demonstrated in which tactile sensitivity is affected when one touch is close to another on the body surface. Such effects are likely a result of local lateral inhibitory circuits that sharpen the spatial tuning of a given tactile receptor. Mutually inhibitory pathways have also been demonstrated between cortical tactile maps of the two halves of the body. Occasional reports have indicated that touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at contralateral locations. Here, we measure the spatial tuning and effect of posture on this contralateral masking effect. Tactile sensitivity was measured on one forearm, while vibrotactile masking stimulation was applied to the opposite arm. Results were compared to sensitivity while vibrotactile stimulation was applied to a control site on the right shoulder. Sensitivity on the forearm was reduced by over 3 dB when the arms were touching and by 0.52 dB when they were held parallel. The masking effect depended on the position of the masking stimulus. Its effectiveness fell off by 1 STD when the stimulus was 29 % of arm length from the corresponding contralateral point. This long-range inhibitory effect in the tactile system suggests a surprisingly intimate relationship between the two sides of the body.

  8. Self-Rescue Mask Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Nine new self-rescue mask instructors have been trained since early 2013, which provides CERN with a total of 26 self-rescue mask instructors to date. This will allow us to meet the increasing training needs caused by the Long Shut Down LS1.   The self-rescue mask instructors have trained 1650 persons in 2012 and about 500 persons since the beginning of the year on how to wear the masks properly. We thank all the instructors and all the persons that made this training possible. Please remember that the self-rescue masks training sessions are scheduled as follows: Basic course: Tuesday and Thursday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration:  1.30 hour, in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue – Course code 077Y00. Refresher training : Monday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration: 1.30 hour , in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue &...

  9. 1995 mask industry quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Chris; Strott, Al

    1995-12-01

    The third annual mask industry assessment will again survey various industry companies for key performance measurements in the areas of quality and delivery. This year's assessment is enhanced to include the area of safety and further breakdown of the data into 5-inch vs. 6- inch. The data compiled includes shipments, customer return rate, customer return reason, performance to schedule, plate survival yield, and throughput time (TPT) from 1988 through Q2, 1995. Contributor identities remain protected by utilizing Arthur Andersen & Company to ensure participant confidentiality. Participation in the past included representation of over 75% of the total merchant and captive mask volume in the United States. This year's assessment is expected to result in expanded participation by again inviting all mask suppliers domestically to participate as well as an impact from inviting international suppliers to participate.

  10. Electrostatic mask for active targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancin, J; Gangnant, P; Libin, J-F; Raabe, R; Roger, T; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Gibelin, J; Goth, M

    2012-01-01

    Active gas targets have been used in nuclear physics since 30 years. They are promising systems in view of the new exotic beams soon available at facilities like SPIRAL2 or FAIR, but the system can still be improved. One of the main limitation is the dynamic range in energy deposition. The energy deposited per unit length can be 3 decades higher for the beam than for the light reaction products and the risk to saturate the electronics or that the detector spark are not negligible. A simple solution using a wire plane to mask partially the beam is presented here. Some simulation has been realized and some experimental results are shown confirming the feasibility of this wire tunable mask. The mask can be used from full transparency to full opacity without degrading neither the drift electric field of the chamber nor the performances of detection of the beam or the light products.

  11. Optimized logarithmic phase masks used to generate defocus invariant modulation transfer function for wavefront coding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Li, Yingcai

    2010-08-01

    In a previous Letter [Opt. Lett. 33, 1171 (2008)], we proposed an improved logarithmic phase mask by making modifications to the original one designed by Sherif. However, further studies in another paper [Appl. Opt. 49, 229 (2010)] show that even when the Sherif mask and the improved one are optimized, their corresponding defocused modulation transfer functions (MTFs) are still not stable with respect to focus errors. So, by further modifying their phase profiles, we design another two logarithmic phase masks that exhibit more stable defocused MTF. However, with the defocus-induced phase effect considered, we find that the performance of the two masks proposed in this Letter is better than the Sherif mask, but worse than our previously proposed phase mask, according to the Hilbert space angle.

  12. Surgical treatment and optical coherence tomographic evaluation for accidental laser-induced full-thickness macular holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Y; Wang, Y; You, Q; Tsai, F; Liu, W

    2017-07-01

    PurposeTo report OCT appearance and surgical outcomes of full-thickness macular holes (MHs) accidentally caused by laser devices.Patients and methodsThis retrospective case series included 11 eyes of 11 patients with laser-induced MHs treated by pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, and gas or silicone oil tamponade. Evaluations included a full ophthalmic examination, macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and fundus photography. Main outcome measures is MH closure and final visual acuity; the secondary outcome was the changes of retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor layer evaluated by sequential post-operative SD-OCT images.ResultsFive patients were accidentally injured by a yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser and six patients by handheld laser. MH diameters ranged from 272 to 815 μm (mean, 505.5±163.0 μm) preoperatively. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved from a mean of 0.90 logMAR (range, counting finger-8/20) preoperatively to a mean of 0.34 logMAR (range, a counting finger-20/20) postoperatively (P=0.001, t=4.521). Seven of 11 patients (63.6%) achieved a BCVA better than 10/20. Ten patients had a subfoveal hyperreflectivity and four patients had a focal choroidal depression subfoveal preoperatively. At the last follow-up, all 11 eyes demonstrated the following: closure of the macular hole, variable degrees of disruption of external limiting membrane (ELM) and outer photoreceptor ellipsoid and interdigitation bands. In 10 eyes, the disruption was in the form of focal defects in the outer retina. After surgery, the subfoveal hyperreflectivity and focal choroidal depression remained.ConclusionAccidental laser-induced full-thickness macular holes can be successfully closed with surgery. Inadvertent retinal injury from laser devices, especially handheld laser injury has occurred with increasing frequency in recent years. However, there is a paucity of data regarding these types of injuries

  13. Self-masking subtraction tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, D.P.; Yester, M.V.; Barnes, G.T.; Lakshminarayanan, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    The authors tested the image quality and dose savings of self-masking subtraction tomosynthesis (SST), which combines digital tomosynthesis with subtraction of a blurred self-mask. High-quality images of the inner ear of a head phantom were obtained at moderate dose savings. Although they were taken with linear motion, they did not exhibit the streaking due to off-fulcrum objects that is characteristic of conventional linear tomography. SST could reduce patient dose by a factor of at least 12 in examinations of the inner ear, and the mechanical aspects can be implemented with moderate modifications of existing instrumentation

  14. The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) as an alternative to airway ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To evaluate the possibility of airway management using a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) during dental procedures on mentally retarded (MR) patients and patients with genetic diseases. Design: A prospective pilot study. Setting: University Hospital. Methods: A pilot study was designed to induce general ...

  15. Nanoimprint wafer and mask tool progress and status for high volume semiconductor manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yoichi; Seki, Junichi; Nakayama, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kazuki; Azuma, Hisanobu; Yamamoto, Kiyohito; Sato, Chiaki; Sakai, Fumio; Takabayashi, Yukio; Aghili, Ali; Mizuno, Makoto; Choi, Jin; Jones, Chris E.

    2016-10-01

    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash* Imprint Lithography (J-FIL*) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed, leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. There are many criteria that determine whether a particular technology is ready for wafer manufacturing. Defectivity and mask life play a significant role relative to meeting the cost of ownership (CoO) requirements in the production of semiconductor devices. Hard particles on a wafer or mask create the possibility of inducing a permanent defect on the mask that can impact device yield and mask life. By using material methods to reduce particle shedding and by introducing an air curtain system, the lifetime of both the master mask and the replica mask can be extended. In this work, we report results that demonstrate a path towards achieving mask lifetimes of better than 1000 wafers. On the mask side, a new replication tool, the FPA-1100 NR2 is introduced. Mask replication is required for nanoimprint lithography (NIL), and criteria that are crucial to the success of a replication platform include both particle control, resolution and image placement accuracy. In this paper we discuss the progress made in both feature resolution and in meeting the image placement specification for replica masks.

  16. Prediction and outcomes of impossible mask ventilation: a review of 50,000 anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheterpal, Sachin; Martin, Lizabeth; Shanks, Amy M; Tremper, Kevin K

    2009-04-01

    There are no existing data regarding risk factors for impossible mask ventilation and limited data regarding its incidence. The authors sought to determine the incidence, predictors, and outcomes associated with impossible mask ventilation. The authors performed an observational study over a 4-yr period. For each adult patient undergoing a general anesthetic, preoperative patient characteristics, detailed airway physical exam, and airway outcome data were collected. The primary outcome was impossible mask ventilation defined as the inability to exchange air during bag-mask ventilation attempts, despite multiple providers, airway adjuvants, or neuromuscular blockade. Secondary outcomes included the final, definitive airway management technique and direct laryngoscopy view. The incidence of impossible mask ventilation was calculated. Independent (P impossible mask ventilation were identified by performing a logistic regression full model fit. Over a 4-yr period from 2004 to 2008, 53,041 attempts at mask ventilation were recorded. A total of 77 cases of impossible mask ventilation (0.15%) were observed. Neck radiation changes, male sex, sleep apnea, Mallampati III or IV, and presence of beard were identified as independent predictors. The receiver-operating-characteristic area under the curve for this model was 0.80 +/- 0.03. Nineteen impossible mask ventilation patients (25%) also demonstrated difficult intubation, with 15 being intubated successfully. Twelve patients required an alternative intubation technique, including two surgical airways and two patients who were awakened and underwent successful fiberoptic intubation. Impossible mask ventilation is an infrequent airway event that is associated with difficult intubation. Neck radiation changes represent the most significant clinical predictor of impossible mask ventilation in the patient dataset.

  17. Surgical lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knulst, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The surgical light is an important tool for surgeons to create and maintain good visibility on the surgical task. Chapter 1 gives background to the field of (surgical) lighting and related terminology. Although the surgical light has been developed strongly since its introduction a long time ago,

  18. Masked hypertension in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franklin, Stanley S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Although distinguishing features of masked hypertension in diabetics are well known, the significance of antihypertensive treatment on clinical practice decisions has not been fully explored. We analyzed 9691 subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood...

  19. Gamma camera with reflectivity mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a radiographic camera comprising: a scintillator; a plurality of photodectors positioned to face said scintillator; a plurality of masked regions formed upon a face of said scintillator opposite said photdetectors and positioned coaxially with respective ones of said photodetectors for decreasing the amount of internal reflection of optical photons generated within said scintillator. (auth)

  20. Cerebroprotective Actions of Triticum aestivum Linn Powder and Bauhinia purpurea Flower Powder in Surgically Induced Cerebral Infraction in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annapurna, Akula; Vishala, Thonangi C; Bitra, Veera R; Rapaka, Deepthi; Shaik, Asmath

    2018-01-01

    The prime objective of this study is to evaluate the cerebroprotective actions of Triticum aestivum (wheatgrass) powder and Bauhinia purpurea flower (dev kanchan) powder against the experimentally induced global ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. In the first phase of the studies, 1 h before the surgical procedure, the Wistar rats were orally served with varied doses of wheatgrass powder (5, 10, 30, and 100 μg/kg) and Bauhinia flower powder (30, 100, 200, and 300 μg/kg), respectively. The ischemia was induced by 30-min bilateral carotid artery occlusion in succession to reperfusion for 4 h. It was proved that the wheatgrass powder and Bauhinia flower powder yielded a significant, dose-dependent cerebroprotection in terms of reduction in cerebral infarct size when compared with the control group. Coming to the second phase of the studies, a certain potential dose of 10 μg/kg of wheatgrass and 200 μg/kg of Bauhinia flower powders was selected keeping the protective action in view, and the animals were treated for 15 days. The major findings of the study are that wheatgrass and Bauhinia flower powders significantly augmented the magnitude of the antioxidant enzymes, viz., super oxide dismutase and catalase, and further reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation. The present study clearly showed that the wheatgrass powder and Bauhinia flower powder possess significant antioxidant properties that may act as a key ingredient in various ayurvedic preparations for the treatment of various diseases like cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury. The wheat grass contains high amount of bioflavonoids, alkaloids, SOD etc which are responsible for anti oxidant activity.The Bauhinia purpurea contains glycosides, flavonoids and also plays a major role in DPPH activity which is responsible for anti oxidant activity.The wheat grass (10 mg/kg) and bauhinia (200 mg/kg) significantly(P bauhinia (200 mg/kg) significantly (P <0.0001) reduced the lipid peroxidation (MDA) and increased SOD

  1. "The Mask Who Wasn't There": Visual Masking Effect with the Perceptual Absence of the Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Amandine Eve; Riou, Benoit; Muller, Dominique; Dabic, Stéphanie; Versace, Rémy

    2015-01-01

    Does a visual mask need to be perceptually present to disrupt processing? In the present research, we proposed to explore the link between perceptual and memory mechanisms by demonstrating that a typical sensory phenomenon (visual masking) can be replicated at a memory level. Experiment 1 highlighted an interference effect of a visual mask on the…

  2. Gestalt grouping and common onset masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Todd A; Mathis, Katherine M

    2002-11-01

    A four-dot mask that surrounds and is presented simultaneously with a briefly presented target will reduce a person's ability to identity that target if the mask persists beyond target offset and attention is divided (Enns & Di Lollo, 1997, 2000). This masking effect, referred to as common onset masking, reflects reentrant processing in the visual system and can best be explained with a theory of object substitution (Di Lollo, Enns, & Rensink, 2000). In the present experiments, we investigated whether Gestalt grouping variables would influence the strength of common onset masking. The results indicated that (1) masking was impervious to grouping by form, similarity of color, position, luminance polarity, and common region and (2) masking increased with the number of elements in the masking display.

  3. The Correlation Analysis between Corneal Biomechanical Properties and the Surgically Induced Corneal High-Order Aberrations after Small Incision Lenticule Extraction and Femtosecond Laser In Situ Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate the correlation between corneal biomechanics and the surgically induced corneal high-order aberrations (HOAs after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE and femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK. Methods. A total of 150 right myopic eyes that underwent SMILE or FS-LASIK surgery were included in this retrospective study, 75 eyes in each group. The corneal hysteresis (CH and the corneal resistance factor (CRF with the corneal HOAs of the anterior, posterior, and total cornea were assessed preoperatively and three months postoperatively. Multivariate linear regression was applied to determine the correlations. Results. The preoperative CRF was significantly correlated with the induced 3rd–6th-order HOAs and spherical aberration of the anterior surface and the total cornea after SMILE and FS-LASIK surgeries (P<0.05, postoperatively. The CRF was significantly correlated with the induced vertical coma of the anterior and posterior surfaces and the total cornea after SMILE surgery (P<0.05. There was a significant correlation between the CRF and the induced posterior corneal horizontal coma after FS-LASIK surgery (P=0.013. Conclusions. The corneal biomechanics affect the surgically induced corneal HOAs after SMILE and FS-LASIK surgery, which may be meaningful for screening the patients preoperatively and optimizing the visual qualities postoperatively.

  4. Serotonin dependent masking of hippocampal sharp wave ripples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul Haq, Rizwan; Anderson, Marlene L; Hollnagel, Jan-Oliver; Worschech, Franziska; Sherkheli, Muhammad Azahr; Behrens, Christoph J; Heinemann, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    Sharp wave ripples (SPW-Rs) are thought to play an important role in memory consolidation. By rapid replay of previously stored information during slow wave sleep and consummatory behavior, they result from the formation of neural ensembles during a learning period. Serotonin (5-HT), suggested to be able to modify SPW-Rs, can affect many neurons simultaneously by volume transmission and alter network functions in an orchestrated fashion. In acute slices from dorsal hippocampus, SPW-Rs can be induced by repeated high frequency stimulation that induces long-lasting LTP. We used this model to study SPW-R appearance and modulation by 5-HT. Although stimulation in presence of 5-HT permitted LTP induction, SPW-Rs were "masked"--but appeared after 5-HT wash-out. This SPW-R masking was dose dependent with 100 nM 5-HT being sufficient--if the 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor citalopram was present. Fenfluramine, a serotonin releaser, could also mask SPW-Rs. Masking was due to 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/C receptor activation. Neither membrane potential nor membrane conductance changes in pyramidal cells caused SPW-R blockade since both remained unaffected by combining 5-HT and citalopram. Moreover, 10 and 30 μM 5-HT mediated SPW-R masking preceded neuronal hyperpolarization and involved reduced presynaptic transmitter release. 5-HT, as well as a 5-HT1A agonist, augmented paired pulse facilitation and affected the coefficient of variance. Spontaneous SPW-Rs in mice hippocampal slices were also masked by 5-HT and fenfluramine. While neuronal ensembles can acquire long lasting LTP during higher 5-HT levels, lower 5-HT levels enable neural ensembles to replay previously stored information and thereby permit memory consolidation memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 868.5590 - Scavenging mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scavenging mask. 868.5590 Section 868.5590 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5590 Scavenging mask. (a) Identification. A scavenging mask is a device positioned over a patient's nose to deliver anesthetic or analgesic gases to the...

  6. Ergonomic evaluation of pilot oxygen mask designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, W.; Yang, Xiaopeng; Jung, Daehan; Park, Seikwon; Kim, Heeeun; You, Heecheon

    2018-01-01

    A revised pilot oxygen mask design was developed for better fit to the Korean Air Force pilots’ faces. The present study compared an existing pilot oxygen mask and a prototype of the revised mask design with 88 Korean Air Force pilots in terms of subjective discomfort, facial contact pressure,

  7. 21 CFR 868.5580 - Oxygen mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen mask. 868.5580 Section 868.5580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5580 Oxygen mask. (a) Identification. An oxygen mask is a device...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5570 - Nonrebreathing mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonrebreathing mask. 868.5570 Section 868.5570...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5570 Nonrebreathing mask. (a) Identification. A nonrebreathing mask is a device fitting over a patient's face to administer oxygen. It utilizes...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5600 - Venturi mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venturi mask. 868.5600 Section 868.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5600 Venturi mask. (a) Identification. A venturi mask is a...

  10. Rates of initial acceptance of PAP masks and outcomes of mask switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachour, Adel; Vitikainen, Pirjo; Maasilta, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we noticed a considerable development in alleviating problems related to positive airway pressure (PAP) masks. In this study, we report on the initial PAP mask acceptance rates and the effects of mask switching on mask-related symptoms. We prospectively collected all cases of mask switching in our sleep unit for a period of 14 months. At the time of the study, we used ResMed™ CPAP devices and masks. Mask switching was defined as replacing a mask used for at least 1 day with another type of mask. Changing to a different size but keeping the same type of mask did not count as mask switching. Switching outcomes were considered failed if the initial problem persisted or reappeared during the year that followed switching. Our patient pool was 2768. We recorded 343 cases of mask switching among 267 patients. Of the 566 patients who began new PAP therapy, 108 (39 women) had switched masks, yielding an initial mask acceptance rate of 81 %. The reason for switching was poor-fit/uncomfortable mask in 39 %, leak-related in 30 %, outdated model in 25 %, and nasal stuffiness in 6 % of cases; mask switching resolved these problems in 61 %. Mask switching occurred significantly (p = 0.037) more often in women and in new PAP users. The odds ratio for abandoning PAP therapy within 1 year after mask switching was 7.2 times higher (interval 4.7-11.1) than not switching masks. The initial PAP mask acceptance rate was high. Patients who switched their masks are at greater risk for abandoning PAP therapy.

  11. Performance of an Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kevin; Belikov, Ruslan; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Coronagraph technology combined with wavefront control is close to achieving the contrast and inner working angle requirements in the lab necessary to observe the faint signal of an Earth-like exoplanet in monochromatic light. An important remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light. Coronagraph bandwidth is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask, which is responsible for blocking the stellar PSF. The size of a stellar PSF scales linearly with wavelength; ideally, the size of the focal plane mask would also scale with wavelength. A conventional hard-edge focal plane mask has a fixed size, normally sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. The conventional mask is oversized for shorter wavelengths and blocks useful discovery space. Recently we presented a solution to the size chromaticity challenge with a focal plane mask designed to scale its effective size with wavelength. In this paper, we analyze performance of the achromatic size-scaling focal plane mask within a Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph. We present results from wavefront control around the achromatic focal plane mask, and demonstrate the size-scaling effect of the mask with wavelength. The edge of the dark zone, and therefore the inner working angle of the coronagraph, scale with wavelength. The achromatic mask enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths compared with a conventional hard-edge occulter.

  12. Masking and Partial Masking in Listeners with a High-Frequency Hearing Loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.T.S.; Duifhuis, H.

    1982-01-01

    3 listeners with sensorineural hearing loss ranging from moderate to moderate-severe starting at frequencies higher than 1 kHz participated in two masking experiments and a partial masking experiment. In the first masking experiment, fM = 1 kHz and LM = 50 dB SPL, higher than normal masked

  13. Tradeoff between insensitivity to depth-induced spherical aberration and resolution of 3D fluorescence imaging due to the use of wavefront encoding with a radially symmetric phase mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblas, Ana; Dutta, Ananya; Saavedra, Genaro; Preza, Chrysanthe

    2018-02-01

    Previously, a wavefront encoded (WFE) imaging system implemented using a squared cubic (SQUBIC) phase mask has been verified to reduce the sensitivity of the imaging system to spherical aberration (SA). The strength of the SQUBIC phase mask and, as consequence, the performance of the WFE system are controlled by a design parameter, A. Although the higher the A-value, the more tolerant the WFE system is to SA, this is accomplished at the expense of the effective imaging resolution. In this contribution, we investigate this tradeoff in order to find an optimal A-value to balance the effect of SA and loss of resolution.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of osteophytic, chondral, and subchondral structures in a surgically-induced osteoarthritis rabbit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Jia

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess changes in osteophytic, chondral, and subchondral structures in a surgically-induced osteoarthritis (OA rabbit model in order to correlate MRI findings with the macroscopic progress of OA and to define the timepoint for disease status in this OA model. METHODS: The OA model was constructed by surgery in thirty rabbits with ten normal rabbits serving as controls (baseline. High-resolution three-dimensional MRI using a 1.5-T coil was performed at baseline, two, four, and eight weeks post-surgery. MRIs of cartilage lesions, subchondral bone lesions, and osteophyte formations were independently assessed by two blinded radiologists. Ten rabbits were sacrificed at baseline, two, four, and eight weeks post-surgery, and macroscopic evaluation was independently performed by two blinded orthopedic surgeons. RESULTS: The signal intensities and morphologies of chondral and subchondral structures by MRI accurately reflected the degree of OA. Cartilage defects progressed from a grade of 0.05-0.15 to 1.15-1.30 to 1.90-1.97 to 3.00-3.35 at each successive time point, respectively (p<0.05. Subchondral bone lesions progressed from a grade of 0.00 to 0.78-0.90 to 1.27-1.58 to 1.95-2.23 at each successive time point, respectively (p = 0.000. Osteophytes progressed from a size (mm of 0.00 to 0.87-1.06 to 1.24-1.87 to 2.21-3.21 at each successive time point, respectively (p = 0.000. CONCLUSIONS: Serial observations revealed that MRI can accurately detect the progression of cartilage lesions and subchondral bone edema over an eight-week period but may not be accurate in detecting osteophyte sizes. Week four post-surgery was considered the timepoint between OA-negative and OA-positive status in this OA model. The combination of this OA model with MRI evaluation should provide a promising tool for the pre-clinical evaluation of new disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of osteophytic, chondral, and subchondral structures in a surgically-induced osteoarthritis rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lang; Chen, Jinyun; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yingjiang; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Wenzhi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess changes in osteophytic, chondral, and subchondral structures in a surgically-induced osteoarthritis (OA) rabbit model in order to correlate MRI findings with the macroscopic progress of OA and to define the timepoint for disease status in this OA model. The OA model was constructed by surgery in thirty rabbits with ten normal rabbits serving as controls (baseline). High-resolution three-dimensional MRI using a 1.5-T coil was performed at baseline, two, four, and eight weeks post-surgery. MRIs of cartilage lesions, subchondral bone lesions, and osteophyte formations were independently assessed by two blinded radiologists. Ten rabbits were sacrificed at baseline, two, four, and eight weeks post-surgery, and macroscopic evaluation was independently performed by two blinded orthopedic surgeons. The signal intensities and morphologies of chondral and subchondral structures by MRI accurately reflected the degree of OA. Cartilage defects progressed from a grade of 0.05-0.15 to 1.15-1.30 to 1.90-1.97 to 3.00-3.35 at each successive time point, respectively (pSubchondral bone lesions progressed from a grade of 0.00 to 0.78-0.90 to 1.27-1.58 to 1.95-2.23 at each successive time point, respectively (p = 0.000). Osteophytes progressed from a size (mm) of 0.00 to 0.87-1.06 to 1.24-1.87 to 2.21-3.21 at each successive time point, respectively (p = 0.000). Serial observations revealed that MRI can accurately detect the progression of cartilage lesions and subchondral bone edema over an eight-week period but may not be accurate in detecting osteophyte sizes. Week four post-surgery was considered the timepoint between OA-negative and OA-positive status in this OA model. The combination of this OA model with MRI evaluation should provide a promising tool for the pre-clinical evaluation of new disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs.

  16. Melanocortin 1 receptor-signaling deficiency results in an articular cartilage phenotype and accelerates pathogenesis of surgically induced murine osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Julia; Seebach, Elisabeth; Hackmayer, Gerit; Greth, Carina; Bauer, Richard J; Kleinschmidt, Kerstin; Bettenworth, Dominik; Böhm, Markus; Grifka, Joachim; Grässel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides exert pleiotropic effects via binding to melanocortin receptors (MCR). MCR-subtypes have been detected in cartilage and bone and mediate an increasing number of effects in diathrodial joints. This study aims to determine the role of MC1-receptors (MC1) in joint physiology and pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) using MC1-signaling deficient mice (Mc1re/e). OA was surgically induced in Mc1re/e and wild-type (WT) mice by transection of the medial meniscotibial ligament. Histomorphometry of Safranin O stained articular cartilage was performed with non-operated controls (11 weeks and 6 months) and 4/8 weeks past surgery. µCT-analysis for assessing epiphyseal bone architecture was performed as a longitudinal study at 4/8 weeks after OA-induction. Collagen II, ICAM-1 and MC1 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Mc1re/e mice display less Safranin O and collagen II stained articular cartilage area compared to WT prior to OA-induction without signs of spontaneous cartilage surface erosion. This MC1-signaling deficiency related cartilage phenotype persisted in 6 month animals. At 4/8 weeks after OA-induction cartilage erosions were increased in Mc1re/e knees paralleled by weaker collagen II staining. Prior to OA-induction, Mc1re/e mice do not differ from WT with respect to bone parameters. During OA, Mc1re/e mice developed more osteophytes and had higher epiphyseal bone density and mass. Trabecular thickness was increased while concomitantly trabecular separation was decreased in Mc1re/e mice. Numbers of ICAM-positive chondrocytes were equal in non-operated 11 weeks Mc1re/e and WT whereas number of positive chondrocytes decreased during OA-progression. Unchallenged Mc1re/e mice display smaller articular cartilage covered area without OA-related surface erosions indicating that MC1-signaling is critical for proper cartilage matrix integrity and formation. When challenged with OA, Mc1re/e mice develop a more severe OA

  17. Health care workers' influenza vaccination: motivations and mandatory mask policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorribo, V; Lazor-Blanchet, C; Hugli, O; Zanetti, G

    2015-12-01

    Vaccination of health care workers (HCW) against seasonal influenza (SI) is recommended but vaccination rate rarely reach >30%. Vaccination coverage against 2009 pandemic influenza (PI) was 52% in our hospital, whilst a new policy requiring unvaccinated HCW to wear a mask during patient care duties was enforced. To investigate the determinants of this higher vaccination acceptance for PI and to look for an association with the new mask-wearing policy. A retrospective cohort study, involving HCW of three critical departments of a 1023-bed, tertiary-care university hospital in Switzerland. Self-reported 2009-10 SI and 2009 PI vaccination statuses, reasons and demographic data were collected through a literature-based questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, uni- and multivariate analyses were then performed. There were 472 respondents with a response rate of 54%. Self-reported vaccination acceptance was 64% for PI and 53% for SI. PI vaccination acceptance was associated with being vaccinated against SI (OR 9.5; 95% CI 5.5-16.4), being a physician (OR 7.7; 95% CI 3.1-19.1) and feeling uncomfortable wearing a mask (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0-2.8). Main motives for refusing vaccination were: preference for wearing a surgical mask (80% for PI, not applicable for SI) and concerns about vaccine safety (64%, 50%) and efficacy (44%, 35%). The new mask-wearing policy was a motivation for vaccination but also offered an alternative to non-compliant HCW. Concerns about vaccine safety and efficiency and self-interest of health care workers are still main determinants for influenza vaccination acceptance. Better incentives are needed to encourage vaccination amongst non-physician HCW. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Extracting messages masked by chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    We show how to extract messages that are masked by a chaotic signal in a system of two Lorenz oscillators. This mask removal is done for two different modes of transmission, a digital one where a parameter of the sender is switched between two values, and an analog mode, where a small amplitude message is added to the carrier signal. We achieve this without using a second Lorenz oscillator as receiver, and without doing a full reconstruction of the dynamics. This method is robust with respect to transformations that impede the unmasking using a Lorenz receiver, and is not affected by the broad-band noise that is inherent to the synchronization process. We also discuss the limitations of this way of extraction for messages in high frequency bands. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  19. Rapid mask prototyping for microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, B G C; Honegger, T; Cordeiro, J; Lecarme, O; Thiry, T; Fuard, D; Berton, K; Picard, E; Zelsmann, M; Peyrade, D

    2016-03-01

    With the rise of microfluidics for the past decade, there has come an ever more pressing need for a low-cost and rapid prototyping technology, especially for research and education purposes. In this article, we report a rapid prototyping process of chromed masks for various microfluidic applications. The process takes place out of a clean room, uses a commercially available video-projector, and can be completed in less than half an hour. We quantify the ranges of fields of view and of resolutions accessible through this video-projection system and report the fabrication of critical microfluidic components (junctions, straight channels, and curved channels). To exemplify the process, three common devices are produced using this method: a droplet generation device, a gradient generation device, and a neuro-engineering oriented device. The neuro-engineering oriented device is a compartmentalized microfluidic chip, and therefore, required the production and the precise alignment of two different masks.

  20. Sinusoidal masks for single channel speech separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for binary and soft masks used in single-channel speech separation. We present a novel approach called the sinusoidal mask (binary mask and Wiener filter) in a sinusoidal space. Theoretical analysis is presented for the proposed method, and we show...... that the proposed method is able to minimize the target speech distortion while suppressing the crosstalk to a predetermined threshold. It is observed that compared to the STFTbased masks, the proposed sinusoidal masks improve the separation performance in terms of objective measures (SSNR and PESQ) and are mostly...

  1. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) at 193 nm using an erodible mask: new developments and clinical progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael; Seiler, Theo; Carey, Joseph P.; Friedman, Marc D.; Johnsson, N. M. F.; King, Michael C.; Muller, David F.

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports on our progress using an erodible mask to perform photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the correction of myopic astigmatism. We describe modifications to the mask, the mask eye cup and the surgical microscope aimed at simplifying the procedure and improving the ergonomics of the hardware. We report the clinical results of the post-op exam for 20 patients who have undergone PRK for myopic astigmatism under a Phase IIA study. The results compare favorably with an earlier Phase IIA study for performing PRK with a computer-controlled iris. Most important, the clinical data show the absence of any significant corneal haze and no significant decrease in spectacle corrected visual acuity. Although more long term follow-up is needed, the preliminary results support the safety and effectiveness of using an erodible mask to perform PRK for myopic astigmatism.

  2. Masking Responses to Light in Period Mutant Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Julie S.; Yamazaki, Shin

    2013-01-01

    Masking is an acute effect of an external signal on an overt rhythm and is distinct from the process of entrainment. In the current study, we investigated the phase dependence and molecular mechanisms regulating masking effects of light pulses on spontaneous locomotor activity in mice. The circadian genes, Period1 (Per1) and Per2, are necessary components of the timekeeping machinery and entrainment by light appears to involve the induction of the expression of Per1 and Per2 mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). We assessed the roles of the Per genes in regulating masking by assessing the effects of light pulses on nocturnal locomotor activity in C57BL/6J Per mutant mice. We found that Per1−/− and Per2−/− mice had robust negative masking responses to light. In addition, the locomotor activity of Per1−/−/Per2−/− mice appeared to be rhythmic in the light-dark (LD) cycle, and the phase of activity onset was advanced (but varied among individual mice) relative to lights off. This rhythm persisted for 1 to 2 days in constant darkness in some Per1−/−/Per2−/− mice. Furthermore, Per1−/−/Per2−/− mice exhibited robust negative masking responses to light. Negative masking was phase dependent in wild-type mice such that maximal suppression was induced by light pulses at zeitgeber time 14 (ZT14) and gradually weaker suppression occurred during light pulses at ZT16 and ZT18. By measuring the phase shifts induced by the masking protocol (light pulses were administered to mice maintained in the LD cycle), we found that the phase responsiveness of Per mutant mice was altered compared to wild-types. Together, our data suggest that negative masking responses to light are robust in Per mutant mice and that the Per1−/−/Per2−/− SCN may be a light-driven, weak/damping oscillator. PMID:21793695

  3. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  4. Migration from full‐head mask to “open‐face” mask for immobilization of patients with head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, D. Michael; Mechalakos, James; Rao, Shyam; Della‐Biancia, Cesar; Amols, Howard; Lee, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    To provide an alternative device for immobilization of the head while easing claustrophobia and improving comfort, an “open‐face” thermoplastic mask was evaluated using video‐based optical surface imaging (OSI) and kilovoltage (kV) X‐ray radiography. A three‐point thermoplastic head mask with a precut opening and reinforced strips was developed. After molding, it provided sufficient visible facial area as the region of interest for OSI. Using real‐time OSI, the head motion of ten volunteers in the new mask was evaluated during mask locking and 15 minutes lying on the treatment couch. Using a nose mark with reference to room lasers, forced head movement in open‐face and full‐head masks (with a nose hole) was compared. Five patients with claustrophobia were immobilized with open‐face masks, set up using OSI and kV, and treated in 121 fractions, in which 61 fractions were monitored during treatment using real‐time OSI. With the open‐face mask, head motion was found to be 1.0 ± 0.6 mm and 0.4° ± 0.2° in volunteers during the experiment, and 0.8 ± 0.3 mm and 0.4° ± 0.2° in patients during treatment. These agree with patient motion calculated from pre‐/post‐treatment OSI and kV data using different anatomical landmarks. In volunteers, the head shift induced by mask‐locking was 2.3 ± 1.7 mm and 1.8° ± 0.6°, and the range of forced movements in the open‐face and full‐head masks were found to be similar. Most (80%) of the volunteers preferred the open‐face mask to the full‐head mask, while claustrophobic patients could only tolerate the open‐face mask. The open‐face mask is characterized for its immobilization capability and can immobilize patients sufficiently (face mask is readily adopted in radiotherapy clinic as a superior alternative to the standard full‐head mask. PACS numbers: 87.19.xj, 87.63.L‐, 87.59.‐e, 87.55.tg, 87.55.‐x PMID:24036878

  5. Theoretical study of magnetic pattern replication by He+ ion irradiation through stencil masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devolder, T.; Chappert, C.; Bernas, H.

    2002-01-01

    We have developed an irradiation technique that allows us to tune the magnetic properties of Co/Pt multilayers without affecting their roughness. The planarity and the ability to independently control nanostructure size and coercivity make our technique very appealing for magnetic recording. We study the irradiation-induced 1:1 replication of features drilled in a stencil mask. Both the 'gap' G between the magnetic film and the mask, and the aspect ratio (AR) of the mask features are analyzed, in view of the ion straggling in the mask resulting in collateral damages. Optimal gap is such that D<< G<< D/tan(α) (typically 0.1<< G<<25 μm), where the D is the feature size. The replication quality is best for AR≥3. Since the allowed gap interval is wide, we anticipate that mask fast positioning will be possible for the applications to magnetic recording

  6. Brightness masking is modulated by disparity structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekanos, Vassilis; Ban, Hiroshi; Welchman, Andrew E

    2015-05-01

    The luminance contrast at the borders of a surface strongly influences surface's apparent brightness, as demonstrated by a number of classic visual illusions. Such phenomena are compatible with a propagation mechanism believed to spread contrast information from borders to the interior. This process is disrupted by masking, where the perceived brightness of a target is reduced by the brief presentation of a mask (Paradiso & Nakayama, 1991), but the exact visual stage that this happens remains unclear. In the present study, we examined whether brightness masking occurs at a monocular-, or a binocular-level of the visual hierarchy. We used backward masking, whereby a briefly presented target stimulus is disrupted by a mask coming soon afterwards, to show that brightness masking is affected by binocular stages of the visual processing. We manipulated the 3-D configurations (slant direction) of the target and mask and measured the differential disruption that masking causes on brightness estimation. We found that the masking effect was weaker when stimuli had a different slant. We suggest that brightness masking is partly mediated by mid-level neuronal mechanisms, at a stage where binocular disparity edge structure has been extracted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiologically determined orthodontically induced external apical root resorption in incisors after non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Long D; Saltaji, Humam; Normando, David; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-07-23

    This study aims to critically evaluate orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) in incisors of patients undergoing non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion by a systematic review of the published data. An electronic search of two databases was performed; the bibliographies of relevant articles were also reviewed. Studies were included if they examined the amount of OIEARR in incisors produced during non-surgical orthodontic treatment of individuals with class II division I malocclusion in the permanent dentition. Individuals had no previous history of OIEARR, syndromes, pathologies, or general diseases. Study selections, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Eight studies of moderate methodological quality were finally included. An increased prevalence (65.6% to 98.1%) and mild to moderate severity of OIEARR (root) were reported. No sex difference in root resorption was found. For the maxillary incisors, there was no evidence that either the central or lateral incisor was more susceptible to OIEARR. A weak to moderate positive correlation between treatment duration and root resorption, and anteroposterior apical displacement and root resorption was found. Current limited evidence suggests that non-surgical comprehensive orthodontic treatment to correct class II division 1 malocclusions causes increased prevalence and severity of OIEARR the more the incisor roots are displaced and the longer this movement takes.

  8. Surgical treatment for mediastinal abscess induced by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yujiro; Nakagomi, Takahiro; Shikata, Daichi; Higuchi, Rumi; Oyama, Toshio; Goto, Taichiro

    2017-07-14

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a useful and less invasive procedure for the definitive diagnosis of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. However, infectious complications can occur after EBUS-TBNA, although they are extremely rare. A 66-year-old man with necrotic and swollen lower paratracheal lymph nodes underwent EBUS-TBNA. A mediastinal abscess developed 9 days post-procedure. Surgical drainage and debridement of the abscess were performed along with lymph node biopsy followed by daily washing of the thoracic cavity. Surgical treatment was effective, leading to remission of the abscess. Biopsy revealed that the tumor was squamous cell carcinoma with no radiologically detected cancer elsewhere in the body. Mediastinal lung cancer was thus confirmed. Subsequent chemoradiotherapy led to the remission of the tumor. Mediastinitis after EBUS-TBNA is rare but should be considered, particularly if the target lymph nodes are necrotic. Mediastinitis can lead to serious and rapid deterioration of the patient's condition, for which surgical intervention is the treatment of choice.

  9. A Masked Photocathode in a Photoinjector

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang, Ji

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a masked photocathode inside a photoinjector for generating high brightness electron beam. Instead of mounting the photocathode onto an electrode, an electrode with small hole is used as a mask to shield the photocathode from the accelerating vacuum chamber. Using such a masked photocathode will make the replacement of photocathode material easy by rotating the photocathode behind the electrode into the hole. Furthermore, this helps reduce the dark current or seconda...

  10. Effective dose 50 of desflurane for laryngeal mask airway removal in anaesthetized children in cataract surgeries with subtenon block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Sethi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quantification of the depth of desflurane anesthesia required for laryngeal mask airway (LMA removal in children has been done with the use of intravenous fentanyl or caudal anesthesia. This study aimed to determine the end-tidal concentration of desflurane required for LMA removal in children without the use of caudal or opioid analgesia in children undergoing elective cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: Our study enrolled 25 American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II children aged 2-10 years, undergoing elective cataract surgery. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane and oxygen/nitrous oxide using face mask and a size 2 LMA inserted. A subtenon block was administered in all children before surgical incision. Desflurane was used for maintenance of anesthesia. Predetermined end tidal concentration of desflurane was maintained for 10 min at the end of surgery before LMA removal was attempted. End tidal concentrations were increased/decreased using the Dixon up-down method (with 0.5% as a step size in the next patient depending on the previous patient′s response. Patient responses to LMA removal were classified as "movement" or "no movement." Results: 50% effective dose (ED 50 for successful removal of the LMA with desflurane in the presence of subtenon block was 3.6% (3.20-3.97% and that the 95% ED 95 was 4.648% (4.15-6.47%. Conclusion: Laryngeal mask airway removal can be successfully accomplished in 50% and 95% anesthetized children at 3.6% and 4.65% end-tidal desflurane concentration.

  11. Low flow anesthesia: Efficacy and outcome of laryngeal mask airway versus pressure-optimized cuffed-endotracheal tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Seify Zeinab

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low flow anesthesia can lead to reduction of anesthetic gas and vapor consumption. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA has proved to be an effective and safe airway device. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of laryngeal mask airway during controlled ventilation using low fresh gas flow (1.0 L/min as compared to endotracheal tube (ETT. Patients and Methods : Fifty nine non-smoking adult patients; ASA I or II, being scheduled for elective surgical procedures, with an expected duration of anesthesia 60 minutes or more, were randomly allocated into two groups - Group I (29 patients had been ventilated using LMA size 4 for females and 5 for males respectively; and Group II (30 patients were intubated using ETT. After 10 minutes of high fresh gas flow, the flow was reduced to 1 L/min. Patients were monitored for airway leakage, end-tidal CO 2 (ETCO 2 , inspiratory and expiratory isoflurane and nitrous oxide fraction concentrations, and postoperative airway-related complications Results : Two patients in the LMA-group developed initial airway leakage (6.9% versus no patient in ETT-group. Cough and sore throat were significantly higher in ETT patients. There were no evidences of differences between both groups regarding ETCO 2 , uptake of gases, nor difficulty in swallowing. Conclusion : The laryngeal mask airway proved to be effective and safe in establishing an airtight seal during controlled ventilation under low fresh gas flow of 1 L/min, inducing less coughing and sore throat during the immediate postoperative period than did the ETT, with continuous measurement and readjustment of the tube cuff pressure.

  12. Predicting masking release of lateralized speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabot-Leclerc, Alexandre; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    . The largest masking release (MR) was observed when all maskers were on the opposite side of the target. The data in the conditions containing only energetic masking and modulation masking could be accounted for using a binaural extension of the speech-based envelope power spectrum model [sEPSM; Jørgensen et...... al., 2013, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130], which uses a short-term equalization-cancellation process to model binaural unmasking. In the conditions where informational masking (IM) was involved, the predicted SRTs were lower than the measured values because the model is blind to confusions experienced...

  13. Influence of geometrical and electrical parameters of masking layers on the electrochemical etching of silicon for single trench formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, G; Ventura, L; Jerisian, R

    2005-01-01

    Deep single trenches can be produced at the edge of apertures of protective films masking the surface of silicon samples. This macropore formation, from polarized HF based solutions, is electrically activated depending on the mask geometrical and physical parameters whatever the silicon type or the electrolyte composition. The mask thickness increase is known to induce deeper trenches. In this paper, we show that we can predict and localize this phenomenon by simulating two dimensional hole current distributions below the mask. We demonstrate also the influence of the material permittivity on trench depth. These 2D simulation results are correlated with experimental results

  14. The expressions of the SOX trio, PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related peptide)/IHH (Indian hedgehog protein) in surgically induced osteoarthritis of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Young; Im, Gun-Il

    2011-05-01

    This study was performed to investigate the expressions of the SOX trio, PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related peptide) and IHH (Indian hedgehog protein) in OA (osteoarthritis) using surgically induced rat OA model. After 12 weeks, the articular cartilage from the distal femur was harvested. The expressions of the SOX trio, PTHrP and IHH were explored at gene, protein and epigenetic levels by real-time PCR (n = 5), immunohistochemistry (n = 5) and MSP (methylation-specific PCR). The findings from OA cartilage of the right knees were compared with those from the left knees as the control. The gene expressions of SOX-5, -6, -9 decreased by 58, 20 and 40%, respectively, in the OA cartilage, while their respective protein expressions increased. The PTHrP and IHH gene expressions decreased by 75 and 81%, respectively, although their protein expressions increased. Findings from MSP demonstrated increased methylation in the promoter regions of SOX-5 and -9 genes. This study demonstrated that increased methylation in the promoters of these genes may explain the low gene expression in the surgically induced OA model, whereas elevated protein expression is speculated to be from lag effect in the gene-protein expression.

  15. Effect of Age-Related Cartilage Turnover on Serum C-Telopeptide of Collagen Type II and Osteocalcin Levels in Growing Rabbits with and without Surgically Induced Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Cheng Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of age-related cartilage turnover on the serum C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II and osteocalcin (OC levels in growing rabbits with and without surgically induced osteoarthritis. Twenty-four New Zealand male 3-month-old rabbits were randomized into three operated groups (n = 6 per group, with surgically induced osteroarthritis in the right knee; after blood sampling, the knees were harvested following euthanization at 2, 3, and 6 months after surgery and a control group (n = 6, blood samples were obtained monthly between 3 and 15 months. Histomorphologically, the medial femoral condyles, particularly the central parts, harbored the most severe osteoarthritic changes among the operated rabbits. The serum levels of CTX-II and OC decreased in the controls from 3 to 11 months and then remained stable. No significant differences in the serum CTX-II and OC levels between the osteoarthritic rabbits and controls were observed. The osteoarthritic-to-normal ratios (ONRs, the ratios of serum CTX-II or OC levels in osteoarthritic rabbits to those of the controls at same ages enabled an overall assessment of osteoarthritis and age-related cartilage turnover. Elevated CTX-II ONRs were observed in rabbits with mild to advanced osteoarthritis. However, the OC ONRs were unhelpful in assessing osteoarthritic growing rabbits.

  16. Set Size and Mask Duration Do Not Interact in Object-Substitution Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Ioannis; Gellatly, Angus; Pilling, Michael; Carter, Wakefield

    2013-01-01

    Object-substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a mask, such as four dots that surround a brief target item, onsets simultaneously with the target and offsets a short time after the target, rather than simultaneously with it. OSM is a reduction in accuracy of reporting the target with the temporally trailing mask, compared with the simultaneously…

  17. Recovery benefits of using a heat and moisture exchange mask during sprint exercise in cold temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, John G; Frost, Jeremy; St Cyr, John A

    2017-01-01

    Breathing cold air can lead to bronchoconstriction and peripheral vasoconstriction, both of which could impact muscular performance by affecting metabolic demands during exercise. Successful solutions dealing with these physiological changes during exercise in the cold has been lacking; therefore, we investigated the influence of a heat and moisture exchange mask during exercise in the cold. There were three trial arms within this study: wearing the heat and moisture exchange mask during the rest periods in the cold, no-mask application during the rest periods in the cold, and a trial at room temperature (22°C). Eight subjects cycled in four 35 kJ sprint sessions with each session separated by 20 min rest period. Workload was 4% of body mass. Mean sprint times were faster with heat and moisture exchange mask and room temperature trial than cold, no-mask trial (133.8 ± 8.6, 134.9 ± 8.8, and 138.0 ± 8.4 s (p = 0.001)). Systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were greater during the cold trial with no mask (15% and 13%, respectively), and heart rate was 10 bpm less during the third rest or recovery period during cold, no mask compared to the heat and moisture exchange mask and room temperature trials. Subjects demonstrated significant decreases in vital capacity and peak expiratory flow rate during the cold with no mask applied during the rest periods. These negative responses to cold exposure were alleviated by the use of a heat and moisture exchange mask worn during the rest intervals by minimizing cold-induced temperature stress on the respiratory system with subsequent maintenance of cardiovascular function.

  18. Shadows Alter Facial Expressions of Noh Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Miyata, Hiromitsu; Nishimura, Ritsuko; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Background A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers’ recognition of the emotional expressions. Methodology/Principal Findings In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. Conclusions/Significance Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa’s smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art “yugen (profound grace and subtlety)”, which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness. PMID:23940748

  19. Fast mask writers: technology options and considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Lloyd C.; Groves, Timothy; Hughes, Greg

    2011-04-01

    The semiconductor industry is under constant pressure to reduce production costs even as the complexity of technology increases. Lithography represents the most expensive process due to its high capital equipment costs and the implementation of low-k1 lithographic processes, which have added to the complexity of making masks because of the greater use of optical proximity correction, pixelated masks, and double or triple patterning. Each of these mask technologies allows the production of semiconductors at future nodes while extending the utility of current immersion tools. Low-k1 patterning complexity combined with increased data due to smaller feature sizes is driving extremely long mask write times. While a majority of the industry is willing to accept times of up to 24 hours, evidence suggests that the write times for many masks at the 22 nm node and beyond will be significantly longer. It has been estimated that funding on the order of 50M to 90M for non-recurring engineering (NRE) costs will be required to develop a multiple beam mask writer system, yet the business case to recover this kind of investment is not strong. Moreover, funding such a development poses a high risk for an individual supplier. The structure of the mask fabrication marketplace separates the mask writer equipment customer (the mask supplier) from the final customer (wafer manufacturer) that will be most effected by the increase in mask cost that will result if a high speed mask writer is not available. Since no individual company will likely risk entering this market, some type of industry-wide funding model will be needed.

  20. HIGH PERFORMANCE PIAA CORONAGRAPHY WITH COMPLEX AMPLITUDE FOCAL PLANE MASKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Belikov, Ruslan; Soummer, Remi

    2010-01-01

    We describe a coronagraph approach where the performance of a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph is improved by using a partially transmissive phase-shifting focal plane mask and a Lyot stop. This approach combines the low inner working angle offered by phase mask coronagraphy, the full throughput and uncompromized angular resolution of the PIAA approach, and the design flexibility of Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph. A PIAA complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC) is fully described by the focal plane mask size, or, equivalently, its complex transmission which ranges from 0 (opaque) to -1 (phase shifting). For all values of the transmission, the PIAACMC theoretically offers full on-axis extinction and 100% throughput at large angular separations. With a pure phase focal plane mask (complex transmission = -1), the PIAACMC offers 50% throughput at 0.64 λ/D while providing total extinction of an on-axis point source. This performance is very close to the 'fundamental performance limit' of coronagraphy derived from first principles. For very high contrast level, imaging performance with PIAACMC is in practice limited by the angular size of the on-axis target (usually a star). We show that this fundamental limitation must be taken into account when choosing the optimal value of the focal plane mask size in the PIAACMC design. We show that the PIAACMC enables visible imaging of Jupiter-like planets at ∼1.2 λ/D from the host star, and can therefore offer almost three times more targets than a PIAA coronagraph optimized for this type of observation. We find that for visible imaging of Earth-like planets, the PIAACMC gain over a PIAA is probably much smaller, as coronagraphic performance is then strongly constrained by stellar angular size. For observations at 'low' contrast (below ∼ 10 8 ), the PIAACMC offers significant performance enhancement over PIAA. This is especially relevant for ground-based high contrast imaging systems in the near-IR, where

  1. Face mask sampling for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in expelled aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline M L; Cheah, Eddy S G; Malkin, Joanne; Patel, Hemu; Otu, Jacob; Mlaga, Kodjovi; Sutherland, Jayne S; Antonio, Martin; Perera, Nelun; Woltmann, Gerrit; Haldar, Pranabashis; Garton, Natalie J; Barer, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Although tuberculosis is transmitted by the airborne route, direct information on the natural output of bacilli into air by source cases is very limited. We sought to address this through sampling of expelled aerosols in face masks that were subsequently analyzed for mycobacterial contamination. In series 1, 17 smear microscopy positive patients wore standard surgical face masks once or twice for periods between 10 minutes and 5 hours; mycobacterial contamination was detected using a bacteriophage assay. In series 2, 19 patients with suspected tuberculosis were studied in Leicester UK and 10 patients with at least one positive smear were studied in The Gambia. These subjects wore one FFP30 mask modified to contain a gelatin filter for one hour; this was subsequently analyzed by the Xpert MTB/RIF system. In series 1, the bacteriophage assay detected live mycobacteria in 11/17 patients with wearing times between 10 and 120 minutes. Variation was seen in mask positivity and the level of contamination detected in multiple samples from the same patient. Two patients had non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections. In series 2, 13/20 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis produced positive masks and 0/9 patients with extrapulmonary or non-tuberculous diagnoses were mask positive. Overall, 65% of patients with confirmed pulmonary mycobacterial infection gave positive masks and this included 3/6 patients who received diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavages. Mask sampling provides a simple means of assessing mycobacterial output in non-sputum expectorant. The approach shows potential for application to the study of airborne transmission and to diagnosis.

  2. Automatic circuit analysis based on mask information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preas, B.T.; Lindsay, B.W.; Gwyn, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The Circuit Mask Translator (CMAT) code has been developed which converts integrated circuit mask information into a circuit schematic. Logical operations, pattern recognition, and special functions are used to identify and interconnect diodes, transistors, capacitors, and resistances. The circuit topology provided by the translator is compatible with the input required for a circuit analysis program

  3. Fourier phasing with phase-uncertain mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fannjiang, Albert; Liao, Wenjing

    2013-01-01

    Fourier phasing is the problem of retrieving Fourier phase information from Fourier intensity data. The standard Fourier phase retrieval (without a mask) is known to have many solutions which cause the standard phasing algorithms to stagnate and produce wrong or inaccurate solutions. In this paper Fourier phase retrieval is carried out with the introduction of a randomly fabricated mask in measurement and reconstruction. Highly probable uniqueness of solution, up to a global phase, was previously proved with exact knowledge of the mask. Here the uniqueness result is extended to the case where only rough information about the mask’s phases is assumed. The exponential probability bound for uniqueness is given in terms of the uncertainty-to-diversity ratio of the unknown mask. New phasing algorithms alternating between the object update and the mask update are systematically tested and demonstrated to have the capability of recovering both the object and the mask (within the object support) simultaneously, consistent with the uniqueness result. Phasing with a phase-uncertain mask is shown to be robust with respect to the correlation in the mask as well as the Gaussian and Poisson noises. (paper)

  4. Computing Challenges in Coded Mask Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    This slide presaentation reviews the complications and challenges in developing computer systems for Coded Mask Imaging telescopes. The coded mask technique is used when there is no other way to create the telescope, (i.e., when there are wide fields of view, high energies for focusing or low energies for the Compton/Tracker Techniques and very good angular resolution.) The coded mask telescope is described, and the mask is reviewed. The coded Masks for the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) instruments are shown, and a chart showing the types of position sensitive detectors used for the coded mask telescopes is also reviewed. Slides describe the mechanism of recovering an image from the masked pattern. The correlation with the mask pattern is described. The Matrix approach is reviewed, and other approaches to image reconstruction are described. Included in the presentation is a review of the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) / High Energy Telescope (HET), with information about the mission, the operation of the telescope, comparison of the EXIST/HET with the SWIFT/BAT and details of the design of the EXIST/HET.

  5. Masked hypertension, a review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, W.J.; Thien, Th.; Leeuw, P.W. de

    2007-01-01

    Masked hypertension (blood pressure that is normal in the physicians' office but elevated elsewhere) is a common phenomenon as prevalence among studies varies from 8 to 45% and is seen at all ages. large discrepancies, however, exist between studies that have dealt with masked hypertension. It is of

  6. Unmasking Zorro: functional importance of the facial mask in the Masked Shrike (Lanius nubicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Reuven Yosef; Piotr Zduniak; Piotr Tryjanowski

    2012-01-01

    The facial mask is a prominent feature in the animal kingdom. We hypothesized that the facial mask of shrikes allows them to hunt into the sun, which accords them detection and surprise-attack capabilities. We conducted a field experiment to determine whether the mask facilitated foraging while facing into the sun. Male shrikes with white-painted masks hunted facing away from the sun more than birds with black-painted masks, which are the natural color, and more than individuals in the contro...

  7. New data on masking reagents in complexometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurist, I.M.; Talmud, M.M.; Zajtsev, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent literature data on employing inorganic and organic oxygen-, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing substances as masking reagents (MR) in complexonometry of alkali earths, rare earths and transition elements are reviewed for the period of 1971-1983. Effectiveness of any type of MR is shown to be dependent on the electron configuration of a cation being masked. Sr, La, Th, V(6), Zr, Hf, V(5), Nb(5), Ta(5), Mo(6), W(6) a.o. are masked by oxygen-containing ligands. Zn, Cd, Fe(2, 3), Co(2, 3), Ni, etc. are masked by nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing ligands. Thiocompounds mask mainly In, Tl(3), Sn(2), Pb, Bi

  8. Comparison of face masks in the bag-mask ventilation of a manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, D; Rassam, S; Stacey, M R; Mecklenburgh, J S

    2006-02-01

    We conducted a study investigating the effectiveness of four face mask designs in the bag-mask ventilation of a special manikin adapted to simulate a difficult airway. Forty-eight anaesthetists volunteered to bag-mask ventilate the manikin for 3 min with four different face masks. The primary outcome of the study was to calculate mean percentage leak from the face masks over 3 min. Anaesthetists were also asked to rate the face masks using a visual analogue score. The single-use scented intersurgical face mask had the lowest mean leak (20%). This was significantly lower than the mean leak from the single-use, cushioned 7,000 series Air Safety Ltd. face mask (24%) and the reusable silicone Laerdal face mask (27%) but not significantly lower than the mean leak from the reusable anatomical intersurgical face mask (23%). There was a large variation in both performance and satisfaction between anaesthetists with each design. This highlights the importance of having a variety of face masks available for emergency use.

  9. Surgical orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, Alexis M; Vitkus, Lauren

    2017-08-01

    The article reviews some commonly used orthodontic treatments as well as new strategies to assist in the correction of malocclusion. Many techniques are used in conjunction with surgical intervention and are a necessary compliment to orthognathic surgery. Basic knowledge of these practices will aid in the surgeon's ability to adequately treat the patient. Many orthodontists and surgeons are eliminating presurgical orthodontics to adopt a strategy of 'surgery first' orthodontics in orthognathic surgery. This has the benefit of immediate improvement in facial aesthetics and shorter treatment times. The advent of virtual surgical planning has helped facilitate the development of this new paradigm by making surgical planning faster and easier. Furthermore, using intraoperative surgical navigation is improving overall precision and outcomes. A variety of surgical and nonsurgical treatments may be employed in the treatment of malocclusion. It is important to be familiar with all options available and tailor the patient's treatment plan accordingly. Surgery-first orthodontics, intraoperative surgical navigation, virtual surgical planning, and 3D printing are evolving new techniques that are producing shorter treatment times and subsequently improving patient satisfaction without sacrificing long-term stability.

  10. Nasal mask ventilation is better than face mask ventilation in edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Mukul Chandra; Rana, Sandeep; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Vishal, Vindhya; Sikdar, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Face mask ventilation of the edentulous patient is often difficult as ineffective seating of the standard mask to the face prevents attainment of an adequate air seal. The efficacy of nasal ventilation in edentulous patients has been cited in case reports but has never been investigated. Consecutive edentulous adult patients scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, during a 17-month period, were prospectively evaluated. After induction of anesthesia and administration of neuromuscular blocker, lungs were ventilated with a standard anatomical face mask of appropriate size, using a volume controlled anesthesia ventilator with tidal volume set at 10 ml/kg. In case of inadequate ventilation, the mask position was adjusted to achieve best-fit. Inspired and expired tidal volumes were measured. Thereafter, the face mask was replaced by a nasal mask and after achieving best-fit, the inspired and expired tidal volumes were recorded. The difference in expired tidal volumes and airway pressures at best-fit with the use of the two masks and number of patients with inadequate ventilation with use of the masks were statistically analyzed. A total of 79 edentulous patients were recruited for the study. The difference in expiratory tidal volumes with the use of the two masks at best-fit was statistically significant (P = 0.0017). Despite the best-fit mask placement, adequacy of ventilation could not be achieved in 24.1% patients during face mask ventilation, and 12.7% patients during nasal mask ventilation and the difference was statistically significant. Nasal mask ventilation is more efficient than standard face mask ventilation in edentulous patients.

  11. An interactive tool for gamut masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ying; Lau, Cheryl; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2014-02-01

    Artists often want to change the colors of an image to achieve a particular aesthetic goal. For example, they might limit colors to a warm or cool color scheme to create an image with a certain mood or feeling. Gamut masking is a technique that artists use to limit the set of colors they can paint with. They draw a mask over a color wheel and only use the hues within the mask. However, creating the color palette from the mask and applying the colors to the image requires skill. We propose an interactive tool for gamut masking that allows amateur artists to create an image with a desired mood or feeling. Our system extracts a 3D color gamut from the 2D user-drawn mask and maps the image to this gamut. The user can draw a different gamut mask or locally refine the image colors. Our voxel grid gamut representation allows us to represent gamuts of any shape, and our cluster-based image representation allows the user to change colors locally.

  12. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 μm wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  13. Effect of Ibuprofen on masking endodontic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jason K; McClanahan, Scott B; Khan, Asma A; Lunos, Scott; Bowles, Walter R

    2014-08-01

    An accurate diagnosis is of upmost importance before initiating endodontic treatment; yet, there are occasions when the practitioner cannot reproduce the patient's chief complaint because the patient has become asymptomatic. Ibuprofen taken beforehand may "mask" or eliminate the patient's symptoms. In fact, 64%-83% of patients with dental pain take analgesics before seeing a dentist. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible "masking" effect of ibuprofen on endodontic diagnostic tests. Forty-two patients with endodontic pain underwent testing (cold, percussion, palpation, and bite force measurement) and then received either placebo or 800 mg ibuprofen. Both patients and operators were blinded to the medication received. One hour later, diagnostic testing was repeated and compared with pretreatment testing. Ibuprofen affected testing values for vital teeth by masking palpation 40%, percussion 25%, and cold 25% on affected teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis and symptomatic apical periodontitis. There was no observed masking effect in the placebo group on palpation, percussion, or cold values. When nonvital teeth were included, the masking effect of ibuprofen was decreased. However, little masking occurred with the bite force measurement differences. Analgesics taken before the dental appointment can affect endodontic diagnostic testing results. Bite force measurements can assist in identifying the offending tooth in cases in which analgesics "mask" the endodontic diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuous positive airway pressure with helmet versus mask in infants with bronchiolitis: an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidini, Giovanna; Piastra, Marco; Marchesi, Tiziana; De Luca, Daniele; Napolitano, Luisa; Salvo, Ida; Wolfler, Andrea; Pelosi, Paolo; Damasco, Mirco; Conti, Giorgio; Calderini, Edoardo

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is usually applied with a nasal or facial mask to treat mild acute respiratory failure (ARF) in infants. A pediatric helmet has now been introduced in clinical practice to deliver CPAP. This study compared treatment failure rates during CPAP delivered by helmet or facial mask in infants with respiratory syncytial virus-induced ARF. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 30 infants with respiratory syncytial virus-induced ARF were randomized to receive CPAP by helmet (n = 17) or facial mask (n = 13). The primary endpoint was treatment failure rate (defined as due to intolerance or need for intubation). Secondary outcomes were CPAP application time, number of patients requiring sedation, and complications with each interface. Compared with the facial mask, CPAP by helmet had a lower treatment failure rate due to intolerance (3/17 [17%] vs 7/13 [54%], P = .009), and fewer infants required sedation (6/17 [35%] vs 13/13 [100%], P = .023); the intubation rates were similar. In successfully treated patients, CPAP resulted in better gas exchange and breathing pattern with both interfaces. No major complications due to the interfaces occurred, but CPAP by mask had higher rates of cutaneous sores and leaks. These findings confirm that CPAP delivered by helmet is better tolerated than CPAP delivered by facial mask and requires less sedation. In addition, it is safe to use and free from adverse events, even in a prolonged clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Polymer Masks for nanostructuring of graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvets, Violetta

    This PhD project is a part of Center for Nanostructured Graphene (CNG) activities. The aim of the project is to develop a new lithography method for creation of highly ordered nanostructures with as small as possible feature and period sizes. The method should be applicable for graphene nanostruc...... demonstrated the opening of what could be interpreted as a band gap....... polymer masks is developed. Mask fabrication is realized by microtoming of 30-60 nm thin sections from pre-aligned polymer monoliths with different morphologies. The resulting polymer masks are then transferred to both silicon and graphene substrates. Hexagonally packed hole patterns with 10 nm hole...

  16. Effect of the Lectin of Bauhinia variegata and Its Recombinant Isoform on Surgically Induced Skin Wounds in a Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bainy Leal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of highly specific carbohydrate-binding proteins. Due to their great biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata (nBVL and its recombinant isoform (rBVL-1. Following surgical creation of dorsal skin wounds, seven groups of mice were submitted to topical treatment for 12 days with lectin, D-galactose, BSA and saline. The animals were anesthetized and euthanized on POD 2, 7 and 12 in order to evaluate the healing potential of each treatment. The parameters considered included wound size, contraction rate, epithelialization rate and histopathological findings. Wound closure was fastest in animals treated with rBVL-1 (POD 7. nBVL was more effective than the controls. All skin layers were reconstructed and keratin deposition increased. Our findings indicate that the lectin of Bauhinia variegata possesses pro-healing properties and may be employed in the treatment of acute skin wounds.

  17. Effect of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata and its recombinant isoform on surgically induced skin wounds in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Luiz Gonzaga do Nascimento; Pinto, Luciano da Silva; Bastos, Rafaela Mesquita; Evaristo, Francisco Flávio Vasconcelos; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves de; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Júnior, Valdemiro Amaro da Silva; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

    2011-11-07

    Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of highly specific carbohydrate-binding proteins. Due to their great biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin of Bauhinia variegata (nBVL) and its recombinant isoform (rBVL-1). Following surgical creation of dorsal skin wounds, seven groups of mice were submitted to topical treatment for 12 days with lectin, D-galactose, BSA and saline. The animals were anesthetized and euthanized on POD 2, 7 and 12 in order to evaluate the healing potential of each treatment. The parameters considered included wound size, contraction rate, epithelialization rate and histopathological findings. Wound closure was fastest in animals treated with rBVL-1 (POD 7). nBVL was more effective than the controls. All skin layers were reconstructed and keratin deposition increased. Our findings indicate that the lectin of Bauhinia variegata possesses pro-healing properties and may be employed in the treatment of acute skin wounds.

  18. When Bad Masks Turn Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Roberto G.

    In keeping with the spirit of a meeting on ‘masks,' this talk presents two short stories on the theme of dust. In the first, dust plays the familiar role of the evil obscurer, the enemy to bedefeated by the cunning observer in order to allow a key future technology (adaptive optics) to be exploited fully by heroic astronomers. In the second story, dust itself emerges as the improbable hero, in the form of a circumstellar debris disks. I will present evidence of a puzzling near-infrared excess in the continuum of high-redshift galaxies and will argue that the seemingly improbable origin of this IR excess is a population of young circumstellar disks formed around high-mass stars in distant galaxies. Assuming circumstellar disks extend down to lower masses,as they do in our own Galaxy, the excess emission presents us with an exciting opportunity to measure the formation rate of planetary systems in distant galaxies at cosmic epochs before our own solar system formed.

  19. Aggressive surgical management of craniopharyngiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manmohan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of craniopharyngiomas is challenging and despite advancements it continues to pose a challenge. Proponents of subtotal resection in conjunction with radiotherapy argue that this less aggressive approach can yield appropriate results with the lower morbidity. On the contrary, other argument is that gross total resection is superior. Though surgical management of craniopharyngioma is challenging due to its location and important surrounding neurovascular structures, optimal surgical results can be expected following radical surgical excision. Radical excision of craniopharyngiomas is associated with excellent long-term recurrence free survival. Radiation induced long-term complications can be altogether avoided by excising these tumors completely.

  20. Evaluation of Criteria to Detect Masked Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, John N.; Muntner, Paul; Diaz, Keith M.; Viera, Anthony J.; Bello, Natalie A.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of masked hypertension, out-of-clinic daytime systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP)≥135/85 mmHg on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) among adults with clinic SBP/DBPABPM testing criterion. In a derivation cohort (n=695), the index was clinic SBP+1.3*clinic DBP. In an external validation cohort (n=675), the sensitivity for masked hypertension using an index ≥190 mmHg and ≥217 mmHg and prehypertension status was 98.5%, 71.5% and 82.5%, respectively. Using NHANES data (n=11,778), we estimated that these thresholds would refer 118.6, 44.4 and 59.3 million US adults, respectively, to ABPM screening for masked hypertension. In conclusion, the CBP index provides a useful approach to identify candidates for masked hypertension screening using ABPM. PMID:27126770

  1. Active mask segmentation of fluorescence microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Gowri; Fickus, Matthew C; Guo, Yusong; Linstedt, Adam D; Kovacević, Jelena

    2009-08-01

    We propose a new active mask algorithm for the segmentation of fluorescence microscope images of punctate patterns. It combines the (a) flexibility offered by active-contour methods, (b) speed offered by multiresolution methods, (c) smoothing offered by multiscale methods, and (d) statistical modeling offered by region-growing methods into a fast and accurate segmentation tool. The framework moves from the idea of the "contour" to that of "inside and outside," or masks, allowing for easy multidimensional segmentation. It adapts to the topology of the image through the use of multiple masks. The algorithm is almost invariant under initialization, allowing for random initialization, and uses a few easily tunable parameters. Experiments show that the active mask algorithm matches the ground truth well and outperforms the algorithm widely used in fluorescence microscopy, seeded watershed, both qualitatively, as well as quantitatively.

  2. Masking of aluminum surface against anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G. B.; Thompson, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Masking material and a thickening agent preserve limited unanodized areas when aluminum surfaces are anodized with chromic acid. For protection of large areas it combines well with a certain self-adhesive plastic tape.

  3. Nablus mask-like facial syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allanson, Judith; Smith, Amanda; Hare, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) has many distinctive phenotypic features, particularly tight glistening skin with reduced facial expression, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, bulky nasal tip, abnormal external ear architecture, upswept frontal hairline, and sparse eyebrows. Over the last few...

  4. The fastest saccadic responses escape visual masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crouzet, Sébastien M.; Overgaard, Morten; Busch, Niko A.

    2014-01-01

    Object-substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a briefly presented target in a search array is surrounded by small dots that remain visible after the target disappears. The reduction of target visibility occurring after OSM has been suggested to result from a specific interference with reentrant......, which gives access to very early stages of visual processing, target visibility was reduced either by OSM, conventional backward masking, or low stimulus contrast. A general reduction of performance was observed in all three conditions. However, the fastest saccades did not show any sign of interference...... under either OSM or backward masking, as they did under the low-contrast condition. This finding supports the hypothesis that masking interferes mostly with reentrant processing at later stages, while leaving early feedforward processing largely intact....

  5. Attentional capture by masked colour singletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Horstmann, Gernot; Worschech, Franziska

    2010-09-15

    We tested under which conditions a colour singleton of which an observer is unaware captures attention. To prevent visual awareness of the colour singleton, we used backward masking. We find that a masked colour singleton cue captures attention if it matches the observer's goal to search for target colours but not if it is task-irrelevant. This is also reflected in event-related potentials to the visible target: the masked goal-matching cue elicits an attentional potential (N2pc) in a target search task. By contrast, a non-matching but equally strong masked colour singleton cue failed to elicit a capture effect and an N2pc. Results are discussed with regard to currently pertaining conceptions of attentional capture by colour singletons. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mask effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing peak statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong; Fan, Zuhui; Wang, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    With numerical simulations, we analyze in detail how the bad data removal, i.e., the mask effect, can influence the peak statistics of the weak-lensing convergence field reconstructed from the shear measurement of background galaxies. It is found that high peak fractions are systematically enhanced because of the presence of masks; the larger the masked area is, the higher the enhancement is. In the case where the total masked area is about 13% of the survey area, the fraction of peaks with signal-to-noise ratio ν ≥ 3 is ∼11% of the total number of peaks, compared with ∼7% of the mask-free case in our considered cosmological model. This can have significant effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing convergence peak statistics, inducing a large bias in the parameter constraints if the effects are not taken into account properly. Even for a survey area of 9 deg 2 , the bias in (Ω m , σ 8 ) is already intolerably large and close to 3σ. It is noted that most of the affected peaks are close to the masked regions. Therefore, excluding peaks in those regions in the peak statistics can reduce the bias effect but at the expense of losing usable survey areas. Further investigations find that the enhancement of the number of high peaks around the masked regions can be largely attributed to the smaller number of galaxies usable in the weak-lensing convergence reconstruction, leading to higher noise than that of the areas away from the masks. We thus develop a model in which we exclude only those very large masks with radius larger than 3' but keep all the other masked regions in peak counting statistics. For the remaining part, we treat the areas close to and away from the masked regions separately with different noise levels. It is shown that this two-noise-level model can account for the mask effect on peak statistics very well, and the bias in cosmological parameters is significantly reduced if this model is applied in the parameter fitting.

  7. Design of Data Masking Architecture and Analysis of Data Masking Techniques for Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar G K,; Manjunath T. N,; Ravindra S. Hegadi,; Archana.R.A

    2011-01-01

    Data masking is the process of obscuring-masking, specific data elements within data stores. It ensures that sensitive data is replaced with realistic but not real data. The goal is that sensitive customer information is not available outside of the authorized environment. Data masking is typically done while provisioning nonproduction environments so that copies created to support test and development processes are not exposing sensitive information and thus avoiding risks of leaking. Maskin...

  8. Effects of hard mask etch on final topography of advanced phase shift masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortenbach, Olga; Rolff, Haiko; Lajn, Alexander; Baessler, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Continuous shrinking of the semiconductor device dimensions demands steady improvements of the lithographic resolution on wafer level. These requirements challenge the photomask industry to further improve the mask quality in all relevant printing characteristics. In this paper topography of the Phase Shift Masks (PSM) was investigated. Effects of hard mask etch on phase shift uniformity and mask absorber profile were studied. Design of experiments method (DoE) was used for the process optimization, whereas gas composition, bias power of the hard mask main etch and bias power of the over-etch were varied. In addition, influence of the over-etch time was examined at the end of the experiment. Absorber depth uniformity, sidewall angle (SWA), reactive ion etch lag (RIE lag) and through pitch (TP) dependence were analyzed. Measurements were performed by means of Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) using critical dimension (CD) mode with a boot-shaped tip. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) cross-section images were prepared to verify the profile quality. Finally CD analysis was performed to confirm the optimal etch conditions. Significant dependence of the absorber SWA on hard mask (HM) etch conditions was observed revealing an improvement potential for the mask absorber profile. It was found that hard mask etch can leave a depth footprint in the absorber layer. Thus, the etch depth uniformity of hard mask etch is crucial for achieving a uniform phase shift over the active mask area. The optimized hard mask etch process results in significantly improved mask topography without deterioration of tight CD specifications.

  9. Active Mask Segmentation of Fluorescence Microscope Images

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa, Gowri; Fickus, Matthew C.; Guo, Yusong; Linstedt, Adam D.; Kovačević, Jelena

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new active mask algorithm for the segmentation of fluorescence microscope images of punctate patterns. It combines the (a) flexibility offered by active-contour methods, (b) speed offered by multiresolution methods, (c) smoothing offered by multiscale methods, and (d) statistical modeling offered by region-growing methods into a fast and accurate segmentation tool. The framework moves from the idea of the “contour” to that of “inside and outside”, or, masks, allowing for easy mul...

  10. Refinement of the CALIOP cloud mask algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Shuichiro; Sato, Kaori; Ohta, Kohei; Okamoto, Hajime

    2018-04-01

    A modified cloud mask algorithm was applied to the CALIOP data to have more ability to detect the clouds in the lower atmosphere. In this algorithm, we also adopt the fully attenuation discrimination and the remain noise estimation using the data obtained at an altitude of 40 km to avoid contamination of stratospheric aerosols. The new cloud mask shows an increase in the lower cloud fraction. Comparison of the results to the data observed with a PML ground observation was also made.

  11. Surgical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nivritti G; Cheng, Stephen W K; Wong, John

    2003-08-01

    Recent high-profile cases have heightened the need for a formal structure to monitor achievement and maintenance of surgical competence. Logbooks, morbidity and mortality meetings, videos and direct observation of operations using a checklist, motion analysis devices, and virtual reality simulators are effective tools for teaching and evaluating surgical skills. As the operating theater is also a place for training, there must be protocols and guidelines, including mandatory standards for supervision, to ensure that patient care is not compromised. Patients appreciate frank communication and honesty from surgeons regarding their expertise and level of competence. To ensure that surgical competence is maintained and keeps pace with technologic advances, professional registration bodies have been promoting programs for recertification. They evaluate performance in practice, professional standing, and commitment to ongoing education.

  12. A case of BOOP-like pneumonia induced by radiotherapy after surgical resection of breast cancer which healed spontaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Masahiro; Sawada, Satoshi; Sougawa, Mitsuharu; Harima, Yoko; Kariya, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Kazuyuki

    2004-01-01

    The patient was a 67-year-old woman. After mastectomy, she received 50 Gy radiation to her chest wall using a tangential beam. About 3 months later, she developed dry cough, and an infiltrated shadow was noted in the irradiated lung. The shadow later moved to the opposite lung. The pneumonia healed spontaneously thereafter. This case is noteworthy since it endorses the previously reported clinical feature of broncholitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), i.e., a high likelihood of spontaneous healing even when it is induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  13. Masked Uncontrolled Hypertension in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Pappas, Maria K; Sinha, Arjun D

    2016-03-01

    Masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) is diagnosed in patients treated for hypertension who are normotensive in the clinic but hypertensive outside. In this study of 333 veterans with CKD, we prospectively evaluated the prevalence of MUCH as determined by ambulatory BP monitoring using three definitions of hypertension (daytime hypertension ≥135/85 mmHg; either nighttime hypertension ≥120/70 mmHg or daytime hypertension; and 24-hour hypertension ≥130/80 mmHg) or by home BP monitoring (hypertension ≥135/85 mmHg). The prevalence of MUCH was 26.7% by daytime ambulatory BP, 32.8% by 24-hour ambulatory BP, 56.1% by daytime or night-time ambulatory BP, and 50.8% by home BP. To assess the reproducibility of the diagnosis, we repeated these measurements after 4 weeks. Agreement in MUCH diagnosis by ambulatory BP was 75-78% (κ coefficient for agreement, 0.44-0.51), depending on the definition used. In contrast, home BP showed an agreement of only 63% and a κ coefficient of 0.25. Prevalence of MUCH increased with increasing clinic systolic BP: 2% in the 90-110 mmHg group, 17% in the 110-119 mmHg group, 34% in the 120-129 mmHg group, and 66% in the 130-139 mmHg group. Clinic BP was a good determinant of MUCH (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.87). In diagnosing MUCH, home BP was not different from clinic BP. In conclusion, among people with CKD, MUCH is common and reproducible, and should be suspected when clinic BP is in the prehypertensive range. Confirmation of MUCH diagnosis should rely on ambulatory BP monitoring. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Masking Period Patterns & Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-related effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H.; Menezes, Denise C.; Porter, Heather L.; Griz, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Design Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-aged (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions, and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. Results The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. Conclusions This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated non-simultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise. PMID:26230495

  15. Modulation cues influence binaural masking-level difference in masking-pattern experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschmann, Marc; Verhey, Jesko L

    2012-03-01

    Binaural masking patterns show a steep decrease in the binaural masking-level difference (BMLD) when masker and signal have no frequency component in common. Experimental threshold data are presented together with model simulations for a diotic masker centered at 250 or 500 Hz and a bandwidth of 10 or 100 Hz masking a sinusoid interaurally in phase (S(0)) or in antiphase (S(π)). Simulations with a binaural model, including a modulation filterbank for the monaural analysis, indicate that a large portion of the decrease in the BMLD in remote-masking conditions may be due to an additional modulation cue available for monaural detection. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  16. Masking Period Patterns and Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-Related Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H; Menezes, Denise C; Porter, Heather L; Griz, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-age (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated nonsimultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data, suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise.

  17. Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway versus Face Mask during Neonatal Resuscitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanuto, Daniele; Cavallin, Francesco; Nguyen, Loi Ngoc; Nguyen, Tien Viet; Tran, Linh Dieu; Tran, Chien Dinh; Doglioni, Nicoletta; Micaglio, Massimo; Moccia, Luciano

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of supreme laryngeal mask airway (SLMA) over face mask ventilation for preventing need for endotracheal intubation at birth. We report a prospective, randomized, parallel 1:1, unblinded, controlled trial. After a short-term educational intervention on SLMA use, infants ≥34-week gestation and/or expected birth weight ≥1500 g requiring positive pressure ventilation (PPV) at birth were randomized to resuscitation by SLMA or face mask. The primary outcome was the success rate of the resuscitation devices (SLMA or face mask) defined as the achievement of an effective PPV preventing the need for endotracheal intubation. We enrolled 142 patients (71 in SLMA and 71 in face mask group, respectively). Successful resuscitation rate was significantly higher with the SLMA compared with face mask ventilation (91.5% vs 78.9%; P = .03). Apgar score at 5 minutes was significantly higher in SLMA than in face mask group (P = .02). Neonatal intensive care unit admission rate was significantly lower in SLMA than in face mask group (P = .02). No complications related to the procedure occurred. In newborns with gestational age ≥34 weeks and/or expected birth weight ≥1500 g needing PPV at birth, the SLMA is more effective than face mask to prevent endotracheal intubation. The SLMA is effective in clinical practice after a short-term educational intervention. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01963936. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Phase mask coronagraphy at JPL and Palomar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serabyn E.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For the imaging of faint companions, phase mask coronagraphy has the dual advantages of a small inner working angle and high throughput. This paper summarizes our recent work in developing phase masks and in demonstrating their capabilities at JPL. Four-quadrant phase masks have been manufactured at JPL by means of both evaporation and etching, and we have been developing liquid crystal vortex phase masks in partnership with a commercial vendor. Both types of mask have been used with our extreme adaptive optics well-corrected subaperture at Palomar to detect known brown dwarf companions as close as ~ 2.5 λ/D to stars. Moreover, our recent vortex masks perform very well in laboratory tests, with a demonstrated infrared contrast of about 10−6 at 3 λ/D, and contrasts of a few 10−7 with an initial optical wavelength device. The demonstrated performance already meets the needs of ground-based extreme adaptive optics coronagraphy, and further planned improvements are aimed at reaching the 10−10 contrast needed for terrestrial exoplanet detection with a space-based coronagraph.

  19. Class III treatment using facial mask: Stability after 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luiz Ramos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Early Class III malocclusion treatment may not have long-term stability due to mandibular growth. Although some features of this malocclusion point to a better prognosis, it is practically impossible for the orthodontist to foresee cases that require new intervention. Many patients need retreatment, whether compensatory or orthodontic-surgical. The present study reports the case of a Class III patient treated at the end of the mixed dentition with the use of a face mask followed by conventional fixed appliances. The case remains stable 10 years after treatment completion. It was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  20. Conceptual Masking: How One Picture Captures Attention from Another Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Geoffrey R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Five experiments studied operations of conceptual masking--the reduction of conceptual memory performance for an initial stimulus when it is followed by a masking picture process. The subjects were 337 undergraduates at the University of Washington (Seattle). Conceptual masking is distinguished from perceptual masking. (TJH)

  1. Analysis and test of laws for backward (metacontrast) masking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francis, G.; Rothmayer, M.; Hermens, F.

    2004-01-01

    In backward visual masking, it is common to find that the mask has its biggest effect when it follows the target by several tens of milliseconds. Research in the 1960s and 1970s suggested that masking effects were best characterized by the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the target and mask.

  2. Orientation tuning of contrast masking caused by motion streaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apthorp, Deborah; Cass, John; Alais, David

    2010-08-01

    We investigated whether the oriented trails of blur left by fast-moving dots (i.e., "motion streaks") effectively mask grating targets. Using a classic overlay masking paradigm, we varied mask contrast and target orientation to reveal underlying tuning. Fast-moving Gaussian blob arrays elevated thresholds for detection of static gratings, both monoptically and dichoptically. Monoptic masking at high mask (i.e., streak) contrasts is tuned for orientation and exhibits a similar bandwidth to masking functions obtained with grating stimuli (∼30 degrees). Dichoptic masking fails to show reliable orientation-tuned masking, but dichoptic masks at very low contrast produce a narrowly tuned facilitation (∼17 degrees). For iso-oriented streak masks and grating targets, we also explored masking as a function of mask contrast. Interestingly, dichoptic masking shows a classic "dipper"-like TVC function, whereas monoptic masking shows no dip and a steeper "handle". There is a very strong unoriented component to the masking, which we attribute to transiently biased temporal frequency masking. Fourier analysis of "motion streak" images shows interesting differences between dichoptic and monoptic functions and the information in the stimulus. Our data add weight to the growing body of evidence that the oriented blur of motion streaks contributes to the processing of fast motion signals.

  3. 37 CFR 211.3 - Mask work fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mask work fees. 211.3 Section... PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.3 Mask work fees. (a) Section 201.3 of this chapter prescribes the fees or charges established by the Register of Copyrights for services relating to mask works. (b) Section...

  4. 42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a substantial...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5560 - Gas mask head strap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas mask head strap. 868.5560 Section 868.5560...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5560 Gas mask head strap. (a) Identification. A gas mask head strap is a device used to hold an anesthetic gas mask in position on a patient's...

  6. Surgical Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azarmehr, Iman; Stokbro, Kasper; Bell, R. Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review investigates the most common indications, treatments, and outcomes of surgical navigation (SN) published from 2010 to 2015. The evolution of SN and its application in oral and maxillofacial surgery have rapidly developed over recent years, and therapeutic indicatio...

  7. Surgical Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Horeman, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a surgical instrument for minimall-invasive surgery, comprising a handle, a shaft and an actuating part, characterised by a gastight cover surrounding the shaft, wherein the cover is provided with a coupler that has a feed- through opening with a loskable seal,

  8. Perception of Scary Halloween Masks by Zoo Animals and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Sinnott, Joan M.; Speaker, H. Anton; Powell, Laura A.; Mosteller, Kelly W.

    2012-01-01

    Zoo animals were tested to see if they perceived the scary nature of Halloween masks, using a procedure that measured the avoidance response latency to take food from a masked human experimenter. Human perception of the masks was also assessed using a rating scale, with results showing that a Bill Clinton mask was rated not scary, while a Vampire mask was rated very scary. Animal results showed that primate latencies correlated significantly with the human ratings, while non-primate latencies...

  9. Simultaneous pure-tone masking : the dependence of masking asymmetries on intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogten, L.L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Phase locking between probe and masker was used in a series of pure-tone masking experiments. The masker was a stationary sine wave of variable frequency; the probe a fixed-frequency tone burst. We have observed that for small frequency separation the masking behaves asymmetrically around the probe

  10. An etching mask and a method to produce an etching mask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to an etching mask comprising silicon containing block copolymers produced by self-assembly techniques onto silicon or graphene substrate. Through the use of the etching mask, nanostructures having long linear features having sub-10 nm width can be produced....

  11. A prospective study to evaluate and compare laryngeal mask airway ProSeal and i-gel airway in the prone position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxak, Susheela; Gopinath, Ajith; Saini, Savita; Bansal, Teena; Ahlawat, Mangal Singh; Bala, Manju

    2015-01-01

    Prone position is commonly used to provide surgical access to a variety of surgeries. In view of the advantages of induction of anesthesia in the prone position, we conducted a randomized study to evaluate and compare ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and i-gel in the prone position. Totally, 40 patients of either sex as per American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, between 16 and 60 years of age, scheduled to undergo surgery in prone position were included in the study. After the patients positioned themselves prone on the operating table, anesthesia was induced by the standard technique. LMA ProSeal was used as an airway conduit in group 1 while i-gel was used in group 2. At the end of surgery, the airway device was removed in the same position. Insertion of airway device was successful in first attempt in 16, and 17 cases in ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) and i-gel groups, respectively. A second attempt was required to secure the airway in 4 and 3 patients in PLMA and i-gel groups, respectively. The mean insertion time was 21.8 ± 2.70 s for group 1 and 13.1 ± 2.24 s for group 2, the difference being statistically significant (P position. The PLMA has a better seal while insertion is easier with i-gel.

  12. [Recognition of visual objects under forward masking. Effects of cathegorial similarity of test and masking stimuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, N Iu; Slavutskaia, A V; Kalinin, S A; Kulikov, M A; Mikhaĭlova, E S

    2013-01-01

    In 38 healthy subjects accuracy and response time were examined during recognition of two categories of images--animals andnonliving objects--under forward masking. We revealed new data that masking effects depended of categorical similarity of target and masking stimuli. The recognition accuracy was the lowest and the response time was the most slow, when the target and masking stimuli belongs to the same category, that was combined with high dispersion of response times. The revealed effects were more clear in the task of animal recognition in comparison with the recognition of nonliving objects. We supposed that the revealed effects connected with interference between cortical representations of the target and masking stimuli and discussed our results in context of cortical interference and negative priming.

  13. Endogenous cueing attenuates object substitution masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeys, Filip; Pomianowska, I; De Graef, P; Zaenen, P; Verfaillie, K

    2010-07-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) is a form of visual masking in which a briefly presented target surrounded by four small dots is masked by the continuing presence of the four dots after target offset. A major parameter in the prediction of OSM is the time required for attention to be directed to the target following its onset. Object substitution theory (Di Lollo et al. in J Exp Psychol Gen 129:481-507, 2000) predicts that the sooner attention can be focused at the target's location, the less masking will ensue. However, recently Luiga and Bachmann (Psychol Res 71:634-640, 2007) presented evidence that precueing of attention to the target location prior to target-plus-mask onset by means of a central (endogenous) arrow cue does not reduce OSM. When attention was cued exogenously, OSM was attenuated. Based on these results, Luiga and Bachmann argued that object substitution theory should be adapted by differentiating the ways of directing attention to the target location. The goal of the present study was to further examine the dissociation between the effects of endogenous and exogenous precueing on OSM. Contrary to Luiga and Bachmann, our results show that prior shifts of attention to the target location initiated by both exogenous and endogenous cues reduce OSM as predicted by object substitution theory and its computational model CMOS.

  14. Mitigating mask roughness via pupil filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylav, B.; Maloney, C.; Levinson, Z.; Bekaert, J.; Vaglio Pret, A.; Smith, B.

    2014-03-01

    The roughness present on the sidewalls of lithographically defined patterns imposes a very important challenge for advanced technology nodes. It can originate from the aerial image or the photoresist chemistry/processing [1]. The latter remains to be the dominant group in ArF and KrF lithography; however, the roughness originating from the mask transferred to the aerial image is gaining more attention [2-9], especially for the imaging conditions with large mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) values. The mask roughness contribution is usually in the low frequency range, which is particularly detrimental to the device performance by causing variations in electrical device parameters on the same chip [10-12]. This paper explains characteristic differences between pupil plane filtering in amplitude and in phase for the purpose of mitigating mask roughness transfer under interference-like lithography imaging conditions, where onedirectional periodic features are to be printed by partially coherent sources. A white noise edge roughness was used to perturbate the mask features for validating the mitigation.

  15. EUV mask process specifics and development challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesladek, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    EUV lithography is currently the favorite and most promising candidate among the next generation lithography (NGL) technologies. Decade ago the NGL was supposed to be used for 45 nm technology node. Due to introduction of immersion 193nm lithography, double/triple patterning and further techniques, the 193 nm lithography capabilities was greatly improved, so it is expected to be used successfully depending on business decision of the end user down to 10 nm logic. Subsequent technology node will require EUV or DSA alternative technology. Manufacturing and especially process development for EUV technology requires significant number of unique processes, in several cases performed at dedicated tools. Currently several of these tools as e.g. EUV AIMS or actinic reflectometer are not available on site yet. The process development is done using external services /tools with impact on the single unit process development timeline and the uncertainty of the process performance estimation, therefore compromises in process development, caused by assumption about similarities between optical and EUV mask made in experiment planning and omitting of tests are further reasons for challenges to unit process development. Increased defect risk and uncertainty in process qualification are just two examples, which can impact mask quality / process development. The aim of this paper is to identify critical aspects of the EUV mask manufacturing with respect to defects on the mask with focus on mask cleaning and defect repair and discuss the impact of the EUV specific requirements on the experiments needed.

  16. Disrupting the Indian hedgehog signaling pathway in vivo attenuates surgically induced osteoarthritis progression in Col2a1-CreERT2; Ihhfl/fl mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous observations implicate Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling in osteoarthritis (OA) development because it regulates chondrocyte hypertrophy and matrix metallopeptidase 13 (MMP-13) expression. However, there is no direct genetic evidence for the role of Ihh in OA, because mice with cartilage or other tissue-specific deletion of the Ihh gene die shortly after birth. We evaluated the role of Ihh in vivo via a Cre-loxP-mediated approach to circumvent the early death caused by Ihh deficiency. Methods To evaluate the role of Ihh in OA development, Ihh was specifically deleted in murine cartilage using an Ihh conditional deletion construct (Col2a1-CreERT2; Ihhfl/fl). The extent of cartilage degradation and OA progression after Ihh deletion was assessed by histological analysis, immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and in vivo fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) 2 months after OA was induced by partial medial meniscectomy. The effect of Ihh signaling on cartilage was compared between Ihh-deleted mice and their control littermates. Results Only mild OA changes were observed in Ihh-deleted mice, while control mice displayed significantly more cartilage damage. Typical OA markers such as type X collagen and MMP-13 were decreased in Ihh-deleted mice. In vivo FMT demonstrated decreased cathepsins and MMP activity in knee joints of animals with deletion of Ihh. Conclusions These findings support the protective role of Ihh deletion in surgically induced OA. Thus, our findings suggest the potential to develop new therapeutic strategies that can prevent and treat OA by inhibiting Ihh signaling in chondrocytes. PMID:24428864

  17. Evaluation of the usefulness of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography in a guinea pig model of endolymphatic hydrops induced by surgical obliteration of the endolymphatic duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Nam Hyun; Lee, Jang Woo; Cho, Jin-ho; Kim, Jeehyun; Jang, Jeong Hun; Jung, Woonggyu

    2015-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has advanced significantly over the past two decades and is currently used extensively to monitor the internal structures of organs, particularly in ophthalmology and dermatology. We used ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) to decalcify the bony walls of the cochlea and investigated the inner structures by deep penetration of light into the cochlear tissue using OCT on a guinea pig model of endolymphatic hydrops (EH), induced by surgical obliteration of the endolymphatic duct. The structural and functional changes associated with EH were identified using OCT and auditory brainstem response tests, respectively. We also evaluated structural alterations in the cochlea using three-dimensional reconstruction of the OCT images, which clearly showed physical changes in the cochlear structures. Furthermore, we found significant anatomical variations in the EH model and conducted graphical analysis by strial atrophy for comparison. The physical changes included damage to and flattening of the organ of Corti-evidence of Reissner's membrane distention-and thinning of the lateral wall. These results indicate that observation of EDTA-decalcified cochlea using OCT is significant in examination of gradual changes in the cochlear structures that are otherwise not depicted by hematoxylin and eosin staining.

  18. Improved Mask Protected DES using RSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Latha S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The data encryption standard is a pioneering and farsighted standard which helped to set a new paradigm for encryption standards. But now DES is considered to be insecure for some application. Asymmetric mask protected DES is an advanced encryption method for effectively protecting the advanced DES. There are still probabilities to improve its security. This paper propose a method, which introduce a RSA key generation scheme in mask protected DES instead of plain key, which result in enhancement in the security of present asymmetric mask protected DES. We further propose a Vedic mathematical method of RSA implementation which reduce the complexity of computation in RSA block thereby resulting in reduced delay (four timesthat improves the performance of overall system. The software implementation was performed using Xilinx 13.2 and Model-Sim was used for the simulation environment.

  19. Pattern transfer with stabilized nanoparticle etch masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, Charles R; Majetich, Sara A; Picard, Yoosuf N; Narasimhan, Amrit; Bain, James A

    2013-01-01

    Self-assembled nanoparticle monolayer arrays are used as an etch mask for pattern transfer into Si and SiO x substrates. Crack formation within the array is prevented by electron beam curing to fix the nanoparticles to the substrate, followed by a brief oxygen plasma to remove excess carbon. This leaves a dot array of nanoparticle cores with a minimum gap of 2 nm. Deposition and liftoff can transform the dot array mask into an antidot mask, where the gap is determined by the nanoparticle core diameter. Reactive ion etching is used to transfer the dot and antidot patterns into the substrate. The effect of the gap size on the etching rate is modeled and compared with the experimental results. (paper)

  20. Counteracting Power Analysis Attacks by Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Elisabeth; Mangard, Stefan

    The publication of power analysis attacks [12] has triggered a lot of research activities. On the one hand these activities have been dedicated toward the development of secure and efficient countermeasures. On the other hand also new and improved attacks have been developed. In fact, there has been a continuous arms race between designers of countermeasures and attackers. This chapter provides a brief overview of the state-of-the art in the arms race in the context of a countermeasure called masking. Masking is a popular countermeasure that has been extensively discussed in the scientific community. Numerous articles have been published that explain different types of masking and that analyze weaknesses of this countermeasure.

  1. Effect of mask dead space and occlusion of mask holes on delivery of nebulized albuterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinski, Ariel

    2014-08-01

    Infants and children with respiratory conditions are often prescribed bronchodilators. Face masks are used to facilitate the administration of nebulized therapy in patients unable to use a mouthpiece. Masks incorporate holes into their design, and their occlusion during aerosol delivery has been a common practice. Masks are available in different sizes and different dead volumes. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different degrees of occlusion of the mask holes and different mask dead space on the amount of nebulized albuterol available at the mouth opening in a model of a spontaneously breathing child. A breathing simulator mimicking infant (tidal volume [VT] = 50 mL, breathing frequency = 30 breaths/min, inspiratory-expiratory ratio [I:E] = 1:3), child (VT = 155 mL, breathing frequency = 25 breaths/min, I:E = 1:2), and adult (VT = 500 mL, breathing frequency = 15 breaths/min, I:E = 1:2) breathing patterns was connected to a collection filter hidden behind a face plate. A pediatric size mask and an adult size mask connected to a continuous output jet nebulizer were sealed to the face plate. Three nebulizers were loaded with albuterol sulfate (2.5 mg/3 mL) and operated with 6 L/min compressed air for 5 min. Experiments were repeated with different degrees of occlusion (0%, 50%, and 90%). Albuterol was extracted from the filter and measured with a spectrophotometer at 276 nm. Occlusion of the holes in the large mask did not increase the amount of albuterol in any of the breathing patterns. The amount of albuterol captured at the mouth opening did not change when the small mask was switched to the large mask, except with the breathing pattern of a child, and when the holes in the mask were 50% occluded (P = .02). Neither decreasing the dead space of the mask nor occluding the mask holes increased the amount of nebulized albuterol captured at the mouth opening.

  2. Individual differences in metacontrast masking regarding sensitivity and response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Thorsten; Mattler, Uwe

    2012-09-01

    In metacontrast masking target visibility is modulated by the time until a masking stimulus appears. The effect of this temporal delay differs across participants in such a way that individual human observers' performance shows distinguishable types of masking functions which remain largely unchanged for months. Here we examined whether individual differences in masking functions depend on different response criteria in addition to differences in discrimination sensitivity. To this end we reanalyzed previously published data and conducted a new experiment for further data analyses. Our analyses demonstrate that a distinction of masking functions based on the type of masking stimulus is superior to a distinction based on the target-mask congruency. Individually different masking functions are based on individual differences in discrimination sensitivities and in response criteria. Results suggest that individual differences in metacontrast masking result from individually different criterion contents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of TOPAZ masking system using EGS4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Shoji

    1991-01-01

    There are two sources of the beam background in the e + e - collider experiments. One source is the synchrotron radiation from many magnets. Another source comes from the spent-electron hitting the beam pipe near the interaction region. To reduce the these background, TOPAZ masking system was designed using EGS4 code. The designed masking system consists of two pairs of masks which are called mask-1 and mask-2. The mask-1 is placed to intercept the spent-electron. The aperture of the mask-2 was determined for the synchrotron radiation photons not to hit the mask-1 directly. After these masks were installed, we are taking the data in the small beam background. (author)

  4. Metacontrast masking is processed before grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Michael Patrick; Bridgeman, Bruce; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the physiological mechanism of grapheme-color synesthesia using metacontrast masking. A metacontrast target is rendered invisible by a mask that is delayed by about 60 ms; the target and mask do not overlap in space or time. Little masking occurs, however, if the target and mask are simultaneous. This effect must be cortical, because it can be obtained dichoptically. To compare the data for synesthetes and controls, we developed a metacontrast design in which nonsynesthete controls showed weaker dichromatic masking (i.e., the target and mask were in different colors) than monochromatic masking. We accomplished this with an equiluminant target, mask, and background for each observer. If synesthetic color affected metacontrast, synesthetes should show monochromatic masking more similar to the weak dichromatic masking among controls, because synesthetes could add their synesthetic color to the monochromatic condition. The target-mask pairs used for each synesthete were graphemes that elicited strong synesthetic colors. We found stronger monochromatic than dichromatic U-shaped metacontrast for both synesthetes and controls, with optimal masking at an asynchrony of 66 ms. The difference in performance between the monochromatic and dichromatic conditions in the synesthetes indicates that synesthesia occurs at a later processing stage than does metacontrast masking.

  5. Demagnifying electron projection with grid masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politycki, A.; Meyer, A.

    1978-01-01

    Tightly toleranced micro- and submicrostructures with smooth edges were realized by using transmission masks with an improved supporting grid (width of traverses 0.8 μm). Local edge shift due to the proximity effect is kept at a minimum. Supporting grids with stil narrower traverses (0.5 μm) were prepared by generating the grid pattern by electron beam writing. Masks of this kind allow projection at a demagnification ratio of 1:4, resulting in large image fields. (orig.) [de

  6. The pros and cons of masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, K I

    1998-03-01

    Masked priming paradigms offer the promise of tapping automatic, strategy-free lexical processing, as evidenced by the lack of expectancy disconfirmation effects, and proportionality effects in semantic priming experiments. But several recent findings suggest the effects may be prelexical. These findings concern nonword priming effects in lexical decision and naming, the effects of mixed-case presentation on nonword priming, and the dependence of priming on the nature of the distractors in lexical decision, suggesting possible strategy effects. The theory underlying each of these effects is discussed, and alternative explanations are developed that do not preclude a lexical basis for masked priming effects.

  7. RapidNano: towards 20nm Particle Detection on EUV Mask Blanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der; Bussink, P.G.W.; Fritz, E.C.; Walle, P. van der

    2016-01-01

    Cleanliness is a prerequisite for obtaining economically feasible yield levels in the semiconductor industry. For the next generation of lithographic equipment, EUV lithography, the size of yield-loss inducing particles for the masks will be smaller than 20 nm. Consequently, equipment for handling

  8. Cosmic Ballet or Devil's Mask?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Stars like our Sun are members of galaxies, and most galaxies are themselves members of clusters of galaxies. In these, they move around among each other in a mostly slow and graceful ballet. But every now and then, two or more of the members may get too close for comfort - the movements become hectic, sometimes indeed dramatic, as when galaxies end up colliding. ESO PR Photo 12/04 shows an example of such a cosmic tango. This is the superb triple system NGC 6769-71, located in the southern Pavo constellation (the Peacock) at a distance of 190 million light-years. This composite image was obtained on April 1, 2004, the day of the Fifth Anniversary of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It was taken in the imaging mode of the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) on Melipal, one of the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the VLT at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). The two upper galaxies, NGC 6769 (upper right) and NGC 6770 (upper left), are of equal brightness and size, while NGC 6771 (below) is about half as bright and slightly smaller. All three galaxies possess a central bulge of similar brightness. They consist of elderly, reddish stars and that of NGC 6771 is remarkable for its "boxy" shape, a rare occurrence among galaxies. Gravitational interaction in a small galaxy group NGC 6769 is a spiral galaxy with very tightly wound spiral arms, while NGC 6770 has two major spiral arms, one of which is rather straight and points towards the outer disc of NGC 6769. NGC 6770 is also peculiar in that it presents two comparatively straight dark lanes and a fainter arc that curves towards the third galaxy, NGC 6771 (below). It is also obvious from this new VLT photo that stars and gas have been stripped off NGC 6769 and NGC 6770, starting to form a common envelope around them, in the shape of a Devil's Mask. There is also a weak hint of a tenuous bridge between NGC 6769 and NGC 6771. All of these features testify to strong gravitational interaction between the three galaxies

  9. Are Masking-Based Models of Risk Useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisiner, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    As our understanding of directly observable effects from anthropogenic sound exposure has improved, concern about "unobservable" effects such as stress and masking have received greater attention. Equal energy models of masking such as power spectrum models have the appeal of simplicity, but do they offer biologically realistic assessments of the risk of masking? Data relevant to masking such as critical ratios, critical bandwidths, temporal resolution, and directional resolution along with what is known about general mammalian antimasking mechanisms all argue for a much more complicated view of masking when making decisions about the risk of masking inherent in a given anthropogenic sound exposure scenario.

  10. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  11. Simultaneous masking between electric and acoustic stimulation in cochlear implant users with residual low-frequency hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Benjamin; Büchner, Andreas; Nogueira, Waldo

    2017-09-01

    Ipsilateral electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) is becoming increasingly important in cochlear implant (CI) treatment. Improvements in electrode designs and surgical techniques have contributed to improved hearing preservation during implantation. Consequently, CI implantation criteria have been expanded toward people with significant residual low-frequency hearing, who may benefit from the combined use of both the electric and acoustic stimulation in the same ear. However, only few studies have investigated the mutual interaction between electric and acoustic stimulation modalities. This work characterizes the interaction between both stimulation modalities using psychophysical masking experiments and cone beam computer tomography (CBCT). Two psychophysical experiments for electric and acoustic masking were performed to measure the hearing threshold elevation of a probe stimulus in the presence of a masker stimulus. For electric masking, the probe stimulus was an acoustic tone while the masker stimulus was an electric pulse train. For acoustic masking, the probe stimulus was an electric pulse train and the masker stimulus was an acoustic tone. Five EAS users, implanted with a CI and ipsilateral residual low-frequency hearing, participated in the study. Masking was determined at different electrodes and different acoustic frequencies. CBCT scans were used to determine the individual place-pitch frequencies of the intracochlear electrode contacts by using the Stakhovskaya place-to-frequency transformation. This allows the characterization of masking as a function of the difference between electric and acoustic stimulation sites, which we term the electric-acoustic frequency difference (EAFD). The results demonstrate a significant elevation of detection thresholds for both experiments. In electric masking, acoustic-tone thresholds increased exponentially with decreasing EAFD. In contrast, for the acoustic masking experiment, threshold elevations were present

  12. Evaluation of a new pediatric positive airway pressure mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Clete A; Halbower, Ann C; Kryger, Meir H; Pelayo, Rafael; Assalone, Valerie; Cardell, Chia-Yu; Huston, Stephanie; Willes, Leslee; Wimms, Alison J; Mendoza, June

    2014-09-15

    The choice and variety of pediatric masks for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is limited in the US. Therefore, clinicians often prescribe modified adult masks. Until recently a mask for children aged mask for children aged 2-7 years (Pixi; ResMed Ltd, Sydney, Australia). Patients aged 2-7 years were enrolled and underwent in-lab baseline polysomnography (PSG) using their previous mask, then used their previous mask and the VPAP III ST-A flow generator for ≥ 10 nights at home. Thereafter, patients switched to the Pixi mask for ≥ 2 nights before returning for a PSG during PAP therapy via the Pixi mask. Patients then used the Pixi mask at home for ≥ 21 nights. Patients and their parents/guardians returned to the clinic for follow-up and provided feedback on the Pixi mask versus their previous mask. AHI with the Pixi mask was 1.1 ± 1.5/h vs 2.6 ± 5.4/h with the previous mask (p = 0.3538). Parents rated the Pixi mask positively for: restfulness of the child's sleep, trouble in getting the child to sleep, and trouble in having the child stay asleep. The Pixi mask was also rated highly for leaving fewer or no marks on the upper lip and under the child's ears, and being easy to remove. The Pixi mask is suitable for children aged 2-7 years and provides an alternative to other masks available for PAP therapy in this age group. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  13. Micropatterning on cylindrical surfaces via electrochemical etching using laser masking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chull Hee; Shin, Hong Shik; Chu, Chong Nam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Various micropatterns were fabricated on the cylindrical surface of a stainless steel shaft. • Selective electrochemical dissolution was achieved via a series process of laser masking and electrochemical etching. • Laser masking characteristics on the non-planar surface were investigated. • A uniform mask layer was formed on the cylindrical surface via synchronized laser line scanning with a rotary system. • The characteristics of electrochemical etching on the non-planar surface were investigated. - Abstract: This paper proposes a method of selective electrochemical dissolution on the cylindrical surfaces of stainless steel shafts. Selective electrochemical dissolution was achieved via electrochemical etching using laser masking. A micropatterned recast layer was formed on the surface via ytterbium-doped pulsed fiber laser irradiation. The micropatterned recast layer could be used as a mask layer during the electrochemical etching process. Laser masking condition to form adequate mask layer on the planar surface for etching cannot be used directly on the non-planar surface. Laser masking condition changes depending on the morphological surface. The laser masking characteristics were investigated in order to form a uniform mask layer on the cylindrical surface. To minimize factors causing non-uniformity in the mask layer on the cylindrical surface, synchronized laser line scanning with a rotary system was applied during the laser masking process. Electrochemical etching characteristics were also investigated to achieve deeper etched depth, without collapsing the recast layer. Consequently, through a series process of laser masking and electrochemical etching, various micropatternings were successfully performed on the cylindrical surfaces

  14. Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masud Sarmad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The incidence of damage to the individual cranial nerves and their branches associated with laryngeal mask airway use is low; there have been case reports of damage to the lingual nerve, hypoglossal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve. To the best of our knowledge we present the first reported case of inferior alveolar nerve injury associated with laryngeal mask airway use. Case presentation A 35-year-old Caucasian man presented to our facility for elective anterior cruciate ligament repair. He had no background history of any significant medical problems. He opted for general anesthesia over a regional technique. He was induced with fentanyl and propofol and a size 4 laryngeal mask airway was inserted without any problems. His head was in a neutral position during the surgery. After surgery in the recovery room, he complained of numbness in his lower lip. He also developed extensive scabbing of the lower lip on the second day after surgery. The numbness and scabbing started improving after a week, with complete recovery after two weeks. Conclusion We report the first case of vascular occlusion and injury to the inferior alveolar nerve, causing scabbing and numbness of the lower lip, resulting from laryngeal mask airway use. This is an original case report mostly of interest for anesthetists who use the laryngeal mask airway in day-to-day practice. Excessive inflation of the laryngeal mask airway cuff could have led to this complication. Despite the low incidence of cranial nerve injury associated with the use of the laryngeal mask airway, vigilant adherence to evidence-based medicine techniques and recommendations from the manufacturer's instructions can prevent such complications.

  15. Posleslovije k "Zolotoi maske" / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Vene draamafestivali "Kuldne mask Eestis" lavastusest : "September.doc", lav. Mihhail Ugarov, I. Võrõpajevi "Hapnik" lav. Viktor Rõzhakov Teatr.doc esituses, Sophoklese "Kuningas Oidipus" lav. Andrei Prikotenko Peterburi Teatri Liteinõi esituses, M. Ugarovi lavastus "OblomOFF"

  16. Emergency airway management with laryngeal mask airway

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... management and as a ventilatory device during anesthesia. It is concluded that ... minutes with a tight fitting face mask and a closed system; and 0.6 mg of ... In the operating suite, intravenous access was secured and saline ...

  17. Using excitation patterns to predict auditory masking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der M.L.; Kohlrausch, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated how well auditory masking can be predicted from excitation patterns. For this purpose, a quantitative model proposed by Moore and Glasberg (1987) and Glasberg and Moore (1990) was used to calculate excitation patterns evoked by stationary sounds. We performed simulations of a number

  18. Central auditory masking by an illusory tone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Plack

    Full Text Available Many natural sounds fluctuate over time. The detectability of sounds in a sequence can be reduced by prior stimulation in a process known as forward masking. Forward masking is thought to reflect neural adaptation or neural persistence in the auditory nervous system, but it has been unclear where in the auditory pathway this processing occurs. To address this issue, the present study used a "Huggins pitch" stimulus, the perceptual effects of which depend on central auditory processing. Huggins pitch is an illusory tonal sensation produced when the same noise is presented to the two ears except for a narrow frequency band that is different (decorrelated between the ears. The pitch sensation depends on the combination of the inputs to the two ears, a process that first occurs at the level of the superior olivary complex in the brainstem. Here it is shown that a Huggins pitch stimulus produces more forward masking in the frequency region of the decorrelation than a noise stimulus identical to the Huggins-pitch stimulus except with perfect correlation between the ears. This stimulus has a peripheral neural representation that is identical to that of the Huggins-pitch stimulus. The results show that processing in, or central to, the superior olivary complex can contribute to forward masking in human listeners.

  19. Testing Tactile Masking between the Forearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2016-02-10

    Masking, in which one stimulus affects the detection of another, is a classic technique that has been used in visual, auditory, and tactile research, usually using stimuli that are close together to reveal local interactions. Masking effects have also been demonstrated in which a tactile stimulus alters the perception of a touch at a distant location. Such effects can provide insight into how components of the body's representations in the brain may be linked. Occasional reports have indicated that touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at corresponding contralateral locations. To explore the matching of corresponding points across the body, we can measure the spatial tuning and effect of posture on contralateral masking. Careful controls are required to rule out direct effects of the remote stimulus, for example by mechanical transmission, and also attention effects in which thresholds may be altered by the participant's attention being drawn away from the stimulus of interest. The use of this technique is beneficial as a behavioural measure for exploring which parts of the body are functionally connected and whether the two sides of the body interact in a somatotopic representation. This manuscript describes a behavioural protocol that can be used for studying contralateral tactile masking.

  20. Software error masking effect on hardware faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Gyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1999-01-01

    Based on the Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL), in this work, a simulation model for fault injection is developed to estimate the dependability of the digital system in operational phase. We investigated the software masking effect on hardware faults through the single bit-flip and stuck-at-x fault injection into the internal registers of the processor and memory cells. The fault location reaches all registers and memory cells. Fault distribution over locations is randomly chosen based on a uniform probability distribution. Using this model, we have predicted the reliability and masking effect of an application software in a digital system-Interposing Logic System (ILS) in a nuclear power plant. We have considered four the software operational profiles. From the results it was found that the software masking effect on hardware faults should be properly considered for predicting the system dependability accurately in operation phase. It is because the masking effect was formed to have different values according to the operational profile

  1. Shadow mask evaporation through monolayer modified nanostencils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolbel, M.; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Brugger, J.P.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Nijdam, W.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2002-01-01

    Gradual clogging of the apertures of nanostencils used as miniature shadow masks in metal evaporations can be reduced by coating the stencil with self-assembled monolayers (SAM). This is quantified by the dimensions (height and volume) of gold features obtained by nanostencil evaporation as measured

  2. Method for coating substrates and mask holder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, Frederik; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; Kessels, M.J.H.; Maas, Edward Lambertus Gerardus; Bruineman, Caspar

    2004-01-01

    When coating substrates it is frequently desired that the layer thickness should be a certain function of the position on the substrate to be coated. To control the layer thickness a mask is conventionally arranged between the coating particle source and the substrate. This leads to undesirable

  3. Parallel Implementation of the Terrain Masking Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    contains behavior rules which can define a computation or an algorithm. It can communicate with other process nodes, it can contain local data, and it can...terrain maskirg calculation is being performed. It is this algorithm that comsumes about seventy percent of the total terrain masking calculation time

  4. Green binary and phase shifting mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, S. L.; Hong, Chao-Sin; Wu, Cheng-San; Chen, S. J.; Wu, Hung-Yu; Ting, Yung-Chiang

    2009-12-01

    SixNy/Ni thin film green mask blanks were developed , and are now going to be used to replace general chromium film used for binary mask as well as to replace molydium silicide embedded material for AttPSM for I-line (365 nm), KrF (248 nm), ArF (193 nm) and Contact/Proximity lithography. A bilayer structure of a 1 nm thick opaque, conductive nickel layer and a SixNy layer is proposed for binary and phase-shifting mask. With the good controlling of plasma CVD of SixNy under silane (50 sccm), ammonia (5 sccm) and nitrogen (100 sccm), the pressure is 250 mTorr. and RF frequency 13.56 MHz and power 50 W. SixNy has enough deposition latitude to meet the requirements as an embedded layer for required phase shift 180 degree, and the T% in 193, 248 and 365 nm can be adjusted between 2% to 20% for binary and phase shifting mask usage. Ni can be deposited by E-gun, its sheet resistance Rs is less than 1.435 kΩ/square. Jeol e-beam system and I-line stepper are used to evaluate these thin film green mask blanks, feature size less than 200 nm half pitch pattern and 0.558 μm pitch contact hole can be printed. Transmission spectrums of various thickness of SixNy film are inspected by using UV spectrometer and FTIR. Optical constants of the SixNy film are measured by n & k meter and surface roughness is inspected by using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM).

  5. A chronometric exploration of high-resolution 'sensitive TMS masking' effects on subjective and objective measures of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; Herring, Jim; Sack, Alexander T

    2011-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can induce masking by interfering with ongoing neural activity in early visual cortex. Previous work has explored the chronometry of occipital involvement in vision by using single pulses of TMS with high temporal resolution. However, conventionally TMS intensities have been high and the only measure used to evaluate masking was objective in nature. Recent studies have begun to incorporate subjective measures of vision, alongside objective ones. The current study goes beyond previous work in two regards. First, we explored both objective vision (an orientation discrimination task) and subjective vision (a stimulus visibility rating on a four-point scale), across a wide range of time windows with high temporal resolution. Second, we used a very sensitive TMS-masking paradigm: stimulation was at relatively low TMS intensities, with a figure-8 coil, and the small stimulus was difficult to discriminate already at baseline level. We hypothesized that this should increase the effective temporal resolution of our paradigm. Perhaps for this reason, we are able to report a rather interesting masking curve. Within the classical-masking time window, previously reported to encompass broad SOAs anywhere between 60 and 120 ms, we report not one, but at least two dips in objective performance, with no masking in-between. The subjective measure of vision did not mirror this pattern. These preliminary data from our exploratory design suggest that, with sensitive TMS masking, we might be able to reveal visual processes in early visual cortex previously unreported.

  6. Summation versus suppression in metacontrast masking: On the potential pitfalls of using metacontrast masking to assess perceptual-motor dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Waszak, Florian

    2014-07-01

    A briefly flashed target stimulus can become "invisible" when immediately followed by a mask-a phenomenon known as backward masking, which constitutes a major tool in the cognitive sciences. One form of backward masking is termed metacontrast masking. It is generally assumed that in metacontrast masking, the mask suppresses activity on which the conscious perception of the target relies. This assumption biases conclusions when masking is used as a tool-for example, to study the independence between perceptual detection and motor reaction. This is because other models can account for reduced perceptual performance without requiring suppression mechanisms. In this study, we used signal detection theory to test the suppression model against an alternative view of metacontrast masking, referred to as the summation model. This model claims that target- and mask-related activations fuse and that the difficulty in detecting the target results from the difficulty to discriminate this fused response from the response produced by the mask alone. Our data support this alternative view. This study is not a thorough investigation of metacontrast masking. Instead, we wanted to point out that when a different model is used to account for the reduced perceptual performance in metacontrast masking, there is no need to postulate a dissociation between perceptual and motor responses to account for the data. Metacontrast masking, as implemented in the Fehrer-Raab situation, therefore is not a valid method to assess perceptual-motor dissociations.

  7. Oral mask ventilation is more effective than face mask ventilation after nasal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazicioğlu, Dilek; Baran, Ilkay; Uzumcugil, Filiz; Ozturk, Ibrahim; Utebey, Gulten; Sayın, M Murat

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate and compare the face mask (FM) and oral mask (OM) ventilation techniques during anesthesia emergence regarding tidal volume, leak volume, and difficult mask ventilation (DMV) incidence. Prospective, randomized, crossover study. Operating room, training and research hospital. American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II adult patients scheduled for nasal surgery. Patients in group FM-OM received FM ventilation first, followed by OM ventilation, and patients in group OM-FM received OM ventilation first, followed by FM ventilation, with spontaneous ventilation after deep extubation. The FM ventilation was applied with the 1-handed EC-clamp technique. The OM was placed only over the mouth, and the 1-handed EC-clamp technique was used again. A child's size FM was used for the OM ventilation technique, the mask was rotated, and the inferior part of the mask was placed toward the nose. The leak volume (MVleak), mean airway pressure (Pmean), and expired tidal volume (TVe) were assessed with each mask technique for 3 consecutive breaths. A mask ventilation grade ≥3 was considered DMV. DMV occurred more frequently during FM ventilation (75% with FM vs 8% with OM). In the FM-first sequence, the mean TVe was 249±61mL with the FM and 455±35mL with the OM (P=.0001), whereas in the OM-first sequence, it was 276±81mL with the FM and 409±37mL with the OM (P=.0001). Regardless of the order used, the OM technique significantly decreased the MVleak and increased the TVe when compared to the FM technique. During anesthesia emergence after nasal surgery the OM may offer an effective ventilation method as it decreases the incidence of DMV and the gas leak around the mask and provides higher tidal volume delivery compared with FM ventilation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nasal mask ventilation is better than face mask ventilation in edentulous patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, Mukul Chandra; Rana, Sandeep; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Vishal, Vindhya; Sikdar, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Face mask ventilation of the edentulous patient is often difficult as ineffective seating of the standard mask to the face prevents attainment of an adequate air seal. The efficacy of nasal ventilation in edentulous patients has been cited in case reports but has never been investigated. Material and Methods: Consecutive edentulous adult patients scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, during a 17-month period, were prospectively ev...

  9. Mask_explorer: A tool for exploring brain masks in fMRI group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdoš, Martin; Mikl, Michal; Mareček, Radek

    2016-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of the human brain are appearing in increasing numbers, providing interesting information about this complex system. Unique information about healthy and diseased brains is inferred using many types of experiments and analyses. In order to obtain reliable information, it is necessary to conduct consistent experiments with large samples of subjects and to involve statistical methods to confirm or reject any tested hypotheses. Group analysis is performed for all voxels within a group mask, i.e. a common space where all of the involved subjects contribute information. To our knowledge, a user-friendly interface with the ability to visualize subject-specific details in a common analysis space did not yet exist. The purpose of our work is to develop and present such interface. Several pitfalls have to be avoided while preparing fMRI data for group analysis. One such pitfall is spurious non-detection, caused by inferring conclusions in the volume of a group mask that has been corrupted due to a preprocessing failure. We describe a MATLAB toolbox, called the mask_explorer, designed for prevention of this pitfall. The mask_explorer uses a graphical user interface, enables a user-friendly exploration of subject masks and is freely available. It is able to compute subject masks from raw data and create lists of subjects with potentially problematic data. It runs under MATLAB with the widely used SPM toolbox. Moreover, we present several practical examples where the mask_explorer is usefully applied. The mask_explorer is designed to quickly control the quality of the group fMRI analysis volume and to identify specific failures related to preprocessing steps and acquisition. It helps researchers detect subjects with potentially problematic data and consequently enables inspection of the data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scatterometry on pelliclized masks: an option for wafer fabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Emily; Benson, Craig; Higuchi, Masaru; Okumoto, Yasuhiro; Kwon, Michael; Yedur, Sanjay; Li, Shifang; Lee, Sangbong; Tabet, Milad

    2007-03-01

    Optical scatterometry-based metrology is now widely used in wafer fabs for lithography, etch, and CMP applications. This acceptance of a new metrology method occurred despite the abundance of wellestablished CD-SEM and AFM methods. It was driven by the desire to make measurements faster and with a lower cost of ownership. Over the last year, scatterometry has also been introduced in advanced mask shops for mask measurements. Binary and phase shift masks have been successfully measured at all desired points during photomask production before the pellicle is mounted. There is a significant benefit to measuring masks with the pellicle in place. From the wafer fab's perspective, through-pellicle metrology would verify mask effects on the same features that are characterized on wafer. On-site mask verification would enable quality control and trouble-shooting without returning the mask to a mask house. Another potential application is monitoring changes to mask films once the mask has been delivered to the fab (haze, oxide growth, etc.). Similar opportunities apply to the mask metrologist receiving line returns from a wafer fab. The ability to make line-return measurements without risking defect introduction is clearly attractive. This paper will evaluate the feasibility of collecting scatterometry data on pelliclized masks. We explore the effects of several different pellicle types on scatterometry measurements made with broadband light in the range of 320-780 nm. The complexity introduced by the pellicles' optical behavior will be studied.

  11. Comparison of monaural (CMR) and binaural (BMLD) masking release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Par, van de S.L.J.D.E.; Kohlrausch, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Release of masking for a sinusoidal signal of 5 kHz masked by a 25-Hz-wide noise band centered around 5 kHz was measured. The masking release was provided by a second noise band that was comodulated with the on-frequency masker band. For CMR configurations the second noise band was centered at 3 kHz

  12. 21 CFR 868.5550 - Anesthetic gas mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthetic gas mask. 868.5550 Section 868.5550...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5550 Anesthetic gas mask. (a) Identification. An anesthetic gas mask is a device, usually made of conductive rubber, that is positioned over a...

  13. Contrast Gain Control Model Fits Masking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We studied the fit of a contrast gain control model to data of Foley (JOSA 1994), consisting of thresholds for a Gabor patch masked by gratings of various orientations, or by compounds of two orientations. Our general model includes models of Foley and Teo & Heeger (IEEE 1994). Our specific model used a bank of Gabor filters with octave bandwidths at 8 orientations. Excitatory and inhibitory nonlinearities were power functions with exponents of 2.4 and 2. Inhibitory pooling was broad in orientation, but narrow in spatial frequency and space. Minkowski pooling used an exponent of 4. All of the data for observer KMF were well fit by the model. We have developed a contrast gain control model that fits masking data. Unlike Foley's, our model accepts images as inputs. Unlike Teo & Heeger's, our model did not require multiple channels for different dynamic ranges.

  14. Multi-part mask for implanting workpieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.

    2016-05-10

    A multi-part mask has a pattern plate, which includes a planar portion that has the desired aperture pattern to be used during workpiece processing. The multi-part mask also has a mounting frame, which is used to hold the pattern plate. Prior to assembly, the pattern plate has an aligning portion, which has one or more holes through which reusable alignment pins are inserted. These alignment pins enter kinematic joints disposed on the mounting frame, which serve to precisely align the pattern plate to the mounting frame. After the pattern plate has been secured to the mounting frame, the aligning portion can be detached from the pattern plate. The alignment pins can be reused at a later time. In some embodiments, the pattern plate can later be removed from the mounting frame, so that the mounting frame may be reused.

  15. Negative ion source improvement by introduction of a shutter mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belchenko, Yu.I.; Oka, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Osakabe, M.; Ikeda, K.; Asano, E.; Kawamoto, T.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of a multicusp source were recently done at the National Institute for Fusion Science by plasma grid masking. The maximal H - ion yield is ∼1.4 times greater for the shutter mask case than that for the standard source. Negative ion current evolution during the cesium feed to the masked plasma grid evidenced that about 60% of negative ions are produced on the shutter mask surface, while about 30% are formed on the plasma grid emission hole edges, exposed by cesium with the mask open

  16. An experimental investigation of masking in the US FDA adverse event reporting system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin-wei; Hochberg, Alan M; Pearson, Ronald K; Hauben, Manfred

    2010-12-01

    A phenomenon of 'masking' or 'cloaking' in pharmacovigilance data mining has been described, which can potentially cause signals of disproportionate reporting (SDRs) to be missed, particularly in pharmaceutical company databases. Masking has been predicted theoretically, observed anecdotally or studied to a limited extent in both pharmaceutical company and health authority databases, but no previous publication systematically assesses its occurrence in a large health authority database. To explore the nature, extent and possible consequences of masking in the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) database by applying various experimental unmasking protocols to a set of drugs and events representing realistic pharmacovigilance analysis conditions. This study employed AERS data from 2001 through 2005. For a set of 63 Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA®) Preferred Terms (PTs), disproportionality analysis was carried out with respect to all drugs included in the AERS database, using a previously described urn-model-based algorithm. We specifically sought masking in which drug removal induced an increase in the statistical representation of a drug-event combination (DEC) that resulted in the emergence of a new SDR. We performed a series of unmasking experiments selecting drugs for removal using rational statistical decision rules based on the requirement of a reporting ratio (RR) >1, top-ranked statistical unexpectedness (SU) and relatedness as reflected in the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical level 4 (ATC4) grouping. In order to assess the possible extent of residual masking we performed two supplemental purely empirical analyses on a limited subset of data. This entailed testing every drug and drug group to determine which was most influential in uncovering masked SDRs. We assessed the strength of external evidence for a causal association for a small number of masked SDRs involving a subset of 29 drugs for which level of evidence

  17. [Patients' reaction to pharmacists wearing a mask during their consultations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Eri; Kishimoto, Keiko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2013-01-01

      This study sought to determine the effect of pharmacists wearing a mask on the consultation intention of patients who do not have a trusting relationship with the pharmacists. We conducted a questionnaire survey of customers at a Tokyo drugstore in August 2012. Subjects answered a questionnaire after watching two medical teaching videos, one in which the pharmacist was wearing a mask and the other in which the pharmacist was not wearing a mask. Data analysis was performed using a paired t-test and multiple logistic regression. The paired t-test revealed a significant difference in 'Maintenance Problem' between the two pharmacist situations. After excluding factors not associated with wearing a mask, multiple logistic regression analysis identified three independent variables with a significant effect on participants not wanting to consult with a pharmacist wearing a mask. Positive factors were 'active-inactive' and 'frequency mask use', a negative factor was 'age'. Our study has shown that pharmacists wearing a mask may be a factor that prevents patients from consulting with pharmacist. Those patients whose intention to consult might be affected by the pharmacists wearing a mask tended to be younger, to have no habit of wearing masks preventively themselves, and to form a negative opinion of such pharmacists. Therefore, it was estimated that pharmacists who wear masks need to provide medical education by asking questions more positively than when they do not wear a mask in order to prevent the patient worrying about oneself.

  18. Prospects for electron beam aberration correction using sculpted phase masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiloh, Roy, E-mail: royshilo@post.tau.ac.il; Remez, Roei; Arie, Ady

    2016-04-15

    Technological advances in fabrication methods allowed the microscopy community to take incremental steps towards perfecting the electron microscope, and magnetic lens design in particular. Still, state of the art aberration-corrected microscopes are yet 20–30 times shy of the theoretical electron diffraction limit. Moreover, these microscopes consume significant physical space and are very expensive. Here, we show how a thin, sculpted membrane is used as a phase-mask to induce specific aberrations into an electron beam probe in a standard high resolution TEM. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate beam splitting, two-fold astigmatism, three-fold astigmatism, and spherical aberration. - Highlights: • Thin membranes can be used as aberration correctors in electron columns. • We demonstrate tilt, twofold-, threefold-astigmatism, and spherical aberrations. • Experimental and physical-optics simulation results are in good agreement. • Advantages in cost, size, nonmagnetism, and nearly-arbitrary correction.

  19. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) artefact resulting in MRI misdiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieble, Thomas; Patel, Anuradha; Davidson, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    We report a 7-year-old child who underwent brain MRI for a known seizure disorder. The technique used for general anesthesia included inhalation induction followed by placement of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for airway maintenance. Because the reviewing radiologist was unfamiliar with the use of an LMA during anesthesia, and because the attending anesthesiologist did not communicate his technique to the radiologist, an MRI misdiagnosis was reported because of artefact created by the in situ LMA. As a result of this misdiagnosis the child was subjected to unnecessary subsequent testing to rule out a reported anatomic abnormality induced by the LMA. Our case illustrates the need for coordination of patient care among hospital services. (orig.)

  20. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) artefact resulting in MRI misdiagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieble, Thomas [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Anesthesiology, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ (United States); Maimonides Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Patel, Anuradha; Davidson, Melissa [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Anesthesiology, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2008-03-15

    We report a 7-year-old child who underwent brain MRI for a known seizure disorder. The technique used for general anesthesia included inhalation induction followed by placement of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for airway maintenance. Because the reviewing radiologist was unfamiliar with the use of an LMA during anesthesia, and because the attending anesthesiologist did not communicate his technique to the radiologist, an MRI misdiagnosis was reported because of artefact created by the in situ LMA. As a result of this misdiagnosis the child was subjected to unnecessary subsequent testing to rule out a reported anatomic abnormality induced by the LMA. Our case illustrates the need for coordination of patient care among hospital services. (orig.)

  1. Contact printed masks for 3D microfabrication in negative resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häfliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2005-01-01

    We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded into the ......We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded...... into the negative resist to protect buried material from UV-exposure. Unlike direct evaporation-deposition of a mask onto the SU-8, printing avoids high stress and radiation, thus preventing resist wrinkling and prepolymerization. We demonstrate effective monolithic fabrication of soft, 4-μm thick and 100-μm long...

  2. The effect of masking in the attentional dwell time paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    , 1994). In most studies of attentional dwell time, two masked targets have been used. Moore et al. (1996) have criticised the masking of the first target when measuring the attentional dwell time, finding a shorter attentional dwell time when the first mask was omitted. In the presented work, the effect...... of the first mask is further investigated by including a condition where the first mask is presented without a target. The results from individual subjects show that the findings of Moore et al. can be replicated. The results also suggest that presenting the first mask without a target is enough to produce...... an impairment of the second target. Hence, the attentional dwell time may be a combined effect arising from attending to both the first target and its mask....

  3. APPLICATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF PLANAR STRUCTURES IN MANUFACTURING MASTER MASKS OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS ON PHOTO-MASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Avakov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the concept of defect-free manufacturing of master masks of IC on photo-masks, two Belarusian sets of optomechanical equipment for 0,3 5 p and 90 nanometers are presented in the paper. Each of the sets comprises:   • Multi-channel laser pattern generator; • Automatic mask defect inspection system; • Laser-based mask defect repair system.The paper contains description of automatic mask defect inspection process during photo-mask manufacturing and respective basic technological operations of the processes.Advantages of a complex approach to the development of a set of opto-mechanical equipment for defect-free manufacturing of photo-masks have been analyzed in the paper. 

  4. Mask ventilation with two different face masks in the delivery room for preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, D; Mian, Q; Cheung, P-Y; O'Reilly, M; Aziz, K; van Os, S; Pichler, G; Schmölzer, G M

    2015-07-01

    If an infant fails to initiate spontaneous breathing after birth, international guidelines recommend a positive pressure ventilation (PPV). However, PPV by face mask is frequently inadequate because of leak between the face and mask. Despite a variety of available face masks, none have been prospectively compared in a randomized fashion. We aimed to evaluate and compare leak between two commercially available round face masks (Fisher & Paykel (F&P) and Laerdal) in preterm infants mask PPV in the delivery room routinely had a flow sensor placed between the mask and T-piece resuscitator. Infants were randomly assigned to receive PPV with either a F&P or Laerdal face mask. All resuscitators were trained in the use of both face masks. We compared mask leak, airway pressures, tidal volume and ventilation rate between the two groups. Fifty-six preterm infants (n=28 in each group) were enrolled; mean±s.d. gestational age 28±3 weeks; birth weight 1210±448 g; and 30 (52%) were male. Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min were 5±3 and 7±2, respectively. Infants randomized to the F&P face mask and Laerdal face mask had similar mask leak (30 (25-38) versus 35 (24-46)%, median (interquartile range), respectively, P=0.40) and tidal volume (7.1 (4.9-8.9) versus 6.6 (5.2-8.9) ml kg(-1), P=0.69) during PPV. There were no significant differences in ventilation rate, inflation time or airway pressures between groups. The use of either face mask during PPV in the delivery room yields similar mask leak in preterm infants <33 weeks gestational age.

  5. Noninvasive CPAP with face mask: comparison among new air-entrainment masks and the Boussignac valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistraletti, Giovanni; Giacomini, Matteo; Sabbatini, Giovanni; Pinciroli, Riccardo; Mantovani, Elena S; Umbrello, Michele; Palmisano, Debora; Formenti, Paolo; Destrebecq, Anne L L; Iapichino, Gaetano

    2013-02-01

    The performances of 2 noninvasive CPAP systems (high flow and low flow air-entrainment masks) were compared to the Boussignac valve in 3 different scenarios. Scenario 1: pneumatic lung simulator with a tachypnea pattern (tidal volume 800 mL at 40 breaths/min). Scenario 2: Ten healthy subjects studied during tidal breaths and tachypnea. Scenario 3: Twenty ICU subjects enrolled for a noninvasive CPAP session. Differences between set and effective CPAP level and F(IO(2)), as well as the lowest airway pressure and the pressure swing around the imposed CPAP level, were analyzed. The lowest airway pressure and swing were correlated to the pressure-time product (area of the airway pressure curve below the CPAP level) measured with the simulator. P(aO(2)) was a subject's further performance index. Lung simulator: Boussignac F(IO(2)) was 0.54, even if supplied with pure oxygen. The air-entrainment masks had higher swing than the Boussignac (P = .007). Pressure-time product correlated better with pressure swing (Spearman correlation coefficient [ρ] = 0.97) than with lowest airway pressure (ρ = 0.92). In healthy subjects, the high-flow air-entrainment mask showed lower difference between set and effective F(IO(2)) (P mask had lower swing than the Boussignac valve (P = .03) with similar P(aO(2)) increase. High-flow air-entrainment mask showed the best performance in human subjects. During high flow demand, the Boussignac valve delivered lower than expected F(IO(2)) and showed higher dynamic hyper-pressurization than the air-entrainment masks. © 2013 Daedalus Enterprises.

  6. Is tinnitus an early voice of masked hypertension? High masked hypertension rate in patients with tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun, Taylan; Özkan, Selçuk; Yavuz, Bunyamin

    2018-04-23

    Tinnitus is hearing a sound without any external acoustic stimulus. There are some clues of hypertension can cause tinnitus in different ways. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between tinnitus and masked hypertension including echocardiographic parameters and severity of tinnitus. This study included 88 patients with tinnitus of at least 3 months duration and 85 age and gender-matched control subjects. Tinnitus severity index was used to classify the patients with tinnitus. After a complete medical history, all subjects underwent routine laboratory examination, office blood pressure measurement, hearing tests and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Masked hypertension is defined as normal office blood pressure measurement and high ambulatory blood pressure level. Baseline characteristics in patients and controls were similar. Prevalence of masked hypertension was significantly higher in patients with tinnitus than controls (18.2% vs 3.5%, p = 0.002). Office diastolic BP (76 ± 8.1 vs. 72.74 ± 8.68, p = 0.01), ambulatory 24-H diastolic BP (70.2 ± 9.6 vs. 66.9 ± 6.1, p = 0.07) and ambulatory daytime diastolic BP (73.7 ± 9.5 vs. 71.1 ± 6.2, p = 0.03) was significantly higher in patients with tinnitus than control group. Tinnitus severity index in patients without masked hypertension was 0 and tinnitus severity index in patients with masked hypertension were 2 (1-5). This study demonstrated that masked hypertension must be kept in mind if there is a complaint of tinnitus without any other obvious reason.

  7. Causal mechanisms of masked hypertension: socio-psychological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of Dr Thomas Pickering's study to the measurement of blood pressure (BP) is the defining aspect of his academic career and achievement - narrowly defined. In this regard, two important areas characterized his study as it relates to masked hypertension. First, he introduced the term, masked hypertension, to replace the rather inappropriate term 'reverse white-coat hypertension' and 'white-coat normotension'; thus drawing attention to the fact that these patients are genuinely hypertensive by ambulatory BP but were missed by normal office BP. More importantly, he rightly maintained that masked hypertension is a true continuum of sustained hypertension rather than an aberrant measurement artifact. Second, is his pivotal study on the important role of psychosocial factors as a potential mechanism for the development of masked hypertension. In this regard, he explained masked hypertension as a conditioned response to anxiety in office settings, and highlighted the role that diagnostic labeling plays in its development. His view of masked hypertension is that of a continuum from prehypertension (based on office BP measurement) to masked hypertension (based on ambulatory BP) and finally to sustained hypertension (based on both office and ambulatory BP). He strongly believes that it is the prehypertensive patients who progress to masked hypertension. Subsequently, patients who are prehypertensive should be screened for masked hypertension and treated. In this manuscript, we summarize his study as it relates to the definition of masked hypertension, the psychosocial characteristics, mechanisms and its clinical relevance.

  8. Investigating neurophysiological correlates of metacontrast masking with magnetoencephalography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schwarzbach

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Early components of visual evoked potentials (VEP in EEG seem to be unaffected by target visibility in visual masking studies. Bridgeman's reanalysis of Jeffreys and Musselwhite's (1986 data suggests that a later visual component in the VEP, around 250 ms reflects the perceptual effect of masking. We challenge this view on the ground that temporal interactions between targets and masks unrelated to stimulus visibility could account for Bridgeman's observation of a U-shaped time course in VEP amplitudes for this later component. In an MEG experiment of metacontrast masking with variable stimulus onset asynchrony, we introduce a proper control, a pseudo mask. In contrast to an effective mask, the pseudomask should produce neither behavioral masking nor amplitude modulations of late VEPs. Our results show that effective masks produced a strong U-shaped perceptual effect of target visibility while performance remained virtually perfect when a pseudomask was used. The visual components around 250 ms after target onset did not show a distinction between mask and pseudomask conditions. The results indicate that these visual evoked potentials do not reveal neurophysiological correlates of stimulus visibility but rather reflect dynamic interactions between superimposed potentials elicited by stimuli in close temporal proximity. However, we observed a postperceptual component around 340 ms after target onset, located over temporal-parietal cortex, which shows a clear effect of visibility. Based on P300 ERP literature, this finding could indicate that working memory related processes contribute to metacontrast masking.

  9. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed

    2014-07-29

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  10. Geometrical superresolved imaging using nonperiodic spatial masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Amikam; Zalevsky, Zeev; Javidi, Bahram

    2009-03-01

    The resolution of every imaging system is limited either by the F-number of its optics or by the geometry of its detection array. The geometrical limitation is caused by lack of spatial sampling points as well as by the shape of every sampling pixel that generates spectral low-pass filtering. We present a novel approach to overcome the low-pass filtering that is due to the shape of the sampling pixels. The approach combines special algorithms together with spatial masking placed in the intermediate image plane and eventually allows geometrical superresolved imaging without relation to the actual shape of the pixels.

  11. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed; Rubin, Andrew; Refaat, Mohamed; Sedky, Sherif; Abdo, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  12. The confounding effect of the development of idiopathic orthostatic edema and thyrotoxcosis on weight fluctuation related to effects on free water clearance in a woman with long-standing surgically induced panhypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Weidner, J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of idiopathic orthostatic edema and the effect of thyrotoxicosis on weight fluctuation and fluid retention in the presence of surgically induced panhypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus controlled with hormone replacement. Dextroamphetamine sulfate was used for weight gain when no other etiologic factor was found. Methimazole was used when weight loss occurred when serum T4 and free T4 indicated thyrotoxicosis. Sympathomimetic amine therapy very effectively controlled the weight gain and methimazole controlled the weight loss. Hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus controlled with hormone replacement do not protect against fluid retention from idiopathic edema.

  13. Asymmetric Dichoptic Masking in Visual Cortex of Amblyopic Macaque Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooner, Christopher; Hallum, Luke E; Kumbhani, Romesh D; García-Marín, Virginia; Kelly, Jenna G; Majaj, Najib J; Movshon, J Anthony; Kiorpes, Lynne

    2017-09-06

    In amblyopia, abnormal visual experience leads to an extreme form of eye dominance, in which vision through the nondominant eye is degraded. A key aspect of this disorder is perceptual suppression: the image seen by the stronger eye often dominates during binocular viewing, blocking the image of the weaker eye from reaching awareness. Interocular suppression is the focus of ongoing work aimed at understanding and treating amblyopia, yet its physiological basis remains unknown. We measured binocular interactions in visual cortex of anesthetized amblyopic monkeys (female Macaca nemestrina ), using 96-channel "Utah" arrays to record from populations of neurons in V1 and V2. In an experiment reported recently (Hallum et al., 2017), we found that reduced excitatory input from the amblyopic eye (AE) revealed a form of balanced binocular suppression that is unaltered in amblyopia. Here, we report on the modulation of the gain of excitatory signals from the AE by signals from its dominant fellow eye (FE). Using a dichoptic masking technique, we found that AE responses to grating stimuli were attenuated by the presentation of a noise mask to the FE, as in a normal control animal. Responses to FE stimuli, by contrast, could not be masked from the AE. We conclude that a weakened ability of the amblyopic eye to modulate cortical response gain creates an imbalance of suppression that favors the dominant eye. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In amblyopia, vision in one eye is impaired as a result of abnormal early visual experience. Behavioral observations in humans with amblyopia suggest that much of their visual loss is due to active suppression of their amblyopic eye. Here we describe experiments in which we studied binocular interactions in macaques with experimentally induced amblyopia. In normal monkeys, the gain of neuronal response to stimulation of one eye is modulated by contrast in the other eye, but in monkeys with amblyopia the balance of gain modulation is altered so that

  14. Model-based virtual VSB mask writer verification for efficient mask error checking and optimization prior to MDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Robert C.; Standiford, Keith; Lukanc, Todd; Ning, Guo Xiang; Verma, Piyush; Batarseh, Fadi; Chua, Gek Soon; Fujimura, Akira; Pang, Linyong

    2014-10-01

    A methodology is described wherein a calibrated model-based `Virtual' Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) mask writer process simulator is used to accurately verify complex Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) and Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) mask designs prior to Mask Data Preparation (MDP) and mask fabrication. This type of verification addresses physical effects which occur in mask writing that may impact lithographic printing fidelity and variability. The work described here is motivated by requirements for extreme accuracy and control of variations for today's most demanding IC products. These extreme demands necessitate careful and detailed analysis of all potential sources of uncompensated error or variation and extreme control of these at each stage of the integrated OPC/ MDP/ Mask/ silicon lithography flow. The important potential sources of variation we focus on here originate on the basis of VSB mask writer physics and other errors inherent in the mask writing process. The deposited electron beam dose distribution may be examined in a manner similar to optical lithography aerial image analysis and image edge log-slope analysis. This approach enables one to catch, grade, and mitigate problems early and thus reduce the likelihood for costly long-loop iterations between OPC, MDP, and wafer fabrication flows. It moreover describes how to detect regions of a layout or mask where hotspots may occur or where the robustness to intrinsic variations may be improved by modification to the OPC, choice of mask technology, or by judicious design of VSB shots and dose assignment.

  15. Uncertainty in the visibility mask of a survey and its effects on the clustering of biased tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colavincenzo, M.; Monaco, P.; Borgani, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Sefusatti, E., E-mail: colavincenzo@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: monaco@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: emiliano.sefusatti@brera.inaf.it, E-mail: borgani@oats.inaf.it [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2017-03-01

    The forecasted accuracy of upcoming surveys of large-scale structure cannot be achieved without a proper quantification of the error induced by foreground removal (or other systematics like 0-point photometry offset). Because these errors are highly correlated on the sky, their influence is expected to be especially important at very large scales, at and beyond the first Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO). In this work we quantify how the uncertainty in the visibility mask of a survey, that gives the survey depth in a specific sky area, influences the measured power spectrum of a sample of tracers of the density field and its covariance matrix. We start from a very large set of 10,000 catalogs of dark matter (DM) halos in periodic cosmological boxes, produced with the PINOCCHIO approximate method. To make an analytic approach feasible, we assume luminosity-independent halo bias and an idealized geometry for the visibility mask, that is constant in square tiles of physical length l ; this should be interpreted as the projection, at the observation redshift, of the angular correlation scale of the foreground residuals. We find that the power spectrum of these biased tracers can be expressed as the sum of a cosmological term, a mask term and a term involving their convolution. The mask and convolution terms scale like P ∝ l {sup 2}σ {sub A} {sup 2}, where σ {sub A} {sup 2} is the variance of the uncertainty on the visibility mask. With l = 30−100 Mpc/ h and σ {sub A} = 5−20%, the mask term can be significant at k ∼ 0.01−0.1 h /Mpc, and the convolution term can amount to ∼ 1−10% of the total. The influence of mask uncertainty on power spectrum covariance is more complicated: the coupling of the convolution term with the other two gives rise to several mixed terms, that we quantify by difference using the mock catalogs. These are found to be of the same order of the mask covariance, and to introduce non-diagonal terms at large scales. As a consequence

  16. Mask manufacturing improvement through capability definition and bottleneck line management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strott, Al

    1994-02-01

    In 1989, Intel's internal mask operation limited itself to research and development activities and re-inspection and pellicle application of externally manufactured masks. Recognizing the rising capital cost of mask manufacturing at the leading edge, Intel's Mask Operation management decided to offset some of these costs by manufacturing more masks internally. This was the beginning of the challenge they set to manufacture at least 50% of Intel's mask volume internally, at world class performance levels. The first step in responding to this challenge was the completion of a comprehensive operation capability analysis. A series of bottleneck improvements by focus teams resulted in an average cycle time improvement to less than five days on all product and less than two days on critical products.

  17. Random mask optimization for fast neutron coded aperture imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Marleau, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brubaker, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    In coded aperture imaging, one of the most important factors determining the quality of reconstructed images is the choice of mask/aperture pattern. In many applications, uniformly redundant arrays (URAs) are widely accepted as the optimal mask pattern. Under ideal conditions, thin and highly opaque masks, URA patterns are mathematically constructed to provide artifact-free reconstruction however, the number of URAs for a chosen number of mask elements is limited and when highly penetrating particles such as fast neutrons and high-energy gamma-rays are being imaged, the optimum is seldom achieved. In this case more robust mask patterns that provide better reconstructed image quality may exist. Through the use of heuristic optimization methods and maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) image reconstruction, we show that for both point and extended neutron sources a random mask pattern can be optimized to provide better image quality than that of a URA.

  18. An investigation into the efficiency of disposable face masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K B

    1980-01-01

    Disposable face masks used in hospitals have been assessed for the protection afforded the patient and the wearer by challenges of simulated natural conditions of stress. Operating theatre masks made of synthetic materials allow the wearer to breathe through the masks, and these have been shown to protect the patient well but the wearer slightly less. Cheaper paper masks are worn for ward duties, and of these only the Promask protected in area in front of the wearer: air does not pass through this mask, expired air is prevented from passing forward, and the wearer breathes unfiltered air. All the other paper masks tested allowed many bacteria-laden particles to pass through them. PMID:7440756

  19. Joint optimization of source, mask, and pupil in optical lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Lam, Edmund Y.

    2014-03-01

    Mask topography effects need to be taken into consideration for more advanced resolution enhancement techniques in optical lithography. However, rigorous 3D mask model achieves high accuracy at a large computational cost. This work develops a combined source, mask and pupil optimization (SMPO) approach by taking advantage of the fact that pupil phase manipulation is capable of partially compensating for mask topography effects. We first design the pupil wavefront function by incorporating primary and secondary spherical aberration through the coefficients of the Zernike polynomials, and achieve optimal source-mask pair under the condition of aberrated pupil. Evaluations against conventional source mask optimization (SMO) without incorporating pupil aberrations show that SMPO provides improved performance in terms of pattern fidelity and process window sizes.

  20. Effects of mask imperfections on InP etching profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, D.T.C.; Yan, M.F.; Wynn, J.D.; Wilt, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have demonstrated that the quality of etch masks has a significant effect on the InP etching profiles. In particular, the authors have shown that mask imperfections can cause defective etching profiles, such as vertical sidewalls and extra mask undercutting in InP. The authors also discovered that the geometry of these defective profiles is determined by the orientation of the substrate relative to the direction of the mask imperfections. Along a left-angle 110 right-angle line mask defect, the downward etching process changes the left-angle 110 right-angle v-grooves to vertical sidewalls without extra undercutting. For v-grooves aligned along the left-angle 110 right-angle direction, defects on the mask give a significant extra undercutting without changing the etching profile

  1. Characterizing the monaural and binaural processes underlying reflection masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    for the two RMTs, it is shown that forward masking effects only have a significant effect on reflection masking for delays above 7–10 ms. Moreover, binaural mechanisms were revealed which deteriorate auditory detection of test reflections for delays below 7–10 ms and enhance detection for larger delays....... The monaural and binaural processes that may underlie reflection masking are discussed in terms of auditory-modelling concepts....

  2. Tachistoscopic illumination and masking of real scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichka, David; Philbeck, John W; Gajewski, Daniel A

    2015-03-01

    Tachistoscopic presentation of scenes has been valuable for studying the emerging properties of visual scene representations. The spatial aspects of this work have generally been focused on the conceptual locations (e.g., next to the refrigerator) and directional locations of objects in 2-D arrays and/or images. Less is known about how the perceived egocentric distance of objects develops. Here we describe a novel system for presenting brief glimpses of a real-world environment, followed by a mask. The system includes projectors with mechanical shutters for projecting the fixation and masking images, a set of LED floodlights for illuminating the environment, and computer-controlled electronics to set the timing and initiate the process. Because a real environment is used, most visual distance and depth cues can be manipulated using traditional methods. The system is inexpensive, robust, and its components are readily available in the marketplace. This article describes the system and the timing characteristics of each component. We verified the system's ability to control exposure to time scales as low as a few milliseconds.

  3. The performances of standard and ResMed masks during bag-valve-mask ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung Youn; Jeung, Kyung Woon; Lee, Byung Kook; Lee, Seung Joon; Jung, Yong Hun; Lee, Geo Sung; Min, Yong Il; Heo, Tag

    2013-01-01

    A tight mask seal is frequently difficult to obtain and maintain during single-rescuer bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation. The ResMed mask (Bella Vista, NSW, Australia) is a continuous-positive-airway-pressure mask (CM) designed for noninvasive ventilation. In this study, we compared the ventilation performances of a standard mask (SM) and a ResMed CM using a simulation manikin in an out-of-hospital single-rescuer BVM ventilation scenario. Thirty emergency medical technicians (EMTs) performed two 2-minute attempts to ventilate a simulation manikin using BVM ventilation, alternatively, with the SM or the ResMed CM in a randomized order. Ventilation parameters including tidal volume and peak airway pressure were measured using computer analysis software connected to the simulation manikin. Successful volume delivery was defined as delivery of 440-540 mL of tidal volume in accord with present cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines. BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM produced higher mean (± standard deviation) tidal volumes (452 ± 50 mL vs. 394 ± 113 mL, p = 0.014) and had a higher proportion of successful volume deliveries (65.3% vs. 26.7%, p < 0.001) than that using the SM. Peak airway pressure was higher in BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM (p = 0.035). Stomach insufflation did not occur during either method. Twenty-nine of the participants (96.7%) preferred BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM. BVM ventilations using ResMed CM resulted in a significantly higher proportion of successful volume deliveries meeting the currently recommended range of tidal volume. Clinical studies are needed to determine the value of the ResMed CM for BVM ventilation.

  4. Mechanical and thermal modeling of the SCALPEL mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C. J.; Semke, W. H.; Dicks, G. A.; Engelstad, R. L.; Lovell, E. G.; Liddle, J. A.; Novembre, A. E.

    1999-01-01

    Scattering with angular limitation projection electron-beam lithography (SCALPEL) is being developed by Lucent Technologies for sub-130 nm lithography. The mask fabrication and exposure processes produce mask distortions that result in pattern placement errors. In order to understand these distortions, and determine how to reduce them to levels consistent with the error budget, structural and heat transfer finite element models have been generated to simulate the mechanical and thermal response of the mask. In addition, sensitivity studies of the distortions due to key design parameters that may be used to refine the SCALPEL mask configuration have been conducted. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  5. A respiratory mask for resting and exercising dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavert, D M; Reischl, P; O'Loughlin, B J

    1982-02-01

    A respiratory face mask has been developed for use with unsedated beagles trained to run on a treadmill. The latex rubber mask, shaped to fit the animal's muzzle, incorporates two modified, commercially available, pulmonary valves for separating inspiratory and expiratory flows. The mask has a dead space of 30 cm3 and a flow resistance below 1 cmH2O . 1(-1) . s. The flexible mask is used to measure breath-by-breath respiratory variables over extended periods of time during rest and exercise.

  6. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Masking interrupts figure-ground signals in V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamme, Victor A F; Zipser, Karl; Spekreijse, Henk

    2002-10-01

    In a backward masking paradigm, a target stimulus is rapidly (figure-ground segregation can be recorded. Here, we recorded from awake macaque monkeys, engaged in a task where they had to detect figures from background in a pattern backward masking paradigm. We show that the V1 figure-ground signals are selectively and fully suppressed at target-mask intervals that psychophysically result in the target being invisible. Initial response transients, signalling the features that make up the scene, are not affected. As figure-ground modulations depend on feedback from extrastriate areas, these results suggest that masking selectively interrupts the recurrent interactions between V1 and higher visual areas.

  8. Estimation of the Ideal Binary Mask using Directional Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    2008-01-01

    The ideal binary mask is often seen as a goal for time-frequency masking algorithms trying to increase speech intelligibility, but the required availability of the unmixed signals makes it difficult to calculate the ideal binary mask in any real-life applications. In this paper we derive the theory...... and the requirements to enable calculations of the ideal binary mask using a directional system without the availability of the unmixed signals. The proposed method has a low complexity and is verified using computer simulation in both ideal and non-ideal setups showing promising results....

  9. Improvement of radiographs by means of optical masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishov, B.A.; Tereshenko, O.I.; Tyurin, E.I.

    1985-01-01

    High-gradient photographic material improves contrast and detectability of small details. Parts of the radiographs will however tend to be over- or underexposed. The recorded information can be improved by optical masks that modify the light in various parts of the image according to film sensitivity. For screen-film systems an immediate correction of the image by inserted masks results in a better recording of details while the well known detail filtering process improves only the visual detectability of the already recorded information. A special cassette for the generation of masks and a method for the calculation of correction factors for various screen combinations and masks types are described. (author)

  10. Simulation-based MDP verification for leading-edge masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bo; Syrel, Oleg; Pomerantsev, Michael; Hagiwara, Kazuyuki; Pearman, Ryan; Pang, Leo; Fujimara, Aki

    2017-07-01

    For IC design starts below the 20nm technology node, the assist features on photomasks shrink well below 60nm and the printed patterns of those features on masks written by VSB eBeam writers start to show a large deviation from the mask designs. Traditional geometry-based fracturing starts to show large errors for those small features. As a result, other mask data preparation (MDP) methods have become available and adopted, such as rule-based Mask Process Correction (MPC), model-based MPC and eventually model-based MDP. The new MDP methods may place shot edges slightly differently from target to compensate for mask process effects, so that the final patterns on a mask are much closer to the design (which can be viewed as the ideal mask), especially for those assist features. Such an alteration generally produces better masks that are closer to the intended mask design. Traditional XOR-based MDP verification cannot detect problems caused by eBeam effects. Much like model-based OPC verification which became a necessity for OPC a decade ago, we see the same trend in MDP today. Simulation-based MDP verification solution requires a GPU-accelerated computational geometry engine with simulation capabilities. To have a meaningful simulation-based mask check, a good mask process model is needed. The TrueModel® system is a field tested physical mask model developed by D2S. The GPU-accelerated D2S Computational Design Platform (CDP) is used to run simulation-based mask check, as well as model-based MDP. In addition to simulation-based checks such as mask EPE or dose margin, geometry-based rules are also available to detect quality issues such as slivers or CD splits. Dose margin related hotspots can also be detected by setting a correct detection threshold. In this paper, we will demonstrate GPU-acceleration for geometry processing, and give examples of mask check results and performance data. GPU-acceleration is necessary to make simulation-based mask MDP verification

  11. Prognostic value of motor evoked potentials elicited by multipulse magnetic stimulation in a surgically induced transitory lesion of the supplementary motor area: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, F; Krzan, M; Jallo, G; Epstein, F; Deletis, V

    2000-01-01

    Surgery involving the supplementary motor area (SMA) places the patient at risk of transient motor deficit. To predict outcome in patients with early postoperative hypokinesis would be relevant to both the patient and the surgical team. A 15 year old girl with a large left thalamic tumour removed through a left transcallosal approach is described. Despite intraoperatively preserved muscle motor evoked potentials (mMEPs) from all limbs, elicited by multipulse electrical st...

  12. Micro-surgical endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Vere, J; Ali, Z; Harris, I

    2014-02-01

    Non-surgical endodontic retreatment is the treatment of choice for endodontically treated teeth with recurrent or residual disease in the majority of cases. In some cases, surgical endodontic treatment is indicated. Successful micro-surgical endodontic treatment depends on the accuracy of diagnosis, appropriate case selection, the quality of the surgical skills, and the application of the most appropriate haemostatic agents and biomaterials. This article describes the armamentarium and technical procedures involved in performing micro-surgical endodontics to a high standard.

  13. Comparison of armoured laryngeal mask airway with endotracheal tube for adenotonsillectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, L.; Bashir, K.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the reliability of armoured laryngeal mask airway for adenotonsillectomy and to compare the haemodynamic changes during anaesthesia with those of endotracheal tube. A total of 100 patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy between ages 10-35 years and ASA I status were enrolled for the study. Two groups with 50 patients in each group were formed. Group I patients underwent surgery with armoured laryngeal mask airway while group II underwent surgery with endotracheal intubation. Baseline heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were noted pre-operatively, one minute after insertion and every five minutes after induction in both the groups. A change in all these haemodynamic parameters from the baseline was noted. The effect of Boyle Davis Gag and adequacy of surgical access were also noted. Occurrence of cough, laryngospasm and stridor were noted at the time of recovery in both the groups. Baseline variables in both groups were identical. Surgical access was adequate in 48/50 patients in group I while it was adequate in 49/50 patients in group II. The frequencies of cough, laryngeal spasm and stridor were lower in group I. In group I, there was insignificant change from baseline in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure at one, five and ten minutes after induction. In group II, significant change from baseline was observed in heart rate (p <0.01), systolic blood pressure (p <0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (p <0.05). (author)

  14. Actinic inspection of multilayer defects on EUV masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barty, A; Liu, Y; Gullikson, E; Taylor, J S; Wood, O

    2005-01-01

    The production of defect-free mask blanks, and the development of techniques for inspecting and qualifying EUV mask blanks, remains a key challenge for EUV lithography. In order to ensure a reliable supply of defect-free mask blanks, it is necessary to develop techniques to reliably and accurately detect defects on un-patterned mask blanks. These inspection tools must be able to accurately detect all critical defects whilst simultaneously having the minimum possible false-positive detection rate. There continues to be improvement in high-speed non-actinic mask blank inspection tools, and it is anticipated that these tools can and will be used by industry to qualify EUV mask blanks. However, the outstanding question remains one of validating that non-actinic inspection techniques are capable of detecting all printable EUV defects. To qualify the performance of non-actinic inspection tools, a unique dual-mode EUV mask inspection system has been installed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In high-speed inspection mode, whole mask blanks are scanned for defects using 13.5-nm wavelength light to identify and map all locations on the mask that scatter a significant amount of EUV light. In imaging, or defect review mode, a zone plate is placed in the reflected beam path to image a region of interest onto a CCD detector with an effective resolution on the mask of 100-nm or better. Combining the capabilities of the two inspection tools into one system provides the unique capability to determine the coordinates of native defects that can be used to compare actinic defect inspection with visible light defect inspection tools under commercial development, and to provide data for comparing scattering models for EUV mask defects

  15. Alternative method for variable aspect ratio vias using a vortex mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Anthony R.; Levinson, Zac; Burbine, Andrew; Smith, Bruce W.

    2014-03-01

    Historically IC (integrated circuit) device scaling has bridged the gap between technology nodes. Device size reduction is enabled by increased pattern density, enhancing functionality and effectively reducing cost per chip. Exemplifying this trend are aggressive reductions in memory cell sizes that have resulted in systems with diminishing area between bit/word lines. This affords an even greater challenge in the patterning of contact level features that are inherently difficult to resolve because of their relatively small area and complex aerial image. To accommodate these trends, semiconductor device design has shifted toward the implementation of elliptical contact features. This empowers designers to maximize the use of free device space, preserving contact area and effectively reducing the via dimension just along a single axis. It is therefore critical to provide methods that enhance the resolving capacity of varying aspect ratio vias for implementation in electronic design systems. Vortex masks, characterized by their helically induced propagation of light and consequent dark core, afford great potential for the patterning of such features when coupled with a high resolution negative tone resist system. This study investigates the integration of a vortex mask in a 193nm immersion (193i) lithography system and qualifies its ability to augment aspect ratio through feature density using aerial image vector simulation. It was found that vortex fabricated vias provide a distinct resolution advantage over traditionally patterned contact features employing a 6% attenuated phase shift mask (APM). 1:1 features were resolvable at 110nm pitch with a 38nm critical dimension (CD) and 110nm depth of focus (DOF) at 10% exposure latitude (EL). Furthermore, iterative source-mask optimization was executed as means to augment aspect ratio. By employing mask asymmetries and directionally biased sources aspect ratios ranging between 1:1 and 2:1 were achievable, however, this

  16. The effect of music on robot-assisted laparoscopic surgical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Ka-Chun; Suh, Irene H; Mukherjee, Mukul; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Stergiou, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Music is often played in the operating room to increase the surgeon's concentration and to mask noise. It could have a beneficial effect on surgical performance. Ten participants with limited experience with the da Vinci robotic surgical system were recruited to perform two surgical tasks: suture tying and mesh alignment when classical, jazz, hip-hop, and Jamaican music were presented. Kinematics of the instrument tips of the surgical robot and surface electromyography of the subjects were recorded. Results revealed that a significant music effect was found for both tasks with decreased time to task completion (P = .005) and total travel distance (P = .021) as well as reduced muscle activations ( P = .016) and increased median muscle frequency (P = .034). Subjects improved their performance significantly when they listened to either hip-hop or Jamaican music. In conclusion, music with high rhythmicity has a beneficial effect on robotic surgical performance. Musical environment may benefit surgical training and make acquisition of surgical skills more efficient.

  17. Coherent diffractive imaging using randomly coded masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaberg, Matthew H., E-mail: seaberg@slac.stanford.edu [CNRS and D.I., UMR 8548, École Normale Supérieure, 45 Rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France); Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); D' Aspremont, Alexandre [CNRS and D.I., UMR 8548, École Normale Supérieure, 45 Rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France); Turner, Joshua J. [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    We experimentally demonstrate an extension to coherent diffractive imaging that encodes additional information through the use of a series of randomly coded masks, removing the need for typical object-domain constraints while guaranteeing a unique solution to the phase retrieval problem. Phase retrieval is performed using a numerical convex relaxation routine known as “PhaseCut,” an iterative algorithm known for its stability and for its ability to find the global solution, which can be found efficiently and which is robust to noise. The experiment is performed using a laser diode at 532.2 nm, enabling rapid prototyping for future X-ray synchrotron and even free electron laser experiments.

  18. Masking properties of ceramics for veneer restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyllouriotis, Andreas L; Yamamoto, Hideo L; Nathanson, Dan

    2017-10-01

    The translucency and opacity of ceramics play a significant role in emulating the natural color of teeth, but studies of the masking properties and limitations of dental ceramics when used as monolayer restorations are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the translucency of 6 materials used for veneer restorations by assessing their translucency parameters (TPs), contrast ratios (CRs), and potential to mask dark tooth colors. Ten square- or disk-shaped specimens (0.5-mm thickness, shade A2) were fabricated from Vitablocks Mark II (VMII; Vita Zahnfabrik), IPS e.max CAD LT (EMXC LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS e.max CAD HT (EMXC HT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS Empress CAD LT (EMP LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS e.max Press LT (EMXP LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), and CZR (CZR; Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc). Their luminance (Y) values over black and over white tiles were measured, followed by their color (CIELab) over black tiles and white tiles and shaded A2 (control group), A3.5, A4, and B4 acrylic resin blocks. All measurements were performed using a spectrophotometer in 2 different areas on each specimen. Then CRs, TPs, and color differences (over shaded backgrounds) were determined. Data were subjected to 1-way and 2-way ANOVA (α=.05) for analysis. Mean CR values of EMXP LT were significantly higher than those of the other tested materials, whereas VMII and EMXC HT had the lowest values (Pmasking properties against the A4 background. The color differences of most tested ceramics were more acceptable when tested against the B4 background (ΔE*≤3.3). Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence and persistence of masked hypertension in treated hypertensive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Willem J.; Thien, Theo; Kroon, Abraham A.; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Masked hypertension (MH) is defined as a normal blood pressure in the physician's office and an elevated blood pressure when measured out-of-office. The cause of MH may be termed the masked hypertension effect (MHE), and is not restricted to blood-pressure (BP) values around the

  20. Prevalence and persistence of masked hypertension in treated hypertensive patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, W.J.; Thien, Th.; Kroon, A.A.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Montfrans, G.A. van; Smit, A.J.; Leeuw, P.W. de

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Masked hypertension (MH) is defined as a normal blood pressure in the physician's office and an elevated blood pressure when measured out-of-office. The cause of MH may be termed the masked hypertension effect (MHE), and is not restricted to blood-pressure (BP) values around the

  1. Prevalence and persistence of masked hypertension in treated hypertensive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Willem J.; Thien, Theo; Kroon, Abraham A.; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Masked hypertension (MH) is defined as a normal blood pressure in the physician's office and an elevated blood pressure when measured out-of-office. The cause of MH may be termed the masked hypertension effect (MHE), and is not restricted to blood-pressure (BP) values around the

  2. Self-masking: Listening during vocalization. Normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Erik; Bergkvist, Christina; Gustafsson, Dan

    2009-06-01

    What underlying mechanisms are involved in the ability to talk and listen simultaneously and what role does self-masking play under conditions of hearing impairment? The purpose of the present series of studies is to describe a technique for assessment of masked thresholds during vocalization, to describe normative data for males and females, and to focus on hearing impairment. The masking effect of vocalized [a:] on narrow-band noise pulses (250-8000 Hz) was studied using the maximum vocalization method. An amplitude-modulated series of sound pulses, which sounded like a steam engine, was masked until the criterion of halving the perceived pulse rate was reached. For masking of continuous reading, a just-follow-conversation criterion was applied. Intra-session test-retest reproducibility and inter-session variability were calculated. The results showed that female voices were more efficient in masking high frequency noise bursts than male voices and more efficient in masking both a male and a female test reading. The male had to vocalize 4 dBA louder than the female to produce the same masking effect on the test reading. It is concluded that the method is relatively simple to apply and has small intra-session and fair inter-session variability. Interesting gender differences were observed.

  3. Failed tracheal intubation using a laryngoscope and intubating laryngeal mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, T; Hirose, T; Shingu, K

    2000-04-01

    To report unexpected failed tracheal intubation using a laryngoscope and an intubating laryngeal mask, and difficult ventilation via a facemask, laryngeal mask and intubating laryngeal mask, in a patient with an unrecognized lingual tonsillar hypertrophy. A 63-yr-old woman, who had undergone clipping of an aneurysm seven weeks previously, was scheduled for ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. At the previous surgery, there had been no difficulty in ventilation or in tracheal intubation. Her trachea remained intubated nasally for 11 days after surgery. Preoperatively, her consciousness was impaired. There were no restrictions in head and neck movements or mouth opening. The thyromental distance was 7 cm. After induction of anesthesia, manual ventilation via a facemask with a Guedel airway was suboptimal and the chest expanded insufficiently. At laryngoscopy using a Macintosh or McCoy device, only the tip of the epiglottis, but not the glottis, could be seen, and tracheal intubation failed. There was a partial obstruction during manual ventilation through either the intubating laryngeal mask or conventional laryngeal mask; intubation through each device failed. Digital examination of the pharynx, after removal of the laryngeal mask, indicated a mass occupying the vallecula. Lingual tonsillar hypertrophy (1 x 1 x 2 cm) was found to be the cause of the failure. Awake fibrescope-aided tracheal intubation was accomplished. Unexpected lingual tonsillar hypertrophy can cause both ventilation and tracheal intubation difficult, and neither the laryngeal mask nor intubating laryngeal mask may be helpful in the circumstances.

  4. Dead space variability of face masks for valved holding chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirav, Israel; Newhouse, Michael T

    2008-03-01

    Valved holding chambers with masks are commonly used to deliver inhaled medications to young children with asthma. Optimal mask properties such as their dead space volume have received little attention. The smaller the mask the more likely it is that a greater proportion of the dose in the VHC will be inhaled with each breath, thus speeding VHC emptying and improving overall aerosol delivery efficiency and dose. Masks may have different DSV and thus different performance. To compare both physical dead space and functional dead space of different face masks under various applied pressures. The DSV of three commonly used face masks of VHCs was measured by water displacement both under various pressures (to simulate real-life application, dynamic DSV) and under no pressure (static DSV). There was a great variability of both static and dynamic dead space among various face mask for VHCs, which is probably related to their flexibility. Different masks have different DSV characteristics. This variability should be taken into account when comparing the clinical efficacy of various VHCs.

  5. Energy enhancer for mask based laser materials processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    A device capable of drastically improving the energy efficiency of present mask based laser materials processing systems is presented. Good accordance between experiments and simulations for a TEA-CO2 laser system designed for laser marking has been demonstrated. The energy efficiency may...... be improved with a factor of 2 - 4 for typical mask transmittances between 10 - 40%....

  6. My Other Half Manifested in Mask-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Xanthippi

    2010-01-01

    Every fall season, each grade level of Rowland Hall St. Mark's Lower School in Salt Lake City, Utah, completes a mask-making project to be featured in a schoolwide parade. This sparked an opportunity to incorporate the fourth-grade unit of realistic and observational drawing with mask making. In this article, the author describes how her students…

  7. GABAA agonist reduces visual awareness : a masking-EEG experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Anouk M; Scholte, H Steven; van Gaal, Simon; van der Hoort, Björn J J; Lamme, Victor A F

    Consciousness can be manipulated in many ways. Here, we seek to understand whether two such ways, visual masking and pharmacological intervention, share a common pathway in manipulating visual consciousness. We recorded EEG from human participants who performed a backward-masking task in which they

  8. Reusable High Aspect Ratio 3-D Nickel Shadow Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandhi, M.M.H.; Leber, M.; Hogan, A.; Warren, D.J.; Bhandari, R.; Negi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Shadow Mask technology has been used over the years for resistless patterning and to pattern on unconventional surfaces, fragile substrate and biomaterial. In this work, we are presenting a novel method to fabricate high aspect ratio (15:1) three-dimensional (3D) Nickel (Ni) shadow mask with vertical pattern length and width of 1.2 mm and 40 μm respectively. The Ni shadow mask is 1.5 mm tall and 100 μm wide at the base. The aspect ratio of the shadow mask is 15. Ni shadow mask is mechanically robust and hence easy to handle. It is also reusable and used to pattern the sidewalls of unconventional and complex 3D geometries such as microneedles or neural electrodes (such as the Utah array). The standard Utah array has 100 active sites at the tip of the shaft. Using the proposed high aspect ratio Ni shadow mask, the Utah array can accommodate 300 active sites, 200 of which will be along and around the shaft. The robust Ni shadow mask is fabricated using laser patterning and electroplating techniques. The use of Ni 3D shadow mask will lower the fabrication cost, complexity and time for patterning out-of-plane structures. PMID:29056835

  9. Mask Materials and Designs for Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Sik; Ahn, Jinho

    2018-03-01

    Extreme ultra violet lithography (EUVL) is no longer a future technology but is going to be inserted into mass production of semiconductor devices of 7 nm technology node in 2018. EUVL is an extension of optical lithography using extremely short wavelength (13.5 nm). This short wavelength requires major modifications in the optical systems due to the very strong absorption of EUV light by materials. Refractive optics can no longer be used, and reflective optics is the only solution to transfer image from mask to wafer. This is why we need the multilayer (ML) mirror-based mask as well as an oblique incident angle of light. This paper discusses the principal theory on the EUV mask design and its component materials including ML reflector and EUV absorber. Mask shadowing effect (or mask 3D effect) is explained and its technical solutions like phase shift mask is reviewed. Even though not all the technical issues on EUV mask are handled in this review paper, you will be able to understand the principles determining the performance of EUV masks.

  10. Masked hypertension: evidence of the need to treat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Agyemang, Charles; Ravenell, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis of masked hypertension has been made easier with the widespread availability of home blood pressure monitoring devices with levels of accuracy comparable to ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The negative impact of masked hypertension on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is

  11. The difficult business model for mask equipment makers and mask infrastructure development support from consortia and governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Scott

    2005-11-01

    The extension of optical projection lithography through immersion to patterning features with half pitch face the challenge of being profitable in the small market for mask equipment while encountering significant R&D expenses to bring new generations of mask fabrication equipment to market. The total available market for patterned masks is estimated to be $2.5B to $2.9B per year. The patterned mask market is about 20% of the market size for lithography equipment and materials. The total available market for mask-making equipment is estimated to be about $800M per year. The largest R&D affordability issue arises for the makers of equipment for fabricating masks where total available sales are typically less than ten units per year. SEMATECH has used discounted cash flow models to predict the affordable R&D while maintaining industry accepted internal rates of return. The results have been compared to estimates of the total R&D cost to bring a new generation of mask equipment to market for various types of tools. The analysis revealed that affordability of the required R&D is a significant problem for many suppliers of mask-making equipment. Consortia such as SEMATECH and Selete have played an important role in cost sharing selected mask equipment and material development projects. Governments in the United States, in Europe and in Japan have also helped equipment suppliers with support for R&D. This paper summarizes the challenging business model for mask equipment suppliers and highlight government support for mask equipment and materials development.

  12. New Y2K problem for mask making (or, Surviving mask data problems after 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Roger

    1999-08-01

    The Y2K problem has analogies in the mask-making world. With the Y2K problem where a date field has just two bytes for the year, there are some cases of mask-making data in which the file size cannot exceed 2 gigabytes. Where a two-digit date field can only unambiguously use a limited range of values (00 to 99), design coordinates can only cover a range of about 4 billion values, which is getting a little uncomfortable for all of the new applications. In retrospect, with a degree of foresight and planning the Y2K date problem could have been easily solved if new encodings had been allowed in the two- digit field. Likewise, in the mask-making industry we currently have the opportunity to achieve far superior data compression if we allow some new forms of data encoding in our data. But this will require universal agreement. The correct way to look at the Y2K problem is that some information was left out of the data stream due to common understandings that made the additional information superfluous. But as the year 2000 approaches, it has become widely recognized that missing data needs to be stated explicitly, and any ambiguities in the representation of the data will need to be eliminated with precise specifications. In a similar way, old mask data generation methods have had numerous flaws that we have been able to ignore for a long time. But now is the time to fix theses flaws and provide extended capabilities. What is not yet clear is if the old data generation methods can be modified to meet these developing needs. Unilateral action is not likely to lead to much progress, so some united effort is required by all interested parties if success is to be achieved in the brief time that remains.

  13. X-ray face mask and chest shield device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moti, S.

    1981-01-01

    A protective face mask is designed to shield an x-ray technician or machine operator primarily from random secondary or scatter x-rays deflected towards his face, head and neck by the table, walls, equipment and other reflecting elements in an x-ray room or chamber. The face mask and chest shield device can be mounted on a patient's shoulders in reverse attitude to protect the back of a patient's head and neck from the x-ray beam. The face mask is relatively or substantially transparent and contains lead in combination with a plastic ionomer or comonomer, which to a degree absorbs or resists penetration of the random deflected secondary or scatter x-rays or the x-ray beam through the mask. The face mask is removably attachable to the chest shield for easy application of the device to and support upon the shoulders of the technician or the patient. (author)

  14. Comodulation masking release in bit-rate reduction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that the level dependence of the upper masking slope be utilized in perceptual models in bit-rate reduction systems. However, comodulation masking release (CMR) phenomena lead to a reduction of the masking effect when a masker and a probe signal are amplitude modulated...... with the same frequency. In bit-rate reduction systems the masker would be the audio signal and the probe signal would represent the quantization noise. Masking curves have been determined for sinusoids and 1-Bark-wide noise maskers in order to investigate the risk of CMR, when quantizing depths are fixed...... in accordance with psycho-acoustical principles. Masker frequencies of 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz have been investigated, and the masking of pure tone probes has been determined in the first four 1/3 octaves above the masker. Modulation frequencies between 6 and 20 Hz were used with a modulation depth of 0...

  15. MODELING SPECTRAL AND TEMPORAL MASKING IN THE HUMAN AUDITORY SYSTEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Ewert, Stephan D.

    2007-01-01

    An auditory signal processing model is presented that simulates psychoacoustical data from a large variety of experimental conditions related to spectral and temporal masking. The model is based on the modulation filterbank model by Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892-2905 (1997)] but inclu......An auditory signal processing model is presented that simulates psychoacoustical data from a large variety of experimental conditions related to spectral and temporal masking. The model is based on the modulation filterbank model by Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892-2905 (1997...... was tested in conditions of tone-in-noise masking, intensity discrimination, spectral masking with tones and narrowband noises, forward masking with (on- and off-frequency) noise- and pure-tone maskers, and amplitude modulation detection using different noise carrier bandwidths. One of the key properties...

  16. Modeling of intense pulsed ion beam heated masked targets for extreme materials characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, John J.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Intense, pulsed ion beams locally heat materials and deliver dense electronic excitations that can induce material modifications and phase transitions. Material properties can potentially be stabilized by rapid quenching. Pulsed ion beams with pulse lengths of order ns have recently become available for materials processing. Here, we optimize mask geometries for local modification of materials by intense ion pulses. The goal is to rapidly excite targets volumetrically to the point where a phase transition or local lattice reconstruction is induced followed by rapid cooling that stabilizes desired material's properties fast enough before the target is altered or damaged by, e.g., hydrodynamic expansion. By using a mask, the longitudinal dimension can be large compared to the transverse dimension, allowing the possibility of rapid transverse cooling. We performed HYDRA simulations that calculate peak temperatures for a series of excitation conditions and cooling rates of silicon targets with micro-structured masks and compare these to a simple analytical model. The model gives scaling laws that can guide the design of targets over a wide range of pulsed ion beam parameters.

  17. New method of 2-dimensional metrology using mask contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Yamagata, Yoshikazu; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling and measuring of a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, this edge detection method is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. This method realizes two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern that had been difficult to measure conventionally by utilizing high precision contour profile. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. This is to say, demands for quality is becoming strenuous because of enormous quantity of data growth with increasing of refined pattern on photo mask manufacture. In the result, massive amount of simulated error occurs on mask inspection that causes lengthening of mask production and inspection period, cost increasing, and long delivery time. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method of a DFM solution using two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern.

  18. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  19. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  20. Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... procedures performed to treat pelvic floor disorders with surgical mesh: Transvaginal mesh to treat POP Transabdominal mesh to treat ... address safety risks Final Order for Reclassification of Surgical Mesh for Transvaginal Pelvic Organ Prolapse Repair Final Order for Effective ...

  1. A modified face mask device for radiotherapy of head and neck tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamietz, I.A.; Kremmin, B.; Emminger, A.

    1991-01-01

    The reproducibility during radiotherapy of head and neck tumors has been significantly improved by special devices like individual masks. However, the temporary fixation of head and neck region to the irradiation berth induces in many patients anxiety state and reduces this way the compliance. By means of modification of the device used till now a new model in which the set up mask is only coupled to the berth, could be developed. The clinical evaluation showed that this form of fixation device is much better tolerated by the patients and can be adapted without any problems to all equipment pieces in a radiotherapy department. The estimated reproducibility was comparable to that obtained with mounted device. The average translation of the central beam during 21 days observation period was 2.6±1.4 mm (0 to 9 mm) in the sagittal plane and 3.4±1.0 mm (1 to 8 mm) in the frontal plane. (orig.) [de

  2. Thin-plate spline analysis of the effects of face mask treatment in children with maxillary retrognathism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Liu, Pao-Hsin; Chen, Yi-Jane; Yao, Jane Chung-Chen; Chang, Hong-Po; Chang, Chih-Han; Chang, Frank Hsin-Fu

    2006-02-01

    Face mask therapy is indicated for growing patients who suffer from maxillary retrognathia. Most previous studies used conventional cephalometric analysis to evaluate the effects of face mask treatment. Cephalometric analysis has been shown to be insufficient for complex craniofacial configurations. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the craniofacial structure of children with maxillary retrognathism following face mask treatment by means of thin-plate spline analysis. Thirty children with skeletal Class III malocclusions who had been treated with face masks were compared with a group of 30 untreated gender-matched, age-matched, observation period-matched, and craniofacial configuration-matched subjects. Average geometries, scaled to an equivalent size, were generated by means of Procrustes analysis. Thin-plate spline analysis was then performed for localization of the shape changes. Face mask treatment induced a forward displacement of the maxilla, a counterclockwise rotation of the palatal plane, a horizontal compression of the anterior border of the symphysis and the condylar region, and a downward deformation of the menton. The cranial base exhibited a counterclockwise deformation as a whole. We conclude that thin-plate spline analysis is a valuable supplement to conventional cephalometric analysis.

  3. [Surgical treatment of gynecomastia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Târcoveanu, E; Lupaşcu, C; Vasilescu, A; Moldovanu, R; Ichim, Mihaela; Georgescu, St; Niculescu, D; Dănilă, N; Dimofte, G; Anton, Raluca; Crumpei, Felicia; Florea, Niculina; Ungureanu, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    -adenoma--1 case, papillary ductal carcinoma--1 case and mucinous carcinoma--1 case. From all these data, the etiological diagnosis in presented series was: pseudo-gynecomastia--5.3% (N = 6), idiopathic--64.9% (N = 73), endocrine--7.9% (N = 9), drug induce--5.3% (N = 6), metabolic--7.9% (N = 9), tumoral--8.8% (N = 10). The postoperative hospital stay was 4.04 +/- 0.26 days (range 1-12). A literature review has also been performed. The management of gynecomastia has to be performed by a multidisciplinary team. Gynecomastia it is possible to be associated with a breast cancer, even in younger people. The surgical treatment, especially the type of incision, will be chosen from point of view of Simon stages. Liposuction can be associated in selected cases.

  4. Objective measures of binaural masking level differences and comodulation masking release based on late auditory evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Yasin, Ifat; Verhey, Jesko L.

    2013-01-01

    at a fixed physical intensity is varied by introducing auditory cues of (i) interaural target signal phase disparity and (ii) coherent masker level fluctuations in different frequency regions. In agreement with previous studies, psychoacoustical experiments showed that both stimulus manipulations result......The audibility of important sounds is often hampered due to the presence of other masking sounds. The present study investigates if a correlate of the audibility of a tone masked by noise is found in late auditory evoked potentials measured from human listeners. The audibility of the target sound...... in a masking release (i: binaural masking level difference; ii: comodulation masking release) compared to a condition where those cues are not present. Late auditory evoked potentials (N1, P2) were recorded for the stimuli at a constant masker level, but different signal levels within the same set of listeners...

  5. Simulation based mask defect repair verification and disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Eric; Zhao, Shirley; Zhang, Skin; Qian, Sandy; Cheng, Guojie; Vikram, Abhishek; Li, Ling; Chen, Ye; Hsiang, Chingyun; Zhang, Gary; Su, Bo

    2009-10-01

    As the industry moves towards sub-65nm technology nodes, the mask inspection, with increased sensitivity and shrinking critical defect size, catches more and more nuisance and false defects. Increased defect counts pose great challenges in the post inspection defect classification and disposition: which defect is real defect, and among the real defects, which defect should be repaired and how to verify the post-repair defects. In this paper, we address the challenges in mask defect verification and disposition, in particular, in post repair defect verification by an efficient methodology, using SEM mask defect images, and optical inspection mask defects images (only for verification of phase and transmission related defects). We will demonstrate the flow using programmed mask defects in sub-65nm technology node design. In total 20 types of defects were designed including defects found in typical real circuit environments with 30 different sizes designed for each type. The SEM image was taken for each programmed defect after the test mask was made. Selected defects were repaired and SEM images from the test mask were taken again. Wafers were printed with the test mask before and after repair as defect printability references. A software tool SMDD-Simulation based Mask Defect Disposition-has been used in this study. The software is used to extract edges from the mask SEM images and convert them into polygons to save in GDSII format. Then, the converted polygons from the SEM images were filled with the correct tone to form mask patterns and were merged back into the original GDSII design file. This merge is for the purpose of contour simulation-since normally the SEM images cover only small area (~1 μm) and accurate simulation requires including larger area of optical proximity effect. With lithography process model, the resist contour of area of interest (AOI-the area surrounding a mask defect) can be simulated. If such complicated model is not available, a simple

  6. Comparison of trapezius squeeze test and jaw thrust as clinical indicators for laryngeal mask airway insertion in spontaneously breathing children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh Kumar, K. K.; Bhardwaj, Neerja; Yaddanapudi, Sandhya

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: It is not known whether trapezius squeeze test (TPZ) is a better clinical test than jaw thrust (JT) to assess laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion conditions in children under sevoflurane anesthesia. Material and Methods: After the Institutional Ethics Committee approval and written informed parental consent, 124 American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II children of 2–8 years of age undergoing minor surgical procedures were randomized into TPZ and JT groups. The children were induced with 8% sevoflurane in oxygen at a fresh gas flow of 4 L/min. TPZ or JT was performed after 1 min of start of sevoflurane and then every 20 s till the test was negative, when end-tidal (ET) sevoflurane concentration was noted. Classic LMA of requisite size was inserted by a blinded anesthetist and conditions at the insertion of LMA, insertion time, and the number of attempts of LMA insertion were recorded. Results: The mean LMA insertion time was significantly longer (P < 0.001) for TPZ (145 ± 28.7 sec) compared to JT group (111.8 ± 31.0 sec). ET sevoflurane concentration at the time of LMA insertion was comparable in the two groups. LMA insertion conditions were similar in the two groups. There was no difference between the two groups regarding total number of attempts of LMA insertion. Heart rate (HR) decreased in both groups after LMA insertion (P < 0.001) but TPZ group had significantly lower HR compared with the JT group up to 5 min after LMA insertion (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Both JT and TPZ are equivalent clinical indicators in predicting the optimal conditions of LMA insertion in spontaneously breathing children; however, it takes a longer time to achieve a negative TPZ squeeze test. PMID:28413275

  7. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Motoyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK or a control group (CONT and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs, blood lactate concentrations (Lac−, and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac− and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage.

  8. MASKED AREAS IN SHEAR PEAK STATISTICS: A FORWARD MODELING APPROACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, D.; Kratochvil, J. M.; Dawson, W.

    2016-01-01

    The statistics of shear peaks have been shown to provide valuable cosmological information beyond the power spectrum, and will be an important constraint of models of cosmology in forthcoming astronomical surveys. Surveys include masked areas due to bright stars, bad pixels etc., which must be accounted for in producing constraints on cosmology from shear maps. We advocate a forward-modeling approach, where the impacts of masking and other survey artifacts are accounted for in the theoretical prediction of cosmological parameters, rather than correcting survey data to remove them. We use masks based on the Deep Lens Survey, and explore the impact of up to 37% of the survey area being masked on LSST and DES-scale surveys. By reconstructing maps of aperture mass the masking effect is smoothed out, resulting in up to 14% smaller statistical uncertainties compared to simply reducing the survey area by the masked area. We show that, even in the presence of large survey masks, the bias in cosmological parameter estimation produced in the forward-modeling process is ≈1%, dominated by bias caused by limited simulation volume. We also explore how this potential bias scales with survey area and evaluate how much small survey areas are impacted by the differences in cosmological structure in the data and simulated volumes, due to cosmic variance

  9. Imatinib-induced postoperative periorbital purpura: GASP (Gleevec-Associated Surgical Purpura) in a woman with imatinib-treated chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, C Lane; Cohen, Philip R; Kurzrock, Razelle; Cortes, Jorge E

    2014-01-15

    Imatinib mesylate is a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Ocular side effects of imatinib include periorbital edema, which may become so severe as to obstruct the visual field. The purpose of this case study is to describe the clinical characteristics of imatinib- induced postoperative periorbital purpura. We retrospectively reviewed the medical literature using PubMed, searching the terms edema, Gleevec, imatinib, periorbital, postoperative and purpura. Patient reports and previous reviews of the subject were critically assessed and the salient features are presented. Three patients have undergone surgery to reduce the imatinib-induced periorbital edema; two of these individuals have developed imatinib-induced postoperative periorbital purpura. We recommend discontinuing imatinib usage one week prior to periorbital surgery and not resuming therapy until the eighth postoperative day.

  10. New method of contour-based mask-shape compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Onizawa, Akira; Sato, Hidetoshi; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2007-10-01

    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, it is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method for a DFM solution in which two dimensional data are extracted for an error free practical simulation by precise reproduction of a real mask shape in addition to the mask data simulation. The flow centering around the design data is fully automated and provides an environment where optimization and verification for fully automated model calibration with much less error is available. It also allows complete consolidation of input and output functions with an EDA system by constructing a design data oriented system structure. This method therefore is regarded as a strategic DFM approach in the semiconductor metrology.

  11. Comparison of Aerosol Delivery by Face Mask and Tracheostomy Collar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugis, Alaa A; Sheard, Meryl M; Fink, James B; Harwood, Robert J; Ari, Arzu

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a tracheostomy collar, Wright mask, and aerosol mask attached to a jet nebulizer in facilitating aerosolized medication delivery to the lungs. We also compared albuterol delivery with open versus closed fenestration and determined the effect of inspiratory-expiratory ratio (I:E) on aerosol delivery. Albuterol (2.5 mg/3 mL) was administered to an in vitro model consisting of an adult teaching mannequin extrathoracic and upper airway with stoma intubated with an 8-mm fenestrated tracheostomy tube. The cuff was deflated. A collecting filter at the level of the bronchi was connected to a breathing simulator at a tidal volume of 400 mL, breathing frequency of 20 breaths/min, and I:E of 2:1 and 1:2. A jet nebulizer was operated with O2 at 8 L/min. Each interface was tested in triplicate. The flow was discontinued at the end of nebulization. For each test, the nebulizer was attached to a tracheostomy collar with the fenestration open or closed, a Wright mask, or an aerosol mask. Drug was analyzed by spectrophotometry (276 nm). A paired t test and analysis of variance were performed (P mask (4.1 ± 0.6%) and aerosol mask (3.5 ± 0.04%) were both less than with the tracheostomy collar under either condition (P mask (7.2 ± 0.6%), and aerosol mask (6.1 ± 0.5%). In an adult tracheostomy model, the tracheostomy collar delivered more aerosol to the bronchi than the Wright or aerosol mask. An I:E of 2:1 caused greater aerosol deposition compared with an I:E of 1:2. During aerosol administration via a tracheostomy collar, closing the fenestration improved aerosol delivery. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  12. Expression of neuronal antigens and related ventral and dorsal proteins in the normal spinal cord and a surgically induced open neural tube defect of the spine in chick embryos: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do-Hun; Phi, Ji Hoon; Chung, You-Nam; Lee, Yun-Jin; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Dong Won; Park, Moon-Sik; Wang, Kyu-Chang

    2010-05-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate the processes of neuronal differentiation and ventrodorsal patterning in the spinal cord of the chick embryo from embryonic day (E) 3 to E17 and to study the effect of a prenatal spinal open neural tube defect (ONTD) on these processes. Expression patterns of neuronal antigens (neuronal nuclear antigen, neurofilament-associated protein (NAP), and synaptophysin) and related ventral markers [sonic hedgehog, paired box gene (PAX)6, and islet-1], and dorsal markers (bone morphogenetic protein, Notch homolog 1, and PAX7) were investigated in the normal spinal cord and in a surgically induced spinal ONTD in chick embryos. Four normal and ONTD chick embryos were used for each antigen group. There were no differences in the expression of neuronal and ventrodorsal markers between the control and ONTD groups. NAP and synaptophysin were useful for identifying dorsal structures in the distorted anatomy of the ONTD chicks.

  13. Integration of mask and silicon metrology in DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2009-03-01

    We have developed a highly integrated method of mask and silicon metrology. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. We have inspected the high accuracy, stability and reproducibility in the experiments of integration. The accuracy is comparable with that of the mask and silicon CD-SEM metrology. In this report, we introduce the experimental results and the application. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device advances, OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) goes aggressively dense in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). However, from the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), the cost of data process for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) and mask producing is a problem. Such trade-off between RET and mask producing is a big issue in semiconductor market especially in mask business. Seeing silicon device production process, information sharing is not completely organized between design section and production section. Design data created with OPC and MDP should be linked to process control on production. But design data and process control data are optimized independently. Thus, we provided a solution of DFM: advanced integration of mask metrology and silicon metrology. The system we propose here is composed of followings. 1) Design based recipe creation: Specify patterns on the design data for metrology. This step is fully automated since they are interfaced with hot spot coordinate information detected by various verification methods. 2) Design based image acquisition: Acquire the images of mask and silicon automatically by a recipe based on the pattern design of CD-SEM.It is a robust automated step because a wide range of design data is used for the image acquisition. 3) Contour profiling and GDS data generation: An image profiling process is applied to the acquired image based

  14. Aperture Mask for Unambiguous Parity Determination in Long Wavelength Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Brent

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a new parity pupil mask design that allows users to unambiguously determine the image space coordinate system of all the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) science instruments by using two out-of-focus images. This is an improvement over existing mask designs that could not completely eliminate the coordinate system parity ambiguity at a wavelength of 5.6 microns. To mitigate the problem of how the presence of diffraction artifacts can obscure the pupil mask detail, this innovation has been created with specifically designed edge features so that the image space coordinate system parity can be determined in the presence of diffraction, even at long wavelengths.

  15. Rheumatic masks of plasma cell dyscrasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Vasilyev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to consider clinical practice problems in the differential diagnosis of different types of plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD. Subjects and methods. Fourteen patients (8 men and 6 women aged 52±12 years, in whom rheumatic diseases (RD were ruled out and who were diagnosed as having primary PCD: different types of myeloma in 7 patients, myeloma + AL-amyloidosis in 2, AL-amyloidosis in 3, and Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia in 2, were examined. Results and discussion. The most common maldiagnosed RDs in patients with PCD were seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (RA, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren’s disease, and different forms of vasculitis. The most frequent masks of RD were kidney (78% and osteoarticular system (64% lesions, vascular disorders (36%, peripheral polyneuropathies (36%, and enlarged salivary glands with xerostomia (28.5%. Serum and urine immunochemical study should be performed in all patients who have clinical manifestations of seropositive RA, spondyloarthritis, intensive bone pain syndrome, ulceronecrotic vasculitis, enlarged submandibular salivary glands with macroglossia in the absence of markers of autoimmune disease for the timely diagnosis of PCD and the exclusion of RD. The paper estimates the sensitivity and specificity of main methods used to diagnose different types of PCD.

  16. Addressing terrain masking in orbital reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sharad; Cico, Luke

    2012-06-01

    During aerial orbital reconnaissance, a sensor system is mounted on an airborne platform for imaging a region on the ground. The latency between the image acquisition and delivery of information to the end-user is critical and must be minimized. Due to fine ground pixel resolution and a large field-of-view for wide-area surveillance applications, a massive volume of data is gathered and imagery products are formed using a real-time multi-processor system. The images are taken at oblique angles, stabilized and ortho-rectified. The line-of-sight of the sensor to the ground is often interrupted by terrain features such as mountains or tall structures as depicted in Figure1. The ortho-rectification process renders the areas hidden from the line-of sight of the sensor with spurious information. This paper discusses an approach for addressing terrain masking in size, weight, and power (SWaP) and memory-restricted onboard processing systems.

  17. Laser etching of polymer masked leadframes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. K.; Man, H. C.; Yue, T. M.; Yuen, C. W.

    1997-02-01

    A typical electroplating production line for the deposition of silver pattern on copper leadframes in the semiconductor industry involves twenty to twenty five steps of cleaning, pickling, plating, stripping etc. This complex production process occupies large floor space and has also a number of problems such as difficulty in the production of rubber masks and alignment, generation of toxic fumes, high cost of water consumption and sometimes uncertainty on the cleanliness of the surfaces to be plated. A novel laser patterning process is proposed in this paper which can replace many steps in the existing electroplating line. The proposed process involves the application of high speed laser etching techniques on leadframes which were protected with polymer coating. The desired pattern for silver electroplating is produced by laser ablation of the polymer coating. Excimer laser was found to be most effective for this process as it can expose a pattern of clean copper substrate which can be silver plated successfully. Previous working of Nd:YAG laser ablation showed that 1.06 μm radiation was not suitable for this etching process because a thin organic and transparent film remained on the laser etched region. The effect of excimer pulse frequency and energy density upon the removal rate of the polymer coating was studied.

  18. Infrared Signature Masking by Air Plasma Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Charles H.; Laux, C. O.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained during a research program on the infrared radiation of air plasmas conducted in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University under the direction of Professor Charles H. Kruger, with Dr. Christophe O. Laux as Associate Investigator. The goal of this research was to investigate the masking of infrared signatures by the air plasma formed behind the bow shock of high velocity missiles. To this end, spectral measurements and modeling were made of the radiation emitted between 2.4 and 5.5 micrometers by an atmospheric pressure air plasma in chemical and thermal equilibrium at a temperature of approximately 3000 K. The objective was to examine the spectral emission of air species including nitric oxide, atomic oxygen and nitrogen lines, molecular and atomic continua, as well as secondary species such as water vapor or carbon dioxide. The cold air stream injected in the plasma torch contained approximately 330 parts per million of CO2, which is the natural CO2 concentration in atmospheric air at room temperatures, and a small amount of water vapor with an estimated mole fraction of 3.8x10(exp -4).

  19. Optimized furosemide taste masked orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abbas Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimized orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs containing furosemide (FUR were prepared by direct compression method. Two factors, three levels (32 full factorial design was used to optimize the effect of taste masking agent (Eudragit E100; X1 and superdisintegarant; croscarmellose sodium (CCS; X2 on tablet properties. A composite was prepared by mixing ethanolic solution of FUR and Eudragit E100 with mannitol prior to mixing with other tablet ingredients. The prepared ODTs were characterized for their FUR content, hardness, friability and wetting time. The optimized ODT formulation (F1 was evaluated in term of palatability parameters and the in vivo disintegration. The manufactured ODTs were complying with the pharmacopeia guidelines regarding hardness, friability, weight variation and content. Eudragit E100 had a very slightly enhancing effect on tablets disintegration. However, the effects of both Eudragit E100 (X1 and CCS (X2 on ODTs disintegration time (Y1 were insignificant (p > 0.05. Moreover, X1 exhibited antagonistic effect on the dissolution after 5 and 30 min (D5 and D30, respectively, but only its effect on D30 is significant (p = 0.0004. Furthermore, the optimized ODTs formula showed good to acceptable taste in term of palatability, and in vivo disintegration time of this formula was about 10 s.

  20. How do different brands of size 1 laryngeal mask airway compare with face mask ventilation in a dedicated laryngeal mask airway teaching manikin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Mark Brian; Priyadarshi, Archana; Goel, Dimple; Lowe, Krista; Huvanandana, Jacqueline; Hinder, Murray

    2018-05-01

    International neonatal resuscitation guidelines recommend the use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) with newborn infants (≥34 weeks' gestation or >2 kg weight) when bag-mask ventilation (BMV) or tracheal intubation is unsuccessful. Previous publications do not allow broad LMA device comparison. To compare delivered ventilation of seven brands of size 1 LMA devices with two brands of face mask using self-inflating bag (SIB). 40 experienced neonatal staff provided inflation cycles using SIB with positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) (5 cmH 2 O) to a specialised newborn/infant training manikin randomised for each LMA and face mask. All subjects received prior education in LMA insertion and BMV. 12 415 recorded inflations for LMAs and face masks were analysed. Leak detected was lowest with i-gel brand, with a mean of 5.7% compared with face mask (triangular 42.7, round 35.7) and other LMAs (45.5-65.4) (p<0.001). Peak inspiratory pressure was higher with i-gel, with a mean of 28.9 cmH 2 O compared with face mask (triangular 22.8, round 25.8) and other LMAs (14.3-22.0) (p<0.001). PEEP was higher with i-gel, with a mean of 5.1 cmH 2 O compared with face mask (triangular 3.0, round 3.6) and other LMAs (0.6-2.6) (p<0.001). In contrast to other LMAs examined, i-gel had no insertion failures and all users found i-gel easy to use. This study has shown dramatic performance differences in delivered ventilation, mask leak and ease of use among seven different brands of LMA tested in a manikin model. This coupled with no partial or complete insertion failures and ease of use suggests i-gel LMA may have an expanded role with newborn resuscitation as a primary resuscitation device. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. An optimized OPC and MDP flow for reducing mask write time and mask cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ellyn; Li, Cheng He; Park, Se Jin; Zhu, Yu; Guo, Eric

    2010-09-01

    In the process of optical proximity correction, layout edge or fragment is migrating to proper position in order to minimize edge placement error (EPE). During this fragment migration, several factors other than EPE can be also taken into account as a part of cost function for optimal fragment displacement. Several factors are devised in favor of OPC stability, which can accommodate room for high mask error enhancement factor (MEEF), lack of process window, catastrophic pattern failure such as pinch/bridge and improper fragmentation. As technology node becomes finer, there happens conflict between OPC accuracy and stability. Especially for metal layers, OPC has focused on the stability by loss of accurate OPC results. On this purpose, several techniques have been introduced, which are target smoothing, process window aware OPC, model-based retargeting and adaptive OPC. By utilizing those techniques, OPC enables more stabilized patterning, instead of realizing design target exactly on wafer. Inevitably, post-OPC layouts become more complicated because those techniques invoke additional edge, or fragments prior to correction or during OPC iteration. As a result, jogs of post OPC layer can be dramatically increased, which results in huge number of shot count after data fracturing. In other words, there is trade-off relationship between data complexity and various methods for OPC stability. In this paper, those relationships have been investigated with respect to several technology nodes. The mask shot count reduction is achieved by reducing the number of jogs with which EPE difference are within pre-specified value. The effect of jog smoothing on OPC output - in view of OPC performance and mask data preparation - was studied quantitatively for respective technology nodes.

  2. Gaming to see: Action Video Gaming is associated with enhanced processing of masked stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten ePohl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research revealed that action video game players outperform non-players in a wide range of attentional, perceptual and cognitive tasks. Here we tested if expertise in action video games is related to differences regarding the potential of shortly presented stimuli to bias behaviour. In a response priming paradigm, participants classified four animal pictures functioning as targets as being smaller or larger than a reference frame. Before each target, one of the same four animal pictures was presented as a masked prime to influence participants’ responses in a congruent or incongruent way. Masked primes induced congruence effects, that is, faster responses for congruent compared to incongruent conditions, indicating processing of hardly visible primes. Results also suggested that action video game players showed a larger congruence effect than non-players for 20 ms primes, whereas there was no group difference for 60 ms primes. In addition, there was a tendency for action video game players to detect masked primes for some prime durations better than non-players. Thus, action video game expertise may be accompanied by faster and more efficient processing of shortly presented visual stimuli.

  3. Imaging x-ray sources at a finite distance in coded-mask instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnarumma, Immacolata; Pacciani, Luigi; Lapshov, Igor; Evangelista, Yuri

    2008-01-01

    We present a method for the correction of beam divergence in finite distance sources imaging through coded-mask instruments. We discuss the defocusing artifacts induced by the finite distance showing two different approaches to remove such spurious effects. We applied our method to one-dimensional (1D) coded-mask systems, although it is also applicable in two-dimensional systems. We provide a detailed mathematical description of the adopted method and of the systematics introduced in the reconstructed image (e.g., the fraction of source flux collected in the reconstructed peak counts). The accuracy of this method was tested by simulating pointlike and extended sources at a finite distance with the instrumental setup of the SuperAGILE experiment, the 1D coded-mask x-ray imager onboard the AGILE (Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero) mission. We obtained reconstructed images of good quality and high source location accuracy. Finally we show the results obtained by applying this method to real data collected during the calibration campaign of SuperAGILE. Our method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool to investigate the imaging response of the experiment, particularly the absorption due to the materials intercepting the line of sight of the instrument and the conversion between detector pixel and sky direction

  4. Gaming to see: action video gaming is associated with enhanced processing of masked stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Carsten; Kunde, Wilfried; Ganz, Thomas; Conzelmann, Annette; Pauli, Paul; Kiesel, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Recent research revealed that action video game players outperform non-players in a wide range of attentional, perceptual and cognitive tasks. Here we tested if expertise in action video games is related to differences regarding the potential of shortly presented stimuli to bias behavior. In a response priming paradigm, participants classified four animal pictures functioning as targets as being smaller or larger than a reference frame. Before each target, one of the same four animal pictures was presented as a masked prime to influence participants' responses in a congruent or incongruent way. Masked primes induced congruence effects, that is, faster responses for congruent compared to incongruent conditions, indicating processing of hardly visible primes. Results also suggested that action video game players showed a larger congruence effect than non-players for 20 ms primes, whereas there was no group difference for 60 ms primes. In addition, there was a tendency for action video game players to detect masked primes for some prime durations better than non-players. Thus, action video game expertise may be accompanied by faster and more efficient processing of shortly presented visual stimuli.

  5. Evidence for differential modulation of primary and nonprimary auditory cortex by forward masking in tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Larry E; Bosnyak, Daniel J; Bruce, Ian C; Gander, Phillip E; Paul, Brandon T

    2015-09-01

    It has been proposed that tinnitus is generated by aberrant neural activity that develops among neurons in tonotopic of regions of primary auditory cortex (A1) affected by hearing loss, which is also the frequency region where tinnitus percepts localize (Eggermont and Roberts 2004; Roberts et al., 2010, 2013). These models suggest (1) that differences between tinnitus and control groups of similar age and audiometric function should depend on whether A1 is probed in tinnitus frequency region (TFR) or below it, and (2) that brain responses evoked from A1 should track changes in the tinnitus percept when residual inhibition (RI) is induced by forward masking. We tested these predictions by measuring (128-channel EEG) the sound-evoked 40-Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) known to localize tonotopically to neural sources in A1. For comparison the N1 transient response localizing to distributed neural sources in nonprimary cortex (A2) was also studied. When tested under baseline conditions where tinnitus subjects would have heard their tinnitus, ASSR responses were larger in a tinnitus group than in controls when evoked by 500 Hz probes while the reverse was true for tinnitus and control groups tested with 5 kHz probes, confirming frequency-dependent group differences in this measure. On subsequent trials where RI was induced by masking (narrow band noise centered at 5 kHz), ASSR amplitude increased in the tinnitus group probed at 5 kHz but not in the tinnitus group probed at 500 Hz. When collapsed into a single sample tinnitus subjects reporting comparatively greater RI depth and duration showed comparatively larger ASSR increases after masking regardless of probe frequency. Effects of masking on ASSR amplitude in the control groups were completely reversed from those in the tinnitus groups, with no change seen to 5 kHz probes but ASSR increases to 500 Hz probes even though the masking sound contained no energy at 500 Hz (an "off-frequency" masking

  6. X-ray face mask and bib device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forshee, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An x-ray protective face mask is made of a relatively transparent lead containing radiation shielding plastics material, and is removably attachable to a chest or bib shield for application of the device to and support upon the shoulders of a technician or a patient. Alternatively, the face mask is formed of a lens portion supported in a plastics frame, upon the lower portion of which is removably attached a bib shield that in turn is removably attachable to an apron. The frame of the face mask, bib shield and apron are preferably lined with lead sheets to protect the neck, face, chest and body of the technician from the random secondary or scatter x-ray beams. The face mask and bib shield can be formed of a moulded plastics material as a unitary device, the lens portion being attached to the frame therefor. (author)

  7. Error response test system and method using test mask variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An error response test system and method with increased functionality and improved performance is provided. The error response test system provides the ability to inject errors into the application under test to test the error response of the application under test in an automated and efficient manner. The error response system injects errors into the application through a test mask variable. The test mask variable is added to the application under test. During normal operation, the test mask variable is set to allow the application under test to operate normally. During testing, the error response test system can change the test mask variable to introduce an error into the application under test. The error response system can then monitor the application under test to determine whether the application has the correct response to the error.

  8. Backward masking, the suffix effect, and preperceptual storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, H J; Massaro, D W

    1983-04-01

    This article considers the use of auditory backward recognition masking (ABRM) and stimulus suffix experiments as indexes of preperceptual auditory storage. In the first part of the article, two ABRM experiments that failed to demonstrate a mask disinhibition effect found previously in stimulus suffix experiments are reported. The failure to demonstrate mask disinhibition is inconsistent with an explanation of ABRM in terms of lateral inhibition. In the second part of the article, evidence is presented to support the conclusion that the suffix effect involves the contributions of later processing stages and does not provide an uncontaminated index of preperceptual storage. In contrast, it is claimed that ABRM experiments provide the most direct index of the temporal course of perceptual recognition. Partial-report tasks and other paradigms are also evaluated in terms of their contributions to an understanding of preperceptual auditory storage. Differences between interruption and integration masking are discussed along with the role of preperceptual auditory storage in speech perception.

  9. Kuldne Mask Tallinnasssssss! / Sergei Zhenovatsh ; interv. Hellar Bergmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zhenovatsh, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Lavastaja Sergei Zhenovatsh oma Teatrikunsti Stuudiost, noortest näitlejatest, Eestist. Lavastaja on Eestis teatrifestivali "Kuldne mask Eestis" raames. 10.-11. okt. etendus Tallinnas, Salme Kultuurikeskuses Nikolai Gogoli näidend "Mängurid"

  10. Investigation and modeling of CPL mask profiles using OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan-Chen; Lin, Ren-Hao; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Huang, Cheng-Hsuan; Lien, Ta-Cheng; Chen, Chia-Jen; Lee, Gaston; Lee, Hsin-Chang; Yen, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Mask profile of chromeless phase-shifting lithography (CPL) defined by OCD has been investigated. In CPL masks, unbalanced bombardments caused by different ion accelerations lead to the formation of micro-notch structures. A better understanding of micro-notch structures is essential for quality gating of mask processes to improve of CPL mask profiles. By measuring 12 of 16 elements of Mueller matrix, we are able to set up a model to simulate the depth of micro-notch structure profile which shows good correlation with TEM images. Moreover, values of CD, quartz etching depth and side wall angle acquired by OCD are presented and compared with those obtained by SEM, TEM and AFM, respectively.

  11. Noise frame duration, masking potency and whiteness of temporal noise

    OpenAIRE

    Kukkonen, Helja; Rovamo, Jyrki; Donner, Kristian; Tammikallio, Marja; Raninen, Antii

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE. Because of the limited contrast range, increasing the duration of the noise frame is often the only option for increasing the masking potency of external, white temporal noise. This, however, reduces the high-frequency cutoff beyond which noise is no longer white. This study was conducted to determine the longest noise frame duration that produces the strongest masking effect and still mimics white noise on the detection of sinusoidal flicker. \\ud \\ud METHODS. Contrast energy thresho...

  12. Evaluation of the Joint Service General Purpose Mask, XM50

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    and vision Trial 7 Trial 8 Trial 12 correction E-2 TRIAL 3299 7795 2079 Did not finish exercises. No No comment on sweat or No comment on sweat or...lhr 50 min playing time). Duringboth activities, slight Reported slight intermittent No comment on. swet or fogging with slight impact on fogging...right eye. During steam No comment on Mask was stationary. engine exercise, reported 4 sweat or fogging Reported that seal mask seal leakage at

  13. Differential effect of visual masking in perceptual categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélie, Sébastien; Cousineau, Denis

    2015-06-01

    This article explores the visual information used to categorize stimuli drawn from a common stimulus space into verbal and nonverbal categories using 2 experiments. Experiment 1 explores the effect of target duration on verbal and nonverbal categorization using backward masking to interrupt visual processing. With categories equated for difficulty for long and short target durations, intermediate target duration shows an advantage for verbal categorization over nonverbal categorization. Experiment 2 tests whether the results of Experiment 1 can be explained by shorter target duration resulting in a smaller signal-to-noise ratio of the categorization stimulus. To test for this possibility, Experiment 2 used integration masking with the same stimuli, categories, and masks as Experiment 1 with a varying level of mask opacity. As predicted, low mask opacity yielded similar results to long target duration while high mask opacity yielded similar results to short target duration. Importantly, intermediate mask opacity produced an advantage for verbal categorization over nonverbal categorization, similar to intermediate target duration. These results suggest that verbal and nonverbal categorization are affected differently by manipulations affecting the signal-to-noise ratio of the stimulus, consistent with multiple-system theories of categorizations. The results further suggest that verbal categorization may be more digital (and more robust to low signal-to-noise ratio) while the information used in nonverbal categorization may be more analog (and less robust to lower signal-to-noise ratio). This article concludes with a discussion of how these new results affect the use of masking in perceptual categorization and multiple-system theories of perceptual category learning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Adapting Mask-RCNN for Automatic Nucleus Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jeremiah W.

    2018-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of microscopy images is an important task in medical image processing and analysis. Nucleus detection is an important example of this task. Mask-RCNN is a recently proposed state-of-the-art algorithm for object detection, object localization, and object instance segmentation of natural images. In this paper we demonstrate that Mask-RCNN can be used to perform highly effective and efficient automatic segmentations of a wide range of microscopy images of cell nuclei, for ...

  15. A phase mask fiber grating and sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preecha P. Yupapin

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of a fabricated fiber grating device characteristics and its applications, using a phase mask writing technique. The use of a most common UV phase laser (KrF eximer laser, with high intensity light source was focussed to the phase mask for writing on a fiber optic sample. The device (i.e. grating characteristic especially, in sensing application, was investigated. The possibility of using such device for temperature and strain sensors is discussed.

  16. Protection provided by masks sinkers in interventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pera Cegarra, O.; Alejo Luque, L.; Pifarre Martinez, J.

    2011-01-01

    The high doses that are taught in laboratories worked indispensable the use of shields and armor. In this context, the use of sinkers glasses is widespread, but not the sinkers of the masks. Qur goal is to study the effectiveness of such masks for later comparison with that provided by leaded glasses with side shields. Specifically, compare the reduction in lens dose rate for different positions and orientations of the head of specialist intervention.

  17. Masked hypertension: evaluation, prognosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Fabio; Reboldi, Gianpaolo; Verdecchia, Paolo

    2010-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) may be high during usual daily life in one out of 7-8 individuals with normal BP in the clinic or doctor's office. This condition is usually defined as masked hypertension (MH). Prevalence of MH varied across different studies depending on patient characteristics, populations studied, and different definitions of MH. Self-measured BP and ambulatory BP (ABP) have been widely used to identify subjects with MH. Various factors have been identified as possible determinants of MH. Cigarette smoking, alcohol, physical activity, job, and psychological stress may increase BP out of the clinical environment in otherwise normotensive individuals, leading to MH. In most studies, target organ damage was comparable in subjects with MH and those with sustained hypertension, and greater than in those with true normotension. Subjects with MH showed a 1.5- to 3-fold higher risk of major cardiovascular (CV) disease than those with normotension, and their risk was not different from that of patients with sustained hypertension. In an overview of literature, we found that the risk of major CV disease was higher in subjects with MH than in the normotensive subjects regardless of the definition of MH based on self-measured BP (hazard ratio (HR) 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-3.35; P = 0.001) or 24-h ABP (HR 2.00; 95% CI: 1.54-2.60; P who appear to be more likely to have this condition. Antihypertensive treatment is envisaged in these subjects, although the associated outcome benefits are still undetermined.

  18. Comparison of the OxyMask and Venturi Mask in the Delivery of Supplemental Oxygen: Pilot Study in Oxygen-Dependent Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Beecroft, Jaime M; Hanly, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The OxyMask (Southmedic Inc, Canada) is a new face mask for oxygen delivery that uses a small ‘diffuser’ to concentrate and direct oxygen toward the mouth and nose. The authors hypothesized that this unique design would enable the OxyMask to deliver oxygen more efficiently than a Venturi mask (Hudson RCI, USA) in patients with chronic hypoxemia.METHODS: Oxygen-dependent patients with chronic, stable respiratory disease were recruited to compare the OxyMask and Venturi mask in a ra...

  19. A pattern-based method to automate mask inspection files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal Baharin, Ezni Aznida Binti; Muhsain, Mohamad Fahmi Bin; Ahmad Ibrahim, Muhamad Asraf Bin; Ahmad Noorhani, Ahmad Nurul Ihsan Bin; Sweis, Jason; Lai, Ya-Chieh; Hurat, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Mask inspection is a critical step in the mask manufacturing process in order to ensure all dimensions printed are within the needed tolerances. This becomes even more challenging as the device nodes shrink and the complexity of the tapeout increases. Thus, the amount of measurement points and their critical dimension (CD) types are increasing to ensure the quality of the mask. In addition to the mask quality, there is a significant amount of manpower needed when the preparation and debugging of this process are not automated. By utilizing a novel pattern search technology with the ability to measure and report match region scan-line (edge) measurements, we can create a flow to find, measure and mark all metrology locations of interest and provide this automated report to the mask shop for inspection. A digital library is created based on the technology product and node which contains the test patterns to be measured. This paper will discuss how these digital libraries will be generated and then utilized. As a time-critical part of the manufacturing process, this can also reduce the data preparation cycle time, minimize the amount of manual/human error in naming and measuring the various locations, reduce the risk of wrong/missing CD locations, and reduce the amount of manpower needed overall. We will also review an example pattern and how the reporting structure to the mask shop can be processed. This entire process can now be fully automated.

  20. Mask design and fabrication in coded aperture imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutler, Paul M.E.; Springham, Stuart V.; Talebitaher, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the new concept of a row-spaced mask, where a number of blank rows are interposed between every pair of adjacent rows of holes of a conventional cyclic difference set based coded mask. At the cost of a small loss in signal-to-noise ratio, this can substantially reduce the number of holes required to image extended sources, at the same time increasing mask strength uniformly across the aperture, as well as making the mask automatically self-supporting. We also show that the Finger and Prince construction can be used to wrap any cyclic difference set onto a two-dimensional mask, regardless of the number of its pixels. We use this construction to validate by means of numerical simulations not only the performance of row-spaced masks, but also the pixel padding technique introduced by in ’t Zand. Finally, we provide a computer program CDSGEN.EXE which, on a fast modern computer and for any Singer set of practical size and open fraction, generates the corresponding pattern of holes in seconds

  1. Face mask ventilation--the dos and don'ts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Fiona E; Morley, Colin J

    2013-12-01

    Face mask ventilation provides respiratory support to newly born or sick infants. It is a challenging technique and difficult to ensure that an appropriate tidal volume is delivered because large and variable leaks occur between the mask and face; airway obstruction may also occur. Technique is more important than the mask shape although the size must appropriately fit the face. The essence of the technique is to roll the mask on to the face from the chin while avoiding the eyes, with a finger and thumb apply a strong even downward pressure to the top of the mask, away from the stem and sloped sides or skirt of the mask, place the other fingers under the jaw and apply a similar upward pressure. Preterm infants require continuous end-expiratory pressure to facilitate lung aeration and maintain lung volume. This is best done with a T-piece device, not a self-inflating or flow-inflating bag. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. GLEBUS SAINCIUC’S PAPIER-MÂCHÉ PORTRAIT MASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN ANA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The portrait masks created by Glebus Sainciuc (1919-2012 portray painters, sculptors, musicians, writers, actors, playwrights,filmmakers etc., and they are a proof of the fact that the individual contribution of these persons to the artistic development of our country has not been forgotten. Morphologically, the papier-mâché portrait masks of master Glebus Sainciuc are situated at the limit of painting, graphic drawing and sculpture; the masks were created by the master using the papier-mâché techniques. We should mention that the author’s predilection for the fauvist and naïve techniques in portrait representation, together with the style of his caricatures and small size drawings, infl uenced the caricatures style of his masks. The first portrait masks were created by Glebus Sainciuc in 1957, and by the end of his artistic activity his collection consisted of 350 masks – all depicting different persons, but all sharing the same portrait techniques and showing the inner charm of these persons.

  3. Status of EUVL mask development in Europe (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jan H.

    2005-06-01

    EUV lithography is the prime candidate for the next generation lithography technology after 193 nm immersion lithography. The commercial onset for this technology is expected for the 45 nm half-pitch technology or below. Several European and national projects and quite a large number of companies and research institutions in Europe work on various aspects of the technological challenges to make EUV a commercially viable technology in the not so far future. Here the development of EUV sources, the development of an EUV exposure tools, metrology tools dedicated for characterization of mask, the production of EUV mask blanks and the mask structuring itself are the key areas in which major activities can be found. In this talk we will primarily focus on those activities, which are related to establish an EUV mask supply chain with all its ingredients from substrate production, polishing, deposition of EUV layers, blank characterization, mask patterning process and the consecutive metrology and defect inspection as well as shipping and handling from blank supply to usage in the wafer fab. The EUV mask related projects on the national level are primarily supported by the French Ministry of Economics and Finance (MinEFi) and the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).

  4. Source Separation via Spectral Masking for Speech Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernandes Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an insight into the use of spectral masking techniques in time-frequency domain, as a preprocessing step for the speech signal recognition. Speech recognition systems have their performance negatively affected in noisy environments or in the presence of other speech signals. The limits of these masking techniques for different levels of the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. We show the robustness of the spectral masking techniques against four types of noise: white, pink, brown and human speech noise (bubble noise. The main contribution of this work is to analyze the performance limits of recognition systems  using spectral masking. We obtain an increase of 18% on the speech hit rate, when the speech signals were corrupted by other speech signals or bubble noise, with different signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 1, 10 and 20 dB. On the other hand, applying the ideal binary masks to mixtures corrupted by white, pink and brown noise, results an average growth of 9% on the speech hit rate, with the same different signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental results suggest that the masking spectral techniques are more suitable for the case when it is applied a bubble noise, which is produced by human speech, than for the case of applying white, pink and brown noise.

  5. 42 CFR 84.118 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.118 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and...

  6. Influence of the surgical manipulation of the colon in colonic induced carcinogenesis in rats Influencia de la manipulación quirúrgica del colon en la carcinogénesis cólica inducida en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Noguera Aguilar

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to investigate the influence of different experimental manipulations in a model of colonic experimental carcinogenesis with pharmacological induction in the rat. Experimental design: a total of 90 Sprague-Dawley male rats, divided into three groups, were used: non-surgical (n = 30; surgical with colonic trauma (n = 20, and surgical with colo-colonic anastomosis (n = 40. Carcinogenic induction was carried out with 1-2 dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride. Colonic adenocarcinomas were identified and the number of tumors, as well as tumoral surface and percentage of tumoral surface was established. One-way ANOVA and Chi-square were employed for the statistical analysis. Results: the number of tumors was greater in the surgical group than in the control group, and tumors preferentially develop-ed around the manipulated colon. Surface and tumoral percentage were greater in the surgical group than in the control group, being also greater in the anastomosis group than in the group with colonic trauma. Within anastomosis groups, a greater tumor surface and percentage was found in the group with titanium than in the group with reabsorbable material. Conclusions: the experimental manipulation of the colon in rats enhances drug-induced colon carcingenesis. The creation of an anastomosis further increases the carcinogenic process compared with simulated anastomosis. This process is also enhanced by the quantity of suture material included in the anastomosis, and by the non-reabsorbable nature of the materials used in the anastomotic line.Objetivo: valorar la influencia de las distintas manipulaciones experimentales en un modelo de carcinogénesis cólica experimental con inducción farmacológica en la rata. Diseño experimental: se emplearon 90 ratas Sprague-Dawley macho, divididas en tres grupos: no quirúrgico (n=30; quirúrgico con traumatismo cólico (n=20, y quirúrgico con anastomosis colocólica (n=40. La inducción carcinogénica se realizó con

  7. A procedure and program to calculate shuttle mask advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasinski, A.; Cetin, J.; Kahng, A.; Xu, X.

    2006-10-01

    A well-known recipe for reducing mask cost component in product development is to place non-redundant elements of layout databases related to multiple products on one reticle plate [1,2]. Such reticles are known as multi-product, multi-layer, or, in general, multi-IP masks. The composition of the mask set should minimize not only the layout placement cost, but also the cost of the manufacturing process, design flow setup, and product design and introduction to market. An important factor is the quality check which should be expeditious and enable thorough visual verification to avoid costly modifications once the data is transferred to the mask shop. In this work, in order to enable the layer placement and quality check procedure, we proposed an algorithm where mask layers are first lined up according to the price and field tone [3]. Then, depending on the product die size, expected fab throughput, and scribeline requirements, the subsequent product layers are placed on the masks with different grades. The actual reduction of this concept to practice allowed us to understand the tradeoffs between the automation of layer placement and setup related constraints. For example, the limited options of the numbers of layer per plate dictated by the die size and other design feedback, made us consider layer pairing based not only on the final price of the mask set, but also on the cost of mask design and fab-friendliness. We showed that it may be advantageous to introduce manual layer pairing to ensure that, e.g., all interconnect layers would be placed on the same plate, allowing for easy and simultaneous design fixes. Another enhancement was to allow some flexibility in mixing and matching of the layers such that non-critical ones requiring low mask grade would be placed in a less restrictive way, to reduce the count of orphan layers. In summary, we created a program to automatically propose and visualize shuttle mask architecture for design verification, with

  8. Neopuff T-piece resuscitator mask ventilation: Does mask leak vary with different peak inspiratory pressures in a manikin model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Rajesh; Tracy, Mark; Hinder, Murray; Wright, Audrey

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare mask leak with three different peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) settings during T-piece resuscitator (TPR; Neopuff) mask ventilation on a neonatal manikin model. Participants were neonatal unit staff members. They were instructed to provide mask ventilation with a TPR with three PIP settings (20, 30, 40 cm H 2 O) chosen in a random order. Each episode was for 2 min with 2-min rest period. Flow rate and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) were kept constant. Airway pressure, inspiratory and expiratory tidal volumes, mask leak, respiratory rate and inspiratory time were recorded. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. A total of 12 749 inflations delivered by 40 participants were analysed. There were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in the mask leak with the three PIP settings. No statistically significant differences were seen in respiratory rate and inspiratory time with the three PIP settings. There was a significant rise in PEEP as the PIP increased. Failure to achieve the desired PIP was observed especially at the higher settings. In a neonatal manikin model, the mask leak does not vary as a function of the PIP when the flow rate is constant. With a fixed rate and inspiratory time, there seems to be a rise in PEEP with increasing PIP. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. Masking with faces in central visual field under a variety of temporal schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, Marwan; Wilson, Hugh R

    2015-11-01

    With a few exceptions, previous studies have explored masking using either a backward mask or a common onset trailing mask, but not both. In a series of experiments, we demonstrate the use of faces in central visual field as a viable method to study the relationship between these two types of mask schedule. We tested observers in a two alternative forced choice face identification task, where both target and mask comprised synthetic faces, and show that a simple model can successfully predict masking across a variety of masking schedules ranging from a backward mask to a common onset trailing mask and a number of intermediate variations. Our data are well accounted for by a window of sensitivity to mask interference that is centered at around 100 ms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Deriving DICOM surgical extensions from surgical workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgert, O.; Neumuth, T.; Gessat, M.; Jacobs, S.; Lemke, H. U.

    2007-03-01

    The generation, storage, transfer, and representation of image data in radiology are standardized by DICOM. To cover the needs of image guided surgery or computer assisted surgery in general one needs to handle patient information besides image data. A large number of objects must be defined in DICOM to address the needs of surgery. We propose an analysis process based on Surgical Workflows that helps to identify these objects together with use cases and requirements motivating for their specification. As the first result we confirmed the need for the specification of representation and transfer of geometric models. The analysis of Surgical Workflows has shown that geometric models are widely used to represent planned procedure steps, surgical tools, anatomical structures, or prosthesis in the context of surgical planning, image guided surgery, augmented reality, and simulation. By now, the models are stored and transferred in several file formats bare of contextual information. The standardization of data types including contextual information and specifications for handling of geometric models allows a broader usage of such models. This paper explains the specification process leading to Geometry Mesh Service Object Pair classes. This process can be a template for the definition of further DICOM classes.

  11. Non-surgical radiofrequency facelift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narins, David J; Narins, Rhoda S

    2003-10-01

    There has been considerable interest in using non-ablative methods to rejuvenate the skin. The ThermaCool TC (Thermage Inc.) is a radiofrequency (RF) device that has been introduced to induce tightening of the address the problem of skin via a uniform volumetric heating into the deep dermis tightening, resulting in a 'non-surgical facelift'. Radiofrequency produces a uniform volumetric heating into the deep dermis. Twenty treatment areas in 17 patients were treated to evaluate the efficacy and safety of RF treatment to the brow and jowls. The technique was found to produce gradual tightening in most patients, and there were no adverse effects.

  12. Qualitative tissue differentiation by analysing the intensity ratios of atomic emission lines using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): prospects for a feedback mechanism for surgical laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawade, Rajesh; Mahari, Fanuel; Klämpfl, Florian; Rohde, Maximilian; Knipfer, Christian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Schmidt, Michael; Stelzle, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper focuses on qualitative tissue differentiation by monitoring the intensity ratios of atomic emissions using 'Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy' (LIBS) on the plasma plume created during laser tissue ablation. The background of this study is to establish a real time feedback control mechanism for clinical laser surgery systems during the laser ablation process. Ex-vivo domestic pig tissue samples (muscle, fat, nerve and skin) were used in this experiment. Atomic emission intensity ratios were analyzed to find a characteristic spectral line for each tissue. The results showed characteristic elemental emission intensity ratios for the respective tissues. The spectral lines and intensity ratios of these specific elements varied among the different tissue types. The main goal of this study is to qualitatively and precisely identify different tissue types for tissue specific laser surgery. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Biophotonics published by WILEY-VCH Verlag.

  13. Recognizing surgical patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, L.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, each year over 1700 patients die from preventable surgical errors. Numerous initiatives to improve surgical practice have had some impact, but problems persist. Despite the introduction of checklists and protocols, patient safety in surgery remains a continuing challenge. This is

  14. Surgical medical record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, S.

    2008-01-01

    A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15......A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15...

  15. Correction: Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2011-11-30

    ABSTRACT: Following the publication of our article [Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports 2011, 5:122] it was brought to our attention that we inadvertently used the registered trademark of the Laryngeal Mask Company Limited (LMA) as the abbreviation for laryngeal mask airway. A Portex(R) Soft Seal(R) Laryngeal Mask was used and not a device manufactured by the Laryngeal Mask Company.

  16. Quality of patient positioning during cerebral tomotherapy irradiation using different mask systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitzen, C.; Wilhelm-Buchstab, T.; Garbe, S.; Luetter, C.; Muedder, T.; Simon, B.; Schild, H.H.; Schueller, H. [Universitaetsklinik Bonn, Radiologische Klinik, FE Strahlentherapie, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Patient immobilization during brain tumor radiotherapy is achieved by employing different mask systems. Two innovative mask systems were developed to minimize the problems of claustrophobic patients. Our aim was to evaluate whether the quality of patient immobilization using the new mask systems was equivalent to the standard mask system currently in use. Thirty-three patients with cerebral target volumes were irradiated using the Hi-Art II tomotherapy system between 2010 and 2012. Each group of 11 patients was fitted with one of the two new mask systems (Crystal {sup registered} or Open Face {sup registered} mask, Orfit) or the standard three-point mask (Raycast {sup registered} -HP, Orfit) and a total of 557 radiotherapy fractions were evaluated. After positioning was checked by MV-CT, the necessary table adjustments were noted. Data were analyzed by comparing the groups, and safety margins were calculated for nonimage-guided irradiation. The mean values of the table adjustments were: (a) lateral (mm): -0.22 (mask 1, standard deviation (σ): 2.15); 1.1 (mask 2, σ: 2.4); -0.64 (mask 3, σ: 2.9); (b) longitudinal (mm): -1 (mask 1, σ: 2.57); -0.5 (mask 2, σ: 4.7); -1.22 (mask 3, σ: 2.52); (c) vertical (mm): 0.62 (mask 1, σ: 0.63); 1.2 (mask 2, σ: 1.0); 0.57 (mask 3, σ: 0.28); (d) roll: 0.35 (mask 1, σ: 0.75); 0 (mask 2, σ: 0.8); 0.02 (mask 3, σ: 1.12). The outcomes suggest necessary safety margins of 5.49-7.38 mm (lateral), 5.4-6.56 mm (longitudinal), 0.82-3.9 mm (vertical), and 1.93-4.5 (roll). There were no significant differences between the groups. The new mask systems improve patient comfort while providing consistent patient positioning. (orig.)

  17. Quality of patient positioning during cerebral tomotherapy irradiation using different mask systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitzen, C.; Wilhelm-Buchstab, T.; Garbe, S.; Luetter, C.; Muedder, T.; Simon, B.; Schild, H.H.; Schueller, H.

    2014-01-01

    Patient immobilization during brain tumor radiotherapy is achieved by employing different mask systems. Two innovative mask systems were developed to minimize the problems of claustrophobic patients. Our aim was to evaluate whether the quality of patient immobilization using the new mask systems was equivalent to the standard mask system currently in use. Thirty-three patients with cerebral target volumes were irradiated using the Hi-Art II tomotherapy system between 2010 and 2012. Each group of 11 patients was fitted with one of the two new mask systems (Crystal registered or Open Face registered mask, Orfit) or the standard three-point mask (Raycast registered -HP, Orfit) and a total of 557 radiotherapy fractions were evaluated. After positioning was checked by MV-CT, the necessary table adjustments were noted. Data were analyzed by comparing the groups, and safety margins were calculated for nonimage-guided irradiation. The mean values of the table adjustments were: (a) lateral (mm): -0.22 (mask 1, standard deviation (σ): 2.15); 1.1 (mask 2, σ: 2.4); -0.64 (mask 3, σ: 2.9); (b) longitudinal (mm): -1 (mask 1, σ: 2.57); -0.5 (mask 2, σ: 4.7); -1.22 (mask 3, σ: 2.52); (c) vertical (mm): 0.62 (mask 1, σ: 0.63); 1.2 (mask 2, σ: 1.0); 0.57 (mask 3, σ: 0.28); (d) roll: 0.35 (mask 1, σ: 0.75); 0 (mask 2, σ: 0.8); 0.02 (mask 3, σ: 1.12). The outcomes suggest necessary safety margins of 5.49-7.38 mm (lateral), 5.4-6.56 mm (longitudinal), 0.82-3.9 mm (vertical), and 1.93-4.5 (roll). There were no significant differences between the groups. The new mask systems improve patient comfort while providing consistent patient positioning. (orig.)

  18. Measurements from preterm infants to guide face mask size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Joyce E; Thio, Marta; Owen, Louise S; Wong, Connie; Dawson, Jennifer A; Davis, Peter G

    2016-07-01

    International guidelines recommend that an appropriately sized face mask for providing positive pressure ventilation should cover the mouth and nose but not the eyes and should not overlap the chin. This study aimed to measure the dimensions of preterm infants' faces and compare these with the size of the most commonly available face masks (external diameter 50 mm) and the smallest masks available (external diameters 35 and 42 mm). Infants 24-33 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) were photographed in a standardised manner. Images were analysed using ImageJ software (National Institute of Health, USA) to calculate the distance from the nasofrontal groove to the mental protuberance. This facial measurement corresponds to the external diameter of an optimally fitting mask. A cohort of 107 infants between 24 and 33 weeks' gestational age, including at least 10 infants per week of gestation, was photographed within 72 h after birth and weekly until 33 weeks' PMA. 347 photographs were analysed. Infants of 24, 26, 28, 30 and 32 weeks' PMA had mean (SD) facial measurements of 32 (2), 36 (3), 38 (4), 41 (2) and 43 (4) mm, respectively. There were no significant differences when examined by gender or when small for gestational age infants were excluded. The smallest size of some brands of mask is too large for many preterm infants. Masks of 35 mm diameter are suitable for infants Masks of 42 mm diameter are suitable for infants 27-33 weeks' PMA or 750-2500 g. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Surgical smoke and ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Dennis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrocautery, laser tissue ablation, and ultrasonic scalpel tissue dissection all generate a 'surgical smoke' containing ultrafine ( Methods To measure the amount of generated particulates in 'surgical smoke' during different surgical procedures and to quantify the particle number concentration for operation room personnel a condensation particle counter (CPC, model 3007, TSI Inc. was applied. Results Electro-cauterization and argon plasma tissue coagulation induced the production of very high number concentration (> 100000 cm-3 of particles in the diameter range of 10 nm to 1 μm. The peak concentration was confined to the immediate local surrounding of the production side. In the presence of a very efficient air conditioning system the increment and decrement of ultrafine particle occurrence was a matter of seconds, with accumulation of lower particle number concentrations in the operation room for only a few minutes. Conclusion Our investigation showed a short term very high exposure to ultrafine particles for surgeons and close assisting operating personnel – alternating with longer periods of low exposure.

  20. Surgical correction of postoperative astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindstrom Richard

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The photokeratoscope has increased the understanding of the aspheric nature of the cornea as well as a better understanding of normal corneal topography. This has significantly affected the development of newer and more predictable models of surgical astigmatic correction. Relaxing incisions effectively flatten the steeper meridian an equivalent amount as they steepen the flatter meridian. The net change in spherical equivalent is, therefore, negligible. Poor predictability is the major limitation of relaxing incisions. Wedge resection can correct large degrees of postkeratoplasty astigmatism, Resection of 0.10 mm of tissue results in approximately 2 diopters of astigmatic correction. Prolonged postoperative rehabilitation and induced irregular astigmatism are limitations of the procedure. Transverse incisions flatten the steeper meridian an equivalent amount as they steepen the flatter meridian. Semiradial incisions result in two times the amount of flattening in the meridian of the incision compared to the meridian 90 degrees away. Combination of transverse incisions with semiradial incisions describes the trapezoidal astigmatic keratotomy. This procedure may correct from 5.5 to 11.0 diopters dependent upon the age of the patient. The use of the surgical keratometer is helpful in assessing a proper endpoint during surgical correction of astigmatism.

  1. Comparison of the OxyMask and Venturi Mask in the Delivery of Supplemental Oxygen: Pilot Study in Oxygen-Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime M Beecroft

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The OxyMask (Southmedic Inc, Canada is a new face mask for oxygen delivery that uses a small ‘diffuser’ to concentrate and direct oxygen toward the mouth and nose. The authors hypothesized that this unique design would enable the OxyMask to deliver oxygen more efficiently than a Venturi mask (Hudson RCI, USA in patients with chronic hypoxemia.

  2. Emergency face-mask removal effectiveness: a comparison of traditional and nontraditional football helmet face-mask attachment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Belmore, Keith; Decoster, Laura C; Armstrong, Charles W

    2010-01-01

    Football helmet face-mask attachment design changes might affect the effectiveness of face-mask removal. To compare the efficiency of face-mask removal between newly designed and traditional football helmets. Controlled laboratory study. Applied biomechanics laboratory. Twenty-five certified athletic trainers. The independent variable was face-mask attachment system on 5 levels: (1) Revolution IQ with Quick Release (QR), (2) Revolution IQ with Quick Release hardware altered (QRAlt), (3) traditional (Trad), (4) traditional with hardware altered (TradAlt), and (5) ION 4D (ION). Participants removed face masks using a cordless screwdriver with a back-up cutting tool or only the cutting tool for the ION. Investigators altered face-mask hardware to unexpectedly challenge participants during removal for traditional and Revolution IQ helmets. Participants completed each condition twice in random order and were blinded to hardware alteration. Removal success, removal time, helmet motion, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Time and 3-dimensional helmet motion were recorded. If the face mask remained attached at 3 minutes, the trial was categorized as unsuccessful. Participants rated each trial for level of difficulty (RPE). We used repeated-measures analyses of variance (α  =  .05) with follow-up comparisons to test for differences. Removal success was 100% (48 of 48) for QR, Trad, and ION; 97.9% (47 of 48) for TradAlt; and 72.9% (35 of 48) for QRAlt. Differences in time for face-mask removal were detected (F(4,20)  =  48.87, P  =  .001), with times ranging from 33.96 ± 14.14 seconds for QR to 99.22 ± 20.53 seconds for QRAlt. Differences were found in range of motion during face-mask removal (F(4,20)  =  16.25, P  =  .001), with range of motion from 10.10° ± 3.07° for QR to 16.91° ± 5.36° for TradAlt. Differences also were detected in RPE during face-mask removal (F(4,20)  =  43.20, P  =  .001), with participants reporting average

  3. Emergency Face-Mask Removal Effectiveness: A Comparison of Traditional and Nontraditional Football Helmet Face-Mask Attachment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E.; Belmore, Keith; Decoster, Laura C.; Armstrong, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Football helmet face-mask attachment design changes might affect the effectiveness of face-mask removal. Objective: To compare the efficiency of face-mask removal between newly designed and traditional football helmets. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: Applied biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Twenty-five certified athletic trainers. Intervention(s): The independent variable was face-mask attachment system on 5 levels: (1) Revolution IQ with Quick Release (QR), (2) Revolution IQ with Quick Release hardware altered (QRAlt), (3) traditional (Trad), (4) traditional with hardware altered (TradAlt), and (5) ION 4D (ION). Participants removed face masks using a cordless screwdriver with a back-up cutting tool or only the cutting tool for the ION. Investigators altered face-mask hardware to unexpectedly challenge participants during removal for traditional and Revolution IQ helmets. Participants completed each condition twice in random order and were blinded to hardware alteration. Main Outcome Measure(s): Removal success, removal time, helmet motion, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Time and 3-dimensional helmet motion were recorded. If the face mask remained attached at 3 minutes, the trial was categorized as unsuccessful. Participants rated each trial for level of difficulty (RPE). We used repeated-measures analyses of variance (α  =  .05) with follow-up comparisons to test for differences. Results: Removal success was 100% (48 of 48) for QR, Trad, and ION; 97.9% (47 of 48) for TradAlt; and 72.9% (35 of 48) for QRAlt. Differences in time for face-mask removal were detected (F4,20  =  48.87, P  =  .001), with times ranging from 33.96 ± 14.14 seconds for QR to 99.22 ± 20.53 seconds for QRAlt. Differences were found in range of motion during face-mask removal (F4,20  =  16.25, P  =  .001), with range of motion from 10.10° ± 3.07° for QR to 16.91° ± 5.36° for TradAlt. Differences also were detected

  4. Bone mineral density and fractures after surgical menopause : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakkert, I. E.; Teixeira, N.; Abma, E. M.; Slart, R. H. J. A.; Mourits, M. J. E.; de Bock, G. H.

    Background Oophorectomy is recommended for women at increased risk for ovarian cancer. When performed at premenopausal age oophorectomy induces acute surgical menopause, with unwanted consequences. Objective To investigate bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture prevalence after surgical menopause.

  5. Masking in reports of "most serious" events: bias in estimators of sports injury incidence in Canadian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gupta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surveys that collect information on injuries often focus on the single "most serious" event to help limit recall error and reduce survey length. However, this can mask less serious injuries and result in biased incidence estimates for specific injury subcategories. Methods: Data from the 2002 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey and from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP were used to compare estimates of sports injury incidence in Canadian children. Results: HBSC data indicate that 6.7% of children report sustaining a sports injury that required an emergency department (ED visit. However, details were only collected on a child's "most serious" injury, so children who had multiple injuries requiring an ED visit may have had sports injuries that went unreported. The rate of 6.7% can be seen to be an underestimate by as much as 4.3%. Corresponding CHIRPP surveillance data indicate an incidence of 9.9%. Potential masking bias is also highlighted in our analysis of injuries attended by other health care providers. Conclusion: The "one most serious injury" line of questioning induces potentially substantial masking bias in the estimation of sports injury incidence, which limits researchers' ability to quantify the burden of sports injury. Longer survey recall periods naturally lead to greater masking. The design of future surveys should take these issues into account. In order to accurately inform policy decisions and the direction of future research, researchers must be aware of these limitations.

  6. Histological case-control study of peeling-induced skin changes by different peeling agents in surgically subcutaneous undermined skin flaps in facelift patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonser, P; Kaestner, S; Jaminet, P; Kaye, K

    2017-11-01

    A histological evaluation of peeling-induced skin changes in subcutaneous undermined preauricular facial skin flaps of nine patients was performed. There were three treatment groups: Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) 25%, TCA 40% and phenol/croton oil; one group served as control. Two independent evaluators determined the epidermal and dermal thickness and the depth of necrosis (micrometre). The percentual tissue damage due to the peeling was calculated, and a one-sample t-test for statistical significance was performed. On the basis of the histomorphological changes, peeling depth was classified as superficial, superficial-partial, deep-partial and full thickness chemical burn. The histological results revealed a progression of wound depth for different peeling agents without full thickness necrosis. TCA peels of up to 40% can be safely applied on subcutaneous undermined facial skin flaps without impairing the vascular patency, producing a predictable chemical burn, whereas deep peels such as phenol/croton oil peels should not be applied on subcutaneous undermined skin so as to not produce skin slough or necrosis by impairing vascular patency. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Challenges in evaluating PM concentration levels, commuting exposure, and mask efficacy in reducing PM exposure in growing, urban communities in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Disa; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Wilson, James; Maidin, Alimin

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) contributes to an increased risk of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses, cancer, and preterm birth complications. This project assessed PM exposure in Eastern Indonesia's largest city, where air quality has not been comprehensively monitored. We examined the efficacy of wearing masks as an individual intervention effort to reduce in-transit PM exposures. Handheld particulate counters were used to investigate ambient air quality for spatial analysis, as well as the differences in exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 (μg/m(3)) by different transportation methods [e.g. motorcycle (n=97), pete-pete (n=53), and car (n=55); note: n=1 means 1m(3) of air sample]. Mask efficacy to reduce PM exposure was evaluated [e.g. surgical masks (n=39), bandanas (n=52), and motorcycle masks (n=39)]. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to provide a range of uncertainty in exposure assessment. Overall PM10 levels (91±124 μg/m(3)) were elevated compared to the World Health Organization (WHO)'s 24-hour air quality guideline (50 μg/m(3)). While average PM2.5 levels (9±14 μg/m(3)) were below the WHO's guideline (25 μg/m(3)), measurements up to 139 μg/m(3) were observed. Compared to cars, average motorcycle and pete-pete PM exposures were four and three times higher for PM2.5, and 13 and 10 times higher for PM10, respectively. Only surgical masks were consistent in lowering PM2.5 and PM10 (pmasks. Individual interventions can effectively reduce individual PM exposures; however, policy interventions will be needed to improve the overall air quality and create safer transportation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Optical performances of the FM JEM-X masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reglero, V.; Rodrigo, J.; Velasco, T.; Gasent, J. L.; Chato, R.; Alamo, J.; Suso, J.; Blay, P.; Martínez, S.; Doñate, M.; Reina, M.; Sabau, D.; Ruiz-Urien, I.; Santos, I.; Zarauz, J.; Vázquez, J.

    2001-09-01

    The JEM-X Signal Multiplexing Systems are large HURA codes "written" in a pure tungsten plate 0.5 mm thick. 24.247 hexagonal pixels (25% open) are spread over a total area of 535 mm diameter. The tungsten plate is embedded in a mechanical structure formed by a Ti ring, a pretensioning system (Cu-Be) and an exoskeleton structure that provides the required stiffness. The JEM-X masks differ from the SPI and IBIS masks on the absence of a code support structure covering the mask assembly. Open pixels are fully transparent to X-rays. The scope of this paper is to report the optical performances of the FM JEM-X masks defined by uncertainties on the pixel location (centroid) and size coming from the manufacturing and assembly processes. Stability of the code elements under thermoelastic deformations is also discussed. As a general statement, JEM-X Mask optical properties are nearly one order of magnitude better than specified in 1994 during the ESA instrument selection.

  9. Cycle time reduction by Html report in mask checking flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Cheng; Lu, Min-Ying; Fang, Xiang; Shen, Ming-Feng; Ma, Shou-Yuan; Yang, Chuen-Huei; Tsai, Joe; Lee, Rachel; Deng, Erwin; Lin, Ling-Chieh; Liao, Hung-Yueh; Tsai, Jenny; Bowhill, Amanda; Vu, Hien; Russell, Gordon

    2017-07-01

    The Mask Data Correctness Check (MDCC) is a reticle-level, multi-layer DRC-like check evolved from mask rule check (MRC). The MDCC uses extended job deck (EJB) to achieve mask composition and to perform a detailed check for positioning and integrity of each component of the reticle. Different design patterns on the mask will be mapped to different layers. Therefore, users may be able to review the whole reticle and check the interactions between different designs before the final mask pattern file is available. However, many types of MDCC check results, such as errors from overlapping patterns usually have very large and complex-shaped highlighted areas covering the boundary of the design. Users have to load the result OASIS file and overlap it to the original database that was assembled in MDCC process on a layout viewer, then search for the details of the check results. We introduce a quick result-reviewing method based on an html format report generated by Calibre® RVE. In the report generation process, we analyze and extract the essential part of result OASIS file to a result database (RDB) file by standard verification rule format (SVRF) commands. Calibre® RVE automatically loads the assembled reticle pattern and generates screen shots of these check results. All the processes are automatically triggered just after the MDCC process finishes. Users just have to open the html report to get the information they need: for example, check summary, captured images of results and their coordinates.

  10. Masked priming effect reflects evidence accumulated by the prime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    In the same-different match task, masked priming is observed with the same responses but not different responses. Norris and Kinoshita's (2008) Bayesian reader account of masked priming explains this pattern based on the same principle as that explaining the absence of priming for nonwords in the lexical decision task. The pattern of priming follows from the way the model makes optimal decisions in the two tasks; priming does not depend on first activating the prime and then the target. An alternative explanation is in terms of a bias towards responding "same" that exactly counters the facilitatory effect of lexical access. The present study tested these two views by varying both the degree to which the prime predicts the response and the visibility of the prime. Unmasked primes produced effects expected from the view that priming is influenced by the degree to which the prime predicts the response. In contrast, with masked primes, the size of priming for the same response was completely unaffected by predictability. These results rule out response bias as an explanation of the absence of masked priming for different responses and, in turn, indicate that masked priming is not a consequence of automatic lexical access of the prime.

  11. Impact of thermoplastic mask on dosimetry of different radiotherapeutic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lixin; Zhang Li; Qian Jianyang; Huang Xiaoyan; Lu Jie; Huang Shaomin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of auxiliary thermoplastic mask on dose distribution of photon or electron beams. Methods: Using the PTW Marcus 23343 type fixed-separation parallel-plate ionization chamber in a special phantom(PMMA), the change of photon dose buildup region was measured with rectification of Bruce empirical formula. Using 3-D water phantom, the central axis percentage depth doses (PDD) of electron beams were measured with verification of the parallel-plate ionization chamber at several given depths. Results: When 8 MV X-ray was delivered through the added facial mask, the buildup region doses were increased obviously with a 25% relative increment beneath near the surface. When 8, 12, 15 MeV electron beams and mask were used, all PDD curves moved to the surface. Conclusions: The impact of thermoplastic mask on the dose increase in the X-ray buildup region, and on the PDD decrease in the electron beam target region should be paid much more attention. And the dose distribution, with an added mask, will have to be re-evaluated in 3-D conformal radiotherapy

  12. X ray reflection masks: Manufacturing, characterization and first tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Stephen

    1992-09-01

    SXPL (Soft X-ray Projection Lithography) multilayer mirrors are characterized, laterally structured and then used as reflection masks in a projecting lithography procedure. Mo/Si-multilayer mirrors with a 2d in the region of 14 nm were characterized by Cu-k(alpha) grazing incidence as well as soft X-ray normal incidence reflectivity measurements. The multilayer mirrors were patterned by reactive ion etching with CF4 using a photoresist as etch mask, thus producing X-ray reflection masks. The masks were tested at the synchrotron radiation laboratory of the electron accelerator ELSA. A double crystal X-ray monochromator was modified so as to allow about 0.5 sq cm of the reflection mask to be illuminated by white synchrotron radiation. The reflected patterns were projected (with an energy of 100 eV) onto a resist and structure sizes down to 8 micrometers were nicely reproduced. Smaller structures were distorted by Fresnel-diffraction. The theoretically calculated diffraction images agree very well with the observed images.

  13. Metal oxide multilayer hard mask system for 3D nanofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhongmei; Salmi, Emma; Vehkamäki, Marko; Leskelä, Markku; Ritala, Mikko

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate the preparation and exploitation of multilayer metal oxide hard masks for lithography and 3D nanofabrication. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and focused ion beam (FIB) technologies are applied for mask deposition and mask patterning, respectively. A combination of ALD and FIB was used and a patterning procedure was developed to avoid the ion beam defects commonly met when using FIB alone for microfabrication. ALD grown Al2O3/Ta2O5/Al2O3 thin film stacks were FIB milled with 30 keV gallium ions and chemically etched in 5% tetramethylammonium hydroxide at 50 °C. With metal evaporation, multilayers consisting of amorphous oxides Al2O3 and Ta2O5 can be tailored for use in 2D lift-off processing, in preparation of embedded sub-100 nm metal lines and for multilevel electrical contacts. Good pattern transfer was achieved by lift-off process from the 2D hard mask for micro- and nano-scaled fabrication. As a demonstration of the applicability of this method to 3D structures, self-supporting 3D Ta2O5 masks were made from a film stack on gold particles. Finally, thin film resistors were fabricated by utilizing controlled stiction of suspended Ta2O5 structures.

  14. Automatic pattern localization across layout database and photolithography mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Philippe; Brault, Frederic; Beisser, Eric; Ache, Oliver; Röth, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Advanced process photolithography masks require more and more controls for registration versus design and critical dimension uniformity (CDU). The distribution of the measurement points should be distributed all over the whole mask and may be denser in areas critical to wafer overlay requirements. This means that some, if not many, of theses controls should be made inside the customer die and may use non-dedicated patterns. It is then mandatory to access the original layout database to select patterns for the metrology process. Finding hundreds of relevant patterns in a database containing billions of polygons may be possible, but in addition, it is mandatory to create the complete metrology job fast and reliable. Combining, on one hand, a software expertise in mask databases processing and, on the other hand, advanced skills in control and registration equipment, we have developed a Mask Dataprep Station able to select an appropriate number of measurement targets and their positions in a huge database and automatically create measurement jobs on the corresponding area on the mask for the registration metrology system. In addition, the required design clips are generated from the database in order to perform the rendering procedure on the metrology system. This new methodology has been validated on real production line for the most advanced process. This paper presents the main challenges that we have faced, as well as some results on the global performances.

  15. Objective measures of binaural masking level differences and comodulation masking release based on late auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Bastian; Yasin, Ifat; Verhey, Jesko L

    2013-12-01

    The audibility of important sounds is often hampered due to the presence of other masking sounds. The present study investigates if a correlate of the audibility of a tone masked by noise is found in late auditory evoked potentials measured from human listeners. The audibility of the target sound at a fixed physical intensity is varied by introducing auditory cues of (i) interaural target signal phase disparity and (ii) coherent masker level fluctuations in different frequency regions. In agreement with previous studies, psychoacoustical experiments showed that both stimulus manipulations result in a masking release (i: binaural masking level difference; ii: comodulation masking release) compared to a condition where those cues are not present. Late auditory evoked potentials (N1, P2) were recorded for the stimuli at a constant masker level, but different signal levels within the same set of listeners who participated in the psychoacoustical experiment. The data indicate differences in N1 and P2 between stimuli with and without interaural phase disparities. However, differences for stimuli with and without coherent masker modulation were only found for P2, i.e., only P2 is sensitive to the increase in audibility, irrespective of the cue that caused the masking release. The amplitude of P2 is consistent with the psychoacoustical finding of an addition of the masking releases when both cues are present. Even though it cannot be concluded where along the auditory pathway the audibility is represented, the P2 component of auditory evoked potentials is a candidate for an objective measure of audibility in the human auditory system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Surgical management of macroglossia secondary to amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadiwalla, Yusuf; Burnham, Richard; Warfield, Adrian; Praveen, Prav

    2016-04-11

    The authors report a case of amyloidosis-induced macroglossia treated with surgical reduction of the tongue using a keyhole to inverted T method with particular emphasis on the postoperative sequelae. Significant tongue swelling persisted for longer than anticipated requiring tracheostomy to remain in situ for 14 days. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. Surgical ethics: surgical virtue and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercler, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    The encounter between a patient and her surgeon is unique for several reasons. The surgeon inflicts pain upon a patient for the patient's own good. An operative intervention is irreducibly personal, such that the decisions about and performance of operations are inseparable from the idiosyncrasies of the individual surgeon. Furthermore, there is a chasm of knowledge between the patient and surgeon that is difficult to cross. Hence, training in the discipline of surgery includes the inculcation of certain virtues and practices to safeguard against abuses of this relationship and to make sure that the best interests of the patient are prioritized. The stories in this issue are evidence that in contemporary practice this is not quite enough, as surgeons reflect on instances they felt were ethically challenging. Common themes include the difficulty in communicating surgical uncertainty, patient-surgeon relationships, ethical issues in surgical training, and the impact of the technological imperative on caring for dying patients.

  18. Bacterial wall products induce downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors on endothelial cells via a CD14-dependent mechanism: implications for surgical wound healing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, C

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogenic cytokine which has been identified as the principal polypeptide growth factor influencing endothelial cell (EC) migration and proliferation. Ordered progression of these two processes is an absolute prerequisite for initiating and maintaining the proliferative phase of wound healing. The response of ECs to circulating VEGF is determined by, and directly proportional to, the functional expression of VEGF receptors (KDR\\/Flt-1) on the EC surface membrane. Systemic sepsis and wound contamination due to bacterial infection are associated with significant retardation of the proliferative phase of wound repair. The effects of the Gram-negative bacterial wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) on VEGF receptor function and expression are unknown and may represent an important biological mechanism predisposing to delayed wound healing in the presence of localized or systemic sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a series of in vitro experiments investigating this phenomenon and its potential implications for infective wound repair. VEGF receptor density on ECs in the presence of LPS and BLP was assessed using flow cytometry. These parameters were assessed in hypoxic conditions as well as in normoxia. The contribution of CD14 was evaluated using recombinant human (rh) CD14. EC proliferation in response to VEGF was quantified in the presence and absence of LPS and BLP. RESULTS: Flow cytometric analysis revealed that LPS and BLP have profoundly repressive effects on VEGF receptor density in normoxic and, more pertinently, hypoxic conditions. The observed downregulation of constitutive and inducible VEGF receptor expression on ECs was not due to any directly cytotoxic effect of LPS and BLP on ECs, as measured by cell viability and apoptosis assays. We identified a pivotal role for soluble\\/serum CD14, a highly specific bacterial wall product receptor, in

  19. Video encryption using chaotic masks in joint transform correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2015-03-01

    A real-time optical video encryption technique using a chaotic map has been reported. In the proposed technique, each frame of video is encrypted using two different chaotic random phase masks in the joint transform correlator architecture. The different chaotic random phase masks can be obtained either by using different iteration levels or by using different seed values of the chaotic map. The use of different chaotic random phase masks makes the decryption process very complex for an unauthorized person. Optical, as well as digital, methods can be used for video encryption but the decryption is possible only digitally. To further enhance the security of the system, the key parameters of the chaotic map are encoded using RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) public key encryption. Numerical simulations are carried out to validate the proposed technique.

  20. Video encryption using chaotic masks in joint transform correlator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2015-01-01

    A real-time optical video encryption technique using a chaotic map has been reported. In the proposed technique, each frame of video is encrypted using two different chaotic random phase masks in the joint transform correlator architecture. The different chaotic random phase masks can be obtained either by using different iteration levels or by using different seed values of the chaotic map. The use of different chaotic random phase masks makes the decryption process very complex for an unauthorized person. Optical, as well as digital, methods can be used for video encryption but the decryption is possible only digitally. To further enhance the security of the system, the key parameters of the chaotic map are encoded using RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) public key encryption. Numerical simulations are carried out to validate the proposed technique. (paper)

  1. Masked depression: its interrelations with somatization, hypochondriasis and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, R Z

    1987-01-01

    Masked depression appears to be a common clinical phenomenon. Most depressions present with some somatic complaints in addition to affective and cognitive ones. About one half of all depressions seen by primary care physicians initially present predominantly or exclusively with somatic symptoms. Many of these depressions are not recognized or are misdiagnosed and mistreated. The possible reasons for this are discussed here. The phenomenon of somatization in depressions and other conditions is reviewed and the interface with other related clinical problems like hypochondriasis and conversion is delineated. It is hypothesized that the proportion of depressions that are masked is positively correlated to the patients' tendency to somatize and negatively correlated to the doctors' ability to recognize depressions that hide behind somatic complaints. Suggestions for the diagnosis and treatment of masked depressions are given.

  2. Emotional conditioning to masked stimuli and modulation of visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, John D; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P

    2005-03-01

    Two studies investigated the effects of conditioning to masked stimuli on visuospatial attention. During the conditioning phase, masked snakes and spiders were paired with a burst of white noise, or paired with an innocuous tone, in the conditioned stimulus (CS)+ and CS- conditions, respectively. Attentional allocation to the CSs was then assessed with a visual probe task, in which the CSs were presented unmasked (Experiment 1) or both unmasked and masked (Experiment 2), together with fear-irrelevant control stimuli (flowers and mushrooms). In Experiment 1, participants preferentially allocated attention to CS+ relative to control stimuli. Experiment 2 suggested that this attentional bias depended on the perceived aversiveness of the unconditioned stimulus and did not require conscious recognition of the CSs during both acquisition and expression. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Classification and printability of EUV mask defects from SEM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Wonil; Price, Daniel; Morgan, Paul A.; Rost, Daniel; Satake, Masaki; Tolani, Vikram L.

    2017-10-01

    Classification and Printability of EUV Mask Defects from SEM images EUV lithography is starting to show more promise for patterning some critical layers at 5nm technology node and beyond. However, there still are many key technical obstacles to overcome before bringing EUV Lithography into high volume manufacturing (HVM). One of the greatest obstacles is manufacturing defect-free masks. For pattern defect inspections in the mask-shop, cutting-edge 193nm optical inspection tools have been used so far due to lacking any e-beam mask inspection (EBMI) or EUV actinic pattern inspection (API) tools. The main issue with current 193nm inspection tools is the limited resolution for mask dimensions targeted for EUV patterning. The theoretical resolution limit for 193nm mask inspection tools is about 60nm HP on masks, which means that main feature sizes on EUV masks will be well beyond the practical resolution of 193nm inspection tools. Nevertheless, 193nm inspection tools with various illumination conditions that maximize defect sensitivity and/or main-pattern modulation are being explored for initial EUV defect detection. Due to the generally low signal-to-noise in the 193nm inspection imaging at EUV patterning dimensions, these inspections often result in hundreds and thousands of defects which then need to be accurately reviewed and dispositioned. Manually reviewing each defect is difficult due to poor resolution. In addition, the lack of a reliable aerial dispositioning system makes it very challenging to disposition for printability. In this paper, we present the use of SEM images of EUV masks for higher resolution review and disposition of defects. In this approach, most of the defects detected by the 193nm inspection tools are first imaged on a mask SEM tool. These images together with the corresponding post-OPC design clips are provided to KLA-Tencor's Reticle Decision Center (RDC) platform which provides ADC (Automated Defect Classification) and S2A (SEM

  4. Complex Pupil Masks for Aberrated Imaging of Closely Spaced Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A. N. K.; Sagar, D. K.; Khonina, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Current approach demonstrates the suppression of optical side-lobes and the contraction of the main lobe in the composite image of two object points of the optical system under the influence of defocusing effect when an asymmetric phase edges are imposed over the apodized circular aperture. The resolution of two point sources having different intensity ratio is discussed in terms of the modified Sparrow criterion, functions of the degree of coherence of the illumination, the intensity difference and the degree of asymmetric phase masking. Here we have introduced and explored the effects of focus aberration (defect-of-focus) on the two-point resolution of the optical systems. Results on the aberrated composite image of closely spaced objects with amplitude mask and asymmetric phase masks forms a significant contribution in astronomical and microscopic observations.

  5. Influence of binary mask estimation errors on robust speaker identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Missing-data strategies have been developed to improve the noise-robustness of automatic speech recognition systems in adverse acoustic conditions. This is achieved by classifying time-frequency (T-F) units into reliable and unreliable components, as indicated by a so-called binary mask. Different...... approaches have been proposed to handle unreliable feature components, each with distinct advantages. The direct masking (DM) approach attenuates unreliable T-F units in the spectral domain, which allows the extraction of conventionally used mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs). Instead of attenuating....... Since each of these approaches utilizes the knowledge about reliable and unreliable feature components in a different way, they will respond differently to estimation errors in the binary mask. The goal of this study was to identify the most effective strategy to exploit knowledge about reliable...

  6. Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigeldinger, Georg [Livermore, CA; Skala, Dawn M [Fremont, CA; Griffiths, Stewart K [Livermore, CA; Talin, Albert Alec [Livermore, CA; Losey, Matthew W [Livermore, CA; Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter [Dublin, CA

    2009-10-27

    The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

  7. Clay facial masks: physicochemical stability at different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zague, Vivian; de Almeida Silva, Diego; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles

    2007-01-01

    Clay facial masks--formulations that contain a high percentage of solids dispersed in a liquid vehicle--have become of special interest due to specific properties presented by clays, such as particle size, cooling index, high adsorption capacity, and plasticity. Although most of the physicochemical properties of clay dispersions have been studied, specific aspects concerning the physicochemical stability of clay mask products remain unclear. This work aimed at investigating the accelerated physicochemical stability of clay mask formulations stored at different temperatures. Formulations were subjected to centrifuge testing and to thermal treatment for 15 days, during which temperature was varied from -5.0 degrees to 45.0 degrees C. The apparent viscosity and visual aspect (homogeneity) of all formulations were affected by temperature variation, whereas color, odor, and pH value remained unaltered. These results, besides the estimation of physicochemical stability under aging, can be useful in determining the best storage conditions for clay-based formulations.

  8. The Character Adaptation of Masked Puppet Figures in Ruwatan Ritual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Hidajat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One myth that is believed by people living in Duwet village is distress that threatens human beings from when they are born till the day they die. As one way to overcome the distress, people, especially those who are living in Duwet village, hold ritual called as tolak bala. One step in the ritual is self-cleaning oneself from distress or sukerta. In addition to the ritual is a masked puppet as a means of the ritual execution. Thus, this study aims at finding out the functions of the Ruwatan masked puppet. Functional-structural perspective was adopted in the study by implementing observation, interview, and documentation study techniques. Results show that masked puppet has a special function which is to serve as a means of Ruwatan that is specifically to obtain society participation in order to give spiritual support to the process of ritual as a whole tolak bala or distress expulsion process.

  9. Development of movable mask system to cope with high beam current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetsugu, Y.; Shibata, K.; Sanami, T.; Kageyama, T.; Takeuchi, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The KEK B factory (KEKB), a high current electron-positron collider, has a movable mask (or collimator) system to reduce the background noise in the BELLE detector coming from spent particles. The early movable masks, however, had severe problems of heating, arcing, and vacuum leaks over the stored beam current of several hundred mA. The cause is intense trapped higher order modes (HOMs) excited at the mask head, where the cross section of the beam chamber changed drastically. The mask head, made of copper-tungsten alloy or pure copper, was frequently damaged by hitting of the high energy beam at the same time. Since the problems of the mask were revealed, several kinds of improved masks have been designed employing rf technologies in dealing with the HOM and installed to the ring step by step. Much progress has come from adopting a trapped-mode free structure, where the mask was a bent chamber itself. Recently the further improved mask with a reduced HOM design or HOM dampers was developed to suppress the heating of vacuum components near the mask due to the HOM traveling from the mask. To avoid damage to the mask head, on the other hand, a titanium mask head was tried. The latest masks are working as expected now at the stored beam current of 1.5 A. Presented are the problems and experiences on the movable mask system for the KEKB, which are characteristic of and common in a high intensity accelerator

  10. Maximizing noise energy for noise-masking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules Étienne, Cédric; Arleo, Angelo; Allard, Rémy

    2017-08-01

    Noise-masking experiments are widely used to investigate visual functions. To be useful, noise generally needs to be strong enough to noticeably impair performance, but under some conditions, noise does not impair performance even when its contrast approaches the maximal displayable limit of 100 %. To extend the usefulness of noise-masking paradigms over a wider range of conditions, the present study developed a noise with great masking strength. There are two typical ways of increasing masking strength without exceeding the limited contrast range: use binary noise instead of Gaussian noise or filter out frequencies that are not relevant to the task (i.e., which can be removed without affecting performance). The present study combined these two approaches to further increase masking strength. We show that binarizing the noise after the filtering process substantially increases the energy at frequencies within the pass-band of the filter given equated total contrast ranges. A validation experiment showed that similar performances were obtained using binarized-filtered noise and filtered noise (given equated noise energy at the frequencies within the pass-band) suggesting that the binarization operation, which substantially reduced the contrast range, had no significant impact on performance. We conclude that binarized-filtered noise (and more generally, truncated-filtered noise) can substantially increase the energy of the noise at frequencies within the pass-band. Thus, given a limited contrast range, binarized-filtered noise can display higher energy levels than Gaussian noise and thereby widen the range of conditions over which noise-masking paradigms can be useful.

  11. Etch bias inversion during EUV mask ARC etch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajn, Alexander; Rolff, Haiko; Wistrom, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The introduction of EUV lithography to high volume manufacturing is now within reach for 7nm technology node and beyond (1), at least for some steps. The scheduling is in transition from long to mid-term. Thus, all contributors need to focus their efforts on the production requirements. For the photo mask industry, these requirements include the control of defectivity, CD performance and lifetime of their masks. The mask CD performance including CD uniformity, CD targeting, and CD linearity/ resolution, is predominantly determined by the photo resist performance and by the litho and etch processes. State-of-the-art chemically amplified resists exhibit an asymmetric resolution for directly and indirectly written features, which usually results in a similarly asymmetric resolution performance on the mask. This resolution gap may reach as high as multiple tens of nanometers on the mask level in dependence of the chosen processes. Depending on the printing requirements of the wafer process, a reduction or even an increase of this gap may be required. A potential way of tuning via the etch process, is to control the lateral CD contribution during etch. Aside from process tuning knobs like pressure, RF powers and gases, which usually also affect CD linearity and CD uniformity, the simplest knob is the etch time itself. An increased over etch time results in an increased CD contribution in the normal case. , We found that the etch CD contribution of ARC layer etch on EUV photo masks is reduced by longer over etch times. Moreover, this effect can be demonstrated to be present for different etch chambers and photo resists.

  12. Low-defect reflective mask blanks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, S C; Cerjarn, C; Kearney, P; Mirkarimi, P; Ray-Chaudhuri, A; Walton, C.

    1999-01-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithgraphy (EUVL) is an emerging technology for fabrication of sub-100 nm feature sizes on silicon, following the SIA road map well into the 21st century. The specific EUVL system described is a scanned, projection lithography system with a 4:1 reduction, using a laser plasma EUV source. The mask and all of the system optics are reflective, multilayer mirrors which function in the extreme ultraviolet at 13.4 nm wavelength. Since the masks are imaged to the wafer exposure plane, mask defects greater than 80% of the exposure plane CD (for 4:1 reduction) will in many cases render the mask useless, whereas intervening optics can have defects which are not a printing problem. For the 100 nm node, we must reduce defects to less than 0.01/cm ampersand sup2; at sign 80nm or larger to obtain acceptable mask production yields. We have succeeded in reducing the defects to less than 0.1/cm ampersand sup2; for defects larger than 130 nm detected by visible light inspection tools, however our program goal is to achieve 0.01/cm ampersand sup2; in the near future. More importantly though, we plan to have a detailed understanding of defect origination and the effect on multilayer growth in order to mitigate defects below the 10 -2 /cm ampersand sup2; level on the next generation of mask blank deposition systems. In this paper we will discuss issues and results from the ion-beam multilayer deposition tool, details of the defect detection and characterization facility, and progress on defect printability modeling

  13. The contribution of forward masking to saccadic inhibition of return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, David; Born, Sabine; Kerzel, Dirk

    2018-03-08

    Inhibition of return is the name typically given to the prolonged latency of motor responses directed to a previously cued target location. There is intense debate about the origins of this effect and its function, but most take for granted (despite lack of evidence) that it depends little on forward masking. Therefore, we re-examined the role of forward masking in inhibition of return. Forward masking was indexed by slower saccadic reaction times (SRTs) when the target orientation repeated the cue orientation at the same location. We confirmed effects of orientation repetition in the absence of an attentional bias when cues were presented on both sides of fixation (bilateral presentation). The effect of orientation repetition was reduced with high target contrast, consistent with a low-level origin such as contrast gain control in early visual areas. When presenting cues on only one side of fixation (unilateral presentation), we obtained inhibition of return with longer cue-target intervals and facilitation with targets presented shortly after the cue. The effect of orientation repetition was reduced when facilitation was observed, but was as strong as with bilateral cues when inhibition of return was observed. Therefore, forward masking may contribute to the inhibition of return effect by delaying reaction times to repeated features at the same location, but is not a principal cause of inhibition of return; in agreement with previous views. The saccadic inhibition of return effect is a reaction-time cost when responding to a pre-cued location. Additional object updating costs are typically invoked to explain reaction-time costs observed when cue and target have the same shape. Yet, lower-level, forward masking of the target by the cue can not be ruled out. Importantly, we show an effect of orientation repetition that is consistent with low-level forward masking rather than object updating costs and that does not interact with inhibition of return.

  14. Comparison of torsional and microburst longitudinal phacoemulsification: a prospective, randomized, masked clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Abhay R; Raj, Shetal M; Patel, Udayan; Vasavada, Vaishali; Vasavada, Viraj

    2010-01-01

    To compare intraoperative performance and postoperative outcome of three phacoemulsification technologies in patients undergoing microcoaxial phacoemulsification through 2.2-mm corneal incisions. The prospective, randomized, single-masked study included 360 eyes randomly assigned to torsional (Infiniti Vision System; Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX), microburst with longitudinal (Infiniti), or microburst with longitudinal (Legacy Everest, Alcon Laboratories) ultrasound. Assessments included surgical clock time, fluid volume, and intraoperative complications, central corneal thickness on day 1 and months 1 and 3 postoperatively, and endothelial cell density at 3 months postoperatively. Comparisons among groups were conducted. Torsional ultrasound required significantly less surgical clock time and fluid volume than the other groups. There were no intraoperative complications. Change in central corneal thickness and endothelial cell loss was significantly lower in the torsional ultrasound group at all postoperative visits (P < .001, Kruskal-Wallis test) compared to microburst longitudinal ultrasound modalities. Torsional ultrasound demonstrated quantitatively superior intraoperative performance and showed less increase in corneal thickness and less endothelial cell loss compared to microburst longitudinal ultrasound. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decrease the inflammatory response Vasodilatation leads to better perfusion and ... Must NOT be allowed to come in contact with brain, meninges, eyes or .... project (SCIP): Evolution of National Quality Measure. Surgical. Infection 2008 ...

  16. Surgical Critical Care Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Surgical Critical Care Initiative (SC2i) is a USU research program established in October 2013 to develop, translate, and validate biology-driven critical care....

  17. Ambulatory Surgical Measures - Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Ambulatory Surgical Center Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program seeks to make care safer and more efficient through quality reporting. ASCs eligible for this...

  18. Surgical Management of Hemorrhoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhoids are common human afflictions known since the dawn of history. Surgical management of this condition has made tremendous progress from complex ligation and excision procedures in the past to simpler techniques that allow the patient to return to normal life within a short period. Newer techniques try to improve on the post-operative complications of older ones. The surgical options for the management of hemorrhoids today are many. Capturing all in a single article may be difficult if not impossible. The aim of this study therefore is to present in a concise form some of the common surgical options in current literature, highlighting some important post operative complications. Current literature is searched using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library. The conclusion is that even though there are many surgical options in the management of hemorrhoids today, most employ the ligature and excision technique with newer ones having reduced post operative pain and bleeding. PMID:22413048

  19. Surgical site infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a worldwide problem that has ... deep tissue is found on clinical examination, re-opening, histopathological or radiological investigation ..... Esposito S, Immune system and SSI, Journal of Chemotherapy, 2001.

  20. Surgical management of pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If these therapies fail, and with a thorough multidisciplinary approach involving carefully ... Generally, surgical pain management is divided into neuro- modulative .... 9 suggested. It is important to be sure that the underlying instability or.

  1. [Simulation in surgical training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, A; Schipper, J

    2017-01-01

    Patient safety during operations hinges on the surgeon's skills and abilities. However, surgical training has come under a variety of restrictions. To acquire dexterity with decreasingly "simple" cases, within the legislative time constraints and increasing expectations for surgical results is the future challenge. Are there alternatives to traditional master-apprentice learning? A literature review and analysis of the development, implementation, and evaluation of surgical simulation are presented. Simulation, using a variety of methods, most important physical and virtual (computer-generated) models, provides a safe environment to practice basic and advanced skills without endangering patients. These environments have specific strengths and weaknesses. Simulations can only serve to decrease the slope of learning curves, but cannot be a substitute for the real situation. Thus, they have to be an integral part of a comprehensive training curriculum. Our surgical societies have to take up that challenge to ensure the training of future generations.

  2. Environment-aware ideal binary mask estimation using monaural cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    We present a monaural approach to speech segregation that estimates the ideal binary mask (IBM) by combining amplitude modulation spectrogram (AMS) features, pitch-based features and speech presence probability (SPP) features derived from noise statistics. To maintain a high mask estimation...... accuracy in the presence of various background noises, the system employs environment-specific segregation models and automatically selects the appropriate model for a given input signal. Furthermore, instead of classifying each timefrequency (T-F) unit independently, the a posteriori probabilities...... of speech and noise presence are evaluated by considering adjacent TF units. The proposed system achieves high classification accuracy....

  3. Can monaural temporal masking explain the ongoing precedence effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyman, Richard L; Morse-Fortier, Charlotte; Griffin, Amanda M; Zurek, Patrick M

    2018-02-01

    The precedence effect for transient sounds has been proposed to be based primarily on monaural processes, manifested by asymmetric temporal masking. This study explored the potential for monaural explanations with longer ("ongoing") sounds exhibiting the precedence effect. Transient stimuli were single lead-lag noise burst pairs; ongoing stimuli were trains of 63 burst pairs. Unlike with transients, monaural masking data for ongoing sounds showed no advantage for the lead, and are inconsistent with asymmetric audibility as an explanation for ongoing precedence. This result, along with supplementary measurements of interaural time discrimination, suggests different explanations for transient and ongoing precedence.

  4. Power spectrum model of visual masking: simulations and empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Sierra-Vázquez, Vicente; Derrington, Andrew M

    2013-06-01

    In the study of the spatial characteristics of the visual channels, the power spectrum model of visual masking is one of the most widely used. When the task is to detect a signal masked by visual noise, this classical model assumes that the signal and the noise are previously processed by a bank of linear channels and that the power of the signal at threshold is proportional to the power of the noise passing through the visual channel that mediates detection. The model also assumes that this visual channel will have the highest ratio of signal power to noise power at its output. According to this, there are masking conditions where the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) occurs in a channel centered in a spatial frequency different from the spatial frequency of the signal (off-frequency looking). Under these conditions the channel mediating detection could vary with the type of noise used in the masking experiment and this could affect the estimation of the shape and the bandwidth of the visual channels. It is generally believed that notched noise, white noise and double bandpass noise prevent off-frequency looking, and high-pass, low-pass and bandpass noises can promote it independently of the channel's shape. In this study, by means of a procedure that finds the channel that maximizes the SNR at its output, we performed numerical simulations using the power spectrum model to study the characteristics of masking caused by six types of one-dimensional noise (white, high-pass, low-pass, bandpass, notched, and double bandpass) for two types of channel's shape (symmetric and asymmetric). Our simulations confirm that (1) high-pass, low-pass, and bandpass noises do not prevent the off-frequency looking, (2) white noise satisfactorily prevents the off-frequency looking independently of the shape and bandwidth of the visual channel, and interestingly we proved for the first time that (3) notched and double bandpass noises prevent off-frequency looking only when the noise

  5. Ferromagnetic shadow mask for spray coating of polymer patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Bosco, Filippo; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We present the fabrication of a wafer-scale shadow mask with arrays of circular holes with diameters of 150–400 μm. Standard UV photolithography is used to define 700 μm thick SU-8 structures followed by electroplating of nickel and etching of the template. The ferromagnetic properties of the sha......We present the fabrication of a wafer-scale shadow mask with arrays of circular holes with diameters of 150–400 μm. Standard UV photolithography is used to define 700 μm thick SU-8 structures followed by electroplating of nickel and etching of the template. The ferromagnetic properties...

  6. Accurate masking technology for high-resolution powder blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Anne-Gabrielle; Sayah, Abdeljalil; Gijs, Martin A. M.

    2005-07-01

    We have combined eroding 10 µm diameter Al2O3 particles with a new masking technology to realize the smallest and most accurate possible structures by powder blasting. Our masking technology is based on the sequential combination of two polymers:(i) the brittle epoxy resin SU8 for its photosensitivity and (ii) the elastic and thermocurable poly-dimethylsiloxane for its large erosion resistance. We have micropatterned various types of structures with a minimum width of 20 µm for test structures with an aspect ratio of 1, and 50 µm for test structures with an aspect ratio of 2.

  7. Spectrographic mask for digital registration of bright source spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Xavier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present schematic diagrams for the construction of a spectrographic mask attachable to a camera objective in order to capture spectra using simple CD or DVD gratings. The mask is made of two parts: an adapter ring and elbow-shaped blockage for suitable registration of spectra in the lab and outdoors. By using a free software, we analyze and discuss the calibration of the wavelength scale of the solar spectrum, which allows us to identify many chemical elements in it. In the conclusion, we further discuss some interesting projects to be carried out by students using the idea.

  8. Extension of optical lithography by mask-litho integration with computational lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, T.; Gronlund, K.; Wiley, J.

    2010-05-01

    Wafer lithography process windows can be enlarged by using source mask co-optimization (SMO). Recently, SMO including freeform wafer scanner illumination sources has been developed. Freeform sources are generated by a programmable illumination system using a micro-mirror array or by custom Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE). The combination of freeform sources and complex masks generated by SMO show increased wafer lithography process window and reduced MEEF. Full-chip mask optimization using source optimized by SMO can generate complex masks with small variable feature size sub-resolution assist features (SRAF). These complex masks create challenges for accurate mask pattern writing and low false-defect inspection. The accuracy of the small variable-sized mask SRAF patterns is degraded by short range mask process proximity effects. To address the accuracy needed for these complex masks, we developed a highly accurate mask process correction (MPC) capability. It is also difficult to achieve low false-defect inspections of complex masks with conventional mask defect inspection systems. A printability check system, Mask Lithography Manufacturability Check (M-LMC), is developed and integrated with 199-nm high NA inspection system, NPI. M-LMC successfully identifies printable defects from all of the masses of raw defect images collected during the inspection of a complex mask. Long range mask CD uniformity errors are compensated by scanner dose control. A mask CD uniformity error map obtained by mask metrology system is used as input data to the scanner. Using this method, wafer CD uniformity is improved. As reviewed above, mask-litho integration technology with computational lithography is becoming increasingly important.

  9. Pressure Ulcer Incidence in Patients Wearing Nasal-Oral Versus Full-Face Noninvasive Ventilation Masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallom, Marilyn; Cracchiolo, Lisa; Falker, Antoinette; Foster, Jennifer; Hager, JoAnn; Morehouse, Tamara; Watts, Peggy; Weems, Linda; Kollef, Marin

    2015-07-01

    Device-related pressure ulcers from noninvasive ventilation masks alter skin integrity and cause patients discomfort. To examine the incidence, location, and stage of pressure ulcers and patients' comfort with a nasal-oral mask compared with a full-face mask. A before-after study of a convenience sample of patients with noninvasive ventilation orders in 5 intensive care units was conducted. Two groups of 100 patients each received either the nasal-oral mask or the full-face mask. Skin was assessed before the mask was applied and every 12 hours after that or upon mask removal. Comfort levels were assessed every 12 hours on a Likert scale of 1 to 5 (1, most comfortable). A pressure ulcer developed in 20% of patients in the nasal-oral mask group and 2% of patients in the full-face mask group (P face mask (mean [SD], 1.9 [1.1]) than with the nasal-oral mask (mean [SD], 2.7 [1.2], P face mask and 25 (SD, 20.7) and 92% for nasal-oral mask. No patients who had a pressure ulcer develop with the nasal-oral mask had a pressure ulcer develop with the full-face mask. The full-face mask resulted in significantly fewer pressure ulcers and was more comfortable for patients. The full-face mask is a reasonable alternative to traditional nasal-oral masks for patients receiving noninvasive ventilation. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  10. Imperceptible reversible watermarking of radiographic images based on quantum noise masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Bouslimi, Dalel; Karasad, Mohamed; Cozic, Michel; Coatrieux, Gouenou

    2018-07-01

    Advances in information and communication technologies boost the sharing and remote access to medical images. Along with this evolution, needs in terms of data security are also increased. Watermarking can contribute to better protect images by dissimulating into their pixels some security attributes (e.g., digital signature, user identifier). But, to take full advantage of this technology in healthcare, one key problem to address is to ensure that the image distortion induced by the watermarking process does not endanger the image diagnosis value. To overcome this issue, reversible watermarking is one solution. It allows watermark removal with the exact recovery of the image. Unfortunately, reversibility does not mean that imperceptibility constraints are relaxed. Indeed, once the watermark removed, the image is unprotected. It is thus important to ensure the invisibility of reversible watermark in order to ensure a permanent image protection. We propose a new fragile reversible watermarking scheme for digital radiographic images, the main originality of which stands in masking a reversible watermark into the image quantum noise (the dominant noise in radiographic images). More clearly, in order to ensure the watermark imperceptibility, our scheme differentiates the image black background, where message embedding is conducted into pixel gray values with the well-known histogram shifting (HS) modulation, from the anatomical object, where HS is applied to wavelet detail coefficients, masking the watermark with the image quantum noise. In order to maintain the watermark embedder and reader synchronized in terms of image partitioning and insertion domain, our scheme makes use of different classification processes that are invariant to message embedding. We provide the theoretical performance limits of our scheme into the image quantum noise in terms of image distortion and message size (i.e. capacity). Experiments conducted on more than 800 12 bits radiographic images

  11. Comparison of Ventilation With One-Handed Mask Seal With an Intraoral Mask Versus Conventional Cuffed Face Mask in a Cadaver Model: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amack, Andrew J; Barber, Gary A; Ng, Patrick C; Smith, Thomas B; April, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    We compare received minute volume with an intraoral mask versus conventional cuffed face mask among medics obtaining a 1-handed mask seal on a cadaver model. This study comprised a randomized crossover trial of adult US Army combat medic volunteers participating in a cadaver laboratory as part of their training. We randomized participants to obtain a 1-handed mask seal during ventilation of a fresh unembalmed cadaver, first using either an intraoral airway device or conventional cuffed face mask. Participants obtained a 1-handed mask seal while a ventilator delivered 10 standardized 750-mL breaths during 1 minute. After a 5-minute rest period, they repeated the study with the alternative mask. The primary outcome measure was received minute volume as measured by a respirometer. Of 27 recruited participants, all completed the study. Median received minute volume was higher with the intraoral mask compared with conventional cuffed mask by 1.7 L (95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.9 L; Pcadaver model. The intraoral mask may prove a useful airway adjunct for ventilation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The time-course of visual masking effects on saccadic responses indicates that masking interferes with reentrant processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crouzet, S.; Pin, Simon Hviid Del; Overgaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a briefly presented target in a search array is surrounded by small dots that remain visible after the target disappears. Here, we tested the widespread assumption that OSM selectively impairs reentrant processing. If OSM interferes selectively...... with reentrant processing, then the first feedforward sweep should be left relatively intact. Using a standard OSM paradigm in combination with a saccadic choice task, giving access to an early phase of visual processing (the fastest saccades occurring only 100 ms after target onset), we compared the masking....... Interestingly, the same result was observed using backward masking. In a follow-up experiment, where we assessed observer’s visual awareness using single-trial visibility ratings, we demonstrated that these ultra-fast responses were actually linked to subsequent reported visibility. Taken together...

  13. Actinic Mask Inspection at the ALS Initial Design Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barty, A; Chapman, H; Sweeney, D; Levesque, R; Bokor, J; Gullikson, E; Jong, S; Liu, Y; Yi, M; Denbeaux, G; Goldberg, K; Naulleau, P; Denham, P; Rekawa, S; Baston, P; Tackaberry, R; Barale, P

    2003-01-01

    This report is the first milestone report for the actinic mask blank inspection project conducted at the VNL, which forms sub-section 3 of the Q1 2003 mask blank technology transfer program at the VNL. Specifically this report addresses deliverable 3.1.1--design review and preliminary tool design. The goal of this project is to design an actinic mask inspection tool capable of operating in two modes: high-speed scanning for the detection of multilayer defects (inspection mode), and a high-resolution aerial image mode in which the image emulates the imaging illumination conditions of a stepper system (aerial image or AIM mode). The purpose and objective of these two modes is as follows: (1) Defect inspection mode--This imaging mode is designed to scan large areas of the mask for defects EUV multilayer coatings. The goal is to detect the presence of multilayer defects on a mask blank and to store the co-ordinates for subsequent review in AIM mode, thus it is not essential that the illumination and imaging conditions match that of a production stepper. Potential uses for this imaging mode include: (a) Correlating the results obtained using actinic inspection with results obtained using other non-EUV defect inspection systems to verify that the non-EUV scanning systems are detecting all critical defects; (b) Gaining sufficient information to associate defects with particular processes, such as various stages of the multilayer deposition or different modes of operation of the deposition tool; and (c) Assessing the density and EUV impact of surface and multilayer anomalies. Because of the low defect density achieved using current multilayer coating technology it is necessary to be able to efficiently scan large areas of the mask in order to obtain sufficient statistics for use in cross-correlation experiments. Speed of operation as well as sensitivity is therefore key to operation in defect inspection mode. (2) Aerial Image Microscope (AIM) mode--In AIM mode the tool is

  14. Post surgical complications from students' large animal surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of post surgical complications was conducted on records of students' Large Animal Surgical Laboratories in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (F.V.M.), Ahmadu Bello University (A.B.U), Zaria from 1989 to 1993. Three hundred and eleven surgical complications were recorded from five surgical ...

  15. Comparison of surgical and non-surgical orthodontic treatment approaches on occlusal and cephalometric outcomes in patients with Class II Division I malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Daniels

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine end-of-treatment outcomes of severe Class II Division I malocclusion patients treated with surgical or non-surgical approaches. This study tests the hypotheses that occlusal outcomes (ABO-OGS and cephalometric outcomes differ between these groups. Methods A total of 60 patients were included: 20 of which underwent surgical correction and 40 of which did not. Cast grading of initial and final study models was performed and information was gathered from pre- to post-treatment cephalometric radiographs. The end-of-treatment ABO-OGS and cephalometric outcomes were compared to Mann-Whitney U tests and multivariable linear regression models. Results Following adjustment for multiple confounders (age, gender, complexity of case, and skeletal patterns, the final deband score (ABO-OGS was similar for both groups (23.8 for surgical group versus 22.5 for non-surgical group. Those treated surgically had a significantly larger reduction in ANB angle, 3.4° reduction versus 1.5° reduction in the non-surgical group (p = 0.002. The surgical group also showed increased maxillary incisor proclination (p = 0.001 compared to the non-surgical group. This might be attributed to retroclination of maxillary incisors during treatment selection in the non-surgical group—namely, extraction of premolars to mask the discrepancy. Conclusions Those treated surgically had a significantly larger reduction in ANB angle and increased maxillary incisor proclination compared to those treated non-surgically with no significant changes in occlusal outcomes.

  16. A conceptual approach to the masking effect of measures of disproportionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maignen, Francois; Hauben, Manfred; Hung, Eric; Holle, Lionel Van; Dogne, Jean-Michel

    2014-02-01

    Masking is a statistical issue by which true signals of disproportionate reporting are hidden by the presence of other products in the database. Masking is currently not perfectly understood. There is no algorithm to identify the potential masking drugs to remove them for subsequent analyses of disproportionality. The primary objective of our study is to develop a mathematical framework for assessing the extent and impact of the masking effect of measures of disproportionality. We have developed a masking ratio that quantifies the masking effect of a given product. We have conducted a simulation study to validate our algorithm. The masking ratio is a measure of the strength of the masking effect whether the analysis is performed at the report or event level, and the manner in which reports are allocated to cells in the contingency table significantly impact the masking mechanisms. The reports containing both the product of interest and the masking product need to be handled appropriately. The proposed algorithm can use simplified masking provided that underlying assumptions (in particular the size of the database) are verified. For any event, the strongest masking effect is associated with the drug with the highest number of records (reports excluding the product of interest). Our study provides significant insights with practical implications for real-world pharmacovigilance that are supported by both real and simulated data. The public health impact of masking is still unknown. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. High reading skills mask dyslexia in gifted children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Viersen, Sietske; Kroesbergen, Evelyn|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241607949; Slot, Esther|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413578526; de Bree, Elise|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292748868

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with

  18. Mask of Black God: The Pleiades in Navajo Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Teresa M.

    2005-01-01

    One Navajo legend attributes the creation of the primary stars and constellations to Black God. Today, a famous star cluster--the Pleiades--often appears on the traditional mask worn by chanters impersonating Black God during special ceremonies. In this case study, students learn about the Pleiades in Navajo cosmology while honing their…

  19. The Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme™: safety and efficacy during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme™ (LMA Supreme™) is a new single-use polyvinyl chloride supraglottic device that offers gastric access. To date, studies that have tested the LMA Supreme™) for use in laparoscopic surgery have been reported. We present the largest evaluative study that describes the use of ...

  20. Basilar-membrane modularity and the growth of forward masking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plack, C.J.; Oxenham, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Forward masking growth functions were measured for pure-tone maskers and signals at 2 and 6 kHz as a function of the silent interval between the masker and signal. The inclusion of conditions involving short signals and short masker-signal intervals ensured that a wide range of signal thresholds

  1. 3-color photometry of a sunspot using speckle masking techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiehr, E.; Sütterlin, P.

    1998-01-01

    A three-colour photometry is used to deduce the temperature of sunspot fine-structures. Using the Speckle-Masking method for image restoration, the resulting images (one per colour and burst) have a spatial resolution only limited by the telescope's aperture, i.e. 95km (blue), 145 km (red) and

  2. How important is lateral masking in visual search?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, AH; Hooge, ITC; Krikke, K; Johnson, A

    Five experiments are presented, providing empirical support of the hypothesis that the sensory phenomenon of lateral masking may explain many well-known visual search phenomena that are commonly assumed to be governed by cognitive attentional mechanisms. Experiment I showed that when the same visual

  3. Clustering Binary Data in the Presence of Masking Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusco, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A number of important applications require the clustering of binary data sets. Traditional nonhierarchical cluster analysis techniques, such as the popular K-means algorithm, can often be successfully applied to these data sets. However, the presence of masking variables in a data set can impede the ability of the K-means algorithm to recover the…

  4. Benchmarking EUV mask inspection beyond 0.25 NA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Anderson, Erik H.; Rekawa, Seno B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Huh, S.; Han, H.-S.; Naulleau, P.; Gunion, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is an EUV-wavelength mask inspection microscope designed for direct aerial image measurements, and pre-commercial EUV mask research. Operating on a synchrotron bending magnet beamline, the AIT uses an off-axis Fresnel zoneplate lens to project a high-magnification EUV image directly onto a CCD camera. We present the results of recent system upgrades that have improved the imaging resolution, illumination uniformity, and partial coherence. Benchmarking tests show image contrast above 75% for 100-nm mask features, and significant improvements and across the full range of measured sizes. The zoneplate lens has been replaced by an array of user-selectable zoneplates with higher magnification and NA values up to 0.0875, emulating the spatial resolution of a 0.35-NA 4 x EUV stepper. Illumination uniformity is above 90% for mask areas 2-(micro)m-wide and smaller. An angle-scanning mirror reduces the high coherence of the synchrotron beamline light source giving measured σ values of approximately 0.125 at 0.0875 NA

  5. The masking breakdown point of multivariate outlier identification rules

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Claudia; Gather, Ursula

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we consider one-step outlier identifiation rules for multivariate data, generalizing the concept of so-called alpha outlier identifiers, as presented in Davies and Gather (1993) for the case of univariate samples. We investigate, how the finite-sample breakdown points of estimators used in these identification rules influence the masking behaviour of the rules.

  6. A coded mask telescope for the Spacelab 2 mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willmore, A.P.; Skinner, G.K.; Eyles, C.J.; Ramsey, B.

    1984-01-01

    A dual coded mask telescope for the Spacelab 2 mission is now in the final stages of preparation at Birmingham University. It is due for launch in late 1984/early 1985 and will be by far the largest and most sophisticated such instrument to be flown in this time-frame. The design and capabilities of the telescope will be described. (orig.)

  7. "Kuldne mask" - hea vene teater Eestis / Laur Kaunissaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaunissaare, Laur, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    6.-13. okt. Tallinnas ja Jõhvis toimuvast Venemaa rahvuslikust teatrifestivalist "Kuldne mask Eestis". Festivali lavastustest - Temur Tšheidze "Onukese unenägu", Declan Donnellan "Kaheteistkümnes öö", Lev Erenburgi "Äike" ja Alvis Hermanise "Šukšini jutustused"

  8. Vector wave diffraction pattern of slits masked by polarizing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This calls for a systematic study of diffraction properties of different apertures using polarization-sensitive devices. In the present paper, we have studied the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of slits masked by different kinds of polarizing devices which introduce a phase difference between the two orthogonal components of the ...

  9. Abstract This paper provides an introduction to the general mask ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    institution. ittle has been done on its ritualistic and religious inclinations; worse still, researches on its poetic compositions have been scanty. As an aspect of oral tradition, the mask tradition has within its fold, parts and branches that have very rich store houses of proverbial literature, unique poetry and idiomatic expressions.

  10. Modeling comodulation masking release using an equalization cancellation mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piechowiak, Tobias; Ewert, Stephan; Dau, Torsten

    of the study investigates the relation between CMR and envelope-based binaural masking level differences (BMLD), using narrowband noise maskers and classical across-channel configurations (like N0Spi, N0Sm). In the second part, a model is presented that explicitly simulates CMR whereby the EC mechanism...

  11. The role of executive attention in object substitution masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmer, Hannah L; Wells-Peris, Roxanne; Dux, Paul E

    2017-05-01

    It was long thought that a key characteristic of object substitution masking (OSM) was the requirement for spatial attention to be dispersed for the mask to impact visual sensitivity. However, recent studies have provided evidence questioning whether spatial attention interacts with OSM magnitude, suggesting that the previous reports reflect the impact of performance being at ceiling for the low attention load conditions. Another technique that has been employed to modulate attention in OSM paradigms involves presenting the target stimulus foveally, but with another demanding task shown immediately prior, and thus taxing executive/temporal attention. Under such conditions, when the two tasks occur in close temporal proximity relatively to greater temporal separation, masking is increased. However this effect could also be influenced by performance being at ceiling in some conditions. Here, we manipulated executive attention for a foveated target using a dual-task paradigm. Critically, ceiling performance was avoided by thresholding the target stimulus prior to it being presented under OSM conditions. We found no evidence for an interaction between executive attention load and masking. Collectively, along with the previous findings, our results provide compelling evidence that OSM as a phenomenon occurs independently of attention.

  12. High Reading Skills Mask Dyslexia in Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Viersen, Sietske; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Slot, Esther M.; de Bree, Elise H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with…

  13. Constructing optimized binary masks for reservoir computing with delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appeltant, Lennert; van der Sande, Guy; Danckaert, Jan; Fischer, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a novel bio-inspired computing method, capable of solving complex tasks in a computationally efficient way. It has recently been successfully implemented using delayed feedback systems, allowing to reduce the hardware complexity of brain-inspired computers drastically. In this approach, the pre-processing procedure relies on the definition of a temporal mask which serves as a scaled time-mutiplexing of the input. Originally, random masks had been chosen, motivated by the random connectivity in reservoirs. This random generation can sometimes fail. Moreover, for hardware implementations random generation is not ideal due to its complexity and the requirement for trial and error. We outline a procedure to reliably construct an optimal mask pattern in terms of multipurpose performance, derived from the concept of maximum length sequences. Not only does this ensure the creation of the shortest possible mask that leads to maximum variability in the reservoir states for the given reservoir, it also allows for an interpretation of the statistical significance of the provided training samples for the task at hand.

  14. Case report: Awake insertion of the intubating laryngeal mask ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: Awake insertion of the intubating laryngeal mask airway using dexmedetomidine sedation. P Dhar, TR Tedore. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22201173.2003.10872999.

  15. Multiaperture spectroscopy with rapid mask fabrication and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, B.; Mellier, Y.; Picat, J.P.; Lelievre, G.; Rio, Y.

    1986-03-01

    A multiaperture spectroscopy device has been installed on the focal reducer at the Cassegrain focus of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The mask processing and positioning operations are described. Emphasis is placed on the speed and reliability of a fully automatic method controlled by a computer routine. Spectra obtained during the first observations at C.F.H.T. are shown as illustration

  16. Generalization of Supervised Learning for Binary Mask Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Gerkmann, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of speech segregation by es- timating the ideal binary mask (IBM) from noisy speech. Two methods will be compared, one supervised learning approach that incorporates a priori knowledge about the feature distri- bution observed during training. The second method...

  17. Prognostic importance of white coat and masked hypertention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsen, Pia; Hansen, Tine

    2009-01-01

    The growing use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has led to an increased awareness of the two types of discrepancy between office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure, called white coat hypertension (WCH) and masked hypertension (MH). Based on several longitudinal studies, WCH...

  18. External Mask Based Depth and Light Field Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-08

    External mask based depth and light field camera Dikpal Reddy NVIDIA Research Santa Clara, CA dikpalr@nvidia.com Jiamin Bai University of California...passive depth acquisition technology is illustrated by the emergence of light field camera companies like Lytro [1], Raytrix [2] and Pelican Imaging

  19. The intubating laryngeal mask produces less heart rate response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pc

    We compared heart rate and blood pressure changes to intubation produced by conventional laryngoscopic-guided intubation to those produced by blind intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask (ILM) in normotensive adults with normal airways. Forty paralysed, anaesthetised adults undergoing elective surgery ...

  20. Mask characterization for CDU budget breakdown in advanced EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho

    2012-11-01

    As the ITRS Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and a high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. In this paper we will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for an advanced EUV lithography with 1D and 2D feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CD's and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples in this paper. Also mask stack reflectivity variations should be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We observed also MEEF-through-field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may also play a role for the total intrafield CDU and may be taken into account for EUV Lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, the results to be discussed in our paper, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to characterization of the mask part of EUV CDU characterization delivers an accurate and integral CDU Budget