WorldWideScience

Sample records for surgery training translating

  1. [Hand surgery training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutet, F; Haloua, J P

    2003-10-01

    Training of the hand surgeon HAND SURGEON A CONCEPT: The hand surgeon is supposed to be in charge of all the hand lesions regarding, skeleton, muscles, tendons, nerves and vessels. He has to be able to insure reparation and coverage of all of them. So he is involved in all the structures, which insure integrity and function of the hand. PURPOSE AND WAYS OF TRAINING: To obtain the asked ability, the hand surgeon training has to be global and sustained by two underlying surgical specialities: orthopedic surgery and plastic and reconstructive surgery. From 2000 after many years of dealings, a Right to the Title in Hand Surgery was born. This Right to the Title wants to be the formal recognition of the specific training of the hand surgeon. For the well-recognized ancient hand surgeons they need to be confirmed by one's peers. Now a day the hand surgeon has to satisfy to this specific training: Passed the complete training and exam of the Orthopedic or Plastic surgery board. Spent at least 6 months as resident in the other underlying specialty. Passed a microsurgery examination. Passed one of the four national Hand Surgery diplomas (DIU/Inter-Universitary Diploma). The examinations have been harmonized. A common formation is delivered regarding hand surgery, the way of examination is the same and the formation is 2 years long. The final exam is presented in front of board of examiners where a teacher of one of the other three national diplomas is present. Spent at least 2 years in a formative hand surgery unit, listed by the French College of Hand Surgeons, as senior surgeon. Those requirements are heavy to assume and need a heavy personal involvement. That seems to be necessary to have an ability level as high as possible. Emergency surgery practice is absolutely necessary in this training. All the 17 university formative hand surgery units listed by the French College of Hand Surgeons are members of the FESUM (European Federation of the Emergency Hand Units

  2. Lattice surgery translation for quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Daniel; Nori, Franco; Devitt, Simon J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we outline a method for a compiler to translate any non fault tolerant quantum circuit to the geometric representation of the lattice surgery error-correcting code using inherent merge and split operations. Since the efficiency of state distillation procedures has not yet been investigated in the lattice surgery model, their translation is given as an example using the proposed method. The resource requirements seem comparable or better to the defect-based state distillation process, but modularity and eventual implementability allow the lattice surgery model to be an interesting alternative to braiding.

  3. Suggestions on Training MTI Translators and Interpreters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩

    2013-01-01

    This article gives a brief review of the current state of training MTI translators and interpreters.After analyzing the problems that exist in course of the training,the author,as a student of MTI,puts forth some suggestions to improve the MTI training in colleges and universities to train practical translators and interpreters from the point of view of learning.

  4. Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…

  5. Telesurgery: remote knowledge translation in clinical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari, Mehran

    2007-08-01

    Dissemination of new surgical knowledge, skills, and techniques across the wide spectrum of practicing surgeons in the community is often difficult and slow. This is even more problematic in countries such as Canada, where geographic distances separate a large portion of community surgeons from the large teaching centers. As an example, the penetration of advanced minimally invasive techniques in Canada has been severely hampered by the inability to provide adequate training opportunities and support for community surgeons, many of whom live in remote regions of the country. In an attempt to overcome the barriers that exist, the Centre for Minimal Access Surgery (CMAS) at McMaster University has been using broadband Internet and telecommunication systems to provide distance training and mentoring to community surgeons living in remote northern communities of Canada. This article describes our experience with telementoring and robot-assisted remote telepresence surgery and assisting, between a teaching hospital in Hamilton and two community hospitals in northern Ontario and Quebec.

  6. Student Exchange Programmes and Translator Training: Three Economic Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pym, Anthony

    1994-01-01

    Argues that the importance of student exchange programs is often overlooked in the planning of translator training. Applies basic economic principles to show that such programs present excellent possibilities for translator training. (HB)

  7. Literary translation and quality assessment analysis – its significance in translation training

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the role of translation quality assessment in translation training so as to develop students’ translation competence and skills to face translation problems. An analysis to assess literary translation quality is proposed before proceeding to discuss its pedagogical implementation.

  8. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area.

  9. Virtual reality disaster training: translation to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farra, Sharon L; Miller, Elaine T; Hodgson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Disaster training is crucial to the mitigation of both mortality and morbidity associated with disasters. Just as clinical practice needs to be grounded in evidence, effective disaster education is dependent upon the development and use of andragogic and pedagogic evidence. Educational research findings must be transformed into useable education strategies. Virtual reality simulation is a teaching methodology that has the potential to be a powerful educational tool. The purpose of this article is to translate research findings related to the use of virtual reality simulation in disaster training into education practice. The Ace Star Model serves as a valuable framework to translate the VRS teaching methodology and improve disaster training of healthcare professionals. Using the Ace Star Model as a framework to put evidence into practice, strategies for implementing a virtual reality simulation are addressed. Practice guidelines, implementation recommendations, integration to practice and evaluation are discussed. It is imperative that health educators provide more exemplars of how research evidence can be moved through the various stages of the model to advance practice and sustain learning outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Translator: Expert of ‘What’? Translator Training and the Changing/Changeful Identity of the Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Öner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to trace the contemporary perceptions/definitions of the translator and translation in Turkey where the translation profession is not a legally regulated profession. (Invisibility of the translator and the scope of his/her expertise are widely debated issues among both the scholars/students of translation and the various players in the world of translation. Although translation is no longer being defined as a mere linguistic activity, reductionist views of translation that equate translation to ‘know’ing a foreign language still continues to prevail. What accompanies the said reductionist view is the claim that a translator can not translate ‘all the texts’ in different fields of expertise, at least not as successfully as the ‘real’ experts of the field who also know a foreign language such as engineer-translators or lawyer-translators who know English. However, recent developments concerning legal translation in plurilingual settings evidence a completely different understanding of translation and the identity/expertise of the translator. In such settings, translators work together with the drafters of the legal texts and are responsible for the source legal texts as well as the target ones, broadening the scope of the ‘expertise’ of the translator in an unprecedented way. In the light of the implications of the said transformation of the identity of the legal translator, this paper argues that the identity/definition of the translator/translation needs to be reconsidered and the results should be reflected onto the translator training programs with the aim of helping students of translation (redefine their identity as real ‘experts’ of the translation field and contributing to the transformation of the perception of translation and the translator.

  11. Translation Training in the Jordanian Context: Curriculum Evaluation in Translator Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Anjad

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at drawing a clear picture of translator training in Jordan through the evaluation of translation programs at the Master's level. The framework of the Context, Input, Process, and Product components of the CIPP evaluation model developed by Daniel Stufflebeam in 1971 was used to evaluate the three translation Master's programs at…

  12. Ergonomic Factors during Laparoscopic Surgery Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of minimally invasive surgery (MIS), the patient experiences the benefits of less pain, a more rapid recovery and a shorter stay in hospital. However, MIS provides many challenges to surgeons and they need extensive training to acquire this new technique. This training consist

  13. Learning operational strategies in surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydar, Shahram; Ghahramani, Zahra; Bolandparvaz, Shahram; Khalili, Hosseinali; Abbasi, Hamid Reza

    2014-04-01

    Education and training in surgery is in the middle of apprenticeship style of learning especially in operating room with little importance of understanding on how trainees learn. This training is one of the most difficult types of training. Medical training and expertise are the specialty of this education system. We can name these complex fields as "Operational Strategies". The strategies are includes of "what to do", "what to think" and "what to create". These strategies are good to test and train higher functions in persons who have professional's positions. Most of educational fields are complex. It means that the training is not limited in an area and includes of theory fields, areas of decision making and areas of handy and practical skills. These fields are the most relevant skills or expertise which individual must be informed of the performance of maintenance and repair or upgrade and make a new system.   The operational strategy is a new training strategy for surgery students. It is useful to train surgery students to modify and improve their practices and doing surgeries and treating patients in best conditions.

  14. Ergonomic Factors during Laparoscopic Surgery Training

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of minimally invasive surgery (MIS), the patient experiences the benefits of less pain, a more rapid recovery and a shorter stay in hospital. However, MIS provides many challenges to surgeons and they need extensive training to acquire this new technique. This training consists of developing cognitive, clinical, and technical skills. However, acquiring full training ‘‘on the job’’ is not always possible because of patient safety and restrictions of residents’ working hou...

  15. The Standard Profile of the 21st Century Translator: Implications for Translator Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakwe George Mbotake

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the profile of the translator in Cameroon and posits that the translating activity is increasingly becoming part of the translation service, reflecting the market expectation to train translation service providers rather than translators. The paper demonstrates that the translation profession as it is performed in the field and portrayed in job adverts reveals that a wide range of employers are looking for translators and their services. A survey of the Cameroonian translation market was carried out to raise awareness of the language skills translators need in order to work successfully as language services providers. The data for this study was obtained from 36professionaltranslators drawn from the public service, the freelance and in-house corporate translation market in Cameroon. The study argues that today’s new translator’s profile and his activities are basically variants of interlingual communication in which the traditional concept of translation constitutes only one option and that these ‘add-ons,’which contribute to a better professionalization of the translator,pose new challenges to translation pedagogy in terms of both content and methodology.In this vein the study proposes a translational language teaching model aimed at making training more responsive to market exigencies in this era of modernization.

  16. Advanced laparoscopic bariatric surgery Is safe in general surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckelman, John; Bingham, Jason; Barron, Morgan; Lallemand, Michael; Martin, Matthew; Sohn, Vance

    2017-05-01

    Bariatric surgery makes up an increasing percentage of general surgery training. The safety of resident involvement in these complex cases has been questioned. We evaluated patient outcomes in resident performed laparoscopic bariatric procedures. Retrospective review of patients undergoing a laparoscopic bariatric procedure over seven years at a tertiary care single center. Procedures were primarily performed by a general surgery resident and proctored by an attending surgeon. Primary outcomes included operative volume, operative time and leak rate with perioperative outcomes evaluated as secondary outcomes. A total of 1649 bariatric procedures were evaluated. Operations included laparoscopic bypass (690) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (959). Average operating time was 136 min. Eighteen leaks (0.67%) were identified. Graduating residents performed an average of 89 laparoscopic bariatric cases during their training. There were no significant differences between resident levels with concern to operative time or leak rate (p 0.97 and p = 0.54). General surgery residents can safely perform laparoscopic bariatric surgery. When proctored by a staff surgeon, a resident's level of training does not significantly impact leak rate. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Exploring the Potential of Corpus Use in Translation Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Pellón, Ismael Arinas

    2014-01-01

    The chapter describes the corpus analysis strategies used with the translation master’s students at the Department of Business Communication at the Faculty of Business and Social Sciences (formerly Aarhus School of Business or ASB). The short time available for the training of specialized transla...... translators only allows for teaching the students methods that they can apply systematically to several professional tasks. The chapter illustrates how the traditional translation training strategies can be combined with the use of concordancing software to cope with translations....

  18. Exploring the Potential of Corpus Use in Translation Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise; Pellón, Ismael Arinas

    2014-01-01

    The chapter describes the corpus analysis strategies used with the translation master’s students at the Department of Business Communication at the Faculty of Business and Social Sciences (formerly Aarhus School of Business or ASB). The short time available for the training of specialized...... translators only allows for teaching the students methods that they can apply systematically to several professional tasks. The chapter illustrates how the traditional translation training strategies can be combined with the use of concordancing software to cope with translations....

  19. Novel training methods for robotic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Sun

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The use of these different entities to create a standardized curriculum for robotic surgery remains elusive. Selection of training modalities and assessment tools should be based upon performance data-based validity and practical feasibility. Comparative assessment of different modalities (cross-modality validity can help strengthen the development of common skill sets. Constant data collection must occur to guide continuing curriculum improvement.

  20. Trends in cataract surgery training curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfipour, Mona; Rolius, Ramunas; Lehman, Erik B; Pantanelli, Seth M; Scott, Ingrid U

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate trends in cataract surgery training curricula and factors affecting timing of resident participation as a primary surgeon. Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA. Cross-sectional study of anonymous survey results. A description of the study and link to an online survey was e-mailed to program directors of each ophthalmology residency training program accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). Fifty-one (44%) of the 116 program directors completed the survey. First-year, second-year, and third-year residents performed a mean of 2, 25, and 155 phacoemulsification surgeries, respectively, as a primary surgeon. Only 1 program (2%) required residents to perform extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) before performing phacoemulsification. Clear corneal phacoemulsification was the first technique taught to trainees at 91% of programs. More than two thirds (71%) of program directors indicated that their program had a cataract surgery training curriculum designed to transition residents gradually to the operating room. These curricula included structured wet laboratory (92%) and lecture (89%) components. Inadequate resident knowledge and surgical skill base (57%) and anticipation of increased surgical complication risk (37%) were the most commonly reported factors impeding earlier exposure to phacoemulsification in residency. Results show that residents today begin surgical training with phacoemulsification rather than ECCE, perform a higher number of phacoemulsification surgeries than is required by the ACGME, and begin performing phacoemulsification as early as their first or second year of residency. Despite these evolutions, 29% of respondent ACGME-accredited ophthalmology residency programs reported not having a formal cataract surgery training curriculum. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Low Cost Simulator for Heart Surgery Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rocha e Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Introduce the low-cost and easy to purchase simulator without biological material so that any institution may promote extensive cardiovascular surgery training both in a hospital setting and at home without large budgets. Methods: A transparent plastic box is placed in a wooden frame, which is held by the edges using elastic bands, with the bottom turned upwards, where an oval opening is made, "simulating" a thoracotomy. For basic exercises in the aorta, the model presented by our service in the 2015 Brazilian Congress of Cardiovascular Surgery: a silicone ice tray, where one can train to make aortic purse-string suture, aortotomy, aortorrhaphy and proximal and distal anastomoses. Simulators for the training of valve replacement and valvoplasty, atrial septal defect repair and aortic diseases were added. These simulators are based on sewage pipes obtained in construction material stores and the silicone trays and ethyl vinyl acetate tissue were obtained in utility stores, all of them at a very low cost. Results: The models were manufactured using inert materials easily found in regular stores and do not present contamination risk. They may be used in any environment and maybe stored without any difficulties. This training enabled young surgeons to familiarize and train different surgical techniques, including procedures for aortic diseases. In a subjective assessment, these surgeons reported that the training period led to improved surgical techniques in the surgical field. Conclusion: The model described in this protocol is effective and low-cost when compared to existing simulators, enabling a large array of cardiovascular surgery training.

  2. Immersive training and mentoring for laparoscopic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, Vasile; Allen, Brian; Dutson, E.; Faloutsos, P.; Carman, G. P.

    2007-04-01

    We describe in this paper a training system for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) that creates an immersive training simulation by recording the pathways of the instruments from an expert surgeon while performing an actual training task. Instrument spatial pathway data is stored and later accessed at the training station in order to visualize the ergonomic experience of the expert surgeon and trainees. Our system is based on tracking the spatial position and orientation of the instruments on the console for both the expert surgeon and the trainee. The technology is the result of recent developments in miniaturized position sensors that can be integrated seamlessly into the MIS instruments without compromising functionality. In order to continuously monitor the positions of laparoscopic tool tips, DC magnetic tracking sensors are used. A hardware-software interface transforms the coordinate data points into instrument pathways, while an intuitive graphic user interface displays the instruments spatial position and orientation for the mentor/trainee, and endoscopic video information. These data are recorded and saved in a database for subsequent immersive training and training performance analysis. We use two 6 DOF DC magnetic trackers with a sensor diameter of just 1.3 mm - small enough for insertion into 4 French catheters, embedded in the shaft of a endoscopic grasper and a needle driver. One sensor is located at the distal end of the shaft while the second sensor is located at the proximal end of the shaft. The placement of these sensors does not impede the functionally of the instrument. Since the sensors are located inside the shaft there are no sealing issues between the valve of the trocar and the instrument. We devised a peg transfer training task in accordance to validated training procedures, and tested our system on its ability to differentiate between the expert surgeon and the novices, based on a set of performance metrics. These performance metrics

  3. Urdu to Punjabi Machine Translation: An Incremental Training Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umrinderpal Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The statistical machine translation approach is highly popular in automatic translation research area and promising approach to yield good accuracy. Efforts have been made to develop Urdu to Punjabi statistical machine translation system. The system is based on an incremental training approach to train the statistical model. In place of the parallel sentences corpus has manually mapped phrases which were used to train the model. In preprocessing phase, various rules were used for tokenization and segmentation processes. Along with these rules, text classification system was implemented to classify input text to predefined classes and decoder translates given text according to selected domain by the text classifier. The system used Hidden Markov Model(HMM for the learning process and Viterbi algorithm has been used for decoding. Experiment and evaluation have shown that simple statistical model like HMM yields good accuracy for a closely related language pair like Urdu-Punjabi. The system has achieved 0.86 BLEU score and in manual testing and got more than 85% accuracy.

  4. The Multidisciplinary Translational Team (MTT) Model for Training and Development of Translational Research Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameredes, Bill T; Hellmich, Mark R; Cestone, Christina M; Wooten, Kevin C; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Anderson, Karl E; Brasier, Allan R

    2015-10-01

    Multiinstitutional research collaborations now form the most rapid and productive project execution structures in the health sciences. Effective adoption of a multidisciplinary team research approach is widely accepted as one mechanism enabling rapid translation of new discoveries into interventions in human health. Although the impact of successful team-based approaches facilitating innovation has been well-documented, its utility for training a new generation of scientists has not been thoroughly investigated. We describe the characteristics of how multidisciplinary translational teams (MTTs) promote career development of translational research scholars through competency building, interprofessional integration, and team-based mentoring approaches. Exploratory longitudinal and outcome assessments from our experience show that MTT membership had a positive effect on the development of translational research competencies, as determined by a self-report survey of 32 scholars. We also observed that all trainees produced a large number of collaborative publications that appeared to be associated with their CTSA association and participation with MTTs. We conclude that the MTT model provides a unique training environment for translational and team-based learning activities, for investigators at early stages of career development.

  5. Strength Training May Prevent Side Effect of Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162473.html Strength Training May Prevent Side Effect of Breast Cancer Surgery ... 9, 2016 FRIDAY, Dec. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Strength training might benefit breast cancer survivors who've undergone ...

  6. Robotic laparoscopic surgery: cost and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, A; Linares Quevedo, A; Joseph, J V; Belgrano, E; Patel, H R H

    2009-06-01

    The advantages of minimally invasive surgery are well accepted. Shorter hospital stays, decreased postoperative pain, rapid return to preoperative activity, decreased postoperative ileus, and preserved immune function are among the benefits of the laparoscopic approach. However, the instruments of laparoscopy afford surgeons limited precision and poor ergonomics, and their use is associated with a significant learning curve and the amount of time and energy necessary to develop and maintain such advanced laparoscopic skills is not insignificant. The robotic surgery allows all laparoscopists to perform advanced laparoscopic procedures with greater ease. The potential advantages of surgical robotic systems include making advanced laparoscopic surgical procedures accessible to surgeons who do not have advanced video endoscopic training and broadening the scope of surgical procedures that can be performed using the laparoscopic method. The wristed instruments, x10 magnifications, tremor filtering, scaling of movements and three-dimensional view allow the urologist to perform the intricate dissection and anastomosis with high precision. The robot is not, however, without significant disadvantages as compared with traditional laparoscopy. These include greater expense and consumption of operating room resources such as space and the availability of skilled technical staff, complete elimination of tactile feedback, and more limited options for trocar placement. The current cost of the da Vinci system is $ 1.2 million and annual maintenance is $ 138000. Many studies suggest that depreciation and maintenance costs can be minimised if the number of robotic cases is increased. The high cost of purchasing and maintaining the instruments of the robotic system is one of its many disadvantages. The availability of the robotic systems to only a limited number of centres reduces surgical training opportunities. Hospital administrators and surgeons must define the reasons for

  7. Survey of minimally invasive general surgery fellows training in robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaligram, Abhijit; Meyer, Avishai; Simorov, Anton; Pallati, Pradeep; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2013-06-01

    Minimally invasive surgery fellowships offer experience in robotic surgery, the nature of which is poorly defined. The objective of this survey was to determine the current status and opportunities for robotic surgery training available to fellows training in the United States and Canada. Sixty-five minimally invasive surgery fellows, attending a fundamentals of fellowship conference, were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their demographics and experiences with robotic surgery and training. Fifty-one of the surveyed fellows completed the questionnaire (83 % response). Seventy-two percent of respondents had staff surgeons trained in performing robotic procedures, with 55 % of respondents having general surgery procedures performed robotically at their institution. Just over half (53 %) had access to a simulation facility for robotic training. Thirty-three percent offered mechanisms for certification and 11 % offered fellowships in robotic surgery. One-third of the minimally invasive surgery fellows felt they had been trained in robotic surgery and would consider making it part of their practice after fellowship. However, most (80 %) had no plans to pursue robotic surgery fellowships. Although a large group (63 %) felt optimistic about the future of robotic surgery, most respondents (72.5 %) felt their current experience with robotic surgery training was poor or below average. There is wide variation in exposure to and training in robotic surgery in minimally invasive surgery fellowship programs in the United States and Canada. Although a third of trainees felt adequately trained for performing robotic procedures, most fellows felt that their current experience with training was not adequate.

  8. Stress management training for breast cancer surgery patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garssen, B.; Boomsma, M.F.; Ede, J. van; Porsild, T.; Berkhof, J.; Berbee, M.; Visser, A.; Meijer, S.; Beelen, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the psychological effects of a pre-surgical stress management training (SMT) in cancer patients. METHODS: Stress management training comprised four sessions in total: on 5 days and 1 day pre-surgery and on 2 days and 1 month post-surgery. Patients also received audio

  9. Feasibility of progressive strength training shortly after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Jan; Kristensen, Morten T

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of a 6-wk progressive strength-training programme commenced shortly after hip fracture surgery in community-dwelling patients.......To investigate the feasibility of a 6-wk progressive strength-training programme commenced shortly after hip fracture surgery in community-dwelling patients....

  10. Virtual reality training for endoscopic surgery : composing a validated training program for basic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van Koen Willem

    2010-01-01

    Endoscopic surgery demands different specific psychomotor skills than open surgery. Virtual reality simulation training has the potential to be a valuable tool in training these skills, because simulation provides the opportunity to train psychomotor skills in a safe environment. In addition to trai

  11. Personal Knowledge Management in the Training of Non-Literary Translators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2009-01-01

    the understanding of subject matter needed in order for them to translate non-literary texts in and for professional settings. The discussion ends with an introduction to a novel - and very pragmatic - way of integrating subject matter into translation curricula. It is my hope that I may contribute to laying...... the ground for rethinking how we deal with subject matter in the training of non-literary translators   KEYWORDS   Translator training, translation curricula, subject matter competence, Personal Knowledge Management...

  12. [Appropriate cataract surgery training can promote work of blindness prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingzhi

    2014-03-01

    Cataract is the first blinding eye disease in the world and China. However, due to various reasons, cataract surgery rate (CSR) in China is much lower than in developed countries and even some developing countries. Properly and standardized training of cataract surgery for ophthalmologists from primary hospital and young eye doctors is one of the key point to improve CSR. For above, we had explored actively to establish an appropriate and suitable training model of cataract surgery. Ophthalmologist in primary hospital can provide high quality medical services to cataract patients in accordance with their own conditions after training and promote the sustainable development of blindness prevention work.

  13. Translating and validating a Training Needs Assessment tool into Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicks Carolyn M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The translation and cultural adaptation of widely accepted, psychometrically tested tools is regarded as an essential component of effective human resource management in the primary care arena. The Training Needs Assessment (TNA is a widely used, valid instrument, designed to measure professional development needs of health care professionals, especially in primary health care. This study aims to describe the translation, adaptation and validation of the TNA questionnaire into Greek language and discuss possibilities of its use in primary care settings. Methods A modified version of the English self-administered questionnaire consisting of 30 items was used. Internationally recommended methodology, mandating forward translation, backward translation, reconciliation and pretesting steps, was followed. Tool validation included assessing item internal consistency, using the alpha coefficient of Cronbach. Reproducibility (test – retest reliability was measured by the kappa correlation coefficient. Criterion validity was calculated for selected parts of the questionnaire by correlating respondents' research experience with relevant research item scores. An exploratory factor analysis highlighted how the items group together, using a Varimax (oblique rotation and subsequent Cronbach's alpha assessment. Results The psychometric properties of the Greek version of the TNA questionnaire for nursing staff employed in primary care were good. Internal consistency of the instrument was very good, Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.985 (p 1.0, KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy = 0.680 and Bartlett's test of sphericity, p Conclusion The translated and adapted Greek version is comparable with the original English instrument in terms of validity and reliability and it is suitable to assess professional development needs of nursing staff in Greek primary care settings.

  14. A Review of the Literature on Training Simulators: Translators: Transfer of Training and Simulator Fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    RD-R142 732 A REVIEW OF THERLITERATURE ON TRAINING SIMULATORS: / TRANSLATORS :TRANSFER 0 .(U) GEORGIAR INST OF TECH ATLANTA CENTER FOR MAN-MACHINE...Crawford and Crawford 1978) 6. Performance Measure : - What to measure measures of problem solving performance ( Henneman and Rouse 1984) criterion...reported to be a reasonable predictor of errors on fault diagnosis tasks ( Henneman and Rouse 1984). It is therefore reasonable to speculate that training

  15. Different models of training and certification in plastic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fodor, L.; Ciuce, C.; Fodor, M.; Shrank, C.; Lapid, O.; Kon, M.; Ramon, Y.; Ullmann, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A varying period of training followed by examinations is the usual way to become a specialist in one of the many fields of Medicine. Plastic Surgery is one of the surgical fields that require good technical and cognitive skills. The best way to train and evaluate a candidate is hard to judge. The mo

  16. [Current problems in training of minimally invasive surgery: vision of residents in pediatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, C; Cano, I; Peláez, D; Fuentes, S; Tardáguila, A R

    2013-01-01

    Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is getting more and more important in our specialty. However, the formation of the residents on MIS is, in many cases, irregular. The purpose of this study is to assess the state of training in MIS among the residents of Pediatric Surgery and their potential weaknesses. An electronic survey was distributed among 71 residents of Pediatric Surgery from 17 national hospitals. The response rate was 70.2%.100% of the residents are interested in a broadening of training activities in MIS. The main areas of interest are gastrointestinal (92%) and thoracic (47%) surgery. Only 57% have access to training facilities and less than half of them attend to courses and conferences. 80% believe that they are not given adequate attention from specialized associations. 52% think they should do rotations at referral centers, 86% that courses and seminars should be enhanced, and 44% that the responsibility of the resident in surgery should be increased. The main defects encountered in their training are scarce volume of patients, lack of financial support and overcoming the learning curve of surgeons in their services. Despite the advance of the MIS, resident's training in this discipline still has shortcomings, as expressed in their views. Knowledge of the current state of training should be the starting point for designing a training strategy that ensures adequate skills.

  17. Tele-surgery simulation with a patient organ model for robotic surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S; Suzuki, N; Hattori, A; Hayashibe, M; Konishi, K; Kakeji, Y; Hashizume, M

    2005-12-01

    Robotic systems are increasingly being incorporated into general laparoscopic and thoracoscopic surgery to perform procedures such as cholecystectomy and prostatectomy. Robotic assisted surgery allows the surgeon to conduct minimally invasive surgery with increased accuracy and with potential benefits for patients. However, current robotic systems have their limitations. These include the narrow operative field of view, which can make instrument manipulation difficult. Current robotic applications are also tailored to specific surgical procedures. For these reasons, there is an increasing demand on surgeons to master the skills of instrument manipulation and their surgical application within a controlled environment. This study describes the development of a surgical simulator for training and mastering procedures performed with the da Vinci surgical system. The development of a tele-surgery simulator and the construction of a training center are also described, which will enable surgeons to simulate surgery from or in remote places, to collaborate over long distances, and for off-site expert assistance.

  18. Virtual reality training for surgical trainees in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Palanivelu, Latha; Davidson, Brian R

    2009-01-21

    Surgical training has traditionally been one of apprenticeship, where the surgical trainee learns to perform surgery under the supervision of a trained surgeon. This is time consuming, costly, and of variable effectiveness. Training using a virtual reality simulator is an option to supplement standard training. To determine whether virtual reality training can supplement or replace conventional laparoscopic surgical training (apprenticeship) in surgical trainees with limited or no prior laparoscopic experience. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and grey literature until March 2008. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing virtual reality training versus other forms of training including video trainer training, no training, or standard laparoscopic training in surgical trainees with little or no prior laparoscopic experience. We also included trials comparing different methods of virtual reality training. We collected the data on the characteristics of the trial, methodological quality of the trials, mortality, morbidity, conversion rate, operating time, and hospital stay. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using RevMan Analysis. For each outcome we calculated the standardised mean difference with 95% confidence intervals based on intention-to-treat analysis. We included 23 trials with 612 participants. Four trials compared virtual reality versus video trainer training. Twelve trials compared virtual reality versus no training or standard laparoscopic training. Four trials compared virtual reality, video trainer training and no training, or standard laparoscopic training. Three trials compared different methods of virtual reality training. Most of the trials were of high risk of bias. In trainees without prior surgical experience, virtual

  19. Computational surgery and dual training computing, robotics and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, Barbara; Berceli, Scott; Collet, Christophe; Cerveri, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume focuses on the use of medical imaging, medical robotics, simulation, and information technology in surgery. It offers a road map for computational surgery success,  discusses the computer-assisted management of disease and surgery, and provides a rational for image processing and diagnostic. This book also presents some advances on image-driven intervention and robotics, as well as evaluates models and simulations for a broad spectrum of cancers as well as cardiovascular, neurological, and bone diseases. Training and performance analysis in surgery assisted by robotic systems is also covered. This book also: ·         Provides a comprehensive overview of the use of computational surgery and disease management ·         Discusses the design and use of medical robotic tools for orthopedic surgery, endoscopic surgery, and prostate surgery ·         Provides practical examples and case studies in the areas of image processing, virtual surgery, and simulation traini...

  20. Congenital cardiac surgery fellowship training: A status update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogon, Brian; Karamlou, Tara; Baumgartner, William; Merrill, Walter; Backer, Carl

    2016-06-01

    In 2007, congenital cardiac surgery became a recognized fellowship by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and leads to board certification through the American Board of Thoracic Surgery (ABTS). We highlight the strengths and weaknesses in the current system of accredited training. Data were collected from program directors, the ACGME, and the ABTS. In addition, surveys were sent to training program graduates. Topics included program accreditation status, number of fellows trained per year and per program, match results, fellow operative experience, fellow satisfaction, and post-fellowship employment status. There are twelve active accredited fellowship programs, and 44 trainees have completed accredited training. Each active program has trained a median of 3 fellows (range: 0-7). Operative logs were obtained from 38 of 44 (86%) graduates. The median number of total cases (minimum 75) was 136 (range: 75-236). For complex neonates (minimum 5), the median number of cases was 6 (range: 2-17). Some fellows failed to meet the minimum requirements. Thirty-six (82%) graduates responded to the survey; most were satisfied with their overall operative experience, but less with their neonatal operative experience. Of this total, 84% are currently practicing congenital cardiac surgery, and 74% secured jobs prior to completing their residency. Since 2007, congenital cardiac surgery training has been accredited by the ACGME. In general, the training is uniform, the operative experience is robust, and the fellows are satisfied. Although shortcomings remain, this study highlights the many strengths of the current system. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MIS training in Canada: a national survey of general surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Alia; Vergis, Ashley; Jimenez, Carolina; Green, Jessica; Pryor, Aurora; Schlachta, Christopher M; Okrainec, Allan

    2011-09-01

    General surgery trainees' perceptions regarding their own laparoscopic training remain poorly defined. The objective of this survey was to identify and evaluate learner experiences with laparoscopic procedures in general surgery programs on a national level. Two hundred eighty-four residents were identified and contacted at English-speaking general surgery programs across Canada. Each was asked to complete a web- or paper-based survey regarding their demographics, experiences with basic and advanced minimally invasive surgery (MIS) procedures, and perceived barriers to training. Two hundred fifty-two of 284 (89%) surveyed residents responded. Eighty-seven percent of the residents had access to a skills lab that taught MIS techniques; however, standardized MIS curricula were implemented 53% of the time. Eighty percent of residents felt that skills lab training translated to improved performance in the OR. Although 90% of residents felt that they would be comfortable performing basic laparoscopic procedures, only 8% stated they would be comfortable performing advanced procedures at the end of their training. Moreover, 90% of general surgery residents felt that it was the academic surgical department's responsibility to teach both basic and advanced procedures, and 35% of respondents felt their surgical program was meeting this requirement. Half of the residents felt they had limited opportunity to be a primary surgeon because an MIS fellow was present. There exists a wide disparity between the expectations of residents and their actual experience. The majority of residents are concerned that they will not acquire sufficient laparoscopic skills during their training to perform advanced cases in practice. Additionally, the balance between resident and fellow-level cases needs to be more clearly defined as the majority of respondents identified the presence of a MIS fellow as a negative learning influence. Finally, although most centers had a surgical skills lab, 47% of

  2. Looking for Help in the Translation Process--The Role of Auxiliary Texts in Translator Training and Translation Practice%Looking for Help in the Translation Process——The Role of Auxiliary Texts in Translator Training and Translation Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.诺德

    2007-01-01

    The article analyses translation from a pedagogical point of view, focussing on the necessity of"jumping over the culture hurdle" and using existing texts from the target culture as a tool in the translation process. Traditional dictionaries and grammars often do not provide sufficient or appropriate information to allow satisfactory solutions of quite a number of translation problems, especially where stylistic, textual and genre conventions or technolect and terminology are concerned. Therefore, drawing on the useful concept of intertextuality, the author suggests a variety of auxiliary texts which may be useful in source-text analysis and target-text production for both trainee and professional translators.

  3. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2011-03-01

    Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

  4. Evaluation of haptic teaching approaches for laparoscopic surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Toma; Tagawa, Kazuyoshi; Marutani, Takafumi; Tanaka, Hiromi; Komori, Masaru; Kurumi, Yoshimasa; Morikawa, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery, one type of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is a very important surgery technique which requires advanced surgical technique. At present, expert one-on-one teaching mainly supports the training of these advanced surgical techniques. However, time constraints prevent experts spending the amount of time desired for this training. Therefore, we aim to support training using a VR-based laparoscopic surgery simulator equipped with a guidance force display. This increases the amount of training a trainee can avail of while at the same time allow the expert and the trainee to increase the quality of the limited one-to-one time together. The first step of our research is to investigate approaches that displays the guidance force to teach experts hand movements. In this study, we used two guidance force-display approaches: Instrument-guiding approach and Hand-guiding approach. Through evaluative experiments, we found that the Hand-guiding approach is more suitable for skill transfer than the Instrument-guiding approach in particular tasks. The results are described below.

  5. Evaluation of a Multimodal VR training platform for maxillofacial surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabet Ludovic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most striking features of virtual reality systems is their ability to enrich training experience by allowing the developments of sophisticated feedbacks. This study focuses on the way to use modality management in virtual reality systems to accelerate training in a surgical task involving bone drilling. The study compares the efficiency of two punctual drilling training protocol implemented on the MFS SKILLS platform. The experiments were conducted with residents from 2 university hospitals. The results show that augmented simulation improves acquisition of specific aspects of the surgery in comparison with pure simulation.

  6. HOW TO ACHIEVE AND MAINTAIN NOTE 6: POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM IN TRANSLATIONAL SURGERY - UNIFESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sabino-Neto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To show the way to reach and stay in note 6 in the evaluation process of Medicine III of CAPES. Methods: Capes determinations were reviewed concerning this topic, grades 6 and 7, and also the difficulties and facilities of running a program that amounted to Note 6 after restructuring and being in compliance with regulations. Results: The main points to achieve and maintain Note 6 were: 1 regular production of master's and doctoral theses with appropriate distribution among all teachers; 2 average time of appropriate titration, as well as strict selection of students who resets the withdrawals and cancellations; 3 production of scientific articles in high impact journals and with academic and student participation in most part; 4 progressive and substantial increase in fundraising and patent search; 5 progressive increase in international exchanges with joint production; 6 visibility through new bilingual website and updated weekly; 7 numerous solidarity activities in research, but also in health services for the population and even in basic education; 8 rigorous selection of students (through design analysis, curriculum and teacher training program; 9 maintenance of high levels teachers production; 10 preparing new teachers for guidance through participation as co-supervision and involvement in the program to fit the needs. Conclusion: The Postgraduate Program in Translational Surgery went through difficult times; was submitted to a series of measures, adjustments, cooperation and understanding of the teaching staff, that took the program from note 3 - and almost closing - to a level of excellence keeping note 6 for three consecutive three-year periods of evaluation.

  7. Training general surgery residents in pediatric surgery: educational value vs time and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Steven L; Sydorak, Roman M; Applebaum, Harry

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the educational value of pediatric surgery rotations, the likelihood of performing pediatric operations upon completing general surgery (GS) residency, and time and cost of training GS residents in pediatric surgery. A survey was administered to GS residents that evaluated the pediatric surgery rotation and anticipated practice intentions. A retrospective analysis (2005-2006) of operative times for unilateral inguinal hernia repair, bilateral inguinal hernia repair, and umbilical hernia repair was also performed. Procedure times were compared for operations performed by a pediatric surgeon with and without GS residents. Cost analysis was based on time differences. General surgery residents (n = 19) considered the pediatric surgery rotation to have high educational value (4.7 +/- 0.6 of 5) with extensive teaching (4.6 +/- 0.7) and operative experience (4.4 +/- 0.8). Residents listed pediatric surgery exposure, operative technique, and observed work ethic as most valuable. Upon graduation, residents expect to perform pediatric operations 2 to 3 times annually. Thirty-seven percent of residents felt competent to perform appendectomy (patients >5 years), 32% appendectomy (3-5 years), 21% gastrostomy (>1 year), and 11% inguinal herniorrhaphy (>1 year). Operative times and costs were significantly higher in operative procedures performed with a GS resident. General surgery residents considered pediatric surgery as a valuable educational experience. Residents anticipate performing pediatric operations a few times annually. Training GS residents in pediatric surgery increased operative time and cost. This information may be useful in determining the appropriate setting for resident education as well as budget planning for pediatric surgical practices.

  8. Virtual reality simulators and training in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despina; Tsigris, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality simulators provide basic skills training without supervision in a controlled environment, free of pressure of operating on patients. Skills obtained through virtual reality simulation training can be transferred on the operating room. However, relative evidence is limited with data available only for basic surgical skills and for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. No data exist on the effect of virtual reality simulation on performance on advanced surgical procedures. Evidence suggests that performance on virtual reality simulators reliably distinguishes experienced from novice surgeons Limited available data suggest that independent approach on virtual reality simulation training is not different from proctored approach. The effect of virtual reality simulators training on acquisition of basic surgical skills does not seem to be different from the effect the physical simulators. Limited data exist on the effect of virtual reality simulation training on the acquisition of visual spatial perception and stress coping skills. Undoubtedly, virtual reality simulation training provides an alternative means of improving performance in laparoscopic surgery. However, future research efforts should focus on the effect of virtual reality simulation on performance in the context of advanced surgical procedure, on standardization of training, on the possibility of synergistic effect of virtual reality simulation training combined with mental training, on personalized training. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ergonomic factors on task performance in laparoscopic surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, D J; Jakimowicz, Jack J; Albayrak, A; Goossens, R H M

    2012-05-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of ergonomic factors on task performance and trainee posture during laparoscopic surgery training. Twenty subjects without laparoscopic experience were allotted into 2 groups. Group 1 was trained under the optimal ergonomic simulation setting according to current ergonomic guidelines (Condition A). Group 2 was trained under non-optimal ergonomic simulation setting that can often be observed during training in a skills lab (Condition B). Posture analysis showed that the subjects held a much more neutral posture under Condition A than under Condition B (poptimal ergonomic simulation setting leads to better task performance. In addition, no significant differences of task performance, for Groups 1 and 2 using the same test setting were found. However, better performance was observed for Group 1. It can be concluded that the optimal and non-optimal training setting have different learning effects on trainees' skill learning.

  10. A Landscape for Training in Dementia Knowledge Translation (DKT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illes, Judy; Chahal, Neil; Beattie, B. Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Meaningful translation of dementia research findings from the bench to the bedside is dependent on the quality of the knowledge to transfer and the availability and skills of investigators engaged in the knowledge translation process. Although there is no shortage of research on dementia, the latter has been more challenging. Results from a survey…

  11. Training of basic laparoscopy skills on SimSurgery SEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzink, Sonja N; Goossens, Richard H M; De Ridder, Huib; Jakimowicz, Jack J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance curve for novices training in bimanual tissue manipulation and angled laparoscope navigation, and compare those performances with the performances of experienced laparoscopic surgeons. The Camera Navigation task with a 30 degrees angled laparoscope and the Place Arrow task of the new SimSurgery SEP virtual reality simulator were used. Fourteen medical trainees (no laparoscopy experience) performed four training sessions within one week, including 15 repetitions of each task in total. The experienced participants (>50 procedures & familiar with angled laparoscope) performed each task twice. The performance on both tasks by the novices improved significantly over the training sessions. The experienced participants performed both tasks significantly better than the novices in repetition 3. After repetition 15, the performances of the novices on both tasks were of the same level as the performances of the experienced participants. By training on SimSurgery SEP, medical trainees can extensively improve their skills in navigation with 30 degrees angled laparoscope and bimanual tissue manipulation. Further research should focus on the transfer of skills acquired on the simulator to the clinical setting. Knowledge on proficiency thresholds and training end-points for pre-clinical criterion-based training of different laparoscopic tasks also needs to be extended.

  12. Training and outcome monitoring in robotic urologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Daniel; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Jeldres, Claudio; Valiquette, Luc; Zorn, Kevin C

    2011-11-08

    The use of robot-assisted laparoscopic technology is rapidly expanding, with applicability in numerous disciplines of surgery. Training to perform robot-assisted laparoscopic urological procedures requires a motivated learner, a motivated teacher or proctor, a curriculum with stepwise learning objectives, and regular access to a training robot. In light of the many constraints that limit surgical training, animal models should be utilized to quantifiably improve the surgical skills of residents and surgical fellows, before these skills are put into practice on patients. A system based on appropriate supervision, graduated responsibility, real-time feedback, and objective measure of progress has proven to be safe and effective. Surgical team education directed towards cohesion is perhaps the most important aspect of training. At present, there are very few published guidelines for the safe introduction of robotic urologic surgery at an institution. Increasing evidence demonstrates the effects of learning curve and surgical volume on oncological and functional outcomes in robotic surgery (RS). This necessitates the introduction of mechanisms and guidelines by which trainee surgeons can attain a sufficient level of skill, without compromising the safety of patients. Guidelines for outcome monitoring following RS should be developed, to ensure patient safety and sufficient baseline surgeon skill.

  13. Recent trends in resident career choices after plastic surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Fernando A; Chang, Eric I; Suliman, Ahmed; Tseng, Charles Y; Bradley, James P

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the initial career choice of plastic surgery residents after completion of training during the last five years and to identify any factors that may influence choice of career path. Demographic data were obtained from graduates of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited US plastic surgery residency programs between the years of 2005 and 2010. The type of practice and pursuit of fellowship were recorded for each graduate. Sex, age at graduation, marital status, dependents, advanced degrees, previous research, type of training program, primary residency, and length of plastic surgery training were also documented. Comparison of outcomes between the two plastic surgery training pathways (integrated vs independent) was analyzed. Data were collected for 424 graduates from 37 different training programs. Of these programs, 11% were from the West coast, 32% from Midwest, 33% from East coast, and 24% from the South. Seventy-nine percent of residents were male, mean age at graduation was 35 (2.89) years. Forty-nine percent of residents were married, 30% had one or more dependents, 6% had advanced degrees, and 18% had previous research experience. Fifty-eight percent of graduates were from independent programs. Forty-eight percent of residents pursued private practice immediately after graduation, 8% pursued academic practice, 41% pursued specialty fellowships, and 3% had military commitments. Most of the residents chose to pursue private practice on completion of residency. Independent residents were significantly more likely to pursue private practice immediately compared to integrated/combined residents. No other factors were significant for practice choice.

  14. Training Convolutional Neural Networks for Translational Invariance on SAR ATR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmgren-Hansen, David; Engholm, Rasmus; Østergaard Pedersen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a comparison of the robustness of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to other classifiers in the presence of uncertainty of the objects localization in SAR image. We present a framework for simulating simple SAR images, translating the object of interest systematically...... and testing the classification performance. Our results show that where other classification methods are very sensitive to even small translations, CNN is quite robust to translational variance, making it much more useful in relation to Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) in a real life context....

  15. Key Methodological Aspects of Translators' Training in Ukraine and in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyba, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of international relations in the globalized world has influenced the role of a translator that is becoming more and more important. Translators' training institutions today are to work out and to implement the best teaching methodology taking into consideration the new challenges of modern multinational and multicultural society.…

  16. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career. METHODS: Candidates commencing BST training during a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008 were included in a quantitative study. In addition a total of 2,536 candidates, representing all those who commenced surgical training in Ireland since 1960 were identified through the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) database and invited to complete an online survey. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 15, with p < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: During the 5-year quantitative study period there were 381 BST trainees. Gender was a significant predictor of career choice with women more likely to ultimately choose a nonsurgical career after initial surgical training (p = 0.049). Passing surgical membership examinations (MRCS) also was predictive of remaining in surgery (p = 0.005). Training region was not a significant predictor of ultimate career choice. There were 418 survey respondents. The influence of role models was most commonly cited as influencing candidates in choosing to commence surgical training. Candidates who rated "academic opportunity" (p = 0.023) and "intellectual challenge" (p = 0.047) as factors that influenced their decision to commence surgical training were more likely to ultimately continue their careers in a surgical speciality. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the career pathway of surgical trainees and confirms the importance of academic achievement in discriminating between candidates applying for surgical training schemes.

  17. Bariatric surgery and the changing current scope of general surgery practice: implications for general surgery residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaedi, Rouzbeh; Ali, Mohamed R; Pierce, Jonathan L; Scherer, Lynette A; Galante, Joseph M

    2015-02-01

    The scope of general surgery practice has evolved tremendously in the last 20 years. However, clinical experience in general surgery residency training has undergone relatively little change. To evaluate the current scope of academic general surgery and its implications on surgical residency. The University HealthSystem Consortium and Association of American Medical Colleges established the Faculty Practice Solution Center (FPSC) to characterize physician productivity. The FPSC is a benchmarking tool for academic medical centers created from revenue data collected from more than 90,000 physicians who practice at 95 institutions across the United States. The FPSC database was queried to evaluate the annual mean procedure frequency per surgeon (PFS) in each calendar year from 2006 through 2011. The associated work relative value units (wRVUs) were also examined to measure physician effort and skill. During the 6-year period, 146 distinct Current Procedural Terminology codes were among the top 100 procedures, and 16 of these procedures ranked in the top 10 procedures in at least 1 year. The top 10 procedures accounted for more than half (range, 52.5%-57.2%) of the total 100 PFS evaluated for each year. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was consistently among the top 10 procedures in each year (PFS, 18.2-24.6). The other most frequently performed procedures included laparoscopic cholecystectomy (PFS, 30.3-43.5), upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy (PFS, 26.5-34.3), mastectomy (PFS, 16.5-35.0), inguinal hernia repair (PFS, 15.5-22.1), and abdominal wall hernia repair (PFS, 21.6-26.1). In all years, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass generated the highest number of wRVUs (wRVUs, 491.0-618.2), and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was regularly the next highest (wRVUs, 335.8-498.7). A significant proportion of academic general surgery is composed of bariatric surgery, yet surgical training does not sufficiently emphasize the necessary exposure to technical expertise

  18. Situated learning in translation research training: academic research as a reflection of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risku, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Situated learning has become a dominant goal in the translation classroom: translation didactics is being developed in a learner-, situation- and experience-based direction, following constructivist and participatory teaching philosophies. However, the explicit use of situated approaches has, so far, not been the centre of attention in translation theory teaching and research training. As a consequence, translation theory often remains unconnected to the skills learned and topics tackled in language-specific translation teaching and the challenges experienced in real-life translation practice. This article reports on the results of an exploratory action research project into the teaching of academic research skills in translation studies at Master’s level. The goal of the project is to develop and test possibilities for employing situated learning in translation research training. The situatedness perspective has a double relevance for the teaching project: the students are involved in an authentic, ongoing research project, and the object of the research project itself deals with authentic translation processes at the workplace. Thus, the project has the potential to improve the expertise of the students as both researchers and reflective practitioners. PMID:27499805

  19. Situated learning in translation research training: academic research as a reflection of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risku, Hanna

    2016-01-02

    Situated learning has become a dominant goal in the translation classroom: translation didactics is being developed in a learner-, situation- and experience-based direction, following constructivist and participatory teaching philosophies. However, the explicit use of situated approaches has, so far, not been the centre of attention in translation theory teaching and research training. As a consequence, translation theory often remains unconnected to the skills learned and topics tackled in language-specific translation teaching and the challenges experienced in real-life translation practice. This article reports on the results of an exploratory action research project into the teaching of academic research skills in translation studies at Master's level. The goal of the project is to develop and test possibilities for employing situated learning in translation research training. The situatedness perspective has a double relevance for the teaching project: the students are involved in an authentic, ongoing research project, and the object of the research project itself deals with authentic translation processes at the workplace. Thus, the project has the potential to improve the expertise of the students as both researchers and reflective practitioners.

  20. Simulation in dermatologic surgery: a new paradigm in training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Luke; Toren, Kristen; Bingham, Jonathan; Marquart, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Simulation-based training has become popular in many surgical residencies for acquiring procedural skills, but simulator use is rare in dermatologic training. To evaluate the perceived efficacy of obtaining dermatologic procedural skills using simulators. Opinions of dermatology residents and staff regarding simulator use were assessed using questionnaires completed after a 2-day surgical symposium in which participants were instructed on and practiced with simulators and cadavers. Overall, 93.9% strongly agreed that simulators are helpful in acquiring procedural skills. More than three-quarters of participants agreed that simulators are useful in acquiring, refining, assessing, and learning these skills. Many participants further thought that simulator use would be beneficial in learning anatomy and trouble-shooting techniques. An overwhelming majority of those surveyed believed that training on simulators would be helpful in learning various dermatologic procedures; 90.9% of participants thought that training using simulators should be, at least in part, a mandatory component of residency. It was felt that this training should be conducted at the beginning of residency, with additional with sessions held throughout training. Simulation offers an excellent model for the acquisition and assessment of dermatologic procedural skills. Cost and availability of instructors remain obstacles. Further studies are required to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of these models. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Virtual reality training for surgical trainees in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, Myura; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Loizidou, Marilena; Davidson, Brian R

    2013-08-27

    Standard surgical training has traditionally been one of apprenticeship, where the surgical trainee learns to perform surgery under the supervision of a trained surgeon. This is time-consuming, costly, and of variable effectiveness. Training using a virtual reality simulator is an option to supplement standard training. Virtual reality training improves the technical skills of surgical trainees such as decreased time for suturing and improved accuracy. The clinical impact of virtual reality training is not known. To assess the benefits (increased surgical proficiency and improved patient outcomes) and harms (potentially worse patient outcomes) of supplementary virtual reality training of surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded until July 2012. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing virtual reality training versus other forms of training including box-trainer training, no training, or standard laparoscopic training in surgical trainees with little laparoscopic experience. We also planned to include trials comparing different methods of virtual reality training. We included only trials that assessed the outcomes in people undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Two authors independently identified trials and collected data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using Review Manager 5 analysis. For each outcome we calculated the mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals based on intention-to-treat analysis. We included eight trials covering 109 surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. Of the eight trials, six compared virtual reality versus no supplementary training. One trial compared virtual reality training versus box-trainer training and versus no supplementary training, and one trial compared

  2. Effects of audio-visual presentation of target words in word translation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane-Yamada, Reiko; Komaki, Ryo; Kubo, Rieko

    2004-05-01

    Komaki and Akahane-Yamada (Proc. ICA2004) used 2AFC translation task in vocabulary training, in which the target word is presented visually in orthographic form of one language, and the appropriate meaning in another language has to be chosen between two choices. Present paper examined the effect of audio-visual presentation of target word when native speakers of Japanese learn to translate English words into Japanese. Pairs of English words contrasted in several phonemic distinctions (e.g., /r/-/l/, /b/-/v/, etc.) were used as word materials, and presented in three conditions; visual-only (V), audio-only (A), and audio-visual (AV) presentations. Identification accuracy of those words produced by two talkers was also assessed. During pretest, the accuracy for A stimuli was lowest, implying that insufficient translation ability and listening ability interact with each other when aurally presented word has to be translated. However, there was no difference in accuracy between V and AV stimuli, suggesting that participants translate the words depending on visual information only. The effect of translation training using AV stimuli did not transfer to identification ability, showing that additional audio information during translation does not help improve speech perception. Further examination is necessary to determine the effective L2 training method. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.

  3. Effects of audio-visual presentation of target words in word translation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane-Yamada, Reiko; Komaki, Ryo; Kubo, Rieko

    2001-05-01

    Komaki and Akahane-Yamada (Proc. ICA2004) used 2AFC translation task in vocabulary training, in which the target word is presented visually in orthographic form of one language, and the appropriate meaning in another language has to be chosen between two choices. Present paper examined the effect of audio-visual presentation of target word when native speakers of Japanese learn to translate English words into Japanese. Pairs of English words contrasted in several phonemic distinctions (e.g., /r/-/l/, /b/-/v/, etc.) were used as word materials, and presented in three conditions; visual-only (V), audio-only (A), and audio-visual (AV) presentations. Identification accuracy of those words produced by two talkers was also assessed. During pretest, the accuracy for A stimuli was lowest, implying that insufficient translation ability and listening ability interact with each other when aurally presented word has to be translated. However, there was no difference in accuracy between V and AV stimuli, suggesting that participants translate the words depending on visual information only. The effect of translation training using AV stimuli did not transfer to identification ability, showing that additional audio information during translation does not help improve speech perception. Further examination is necessary to determine the effective L2 training method. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.

  4. Mechatronics Interface for Computer Assisted Prostate Surgery Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano del Monte, Felipe; Padilla Castañeda, Miguel A.; Arámbula Cosío, Fernando

    2006-09-01

    In this work is presented the development of a mechatronics device to simulate the interaction of the surgeon with the surgical instrument (resectoscope) used during a Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP). Our mechatronics interface is part of a computer assisted system for training in TURP, which is based on a 3D graphics model of the prostate which can be deformed and resected interactively by the user. The mechatronics interface, is the device that the urology residents will manipulate to simulate the movements performed during surgery. Our current prototype has five degrees of freedom, which are enough to have a realistic simulation of the surgery movements. Two of these degrees of freedom are linear, to determinate the linear displacement of the resecting loop and the other three are rotational to determinate three directions and amounts of rotation.

  5. Augmented reality assisted surgery: a urologic training tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Ryan M; Srikishen, Neel; Lipshultz, Larry I; Spiess, Philippe E; Carrion, Rafael E; Hakky, Tariq S

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality is widely used in aeronautics and is a developing concept within surgery. In this pilot study, we developed an application for use on Google Glass ® optical head-mounted display to train urology residents in how to place an inflatable penile prosthesis. We use the phrase Augmented Reality Assisted Surgery to describe this novel application of augmented reality in the setting of surgery. The application demonstrates the steps of the surgical procedure of inflatable penile prosthesis placement. It also contains software that allows for detection of interest points using a camera feed from the optical head-mounted display to enable faculty to interact with residents during placement of the penile prosthesis. Urology trainees and faculty who volunteered to take part in the study were given time to experience the technology in the operative or perioperative setting and asked to complete a feedback survey. From 30 total participants using a 10-point scale, educational usefulness was rated 8.6, ease of navigation was rated 7.6, likelihood to use was rated 7.4, and distraction in operating room was rated 4.9. When stratified between trainees and faculty, trainees found the technology more educationally useful, and less distracting. Overall, 81% of the participants want this technology in their residency program, and 93% see this technology in the operating room in the future. Further development of this technology is warranted before full release, and further studies are necessary to better characterize the effectiveness of Augmented Reality Assisted Surgery in urologic surgical training.

  6. Augmented reality assisted surgery: a urologic training tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Dickey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality is widely used in aeronautics and is a developing concept within surgery. In this pilot study, we developed an application for use on Google Glass ® optical head-mounted display to train urology residents in how to place an inflatable penile prosthesis. We use the phrase Augmented Reality Assisted Surgery to describe this novel application of augmented reality in the setting of surgery. The application demonstrates the steps of the surgical procedure of inflatable penile prosthesis placement. It also contains software that allows for detection of interest points using a camera feed from the optical head-mounted display to enable faculty to interact with residents during placement of the penile prosthesis. Urology trainees and faculty who volunteered to take part in the study were given time to experience the technology in the operative or perioperative setting and asked to complete a feedback survey. From 30 total participants using a 10-point scale, educational usefulness was rated 8.6, ease of navigation was rated 7.6, likelihood to use was rated 7.4, and distraction in operating room was rated 4.9. When stratified between trainees and faculty, trainees found the technology more educationally useful, and less distracting. Overall, 81% of the participants want this technology in their residency program, and 93% see this technology in the operating room in the future. Further development of this technology is warranted before full release, and further studies are necessary to better characterize the effectiveness of Augmented Reality Assisted Surgery in urologic surgical training.

  7. Augmented reality assisted surgery: a urologic training tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Ryan M; Srikishen, Neel; Lipshultz, Larry I; Spiess, Philippe E; Carrion, Rafael E; Hakky, Tariq S

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality is widely used in aeronautics and is a developing concept within surgery. In this pilot study, we developed an application for use on Google Glass® optical head-mounted display to train urology residents in how to place an inflatable penile prosthesis. We use the phrase Augmented Reality Assisted Surgery to describe this novel application of augmented reality in the setting of surgery. The application demonstrates the steps of the surgical procedure of inflatable penile prosthesis placement. It also contains software that allows for detection of interest points using a camera feed from the optical head-mounted display to enable faculty to interact with residents during placement of the penile prosthesis. Urology trainees and faculty who volunteered to take part in the study were given time to experience the technology in the operative or perioperative setting and asked to complete a feedback survey. From 30 total participants using a 10-point scale, educational usefulness was rated 8.6, ease of navigation was rated 7.6, likelihood to use was rated 7.4, and distraction in operating room was rated 4.9. When stratified between trainees and faculty, trainees found the technology more educationally useful, and less distracting. Overall, 81% of the participants want this technology in their residency program, and 93% see this technology in the operating room in the future. Further development of this technology is warranted before full release, and further studies are necessary to better characterize the effectiveness of Augmented Reality Assisted Surgery in urologic surgical training. PMID:26620455

  8. Robotic Surgery Simulator: Elements to Build a Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillou, Xavier; Collon, Sylvie; Martin-Francois, Sandrine; Doerfler, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Face, content, and construct validity of robotic surgery simulators were confirmed in the literature by several studies, but elements to build a training program are still lacking. The aim of our study was to validate a progressive training program and to assess according to prior surgical experience the amount of training needed with a robotic simulator to complete the program. Exercises using the Da Vinci Skill Simulator were chosen to ensure progressive learning. A new exercise could only be started if a minimal score of 80% was achieved in the prior one. The number of repetitions to achieve an exercise was not limited. We devised a "performance index" by calculating the ratio of the sum of scores for each exercise over the number of repetitions needed to complete the exercise with at least an 80% score. The study took place at the François Baclesse Cancer Center. Participants all work at the primary care university Hospital located next to the cancer center. A total of 32 surgeons participated in the study- 2 experienced surgeons, 8 junior and 8 senior residents in surgery, 6 registrars, and 6 attending surgeons. There was no difference between junior and senior residents, whereas the registrars had better results (p < 0.0001). The registrars performed less exercise repetitions compared to the junior or senior residents (p = 0.012). Attending surgeons performed significantly more repetitions than registrars (p = 0.024), but they performed fewer repetitions than junior or senior residents with no statistical difference (p = 0.09). The registrars had a performance index of 50, which is the best result among all novice groups. Attending surgeons were between senior and junior residents with an index at 33.85. Choice of basic exercises to manipulate different elements of the robotic surgery console in a specific and progressive order enables rapid progress. The level of prior experience in laparoscopic surgery affects outcomes. More advanced laparoscopic expertise

  9. Need for simulation in laparoscopic colorectal surgery training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valerio; Celentano

    2015-01-01

    The dissemination of laparoscopic colorectal surgery(LCS) has been slow despite increasing evidence for the clinical benefits, with a prolonged learning curve being one of the main restrictions for a prompt uptake. Performing advanced laparoscopic procedures requires dedicated surgical skills and new simulation methods designed precisely for LCS have been established: These include virtual reality simulators, box trainers, animal andhuman tissue and synthetic materials. Studies have even demonstrated an improvement in trainees’ laparoscopic skills in the actual operating room and a staged approach to surgical simulation with a combination of various training methods should be mandatory in every colorectal training program. The learning curve for LCS could be reduced through practice and skills development in a riskfree setting.

  10. Training effect of using Touch Surgery for intramedullary femoral nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugand, Kapil; Mawkin, Mala; Gupte, Chinmay

    2016-02-01

    Simulation in orthopaedic training is becoming increasingly popular and has been widely used in formal curricula. However, these resources are expensive and not easily accessible to every trainee. Other means of disseminating surgical education through virtual reality (VR) multimedia can act as useful adjunct to traditional methods of teaching. One validated VR platform is Touch Surgery, a cognitive task simulation and rehearsal app. The primary objective of this study was to identify the training effect of Touch Surgery intramedullary femoral nailing (IFN) modules using objective performance metrics over six consecutive attempts. Secondary objectives consisted of validated multiple choice questions (MCQ) testing before the first (pre) and after the sixth (post) attempts. 27 medical undergraduates were recruited to complete the decision-making process six consecutive times for four modules on the procedural steps of IFN. The modules consisted of (i) preparing the patient and equipment, (ii) femoral canal preparation, (iii) nail insertion and proximal locking, and (iv) distal locking and closure. Real-time objective performance metrics were obtained, stored electronically and analysed using the median and Bonett-Price 95% confidence intervals from the participants' attempts to assess training effect. Significance was calculated using the Mann-Whitney U test for independent data whilst the Wilcoxon signed ranked test was used for paired data. Significance was set as 2-tailed p-value training effect with practice. Novices demonstrated cognitive competencies to ensure patient safety prior to operating. The app is an effective adjunct to traditional learning methods and has the potential for curricular implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiovascular-interventional-surgery virtual training platform and its preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaozheng; Xie, Le; Shen, Xianglong; Luo, Maisheng; Wu, Zhaoli; Gu, Lixu

    2014-10-13

    Cardiovascular interventional surgery (CIS) training has mainly been performed with fluoroscopic guidance on animals. However, this has potential drawbacks, including from the anatomical differences between animal models and the human body. The purpose of this research is to develop a virtual training platform for inexperienced trainees. The CIS virtual training platform is composed of a mechanical manipulation unit, a simulation platform and a user interface. A decoupled haptic device offers high-quality force feedback. An efficient physically based hybrid model was simulated. The CIS procedure was tested with three simulation studies. Translational and rotational tests were employed to preliminarily evaluate the platform. Tests showed that accuracies improved by 50% and 32.5%. Efficient collision detection and continuous collision response allowed real-time interactions. Furthermore, three simulation studies indicated that the platform had reasonable accuracy and robustness. The proposed simulation platform has the potential to be a good virtual training platform. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Implementation Challenges in Translating Pivotal Response Training into Community Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhrheinrich, Jessica; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Reed, Sarah; Schreibman, Laura; Reisinger, Erica; Mandell, David

    2013-01-01

    Implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) for children with autism is challenging for teachers because these practices are often complex, requiring significant training and resources that are not available in most school settings. This brief investigation was designed to identify areas of strength and difficulty for teachers implementing one…

  13. Ongoing deficits in resident training for minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Adrian; Witzke, Donald; Donnelly, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Patient preference has driven the adoption of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques and altered surgical practice. MIS training in surgical residency programs must teach new skill sets with steep learning curves to enable residents to master key procedures. Because no nationally recognized MIS curriculum exists, this study asked experts in MIS which laparoscopic procedures should be taught and how many cases are required for competency. Expert recommendations were compared to the number of cases actually performed by residents (Residency Review Committee [RRC] data). A detailed survey was sent nationwide to all surgical residency programs (academic and private) known to offer training in MIS and/or have a leader in the field. The response rate was approximately 52%. RRC data were obtained from the resident statistics summary report for 1998-1999. Experts identified core procedures for MIS training and consistently voiced the opinion that to become competent, residents need to perform these procedures many more times than the RRC data indicate they currently do. At present, American surgical residency programs do not meet the suggested MIS case range or volume required for competency. Residency programs need to be restructured to incorporate sufficient exposure to core MIS procedures. More expert faculty must be recruited to train residents to meet the increasing demand for laparoscopy.

  14. Economic impact of training and career decisions on urological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Joshua P; Kirby, E Will; Nielsen, Matthew E; Smith, Angela B; Woods, Michael E; Wallen, Eric M; Pruthi, Raj S

    2014-03-01

    Medical students and residents make career decisions at a relatively young age that have significant implications for their future income. While most of them attempt to estimate the impact of these decisions, there has been little effort to use economic principles to illustrate the impact of certain variables. The economic concept of net present value was paired with available Medical Group Management Association and Association of American Medical Colleges income data to calculate the value of career earnings based on variations in the choice of specialty, an academic vs a private practice career path and fellowship choices for urology and other medical fields. Across all specialties academic careers were associated with lower career earnings than private practice. However, among surgical specialties the lowest difference in value between these 2 paths was for urologists at only $334,898. Fellowship analysis showed that training in pediatric urology was costly in forgone attending salary and it also showed a lower future income than nonfellowship trained counterparts. An additional year of residency training (6 vs 5 years) caused a $201,500 decrease in the value of career earnings. Choice of specialty has a dramatic impact on future earnings, as does the decision to pursue a fellowship or choose private vs academic practice. Additional years of training and forgone wages have a tremendous impact on monetary outcomes. There is also no guarantee that fellowship training will translate into a more financially valuable career. The differential in income between private practice and academics was lowest for urologists. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Getting lost in translation? Workplace based assessments in surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jason M

    2013-10-01

    Workplace based assessments (WBA) are integral to the competence-based surgical training curriculum that currently exists in the UK. The GMC emphasise the value of WBA's as assessments for learning (formative), rather than as assessments of learning (summative). Current implementation of WBA's in the workplace though, is at odds with their intended use, with the formative functions often being overlooked in favour of the summative, as exemplified by the recent announcement that trainees are required to complete a minimum of 40 WBA's a year, an increase from 24. Even before this increase, trainees viewed WBA's as tick-box exercises that negatively impact upon training opportunities. As a result, the tools are commonly misused, often because both trainees and trainers lack understanding of the benefits of full engagement with the formative learning opportunities afforded by WBA's. To aid the transition in mind-set of trainees and trainers to the purpose of assessment in the workplace, the GMC propose the introduction of 'supervised learning events' and 'assessments of performance' to supersede 'WBA's'. The impact of this change and how these will be integrated into surgical training is yet to be seen, but is likely to be a step in the right direction.

  16. Perceptions of society for vascular surgery members and surgery department chairs of the integrated 0 + 5 vascular surgery training paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, Misaki; Leake, Andrew; Switzer, Galen; Mitchell, Erica; Makaroun, Michel; Chaer, Rabih A

    2014-01-01

    As the first generation of integrated (0 + 5) vascular surgery (VS) residents enter the job market, this survey sought to understand how the surgical community perceives this training paradigm. An anonymous online survey was e-mailed to surgery chairpersons (n = 193) and Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) members (n = 2193) in the United States/Canada with 26% (n = 38) and 14% (n = 309) response rates, respectively. Respondents were asked about their practice background, residency program, hiring patterns, and perceptions of the 0 + 5 training. Response rates were 26% (n = 38) and 14% (n = 309) for surgery chairpersons and SVS members, respectively. SVS respondents were from academic (62%) and private (38%) practices and included staff surgeons (62%), program directors (15%), and division chiefs (22%). Only 33% had a 0 + 5 program, and 57% had a VS fellowship. Overall, 94% were likely to hire a new vascular surgeon in the next 5 years. In some categories, SVS respondents believed 0 + 5 residents would be less prepared than 5 + 2 residents. Only 32% thought that 0 + 5 residents have the same level of surgical maturity, and 36% thought that they have the same level of open operative skills as 5 + 2 trainees. Another 34% thought 0 + 5 residents will need additional fellowship training in open surgery. However, there was also a general perception from SVS respondents that 0 + 5 residents would be prepared for clinical practice (67%) and would have equal endovascular skills to 5 + 2 trainees (92%). The chairpersons had similar perceptions as SVS members. Both SVS members (88%) and chairpersons (86%) would consider interviewing a 0 + 5 graduate for faculty position; 83% and 72%, respectively, would consider hiring. Moreover, 93% of SVS respondents who currently have a 0 + 5 program and 86% of SVS respondents who do not would consider hiring a 0 + 5 graduate. Both SVS members (62%) and chairpersons (50%) believed the 0 + 5 paradigm is essential for the advancement of VS

  17. Research on a Master Manipulator Using an Isometric Interface for Translation in Robotic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In surgery with a master-slave type of surgical robot, an anisometric interface is often used. The working range of the master side is limited, so repositioning is required. Any repositioning from the master side will disturb the robot's operation. In this study, an operation interface is proposed that uses only the operator's force input for translational directions. A force sensor is used to detect this input. A gimbal mechanism is mounted on the sensor which allows for rotation. The rotation accounts for the operator's input rotation, and as a result the mechanism can now match the input. This allows the operator to concentrate on the slave side and control the robot without repositioning. The authors developed the proposed interface to control the pneumatically driven slave robot. The block transfer experiments confirmed that the proposed interface has nearly the same performance as conventional interfaces.

  18. Translation, cultural adaptation and content re-validation of the observational teamwork assessment for surgery tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya Arias, Ana Carolina; Barajas, Rocío; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier H; Wheelock, Ana; Gaitán Duarte, Hernando; Hull, Louise; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Background. Poor teamwork and nontechnical skill performance are increasingly recognized as important contributing factors to errors and adverse events in the operating room. Assessment of these safety critical skills is important to facilitate improvement, however there are no tools available to assess these safety skills in Latin America. This study aimed to translate, culturally adapt and content validate the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS) tool for use in Latin America. Methods. A multi-phase, multi-method study was conducted: Phase 1: translation and back-translation; Phase 2: content validity assessed via expert consensus; Phase 3: inter-rater reliability assessed via real-time observation in 98 general surgical procedures using OTAS-S. Results. The first change in OTAS-S, was to distinguish between the surgical nurses and scrub technicians (both OR team members are captured in the nursing sub-team in the original OTAS). OTAS-S consists of 168 exemplar behaviors: 60/114 identical to the exemplars listed in the original OTAS tool, 48/114 original exemplars underwent minor modifications, 13 were duplicated (to account for the additional sub-team distinguished in OTAS-S), 6 original exemplars were removed, and 47 new exemplar behaviors were added. Inter-observer agreement was substantial (KW = 0.602; IC: 0.581-0.620). The calculated KW by phase, behaviors and teams were between 0.534 and 0.678. Conclusions. The study provides a content validated teamwork assessment tool for use within Colombian operating rooms and potentially Latin-American. OTAS-S can be used to assess the quality of teamwork in ORs, facilitate structured debriefing and thus improve patient safety and reduce team-related errors.

  19. Porcine Model In The Laparoscopic Liver Surgery Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komorowski Andrzej L.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility to use live anesthetized pigs as a model for laparoscopic liver resection. During two days laparoscopy course two trainees were operating on two live animals performing exposure of the liver, Pringle manoeuver, division of liver ligaments, dissecting of the structures inside the hepatoduodenal ligament, dissection of the hepatic veins and left lateral liver sectionectomy. Exposure of the liver and Pringle manoeuver were performed correctly within 50 and 35 minutes. Left lateral sectionectomy has been performed correctly within 2 hours. The full dissection of the hepatoduodenal ligament and exposure of the hepatic veins were judged as insufficient by experienced laparoscopic tutors. There was one injury to the suprahepatic vena cava that was managed laparoscopically. The porcine model can be used as an advanced training for laparoscopic liver surgery.

  20. A survey of the pediatric surgery program directors: optimizing resident research to make pediatric surgery training more efficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Troy A; Rescorla, Frederick J

    2015-06-01

    Resident Research (RR) has been a presumed requirement for pediatric surgery fellowship candidates. We hypothesized that: 1) pediatric surgery leaders would no longer feel that RR was necessary for fellowship candidates, 2) the type of study performed would not impact a program's opinion of candidates, and 3) the timing of RR could be altered for those interested in a research career. An anonymous survey was sent to pediatric surgery fellowship program directors (PDs). Sixty-three percent responded, and answers were compared via Chi square analysis with ppediatric surgery fellowship candidates. Seventy-five percent had no preference between one or two years of research (p=0.0005), 79% placed no heavier weight on basic or clinical research (psurgery may not be necessary. Pediatric surgery candidates who partake in RR are not penalized for their choice of study. Increasing efficiency of training is important in today's era of medical training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, cl...

  2. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, class, ...

  3. Minimally invasive pediatric surgery: Increasing implementation in daily practice and resident's training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.T. Velde (Te); N.M.A. Bax (Klaas); S.H.A.J. Tytgat; J.R. de Jong (Justin); D.V. Travassos (Vieira); W.L.M. Kramer; D.C. van der Zee (David)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In 1998, the one-year experience in minimally invasive abdominal surgery in children at a pediatric training center was assessed. Seven years later, we determined the current status of pediatric minimally invasive surgery in daily practice and surgical training. Methods: A

  4. Minimally invasive pediatric surgery : Increasing implementation in daily practice and resident's training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, E. A. te; Bax, N. M. A.; Tytgat, S. H. A. J.; de Jong, J. R.; Travassos, D. Vieira; Kramer, W. L. M.; van der Zee, D. C.

    Background: In 1998, the one-year experience in minimally invasive abdominal surgery in children at a pediatric training center was assessed. Seven years later, we determined the current status of pediatric minimally invasive surgery in daily practice and surgical training. Methods: A retrospective

  5. Inspiratory Muscle Training and Functional Capacity in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Lisboa Cordeiro; Thiago Araújo de Melo; Daniela Neves; Julianne Luna; Mateus Souza Esquivel; André Raimundo França Guimarães; Daniel Lago Borges; Jefferson Petto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Cardiac surgery is a highly complex procedure which generates worsening of lung function and decreased inspiratory muscle strength. The inspiratory muscle training becomes effective for muscle strengthening and can improve functional capacity. Objective: To investigate the effect of inspiratory muscle training on functional capacity submaximal and inspiratory muscle strength in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods: This is a clinical randomized controlled tri...

  6. Voluntary autonomous simulator based training in minimally invasive surgery, residents' compliance and reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Empel, P.J.; Verdam, M.G.E.; Strypet, M.; van Rijssen, L.B.; Huirne, J. A.; Scheele, F.; Bonjer, H.J.; Meijerink, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Knot tying and suturing skills in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) differ markedly from those in open surgery. Appropriate MIS training is mandatory before implementation into practice. The Advanced Suturing Course (ASC) is a structured simulator based training course that includes a 6-w

  7. The Translational Science Training Program at NIH: Introducing Early Career Researchers to the Science and Operation of Translation of Basic Research to Medical Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, C. Taylor; Sittampalam, G. Sitta; Wang, Philip Y.; Ryan, Philip E.

    2017-01-01

    Translational science is an emerging field that holds great promise to accelerate the development of novel medical interventions. As the field grows, so does the demand for highly trained biomedical scientists to fill the positions that are being created. Many graduate and postdoctorate training programs do not provide their trainees with…

  8. General surgery training in Spain: core curriculum and specific areas of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelena Bobadilla, José Ma; Morales-García, Dieter; Iturburu Belmonte, Ignacio; Alcázar Montero, José Antonio; Serra Aracil, Xabier; Docobo Durantez, Fernando; López de Cenarruzabeitia, Ignacio; Sanz Sánchez, Mercedes; Hernández Hernández, Juan Ramón

    2015-03-01

    The royal decree RD 639/2014 has been published, regulating among others, the core curriculum, and specific areas of training (SAT). It is of great interest for the specialty of General and Digestive Surgery (GS and DS). The aim is to expose and clarify the main provisions and reflect on their implications for the practical application of the core curriculum and SAT in the specialty of General and Digestive Surgery, to promote initiatives and regulations. This RD will be a milestone in our specialty that will test the strength of the specialty, if it does not finally culminate in its degradation against the emergence of new surgical specialties. A new stage begins in which the Spanish Association of Surgeons should be involved to define the conceptual basis of GS and DS in the XXI century, and the creation of new SAT to continue to maintain the "essence of our specialty".

  9. The translational science training program at NIH: Introducing early career researchers to the science and operation of translation of basic research to medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, C Taylor; Sittampalam, G Sitta; Wang, Philip Y; Ryan, Philip E

    2017-01-02

    Translational science is an emerging field that holds great promise to accelerate the development of novel medical interventions. As the field grows, so does the demand for highly trained biomedical scientists to fill the positions that are being created. Many graduate and postdoctorate training programs do not provide their trainees with sufficient education to take advantage of this growing employment sector. To help better prepare the trainees at the National Institutes of Health for possible careers in translation, we have created the Translational Science Training Program (TSTP). The TSTP is an intensive 2- to 3-day training program that introduces NIH postdoctoral trainees and graduate students to the science and operation of turning basic research discoveries into a medical therapeutic, device or diagnostic, and also exposes them to the variety of career options in translational science. Through a combination of classroom teaching from practicing experts in the various disciplines of translation and small group interactions with pre-clinical development teams, participants in the TSTP gain knowledge that will aid them in obtaining a career in translational science and building a network to make the transition to the field. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):13-24, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Translations and Translators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Eugene A.

    1979-01-01

    The necessity for stylistic appropriateness in translation as well as correct content is discussed. To acquire this skill, translators must be trained in stylistics through close examination of their own language and must have practice in translating for different audiences at different levels. (PMJ)

  11. Advanced GI Surgery Training-a Roadmap for the Future: the White Paper from the SSAT Task Force on Advanced GI Surgery Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Matthew M; Behrns, Kevin E; Soper, Nathaniel J; Michelassi, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    There is the need for well-trained advanced GI surgeons. The super specialization seen in academic and large community centers may not be applicable for surgeons practicing in other settings. The pendulum that has been swinging toward narrow specialization is swinging the other way, as many trained subspecialists are having a harder time finding positions after fellowship, and if they do find a position, the majority of their practice can actually be advanced GI surgery and not exclusively their area of focused expertise. Many hospitals/practices desire surgeons who are competent and specifically credentialed to perform a variety of advanced GI procedures from the esophagus through the anus. Furthermore, broader exposure in training may provide complementary and overlapping skills that may lead to an even better trained GI surgeon compared to someone whose experience is limited to just the liver and pancreas, or to just the colon and rectum, or to only bariatric and foregut surgery. With work hour restrictions and limitations on autonomy for current trainees in residency, many senior trainees have not developed the skills and knowledge to allow them to be competent and comfortable in the broad range of GI surgery. Such training should reflect the needs of the patients and their diseases, and reflect what many practicing surgeons are currently doing, and what many trainees say they would like to do, if there were such fellowship pathways available to them. The goal is to train advanced GI surgeons who are competent and proficient to operate throughout the GI tract and abdomen with open, laparoscopic, and endoscopic techniques in acute and elective situations in a broad variety of complex GI diseases. The program may be standalone, or prepare a surgeon for additional subspecialty training (transition to fellowship and/or to practice). This group of surgeons should be distinguished from subspecialist surgeons who focus in a narrow area of GI surgery. Advanced GI

  12. HOW TO ACHIEVE AND MAINTAIN NOTE 6: POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM IN TRANSLATIONAL SURGERY - UNIFESP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino-Neto, Miguel; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To show the way to reach and stay in note 6 in the evaluation process of Medicine III of CAPES. Capes determinations were reviewed concerning this topic, grades 6 and 7, and also the difficulties and facilities of running a program that amounted to Note 6 after restructuring and being in compliance with regulations. The main points to achieve and maintain Note 6 were: 1) regular production of master's and doctoral theses with appropriate distribution among all teachers; 2) average time of appropriate titration, as well as strict selection of students who resets the withdrawals and cancellations; 3) production of scientific articles in high impact journals and with academic and student participation in most part; 4) progressive and substantial increase in fundraising and patent search; 5) progressive increase in international exchanges with joint production; 6) visibility through new bilingual website and updated weekly; 7) numerous solidarity activities in research, but also in health services for the population and even in basic education; 8) rigorous selection of students (through design analysis, curriculum and teacher training program); 9) maintenance of high levels teachers production; 10) preparing new teachers for guidance through participation as co-supervision and involvement in the program to fit the needs. The Postgraduate Program in Translational Surgery went through difficult times; was submitted to a series of measures, adjustments, cooperation and understanding of the teaching staff, that took the program from note 3 - and almost closing - to a level of excellence keeping note 6 for three consecutive three-year periods of evaluation. Mostrar o caminho para alcançar e se manter na nota 6 no processo de avaliação da Medicina III da Capes. Foram revisadas as determinações da Capes concernentes ao tema, conceitos 6 e 7, e também as dificuldades e facilidades próprias da execução de um programa que ascendeu à nota 6 após reestruturação e

  13. Orthopedic surgery postgraduate year 1 intern curriculum improves initial orthopedic in-training examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Craig S; Nyland, John; Broome, Brandon

    2012-04-01

    To determine the efficacy of an educational curriculum designed for orthopedic surgery postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) interns to improve initial Orthopedic In-Training Examination (OITE) performance. A retrospective cohort study was performed that evaluated the PGY-1 intern OITE performance of one residency training program (n = 55) during 7-year periods before (1996-2002) and after structured curriculum implementation (2003-2009). Linear regression analysis revealed insignificant changes in median PGY-1 intern OITE percentile rank during the precurriculum period (R = 0.08, P = 0.53). Postcurriculum period comparisons revealed significantly improving PGY-1 intern OITE percentile rank (R = 0.46, P = 0.048). Pre- and postcurriculum median US Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step I scores did not display statistically significant differences (218.2 ± 6.6 vs 229.1 ± 13.8, Mann-Whitney U test, z = -1.5, P = 0.10). Spearman rho correlations revealed a moderate relation (r = 0.61) between postcurriculum PGY-1 intern OITE percentile rank and USMLE Step I score, but not during the precurriculum period. A moderate relation (r = 0.50) also was observed between postcurriculum USMLE Step I score and average OITE percentile rank during the 5-year residency program, but not during the precurriculum period. PGY-1 intern OITE percentile rank improved significantly with the addition of a specially designed educational curriculum. The stronger USMLE Step I score and PGY-1 intern OITE percentile rank relation observed during the postcurriculum period suggests that interns who participated in the educational curriculum were better prepared to translate general medical and patient care knowledge into orthopedic surgery knowledge.

  14. Optimal training design for procedural motor skills: a review and application to laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruit, Edward N; Band, Guido P H; Hamming, Jaap F; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2014-11-01

    This literature review covers the choices to consider in training complex procedural, perceptual and motor skills. In particular, we focus on laparoscopic surgery. An overview is provided of important training factors modulating the acquisition, durability, transfer, and efficiency of trained skills. We summarize empirical studies and their theoretical background on the topic of training complex cognitive and motor skills that are pertinent to proficiency in laparoscopic surgery. The overview pertains to surgical simulation training for laparoscopy, but also to training in other demanding procedural and dexterous tasks, such as aviation, managing complex systems and sports. Evidence-based recommendations are provided for facilitating efficiency in laparoscopic motor skill training such as session spacing, adaptive training, task variability, part-task training, mental imagery and deliberate practice.

  15. [Oral and maxillofacial surgery residency training in the United States: what can we learn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y F

    2017-04-09

    China is currently in the process of establishing formal residency training programs in oral and maxillofacial surgery and other medical and dental specialties. Regulatory agencies, and educational and academic institutions in China are exploring mechanisms, goals and standards of residency training that meet the needs of the Chinese healthcare system. This article provides an introduction of residency training in oral and maxillofacial surgery in the United States, with emphasis on the accreditation standard by the Commission on Dental Accreditation. As there are fundamental differences in the medical and dental education systems between China and United States, the training standards in the United States may not be entirely applicable in China. A competency-based training model that focus on overall competencies in medical knowledge, clinical skills and values at the time of graduation should be taken into consideration in a Chinese residency training program in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  16. Urology residents training in laparoscopic surgery. Development of a virtual reality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Baños, J L; Ballestero-Diego, R; Truan-Cacho, D; Aguilera-Tubet, C; Villanueva-Peña, A; Manuel-Palazuelos, J C

    2015-11-01

    The training and learning of residents in laparoscopic surgery has legal, financial and technological limitations. Simulation is an essential tool in the training of residents as a supplement to their training in laparoscopic surgery. The training should be structured in an appropriate environment, with previously established and clear objectives, taught by professionals with clinical and teaching experience in simulation. The training should be conducted with realistic models using animals and ex-vivo tissue from animals. It is essential to incorporate mechanisms to assess the objectives during the residents' training progress. We present the training model for laparoscopic surgery for urology residents at the University Hospital Valdecilla. The training is conducted at the Virtual Hospital Valdecilla, which is associated with the Center for Medical Simulation in Boston and is accredited by the American College of Surgeons. The model is designed in 3 blocks, basic for R1, intermediate for R2-3 and advanced for R4-5, with 9 training modules. The training is conducted in 4-hour sessions for 4 afternoons, for 3 weeks per year of residence. Residents therefore perform 240 hours of simulated laparoscopic training by the end of the course. For each module, we use structured objective assessments to measure each resident's training progress. Since 2003, 9 urology residents have been trained, in addition to the 5 who are currently in training. The model has undergone changes according to the needs expressed in the student feedback. The acquisition of skills in a virtual reality model has enabled the safe transfer of those skills to actual practice. A laparoscopic surgery training program designed in structured blocks and with progressive complexity provides appropriate training for transferring the skills acquired using this model to an actual scenario while maintaining patient safety. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Operating Room Performance Improves after Proficiency-Based Virtual Reality Cataract Surgery Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Kjærbo, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of virtual reality proficiency-based training on actual cataract surgery performance. The secondary purpose of the study was to define which surgeons benefit from virtual reality training. DESIGN: Multicenter masked clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen cataract...... surgeons with different levels of experience. METHODS: Cataract surgical training on a virtual reality simulator (EyeSi) until a proficiency-based test was passed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Technical performance in the operating room (OR) assessed by 3 independent, masked raters using a previously validated...... task-specific assessment tool for cataract surgery (Objective Structured Assessment of Cataract Surgical Skill). Three surgeries before and 3 surgeries after the virtual reality training were video-recorded, anonymized, and presented to the raters in random order. RESULTS: Novices (non...

  18. Operating Room Performance Improves after Proficiency-Based Virtual Reality Cataract Surgery Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Kjærbo, Hadi; Højgaard-Olsen, Klavs; Subhi, Yousif; Saleh, George M; Park, Yoon Soo; la Cour, Morten; Konge, Lars

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of virtual reality proficiency-based training on actual cataract surgery performance. The secondary purpose of the study was to define which surgeons benefit from virtual reality training. Multicenter masked clinical trial. Eighteen cataract surgeons with different levels of experience. Cataract surgical training on a virtual reality simulator (EyeSi) until a proficiency-based test was passed. Technical performance in the operating room (OR) assessed by 3 independent, masked raters using a previously validated task-specific assessment tool for cataract surgery (Objective Structured Assessment of Cataract Surgical Skill). Three surgeries before and 3 surgeries after the virtual reality training were video-recorded, anonymized, and presented to the raters in random order. Novices (non-independently operating surgeons) and surgeons having performed fewer than 75 independent cataract surgeries showed significant improvements in the OR-32% and 38%, respectively-after virtual reality training (P = 0.008 and P = 0.018). More experienced cataract surgeons did not benefit from simulator training. The reliability of the assessments was high with a generalizability coefficient of 0.92 and 0.86 before and after the virtual reality training, respectively. Clinically relevant cataract surgical skills can be improved by proficiency-based training on a virtual reality simulator. Novices as well as surgeons with an intermediate level of experience showed improvement in OR performance score. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pointing with a One-Eyed Cursor for Supervised Training in Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Martin; Kraus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Pointing in the endoscopic view of a surgical robot is a natural and effcient way for instructors to communicate with trainees in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. However, pointing in a stereo-endoscopic view can be limited by problems such as video delay, double vision, arm fatigue......-day training units in robot- assisted minimally invasive surgery on anaesthetised pigs....

  20. Accelerating Progress in Eating Disorders Prevention: A Call for Policy Translation Research and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn

    2016-01-01

    The public health burden of eating disorders is well documented, and over the past several decades, researchers have made important advances in the prevention of eating disorders and related problems with body image. Despite these advances, however, several critical limitations to the approaches developed to date leave the field far from achieving the large-scale impact that is needed. This commentary provides a brief review of what achievements in prevention have been made and identifies the gaps that limit the potential for greater impact on population health. A plan is then offered with specific action steps to accelerate progress in high-impact prevention, most compellingly by promoting a shift in priorities to policy translation research and training for scholars through the adoption of a triggers-to-action framework. Finally, the commentary provides an example of the application of the triggers-to-action framework as practiced at the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, a program based at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health and Boston Children's Hospital. Much has been achieved in the nearly 30 years of research carried out for the prevention of eating disorders and body image problems, but several critical limitations undermine the field's potential for meaningful impact. Through a shift in the field's priorities to policy translation research and training with an emphasis on macro-environmental influences, the pace of progress in prevention can be accelerated and the potential for large-scale impact substantially improved.

  1. Advances in training for laparoscopic and robotic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, H.W.R.

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is rapidly becoming a standard in many surgical procedures. This surgical technique should be mastered, up to a certain level, by all surgeons. Several unique psychomotor skills are required from the surgeon in order to perform laparoscopic surgery safely. These skills can be le

  2. Virtual reality training and equipment handling in laparoscopic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdaasdonk, E.G.G.

    2008-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is one of the most important surgical innovations of the 20th century. Despite the well-known benefits for the patient, such as reduced pain, reduced hospital stay and quicker return to normal physical activities, there are also some drawbacks. Performing laparoscopic surgery re

  3. Virtual reality training and equipment handling in laparoscopic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdaasdonk, E.G.G.

    2008-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is one of the most important surgical innovations of the 20th century. Despite the well-known benefits for the patient, such as reduced pain, reduced hospital stay and quicker return to normal physical activities, there are also some drawbacks. Performing laparoscopic surgery

  4. Advances in training for laparoscopic and robotic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, H.W.R.

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is rapidly becoming a standard in many surgical procedures. This surgical technique should be mastered, up to a certain level, by all surgeons. Several unique psychomotor skills are required from the surgeon in order to perform laparoscopic surgery safely. These skills can be

  5. Translating weight loss into agency: Men's experiences 5 years after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Natvik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fewer men than women with severe obesity undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss, and knowledge about men's situation after surgery, beyond medical status, is lacking. Our aim was to explore men's experiences with life after bariatric surgery from a long-term perspective. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 men, aged 28–60 years, between 5 and 7 years after surgery. The analysis was inspired by Giorgi's phenomenological method. We found that agency was pivotal for how the men understood themselves and their lives after surgery. Weight loss meant regaining opportunities for living and acting in unrestricted and independent daily lives, yet surgery remained a radical treatment with complex consequences. Turning to surgery had involved conceptualizing their own body size as illness, which the men had resisted doing for years. After surgery, the rapid and major weight loss and the feelings of being exhausted, weak, and helpless were intertwined. The profound intensity of the weight loss process took the men by surprise. Embodying weight loss and change involved an inevitable renegotiating of experiences connected to the large body. Having bariatric surgery was a long-term process that seemed unfinished 5 years after surgery. Restrictions and insecurity connected to health and illness persist, despite successful weight loss and embodied change. Bariatric surgery initiated a complex and long-lasting life-changing process, involving both increased capacity for agency and illness-like experiences.

  6. Wanted: interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, and knowledge translation and exchange training for students of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Lipi; Banerjee, Ananya T; MacLennan, Mary E; Gorczynski, Paul F; Zinszer, Kate A

    2011-01-01

    Students vocalized their concern with public health training programs in Canada at the 2010 CPHA Centennial Conference. Given these concerns, we reviewed the objectives and curricula of public health graduate (master's) programs in Canada. Our objective was to understand to what extent public and population health graduate programs in Canada support interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary and knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) training. This was achieved through a review of all public and population health master's programs in Canada identified from the public health graduate programs listed on the Public Health Agency of Canada website (n = 33) plus an additional four programs that were not originally captured on the list. Of the 37 programs reviewed, 28 (76%) stated that interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary or cross-disciplinary training opportunities are of value to their program, with 12 programs (32%) providing multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary training opportunities in their curriculum. Only 14 (38%) of the 37 programs provided value statements of KTE activities in their program goals or course objectives, with 10 (27%) programs offering KTE training in their curriculum. This review provides a glimpse into how public health programs in Canada value and support interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary collaboration as well as KTE activities.

  7. Application of Mental Skills Training in Surgery: A Review of Its Effectiveness and Proposed Next Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Nicholas E; Bean, Eric A; Hammonds, Samuel C; Stefanidis, Dimitrios

    2017-05-01

    Mental skills training, which refers to the teaching of performance enhancement and stress management psychological strategies, may benefit surgeons. Our objective was to review the application of mental skills training in surgery and contrast it to other domains, examine the effectiveness of this approach in enhancing surgical performance and reducing stress, and provide future directions for mental skills training in surgery. A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and ClinicalKey was performed between 1996 and 2016. Keywords included were mental readiness, mental competency, mental skill, mental practice, imagery, mental imagery, mental rehearsal, stress management training, stress coping, mental training, performance enhancement, and surgery. Reviews of mental skills interventions in sport and well-regarded sport psychology textbooks were also reviewed. Primary outcome of interest was the effect of mental skills on surgical performance in the simulated or clinical environment. Of 490 identified abstracts, 28 articles met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The majority of the literature provides evidence that mental imagery and stress management training programs are effective at enhancing surgical performance and reducing stress. Studies from other disciplines suggest that comprehensive mental skills programs may be more effective than imagery and stress management techniques alone. Given the demonstrated efficacy of mental imagery and stress management training in surgery and the incremental value of comprehensive mental skills curricula used in other domains, a concerted effort should be made to apply comprehensive mental skills curricula during surgical training.

  8. Structured training strategy for robot surgery%机器人外科结构化培训策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郗洪庆; 张珂诚; 卫勃; 陈凛

    2016-01-01

    With surgical strategy progresses towarding to precision and minimally invasive surgery, the Da Vinci robotic surgical system comes into being� Compared with conventional surgery, the Da Vinci robotic surgical system enjoys several advantages including clear operation field, flexibility and tremor filtration�Normative operation plays an important role in translating such advantages into clinical benefits�Training physicians systematically and comprehensively is very important� Compared with conventional training strategy, multi⁃modal simulation training is more preferred for the Da Vinci robotic surgical system training�Based on comprehensive literature retrieval and the current development of the robotic surgery, training modalities, learning curve, training of young surgeons as well as teamwork are included to provide evidence for future establishment and implement of structured training programs of the robotic surgery.%随着外科手术向精细化、微创化的方向不断发展,达芬奇机器人外科手术系统应运而生。相比于传统外科手术器械,达芬奇机器人外科手术系统具有术野更加清晰、操作更加灵活和除颤等诸多优点。将这些优点转化成患者的获益离不开术者规范的操作,因此,对术者进行全面系统的培训显得尤为重要。与传统外科教学形式相比,整合多种模拟训练模式更适合机器人外科手术系统的培训需求,包括训练模式、学习曲线、青年医师培训和机器人团队培训四个方面,希望能为结构化培训项目的优化建立和实施提供参考。

  9. Stereoscopic Augmented Reality System for Supervised Training on Minimal Invasive Surgery Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matu, Florin-Octavian; Thøgersen, Mikkel; Galsgaard, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Training in the use of robot-assisted surgery systems is necessary before a surgeon is able to perform procedures using these systems because the setup is very different from manual procedures. In addition, surgery robots are highly expensive to both acquire and maintain --- thereby entailing...... the need for efficient training. When training with the robot, the communication between the trainer and the trainee is limited, since the trainee often cannot see the trainer. To overcome this issue, this paper proposes an Augmented Reality (AR) system where the trainer is controlling two virtual robotic...

  10. Are Nursing Students Appropriate Partners for the Interdisciplinary Training of Surgery Residents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Ingram, Katherine M; Williams, Kristy H; Bencken, Crystal L; Swiderski, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary team training in a simulation center recreates clinical team interactions and holds promise in improving teamwork of clinicians by breaking down educational silos. The objective of our study was to assess the appropriateness of interdisciplinary training with general surgery residents and nursing students. Over 2 consecutive academic years (2012-2013 and 2013-2014), general surgery residents participated in interdisciplinary team-training simulation-based sessions with senior nursing students. Scenario objectives included demonstration of appropriate teamwork and communication, and clinical decision making; sessions incorporated interdisciplinary debriefing of the scenarios. Participants were asked to assess their team-training experience and the appropriateness of their team-training partner. Responses were compared. A total of 16 team-training sessions were conducted during the study period. Overall, 12 surgery residents (67%) and 44 nursing students (63%) who had participated in at least 1 session responded to the survey. Although both residents and nursing students indicated that the knowledge and team skills acquired during these sessions were useful to them in clinical practice (73% vs 86%, respectively; p = not significant), residents rated their educational value lower (3.3 vs 4.3 on a 5-point scale, respectively; p nursing students (p nursing students, debriefing (91%), observation of others (68%), and interaction with resident physicians (66%) ranked highest; 48% of student nurses preferred residents as team-training partners whereas 100% residents preferred practicing nurses and 0% with nursing students owing to their limited clinical experience. Interdisciplinary team training and debriefing of surgery residents with nursing students is feasible and highly valued by nursing students. Nevertheless, our experience indicates that residents do not prefer nursing students as team-training partners owing to their limited clinical experience

  11. Virtual vitreoretinal surgery: validation of a training programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Grauslund, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the validity of the eyesi surgical simulator as an assessment tool in a virtual reality vitreoretinal training programme. METHODS: In collaboration with an experienced vitreoretinal surgeon, a virtual vitreoretinal training programme was composed on the eyesi surgical simulator...... surgical simulator as an assessment tool for overall score and for four of six vitreoretinal modules. These findings could potentially make the programme a useful tool in the training of future vitreoretinal surgeons....

  12. Accreditation of Interpreter Training Courses Curriculum in Bachelors of English Translation in Iranian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Dabaghi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study attempts to see to what extent interpreter training courses offered in bachelor’s degree of English translation in Iranian universities are able to prepare students by teaching them the necessary skills of interpreting.  Semi-structured interviews with experts and review of literature were used to find the skills required in interpreter training.  A researcher made questionnaire, containing 69 items with a four point Likert scale was made to find out how much the students felt they had learned each necessary skill during their courses.  A total of 103 students from six different universities completed the questionnaire.  SPSS 17 was used to the analysis the data.  The data gathered revealed that 67% of the students received a mean score of less than half the highest possible score. There was a significant difference between the six universities (P<0.001.  The results of this study can be used by curriculum planners in the reformation and improvement of interpreter training courses. Keywords: interpreter training; simultaneous interpreting; consecutive interpreting; curriculum evaluation

  13. Translational research in thoracic surgery-the National Taiwan University Hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mong-Wei; Yang, Pei-Wen; Lee, Jang-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Thoracic surgeons should be more aware of the latest information about histopathological, genetic and epigenetic alterations that may influence treatment policy and patient outcome in the biomolecular era. Translational research studies often produce a promising diagnostic tool or new treatment that can be used clinically. The results of these translational studies may even change the practical guidelines and current staging system in thoracic malignancies. The following article summarizes the experiences of translational research in esophageal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at National Taiwan University Hospital in Taiwan.

  14. Training general surgery residents to avoid postoperative cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Thomas R; McGoldrick, Jennifer; Fox, Sheryl; Haller, Chris C; Arevalo, Jane

    2007-11-01

    Expertise in cardiac risk assessment takes years to acquire, but unnecessary cardiology consultation delays treatment and consumes scarce resources. A retrospective review was performed of the cardiac work-up and postoperative events during 1 year on a general surgery service. Postgraduate year 1-3 general surgery residents were instructed to obtain a cardiology consult if a patient had any of the following: (1) had undergone coronary artery intervention more than 2 years in the past; (2) was taking an anti-anginal medication (nitroglycerine, Ca channel, or beta-blocker); or (3) was symptomatic or had an abnormal electrocardiogram. Whether a patient was symptomatic was to be tempered by the nature of the planned procedure. Supervised residents screened 720 unique patients for surgery. Cardiology consultation was obtained in 37. All but 1 (97%) patient referred to cardiology met at least 1 of the earlier-described criteria; with 8 (22%) meeting all 3 criteria. On average, patients referred to the cardiologists were taking 1.4 anti-anginal medications; and 1 patient sustained a fatal myocardial infarction after referral. Cardiac imaging (stress test or catheterization) was performed on 24 (65%) referred patients and was positive in 8 (33%). After minimizing cardiac risk by medication or intervention, the surgery service declined to offer the planned procedure to 11 (30%) of the referred patients and an additional 5 (15%) patients declined surgery. The overall surgical mortality was 2%. None of the patients in this series sustained a postoperative myocardial infarction or cardiac death. Postoperative supraventricular tachycardia was not influenced significantly by cardiology consultation (5% referred patients vs 1% nonreferred). Our criteria for obtaining cardiology consultation in general surgery patients appears to appropriately select patients in need of further work-up. Information obtained from a cardiac consultation frequently leads to a re-evaluation of the

  15. Inspiratory Muscle Training and Functional Capacity in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lisboa Cordeiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Cardiac surgery is a highly complex procedure which generates worsening of lung function and decreased inspiratory muscle strength. The inspiratory muscle training becomes effective for muscle strengthening and can improve functional capacity. Objective: To investigate the effect of inspiratory muscle training on functional capacity submaximal and inspiratory muscle strength in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods: This is a clinical randomized controlled trial with patients undergoing cardiac surgery at Instituto Nobre de Cardiologia. Patients were divided into two groups: control group and training. Preoperatively, were assessed the maximum inspiratory pressure and the distance covered in a 6-minute walk test. From the third postoperative day, the control group was managed according to the routine of the unit while the training group underwent daily protocol of respiratory muscle training until the day of discharge. Results: 50 patients, 27 (54% males were included, with a mean age of 56.7±13.9 years. After the analysis, the training group had significant increase in maximum inspiratory pressure (69.5±14.9 vs. 83.1±19.1 cmH2O, P=0.0073 and 6-minute walk test (422.4±102.8 vs. 502.4±112.8 m, P=0.0031. Conclusion: We conclude that inspiratory muscle training was effective in improving functional capacity submaximal and inspiratory muscle strength in this sample of patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  16. Inspiratory Muscle Training and Functional Capacity in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, André Luiz Lisboa; de Melo, Thiago Araújo; Neves, Daniela; Luna, Julianne; Esquivel, Mateus Souza; Guimarães, André Raimundo França; Borges, Daniel Lago; Petto, Jefferson

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac surgery is a highly complex procedure which generates worsening of lung function and decreased inspiratory muscle strength. The inspiratory muscle training becomes effective for muscle strengthening and can improve functional capacity. Objective To investigate the effect of inspiratory muscle training on functional capacity submaximal and inspiratory muscle strength in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods This is a clinical randomized controlled trial with patients undergoing cardiac surgery at Instituto Nobre de Cardiologia. Patients were divided into two groups: control group and training. Preoperatively, were assessed the maximum inspiratory pressure and the distance covered in a 6-minute walk test. From the third postoperative day, the control group was managed according to the routine of the unit while the training group underwent daily protocol of respiratory muscle training until the day of discharge. Results 50 patients, 27 (54%) males were included, with a mean age of 56.7±13.9 years. After the analysis, the training group had significant increase in maximum inspiratory pressure (69.5±14.9 vs. 83.1±19.1 cmH2O, P=0.0073) and 6-minute walk test (422.4±102.8 vs. 502.4±112.8 m, P=0.0031). Conclusion We conclude that inspiratory muscle training was effective in improving functional capacity submaximal and inspiratory muscle strength in this sample of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:27556313

  17. Evaluation of a multimodal VR training platform for maxillofacial surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchigny, Sylvain; Mégard, Christine; Gabet, Ludovic;

    2011-01-01

    One of the most striking features of virtual reality systems is their ability to enrich training experience by allowing the developments of sophisticated feedbacks. This study focuses on the way to use modality management in virtual reality systems to accelerate training in a surgical task involv...

  18. Current status of residency training in laparoscopic surgery in Brazil: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácul, Miguel Prestes; Cavazzola, Leandro Totti; de Melo, Marco Cezário

    2015-01-01

    The surgeon's formation process has changed in recent decades. The increase in medical schools, new specialties and modern technologies induce an overhaul of medical education. Medical residency in surgery has established itself as a key step in the formation of the surgeon, and represents the ideal and natural way for teaching laparoscopy. However, the introduction of laparoscopic surgery in the medical residency programs in surgical specialties is insufficient, creating the need for additional training after its termination. To review the surgical teaching ways used in services that published their results. Survey of relevant publications in books, internet and databases in PubMed, Lilacs and Scielo through july 2014 using the headings: laparoscopy; simulation; education, medical; learning; internship and residency. The training method for medical residency in surgery focused on surgical procedures in patients under supervision, has proven successful in the era of open surgery. However, conceptually turns as a process of experimentation in humans. Psychomotor learning must not be developed directly to the patient. Training in laparoscopic surgery requires the acquisition of psychomotor skills through training conducted initially with surgical simulation. Platforms based teaching problem solving as the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery, developed by the American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgery and the Laparoscopic Surgical Skills proposed by the European Society of Endoscopic Surgery has been widely used both for education and for the accreditation of surgeons worldwide. The establishment of a more appropriate pedagogical process for teaching laparoscopic surgery in the medical residency programs is mandatory in order to give a solid surgical education and to determine a structured and safe professional activity.

  19. Evaluation of a multimodal VR training platform for maxillofacial surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchigny, Sylvain; Mégard, Christine; Gabet, Ludovic

    2011-01-01

    One of the most striking features of virtual reality systems is their ability to enrich training experience by allowing the developments of sophisticated feedbacks. This study focuses on the way to use modality management in virtual reality systems to accelerate training in a surgical task...... involving bone drilling. The study compares the efficiency of two punctual drilling training protocol implemented on the MFS SKILLS platform. The experiments were conducted with residents from 2 university hospitals. The results show that augmented simulation improves acquisition of specific aspects...

  20. Uso de corpora na formação de tradutores Using corpora in translator training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio P. Berber Sardinha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho aborda a questão do uso de corpora na formação de tradutores, enfocando mais especificamente a questão da conscientização. O trabalho apresenta uma discussão sobre o papel de corpora na tradução, sua aplicabilidade na formação profissional, e sua importância para o melhor conhecimento da constituição da linguagem. São oferecidos dois exemplos de análises, detalhadas a fim de serem aplicáveis em contextos em que haja poucos recursos de infraestrutura. As análises centram-se em pesquisas sobre as escolhas lingüísticas de um texto jornalístico traduzido para o português, e da versão brasileira de um slogan de uma campanha publicitária americana. É sugerido que essas atividades possam ser desenvolvidas com alunos de tradução, de tal modo que elas forneçam condições para que os alunos, ao explorarem corpora eletrônicos, possam se conscientizar da complexidade e da especificidade das escolhas lingüísticas envolvidas no processo tradutório.This paper tackles the issue of using corpora in translator training, focussing more specifically on the question of awareness raising. The paper presents a discussion on the role of corpora in translation, their applicability in professional development, and their importance in leading to a better understanding of how language is constituted. Two example analyses are offered and detailed, so that they are applicable to contexts in which computational resources are scarce. The analyses center around the linguistic choices in a translated newspaper text and in the Brazilian version of a slogan from an American advertising campaign. It is suggested that these activities may be carried out with translation students, in such a way that they enable students, while they explore electronic corpora, to become aware of both the complexity and the specificity of the linguistic choices involved in the process of translation.

  1. Feasibility of Progressive Strength Training Implemented in the Acute Ward after Hip Fracture Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Lise; Bandholm, Thomas; Palm, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Patients with a hip fracture lose more than 50% knee-extension strength in the fractured limb within one week of surgery. Hence, immediate progressive strength training following hip fracture surgery may be rational, but the feasibility unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility...... of in-hospital progressive strength training implemented in the acute ward following hip fracture surgery, based on pre-specified criteria for feasibility. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: A prospective cohort study conducted in an acute orthopedic hip fracture unit at a university hospital. A consecutive...... sample of 36 patients, 18 with a cervical and 18 with a trochanteric hip fracture (27 women and 9 men, mean (SD) age of 79.4 (8.3) years) were included between June and December 2012. INTERVENTION: A daily (on weekdays) program of progressive knee-extension strength training for the fractured limb, using...

  2. Technical skill set training in natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery: how should we approach it?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Emmeline

    2011-03-01

    The boundaries in minimally invasive techniques are continually being pushed further. Recent years have brought new and exciting changes with the advent of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. With the evolution of this field of surgery come challenges in the development of new instruments and the actual steps of the procedure. Included in these challenges is the idea of developing a proficiency-based curriculum for training.

  3. A Comparison of Training Experience, Training Satisfaction, and Job Search Experiences between Integrated Vascular Surgery Residency and Traditional Vascular Surgery Fellowship Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvard, Benjamin; Shames, Murray; Schanzer, Andres; Rectenwald, John; Chaer, Rabih; Lee, Jason T

    2015-10-01

    The first 2 integrated vascular residents in the United States graduated in 2012, and in 2013, 11 more entered the job market. The purpose of this study was to compare the job search experiences of the first cohort of integrated 0 + 5 graduates to their counterparts completing traditional 5 + 2 fellowship programs. An anonymous, Web-based, 15-question survey was sent to all 11 graduating integrated residents in 2013 and to the 25 corresponding 5 + 2 graduating fellows within the same institution. Questions focused on the following domains: training experience, job search timelines and outcomes, and overall satisfaction with each training paradigm. Survey response was nearly 81% for the 0 + 5 graduates and 64% for the 5 + 2 graduates. Overall, there was no significant difference between residents and fellows in the operative experience obtained as measured by the number of open and endovascular cases logged. Dedicated research time during the entire training period was similar between residents and fellows. Nearly all graduates were extremely satisfied with their training and had positive experiences during their job searches with respect to starting salaries, numbers of offers, and desired practice type. More 0 + 5 residents chose academic and mixed practices over private practices compared with 5 + 2 fellowship graduates. Although longer term data are needed to understand the impact of the addition of 0 + 5 graduating residents to the vascular surgery work force, preliminary survey results suggest that both training paradigms (0 + 5 and 5 + 2) provide positive training experiences that result in excellent job search experiences. Based on the current and future need for vascular surgeons in the work force, the continued growth and expansion of integrated 0 + 5 vascular surgery residency positions as an alternative to traditional fellowship training is thus far justified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Near-infrared fluorescence-guided surgery : pre-clinical validation and clinical translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, Joost Renier van der

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focus on preclinical validation of novel fluorescent contrast agents for solid tumor imaging (Part I), the clinical introduction of NIR fluorescence sentinel lymph node imaging in several cancer types using indocyanine green (Part II) and the clinical translation of NIR fluorescence imag

  5. Using Corpus Management Tools in Public Service Translator Training: An Example of Its Application in the Translation of Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Ramos, María Del Mar; Vigier Moreno, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    As stated by Valero-Garcés (2006, p. 38), the new scenario including public service providers and users who are not fluent in the language used by the former has opened up new ways of linguistic and cultural mediation in current multicultural and multilingual societies. As a consequence, there is an ever increasing need for translators and…

  6. Successful Translation of Fluorescence Navigation During Oncologic Surgery: A Consensus Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Eben L; Warram, Jason M; de Boer, Esther; Basilion, James P; Biel, Merrill A; Bogyo, Matthew; Bouvet, Michael; Brigman, Brian E; Colson, Yolonda L; DeMeester, Steven R; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Jacobs, Paula M; Keereweer, Stijn; Liao, Joseph C; Nguyen, Quyen T; Olson, James M; Paulsen, Keith D; Rieves, Dwaine; Sumer, Baran D; Tweedle, Michael F; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Weichert, Jamey P; Wilson, Brian C; Zenn, Michael R; Zinn, Kurt R; van Dam, Gooitzen M

    2016-01-01

    Navigation with fluorescence guidance has emerged in the last decade as a promising strategy to improve the efficacy of oncologic surgery. To achieve routine clinical use, the onus is on the surgical community to objectively assess the value of this technique. This assessment may facilitate both Food and Drug Administration approval of new optical imaging agents and reimbursement for the imaging procedures. It is critical to characterize fluorescence-guided procedural benefits over existing practices and to elucidate both the costs and the safety risks. This report is the result of a meeting of the International Society of Image Guided Surgery (www.isigs.org) on February 6, 2015, in Miami, Florida, and reflects a consensus of the participants' opinions. Our objective was to critically evaluate the imaging platform technology and optical imaging agents and to make recommendations for successful clinical trial development of this highly promising approach in oncologic surgery.

  7. Education in laparoscopic surgery : All eyes towards in vivo training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramp, Kelvin Harvey

    2016-01-01

    Tegenwoordig worden steeds meer buikoperaties d.m.v. laparoscopische (knoopsgat) chirurgie uitgevoerd. Omdat deze manier van chirurgie zo anders is dan conventionele chirurgie staat tegenwoordig de manier van selectie, training en beoordeling van artsen in opleiding tot chirurg ter discussie in de w

  8. [The advantages of the short intensive training course in endoscopic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A V; Khripun, A I; Ivanov, A A; Gushchin, A V; Tariverdiev, M L; Sazhin, A V

    2013-01-01

    The advantages of one-day training courses on the example of the short intensive course "manual suture in endoscopic surgery" are represented. The programme consists of the short 8-hours course, including theoretic lectures, practice seminars, virtual trainings and the trainee's self work under the control of the experienced supervisors. The preliminary assessment of the course, performed with the use of questionnaires and testing in small groups, showed it's unarguable efficacy for surgeons.

  9. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, and is best performed by a trained ... Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, and is best performed by a trained ...

  10. Successful translation of fluorescence navigation during oncologic surgery: A consensus report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Rosenthal (Eben L.); J.M. Warram (Jason M.); E. De Boer (Esther); J.P. Basilion (James P.); M.A. Biel (Merrill A.); M. Bogyo (Matthew); M. Bouvet (Michael); B.E. Brigman (Brian E.); Y.L. Colson (Yolonda L.); S.R. DeMeester (Steven); G.C. Gurtner (Geoffrey C.); T. Ishizawa (Takeaki); P.M. Jacobs (Paula M.); S. Keereweer (Stijn); J.C. Liao (Joseph C.); Q.T. Nguyen (Quyen T.); J.M. Olson (James); K.D. Paulsen (Keith D.); D. Rieves (Dwaine); B.D. Sumer (Baran D.); M.F. Tweedle (Michael F.); A.L. Vahrmeijer (Alexander); J.P. Weichert (Jamey P.); B.C. Wilson (Brian C.); M.R. Zenn (Michael R.); K.R. Zinn (Kurt R.); G.M. van Dam (G.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractNavigation with fluorescence guidance has emerged in the last decade as a promising strategy to improve the efficacy of oncologic surgery. To achieve routine clinical use, the onus is on the surgical community to objectively assess the value of this technique. This assessment may facilit

  11. Successful Translation of Fluorescence Navigation During Oncologic Surgery : A Consensus Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenthal, Eben L.; Warram, Jason M.; de Boer, Esther; Basilion, James P.; Biel, Merrill A.; Bogyo, Matthew; Bouvet, Michael; Brigman, Brian E.; Colson, Yolonda L.; DeMeester, Steven R.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Jacobs, Paula M.; Keereweer, Stijn; Liao, Joseph C.; Nguyen, Quyen T.; Olson, James M.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Rieves, Dwaine; Sumer, Baran D.; Tweedle, Michael F.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Weichert, Jamey P.; Wilson, Brian C.; Zenn, Michael R.; Zinn, Kurt R.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.

    2016-01-01

    Navigation with fluorescence guidance has emerged in the last decade as a promising strategy to improve the efficacy of oncologic surgery. To achieve routine clinical use, the onus is on the surgical community to objectively assess the value of this technique. This assessment may facilitate both Foo

  12. Personal Knowledge Management in the Training of Non-Literary Translators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Even if the profession of translation as a whole is divided between those who do literary translation and those who do non-literary translation, as Newmark puts it in the very first issue of this journal (2004), all translators have many things in common. Among other things they share a number...

  13. Implementing a robotics curriculum at an academic general surgery training program: our initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Joshua S; Juza, Ryan M; Sasaki, Jennifer; Rogers, Ann M; Pauli, Eric M; Haluck, Randy S; Estes, Stephanie J; Lyn-Sue, Jerome R

    2016-09-01

    The robotic surgical platform is being utilized by a growing number of hospitals across the country, including academic medical centers. Training programs are tasked with teaching their residents how to utilize this technology. To this end, we have developed and implemented a robotic surgical curriculum, and share our initial experience here. Our curriculum was implemented for all General Surgical residents for the academic year 2014-2015. The curriculum consisted of online training, readings, bedside training, console simulation, participating in ten cases as bedside first assistant, and operating at the console. 20 surgical residents were included. Residents were provided the curriculum and notified the department upon completion. Bedside assistance and operative console training were completed in the operating room through a mix of biliary, foregut, and colorectal cases. During the fiscal years of 2014 and 2015, there were 164 and 263 robot-assisted surgeries performed within the General Surgery Department, respectively. All 20 residents completed the online and bedside instruction portions of the curriculum. Of the 20 residents trained, 13/20 (65 %) sat at the Surgeon console during at least one case. Utilizing this curriculum, we have trained and incorporated residents into robot-assisted cases in an efficient manner. A successful curriculum must be based on didactic learning, reading, bedside training, simulation, and training in the operating room. Each program must examine their caseload and resident class to ensure proper exposure to this platform.

  14. Development and Validation of Cognitive Rehearsal as a Training Strategy for Arthroscopic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, David; Hodgins, Justin Lane; Lowe, Dylan T.; He, Janice; Popkin, Charles Aaron; Lynch, Thomas Sean; Ahmad, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Surgical performance is a highly intellectual activity that involves the processing of perceptual information from the five senses. Strategies to process, organize, and retain this perceptual information may benefit learning techniques. Once such strategy, cognitive rehearsal, is the activity where a skill is rehearsed in memory prior to the actual performance. This study aimed to develop and validate a cognitive rehearsal strategy for arthroscopic knee surgery in orthopaedic residents. We hypothesized that this training tool will lead to increased comfort and confidence with arthroscopic surgery performance. Methods: An expert surgeon was filmed performing an arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using patellar bone-tendon-bone autograft. An instructional training video was then created incorporating the extracorporeal and arthroscopic footage with voice over and subtitles. Following the surgery, cognitive recall of the procedure was conducted with the surgeon to identify key visual, cognitive, and kinesthetic cues to develop a mental imagery script to enhance rehearsal of arthroscopic surgery. Orthopaedic residents from two academic training programs were invited to participate. Demographic information including training level, previous musical experience, organized sports participation, and preferred learning style was collected. The training session consisted of a relaxation exercise, instructional video of an expert performing the procedure, learning the mental imagery script, and rehearsing the procedure out loud with a partner. The residents’ ability to rehearse the procedure was assessed before and after the training session with a modified version of a previously validated questionnaire, and a post-training session survey was administered to define which components of the rehearsal seemed most beneficial. Statistical analysis included a reliability analysis for internal consistency, and a nonparametric Wilcoxon test to compare the composite

  15. Results of consecutive training procedures in pediatric cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell David N

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report from a single institution describes the results of consecutive pediatric heart operations done by trainees under the supervision of a senior surgeon. The 3.1% mortality seen in 1067 index operations is comparable across procedures and risk bands to risk-stratified results reported by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. With appropriate mentorship, surgeons-in-training are able to achieve good results as first operators.

  16. Education in laparoscopic surgery: All eyes towards in vivo training

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Tegenwoordig worden steeds meer buikoperaties d.m.v. laparoscopische (knoopsgat) chirurgie uitgevoerd. Omdat deze manier van chirurgie zo anders is dan conventionele chirurgie staat tegenwoordig de manier van selectie, training en beoordeling van artsen in opleiding tot chirurg ter discussie in de wetenschap. Uit dit proefschrift blijkt dat neuropsychologische testen voor ruimtelijk inzicht en psychomotorische vaardigheden een voorspellende waarde hebben in de laparoscopische chirurgie. Beoor...

  17. Depictions and minifiction: a reflection on translation of micro-story as didactics of sign language interpreters training in colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Giovanny Barreto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents reflections on methodological translation-practice approach to sign language interpreter’s education focus in communicative competence. Implementing translation-practice approach experience started in several workshops of the Association of Translators and Interpreters of Sign Language of Colombia (ANISCOL and have now formalized in the bachelor in education degree project in signed languages, develop within Research Group UMBRAL from National Open University and Distance of Colombia-UNAD. The didactic proposal focus on the model of the efforts (Gile, specifically in the production and listen efforts. A criticism about translating competence is presented. Minifiction is literary genre with multiple semiotic and philosophical translation possibilities. These literary texts have elements with great potential to render on visual, gestural and spatial depictions of Colombian sign language which is profitable to interpreter training and education. Through El Dinosaurio sign language translation, we concludes with an outline and reflections on the pedagogical and didactic potential of minifiction and depictions in the design of training activities in sign language interpreters.

  18. Content Peculiarities of Master's Professional Foreign Language Training in Translation Studies and Interpretation at the Universities of Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumeiko, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the content analysis of peculiarities of Master's professional foreign language training in Translation Studies and Interpretation at the universities of Slovakia. In the context of globalization and integration processes the study of European countries' experience, in particular, of the Slovak Republic has been…

  19. Review of Oral Surgery Services and Training: a case of prescription without a diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, P A; Ladwa, R A R

    2013-01-01

    In the Review of Oral Surgery Services and Training, the Oral Surgery Review Group supported the development of the specialty of oral surgery and some of the arguments put forward to support it concerned finance and quality. We argue that their analyses of the present situation are flawed. The economic argument and issues concerning skill-mix are very simplistic, but more importantly, the rationale given for the increase in referrals did not explore the myriad of likely reasons why in any substantive detail. These reasons include shortcomings in undergraduate training and a poor NHS primary dental contract including the arrangements for charging patients. Before implementation, the policy makers should consider a wide range of available options to address the failings, and take a "whole system approach" before they embark on developing a specialty, which may cause problems that exceed those currently facing the system.

  20. Perception of Shame in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMains, Kevin Christopher; Peel, Jennifer; Weitzel, Erik K; Der-Torossian, Hirak; Couch, Marion

    2015-11-01

    This survey was developed to assess the prevalence and effects of the perception of shame in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency training in the United States. Survey. US otolaryngology training programs. Faculty and trainees in US otolaryngology training programs. A 14-item survey to assess the prevalence of the experience of shame and the attitudes toward use of shame in otolaryngology residency training was sent to all otolaryngology-head and neck surgery program directors for distribution among their respective faculty and resident cohorts. A total of 267 responses were received (women, 24.7%; men, 75.3%): 42.7% of respondents were trainees; 7.0% of trainees thought that shame was a necessary/effective tool, compared with 11.4% of faculty; 50% of respondents felt that they had been personally shamed during residency; and 69.9% of respondents had witnessed another trainee being shamed during residency training. Trainees were most commonly shamed in the operating room (78.4%). Otolaryngology faculty members did the shaming 95.1% of the time. Although shaming prompted internal reflection/self-improvement in 57.4% of trainees, it also caused loss of self-confidence in 52.5%. Trainees who had been shamed were more likely to view shame as an appropriate educational tool (P Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  1. Development of an Augmented Reality Force Feedback Virtual Surgery Training Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruei-Jia Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop a virtual surgery training platform with a force feedback function so as to facilitate the training of new medical personnel, this study first had to establish a virtual environment, and then implement interactions involving vision and tactile sensations. The system's augmented reality function modules include the establishment of an augmented reality environmental space, image loading and model establishment, and force feedback modules, as well as the required design for collision detection, object parameter settings, and controller functions. Apart from combining a virtual environment with force feedback and establishing diverse force feedback modules, this project also overcomes the single-point sensor restriction of most force feedback hardware, and establishes a tactile cutting function. In addition to the establishment of force feedback modules, the project further employs the conservation of energy principle in the design of the energy estimator and controller, and completes the design of a stable virtual surgery training platform.

  2. Introducing the Interactive Model for the Training of Audiovisual Translators and Analysis of Multimodal Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Luigi Iaia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – This paper introduces the ‘Interactive Model’ of audiovisual translation developed in the context of my PhD research on the cognitive-semantic, functional and socio-cultural features of the Italian-dubbing translation of a corpus of humorous texts. The Model is based on two interactive macro-phases – ‘Multimodal Critical Analysis of Scripts’ (MuCrAS and ‘Multimodal Re-Textualization of Scripts’ (MuReTS. Its construction and application are justified by a multidisciplinary approach to the analysis and translation of audiovisual texts, so as to focus on the linguistic and extralinguistic dimensions affecting both the reception of source texts and the production of target ones (Chaume 2004; Díaz Cintas 2004. By resorting to Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough 1995, 2001, to a process-based approach to translation and to a socio-semiotic analysis of multimodal texts (van Leeuwen 2004; Kress and van Leeuwen 2006, the Model is meant to be applied to the training of audiovisual translators and discourse analysts in order to help them enquire into the levels of pragmalinguistic equivalence between the source and the target versions. Finally, a practical application shall be discussed, detailing the Italian rendering of a comic sketch from the American late-night talk show Conan.Abstract – Questo studio introduce il ‘Modello Interattivo’ di traduzione audiovisiva sviluppato durante il mio dottorato di ricerca incentrato sulle caratteristiche cognitivo-semantiche, funzionali e socio-culturali della traduzione italiana per il doppiaggio di un corpus di testi comici. Il Modello è costituito da due fasi: la prima, di ‘Analisi critica e multimodale degli script’ (MuCrAS e la seconda, di ‘Ritestualizzazione critica e multimodale degli script’ (MuReTS, e la sua costruzione e applicazione sono frutto di un approccio multidisciplinare all’analisi e traduzione dei testi audiovisivi, al fine di esaminare le

  3. Validation of a model of intensive training in digestive laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Silvia; Díaz-Güemes, Idoia; Usón, Jesús; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to assess a laparoscopic training model for general surgery residents. Twelve general surgery residents carried out a training program, consisting of a theoretical session (one hour) and a hands-on session on simulator (7 h) and on animal model (13 h). For the first and last repetitions of simulator tasks and the Nissen fundoplication technique, time and scores from the global rating scale objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) were registered. Before and after the course, participants performed 4 tasks on the virtual reality simulator LAPMentor™: 1) hand-eye coordination, 2) hand-hand coordination, 3) transference of objects and 4) cholecystectomy task, registering time and movement metrics. Moreover, the residents completed a questionnaire related to the training components on a 5-point rating scale. The last repetition of the tasks and the Nissen fundoplication technique were performed faster and with a higher OSATS score. After the course, the participants performed all LAPMentor™ tasks faster, increasing the speed of movements in all tasks. Number of movements decreased in tasks 2, 3 and 4; as well as path length in tasks 2 and 4. Training components were positively rated by residents, being the suture task the aspect best rated (4.90 ± 0.32). This training model in digestive laparoscopic surgery has demonstrated to be valid for the improvement of basic and advanced skills of general surgery residents. Intracorporeal suturing and the animal model were the best rated training elements. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Surgeon Training in Telerobotic Surgery via a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a software and hardware framework for a telerobotic surgery safety and motor skill training simulator. The aims are at providing trainees a comprehensive simulator for acquiring essential skills to perform telerobotic surgery. Existing commercial robotic surgery simulators lack features for safety training and optimal motion planning, which are critical factors in ensuring patient safety and efficiency in operation. In this work, we propose a hardware-in-the-loop simulator directly introducing these two features. The proposed simulator is built upon the Raven-II™ open source surgical robot, integrated with a physics engine and a safety hazard injection engine. Also, a Fast Marching Tree-based motion planning algorithm is used to help trainee learn the optimal instrument motion patterns. The main contributions of this work are (1 reproducing safety hazards events, related to da Vinci™ system, reported to the FDA MAUDE database, with a novel haptic feedback strategy to provide feedback to the operator when the underlying dynamics differ from the real robot’s states so that the operator will be aware and can mitigate the negative impact of the safety-critical events, and (2 using motion planner to generate semioptimal path in an interactive robotic surgery training environment.

  5. Cardiovascular Surgery Residency Program: Training Coronary Anastomosis Using the Arroyo Simulator and UNIFESP Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, Miguel Angel; Gomes, Walter José; Bras, Ademir Massarico; Araújo, Thiago Cavalcante Vila Nova de; Mota, André Lupp; Cardoso, Caio Cesar; Coutinho, Rafael Viana dos S

    2015-01-01

    Engage the UNIFESP Cardiovascular Surgery residents in coronary anastomosis, assess their skills and certify results, using the Arroyo Anastomosis Simulator and UNIFESP surgical models. First to 6th year residents attended a weekly program of technical training in coronary anastomosis, using 4 simulation models: 1. Arroyo simulator; 2. Dummy with a plastic heart; 3. Dummy with a bovine heart; and 4. Dummy with a beating pig heart. The assessment test was comprised of 10 items, using a scale from 1 to 5 points in each of them, creating a global score of 50 points maximum. The technical performance of the candidate showed improvement in all items, especially manual skill and technical progress, critical sense of the work performed, confidence in the procedure and reduction of the time needed to perform the anastomosis after 12 weeks practice. In response to the multiplicity of factors that currently influence the cardiovascular surgeon training, there have been combined efforts to reform the practices of surgical medical training. 1 - The four models of simulators offer a considerable contribution to the field of cardiovascular surgery, improving the skill and dexterity of the surgeon in training. 2 - Residents have shown interest in training and cooperate in the development of innovative procedures for surgical medical training in the art.

  6. Cardiovascular Surgery Residency Program: Training Coronary Anastomosis Using the Arroyo Simulator and UNIFESP Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Maluf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Engage the UNIFESP Cardiovascular Surgery residents in coronary anastomosis, assess their skills and certify results, using the Arroyo Anastomosis Simulator and UNIFESP surgical models. METHODS: First to 6th year residents attended a weekly program of technical training in coronary anastomosis, using 4 simulation models: 1. Arroyo simulator; 2. Dummy with a plastic heart; 3. Dummy with a bovine heart; and 4. Dummy with a beating pig heart. The assessment test was comprised of 10 items, using a scale from 1 to 5 points in each of them, creating a global score of 50 points maximum. RESULTS: The technical performance of the candidate showed improvement in all items, especially manual skill and technical progress, critical sense of the work performed, confidence in the procedure and reduction of the time needed to perform the anastomosis after 12 weeks practice. In response to the multiplicity of factors that currently influence the cardiovascular surgeon training, there have been combined efforts to reform the practices of surgical medical training. CONCLUSION: 1 - The four models of simulators offer a considerable contribution to the field of cardiovascular surgery, improving the skill and dexterity of the surgeon in training. 2 - Residents have shown interest in training and cooperate in the development of innovative procedures for surgical medical training in the art.

  7. Impact of endovascular simulator training on vascular surgery as a career choice in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Jovan; Peyser, Chris; Cavoores, Ted; Fletcher, Erin; Peterson, David; Shortell, Cynthia

    2012-05-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine whether exposure to endovascular simulator training increases interest in vascular surgery among medical students. Secondary goals were to determine whether interest in vascular surgery is inversely related to the time after exposure, to identify factors associated with interest, and to identify students' characteristics that positively influence performance metrics. This was a prospective, randomized, crossover study comprising 80 medical students who were randomized into group A (n = 40) and group B (n = 40). Participants completed a survey of their interest in vascular surgery and attitudinal factors using Vascular Surgery Interest Form (VSIF) before exposure to the simulator (pretest). At 1 month after exposure of group A to the simulator, both groups were tested using VSIF (test). Upon completion of testing, group B was exposed to simulator training, whereas group A received no further training. At 2 months after exposure of group B to the simulator, both groups were posttested using VSIF, which asked the students' level of interest in vascular surgery using a 1 to 10 scale. Performance metrics were recorded during each exposure. Differences among cohort demographics were determined using Pearson χ(2) analysis. Differences in interest were determined with paired sample correlations. Linear regression and analysis of variance were used to correlate VSIF responses with interest and the performance metrics. Both student cohorts had significant increases in interest after exposure to simulation. In group A, test interest (mean ± standard deviation) was significantly higher than pretest and posttest interests (5.51 ± 1.73 vs 4.00 ± 1.88 vs 4.18 ± 1.82; P training, radiation concerns, gender identification of a mentor, and personality fit with occupation were not correlated with interest. Sex, medical school year, comfort with endovascular procedures, willingness to work long hours, interest in performing

  8. Student perception of two different simulation techniques in oral and maxillofacial surgery undergraduate training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallnäs Eva-Lotta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yearly surveys among the undergraduate students in oral and maxillofacial surgery at Karolinska Institutet have conveyed a wish for increased clinical training, and in particular, in surgical removal of mandibular third molars. Due to lack of resources, this kind of clinical supervision has so far not been possible to implement. One possible solution to this problem might be to introduce simulation into the curriculum. The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate students' perception of two different simulation methods for practicing clinical reasoning skills and technical skills in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Methods Forty-seven students participating in the oral and maxillofacial surgery course at Karolinska Institutet during their final year were included. Three different oral surgery patient cases were created in a Virtual Patient (VP Simulation system (Web-SP and used for training clinical reasoning. A mandibular third molar surgery simulator with tactile feedback, providing hands on training in the bone removal and tooth sectioning in third molar surgery, was also tested. A seminar was performed using the combination of these two simulators where students' perception of the two different simulation methods was assessed by means of a questionnaire. Results The response rate was 91.5% (43/47. The students were positive to the VP cases, although they rated their possible improvement of clinical reasoning skills as moderate. The students' perception of improved technical skills after training in the mandibular third molar surgery simulator was rated high. The majority of the students agreed that both simulation techniques should be included in the curriculum and strongly agreed that it was a good idea to use the two simulators in concert. The importance of feedback from the senior experts during simulator training was emphasised. Conclusions The two tested simulation methods were well accepted and most

  9. Pointing with a One-Eyed Cursor for Supervised Training in Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Martin; Kraus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Pointing in the endoscopic view of a surgical robot is a natural and effcient way for instructors to communicate with trainees in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. However, pointing in a stereo-endoscopic view can be limited by problems such as video delay, double vision, arm fatigue......, and reachability of the pointer controls. We address these problems by hardware-based overlaying the stereo-endoscopic view with a one-eyed cursor, which can be comfortably controlled by a wireless, gyroscopic air mouse. The proposed system was positively evaluated by five experienced instructors in four full......-day training units in robot- assisted minimally invasive surgery on anaesthetised pigs....

  10. "Just-In-Time" Simulation Training Using 3-D Printed Cardiac Models After Congenital Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Laura J; Su, Lillian; Hynes, Conor F; Krieger, Axel; Alfares, Fahad A; Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Zurakowski, David; Marshall, M Blair; Kim, Peter C W; Jonas, Richard A; Nath, Dilip S

    2016-03-01

    High-fidelity simulation using patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) models may be effective in facilitating pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) provider training for clinical management of congenital cardiac surgery patients. The 3D-printed heart models were rendered from preoperative cross-sectional cardiac imaging for 10 patients undergoing congenital cardiac surgery. Immediately following surgical repair, a congenital cardiac surgeon and an intensive care physician conducted a simulation training session regarding postoperative care utilizing the patient-specific 3D model for the PCICU team. After the simulation, Likert-type 0 to 10 scale questionnaire assessed participant perception of impact of the training session. Seventy clinicians participated in training sessions, including 22 physicians, 38 nurses, and 10 ancillary care providers. Average response to whether 3D models were more helpful than standard hand off was 8.4 of 10. Questions regarding enhancement of understanding and clinical ability received average responses of 9.0 or greater, and 90% of participants scored 8 of 10 or higher. Nurses scored significantly higher than other clinicians on self-reported familiarity with the surgery (7.1 vs. 5.8; P = .04), clinical management ability (8.6 vs. 7.7; P = .02), and ability enhancement (9.5 vs. 8.7; P = .02). Compared to physicians, nurses and ancillary providers were more likely to consider 3D models more helpful than standard hand off (8.7 vs. 7.7; P = .05). Higher case complexity predicted greater enhancement of understanding of surgery (P = .04). The 3D heart models can be used to enhance congenital cardiac critical care via simulation training of multidisciplinary intensive care teams. Benefit may be dependent on provider type and case complexity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Rivaroxaban for venous thromboembolism prevention after major orthopedic surgery: translating trial data into routine clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyer-Westendorf J

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jan Beyer-Westendorf,1 Patrick Mouret,2 Alexander GG Turpie3 1Thrombosis Research and Angiology, Dresden University Clinic, Dresden, Germany; 2Orthopedic Clinic, Klinikum Frankfurt Höchst GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany; 3Department of Medicine, General Division, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: An established standard of care for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic surgery has been subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin. The non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban has demonstrated superior efficacy and similar safety to all tested regimens of enoxaparin in large Phase III clinical studies of venous thromboembolism prevention after elective hip and knee arthroplasty. Despite regulatory approval of rivaroxaban for this indication, concerns remain among physicians regarding its optimal and effective use in routine clinical practice. Real-life studies, such as XAMOS and ORTHO-TEP, are providing physicians with more information on the routine use of rivaroxaban for venous thromboembolism prevention after orthopedic surgery, helping to establish its safety and effectiveness in everyday clinical care. Among the most important issues are the risk of bleeding complications, wound healing, timing of first dose, impact of type of anesthesia on thromboprophylaxis effectiveness, patient comorbidities and comedication use, periprocedural management, associated costs, and clinical outcomes in trauma-related fractures. Many of these issues are difficult to study in randomized, double-blind, Phase III trials, and can be assessed more readily using real-life data. In particular, real-life or noninterventional studies lack many of the strict inclusion and exclusion criteria associated with Phase III trials and involve unselected patients who often present with significant comorbidities or comedication use. Keywords: anticoagulants, arthroplasty, orthopedics, rivaroxaban, thrombosis

  12. Using corpora in scientific and technical translation training: resources to identify conventionality and promote creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés López-Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the first Corpus Use and Learning to Translate (CULT Conference in Bertinoro (Italy in 1997, the usefulness of corpora for translators and trainee translators has been highlighted. From an initial approach where translators compiled ad hoc corpora in their hard drive for a subsequent study with lexical analysis software, there emerged a new trend towards the use of the Internet as corpus. In this second approach, the Web is perceived as a huge corpus which is accessed by means of online tools which produce monolingual wordlists and concordances from texts available from the Internet or pre-existing corpora, or by means of bilingual or multilingual concordancers displaying aligned texts from international institutions' parallel corpora. Bilingual concordancers and translation memories are widely used by translators and trainee translators because of the immediate translation solutions they offer, but these tools can restrain creativity by offering conventional solutions and eliminating layout and multimodal elements in texts. The aim of this article is to describe the exploitation of quality corpora in a scientific and technical translation course, focusing on texts on health translated from English into Spanish, and on terminological variation as a reflection of creativity in language.

  13. Microperimetric Biofeedback Training Improved Visual Acuity after Successful Macular Hole Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Ueda-Consolvo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of setting a preferred retinal locus relocation target (PRT and performing Macular Integrity Assessment (MAIA biofeedback training in patients showing insufficient recovery of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA despite successful closure of an idiopathic macular hole (MH. Methods. Retrospective interventional case series. Nine eyes of 9 consecutive patients with the decimal BCVA of less than 0.6 at more than 3 months after successful MH surgery were included. A PRT was chosen based on MAIA microperimetry and the patients underwent MAIA biofeedback training. BCVA, reading speed, fixation stability, and 63% bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA were evaluated before and after the training. Statistical analysis was carried out using paired Student’s t-test. Results. PRT was chosen on the nasal side of the closed MH fovea in 8 patients. After the MAIA training, BCVA improved in all patients. The mean logMAR value of BCVA significantly improved from 0.33 to 0.12 (p=0.007. Reading speed improved in all patients (p=0.29, fixation stability improved in 5 patients (p=0.70, and 63% BCEA improved in 7 patients (p=0.21, although these improvements were not statistically significant. Conclusion. MAIA biofeedback training improved visual acuity in patients with insufficient recovery of BCVA after successful MH surgery.

  14. DOES GENDER IMPACT ON FEMALE DOCTORS' EXPERIENCES IN THE TRAINING AND PRACTICE OF SURGERY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoetok, F; van Wyk, J; Madiba, T E

    2017-06-01

    Surgery has been a male-dominated speciality both in South Africa and abroad. This mixed methodology case study collected data from a purposive sample of female surgical registrars enrolled at one institution in South Africa. A self-administered questionnaire was used to explore whether or not female doctors perceived any benefits of being in a male-dominated specialty. It explored problems encountered due to gender, the participants' perceptions of the influence of gender on their surgical training, practice and challenges. Thirty-two female registrars participated in the study. The respondents were mainly South African (91%) and enrolled in seven surgical specialities. Twenty-seven (84%) respondents were satisfied with their practical training and skills development as surgeons. Twenty-four (75%) respondents had identified a mentor from the department and all respondents indicated that the gender of their mentor did not impact on the quality of their training. Seventeen (53%) respondents perceived having received differential treatment due to their gender and 25 (78.2%) thought that the gender of their mentor did not impact on the quality of the guidance in surgery. Challenges included physical threats to them as females from patients and disrespect, emotional threats and defaming statements from male registrars. Other challenges included time-constraints for family and academic work, poor work life balance and being treated differently due to their gender. Seventeen (53%) respondents would consider teaching in the Department of Surgery. Twenty-five respondents (78%) would recommended the specialty to young female students, as they were convinced that surgery had been the right choice for them. Seventeen respondents (53%) were also open to pursuing teaching posts in the Department of Surgery. Generally, females had positive perceptions of their training in Surgery. They expressed concern about finding a worklife balance. The gender of their mentor did not impact

  15. Clinic-based training in comparison to home-based training after first-time lumbar disc surgery: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ann-Christin; Linton, Steven J; Bergkvist, Leif; Nilsson, Olle; Cornefjord, Michael

    2009-03-01

    The effectiveness of physiotherapy after first-time lumbar disc surgery is still largely unknown. Studies in this field are heterogeneous and behavioural treatment principles have only been evaluated in one earlier study. The aim of this randomised study was to compare clinic-based physiotherapy with a behavioural approach to a home-based training programme regarding back disability, activity level, behavioural aspects, pain and global health measures. A total of 59 lumbar disc patients without any previous spine surgery or comorbidity participated in the study. Clinic-based physiotherapy with a behavioural approach was compared to home-based training 3 and 12 months after surgery. Additionally, the home training group was followed up 3 months after surgery by a structured telephone interview evaluating adherence to the exercise programme. Outcome measures were: Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), physical activity level, kinesiophobia, coping, pain, quality of life and patient satisfaction. Treatment compliance was high in both groups. There were no differences between the two groups regarding back pain disability measured by ODI 3 and 12 months after surgery. However, back pain reduction and increase in quality of life were significantly higher in the home-based training group. The patients in the clinic-based training group had significantly higher activity levels 12 months after surgery and were significantly more satisfied with physiotherapy care 3 months after surgery compared to the home-based training group. Rehabilitation after first-time lumbar disc surgery can be based on home training as long as the patients receive both careful instructions from a physiotherapist and strategies for active pain coping, and have access to the physiotherapist if questions regarding training arise. This might be a convenient treatment arrangement for most patients.

  16. [Laparoscopic training--the guarantee of a future in pediatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drăghici, I; Drăghici, L; Popescu, M; Copăescu, C; Mitoiu, D; Dragomirescu, C

    2009-01-01

    Laparoscopy is considered today the highlight of modern surgery, the forerunner of the fascinating world of video and robotic surgery, both of them derived from the sophisticated areas of aeronautic industry. Remarkably, Romanian specialists keep up with the pace of worldwide technological developments, assimilating one by one each and every video endoscopic procedure. In the early 90s, the Romanian laparos-copic school was founded with the contribution of many important personalities; their activities and achievements have been an inspiration for the following generation of laparoscopic surgeons. In this last decade, the newest branch of laparoscopic surgery in our country, pediatric laparoscopy, managed to evolve from its "shy" beginnings to become an important method of improving the quality of surgical procedures, to the benefit of our "small patients". The purpose of this article is to encourage and promote minimally invasive video endoscopic surgery training, emphasizing its crucial role in the education and professional development of the next generation of pediatric surgeons, and not only. The modem concept of laparoscopic training includes experimental scientific practices, as well as the newest technical acquisitions such as virtual reality video-electronic simulation.

  17. Creating a group profile through error analysis in advanced L2 translation training

    OpenAIRE

    HEANEY, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    Error analysis and product assessment are increasingly viewed as reductive procedures in translation pedagogy. In the current paper, a case is made for ‘rehabilitating’ error analysis, especially in advanced L2 translation teaching. Attention is drawn to its usefulness in creating a group profile for L2 translation trainees, particularly as regards the scope it offers for showing how aspects of linguistic transfer frequently considered marginal, when taken individually, are, on...

  18. Creativity in Translator Training: Between the Possible, the Improbable and the (Apparently Impossible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewson Lance

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper looks at how creativity has been explored in writings in the field of translation studies. It examines the stages in creative translation and investigates the creative process. The second part of the paper looks at how creativity can be exploited in the translation class by concentrating in particular on the liberating role of intralingual and interlingual paraphrase, while considering the various constraints operating on the selection of the optimal target text.

  19. A pilot study of surgical training using a virtual robotic surgery simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tergas, Ana I; Sheth, Sangini B; Green, Isabel C; Giuntoli, Robert L; Winder, Abigail D; Fader, Amanda N

    2013-01-01

    Our objectives were to compare the utility of learning a suturing task on the virtual reality da Vinci Skills Simulator versus the da Vinci Surgical System dry laboratory platform and to assess user satisfaction among novice robotic surgeons. Medical trainees were enrolled prospectively; one group trained on the virtual reality simulator, and the other group trained on the da Vinci dry laboratory platform. Trainees received pretesting and post-testing on the dry laboratory platform. Participants then completed an anonymous online user experience and satisfaction survey. We enrolled 20 participants. Mean pretest completion times did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Training with either platform was associated with a similar decrease in mean time to completion (simulator platform group, 64.9 seconds [P = .04]; dry laboratory platform group, 63.9 seconds [P virtual reality platform. The majority found the training "definitely useful" in improving robotic surgical skills (mean, 4.6) and would attend future training sessions (mean, 4.5). Training on the virtual reality robotic simulator or the dry laboratory robotic surgery platform resulted in significant improvements in time to completion and economy of motion for novice robotic surgeons. Although there was a perception that both simulators improved performance, there was a preference for the virtual reality simulator. Benefits unique to the simulator platform include autonomy of use, computerized performance feedback, and ease of setup. These features may facilitate more efficient and sophisticated simulation training above that of the conventional dry laboratory platform, without loss of efficacy.

  20. Training potential in minimally invasive surgery in a tertiary care, paediatric urology centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, R P J; Chrzan, R J; Klijn, A J; Kuijper, C F; Dik, P; de Jong, T P V M

    2015-10-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is being utilized more frequently as a surgical technique in general surgery and in paediatric urology. It is associated with a steep learning curve. Currently, the centre does not offer a MIS training programme. It is hypothesized that the number of MIS procedures performed in the low-volume specialty of paediatric urology will offer insufficient training potential for surgeons. To assess the MIS training potential of a highly specialized, tertiary care, paediatric urology training centre that has been accredited by the Joint Committee of Paediatric Urology (JCPU). The clinical activity of the department was retrospectively reviewed by extracting the annual number of admissions, outpatient consultations and operative procedures. The operations were divided into open procedures and MIS. Major ablative procedures (nephrectomy) and reconstructive procedures (pyeloplasty) were analysed with reference to the patients' ages. The centre policy is not to perform major MIS in children who are under 2 years old or who weigh less than 12 kg. Every year, this institution provides approximately 4300 out-patient consultations, 600 admissions, and 1300 procedures under general anaesthesia for children with urological problems. In 2012, 35 patients underwent major intricate MIS: 16 pyeloplasties, eight nephrectomies and 11 operations for incontinence (seven Burch, and four bladder neck procedures). In children ≥2 years of age, 16/21 of the pyeloplasties and 8/12 of the nephrectomies were performed laparoscopically. The remaining MIS procedures included 25 orchidopexies and one intravesical ureteral reimplantation. There is no consensus on how to assess laparoscopic training. It would be valuable to reach a consensus on a standardized laparoscopic training programme in paediatric urology. Often training potential is based on operation numbers only. In paediatric urology no minimum requirement has been specified. The number of procedures quoted

  1. Working and training conditions of residents in pediatric surgery: a nationwide survey in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reismann, M; Ellerkamp, V; Dingemann, J

    2010-09-01

    As in other surgical specialties, increasing concern has been expressed worldwide about the shortage of trainees in pediatric surgery training programs. We performed a nationwide survey to investigate the current situation in Germany. An internet-based nationwide survey comprising 36 questions on training conditions in pediatric surgery was linked to the homepage of the German Society of Pediatric Surgery from June to September 2008. Statements on the following aspects were evaluated by responding residents using a scale from 1 (I do not agree at all) to 5 (I fully agree): workplace, cooperation with colleagues, head of the department, cooperation with other specialties, training and research conditions. A median value of 3 indicated an unsatisfactory assessment, with at least 50% of respondents giving an indifferent or negative response. 70 questionnaires were completed. Some of the evaluations revealed problematic areas. In particular, statements regarding working hours revealed dissatisfaction among the responding doctors. The median value accorded the statement "I am satisfied with the current working time regulation" was 2.9. With regard to departmental heads, some criticisms were directed against a perceived lack of soft skills. According to the respondents, their involvement in decision-making processes was insufficient ("We are involved in decision-making processes affecting our working conditions" - median value 2.4). Residents were also dissatisfied with the feedback they received for their work ("I get enough feedback regarding my achievement" - median value 2.6). Another problem area was career development ("I will finish my specialist training in time" - median value 2.9). However, these points did not affect overall satisfaction. Trainee satisfaction with regulations on working hours is low. Despite a general satisfaction with all fields appraised, improvements in various individual areas, e. g., the attitude of departmental heads and strategies of

  2. Neuromuscular adaptations to long-term progressive resistance training translates to improved functional capacity for people with multiple sclerosis and is maintained at follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Vissing, Kristian; de Place, Line;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progressive resistance training (PRT) is acknowledged to effectively improve muscle strength for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), but diverging results exist regarding whether such improvements translates to improved functional capacity, possibly relating to insufficient duration...

  3. Core competencies in the science and practice of knowledge translation: description of a Canadian strategic training initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straus Sharon E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, healthcare systems are attempting to optimize quality of care. This challenge has resulted in the development of implementation science or knowledge translation (KT and the resulting need to build capacity in both the science and practice of KT. Findings We are attempting to meet these challenges through the creation of a national training initiative in KT. We have identified core competencies in this field and have developed a series of educational courses and materials for three training streams. We report the outline for this approach and the progress to date. Conclusions We have prepared a strategy to develop, implement, and evaluate a national training initiative to build capacity in the science and practice of KT. Ultimately through this initiative, we hope to meet the capacity demand for KT researchers and practitioners in Canada that will lead to improved care and a strengthened healthcare system.

  4. Training and practice of pediatric surgery in Africa: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhalaby, Essam A; Uba, Francis A; Borgstein, Eric S; Rode, Heinz; Millar, Alastair J W

    2012-05-01

    The evolution and recognition of pediatric surgery as a specialty in Africa can be divided into 4 distinct phases, starting from early 1920s till the present. The pace of development has been quite variable in different parts of Africa. Despite all recent developments, the practice of pediatric surgery in Africa continues to face multiple challenges, including limited facilities, manpower shortages, the large number of sick children, disease patterns specific to the region, late presentation and advanced pathology, lack of pediatric surgeons outside the tertiary hospitals, and inadequate governmental support. Standardization of pediatric surgery training across the continent is advocated. Collaboration with well-established pediatric surgical training centers in Africa and other developed countries is necessary. The problems of delivery of pediatric surgical services need to be addressed urgently, if the African child is to have access to essential pediatric surgical services like his or her counterpart in the high-income parts of the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationships between study habits, burnout, and general surgery resident performance on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeds, Matthew R; Thrush, Carol R; McDaniel, Faith K; Gill, Roop; Kimbrough, Mary K; Shames, Brian D; Sussman, Jeffrey J; Galante, Joseph M; Wittgen, Catherine M; Ansari, Parswa; Allen, Steven R; Nussbaum, Michael S; Hess, Donald T; Knight, David C; Bentley, Frederick R

    2017-09-01

    The American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) is used by programs to evaluate the knowledge and readiness of trainees to sit for the general surgery qualifying examination. It is often used as a tool for resident promotion and may be used by fellowship programs to evaluate candidates. Burnout has been associated with job performance and satisfaction; however, its presence and effects on surgical trainees' performance are not well studied. We sought to understand factors including burnout and study habits that may contribute to performance on the ABSITE examination. Anonymous electronic surveys were distributed to all residents at 10 surgical residency programs (n = 326). Questions included demographics as well as study habits, career interests, residency characteristics, and burnout scores using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, which assesses burnout because of both exhaustion and disengagement. These surveys were then linked to the individual's 2016 ABSITE and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 and 2 scores provided by the programs to determine factors associated with successful ABSITE performance. In total, 48% (n = 157) of the residents completed the survey. Of those completing the survey, 48 (31%) scored in the highest ABSITE quartile (≥75th percentile) and 109 (69%) scored less than the 75th percentile. In univariate analyses, those in the highest ABSITE quartile had significantly higher USMLE step 1 and step 2 scores (P burnout scores (disengagement, P Burnout Inventory exhaustion (P = 0.02), and USMLE step 1 and 2 scores (P = 0.007 and 0.0001, respectively). Residents who perform higher on the ABSITE have a regular study schedule throughout the year, report less burnout because of exhaustion, study away from home, and have shown success in prior standardized tests. Further study is needed to determine the effects of burnout on clinical duties, career advancement, and satisfaction. Copyright © 2017

  6. PRIORITY TO TEXT-LEVEL TRANSLATION TEACHING AND THE TRAINING OF STUDENTS′ TRANSLATION COMPETENCE%注重语篇翻译教学培养学生的翻译能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段自力

    2001-01-01

    This paper first distinguishes translation teaching and pedagogy translation and professional translation training.And then it argues that translation teaching for senior English majors in colleges and universities in China should give top priority to translation teaching in text level.The text level translation teaching makes students understand transla-ting means (1) correctly understanding the original text and (2) using the proper target expressions to convey faithfully and smoothly the original textual meaning.And this is to train their competence of inter-lingual translation in text level.%本文在区分翻译教学与教学翻译以及职业翻译培训的基础上,指出我国高校英语专业高年级的翻译教学应加强语篇层次的翻译教学,让学生懂得翻译是正确理解语篇的整体意义,然后用译入语的恰当的表达形式忠实通顺地传达给读者,培养学生语篇层次上的语际转换能力。

  7. Laparoscopic Upper Urinary System Surgery After Specialty Training: Presentation of 50 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Gok

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Results of first 50 laparoscopic upper urinary tractus surgeries which were performed in Adiyaman State Hospital during compulsory duty after specialty training are presented. Material and Method: Fifty patients who underwent laparoscopic upper urinary tractus surgeries in our clinic between February 2012 and January 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. All of the laparoscopic procedures were performed using transperitoneal method. Results: Mean age of the patients was 42,6±13,6 (17-74, and mean operation duration was 96,8±12,4 minutes (28-165. Thirty two patients were males and 18 were females. Intraoperative complications were not seen in any of the patients and operations didn%u2019t proceed to open surgeries. All patients were mobilized at first day after the operation. No patient needed opioids as painkillers at postoperative period. Decrease in hematocrit level was obseved in a patient at early postoperative period and this patient was followed conservatively with 6 units of erythrocyte suspension. Herniation from the port area was observed in a patient who had cortical cyst excision at postoperative 3rd month. No major complication was observed. Discussion: Laparoscopic surgery which is becoming more commonly used nowadays can be safely applied in state hospitals if appropriate infrastructure is provided.

  8. Laparoscopic skill laboratory in urological surgery: tools and methods for resident training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C. M. Torricelli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Laparoscopy has certainly brought considerable benefits to patients, but laparoscopic surgery requires a set of skills different from open surgery, and learning in the operating room may increase surgical time, and even may be harmful to patients. Several training programs have been developed to decrease these potential prejudices. PURPOSES: to describe the laparoscopic training program for urological residents of the "Hospital das Clinicas" of the Sao Paulo Medical School, to report urological procedures that are feasible in dry and wet labs, and to perform a critical analysis of the cost-benefit relation of advanced laparoscopic skills laboratory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The laparoscopic skill lab has two virtual simulators, three manual simulators, and four laparoscopic sets for study with a porcine model. The urology residents during their first year attend classes in the virtual and manual simulator and helps the senior urological resident in activities carried out with the laparoscopic sets. During the second year, the urological resident has six periods per week, each period lasting four hours, to perform laparoscopic procedures with a porcine model. Results: In a training program of ten weeks, one urological resident performs an average of 120 urological procedures. The most common procedures are total nephrectomy (30%, bladder suture (30%, partial nephrectomy (10%, pyeloplasty (10%, ureteral replacement or transuretero anastomosis (10%, and others like adrenalectomy, prostatectomy, and retroperitoneoscopy. These procedures are much quicker and caused less morbidity. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic skills laboratory is a good method for achieving technical ability.

  9. Dental foundation year 2 training in oral and maxillofacial surgery units - the trainees' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildan, T; Amin, J; Bowe, D; Gerber, B; Saeed, N R

    2013-10-01

    Most dental foundation year 2 (DF2) training takes place in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) units. We did a survey of DF2 trainees in these units by telephone interviews and an online questionnaire to find out about their experience of training and their career aspirations. A total of 123 responded, which is roughly 41% of the total estimated number of trainees. Trainees applied for these posts mainly to improve their dentoalveolar skills (50%), and this was cited as the best aspect of the training. Most (81%) were on-call at night and this was generally thought to be a valuable training experience (77%), but 20% thought that it was the worst aspect of the job. Most did not regret taking up the post although the experience had caused 75% to alter their intentions about their future career; general dental practice was the commonest choice. In conclusion, trainees are generally satisfied with their training and these positions have guided their choices about future careers.

  10. Surgery for gastrointestinal malignant melanoma:Experience from surgical training center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thawatchai; Akaraviputh; Satida; Arunakul; Varut; Lohsiriwat; Cherdsak; Iramaneerat; Atthaphorn; Trakarnsanga

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To characterize clinical features,surgery,outcome,and survival of malignant melanoma(MM) of the gastrointestinal(GI) tract in a surgical training center in Bangkok,Thailand. METHODS:A retrospective review was performed for all patients with MM of the GI tract treated at our institution between 1997 and 2007. RESULTS:Fourteen patients had GI involvement either in a metastatic form or as a primary melanoma. Thirteen patients with sufficient data were reviewed. The median age of the patients was 66 years(r...

  11. A National Needs Assessment to Identify Technical Procedures in Vascular Surgery for Simulation Based Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayahangan, Leizl Joy; Konge, Lars; Schroeder, T V

    2017-01-01

    to identify technical procedures that vascular surgeons should learn. Round 2 was a survey that used a needs assessment formula to explore the frequency of procedures, the number of surgeons performing each procedure, risk and/or discomfort, and feasibility for simulation based training. Round 3 involved...... a national needs assessment to identify the technical procedures that should be integrated in a simulation based curriculum. DESIGN AND METHODS: A national needs assessment using a Delphi process was initiated by engaging 33 predefined key persons in vascular surgery. Round 1 was a brainstorming phase...... elimination and ranking of procedures. RESULTS: The response rate for round 1 was 70%, with 36 procedures identified. Round 2 had a 76% response rate and resulted in a preliminary prioritised list after exploring the need for simulation based training. Round 3 had an 85% response rate; 17 procedures were...

  12. Impact of a weekly reading program on orthopedic surgery residents' in-training examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglein, Daniel G; Gugala, Zbigniew; Simpson, Suzanne; Lindsey, Ronald W

    2015-05-01

    In response to a decline in individual residents' performance and overall program performance on the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination (OITE), the authors' department initiated a daily literature reading program coupled with weekly tests on the assigned material. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of the reading program on individual residents' scores and the training program's OITE scores. The reading program consisted of daily review articles from the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, followed by a weekly written examination consisting of multiple-choice or fill-in-the-blank questions. All articles were selected and all questions were written by the departmental chair. A questionnaire was given to assess residents' perceptions of the weekly tests. As a result of implementing the reading program for a 10-month period, residents' subsequent performance on the OITE significantly improved (mean score increase, 4, Porthopedic surgery residents.

  13. Four-year experience with a regional program providing simulation-based endovascular training for vascular surgery fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, David L; Lee, Eugene S; Hedayati, Nasim; Pevec, William C

    2009-01-01

    High-fidelity procedure simulation has been found useful for training vascular surgery residents in endovascular procedures, but the costs of acquiring, maintaining, and operating simulators represent a barrier to routine use of endovascular simulation in vascular surgery programs. Providing simulation training opportunities through regional centers may make simulation more cost effective, but the costs and benefits of this approach have not been reported previously. We reviewed participation costs in a regional simulation program to provide a benchmark for comparison with other training options. Simulation-based training was offered annually from 2004 to 2007 to the 11 vascular surgery fellowships in Washington, Oregon, California, Arizona, and Utah. Participation was at the discretion of the program directors and fellows. Sessions were designed to offer individualized, hands-on training with 2-4 participants per 2-day session. SimSuite (Medical Simulation Corporation, Denver, Colorado) simulators were used. During the 4-year period, participation by invited programs averaged 75%. Ten of 11 programs in the western United States region participated, with 34 fellows participating during the 4 years of the program. In addition, 2 program directors or faculty attended sessions to participate as learners, and 8 other individuals were allowed to participate (including 7 senior surgery residents and 1 vascular surgery fellow from out of the region). The average participant costs for travel, which include transportation, lodging, and meals, were $571. Simulation facility expenses, which included use of the simulator, computer-based training modules, and instructional support by an educational specialist, averaged $1055 per participant. Surgical faculty spent 12 hours per 2-day session instructing and in other direct educational activities. Costs for this time were not calculated separately. Vascular surgery fellows' participation in simulation training at regional centers

  14. Translating theory into practice:evaluating a cognitive lie detection training workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Vrij, Aldert; Leal, Sharon; Mann, Samantha; Vernham, Zarah; Brankaert, Femke

    2015-01-01

    A training workshop utilising the most up to date research in cognitive lie detection was designed and evaluated. For this evaluation, 27 experienced police detectives each interviewed one mock-suspect (a truth teller or liar) before training and another mock-suspect (a truth teller or liar) after training. Different mock-crimes were used in the pre- and post training interviews. The police detectives were free to interview the mock-suspect in any way they felt appropriate but were asked to t...

  15. [Influence of tendon surgery training on the quality of the suture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poniński, Michał; Tokarski, Maciej; Andrzejewski, Tomasz; Czarnecki, Piotr; Spławski, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Injuries of flexor tendons are one of the most common injuries that need surgical treatment at emergency room. Technique and quality of the surgery was performed are two factors of the utmost importance. The aim of the study was to determine influence of basic surgical training on the quality of suture. Research was divided into four surgical sessions which were held each once a week. Sutures were put by three medical students. Material that was used were deep flexor tendons dissected from fresh pig's legs. Sessions 1st, 2nd and 4th were preceded by training done by experienced surgeon. During study 90 modified-Kessler sutures without additional running suture were made. Breaking strength was assesed by tensile machine (INSTRON 4481). Time of each suture was also recorded. Outcomes were analyzed by tests: ANOVA and post-hoc LSD tests. Time significantly dropped by 64% after the first session and was held on the same level. Strength of sutures rises in each session preceded by training. There was statistically significant difference between session 1 (mean 13.58; SD 9.86N) and 2nd (mean 42.69; SD 9.27N) and 3rd (mean 38.42; SD 12.28N) and 4th (mean 57.12; SD 12.78N). Conclusions. Time of procedure significantly dropped after first teaching course and was held on the same level despite further training. Breaking strength rise in every session that was preceded by teaching course.

  16. [Undergraduate training in orthopaedic and trauma surgery: analysis of contextual and structural implementation models for undergraduate training in the newly combined specialty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruesseler, M; Froehlich, S; Mittelmeier, W; Walcher, F; Obertacke, U

    2010-09-01

    The fusion of orthopaedic and trauma surgery into a combined specialty requires a new evaluation of postgraduate and undergraduate training. This study presents a structured analysis of the implementation possibilities for undergraduate training. After defining 3 implementation alternatives for both clinical training and last year electives, SWOT analyses were performed. RESULTS. The SWOT analysis demonstrates for each of these 6 implementation models the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. In order to strengthen undergraduate training in the “new” specialty all medical faculties should discuss and define their implementation concepts.

  17. Integrating technical and non-technical skills coaching in an acute trauma surgery team training: Is it too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alken, Alexander; Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Weenk, Mariska; Yauw, Simon; Fluit, Cornelia; van Goor, Harry

    2017-08-25

    Research on effective integration of technical and non-technical skills in surgery team training is sparse. In a previous study we found that surgical teachers predominantly coached on technical and hardly on non-technical skills during the Definitive Surgical and Anesthetic Trauma Care (DSATC) integrated acute trauma surgery team training. This study aims to investigate whether the priming of teachers could increase the amount of non-technical skills coaching during such a training. Coaching activities of 12 surgical teachers were recorded on audio and video. Six teachers were primed on non-technical skills coaching prior to the training. Six others received no priming and served as controls. Blind observers reviewed the recordings of 2 training scenario's and scored whether the observed behaviors were directed on technical or non-technical skills. We compared the frequency of the non-technical skills coaching between the primed and the non-primed teachers and analyzed for differences according to the trainees' level of experience. Surgical teachers coached trainees during the highly realistic DSATC integrated acute trauma surgery team training. Trainees performed damage control surgery in operating teams on anesthetized porcine models during 6 training scenario's. Twelve experienced surgical teachers participated in this study. Coaching on non-technical skills was limited to about 5%. The primed teachers did not coach more often on non-technical skills than the non-primed teachers. We found no differences in the frequency of non-technical skills coaching based on the trainees' level of experience. Priming experienced surgical teachers does not increase the coaching on non-technical skills. The current DSATC acute trauma surgery team training seems too complex for integrating training on technical and non-technical skills. Patient care, Practice based learning and improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... implant surgery is, of course, surgery, and is best performed by a trained surgeon with specialized education ... implant surgery is, of course, surgery, and is best performed by a trained surgeon with specialized education ...

  19. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ...

  20. Facial Cosmetic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ...

  1. The adequacy of hepatopancreatobiliary training: How does operative exposure and perceived readiness in fellowship translate into subsequent practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Jean-Michel; Bressan, Alexsander K.; Edwards, Janet P.; Grondin, Sean C.; Dixon, Elijah; Minter, Rebecca M.; Jeyarajah, D. Rohan; Hansen, Paul; Cooper, Amanda B.; Ball, Chad G.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Over the last 3 decades, expansion in the scope and complexity of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) surgery has resulted in significant improvements in postoperative outcomes. As a result, the importance of dedicated fellowship training for HPB surgery is now well established, and the definition of formal program requirements has been actively pursued by a collaboration of the 3 distinct accrediting bodies within North America. Although major advances have been made in defining minimum case volume requirements, qualitative assessment of the operative experience remains challenging. Our research collaborative (HPB Manpower and Education Study Group) has previously explored the perceived case volume adequacy of core HPB procedures within fellowship programs. We conducted a 1-year follow-up survey targeting the same cohort to investigate the association between operative case volumes and comfort performing HPB procedures within initial independent practice. PMID:28234214

  2. Career decisions and the structure of training: an American Board Of Colon and Rectal Surgery survey of colorectal residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Constance C; Rothenberger, David A; Trudel, Judith L; Wolff, Bruce G

    2009-07-01

    To investigate potential impacts of restructuring general surgery training on colorectal (CR) surgery recruitment and expertise. In response to the American Surgical Association Blue Ribbon Committee report on surgical education (2004), the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery, working with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and American Board of Surgery, established a committee (2006) to review residency training curricula and study new pathways to certification as a CR surgeon. To address concerns related to shortened general surgery residency, the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery committee surveyed recent, current, and entering CR residents on the timing and factors associated with their career choice and opinions regarding restructuring. A 10-item, online survey of 189 CR surgeons enrolled in the class years of 2005, 2006, and 2007 was administered and analyzed May to July 2007. One hundred forty-five CR residents responded (77%); results were consistent across class years and types of general surgery training program. Seventy percent of respondents had rotated onto a CR service by the end of their PGY-2 year. Most identified CR as a career interest in their PGY-3 or PGY-4 year. Overall interest in CR surgery, the influence of CR mentors and teachers, and positive exposure to CR as PGY-3, PGY-4, or PGY-5 residents were the top cited factors influencing choice decisions. Respondents were opposed to restructuring by a 2:1 ratio, primarily because of concerns about inadequate training and lack of time to develop technical expertise. Shortening general surgery residency would not necessarily limit exposure to CR rotations and mentors unless such rotations are cut. The details of proposed restructuring are critical.

  3. An analysis of ophthalmology trainees' perceptions of feedback for cataract surgery training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saedon H

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Habiba Saedon Birmingham Midland Eye Centre, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK Objectives: To determine whether feedback for cataract surgery is perceived to be given to trainee ophthalmologists, the way in which any feedback is given, and what the trainee perceives to be the effect of feedback on their performance. Design: Cross-sectional qualitative study. Participants: Twelve trainee ophthalmologists at various levels of specialty training in the UK. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted via telephone or face to face. Interviews were transcribed and underwent thematic analysis using a qualitative software data package. Main outcome measures: The importance of feedback to the trainee and methods to improve the giving of feedback. Results: Feedback was thought to be a useful tool for improving performance in cataract surgery by all participants. Emergent themes were the importance of specificity of feedback and having confidence in the supervisor. Participants suggested ways that the feedback given can be improved upon. An insight was gained into how the feedback has an effect on their performance. Conclusion: This study showed that trainees perceive the feedback they receive to be of high quality. Feedback enables the trainees to self-reflect and improve their surgical techniques. Keywords: postgraduate training, education, phacoemulsification, microsurgical skills, cognitive learning, reflection

  4. Gallbladder Removal Simulation for Laparoscopic Surgery Training:A Hybrid Modeling Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youngjun Kim; Dongjune Chang; Jungsik Kim; Sehyung Park

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has many advantages,but it is difficult for a surgeon to achieve the necessary surgical skills.Recently,virtual training simulations have been gaining interest because they can provide a safe and efficient learning environment for medical students and novice surgeons.In this paper,we present a hybrid modeling method for simulating gallbladder removal that uses both the boundary element method (BEM) and the finite element method (FEM).Each modeling method is applied according to the deformable properties of human organs:BEM for the liver and FEM for the gallbladder.Connective tissues between the liver and the gallbladder are also included in the surgical simulation.Deformations in the liver and the gallbladder models are transferred via connective tissue springs using a mass-spring method.Special effects and techniques are developed to achieve realistic simulations,and the software is integrated into a custom-designed haptic interface device.Various computer graphical techniques are also applied in the virtual gallbladder removal laparoscopic surgery training.The detailed techniques and the results of the simulations are described in this paper.

  5. Robotic surgery training: construct validity of Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills (GEARS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Renata; Rodríguez, Omaira; Rosciano, José; Vegas, Liumariel; Bond, Verónica; Rojas, Aram; Sanchez-Ismayel, Alexis

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the ability of the GEARS scale (Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills) to differentiate individuals with different levels of experience in robotic surgery, as a fundamental validation. This is a cross-sectional study that included three groups of individuals with different levels of experience in robotic surgery (expert, intermediate, novice) their performance were assessed by GEARS applied by two reviewers. The difference between groups was determined by Mann-Whitney test and the consistency between the reviewers was studied by Kendall W coefficient. The agreement between the reviewers of the scale GEARS was 0.96. The score was 29.8 ± 0.4 to experts, 24 ± 2.8 to intermediates and 16 ± 3 to novices, with a statistically significant difference between all of them (p robotic surgery and, therefore, is a validated and useful tool to evaluate surgeons in training.

  6. Training in laparoscopic renal surgery, in a few weeks of intense exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennayake, S; Jayawardhena, D; Kumara, S; Sakelaris, G

    2005-08-01

    Laparoscopic renal surgery has only recently become popular in the UK and, still, only a handful of pediatric urologists are offering the laparoscopic approach to their patients; therefore, there are only limited places available for training in this discipline. In this institution, which is a major tertiary referral center for pediatric urology having four consultants, one urologist specializes in laparoscopic renal surgery and about 50 laparoscopic ablative renal surgical procedures are performed annually. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the training provided, for three trainees, in light of the complexity of the ablative procedures performed. Patients who required laparoscopic ablative renal surgery from June 2003 to May 2004 were identified from the prospectively maintained database and data were analyzed. During this period of 12 months, 49 operations have been performed laparoscopically. There were three trainees, A, B and C, who joined the mentor, at different times, for a continuous period of 6, 12 and 6 weeks, respectively. The training was one to one and, at an appropriate level of expertise, the trainees were allowed to perform operations independently; they continued to do so after returning to their units. There were 22 males and 27 females, age ranging from 8 months to 16 years (mean 3.6 years). There were 25 nephrectomies, 23 via the prone retroperitoneal (PRP) approach and two via the transperitoneal (TP) approach; the mean time taken was 70 min. There were 12 nephroureterectomies, six via the PRP, three via the TP, and the other three via the lateral retroperitoneal (LRP) approach; the mean time taken was 100 min. There were 10 heminephroureterectomies (six upper pole and four lower pole), six via the PRP, three via the TP and one via the LRP approach; the mean time taken was 160 min. Of two bilateral nephrectomies one was via the PRP and one the TP approach, and the mean time taken was 170 min. The mean time to

  7. Welcome to cultural competency: surgery's efforts to acknowledge diversity in residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Catherine L; Chun, Maria B J

    2013-01-01

    Although cultural competency is not a new concept in healthcare, it has only recently been formally embraced as important in the field of surgery. All physicians, including and especially surgeons, must acknowledge the potential influence of culture in order to provide effective and equitable care for patients of all backgrounds. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) recognizes cultural competency as a component of "patient care," "professionalism," and "interpersonal and communication skills." A systematic literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. All publications focusing on surgical residents and the assessment of patient care, professionalism, interpersonal and communication skills, or specifically cultural competency and/or were considered. This initial search resulted in 12 articles. To further refine the review, publications discussing curricula in residencies other than surgery, the assessment of technical, or clinical skills and/or without any explicit focus on cultural competency were excluded. Based on the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria, 5 articles were selected. These studies utilized various methods to improve surgical residents' cultural competency, including lectures, Objective Structural Clinical Examinations (OSCE), and written exercises and evaluations. A number of surgical residency programs have made promising strides in training culturally competent surgeons. Ultimately, in order to maximize our collective efforts to improve the quality of health care, the development of cultural competency curricula must be made a priority and such training should be a requirement for all trainees in surgical residency programs. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Science of Selection: Using Best Practices From Industry to Improve Success in Surgery Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Aimee K; Grantcharov, Teodor; Dunkin, Brian J

    2017-07-24

    The selection of high-quality applicants is critical to the future of surgery. However, it is unclear if current practices meet industry criteria of a successful selection system, as measured by administrative efficiency and performance and attrition of those selected. We performed a modified systematic review process to gain an understanding of current selection processes, remediation practices, and attrition rates in surgery residency training programs in the United States. We also conducted semistructured interviews with local residency program directors and coordinators to obtain a specific snapshot of the amount of time and resources dedicated to these activities in various sized programs. The associated financial costs of these activities are also presented. The administrative costs for current residency selection processes are substantial, ranging from $45,000 to $148,000 for each program per year. Approximately 30% of residents require at least 1 remediation intervention, costing programs $3400 to $5300 per episode, and typically involve concerns around nontechnical skills. Attrition rates range from 20% to 40%. This review suggests that additional methodologies may allow surgery residency programs to identify best-fit candidates more efficiently and effectively, while also decreasing remediation and attrition rates. Possible solutions include incorporation of structured interviews, personality inventories, and situational judgment tests. Resources dedicated to current interview practices, remediation efforts, and attrition management can be redirected to support these methodologies. By applying the science of selection and assessment to the recruitment process, programs may be able to make more data-driven decisions to identify candidates who will be successful at their institution. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Surgery training of gynecologic residents: master and student in the operating room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathat, G; Hoa, D; Gagnayre, R; Hoffet, M; Mares, P

    2008-02-01

    Describe the surgical training of gynecologic residents in the operating room, by collecting the opinion of French gynecologists. A questionnaire investigating this subject was put on a web site. Every French gynecologist could answer the questionnaire from a duration of six months. The data of the inquiry were studied by comparing five groups: residents (group 1), fellows (group 2), seniors of public hospital (group 3), and seniors of private hospitals (group 4), or, groups 2, 3 and 4 together, as Group A. Six hundred and fifty-seven gynecologists answered the inquiry. For the residents, lack of time and senior's weak educational motivation are the explanations most frequently retained in order to explain that residents do not operate. For group A, it is rather the residents' skills which is the most important fact to have residents operate. Residents more often practice surgery in general public hospital that in faculty hospital. For 31% of all the referees, heads of departments do not incite their teams to have residents operate. Nearly 25% of all the investigated believe that a man operates more than a woman in resident curriculum. Besides, by analyzing the answers of groups 1 and 2, we were able to correlate resident seniority at their first practice of 13 surgical operations. For 26% of the group A, residents operate less than they do during their own studies. Finally, all the investigated confirm the lack of surgical assessment in the resident curriculum. Decision to let the resident operate remains too dependent on senior personal appreciation and does not seem to join a strategy of training. Opinions of surgical training in the operating room is different between residents and seniors. Operating time increases when residents operate but there is no effect on quality of care. These results show again the necessity of a formal teaching and assessment, in a resident program with objectives, collecting every resident's surgery volume. These educational

  10. Lay further emphasis on the research of translational medicine in burn surgery%进一步重视烧伤领域转化医学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡大海; 王洪涛

    2013-01-01

    Translational medicine is an emerging arena in the 21st century,and it bridges research results of basic sciences to clinical applications.The importance of translational research attracted considerable concern of scientists worldwide,including clinicians and researchers in the field of burn surgery in China.This review highlights some key points on translational medicine practised in the basic and clinical research of burn surgery,and they are summarized here as:the motive of the research project should be focused on how to solve problems of patients; much attention should be drawn to the difference between the cell biology and biochemical reaction in vitro and that in vivo; an animal model which simulates human pathology as much as possible should be reproduced; collaboration and sharing of resources among different disciplines should be strengthened;national and standardized criteria should be established for evaluation of the experimental result and guiding for clinical application.The aforementioned suggestions would be helpful for the application of new medicine and therapeutic approach in treating severe burn.

  11. Newly Established Cardiac Surgery Clinic: Results of First 195 Cases At Diyarbakır Training and Research Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Kocabeyoğlu, Sinan Sabit; Çetin, Erdem; Özyüksel, Arda; Kutaş, Barış; Çalışkan, Ahmet; Özdemir, Ferit; Paç, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to present the early results of 195 heart surgery procedures performed in a newly established cardiovascular clinic at Diyarbakır Training and Research Hospital. METHODS: Between June 2009-June 2011, 195 consecutive patients were evaluated retrospectively. A total of 144 cases of coronary artery bypass surgery has been applied; in 43 of them beating heart was performed, in four patients simultaneous carotid endarterectomy was performed. Valve replacement ...

  12. Design and evaluation of safety operation VR training system for robotic catheter surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Guo, Shuxiang; Li, Yaxin; Tamiya, Takashi; Song, Yu

    2017-06-30

    A number of remote robotic catheter systems have been developed to protect physicians from X-ray exposure in endovascular surgery. However, the teleoperation prevents the physicians sensing the force directly which may easily result in healthy vessels injured. To realize the safe operation, a tissue protection-based VR training system has been developed in this paper to prevent collateral damage by collision. The integrated VR simulator cannot only remind the novice possible collisions by visual signs, but also cooperate with the newly designed tissue protection mechanism to remit collision trauma beforehand. Such mechanism exploits the diameter variable pulley in order to implement the safe interaction between catheter and vasculature. To testify the effectiveness of the tissue protection in training system, we invited four non-medical students to participate the successive 5 days training session. The evaluation results show that the average impingement distance (representing tissue damage) to vascular wall has been reduced to 0.6 mm, and the collision frequency is greatly decreased which implies the realization of relative safe catheterization.

  13. Is current surgery resident and GI fellow training adequate to pass FES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Aimee K; Scott, Daniel J; Willis, Ross E; Van Sickle, Kent; Truitt, Michael S; Uecker, John; Brown, Kimberly M; Marks, Jeffrey M; Dunkin, Brian J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the adequacy of current surgical residency and gastroenterology (GI) fellowship flexible endoscopy training as measured by performance on the FES examination. Fifth-year general surgery residents and GI fellows across six institutions were invited to participate. All general surgery residents had met ACGME/ABS case volume requirements as well as additional institution-specific requirements for endoscopy. All participants completed FES testing at the end of their respective academic year. Procedure volumes were obtained from ACGME case logs. Curricular components for each specialty and institution were recorded. Forty-eight (28 surgery and 20 GI) trainees completed the examination. Average case numbers for residents were 76 ± 26 colonoscopies and 45 ± 12 EGDs. Among GI fellows, PGY4 s (N = 10) reported 99 ± 64 colonoscopies and 147 ± 79 EGDs. PGY5 s (N = 3) reported 462 ± 307 colonoscopies and 411 ± 260 EGDs. PGY6 GI fellows (N = 7) reported 515 ± 111 colonoscopies and 418 ± 146 EGDs. The overall pass rate for all participants was 75 %, with 68 % of residents and 85 % of fellows passing both the cognitive and skills components. For surgery residents, pass rates were 75 % for manual skills and 85.7 % for cognitive. On the skills examination, Task 2 (loop reduction) was associated with the lowest performance. Skills scores correlated with both colonoscopy (r = 0.46, p < 0.001) and EGD experience (r = 0.46, p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristics curves were examined among the resident cohort. The minimum number of total cases associated with passing the FES skills component was 103. Significant variability existed in curricular components across institutions. These data suggest that current flexible endoscopy training may not be sufficient for all trainees to pass the examination. Implementing additional components of the FEC may prove beneficial in achieving more uniform pass

  14. Complex Spine Pathology Simulator: An Innovative Tool for Advanced Spine Surgery Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragnaniello, Cristian; Abou-Hamden, Amal; Mortini, Pietro; Colombo, Elena V; Bailo, Michele; Seex, Kevin A; Litvack, Zachary; Caputy, Anthony J; Gagliardi, Filippo

    2016-11-01

    Background Technical advancements in spine surgery have made possible the treatment of increasingly complex pathologies with less morbidity. Time constraints in surgeons' training have made it necessary to develop new training models for spine pathology. Objective To describe the application of a novel compound, Stratathane resin ST-504 derived polymer (SRSDP), that can be injected at different spinal target locations to mimic spinal epidural, subdural extra-axial, and intra-axial pathologies for the use in advanced surgical training. Material and Methods Fresh-frozen thoracolumbar and cervical spine segments of human and sheep cadavers were used to study the model. SRSDP is initially liquid after mixing, allowing it to be injected into target areas where it expands and solidifies, mimicking the entire spectrum of spinal pathologies. Results Different polymer concentrations have been codified to vary adhesiveness, texture, spread capability, deformability, and radiologic visibility. Polymer injection was performed under fluoroscopic guidance through pathology-specific injection sites that avoided compromising the surgical approach for subsequent excision of the artificial lesion. Inflation of a balloon catheter of the desired size was used to displace stiff cadaveric neurovascular structures to mimic pathology-related mass effect. Conclusion The traditional cadaveric training models principally only allow surgeons to practice the surgical approach. The complex spine pathology simulator is a novel educational tool that in a user-friendly, low-cost fashion allows trainees to practice advanced technical skills in the removal of complex spine pathology, potentially shortening some of the aspects of the learning curve of operative skills that may otherwise take many years to acquire.

  15. Instituting Learning-By-Doing Practices in Training Programs for Technical Writers, Usability Testers, and Translators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Isohella, Suvi; Mara, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract - This workshop focuses on how to implement and grow highly successful and realistic learning-by-doing approaches to teaching and training professional communicators by connecting students from across the globe and across academic language programs. Workshop participants learn the methods...

  16. A 31-day time to surgery compliant exercise training programme improves aerobic health in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boereboom, C L; Phillips, B E; Williams, J P; Lund, J N

    2016-06-01

    Over 41,000 people were diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) in the UK in 2011. The incidence of CRC increases with age. Many elderly patients undergo surgery for CRC, the only curative treatment. Such patients are exposed to risks, which increase with age and reduced physical fitness. Endurance-based exercise training programmes can improve physical fitness, but such programmes do not comply with the UK, National Cancer Action Team 31-day time-to-treatment target. High-intensity interval training (HIT) can improve physical performance within 2-4 weeks, but few studies have shown HIT to be effective in elderly individuals, and those who do employ programmes longer than 31 days. Therefore, we investigated whether HIT could improve cardiorespiratory fitness in elderly volunteers, age-matched to a CRC population, within 31 days. This observational cohort study recruited 21 healthy elderly participants (8 male and 13 female; age 67 years (range 62-73 years)) who undertook cardiopulmonary exercise testing before and after completing 12 sessions of HIT within a 31-day period. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) (23.9 ± 4.7 vs. 26.2 ± 5.4 ml/kg/min, p = 0.0014) and oxygen consumption at anaerobic threshold (17.86 ± 4.45 vs. 20.21 ± 4.11 ml/kg/min, p = 0.008) increased after HIT. It is possible to improve cardiorespiratory fitness in 31 days in individuals of comparable age to those presenting for CRC surgery.

  17. Does gender impact on female doctors'experiences in the training and practice of surgery? A single centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoetok, F; Van Wyk, J M; Madiba, T E

    2017-09-01

    Surgery has been identified as a male-dominated specialty in South Africa and abroad. This study explored how female registrars perceived the impact of gender on their training and practice of surgery. A self-administered questionnaire was used to explore whether females perceived any benefits to training in a male-dominated specialty, their choice of mentors and the challenges that they encountered during surgical training. Thirty-two female registrars participated in the study. The respondents were mainly South African (91%) and enrolled in seven surgical specialties. Twenty-seven (84%) respondents were satisfied with their training and skills development. Twenty-four (75%) respondents had a mentor from the department. Seventeen (53%) respondents perceived having received differential treatment due to their gender and 25 (78.2%) thought that the gender of their mentor did not impact on the quality of the guidance received in surgery. Challenges included physical threats to female respondents from patients and disrespect, emotional threats and defaming statements from male registrars. Additional challenges included time-constraints for family and academic work, poor work-life balance and being treated differently due to their gender. Seventeen (53%) respondents would consider teaching in the Department of Surgery. Generally, females had positive perceptions of their training in Surgery. They expressed concern about finding and maintaining a work-life balance. The gender of their mentor did not impact on the quality of the training but 'bullying' from male peers and selected supervisors occurred. Respondents will continue to recommend the specialty as a satisfying career to young female students.

  18. Stylistics in Translation Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmkjaer, Kirsten

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that trainee translators can be helped to move between the basic and advanced stages of training through practice in collocational translational stylistics. Describes the method and outlines its differences from monolingual stylistics. Illustrates the method with an example. (HB)

  19. Single incision laparoscopic surgery – is it time for laboratory skills training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaski, Dariusz; Makarewicz, Wojciech; Bobowicz, Maciej; Kobiela, Jarosław; Nateghi, Behzad; Proczko, Monika; Madejewska, Ilona; Gruca, Zbigniew; Śledzinski, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Introduction With the introduction of new surgical equipment, there is always the need for new, more advanced training. The authors try to answer whether the use of the newest generation tools has an impact on achieving better results in single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) technique during the exercises in the surgical skills laboratory. Material and methods There were 51 participants in the study: 44 ‘novices’ and 7 ‘experts’. All subjects performed the ‘advanced grasping’ exercise according to the FLS programme manual using four types of laparoscopic approach including two SILS ports and SILS-dedicated instruments. The outcome measures involved task completion time and the number of errors. Results Tasks using straight laparoscopic instruments set together with classic three-port access as well as SILS access ports were finished significantly faster when compared with SILS-dedicated instruments (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in performance times between the two setups with straight instruments (p < 0.05) and both setups with SILS-dedicated instruments, irrespective of the use of curved or dynamic articulated tools. Students with no previous laparoscopic experience had significantly worse task completion times in all tasks in comparison to students with laparoscopic laboratory training and the ‘experts’ group. Conclusions The use of the straight instruments in the SILS technique remain similar to its performance in full triangulation. SILS-dedicated instruments paradoxically increase the task completion time irrespective of possessed skills. The study showed the necessity of a SILS-dedicated tools training programme. PMID:24130635

  20. Hypnosis-induced mental training improves performance on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Gideon; Arnon, Zahi; Laniado, Monica; Schiff, Elad; Matter, Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    Mental training (MT) is used extensively by musicians and athletes to improve their performance. Recently, it has been suggested as a training method for surgical trainees. We assessed the influence of MT, induced by hypnosis, on the performance of simulated tasks on a laparoscopic simulator, as compared to a non-specific relaxing intervention. 11 surgeons completed a proficiency-based training program on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) simulator, until they reached performance plateau of the peg transfer task. Thereafter, they received a single music session, as a relaxing intervention, followed by repeating of the peg transfer task. Then they went through a hypnosis session guided by an experienced psychologist, with suggestions of smooth flow of pegs from one position on the board to another, and re-performed the task. Plateau performance was 51.1 ± 6.9 s. After the music session performance improved by 6.3% to 47.9 ± 5.4 s (p = 0.86). After the MT session performance further improved by 15.3% to 40.1 ± 5.8 s (p = 0.009), which was a 21.6% improvement from baseline (p Hypnosis-induced MT significantly improves performance on the FLS simulator, which cannot be attributed to its relaxing qualities alone. This study contributes evidence to the effectiveness of MT in surgical skills acquisition and suggests that hypnotic techniques should be used in mental preparation processes. There is a need to further study these effects on operating room performance.

  1. Establishment of an operating room committee and a training program to improve aseptic techniques for rodent and large animal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héon, Hélène; Rousseau, Nathalie; Montgomery, Jane; Beauregard, Gilles; Choiniére, Manon

    2006-11-01

    Investigators of our research facility generally accept the concept of asepsis as an important component of adequate surgical care for animals. However, they experience difficulties putting it into practice, especially in the case of rodents. The reasons for this are inconvenience, cost, and lack of training. To better assist investigators in the implementation of aseptic surgical techniques in their laboratories, we have created an Operating Room (OR) Committee modeled after OR committees found in human hospitals. A reconstructive surgeon, a veterinarian, a research scientist, a nurse involved in the training of OR personnel, interns, graduate students, and an animal health technician were chosen as committee members in light of their OR and animal care expertise. The first task of the OR Committee was to establish institutional guidelines for aseptic surgery, taking into account the costs imposed on research budgets by these procedures. The OR Committee also supports a complete training program in aseptic surgery techniques, which consists of lectures, a training manual, videos, and a practical course. Furthermore, when experimental procedures require specialized equipment, the OR Committee collaborates with researchers to develop strategies to achieve asepsis. This OR Committee and the training program proved to be important tools to promote and improve the quality of animal care during surgery.

  2. 3D-printed pediatric endoscopic ear surgery simulator for surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Samuel R; Kozin, Elliott D; Dedmon, Matthew; Lin, Brian M; Lee, Kyuwon; Sinha, Sumi; Black, Nicole; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-11-01

    Surgical simulators are designed to improve operative skills and patient safety. Transcanal Endoscopic Ear Surgery (TEES) is a relatively new surgical approach with a slow learning curve due to one-handed dissection. A reusable and customizable 3-dimensional (3D)-printed endoscopic ear surgery simulator may facilitate the development of surgical skills with high fidelity and low cost. Herein, we aim to design, fabricate, and test a low-cost and reusable 3D-printed TEES simulator. The TEES simulator was designed in computer-aided design (CAD) software using anatomic measurements taken from anthropometric studies. Cross sections from external auditory canal samples were traced as vectors and serially combined into a mesh construct. A modified tympanic cavity with a modular testing platform for simulator tasks was incorporated. Components were fabricated using calcium sulfate hemihydrate powder and multiple colored infiltrants via a commercial inkjet 3D-printing service. All components of a left-sided ear were printed to scale. Six right-handed trainees completed three trials each. Mean trial time (n = 3) ranged from 23.03 to 62.77 s using the dominant hand for all dissection. Statistically significant differences between first and last completion time with the dominant hand (p < 0.05) and average completion time for junior and senior residents (p < 0.05) suggest construct validity. A 3D-printed simulator is feasible for TEES simulation. Otolaryngology training programs with access to a 3D printer may readily fabricate a TEES simulator, resulting in inexpensive yet high-fidelity surgical simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multimedia Exercise Training Program Improves Distance Walked, Heart Rate Recovery, and Self-efficacy in Cardiac Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Wei; Ou, Shu-Hua; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Chang, Yue-Cune; Kao, Chi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Patient education has been shown to be more effective when delivered using multimedia than written materials. However, the effects of using multimedia to assist patients in cardiac rehabilitation have not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of an inpatient multimedia exercise training program on distance walked in the 6-minute walking test (6MWT), heart rate recovery, and walking self-efficacy of patients who had undergone heart surgery. For this longitudinal quasi-experimental study, 60 consecutive patients were assigned to an experimental (n = 20; inpatient multimedia exercise training program) or control (n = 40; routine care) group. Data were collected at 3 times (before surgery, 1 to 2 days before hospital discharge, and 1 month after hospital discharge) and analyzed with the generalized estimating equation approach. Most subjects were men (66.7%), had a mean age of 61.32 ± 13.4 years and left ventricular ejection fraction of 56.96% ± 13.28%, and underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (n = 34, 56.7%). Subjects receiving the exercise training program showed significantly greater improvement than those in the control group in the 6MWT walking distance (P surgery and maintained their improvement in 6MWT and self-efficacy 1 month later.

  4. [What Must the (Abdominal) Surgeon Know about Experimental Medicine (?) - Translational Research in General (Abdominal) Surgery(Viszeral-)Chirurg & experimentelle Medizin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, T; Kuester, D; Meyer, F

    2015-08-01

    Experimental medicine has evolved tremendously in the last few years. In particular, the introduction of novel techniques, in-vitro models, knock-out/transgenic animals and high-through put analytical methodologies have resulted in a deeper understanding of cellular pathophysiology and diseases. The daily clinical management has benefited by the introduction of biomarkers and targeted therapies. This development has been accompanied by increasing specialisation across all fields of research and medicine. Therefore, clinical-translational research requires a team of competent partners nowadays. The visceral surgeon can contribute significantly to these projects. The present review highlights several aspects of translational research and put chances and potential pitfalls into perspective in context with the work of the visceral surgeon.

  5. Intrafraction Prostate Translations and Rotations During Hypofractionated Robotic Radiation Surgery: Dosimetric Impact of Correction Strategies and Margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Steven van de, E-mail: s.vandewater@erasmusmc.nl [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Valli, Lorella [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Alma Mater Studiorum, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna University, Bologna (Italy); Aluwini, Shafak [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lanconelli, Nico [Alma Mater Studiorum, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna University, Bologna (Italy); Heijmen, Ben; Hoogeman, Mischa [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric impact of intrafraction prostate motion and the effect of robot correction strategies for hypofractionated CyberKnife treatments with a simultaneously integrated boost. Methods and Materials: A total of 548 real-time prostate motion tracks from 17 patients were available for dosimetric simulations of CyberKnife treatments, in which various correction strategies were included. Fixed time intervals between imaging/correction (15, 60, 180, and 360 seconds) were simulated, as well as adaptive timing (ie, the time interval reduced from 60 to 15 seconds in case prostate motion exceeded 3 mm or 2° in consecutive images). The simulated extent of robot corrections was also varied: no corrections, translational corrections only, and translational corrections combined with rotational corrections up to 5°, 10°, and perfect rotational correction. The correction strategies were evaluated for treatment plans with a 0-mm or 3-mm margin around the clinical target volume (CTV). We recorded CTV coverage (V{sub 100%}) and dose-volume parameters of the peripheral zone (boost), rectum, bladder, and urethra. Results: Planned dose parameters were increasingly preserved with larger extents of robot corrections. A time interval between corrections of 60 to 180 seconds provided optimal preservation of CTV coverage. To achieve 98% CTV coverage in 98% of the treatments, translational and rotational corrections up to 10° were required for the 0-mm margin plans, whereas translational and rotational corrections up to 5° were required for the 3-mm margin plans. Rectum and bladder were spared considerably better in the 0-mm margin plans. Adaptive timing did not improve delivered dose. Conclusions: Intrafraction prostate motion substantially affected the delivered dose but was compensated for effectively by robot corrections using a time interval of 60 to 180 seconds. A 0-mm margin required larger extents of additional rotational corrections than a 3

  6. Sensory modulation and trauma-informed-care knowledge transfer and translation in mental health services in Victoria: Evaluation of a statewide train-the-trainer intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvedy, Samantha; Maguire, Tessa; Furness, Trentham; McKenna, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Sensory modulation (SM) and trauma-informed-care (TIC) are therapeutic strategies which can help avoid incidents of aggression and thus reduce the use of restrictive interventions in mental health settings. In order to educate mental health nurses and allied health professionals in these strategies, a train-the-trainer intervention was developed and delivered to 19 area mental health services as a statewide, government funded program. This descriptive qualitative study evaluated the effectiveness of the intervention to: a) transfer knowledge; and, b) translate knowledge into practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with senior staff (n = 21); focus group discussions with trainees (n = 10); and, a paired in-depth interview with master trainers (n = 2). In total, 170 trainees attended two day train-the-trainer sessions. Many trainees were not in education roles. Most services facilitated further knowledge transfer to end-user clinicians, though training materials were often adapted. End-users' responses to SM/TIC training were generally positive to the training, but some were resistant to the change in practice. Limited anecdotal evidence of translation of SM/TIC into practice was provided. Ongoing support is required to maintain a focus on SM and TIC, sustain and encourage further knowledge transfer and translation, and assess the impact on consumer and staff health outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Translator awareness Translator awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Wilss

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness. If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness.

  8. Respiratory Muscle Training in Patients Recovering Recent Open Cardiothoracic Surgery: A Randomized-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Crisafulli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and feasibility of an expiratory muscle training (EMT device (Respilift applied to patients recovering from recent open cardiothoracic surgery (CTS. Design. Prospective, double-blind, 14-day randomised-controlled trial. Participants and Setting. A total of 60 inpatients recovering from recent CTS and early admitted to a pulmonary rehabilitation program. Interventions. Chest physiotherapy plus EMT with a resistive load of 30 cm H2O for active group and chest physiotherapy plus EMT with a sham load for control group. Measures. Changes in maximal expiratory pressure (MEP were considered as primary outcome, while maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP, dynamic and static lung volumes, oxygenation, perceived symptoms of dyspnoea, thoracic pain, and well being (evaluated by visual analogic scale—VAS and general health status were considered secondary outcomes. Results. All outcomes recorded showed significant improvements in both groups; however, the change of MEP (+34.2 mmHg, and +26.1%, for absolute and % of predicted, resp. was significantly higher in active group. Also VAS dyspnoea improved faster and more significantly ( at day 12, and 14 in active group when compared with control. The drop-out rate was 6%, without differences between groups. Conclusions. In patients recovering from recent CTS, specific EMT by Respilift is feasible and effective. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01510275.

  9. Evaluation of resident's training for endoscopic sinus surgery using a sheep's head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Vargas, Beatriz; Romero-Salazar, Azucena Lloris; Reyes Burneo, Pablo M; Vásquez Hincapie, Catalina; de Los Santos Granado, Gonzalo; Del Castillo López, Raúl; Frágola Arnau, Claudio; Cobeta Marco, Ignacio

    2016-08-01

    Training in functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is an essential part of each ENT resident and it takes place on a very fragile area. This study focus on showing the learning curve of FESS, using an anatomical model such as the sheep's head. Four residents in our centre performed dissections. Each of these residents operated eight sheep's head. They performed an endoscopic septoplasty followed by maxillary antrostomy, total ethmoidectomy and frontal sinusotomy on every head. A staff member guided all procedures and checked for the appropriate dissection and complications occurred. Analysis was made upon the residents' performance of their first four septoplasties and eight nasal sides against their subsequent performance of the same. Final procedures presented better outcomes than the initial ones on every step of them. Results were measured by means of decrease of time (P < 0.0001) and complications, showing no major complications on the latest ones. Sheep's head is a suitable substitute for the cadaveric human head, to obtain the surgical skills needed for FESS procedures. Sheep's nasal cavity allows gaining dexterity and it is an easy model to obtain.

  10. Effect of the full implementation of the European Working Time Directive on operative training in adult cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Balakrishnan; Sharples, Linda; Codispoti, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Surgical specialties rely on practice and apprenticeship to acquire technical skills. In 2009, the final reduction in working hours to 48 per week, in accordance with the European Working Time Directive (EWTD), has also led to an expansion in the number of trainees. We examined the effect of these changes on operative training in a single high-volume [>1500 procedures/year] adult cardiac surgical center. Setting: A single high-volume [>1500 procedures/year] adult cardiac surgical center. Design: Consecutive data were prospectively collected into a database and retrospectively analyzed. Procedures and Main Outcome Measures: Between January 2006 and August 2010, 6688 consecutive adult cardiac surgical procedures were analyzed. The proportion of cases offered for surgical training were compared for 2 non-overlapping consecutive time periods: 4504 procedures were performed before the final implementation of the EWTD (Phase 1: January 2006-December 2008) and 2184 procedures after the final implementation of the EWTD (Phase 2: January 2009-August 2010). Other predictors of training considered in the analysis were grade of trainee, logistic European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE), type of surgical procedure, weekend or late procedure, and consultant. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of training cases (procedure performed by trainee) and to evaluate the effect of the EWTD on operative surgical training after correcting for confounding factors. Proportion of training cases rose from 34.6% (1558/4504) during Phase 1 to 43.6% (953/2184) in Phase 2 (p surgery other than coronary artery bypass grafts. Implementation of the final phase of EWTD has not decreased training in a high-volume center. The positive adjustment of trainers' attitudes and efforts to match trainees' needs allow maintenance of adequate training, despite reduction in working hours and increasing patients' risk profile. Copyright © 2014 Association of

  11. Impact of aerobic exercise training on heart rate variability and functional capacity in obese women after gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, Viviane; Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; Bassi, Daniela; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2011-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern on a global scale. Bariatric surgery is among the treatment options, resulting in significant and sustainable weight loss as well as amelioration of comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a 12-week aerobic exercise program positively impacts heart rate variability (HRV) and functional capacity after gastric bypass surgery (GBS) in a female cohort. Of the 52 patients initially recruited, 21 were randomized to a training group (TG) or control group and successfully completed the study. Patients were tested on two occasions: 1 week before GBS and 4 months after GBS. Anthropometric variables, body composition, record of heart rate and R-R intervals, and 6-min walk test (6MWT) were assessed at both time points. The TG underwent an aerobic exercise training program on a treadmill (1-h session, totaling 36 sessions over 12 weeks). The main findings from this study were: (1) only the TG demonstrated a significant increase (p heart rate variability (HRV) after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training and (2) only the TG demonstrated a significant increase (p exercise training. We conclude that 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training improves cardiac autonomic modulation and functional capacity 4 months after GBS.

  12. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... best performed by a trained surgeon with specialized education and training. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, ...

  13. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... best performed by a trained surgeon with specialized education and training. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, ...

  14. 基于 TRADOS 机辅翻译实验室的笔译实训模式研究%Research on Translation Vocational Training Mode in TRADOS Computer Aided Translation Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春渝; 杨小虎

    2016-01-01

    The development of computer aided translation provides a new direction for professional translation teaching re-form.This paper elaborates on the application of task-based teaching and project-based learning in translation vocational training in computer aided translation laboratory.It aims at improving students′self-learning and collaborative learning abili-ty and enhancing students′information literacy and professional ethics to explore new modes of cooperation between universi-ty and enterprises in foreign language majors.%计算机辅助翻译技术的发展为职业化的笔译教学改革提供了新的方向。文章研究应用任务教学法与项目教学法开展基于机辅翻译实验室的笔译实训教学,以期达到改善学生自主学习和协作学习的能力,增强学生信息素养和职业素养,探索外语专业校企合作培养的新模式。

  15. Where have all the cardiothoracic surgery residents gone? Placement of graduating residents by United States thoracic surgery training programs, 1998 to 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Grayson H; Lee, Richard

    2006-01-01

    We studied the evolving job placement trends of graduating cardiothoracic surgery residents over a 5-year period from the perspective of the program director. Graduate placement questionnaires were sent to program directors of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited United States thoracic surgery residency programs (n = 92). Program directors were asked to categorize the type of job that each resident chose upon graduation (1998-2002). Of the program directors surveyed, 71.7% (66/92) responded, representing 76.4% (545/714) of the total graduating resident population during the study period. Three-year training programs constituted 24.2% (16/66) of the respondents and accounted for 20.2% (110/545) of the graduates. Annually, graduates most commonly chose private practice jobs. Between 2001 and 2002, the percentage of graduates entering fellowships increased (11.8% [13/110] versus 19.1% [21/110], P = .008) as the percentage of graduates choosing private practice positions decreased (56.4% [62/110] versus 45.5% [50/110], P = .15). In total, 12.8% (70/545) of the graduates pursued fellowships, with associated specialty choices being: 38.6% (27/70) adult cardiac, 37.1% (26/70) congenital, 15.7% (11/70) transplantation, and 8.6% (6/70) thoracic. There were no significant differences between 2-year and 3-year training program graduates in choice of private practice versus academic jobs. In 2002, a greater percentage of graduates chose to pursue fellowship training at the expense of private practice employment. This difference may in part result from fewer employment opportunities rather than graduate choice. Ongoing studies are needed to follow this trend. Annual analysis of the placement of all graduating residents would help to identify changes in employment.

  16. Training satisfaction and work environment in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck surgery: a comparison between France and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oker, Natalie; Escabasse, Virginie; Pensky, Helge; Alotaibi, Naif; Coste, Andre; Albers, Andreas E

    2014-09-01

    With the coalescing of Europe, increased mobility of professionals emerges. Initiatives to harmonize medical education were launched. In Otolaryngology, Head and Neck surgery (ORL) an European board examination was created to ensure standards. Quality of training, satisfaction and quality of life of residents and recent ORL specialists were compared to assess different aspects of work and hierarchical relationships in France (FRA) and Germany (GER) by means of an anonymous questionnaire. 120 FRA and 125 GER questionnaires were included. 78 % of respondents were residents. 86 % would choose the same training again. In both countries, a majority felt well considered with responsibilities adapted to their level of training and with supportive supervisors. Germans reported average daily work hours of 9.6 versus 11 in FRA with compensated overtime (76 %) and a possibility of part-time work (62 %), both nearly inexistent in FRA. In GER, the day-off after duty was more often respected. French attributed their seniors better pedagogic skills, taking time for explanations and providing better teaching. Offering a good training was a more important objective in French training centers (77 vs. 51 %). In both countries, surgical training relied on coaching. Research activities were comparable. The overall satisfaction with ORL training was high. Differences concerned structure of training, guidance by senior doctors and the working conditions. The study results provide guidance before choosing a program and may help to improve current training by identifying positive aspects that, if combined could lead to a convergence of programs. However, present high standards of education must be maintained.

  17. Depictions and minifiction: a reflection on translation of micro-story as didactics of sign language interpreters training in colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Giovanny Barreto; Román Santiago Artunduaga

    2015-01-01

    The article presents reflections on methodological translation-practice approach to sign language interpreter’s education focus in communicative competence. Implementing translation-practice approach experience started in several workshops of the Association of Translators and Interpreters of Sign Language of Colombia (ANISCOL) and have now formalized in the bachelor in education degree project in signed languages, develop within Research Group UMBRAL from National Open University and Distanc...

  18. Seamless Translation of Optical Fiber PolMux-OFDM into a 2x2 MIMO Wireless Transmission Enabled by Digital Training-Based Fiber-Wireless Channel Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a 2 × 2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless over fiber transmission system. Seamless translation of two orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals on dual optical polarization states into wireless MIMO transmission at 795.5 Mbit/s net data rate...... is enabled by using digital training-based channel estimation. A net spectral efficiency of 2.55 bit/s/Hz is achieved....

  19. Development of a standardised training curriculum for robotic surgery: a consensus statement from an international multidisciplinary group of experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kamran; Khan, Reenam; Mottrie, Alexandre; Lovegrove, Catherine; Abaza, Ronny; Ahlawat, Rajesh; Ahlering, Thomas; Ahlgren, Goran; Artibani, Walter; Barret, Eric; Cathelineau, Xavier; Challacombe, Ben; Coloby, Patrick; Khan, Muhammad S; Hubert, Jacques; Michel, Maurice Stephan; Montorsi, Francesco; Murphy, Declan; Palou, Joan; Patel, Vipul; Piechaud, Pierre-Thierry; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Rischmann, Pascal; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Siemer, Stefan; Stoeckle, Michael; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Terrier, Jean-Etienne; Thüroff, Joachim W; Vaessen, Christophe; Van Der Poel, Henk G; Van Cleynenbreugel, Ben; Volpe, Alessandro; Wagner, Christian; Wiklund, Peter; Wilson, Timothy; Wirth, Manfred; Witt, Jörn; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2015-07-01

    To explore the views of experts about the development and validation of a robotic surgery training curriculum, and how this should be implemented. An international expert panel was invited to a structured session for discussion. The study was of a mixed design, including qualitative and quantitative components based on focus group interviews during the European Association of Urology (EAU) Robotic Urology Section (ERUS) (2012), EAU (2013) and ERUS (2013) meetings. After introduction to the aims, principles and current status of the curriculum development, group responses were elicited. After content analysis of recorded interviews generated themes were discussed at the second meeting, where consensus was achieved on each theme. This discussion also underwent content analysis, and was used to draft a curriculum proposal. At the third meeting, a quantitative questionnaire about this curriculum was disseminated to attendees to assess the level of agreement with the key points. In all, 150 min (19 pages) of the focus group discussion was transcribed (21 316 words). Themes were agreed by two raters (median agreement κ 0.89) and they included: need for a training curriculum (inter-rater agreement κ 0.85); identification of learning needs (κ 0.83); development of the curriculum contents (κ 0.81); an overview of available curricula (κ 0.79); settings for robotic surgery training ((κ 0.89); assessment and training of trainers (κ 0.92); requirements for certification and patient safety (κ 0.83); and need for a universally standardised curriculum (κ 0.78). A training curriculum was proposed based on the above discussions. This group proposes a multi-step curriculum for robotic training. Studies are in process to validate the effectiveness of the curriculum and to assess transfer of skills to the operating room. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. 基于翻译课程改革的人才培养新模式%On the New Training Mode of C-E Translation Talents Based upon the Reform of English Translation Curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    綦连胜

    2014-01-01

    With CAESPO permanently settling in Nanning, it has brought a rare opportunity for Guangxi development, on the other hand, it also has put forward higher requirements for the training model C-E translation. In order to speed up the training of translation, the curriculum design, classroom teaching models and translation teaching methods of translation should be re-formed correspondly to adapt the development of time. The originality of the paper lies in the construction of the following three teaching models with specific needs respectively:autonomous teaching, task-based cooperative inquiry teaching model, the inter-active teaching mode.%中国一东盟博览会永久落户南宁,给广西的发展带来难得的机遇,对翻译人才的培养也提出了更高的要求。这就要求高校革新翻译课程设置,创新翻译课堂教学模式。签于此,该文提出以下三种翻译课堂教学模式:以学生为主体的自主式翻译课堂教学模式、以教学任务为中心的任务合作探究型翻译课堂教学模式、师生互动的启发式翻译课堂教学模式。每一种翻译课堂教学模式都有其特定的内涵与要求。

  1. The value of haptic feedback in conventional and robot-assisted minimal invasive surgery and virtual reality training: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meijden, O A J; Schijven, M P

    2009-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR) as surgical training tool has become a state-of-the-art technique in training and teaching skills for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Although intuitively appealing, the true benefits of haptic (VR training) platforms are unknown. Many questions about haptic feedback in the different areas of surgical skills (training) need to be answered before adding costly haptic feedback in VR simulation for MIS training. This study was designed to review the current status and value of haptic feedback in conventional and robot-assisted MIS and training by using virtual reality simulation. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using PubMed and MEDLINE. The following search terms were used: Haptic feedback OR Haptics OR Force feedback AND/OR Minimal Invasive Surgery AND/OR Minimal Access Surgery AND/OR Robotics AND/OR Robotic Surgery AND/OR Endoscopic Surgery AND/OR Virtual Reality AND/OR Simulation OR Surgical Training/Education. The results were assessed according to level of evidence as reflected by the Oxford Centre of Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. In the current literature, no firm consensus exists on the importance of haptic feedback in performing minimally invasive surgery. Although the majority of the results show positive assessment of the benefits of force feedback, results are ambivalent and not unanimous on the subject. Benefits are least disputed when related to surgery using robotics, because there is no haptic feedback in currently used robotics. The addition of haptics is believed to reduce surgical errors resulting from a lack of it, especially in knot tying. Little research has been performed in the area of robot-assisted endoscopic surgical training, but results seem promising. Concerning VR training, results indicate that haptic feedback is important during the early phase of psychomotor skill acquisition.

  2. Cataract surgery: factors influencing decision to treat and implications for training (south-east Scotland 2008–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sniatecki JJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jan J Sniatecki, Caroline Styles, Natalie Boyle, Roshini Sanders Cataract Unit, Queen Margaret Hospital, Dunfermline, Fife, UK Purpose: To describe the population referred for cataract surgery, identify factors that influenced decision to treat, and patients suitable for ophthalmic training. Patients and methods: A total of 2,693 consecutive referrals over 6 years were interrogated using Business Objects software on cataract electronic patient records. Results: A total of 2,693 patients were referred for cataract surgery (group A. Of these patients 2,132 (79% had surgery (group B and 561 (21% did not (group C. Age for group B vs group C: 672 (32% vs 115 (20% ≤69 years, P<0.001; 803 (38% vs 225 (40% 70–79 years, P=0.48; 586 (27% vs 203 (36% 80–89 years, P<0.05; 71 (3% vs 18 (3% ≥90 years, P=1.0. Visual acuity, group B vs group C: 556 (26% vs 664 (59% 6/12 or better; 1,275 (60% vs 367 (33% 6/18–6/60; 266 (12% vs 64 (6% counting fingers or worse, P<0.05. Medical history for group B vs C: cognitive impairment: 55 (2.6% vs 29 (5.2%, P<0.05; cardiovascular accident: 158 (7.4% vs 60 (10.7%, P<0.05; diabetes: 372 (17.4% vs 96 (17.1%, P=0.87; COPD/asthma: 382 (17.9% vs 93 (16.6%, P=0.53; heart disease: 535 (25.1% vs 155 (27.6%, P=0.35; hypertension: 971 (45.5% vs 263 (46.9%, P=0.73. Ocular history for group B vs C was significant (P<0.05 for age-related macular degeneration 255 (12.0% vs 93 (16.6%, other macular pathology 38 (1.8% vs 25 (4.5%, corneal pathology 92 (4.3% vs 36 (6.4%, amblyopia 37 (1.7% vs 22 (3.9%. Detailed data on presenting complaint, ophthalmic history, and social status is discussed. Conclusion: We observed that surgery at a younger age with good levels of visual acuity was a factor in deferring cataract surgery. Cognitive impairment, cardiovascular accident, amblyopia, corneal and macular pathology significantly affected decision not to operate. We estimate that 80% of patients would be suitable for ophthalmic training

  3. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...... implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  4. Translating Words, Translating Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Whitaker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available What exactly does (or should translation from one language into another try to do? Attempt to convey to readers of the target language (the language into which one is translating something of the strangeness, difference and historicity of the original in the source language (the language from which one is translating? Or must translation try to bridge the gap between source and target language, by rendering the original in a thoroughly contemporary style and diction, as if this were a work being written now for the first time? And related to these the further questions: how closely should a translation render the genre, language, metre, style and content of the original? How far can a translation depart from the original without ceasing to be a translation – in other words, where is one to situate the border between “translation”, “version” and “adaptation”?

  5. An outbreak of Fusarium solani endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in an eye training and research hospital in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngel, Hülya; Eren, Mümin Hakan; Pınarcı, Eylem Yaman; Altan, Ciğdem; Baylançiçek, Deniz Oygar; Kara, Necip; Gürsel, Tanıl; Yegenoğlu, Yildiz; Susever, Serdar

    2011-11-01

    To report an outbreak of Fusarium solani endophthalmitis after uneventful cataract surgeries performed on the same day in the same operating room. Nine patients underwent phacoemulsification at 4th Clinic of Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul. Cefuroxime axetyl was injected intracamerally from the same vial to all patients at the end of surgery. All patients developed acute postoperative endophthalmitis. Presentation, cultural studies, treatment, clinical responses and risk factors were evaluated. Cultural and DNA sequence findings revealed F. solani. Antifungal therapy was begun and pars plana vitrectomy, intraocular lens and capsule extraction were performed. Corneal involvement was correlated with old age and systemic disease. Fusarium solani should be considered in acute postoperative endophthalmitis. This infection can be controlled with early and aggressive combined antifungal and surgical treatment. The patients with corneal involvement had poor prognosis. It is important to use solutions prepared separately for each patient. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Progressive resistance training and stretching following surgery for breast cancer: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Leigh C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently 1 in 11 women over the age of 60 in Australia are diagnosed with breast cancer. Following treatment, most breast cancer patients are left with shoulder and arm impairments which can impact significantly on quality of life and interfere substantially with activities of daily living. The primary aim of the proposed study is to determine whether upper limb impairments can be prevented by undertaking an exercise program of prolonged stretching and resistance training, commencing soon after surgery. Methods/design We will recruit 180 women who have had surgery for early stage breast cancer to a multicenter single-blind randomized controlled trial. At 4 weeks post surgery, women will be randomly assigned to either an exercise group or a usual care (control group. Women allocated to the exercise group will perform exercises daily, and will be supervised once a week for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8 weeks, women will be given a home-based training program to continue indefinitely. Women in the usual care group will receive the same care as is now typically provided, i.e. a visit by the physiotherapist and occupational therapist while an inpatient, and receipt of pamphlets. All subjects will be assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 6 months later. The primary measure is arm symptoms, derived from a breast cancer specific questionnaire (BR23. In addition, range of motion, strength, swelling, pain and quality of life will be assessed. Discussion This study will determine whether exercise commencing soon after surgery can prevent secondary problems associated with treatment of breast cancer, and will thus provide the basis for successful rehabilitation and reduction in ongoing problems and health care use. Additionally, it will identify whether strengthening exercises reduce the incidence of arm swelling. Trial Registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Australian Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN012606000050550.

  7. Can primary health care staff be trained in basic life-saving surgery?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-03

    Aug 3, 2012 ... those who can provide basic surgery and anesthesia in order to compensate for .... and essays 1985 – 1990, Epistemology and Learning. Research Group, the Media Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ablex Pub.

  8. Building up careers in translational neuroscience and mental health research: Education and training in the Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapado-Castro, Marta; Pazos, Ángel; Fañanás, Lourdes; Bernardo, Miquel; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Leza, Juan Carlos; Berrocoso, Esther; de Arriba, Jose; Roldán, Laura; Sanjuán, Julio; Pérez, Victor; Haro, Josep M; Palomo, Tomás; Valdizan, Elsa M; Micó, Juan Antonio; Sánchez, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2015-01-01

    The number of large collaborative research networks in mental health is increasing. Training programs are an essential part of them. We critically review the specific implementation of a research training program in a translational Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health in order to inform the strategic integration of basic research into clinical practice to have a positive impact in the mental health system and society. Description of training activities, specific educational programs developed by the research network, and challenges on its implementation are examined. The Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health has focused on training through different activities which have led to the development of an interuniversity master's degree postgraduate program in mental health research, certified by the National Spanish Agency for Quality Evaluation and Accreditation. Consolidation of training programs within the Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health has considerably advanced the training of researchers to meet competency standards on research. The master's degree constitutes a unique opportunity to accomplish neuroscience and mental health research career-building within the official framework of university programs in Spain.

  9. The Effect of Additional Virtual Reality Training on Balance in Children with Cerebral Palsy after Lower Limb Surgery: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyns, Pieter; Pans, Liene; Plasmans, Kaat; Heyrman, Lieve; Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy

    2017-02-01

    Impaired balance is disabling for children with cerebral palsy (CPc), especially for CPc who recently underwent lower limb surgery. Positive results of using virtual reality (VR) in balance rehabilitation have been published in several outpatient populations. We investigated the feasibility of applying additional VR training focused on sitting balance in CP inpatients of a rehabilitation center after lower limb surgery. Additionally, we investigated the rate of enjoyment of VR training compared with conventional physiotherapy. Eleven spastic CPc (4/7 males/females) following rehabilitation after lower limb orthopedic surgery were included (5-18 years). The control group received conventional physiotherapy. The intervention group received additional VR training. Balance was measured using the Trunk Control Measurement Scale every 3 weeks of the rehabilitation period. Enjoyment was analyzed using a 10-point Visual Analog Scale. Providing additional VR training was feasible in terms of recruitment, treatment adherence, and assessment adherence. Both groups improved sitting balance after therapy. The current games were not perceived as more enjoyable than conventional physiotherapy. Including additional VR training to conventional physiotherapy is feasible and might be promising to train sitting balance in CPc after lower limb surgery. Future research should take equal patient allocation and training duration between groups into consideration.

  10. Augmentation of motor evoked potentials using multi-train transcranial electrical stimulation in intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring during spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Shunji; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Minamide, Akihito; Nakagawa, Yukihiro; Nishi, Hideto; Yoshida, Munehito

    2015-02-01

    Transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs) are widely used to monitor motor function during spinal surgery. Improvements in transcranial stimulation techniques and general anesthesia have made it possible to record reliable and reproducible potentials. However, TcMEPs are much smaller in amplitude compared with compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) evoked by maximal peripheral nerve stimulation. In this study, multi-train transcranial electrical stimulation (mt-TES) was introduced to enhance TcMEPs, and the optimal setting of mt-TES was investigated. In 30 patients undergoing surgical correction of spinal deformities (4 males and 26 females with normal motor status; age range 11-75 years), TcMEPs from the abductor hallucis (AH) and quadriceps femoris (QF) were analyzed. A multipulse (train) stimulus with an individual pulse width of 0.5 ms and an inter-pulse interval of 2 ms was delivered repeatedly (2-7 times) at different rates (2, 5, and 10 Hz). TcMEP amplitudes increased with the number of train stimuli for AH, with the strongest facilitation observed at 5 Hz. The response amplitude increased 6.1 times on average compared with single-train transcranial electrical stimulation (st-TES). This trend was also observed in the QF. No adverse events (e.g., seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, scalp burns, accidental injury resulting from patient movement) were observed in any patients. Although several facilitative techniques using central or peripheral stimuli, preceding transcranial electrical stimulation, have been recently employed to augment TcMEPs during surgery, responses are still much smaller than CMAPs. Changing from conventional st-TES to mt-TES has potential to greatly enhance TcMEP responses.

  11. 微创手术时代胸外科进修医师培训体会%Experiences of Training Refresher Doctors in Thoracic Surgery in Minimally Invasive Surgery Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊唐; 梁朝阳; 刘阳

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery such as video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and robotic-assisted surgery have developed widely in thoracic surgery. In this minimally invasive surgery era, it is an important task to train refresher doctors learning thoracic minimally invasive surgery effectively and legally. Systematic employee orientation and "three basic"training including basal knowledge and basal theories, the basal skills are important foundations for clinical practice. At the same time, the teachers implemented minimally invasive surgery skills training step by step. Several study types by mobile internet were also recommended. During daily clinical practice, prevent and management of complication was trained. The training process was proved to shorten the learning curve signiifcantly and be an effective teaching method.%以胸腔镜和机器人外科为代表的微创手术逐步在胸外科普及,如何高效、规范地对进修医师进行微创手术技能培训是临床教学中一个重要课题。我们通过进行临床三基训练,分阶梯进行微创外科技能的训练,让进修医师接受互联网时代多种学习方式,以及进行并发症预防和处理的培训等,提高了学习效率,缩短了学习曲线,是一种值得推广的临床教学方法。

  12. Virtual reality training for improving the skills needed for performing surgery of the ear, nose or throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piromchai, Patorn; Avery, Alex; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Kennedy, Gregor; O'Leary, Stephen

    2015-09-09

    Virtual reality simulation uses computer-generated imagery to present a simulated training environment for learners. This review seeks to examine whether there is evidence to support the introduction of virtual reality surgical simulation into ear, nose and throat surgical training programmes. 1. To assess whether surgeons undertaking virtual reality simulation-based training achieve surgical ('patient') outcomes that are at least as good as, or better than, those achieved through conventional training methods.2. To assess whether there is evidence from either the operating theatre, or from controlled (simulation centre-based) environments, that virtual reality-based surgical training leads to surgical skills that are comparable to, or better than, those achieved through conventional training. The Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group (CENTDG) Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the CENTDG Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 6); PubMed; EMBASE; ERIC; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 27 July 2015. We included all randomised controlled trials and controlled trials comparing virtual reality training and any other method of training in ear, nose or throat surgery. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We evaluated both technical and non-technical aspects of skill competency. We included nine studies involving 210 participants. Out of these, four studies (involving 61 residents) assessed technical skills in the operating theatre (primary outcomes). Five studies (comprising 149 residents and medical students) assessed technical skills in controlled environments (secondary outcomes). The majority of the trials were at high risk of bias. We assessed the GRADE quality of evidence for most outcomes across studies as 'low'. Operating theatre environment (primary outcomes) In

  13. Current training on the basics of robotic surgery in the Netherlands: time for a multidisciplinary approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.; Angst, I. de; Schreuder, H.; Schout, B.M.A.; Draaisma, W.; Verweij, L.; Hendrikx, A.; Poel, H. van der

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The following research questions were answered: (1) What are the training pathways followed by the current robot professionals? (2) Are there any differences between the surgical specialties in robot training and robot use? (3) What is their opinion about multidisciplinary basic skills

  14. Current training on the basics of robotic surgery in the Netherlands: Time for a multidisciplinary approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Brinkman (Willem); I. de Angst (Isabel); H.W.R. Schreuder (Henk); B. Schout (Barbara); W.A. Draaisma (Werner); L.M. Verweij (Lisanne); A.J.M. Hendrikx (A. J M); H.G. van der Poel (Henk G.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The following research questions were answered: (1) What are the training pathways followed by the current robot professionals? (2) Are there any differences between the surgical specialties in robot training and robot use? (3) What is their opinion about multidisciplinary

  15. Current training on the basics of robotic surgery in the Netherlands: time for a multidisciplinary approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.; Angst, I. de; Schreuder, H.; Schout, B.M.A.; Draaisma, W.; Verweij, L.; Hendrikx, A.; Poel, H. van der

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The following research questions were answered: (1) What are the training pathways followed by the current robot professionals? (2) Are there any differences between the surgical specialties in robot training and robot use? (3) What is their opinion about multidisciplinary basic skills

  16. Current training on the basics of robotic surgery in the Netherlands: Time for a multidisciplinary approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Willem; de Angst, Isabel; Schreuder, Henk; Schout, Barbara; Draaisma, Werner; Verweij, Lisanne; Hendrikx, Ad; van der Poel, Henk

    Introduction The following research questions were answered: (1) What are the training pathways followed by the current robot professionals? (2) Are there any differences between the surgical specialties in robot training and robot use? (3) What is their opinion about multidisciplinary basic skills

  17. Current training on the basics of robotic surgery in the Netherlands: Time for a multidisciplinary approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Brinkman (Willem); I. de Angst (Isabel); H.W.R. Schreuder (Henk); B. Schout (Barbara); W.A. Draaisma (Werner); L.M. Verweij (Lisanne); A.J.M. Hendrikx (A. J M); H.G. van der Poel (Henk G.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The following research questions were answered: (1) What are the training pathways followed by the current robot professionals? (2) Are there any differences between the surgical specialties in robot training and robot use? (3) What is their opinion about multidisciplinary

  18. Stereoscopic Augmented Reality System for Supervised Training on Minimal Invasive Surgery Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matu, Florin-Octavian; Thøgersen, Mikkel; Galsgaard, Bo

    2014-01-01

    the need for efficient training. When training with the robot, the communication between the trainer and the trainee is limited, since the trainee often cannot see the trainer. To overcome this issue, this paper proposes an Augmented Reality (AR) system where the trainer is controlling two virtual robotic...

  19. Current training on the basics of robotic surgery in the Netherlands: Time for a multidisciplinary approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Willem; de Angst, Isabel; Schreuder, Henk|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815977; Schout, Barbara; Draaisma, Werner; Verweij, Lisanne; Hendrikx, Ad; van der Poel, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The following research questions were answered: (1) What are the training pathways followed by the current robot professionals? (2) Are there any differences between the surgical specialties in robot training and robot use? (3) What is their opinion about multidisciplinary basic skills

  20. Virtual vitreoretinal surgery: construction of a training programme on the Eyesi Surgical Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Grauslund, Jakob

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the construct validity of a full virtual reality vitreoretinal training program at the Eyesi Surgical simulator. Design and methods: A virtual vitreoretinal training program was composed on the Eyesi Surgical simulator, software version 2.9.2 (VRmagic...... GmbH, Manheim, Germany). It was completed twice by three groups: Group 1: Twenty medical students Group 2: Ten ophthalmology residents Group 3: Five vitreoretinal surgeons The program consisted of six training modules (Figure 1): Navigation level 2 (Nav2) Forceps Training level 5 (ForT5) Bimanual...... Training level 3 (BimT3) Laser Coagulation level 3 (LasC3) Posterior Hyaloid level 3 (PostH3) Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling level 3 (ILMP3). Construct validity for a module was obtained if the median score for Group 3 was higher than for Group 2, which in turn was higher than for Group 1.This...

  1. One or two trainees per workplace in a structured multimodality training curriculum for laparoscopic surgery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickel, Felix; Jede, Felix; Minassian, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    different approaches for optimal training outcome. However, no standards currently exist for the number of trainees assigned per workplace. Methods. This is a monocentric, open, three-arm randomized controlled trial. The participants are laparoscopically-naive medical students from Heidelberg University...... individual factors that might exert influence on training outcome. Discussion. This study aims to assess whether workplaces in laparoscopy training courses for beginners should be used by one trainee or two trainees simultaneously, by measuring the impact on operative performance and learning curves....... Possible factors of influence, such as the role of observing the training partner, exchange of thoughts, active reflection, model learning, motivation, pauses, and sympathy will be explored in the data analysis. This study will help optimize the efficiency of laparoscopy training courses. Trial...

  2. Lost in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    of translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior...... to the baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....

  3. Knowledge translation on dementia: a cluster randomized trial to compare a blended learning approach with a "classical" advanced training in GP quality circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rieger Monika A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thus far important findings regarding the dementia syndrome have been implemented into patients' medical care only inadequately. A professional training accounting for both, general practitioners' (GP needs and learning preferences as well as care-relevant aspects could be a major step towards improving medical care. In the WIDA-study, entitled "Knowledge translation on dementia in general practice" two different training concepts are developed, implemented and evaluated. Both concepts are building on an evidence-based, GP-related dementia guideline and communicate the guideline's essential insights. Methods/Design Both development and implementation emphasize a procedure that is well-accepted in practice and, thus, can achieve a high degree of external validity. This is particularly guaranteed through the preparation of training material and the fact that general practitioners' quality circles (QC are addressed. The evaluation of the two training concepts is carried out by comparing two groups of GPs to which several quality circles have been randomly assigned. The primary outcome is the GPs' knowledge gain. Secondary outcomes are designed to indicate the training's potential effects on the GPs' practical actions. In the first training concept (study arm A GPs participate in a structured case discussion prepared for by internet-based learning material ("blended-learning" approach. The second training concept (study arm B relies on frontal medical training in the form of a slide presentation and follow-up discussion ("classical" approach. Discussion This paper presents the outline of a cluster-randomized trial which has been peer reviewed and support by a national funding organization – Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF – and is approved by an ethics commission. The data collection has started in August 2006 and the results will be published independently of the study's outcome. Trial Registration Current

  4. Knowledge translation on dementia: a cluster randomized trial to compare a blended learning approach with a "classical" advanced training in GP quality circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmar, Horst C; Butzlaff, Martin E; Lefering, Rolf; Rieger, Monika A

    2007-06-22

    Thus far important findings regarding the dementia syndrome have been implemented into patients' medical care only inadequately. A professional training accounting for both, general practitioners' (GP) needs and learning preferences as well as care-relevant aspects could be a major step towards improving medical care. In the WIDA-study, entitled "Knowledge translation on dementia in general practice" two different training concepts are developed, implemented and evaluated. Both concepts are building on an evidence-based, GP-related dementia guideline and communicate the guideline's essential insights. Both development and implementation emphasize a procedure that is well-accepted in practice and, thus, can achieve a high degree of external validity. This is particularly guaranteed through the preparation of training material and the fact that general practitioners' quality circles (QC) are addressed. The evaluation of the two training concepts is carried out by comparing two groups of GPs to which several quality circles have been randomly assigned. The primary outcome is the GPs' knowledge gain. Secondary outcomes are designed to indicate the training's potential effects on the GPs' practical actions. In the first training concept (study arm A) GPs participate in a structured case discussion prepared for by internet-based learning material ("blended-learning" approach). The second training concept (study arm B) relies on frontal medical training in the form of a slide presentation and follow-up discussion ("classical" approach). This paper presents the outline of a cluster-randomized trial which has been peer reviewed and support by a national funding organization--Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)--and is approved by an ethics commission. The data collection has started in August 2006 and the results will be published independently of the study's outcome. Current Controlled Trials [ISRCTN36550981].

  5. Special training in maxillofacial surgery for medical students--economic burden or investment in the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Florian; Rommel, Niklas; Rohleder, Nils; Koerdt, Steffen; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Mitchell, David A; Kesting, Marco

    2015-12-01

    We measured the motivation and interest of medical students in oral and maxillofacial surgery at a German university. After a detailed cost-benefit analysis of a course that used an ex-vivo animal model and active participation in the operating theatre, we measured changes in the students' interest in taking up a surgical specialty in the future. We found that practical experience could lower the expenses of the course by almost 70%. Twenty per cent of students chose oral and maxillofacial surgery as an elective in their final year. These students could be residents one day.

  6. A study on visual outcomes after cataract surgery with intraocular lens implants at the rural health training center, Paithan, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K Domple

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the visual outcomes of patients after cataract surgery with intraocular lens implants with reference to visual acuity (VA and visual function (VF and to assess patient satisfaction with surgical outcome. The retrospective study was carried out using operation theatre records at the Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC, Paithan, during 2007. Out of 819 cataract surgery patients operated in 2007 a total of 50 were selected randomly. Door-to-door visits were paid by investigator and multipurpose worker to previously operated patients for VA examination and to fill predesigned questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS 17.0 Version; 50% patients had VA in fair vision range of <6/18-6/60 and 52% showed the VF in the range of 76-100. Of the 32 satisfied patients, majority were in the age group 70-79 years. The patients with good visual outcomes achieved after surgery would act as pamphlets for the community.

  7. Effects of preoperative inspiratory muscle training in obese women undergoing open bariatric surgery: respiratory muscle strength, lung volumes, and diaphragmatic excursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cangussu Barbalho-Moulim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether preoperative inspiratory muscle training is able to attenuate the impact of surgical trauma on the respiratory muscle strength, in the lung volumes, and diaphragmatic excursion in obese women undergoing open bariatric surgery. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Meridional Hospital, Cariacica/ES, Brazil. SUBJECTS: Thirty-two obese women undergoing elective open bariatric surgery were randomly assigned to receive preoperative inspiratory muscle training (inspiratory muscle training group or usual care (control group. MAIN MEASURES: Respiratory muscle strength (maximal static respiratory pressure - maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure, lung volumes, and diaphragmatic excursion. RESULTS: After training, there was a significant increase only in the maximal inspiratory pressure in the inspiratory muscle training group. The maximal expiratory pressure, the lung volumes and the diaphragmatic excursion did not show any significant change with training. In the postoperative period there was a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressure in both the groups. However, there was a decrease of 28% in the inspiratory muscle training group, whereas it was 47% in the control group. The decrease in maximal expiratory pressure and in lung volumes in the postoperative period was similar between the groups. There was a significant reduction in the measures of diaphragmatic excursion in both the groups. CONCLUSION: The preoperative inspiratory muscle training increased the inspiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory pressure and attenuated the negative postoperative effects of open bariatric surgery in obese women for this variable, though not influencing the lung volumes and the diaphragmatic excursion.

  8. Advances in Pediatric Surgical Education: A Critical Appraisal of Two Consecutive Minimally Invasive Pediatric Surgery Training Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gause, Colin D; Hsiung, Grace; Schwab, Ben; Clifton, Matthew; Harmon, Carroll M; Barsness, Katherine A

    2016-08-01

    Mandates for improved patient safety and increasing work hour restrictions have resulted in changes in surgical education. Educational courses increasingly must meet those needs. We sought to determine the experience, skill level, and the impact of simulation-based education (SBE) on two cohorts of pediatric surgery trainees. After Institutional Review Board (IRB) exempt determination, a retrospective review was performed of evaluations for an annual advanced minimally invasive surgery (MIS) course over 2 consecutive years. The courses included didactic content and hands-on skills training. Simulation included neonatal/infant models for rigid bronchoscopy-airway foreign body retrieval, laparoscopic common bile duct exploration, and real tissue diaphragmatic hernia (DH), duodenal atresia (DA), pulmonary lobectomy, and tracheoesophageal fistula models. Categorical data were analyzed with chi-squared analyses with t-tests for continuous data. Participants had limited prior advanced neonatal MIS experience, with 1.95 ± 2.84 and 1.16 ± 1.54 prior cases in the 2014 and 2015 cohorts, respectively. The 2015 cohort had significantly less previous experience in lobectomy (P = .04) and overall advanced MIS (P = .007). Before both courses, a significant percentage of participants were not comfortable with DH repair (39%-42%), DA repair (50%-74%), lobectomy (34%-43%), and tracheoesophageal fistula repair (54%-81%). After course completion, > 60% of participants reported improvement in comfort with procedures and over 90% reported that the course significantly improved their perceived ability to perform each operation safely. Pediatric surgery trainees continue to have limited exposure to advanced MIS during clinical training. SBE results in significant improvement in both cognitive knowledge and trainee comfort with safe operative techniques for advanced MIS.

  9. Effect of virtual reality training on laparoscopic surgery: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of virtual reality training on an actual laparoscopic operation. DESIGN: Prospective randomised controlled and blinded trial. SETTING: Seven gynaecological departments in the Zeeland region of Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 24 first and second year registrars specialising...... in gynaecology and obstetrics. INTERVENTIONS: Proficiency based virtual reality simulator training in laparoscopic salpingectomy and standard clinical education (controls). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was technical performance assessed by two independent observers blinded to trainee......-14 minutes) and in the control group was 24 (20-29) minutes (Pvirtual reality simulator training. The performance level of novices...

  10. Feasibility of Exercise Training in Cancer Patients Scheduled for Elective Gastrointestinal Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenet, Karin; Trappenburg, Jaap C A; Schippers, Carlo C; Wanders, Lisa; Lemmens, Lidwien; Backx, Frank J G; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study examines the feasibility of a preoperative exercise program to improve the physical fitness of a patient before gastrointestinal surgery. METHODS: An outpatient exercise program was developed to increase preoperative aerobic capacity, peripheral muscle endurance and respi

  11. Feasibility of Exercise Training in Cancer Patients Scheduled for Elective Gastrointestinal Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenet, Karin; Trappenburg, Jaap C.A.; Schippers, Carlo C.; Wanders, Lisa; Lemmens, Lidwien; Backx, Frank J.G.; Hillegersberg, van Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study examines the feasibility of a preoperative exercise program to improve the physical fitness of a patient before gastrointestinal surgery. Methods: An outpatient exercise program was developed to increase preoperative aerobic capacity, peripheral muscle endurance and re

  12. Identification of Best Practices for Resident Aesthetic Clinics in Plastic Surgery Training: The ACAPS National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scott Hultman, MD, MBA, FACS

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: RACs are an important component of plastic surgery education. Most clinics are financially viable but carry high malpractice risk and consume significant resources. Best practices, to maximize patient safety and optimize resident education, include use of accredited procedural rooms and direct faculty supervision of all components of care.

  13. Feasibility and Effectiveness of a Home-Based Exercise Training Program Before Lung Resection Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Coats

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with lung cancer often experience a reduction in exercise tolerance, muscle weakness and decreased quality of life. Although the effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation programs is well recognized in other forms of cancers and in many pulmonary diseases, few researchers have studied its impact in patients with lung cancer, particularly in those awaiting lung resection surgery (LRS.

  14. Training in laparoscopic colorectal surgery: A new educational model using specially embalmed human anatomical specimen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Slieker (Juliette); H. Theeuwes (Hilco); G.L. van Rooijen (Göran); J.F. Lange (Johan); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: With an increasing percentage of colorectal resections performed laparoscopically nowadays, there is more emphasis on training "before the job" on operative skills, including the comprehension of specific laparoscopic surgical anatomy. As integration of technical skills with

  15. Training in laparoscopic colorectal surgery: A new educational model using specially embalmed human anatomical specimen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Slieker (Juliette); H. Theeuwes (Hilco); G.L. van Rooijen (Göran); J.F. Lange (Johan); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: With an increasing percentage of colorectal resections performed laparoscopically nowadays, there is more emphasis on training "before the job" on operative skills, including the comprehension of specific laparoscopic surgical anatomy. As integration of technical skills with

  16. A serious game can be a valid method to train clinical decision-making in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graafland, Maurits; Vollebergh, Maarten F; Lagarde, Sjoerd M; van Haperen, M; Bemelman, Willem A; Schijven, Marlies P

    2014-12-01

    A serious game was developed to train surgical residents in clinical decision-making regarding biliary tract disease. Serious or applied gaming is a novel educational approach to postgraduate training, combining training and assessment of clinical decision-making in a fun and challenging way. Although interest for serious games in medicine is rising, evidence on its validity is lacking. This study investigates face, content, and construct validity of this serious game. Experts structurally validated the game's medical content. Subsequently, 41 participants played the game. Decision scores and decision speed were compared among surgeons, surgical residents, interns, and medical students, determining the game's discriminatory ability between different levels of expertise. After playing, participants completed a questionnaire on the game's perceived realism and teaching ability. Surgeons solved more cases correctly (mean 77 %) than surgical residents (67 %), interns (60 %), master-degree students (50 %), and bachelor-degree students (39 % (p game both realistic and useful for surgical training. The majority perceived the game as fun (91.2 %), challenging (85.3 %), and would recommend the game to educate their colleagues (81.8 %). This serious game showed clear discriminatory ability between different levels of expertise in biliary tract disease management and clear teaching capability. It was perceived as appealing and realistic. Serious gaming has the potential to increase adherence to training programs in surgical residency training and medical school.

  17. Translating China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  18. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the mo......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings.......Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented...

  19. Effects of preoperative inspiratory muscle training in obese women undergoing open bariatric surgery: respiratory muscle strength, lung volumes, and diaphragmatic excursion

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Cangussu Barbalho-Moulim; Gustavo Peixoto Soares Miguel; Eli Maria Pazzianotto Forti; Flavio do Amaral Campos; Dirceu Costa

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether preoperative inspiratory muscle training is able to attenuate the impact of surgical trauma on the respiratory muscle strength, in the lung volumes, and diaphragmatic excursion in obese women undergoing open bariatric surgery. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Meridional Hospital, Cariacica/ES, Brazil. SUBJECTS: Thirty-two obese women undergoing elective open bariatric surgery were randomly assigned to receive preoperative inspiratory muscle trainin...

  20. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  1. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding of the...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  2. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) ha...

  3. Lost in translation? A background to action research into teacher education and training in China through interpreters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin, Zeng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a background for action research in China. The context is a training programme for Chinese vocational practitioners led by British Teacher Educators, teaching through Chinese interpreters. Teacher education and training in China are outlined, and an author case study provided. Global trends in vocational education have been considered, and reference made to the Chinese government’s plans for reforming and developing education. The Vocational Education and Training (VET programmes have been summarised to set the scene for the action research that will be reported in a further paper, which will consider the ways in which teaching through interpretation affects both learning and teaching on these programmes. In this paper, the following terms apply: the trainer is the United Kingdom (UK Teacher Educator, the interpreter is the member of the Chinese university staff who interprets on the training programme and the teachers are the Chinese teachers attending the training.

  4. Guest Editorial: Training model for promoting translation from research to clinical settings: University of Alabama at Birmingham training for constraint-induced movement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Morris, PT, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acommon challenge in stroke rehabilitation research is the translation of research findings into the clinical setting. Multiple factors present obstacles to dissemination and adoption, including the complexity of the physical rehabilitation protocols and the shift in practice required by treatment philosophies that require innovative approaches.

  5. Comparison between Training Models to Teach Veterinary Medical Students Basic Laparoscopic Surgery Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Ohad; Michelotti, Kurt; Schmidt, Peggy; Lagman, Minette; Fahie, Maria; Griffon, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two different laparoscopic training models in preparing veterinary students to perform basic laparoscopic skills. Sixteen first- and second-year veterinary students were randomly assigned to a box trainer (Group B) or tablet trainer (Group T). Training and assessment for both groups included two tasks, "peg transfer" and "pattern cutting," derived from the well-validated McGill University Inanimate System for Training and Evaluation of Laparoscopic Skills. Confidence levels were compared by evaluating pre- and post-training questionnaires. Performance of laparoscopic tasks was scored pre- and post-training using a rubric for precision and speed. Results revealed a significant improvement in student confidence for basic laparoscopic skills (p<.05) and significantly higher scores for both groups in both laparoscopic tasks (p<.05). No significant differences were found between the groups regarding their assessment of the video quality, lighting, and simplicity of setup (p=.34, p=.15, and p=.43, respectively). In conclusion, the low-cost tablet trainer and the more expensive box trainer were similarly effective in preparing pre-clinical veterinary students to perform basic laparoscopic skills on a model.

  6. Choosing surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstensson, Carina; Lohmander, L; Frobell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective was to understand patients' views of treatment after acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and their reasons for deciding to request surgery despite consenting to participate in a randomised controlled trial (to 'cross-over'). METHODS: Thirty-four in......-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with young (aged 18-35), physically active individuals with ACL rupture who were participating in a RCT comparing training and surgical reconstruction with training only. 22/34 were randomised to training only but crossed over to surgery. Of these, 11 were interviewed...... before surgery, and 11 were interviewed at least 6 months after surgery. To provide additional information, 12 patients were interviewed before randomisation. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using the Framework approach. RESULTS: Strong preference for surgery was commonplace...

  7. [The competent surgeon. Bridging the gap between undergraduate final year and postgraduate surgery training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadmon, M; Ganschow, P; Gillen, S; Hofmann, H S; Braune, N; Johannink, J; Kühn, P; Buhr, H J; Berberat, P O

    2013-10-01

    Competency-based frameworks rely on relevant professional competency rather than formal regulations. The transitional phase between final year undergraduate and common trunk postgraduate medical training is characterized by an increase of professional responsibility whereby previously acquired knowledge, skills and abilities have to be merged and applied to patients. Undergraduate and postgraduate training programs should ensure a successive transfer of responsibility for medical practice to final year students and young residents depending on individual competence. The concept of entrustable professional activities (EPA) represents a curricular concept based on concrete medical tasks which may be assigned to the responsibility of the trainee.

  8. Team training to establish a safety culture in dialysis access surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ingemar; Widmer, Matthias K; Nolen, Billy; Ross, John; Slakey, Douglas P

    2015-01-01

    Operating room (OR) team safety training and learning in the field of dialysis access is well suited for the use of simulators, simulated case learning and root cause analysis of adverse outcomes. The objectives of OR team training are to improve communication and leadership skills, to use checklists and to prevent errors. Other objectives are to promote a change in the attitudes towards vascular access from learning through mistakes in a nonpunitive environment, to positively impact the employee performance and to increase staff retention by making the workplace safer, more efficient and user friendly. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Equity-oriented toolkit for health technology assessment and knowledge translation: application to scaling up of training and education for health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Peter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human resources for health are in crisis worldwide, especially in economically disadvantaged areas and areas with high rates of HIV/AIDS in both health workers and patients. International organizations such as the Global Health Workforce Alliance have been established to address this crisis. A technical working group within the Global Health Workforce Alliance developed recommendations for scaling up education and training of health workers. The paper will illustrate how decision-makers can use evidence and tools from an equity-oriented toolkit to scale up training and education of health workers, following five recommendations of the technical working group. The Equity-Oriented Toolkit, developed by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Knowledge Translation and Health Technology Assessment in Health Equity, has four major steps: (1 burden of illness; (2 community effectiveness; (3 economic evaluation; and (4 knowledge translation/implementation. Relevant tools from each of these steps will be matched with the appropriate recommendation from the technical working group.

  10. Development and validation of a sensor- and expert model-based training system for laparoscopic surgery: the iSurgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Karl-Friedrich; Hendrie, Jonathan D; Schmidt, Mona W; Garrow, Carly R; Bruckner, Thomas; Proctor, Tanja; Paul, Sai; Adigüzel, Davud; Bodenstedt, Sebastian; Erben, Andreas; Kenngott, Hannes; Erben, Young; Speidel, Stefanie; Müller-Stich, Beat P; Nickel, Felix

    2017-05-01

    Training and assessment outside of the operating room is crucial for minimally invasive surgery due to steep learning curves. Thus, we have developed and validated the sensor- and expert model-based laparoscopic training system, the iSurgeon. Participants of different experience levels (novice, intermediate, expert) performed four standardized laparoscopic knots. Instruments and surgeons' joint motions were tracked with an NDI Polaris camera and Microsoft Kinect v1. With frame-by-frame image analysis, the key steps of suturing and knot tying were identified and registered with motion data. Construct validity, concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability were analyzed. The Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) was used as the gold standard for concurrent validity. The system showed construct validity by discrimination between experience levels by parameters such as time (novice = 442.9 ± 238.5 s; intermediate = 190.1 ± 50.3 s; expert = 115.1 ± 29.1 s; p Concurrent validity of OSATS and iSurgeon parameters was established. Test-retest reliability was given for 7 out of 8 parameters. The key steps "wrapping the thread around the instrument" and "needle positioning" were most difficult to learn. Validity and reliability of the self-developed sensor-and expert model-based laparoscopic training system "iSurgeon" were established. Using multiple parameters proved more reliable than single metric parameters. Wrapping of the needle around the thread and needle positioning were identified as difficult key steps for laparoscopic suturing and knot tying. The iSurgeon could generate automated real-time feedback based on expert models which may result in shorter learning curves for laparoscopic tasks. Our next steps will be the implementation and evaluation of full procedural training in an experimental model.

  11. Effects of implementation of an urgent surgical care service on subspecialty general surgery training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Leanne; Buczkowski, Andrzej; Panton, Ormond M.N.; Sidhu, Ravi S.; Hameed, S. Morad

    2010-01-01

    Background In July 2007, a large Canadian teaching hospital realigned its general surgery services into elective general surgery subspecialty-based services (SUBS) and a new urgent surgical care (USC) service (also know in the literature as an acute care surgery service). The residents on SUBS had their number of on-call days reduced to enable them to focus on activities related to SUBS. Our aim was to examine the effect of the creation of the USC service on the educational experiences of SUBS residents. Methods We enrolled residents who were on SUBS for the 6 months before and after the introduction of the USC service. We collected data by use of a survey, WEB eVAL and recorded attendance at academic half days. Our 2 primary outcomes were residents’ attendance at ambulatory clinics and compliance with the reduction in the number of on-call days. Our secondary outcomes included residents’ time for independent study, attendance at academic half days, operative experience, attendance at multidisciplinary rounds and overall satisfaction with SUBS. Results Residents on SUBS had a decrease in the mean number of on-call days per resident per month from 6.28 to 1.84 (p = 0.006), an increase in mean attendance at academic half days from 65% to 87% (p = 0.028), at multidisciplinary rounds (p = 0.002) and at ambulatory clinics and an increase in independent reading time (p = 0.015), and they reported an improvement in their work environment. There was no change in the amount of time residents spent in the operating room or in their overall satisfaction with SUBS. Conclusion Residents’ education in the SUBS structure was positively affected by the creation of a USC service. Compliance with the readjustment of on-call duties was high and was identified as the single most significant factor in enabling residents to take full advantage of the unique educational opportunities available only while on SUBS. PMID:20334744

  12. Dental students’ perceptions of undergraduate clinical training in oral and maxillofacial surgery in an integrated curriculum in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Al-Dajani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim was to understand dental students’ experiences with oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS teaching, their confidence levels in performing routine dento-alveolar operations, and the relationship between the students’ confidence level and the number of teeth extracted during the clinical practice. Methods: The survey questionnaire was distributed to 32 students at Aljouf University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia during their fourth and fifth year in 2015. Respondents were asked to rate 19 items, which represent a student’s confidence in performing routine surgical interventions, using a four-point Likert scale (1=very little confidence, 4=very confident. A multivariate regression was computed between average confidence and the variables: weekly hours devoted to studying oral and maxillofacial surgery, college grade point average, and the total number of teeth extracted. Results: The response rate was 100%. Students revealed the highest level of confidence in giving local anesthesia (96.9%, understanding extraction indications (93.8%, and performing simple extractions (90.6%. Less confidence was shown with handling difficult extractions (50.0%, extracting molars with separation (50.0% or extracting third molars (56.3%. The average confidence in performing surgical procedures was 2.88 (SD=0.55, ranging from 1.79 to 3.89. A given student’s confidence increased with an increase in the total number of teeth extracted (P=0.003. Conclusion: It reveals a significant impact of undergraduate clinical training on students’ confidence in performing oral and maxillofacial surgery clinical procedures: The more clinical experience the students had, the more confidence they reported.

  13. Analysis of the pediatric orthopedic surgery questions on the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination, 2002 through 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Derek F; Ting, Beverlie L; Sargent, M Catherine; Frassica, Frank J

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric orthopedics has been a frequently tested topic on the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination (OITE). Our goal was to provide direction for resident education efforts by: (1) analyzing the exam's number, topics, and types of pediatric orthopedic surgery questions; (2) examining references cited in the postexam answer packet supplied by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; and (3) examining the efficacy of the Orthopaedic Knowledge Update (OKU): Pediatrics 3 book as a source for answers to the pediatric orthopedic questions. We reviewed 5 years (2002 through 2006) of OITEs and the associated American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons' answer packets and assessed the OKU: Pediatrics 3 book for topic relativity. Each question was classified into 1 of 6 categories and labeled with a cognitive taxonomy level: 1 (simple recall), 2 (interpretation of data), or 3 (advanced problem-solving). The 6 categories included: (1) pediatric orthopedic knowledge; (2) knowledge of treatment modalities; (3) diagnosis; (4) diagnosis with recognition of associated conditions; (5) diagnosis with further studies; and (6) diagnosis with treatment. The overall percentage of pediatric questions was 14.1%. The most commonly addressed were pediatric elbow fractures, osteomyelitis, and scoliosis. The most common question types were categories 1 (pediatric orthopedic knowledge) and 6 (diagnosis with treatment). The most frequently referenced textbooks were Lovell and Winter's Pediatric Orthopaedics (31%) and Tachdjian's Pediatric Orthopaedics (16%). The most frequently referenced journals were the Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics (American) (29%) and the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American) (19%). Using only the OKU: Pediatrics 3 review textbook, 65% of the questions could be answered. Knowledge of the topics more likely to be tested may help the orthopedic educator direct a didactic curriculum geared toward the OITE and American Board of Surgery examinations. Although the

  14. The effect of surgical training and hospital characteristics on patient outcomes after pediatric surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ceri; van Woerden, Hugo C

    2011-11-01

    A systematic review aimed to compare patient outcomes after (1) appendicectomy and (2) pyloromyotomy performed by different surgical specialties, surgeons with different annual volumes, and in different hospital types, to inform the debate surrounding children's surgery provision. Embase, Medline, Cochrane Library, and Health Management Information Consortium were searched from January 1990 to February 2010 to identify relevant articles. Further literature was sought by contacting experts, citation searching, and hand-searching appropriate journals. Seventeen relevant articles were identified. These showed that (1) rates of wrongly diagnosed appendicitis were higher among general surgeons, but there were little differences in other outcomes and (2) outcomes after pyloromyotomy were superior in patients treated by specialist surgeons. Surgical specialty was a better predictor of morbidity than hospital type, and surgeons with higher operative volumes had better results. Existing evidence is largely observational and potentially subject to selection bias, but general pediatric surgery outcomes were clearly dependent on operative volumes. Published evidence suggests that (1) pediatric appendicectomy should not be centralized because children can be managed effectively by general surgeons; (2) pyloromyotomy need not be centralized but should be carried out in children's units by appropriately trained surgeons who expect to see more than 4 cases per year. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. One or two trainees per workplace in a structured multimodality training curriculum for laparoscopic surgery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickel, Felix; Jede, Felix; Minassian, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    different approaches for optimal training outcome. However, no standards currently exist for the number of trainees assigned per workplace. Methods. This is a monocentric, open, three-arm randomized controlled trial. The participants are laparoscopically-naive medical students from Heidelberg University....... After a standardized introduction to laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with online learning modules, the participants perform a baseline test for basic skills and LC performance on a virtual reality (VR) trainer. A total of 100 students will be randomized into three study arms, in a 2:2:1 ratio...... training between tests. A post-test is performed to reassess basic skills and LC performance on the VR trainer. The performance of a cadaveric porcine LC is then measured as the primary outcome using standardized and validated ratings by blinded experts with the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical...

  16. Evaluation of a Pilot Project to Introduce Simulation-Based Team Training to Pediatric Surgery Trauma Room Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lehner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Several studies in pediatric trauma care have demonstrated substantial deficits in both prehospital and emergency department management. Methods. In February 2015 the PAEDSIM collaborative conducted a one and a half day interdisciplinary, simulation based team-training course in a simulated pediatric emergency department. 14 physicians from the medical fields of pediatric surgery, pediatric intensive care and emergency medicine, and anesthesia participated, as well as four pediatric nurses. After a theoretical introduction and familiarization with the simulator, course attendees alternately participated in six simulation scenarios and debriefings. Each scenario incorporated elements of pediatric trauma management as well as Crew Resource Management (CRM educational objectives. Participants completed anonymous pre- and postcourse questionnaires and rated the course itself as well as their own medical qualification and knowledge of CRM. Results. Participants found the course very realistic and selected scenarios highly relevant to their daily work. They reported a feeling of improved medical and nontechnical skills as well as no uncomfortable feeling during scenarios or debriefings. Conclusion. To our knowledge this pilot-project represents the first successful implementation of a simulation-based team-training course focused on pediatric trauma care in German-speaking countries with good acceptance.

  17. Postoperative outcomes following preoperative inspiratory muscle training in patients undergoing open cardiothoracic or upper abdominal surgery: protocol for a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mans Christina M; Reeve Julie C; Gasparini Catherine A; Elkins Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In patients undergoing open cardiothoracic and upper abdominal surgery, postoperative pulmonary complications remain an important cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality, impacting upon hospital length of stay and health care resources. Adequate preoperative respiratory muscle strength may help protect against the development of postoperative pulmonary complications and therefore preoperative inspiratory muscle training has been suggested to be of potential value in...

  18. Translating Means Translating Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕

    2000-01-01

    美国著名翻译理论家尤金·奈达说 :“翻译即译意 (Translating m eans translating m eaning)。”就实质而言 ,翻译即译意。就是把一种语言表达的意义用另一种语言表达出来。翻译分理解与表达两个步骤。理解是翻译的基础 ,表达直接决定译文的成败与优劣 ,两者缺一不可

  19. Human Translator and Translation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辰

    2016-01-01

    With the great development of technology, translation technology exerts great influence on human translators because during their translation process, they may use many computer-aided translation tools, such as TRADOS, Snowman, WordFisher and etc. However, they always misunderstand the concept of computer-aided translation, so this thesis managed to providedetails about some translation technology and human translators' strengths so as to help them improve the productivity and the quality of theirtranslation works effectively and efficiently.

  20. Program Factors That Influence American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination Performance: A Multi-Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jerry J; Gifford, Edward D; Moazzez, Ashkan; Sidwell, Richard A; Reeves, Mark E; Hartranft, Thomas H; Inaba, Kenji; Jarman, Benjamin T; Are, Chandrakanth; Galante, Joseph M; Amersi, Farin; Smith, Brian R; Melcher, Marc L; Nelson, M Timothy; Donahue, Timothy; Jacobsen, Garth; Arnell, Tracey D; Lee, Steven; Neville, Angela; de Virgilio, Christian

    2015-01-01

    To determine the influence of program strategies, such as program directors' (PD) attitudes about the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) and approach to ABSITE preparation, on residents' ABSITE performance. A 17-item questionnaire was sent to PDs at surgical residency programs. The questions were designed to elicit information regarding the educational curriculum, remediation protocols, and opinions relating to the ABSITE. Main outcome measure was categorical resident ABSITE percentile scores from the January 2014 examination. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t-test, analysis of variance, and linear regression as appropriate. The study was carried out at general surgery residency programs across the country. In total, 15 general surgery residency PDs participated in the study. The PD response rate was 100%. All 460 resident ABSITE scores from the 15 programs were obtained. In total, 10 programs (67%) identified as university affiliated, 4 programs (27%) as independent academic, and 1 program (7%) as hybrid. The mean number of residents per program was 30.7 (range: 15-57). In total, 14 PDs (93%) indicated that an ABSITE review curriculum was in place and 13 PDs (87%) indicated they had a remediation protocol for residents with low ABSITE scores (with differing thresholds of factors associated with higher ABSITE scores included tracking resident reading throughout the year (median 63rd percentile with tracking vs 59th percentile without, p = 0.040) and the type of remediation (by PD: 77th percentile, by PD and faculty: 57th percentile, faculty only: 64th percentile, with Surgical Education and Self-Assessment Program (SESAP): 63rd percentile, outside review course: 43rd percentile; p Factors not significantly associated with ABSITE performance included number of structured educational hours per week and frequency of ABSITE review sessions. Program factors appear to significantly influence ABSITE performance. Programs where

  1. Resistance training in the early postoperative phase reduces hospitalization and leads to muscle hypertrophy in elderly hip surgery patients--a controlled, randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Magnusson, S Peter; Rosted, Anna

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To better understand how immobilization and surgery affect muscle size and function in the elderly and to identify effective training regimes. DESIGN: A prospective randomized, controlled study. SETTING: Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty...... resistance training of the operated side (3/wk x 12 weeks). MEASUREMENTS: Hospital length of stay (LOS), quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), isokinetic muscle strength, and functional performance. Patients were tested presurgery and 5 and 12 weeks postsurgery. RESULTS: Mean+/-standard error LOS...... was shorter for the resistance training group (10.0+/-2.4 days, Pmuscle strength (22-28%, Pmuscle...

  2. Quality Improvement in Surgery Combining Lean Improvement Methods with Teamwork Training: A Controlled Before-After Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Robertson

    Full Text Available To investigate the effectiveness of combining teamwork training and lean process improvement, two distinct approaches to improving surgical safety. We conducted a controlled interrupted time series study in a specialist UK Orthopaedic hospital incorporating a plastic surgery team (which received the intervention and an Orthopaedic theatre team acting as a control.We used a 3 month intervention with 3 months data collection period before and after it. A combined teamwork training and lean process improvement intervention was delivered by an experienced specialist team. Before and after the intervention we evaluated team non-technical skills using NOTECHS II, technical performance using the glitch rate and WHO checklist compliance using a simple 3 point scale. We recorded complication rate, readmission rate and length of hospital stay data for 6 months before and after the intervention.In the active group, but not the control group, full compliance with WHO Time Out (T/O increased from 14 to 71% (p = 0.032, Sign Out attempt rate (S/O increased from 0% to 50% (p<0.001 and Oxford NOTECHS II scores increased after the intervention (P = 0.058. Glitch rate decreased in the active group and increased in the control group (p = 0.001. Complications and length of stay appeared to rise in the control group and fall in the active group.Combining teamwork training and systems improvement enhanced both technical and non-technical operating team process measures, and were associated with a trend to better safety outcome measures in a controlled study comparison. We suggest that approaches which address both system and culture dimensions of safety may prove valuable in reducing risks to patients.

  3. A serious game for off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery procedure training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Brent; Sabri, Hamed; Kapralos, Bill; Moussa, Fuad; Cristancho, Sayra; Dubrowski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    We have begun development of an interactive, multi-player serious game for the purpose of training cardiac surgeons, fellows, and residents the series of steps comprising the Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass grafting (OPCAB) surgical procedure. It is hypothesized that by learning the OPCAB procedure in a "first-person-shooter gaming environment", trainees will have a much better understanding of the procedure than by traditional learning modalities. The serious game will allow for simulation parameters related to levels of fidelity to be easily adjusted so that the effect of fidelity on knowledge transfer can be examined.

  4. Applying Educational Theory to Simulation-Based Training and Assessment in Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Sheila W

    2015-08-01

    Considerable progress has been made regarding the range of simulator technologies and simulation formats. Similarly, results from research in human learning and behavior have facilitated the development of best practices in simulation-based training (SBT) and surgical education. Today, SBT is a common curriculum component in surgical education that can significantly complement clinical learning, performance, and patient care experiences. Beginning with important considerations for selecting appropriate forms of simulation, several relevant educational theories of learning are described. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Struggling with Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This paper shows empirical how actors have difficulties with translating strategy texts. The paper uses four cases as different examples of what happens, and what might be difficult, when actors translate organizational texts. In order to explore this, it draws on a translation training method from...... translation theory. The study shows that for those who have produced the text, it is difficult to translate a strategy where they have to change the words so others who don’t understand the language in the text can understand it. It also shows that for those who haven’t been a part of the production, it very...... challenge the notion that actors understand all texts and that managers per se can translate a text....

  6. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  7. [Further training in the faculty of orthopedics and trauma surgery. Outstanding, average or insufficient?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, M; Stange, R; Niethard, M; Münzberg, M

    2013-01-01

    A well structured and executed and practical residency program is important to secure a sufficient number of well trained orthopedic surgeons in the future. Some of the residents, however, see substantial shortcomings here. Additionally, orthopedic residency programs struggle to be a valid alternative for graduated medical students when comparing them to residency programs in other medical specialities or alternative job options. In improving the current situation program directors as well as residents must play a key role. A rapid improvement of structural shortcomings of German residency programs does not only provide an advantage in recruiting new residents now, but may also help to maintain the high quality in orthopedic health care in the future.

  8. Training in Laparoscopic Gastric Cancer Surgery in the Western World: Current Educational Practices, Challenges, and Potential Opportunities at a Large University Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecso, Andras B; Bonrath, Esther M; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and understand how surgeons distribute tasks during a laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer in an academic teaching environment. An anonymous, cross-sectional, census survey was used to poll trainees' and staff members' opinions pertaining to laparoscopic gastrectomy. Academic and community tertiary teaching hospitals, affiliated with the University of Toronto. All surgeons, within the Department of General Surgery at the University of Toronto, who practice laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer, were invited to participate. All general surgery residents, postgraduate year 1-5, minimally invasive surgery and surgical oncology fellows at the University of Toronto were invited to participate. Overall response rate was 74.35% (n = 87/117). The results suggested that trainees do not routinely perform the major operative steps. Trainees agreed with faculty in this regard; however, there was a statistically significant difference in opinions, related to the degree of the perceived active operating of the trainees. There was also a difference in opinion, between trainees and faculty, regarding the common reasons for takeover. The present survey highlights that current level of active exposure of surgical trainees to laparoscopic gastric surgery might be insufficient. A lack of role clarity may further hinder an optimal educational experience during these cases. Adopting a stepwise approach, with task deconstruction, could optimize training. Additional training modalities may be required to ensure technical proficiency is acquired before independent practice. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Smart Sensor-Based Motion Detection System for Hand Movement Training in Open Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinyao; Byrns, Simon; Cheng, Irene; Zheng, Bin; Basu, Anup

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a smart sensor-based motion detection technique for objective measurement and assessment of surgical dexterity among users at different experience levels. The goal is to allow trainees to evaluate their performance based on a reference model shared through communication technology, e.g., the Internet, without the physical presence of an evaluating surgeon. While in the current implementation we used a Leap Motion Controller to obtain motion data for analysis, our technique can be applied to motion data captured by other smart sensors, e.g., OptiTrack. To differentiate motions captured from different participants, measurement and assessment in our approach are achieved using two strategies: (1) low level descriptive statistical analysis, and (2) Hidden Markov Model (HMM) classification. Based on our surgical knot tying task experiment, we can conclude that finger motions generated from users with different surgical dexterity, e.g., expert and novice performers, display differences in path length, number of movements and task completion time. In order to validate the discriminatory ability of HMM for classifying different movement patterns, a non-surgical task was included in our analysis. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach had 100 % accuracy in discriminating between expert and novice performances. Our proposed motion analysis technique applied to open surgical procedures is a promising step towards the development of objective computer-assisted assessment and training systems.

  10. Translating Others, Discovering Himself: Beckett as Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Gribben

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the work of Samuel Beckett in the light of his early work as a translator of the works of other writers.  In his translations for Negro: An Anthology (1934, the Anthology of Mexican Poetry (1958, or commissioned translations for journals such as “This Quarter”, early pre-figurings of Beckett’s own thematic and linguistic concerns abound.  Rarely viewed as more than acts of raising money for himself, Beckett’s acts of translation, examined chronologically, demonstrate a writer discovering his craft, and developing his unique voice, unencumbered by the expectations of originality.  This essay posits that Beckett’s works, with their distinctive voice and characterisation, owe much to the global perspective he gained through translating across cultural, continental divides, as well as experimenting with form, which became a staple of Beckett’s own work.  Without formal training or theoretical grounding in translation, Beckett utilises the act of translation as a means of finding himself, revisiting it as a means of shaping his own unique literary voice.

  11. Postoperative outcomes following preoperative inspiratory muscle training in patients undergoing open cardiothoracic or upper abdominal surgery: protocol for a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mans Christina M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients undergoing open cardiothoracic and upper abdominal surgery, postoperative pulmonary complications remain an important cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality, impacting upon hospital length of stay and health care resources. Adequate preoperative respiratory muscle strength may help protect against the development of postoperative pulmonary complications and therefore preoperative inspiratory muscle training has been suggested to be of potential value in improving postoperative outcomes. Methods/Design A systematic search of electronic databases will be undertaken to identify randomized trials of preoperative inspiratory muscle training in patients undergoing elective open cardiothoracic and upper abdominal surgery. From these trials, we will extract available data for a list of predefined outcomes, including postoperative pulmonary complications, hospital length of stay and respiratory muscle strength. We will meta-analyze comparable results where possible, and report a summary of the available pool of evidence. Discussion This review will provide the most comprehensive answer available to the question of whether preoperative inspiratory muscle training is clinically useful in improving postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing cardiothoracic and upper abdominal surgery. It will help inform clinicians working in the surgical arena of the likely effectiveness of instituting preoperative inspiratory muscle training programs to improve postoperative outcomes.

  12. Specific training for LESS surgery results from a prospective study in the animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovannni Scala Marchini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective to prospectively evaluate the ability of post-graduate students enrolled in a laparoscopy program of the Institute for Teaching and Research to complete single port total nephrectomies. Materials and Methods 15 post-graduate students were enrolled in the study, which was performed using the SILStm port system for single-port procedures. All participants were already proficient in total nephrectomies in animal models and performed a left followed by a right nephrectomy. Analyzed data comprised incision size, complications, and the time taken to complete each part of the procedure. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results All students successfully finished the procedure using the single-port system. A total of 30 nephrectomies were analyzed. Mean incision size was 3.61 cm, mean time to trocar insertion was 9.61 min and to dissect the renal hilum was 25.3 min. Mean time to dissect the kidney was 5.18 min and to complete the whole procedure was 39.4 min. Total renal hilum and operative time was 45.8% (p<0.001 and 38% (p=0.001 faster in the second procedure, respectively. Complications included 3 renal vein lesions, 2 kidney lacerations and 1 lesion of a lumbar artery. All were immediately identified and corrected laparoscopically through the single-port system, except for one renal vein lesion, which required the introduction an auxiliary laparoscopic port. Conclusion Laparoscopic single-port nephrectomy in the experimental animal model is a feasible but relatively difficult procedure for those with intermediate laparoscopic experience. Intraoperative complications might be successfully treated with the single-port system. Training aids reducing surgical time and improves outcomes.

  13. Discussion on Misunderstandings of Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎

    2008-01-01

    Translation is required as a compulsory course for English majors in many universities in China.With the development of globalization,a large number of translators are needed.Therefore, translation teaching is significant for the training of high-qualified translation personnel for the society.The purpose of this study is to give a basic introduction of the misunderstandings existing in translation teaching in China and to offer some advices in hope of promoting translation teaching in China.

  14. Discussion on Misunderstandings of Translation Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎

    2008-01-01

    Translation is required as a compulsory course for English majors in many universities in China. With the development of globalization, a large number of translators are needed. Therefore, translation teaching is significant for the training of high-qualified translation personnel for the society. The purpose of this study is to give a basic introduction of the misunderstandings existing in translation teaching in China and to offer some advices in hope of promoting translation teaching in China.

  15. Objective assessment of surgical performance and its impact on a national selection programme of candidates for higher surgical training in plastic surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Sean M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a transparent, fair and objective assessment programme for the selection of surgical trainees into higher surgical training (HST) in plastic surgery in the Republic of Ireland. METHODS: Thirty-four individuals applied for HST in plastic surgery at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) in the academic years 2005-2006 and 2006-2007. Eighteen were short-listed for interview and further assessment. All applicants were required to report on their undergraduate educational performance and their postgraduate professional development. Short-listed applicants completed validated objective assessment simulations of surgical skills, an interview and assessment of their suitability for a career in surgery. RESULTS: When applicants\\' short-listing scores were combined with their interview scores and assessment of their suitability for a career in surgery, individuals who were selected for HST in plastic surgery performed significantly better than those who were not (P<0.002). However, when the assessment of technical skills scores were added the significance level of this difference increased further (P<0.0001) as did the statistical power of the difference to 99.9%, thus increasing the robustness of the selection package. CONCLUSION: The results from this study suggest that the assessment protocol we used to select individuals for HST in plastic surgery reliably and statistically significantly discriminated between the performances of candidates.

  16. Effect of aerobic exercise and relaxation training on fatigue and physical performance of cancer patients after surgery. A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeo, Fernando C; Thomas, Frank; Raabe-Menssen, Cornelia; Pröpper, Felix; Mathias, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Fatigue is a frequent problem after surgical treatment of solid tumours. Aerobic exercise and psychosocial interventions have been shown to reduce the severity of this symptom in cancer patients. Therefore, we compared the effect of the two therapies on fatigue in a randomised controlled study. Seventy-two patients who underwent surgery for lung (n=27) or gastrointestinal tumours (n=42) were assigned to an aerobic exercise group (stationary biking 30 min five times weekly) or a progressive relaxation training group (45 min three times per week). Both interventions were carried out for 3 weeks. At the beginning and the end of the study, we evaluated physical, cognitive and emotional status and somatic complaints with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core Module (EORTC-QLQ-30) questionnaire, and maximal physical performance with an ergometric stress test. Physical performance of the training group improved significantly during the programme (9.4+/-20 watts, p=0.01) but remained unchanged in the relaxation group (1.5+/-14.8 watts, p=0.37). Fatigue and global health scores improved in both groups during the intervention (fatigue: training group 21%, relaxation group 19%; global health of both groups 19%, p for all training programme improves the physical performance of patients recovering from surgery for solid tumours. However, exercise is not better than progressive relaxation training for the treatment of fatigue in this setting.

  17. Quality assurance review of training in oral and maxillofacial surgery by the General Medical Council: areas of good practice, requirements, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Davinder P S; Dover, Michael Stephen; Lay, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to disseminate the outcome of the 2012/13 UK-wide quality assurance review of postgraduate training in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) by the General Medical Council (GMC), as part of its review of small specialties. OMF surgeons need to be aware of the evidence on which the conclusions are based, and to know about the strengths of the specialty and the areas for future development so that postgraduate training, and ultimately the outcomes for patients, can be improved. This paper, by the authors involved in the review, summarises the salient points and is not a verbatim report. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  19. Mental distress and effort to engage an image-guided navigation system in the surgical training of endoscopic sinus surgery: a prospective, randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoraki, M N; Ledderose, G J; Becker, S; Leunig, A; Arpe, S; Luz, M; Stelter, K

    2015-04-01

    The use of image-guided navigation systems in the training of FESS is discussed controversy. Many experienced sinus surgeons report a better spatial orientation and an improved situational awareness intraoperatively. But many fear that the navigation system could be a disadvantage in the surgical training because of a higher mental demand and a possible loss of surgical skills. This clinical field study investigates mental and physical demands during transnasal surgery with and without the aid of a navigation system at an early stage in FESS training. Thirty-two endonasal sinus surgeries done by eight different trainee surgeons were included. After randomization, one side of each patient was operated by use of a navigation system, the other side without. During the whole surgery, the surgeons were connected to a biofeedback device measuring the heart rate, the heart rate variability, the respiratory frequency and the masticator EMG. Stress situations could be identified by an increase of the heart rate frequency and a decrease of the heart rate variability. The mental workload during a FESS procedure is high compared to the baseline before and after surgery. The mental workload level when using the navigation did not significantly differ from the side without using the navigation. Residents with more than 30 FESS procedures already done, showed a slightly decreased mental workload when using the navigation. An additional workload shift toward the navigation system could not be observed in any surgeon. Remarkable other stressors could be identified during this study: the behavior of the supervisor or the use of the 45° endoscope, other colleagues or students entering the theatre, poor vision due to bleeding and the preoperative waiting when measuring the baseline. The mental load of young surgeons in FESS surgery is tremendous. The application of a navigation system did not cause a higher mental workload or distress. The device showed a positive effort to engage

  20. General surgery career resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsee, Ana M; Ross, Sharona B; Gantt, Nancy L; Kichler, Kandace; Hollands, Celeste

    2013-11-01

    General surgery residency training can lead to a rewarding career in general surgery and serve as the foundation for careers in several surgical subspecialties. It offers broad-based training with exposure to the cognitive and technical aspects of several surgical specialties and prepares graduating residents for a wide range of career paths. This career development resource discusses the training aspects of general surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 医学生外科学临床技能培训的思考%Thinking of Medical Students Clinical Skills Training of Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏华斌

    2015-01-01

    外科学是一门实践性很强的学科,而临床实习又是最关键阶段,在实习过程中,对学生的临床基本操作能力进行大力培训,包括实习前的岗前培训与考核、实习过程中的临床指导及外科综合手术培训,通过系统技能培训为培养具有创新精神、操作规范、技能娴熟的高级医学人才奠定基础。有效利用医院现有的教学资源,充分发挥教师的指导作用以及学生的主观能动性,切实有效地提高了教师临床技能培训的教学水平和医学生的综合素质。%Surgery is a very practical subject, and clinical practice is the most critical stage in the training process, the student's ability to perform basic operations vigorously clinical training, including practice before the pre-job training and assessment, training clinical guidance during surgery and surgical comprehensive training, skil s training through the system to cultivate the spirit of innovation, standardize operations, senior medical personnel skil ed foundation. The ef ective use of hospital existing teaching resources, give ful play to the initiative of teachers guidance and students,Ef ectively improve the comprehensive quality of the teachers teaching level and clinical skil s training for medical students.

  2. Translation Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The International Federation of Translators will hold its largest ever world congress in China on the eve of 2008 Olympic Games china’ s position as a powerhouse of the translation industry is to be cemented,

  3. Translating Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chevrel

    2007-07-01

    Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.

  4. teaching translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bolaños Cuéllar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The advance in cultural-oriented perspectives in Translation Studies has sometimes played down the text linguistic nature of translation. A pilot study in teaching translation was carried out to make students aware of the text linguistic character of translating and help them to improve their translation skills, particularly with an emphasis on self-awareness and self-correcting strategies. The theoretical background is provided by the Dynamic Translation Model (2004, 2005 proposed by the author, with relevant and important contributions taken from Genette’s (1982 transtextuality phenomena (hypertext, hypotext, metatext, paratext, intertext and House and Kasper’s (1981 pragmatic modality markers (downgraders, upgraders. The key conceptual role of equivalence as a defining feature of translation is also dealt with. The textual relationship between Source Language Text (slt is deemed to be pivotal for performing translation and correction tasks in the classroom. Finally, results of the pilot study are discussed and some conclusions are drawn.

  5. Literal Translation and Free Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭佼

    2011-01-01

    @@ Dispute over the method of literal translation and that of free translation had a long history in China, in East Jin Dynasty Daoan(道安314-385),a well-known monk, was the representative of those who firmly advocated literal translation.Since he feared that free translation might not be true to the original, he advocated strict literal translation so as to preserve the true features.Works under his direction were typical of word-for-word translation, in which no alteration was made except accidental changes in word order.

  6. Key process issues in Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP): translation of an evidence-based model into clinical practice and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Dina; Salwen, Jessica

    2013-09-01

    Our "desired outcome" in writing this article was to present not only key process issues stemming from the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP; McCullough, 2000), but to highlight those therapy maneuvers that we, a "seasoned" clinician/supervisor and a clinical trainee, find most useful in delivering treatment and in conducting supervision. We strongly believe that it is only through the translation of evidence-based therapeutic models, such as CBASP, into effective training that a true integration of science and practice can be obtained. Thus, the congruence of trainer's and trainee's views on what constitute top process issues in therapy is important in evaluating the reliability of a therapy model; with this in mind, we focus on three process issues, as follows: (1) problems are anchored to the "here and now" and to specific situational outcomes; (2) patients are encouraged to identify the role they play in affecting their distressing outcomes and to take responsibility for "fixing" them; and (3) the therapist planfully engages in the process of change via disciplined personal involvement. Research and theory supporting these maneuvers are presented, in conjunction with clinical examples. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Translation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because artistic translation focuses on reactions, judging the quality of an artistic translation work is one of the most difficult things one can do. We end up having a score of complexity and humanity for each one of the mentioned techniques: Literal translation would be the closest thing we have to the machines world and artistic translation would be the closest thing we have to the purely human world. By creating these classifications and studying the subtleties of each one of them, we are adding degrees of quality to our courses and to translation as a professional field. The main contribution of this paper is then the formalization of such a piece of knowledge. We, however, also lay the foundations for studies of this type.

  8. 涉海英语笔译 MTI人才培养模式的研究与实践%Research and practice on MTI personnel training mode of marine-related English translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭艳玲

    2015-01-01

    Based on the MTI personnel training aim and discipline characteristics of marine -related English transla-tion and with the basis of the learning and training pattern of marine-related English translation ,the essay probes in-to constructing the MTI personnel training mode of marine-related English translation ,which is called as the person-nel training mode of double supervisors with the participation of the government ,enterprises,the higher institution and research institutions .The essay also researches on the guarantee measures of this personnel training mode and aims at cultivating senior translation talents with the features of high quality ,application type ,specialization in ma-rine-related fields to make contributions to the development of our country and regional maritime economy .%以涉海英语笔译MTI的人才培养目标及学科特色为基础,以涉海英语笔译MTI的学习方式和培养方式为依托,探究构建涉海英语笔译MTI 的“政产学研用”相结合的双导师制的人才培养模式,研究该人才培养模式实施的保障措施,旨在培养适应我国经济发展需要的高素质、应用型、专业化涉海英语笔译高级翻译人才,为我国的海洋经济和区域经济的发展做贡献。

  9. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, the entry of female students into medical schools has ... how female registrars perceived the impact of gender on their training and practice of surgery. ... male-dominated specialty, their choice of mentors and the challenges that they encountered ..... Social Determinants of Health2007 (Accessed on 23 Sep 2016).

  10. Integrating Computer-Assisted Translation Tools into Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Parra, María

    2016-01-01

    Although Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT) tools play an important role in the curriculum in many university translator training programmes, they are seldom used in the context of learning a language, as a good command of a language is needed before starting to translate. Since many institutions often have translator-training programmes as well…

  11. Measuring Difficulty in English-Chinese Translation: Towards a General Model of Translation Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sanjun

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the…

  12. Long-term prospective teaching effectivity of practical skills training and a first OSCE in cranio maxillofacial surgery for dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Constantin A; Hoefer, Sebastian; Schuebel, Florian; Ballon, Alexander; Teiler, Anna; Tran, Andreas; Weber, Roxane; Walcher, Felix; Sader, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Basic skills in oral/CMF surgery should be taught effectively to dental students as surgical skills training is traditionally under-represented in the dental curriculum compared to its later need in daily clinical practice. Rigid curricular time frames and prospectively condensed professional education foster new effective teaching and examination formats. Transmitting and assessing clinical competence objectively (independent of subjective bias), reliably (repeatable, inter-rater consistency) and valid (representative, structured task selection) was intended and evaluated in oral/CMF surgery skills acquisition starting in summer 2009. A small-group practical skills training (PST) day initiated a one-week practical training course, covering previously formulated learning objectives. An objective structured clinical evaluation (OSCE) was held at the end of each semester. Theoretical background knowledge and clinical skills should have to be memorized within a representative number of practical tasks (test stations). A first semester (26 students) used classical practical training alone as controls, the following semesters (171 students) had PST, considered as a study group. All 197 students were assessed with OSCE's over a 3-year period. An instructor held PST based on presentations, videos and practical training, including mannequins, with pairs of students. This included history taking, communication and interpretation of laboratory/image diagnostics, structured clinical facial examination, fracture diagnosis, venipuncture, suturing, biopsy and wire loops on pig jaws for manual and clinical skills, which were later incorporated in OSCE stations. OSCE average results increased from 63.3 ± 9.7% before and to 75.5 ± 10% after the inclusion of PST (p skills as evaluated by OSCE.

  13. Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism: a comparative assessment of virtue-based leadership development in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kristine; Puscas, Liana; Tucci, Debara; Woodard, Charles; Witsell, David; Esclamado, Ramon M; Lee, Walter T

    2013-10-29

    Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism (STEPP) was developed in 2011 to train tomorrow's leaders during residency. It is based on virtue ethics and takes an approach similar to West Point military academy. The purpose of this research was: (i) to compare the virtue profiles of our residents with that of the military cohort using a standardized virtue assessment tool; and (ii) to assess the value of virtue education on residents. As part of STEPP, otolaryngology residents participated in a virtue-based validated assessment tool called Virtue in Action (VIA) Inventory. This was completed at the initiation of STEPP in July 2011 as well as 1 year later in June 2012. Comparison of the VIA to a military cohort was performed. Leadership 'Basic Training' is a series of forums focused on virtues of initiative, integrity, responsibility, self-discipline, and accountability. A pre- and post-test was administered assessing resident perceptions of the value of this 'Basic Training'. Virtues are shared between otolaryngology residents (n=9) and military personnel (n=2,433) as there were no significant differences in strength scores between two military comparison groups and otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) residents. There was a significant improvement (pvirtue-based approach is valued by residents as a part of leadership training during residency.

  14. Effects of aerobic exercise training on variability and heart rate kinetic during submaximal exercise after gastric bypass surgery--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello-Simões, Viviane; Polaquini Simões, Rodrigo; Beltrame, Thomas; Bassi, Daniela; Maria Catai, Aparecida; Arena, Ross; Azambuja, Noé Carvalho; do Nascimento Ortega, João; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether morbidly obese women have an alteration of heart rate (HR) kinetics and HR variability (HRV) during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) and if an aerobic exercise training can modify these indexes after gastric bypass surgery (GBS). Nineteen morbidly obese women were randomized to a trained (TG) or control group and 12 women of eutrophic group (EG) were also evaluated. The obese women were tested on two occasions: 1 week before and 4 months after GBS through record of HR and R-R intervals during 6MWT for analysis HR kinetics. The TG underwent an aerobic exercise training program on a treadmill (1-h session, totaling 36 sessions over 12-week). Both obese groups demonstrated a significant reduction of rMSSD and slower HR kinetics during the 6MWT when compared to the EG. In addition, only the TG demonstrated a significant improvement in HRV indexes, walking distance, faster time constant and mean response time of HR during 6MWT after training (p exercise. However, aerobic exercise training can produce beneficial adaptations in HRV and faster HR kinetics following GBS.

  15. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable......) way. Most respondents and interviewees are worried about increasing pressures on the translation market, which, combined with customers’ general lack of understanding of the translation process, mean that systematic, all-encompassing quality assurance is rarely financially viable....

  16. Clinical application of a robotic ankle training program for cerebral palsy compared to the research laboratory application: does it translate to practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Clancy, Theresa; Zhang, Li-Qun; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah

    2014-08-01

    To determine the clinical efficacy of an ankle robotic rehabilitation protocol for patients with cerebral palsy. The clinic cohort was identified from a retrospective chart review in a before-after intervention trial design and compared with a previously published prospective research cohort. Rehabilitation hospital. Children (N=28; mean age, 8.2±3.62 y) with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I, II, or III who were referred for ankle stretching and strengthening used a robotic ankle device in a clinic setting. Clinic results were compared with a previously published cohort of participants (N=12; mean age, 7.8±2.91 y) seen in a research laboratory-based intervention protocol. Patients in the clinic cohort were seen 2 times per week for 75-minute sessions for a total of 6 weeks. The first 30 minutes of the session were spent using the robotic ankle device for ankle stretching and strengthening, and the remaining 45 minutes were spent on functional movement activities. There was no control group. We compared pre- and postintervention measures of plantarflexor and dorsiflexor range of motion, strength, spasticity, mobility (Timed Up and Go test, 6-minute walk test, 10-m walk test), balance (Pediatric Balance Scale), Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity (SCALE), and gross motor function measure (GMFM). Significant improvements were found for the clinic cohort in all main outcome measures except for the GMFM. These improvements were equivalent to those reported in the research cohort, except for larger SCALE test changes in the research cohort. These findings suggest that translation of repetitive, goal-directed biofeedback training into the clinic setting is both feasible and beneficial for patients with cerebral palsy. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The use of social surveys in translation studies: methodological characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznik, Anna; Hurtado Albir, Amparo; Espinal Berenguer, Anna; Andrews, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Translation is an activity carried out by professionals – in some cases after a period of formal training – who are employed or self-employed, and whose work is destined for translation users. Translators, translator trainees, employers of translators, and translation users are four clearly defined social groups within the translation industry that may be the subject of study using one of the methods most frequently used within the field of social sciences: the social survey. This paper prese...

  18. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable...

  19. Unvorgreifliche Gedanken, betreffend die Ausuebung und Verbesserung des Uebersetzungsunterrichts Englisch-Deutsch. (Modest Thoughts on the Use and Improvement of Training in Translation -- English to German).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Bernd K.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys current practice in teaching translation and finds it faulty. An almost mathematical model of translation strategy is suggested for upper-level students of English who can use a monolingual dictionary. Two sample texts for testing the model are appended. (IFS/WGA)

  20. 整形外科住院医师医患沟通能力的培养%Experience of resident-patient communication training in plastic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 马显杰; 宋保强; 郭树忠

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss the resident-patient communication training methods based on the problems of the residents in clinical work of plastic surgery .Methods According to the characteristics of plastic surgery , we analyzed the problems and reasons of the residents in the resident-patient communication.Based on the experience of the faculty in the department of plastic surgery , we proposed the methods of resident-patient communication training. Results Several dos and don'ts were proposed for the problems of the resident-patient communication.And a series of training methods were suggested from the aspects of residents , attending surgeons and the department programs . Conclusion It is vital of the ability of the resident-patient communication in the complicated modern medical environment in China.The discussion of the training methods in this paper is mainly based on the experience of the faculty in our department.A perfect resident-patient training program should be formulated with the experience of developed country and scientific methods.%目的:结合整形外科临床工作中住院医师在医患沟通中存在的问题,探讨医患沟通能力培养方案。方法根据整形外科的执业特点,分析目前住院医师在医患沟通中存在的问题及原因,结合本科室多年的经验,探讨医患沟通能力的培养方案。结果针对医患沟通的问题及原因,提出了注意事项,并从住院医师、上级医师及科室制度层面等多角度提出一系列培养方案。结论整形外科住院医师医患沟通能力在当代复杂的医疗环境下尤为重要,本文对培养方案的探讨是本科室多年经验的总结,为进一步完善培养方案的制定,需要借鉴发达国家的经验,并通过科学方法逐步建立一整套完善的医患沟通培养方案,以适应临床工作的需要。

  1. 胸外科进修医师教学的实践体会%Experience of Training Refresher Doctors in Thoracic Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊唐; 梁朝阳; 刘阳; 初向阳

    2014-01-01

    During training thoracic surgery refresher doctors ,the teachers instituted reasonable feasible training plans for every refresher doctor individually .Systematic employee orientation and “three bas-ic” training including basal knowledge and basal theories ,the basal skills are important foundations for clinical practice .At the same time ,the teachers paid much attention to improve their clinical intel-lection and clinical skills .During the operation ,the teachers also emphasized the idea of minimally in-vasive .Personal management should be brought forward ,so that refresher doctors can work happily . We also proposed some advices about refresher doctors training in the future .%针对胸外科进修医师特点,对其进行系统化的入职培训和个体化的三基训练,以培养其临床思维能力和临床技能,并对其灌输微创手术的理念,并进行人性化的管理。此外,作者也对未来胸外科进修医生的培养提出一些建议。

  2. Promised Land No More: Dynamic Shifts in Slovene Translation Market and Translator Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike K. Pokorn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the changes of the translation market, the development of Higher Education (HE translator training and of the profession of translator in Slovenia. First, three HE translator-training programmes in Slovenia are briefly described. Second, through an analysis of the public database containing information on all business entities in Slovenia, a description of the translation market in 2014 is made and the findings are compared to those of a similar study carried out in 2007. Then two surveys of translation graduates of University of Ljubljana are presented, focusing in particular on graduate employment statistics and average earnings of junior translators. The results show that despite the fact that the Slovene translation market is thriving, this growth is not reflected in the average earnings of individual translators. Finally, in view of the fact that translation rates are constantly falling, it is argued that the role of professional associations becomes vital.

  3. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  4. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the role of mental training in the acquisition of technical skills in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ahsan; Tait, Ian; Alijani, Afshin

    2015-09-01

    Mental training is rehearsal of mental imagery without physically performing the task. The aim of the study was to perform systematic review and meta-analysis on all the available data to evaluate the role of mental training in the acquisition of surgical technical skills. The following search databases were used: EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Clinicaltrials.gov.uk, SIGN guidelines, NICE guidelines, and Cochrane review register. Meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.2 statistical software. There were a total of 9 randomized controlled trials with 474 participants, of which 189 participants received mental training. Five randomized controlled trials concluded positive impact of mental training. Mental training group did not show any significant improvement in overall performance of the task carried in each study (P = .06). Mental training can be used as an important supplementary tool in learning surgical skills when run in parallel with physical training and applied to trainees with some experience of the skill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Superior subconjunctival anesthesia versus retrobulbar anesthesia for manual small-incision cataract surgery in a residency training program: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongsap P

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pipat KongsapDepartment of Ophthalmology, Prapokklao Hospital, Chanthaburi, Thailand; Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandPurpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of subconjunctival anesthesia as compared to retrobulbar anesthesia for pain control during manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS performed by third-year residents.Design: A randomized, controlled trial.Patients and methods: A total of 150 patients undergoing routine cataract surgery were randomly assigned to receive either subconjunctival anesthesia (group 1, n = 75 or retrobulbar anesthesia (group 2, n = 75. Third-year residents performed MSICS using the modified Blumenthal technique. Subconjunctival anesthesia was administered by injecting 2% xylocaine with adrenalin into the superior conjunctiva, and retrobulbar anesthesia by injecting 2 mL of 2% xylocaine with adrenalin into the retrobulbar space. We studied the following variables: intraoperative pain score rated on a 100-point visual analog scale (VAS, operative time, and injection and operative complications.Results: A mean age of 69 vs 70 years, an operative time of 47.1 (SD, 9.9 min vs 47.7 (10.9 min, and a median (interquartile range pain score of 40 (range, 20–70 vs 40 (range, 20–50 were observed in the subconjunctival and the retrobulbar groups, respectively. The injection complication of subconjunctival hemorrhage was significantly higher in the subconjunctival group (25.3% compared to the retrobulbar group (1.3%. The operative complication rate between groups was not different (P > 0.05.Conclusion: Both, superior subconjunctival anesthesia and retrobulbar anesthesia were effective during MSICS when used in a residency training program.Keywords: subconjunctival anesthesia, retrobulbar anesthesia, cataract surgery, small-incision cataract surgery, visual analog scale, pain score

  6. Heart Surgery Experience in Hitit University Faculty of Medicine Corum Research and Training Hospital: First Year Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Diken

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of our department of cardiac surgery which was newly introduced in Hitit University Corum Education and Research Hospital. Material and Method: Between November 2012 and November 2013, a total of 110 open-heart surgeries were performed. Ten out of these (9.1% were emergency operations for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction Off-pump technique was used in 31 (29.2% patients and cardiopulmonary bypass was used in 75 (70.8%. A total of 106 patients received coronary artery bypass grafting, 1 received mitral reconstruction, 1 received Bentall procedure, 1 received tricuspid valve repair, 1 received mitral valve replacement, 1 received aortic valve replacement with aortic root enlargement and 1 received aortic supracoronary graft replacement. Results: Hospital mortality occurred in 1 (0.9% patient. Four patients (3.6% who were on dual antiaggregants underwent a revision for bleeding on the day of the operation. Morbidities occurred in 3 (2.7% patients. Atrial fibrillation occurred in 11 (10% patients and the normal sinus rhythm was achieved by amiodarone. Intraaortic balloon counterpulsation was used in 5 (4.5% patients. Discussion: The newly introduced cardiac surgery department of the Hitit University Corum Education and Research Hospital, which provides tertiary care to a wide rural community, serves with low morbidity and mortality.

  7. Robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, M; Marescaux, J

    2015-01-01

    Proficiency in minimally invasive surgery requires intensive and continuous training, as it is technically challenging for unnatural visual and haptic perceptions. Robotic and computer sciences are producing innovations to augment the surgeon's skills to achieve accuracy and high precision during complex surgery. This article reviews the current use of robotically assisted surgery, focusing on technology as well as main applications in digestive surgery, and future perspectives. The PubMed database was interrogated to retrieve evidence-based data on surgical applications. Internal and external consulting with key opinion leaders, renowned robotics laboratories and robotic platform manufacturers was used to produce state-of-the art business intelligence around robotically assisted surgery. Selected digestive procedures (oesophagectomy, gastric bypass, pancreatic and liver resections, rectal resection for cancer) might benefit from robotic assistance, although the current level of evidence is insufficient to support widespread adoption. The surgical robotic market is growing, and a variety of projects have recently been launched at both academic and corporate levels to develop lightweight, miniaturized surgical robotic prototypes. The magnified view, and improved ergonomics and dexterity offered by robotic platforms, might facilitate the uptake of minimally invasive procedures. Image guidance to complement robotically assisted procedures, through the concepts of augmented reality, could well represent a major revolution to increase safety and deal with difficulties associated with the new minimally invasive approaches. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Translating organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes it point of departure in actor-network-theory (ANT). It responds to the Next Management Theory tracks call for papers that address and further develops our understanding of organizational change as translation processes. It moreover addresses a critique of ANT researchers...... in organizational studies for making descriptions of studied empirical phenomena rather than developing theories and giving normative advice about how organizations or organizational change processes may be theorized, analyzed, managed and/or organized better. A new ANT-inspired theory about the characteristics...... of organizations, organizational change and change agents is therefore developed combining ANT with other theories. The relevance of this view is demonstrated in an analysis of a case where a nurse and the leader of a clinic for orthopedic surgery try to translate and thus implement a risk-management and deviation...

  9. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  10. Translation Memory and Computer Assisted Translation Tool for Medieval Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Törcsvári Attila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation memories (TMs, as part of Computer Assisted Translation (CAT tools, support translators reusing portions of formerly translated text. Fencing books are good candidates for using TMs due to the high number of repeated terms. Medieval texts suffer a number of drawbacks that make hard even “simple” rewording to the modern version of the same language. The analyzed difficulties are: lack of systematic spelling, unusual word orders and typos in the original. A hypothesis is made and verified that even simple modernization increases legibility and it is feasible, also it is worthwhile to apply translation memories due to the numerous and even extremely long repeated terms. Therefore, methods and algorithms are presented 1. for automated transcription of medieval texts (when a limited training set is available, and 2. collection of repeated patterns. The efficiency of the algorithms is analyzed for recall and precision.

  11. Translating democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    grassroots activists in social movements use translation as a novel practice to debate political alternatives in the European Union's (EU) multilingual public sphere. In recent years, new cross-European protest movements have created the multilingual discursive democracy arena known as the European Social...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...

  12. The history of pediatric surgery in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévot, J

    1986-01-01

    In 1741, Nicolas Andry, counsellor of King Louis XV, published a book about "orthopedics," inventing this word. The book is interesting as the author refers to beliefs and habits of the time. In 1864, Guersant published Notes About Pediatric Surgery, a real textbook which was translated into English and German and dealt with the importance of children's psychological training, anesthesia, and water or mother's milk after the operation, and also described tracheotomy, draining of cervical adenitis, and lithotrity. The classification of bone affections was still very confused. Tuberculosis and syphilis have an important place; hypospadias is not treated by surgery. In 1905, Froehlich published Pediatric Surgery Studies dealing exclusively with visceral surgery and demonstrating progress compared to Guersant's study. In 1906, Kirmisson published Pediatric Surgical Textbook, containing the first discussion of radiology and the description of the pathology of the omphalomesenteric duct and of other congenital malformations. Osteomyelitis was given its proper name, and cervical fistulas were explained. In 1914, A. Broca achieved further progress describing treatments of megacolon, intussusception, and the operation of Fredet Ramstedt. The book by Ombredanne, already out of date at the time of its publication, showed that he was not aware of the wartime, progress achieved by Ladd and Gross in the USA. French publications have diminished since then, and French pediatric surgery is still trying to find a precise identity.

  13. Documenting a learning curve and test-retest reliability of two tasks on a virtual reality training simulator in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogle, Nancy J; Briggs, William M; Fowler, Dennis L

    2007-01-01

    Virtual reality simulators are a component of the armamentarium for training surgical residents. No one knows exactly how to incorporate virtual reality simulators into a curriculum. The purpose of this study was to document and show the learning curve and test-retest reliability of 2 tasks on a virtual reality-training simulator (LapSim; Surgical Science, Göteborg, Sweden) in laparoscopic surgery. Twenty-nine medical students participated in 8 iterations of 7 virtual reality tasks ("camera navigation" (CN), "instrument navigation," "coordination," "grasping," "lifting and grasping" (LG), "cutting," and "clip applying") Learning curves for each outcome variable of the CN and LG tasks were generated. Using ANOVA, we evaluated the differences between each score from attempt number 7 to attempt number 8 to document test-retest reliability. A plateau in the learning curve occurred within 8 sessions for CN misses, CN tissue damage, CN maximum damage, and LG maximum damage. Over the course of 8 sessions, a plateau in the learning curve was nearly reached for CN time, CN drift, CN path, CN angular path, and LG left and right path. The following variables had a downward trend to the mean learning curve over 8 sessions, but they did not reach a plateau: LG time, LG left and right miss, LG left and right angular path, and LG tissue damage. Using the LapSim virtual reality simulator, we documented a learning curve and test-retest reliability for each outcome variable for CN and LG for rank novices. The modeling of the general learning curve is useful in designing training program. These results may be important in developing standards for technical evaluation in a surgical training curriculum.

  14. Evaluation of Procedural Simulation as a Training and Assessment Tool in General Surgery-Simulating a Laparoscopic Appendectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Flemming; Strandbygaard, Jeanett; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic appendectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure, but few training models have been described for it. We examined a virtual reality module for practising a laparoscopic appendectomy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with the following 3 groups of surgeons (n = 45...

  15. The curious case of legal translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cornelius

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the nature and scope of legal translation which is an under-researched area in South Africa. In this article the author predicts that the demand for competent legal translators will increase in the future, evidenced by a recent call by the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development(DoJ&CD, inviting applications for ten positions for “legislative language practitioners”. However, legal translation differs substantially from general translation in the sense that legal translation is subject to heavy restrictions at all levels and legal considerations are of paramount importance in a country such as South Africa, which provides for eleven official languages. Legal translation involves different legal languages, different legal systems and different cultural systems that require specialised knowledge and skills of the translator. The aim of this article is to investigate the core competencies and skills the legal translator must have; to consider the balance between legal competence and translation or linguistic competence; and to propose a discourse-analytical method of source text analysis, developed by Bhatia as a simplification strategy, as this may be a powerful tool in the training of legal translators in South Africa. Recent developments in South Africa relating to the Department of Arts and Culture’s obligation to translate legislation into all official languages, have important consequences for legal translation in general and the training of legal translators in particular.

  16. Global Health Values of a Multidirectional Near Peer Training Program in Surgery, Pathology, Anatomy, Research Methodology, and Medical Education for Haitian, Rwandan, and Canadian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elharram, Malik; Dinh, Trish; Lalande, Annie; Ge, Susan; Gao, Sophie; Noël, Geoffroy

    As health care delivery increasingly requires providers to cross international borders, medical students at McGill University, Canada, developed a multidirectional exchange program with Haiti and Rwanda. The program integrates surgery, pathology, anatomy, research methodology, and medical education. The aim of the present study was to explore the global health value of this international training program to improve medical education within the environment of developing countries, such as Haiti and Rwanda, while improving sociocultural learning of Canadian students. Students from the University of Kigali, Rwanda and Université Quisqueya, Haiti, participated in a 3-week program at McGill University. The students spanned from the first to sixth year of their respective medical training. The program consisted of anatomy dissections, surgical simulations, clinical pathology shadowing, and interactive sessions in research methodology and medical education. To evaluate the program, a survey was administered to students using a mixed methodology approach. Common benefits pointed out by the participants included personal and professional growth. The exchange improved career development, sense of responsibility toward one's own community, teaching skills, and sociocultural awareness. The participants all agreed that the anatomy dissections improved their knowledge of anatomy and would make them more comfortable teaching the material when the returned to their university. The clinical simulation activities and shadowing experiences allowed them to integrate the different disciplines. However, the students all felt the research component had too little time devoted to it and that the knowledge presented was beyond their educational level. The development of an integrated international program in surgery, pathology, anatomy, research methodology, and medical education provided medical students with an opportunity to learn about differences in health care and medical education

  17. Comparison of ultrasound and nerve stimulation techniques for interscalene brachial plexus block for shoulder surgery in a residency training environment: a randomized, controlled, observer-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Leslie C; Graham, Sean K; Osteen, Kristie D; Porter, Heather Scuderi; Nossaman, Bobby D

    2011-01-01

    The ability to provide adequate intraoperative anesthesia and postoperative analgesia for orthopedic shoulder surgery continues to be a procedural challenge. Anesthesiology training programs constantly balance the time needed for procedural education versus associated costs. The administration of brachial plexus anesthesia can be facilitated through nerve stimulation or by ultrasound guidance. The benefits of using a nerve stimulator include a high incidence of success and less cost when compared to ultrasonography. Recent studies with ultrasonography suggest high success rates and decreased procedural times, but less is known about the comparison of these procedural times in training programs. We conducted a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded study with inexperienced clinical anesthesia (CA) residents-CA-1 to CA-3-to compare differences in these 2 guidance techniques in patients undergoing interscalene brachial plexus block for orthopedic surgery. In this study, 41 patients scheduled for orthopedic shoulder surgery were randomly assigned to receive an interscalene brachial plexus block guided by either ultrasound (US group) or nerve stimulation (NS group). Preoperative analgesics and sedatives were controlled in both groups. The US group required significantly less time to conduct the block (4.3 ± 1.5 minutes) than the NS group (10 ± 1.5 minutes), P  =  .009. Moreover, the US group achieved a significantly faster onset of sensory block (US group, 12 ± 2 minutes; NS group, 19 ± 2 minutes; P  =  .02) and motor block (US group, 13.5 ± 2.3 minutes; NS group, 20.2 ± 2.1 minutes; P  =  .03). Success rates were high for both techniques and were not statistically different (US group, 95%; NS group, 91%). No differences were found in operative times, postoperative pain scores, need for rescue analgesics, or incidences of perioperative or postdischarge side effects. On the basis of our results with inexperienced residents, we

  18. Simulation-based mastery learning for endoscopy using the endoscopy training system: a strategy to improve endoscopic skills and prepare for the fundamentals of endoscopic surgery (FES) manual skills exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, E Matthew; Taylor, Zachary A; Wolf, Kathryn R; Franklin, Brenton R; Placek, Sarah B; Korndorffer, James R; Gardner, Aimee K

    2017-07-11

    The fundamentals of endoscopic surgery (FES) program has considerable validity evidence for its use in measuring the knowledge, skills, and abilities required for competency in endoscopy. Beginning in 2018, the American Board of Surgery will require all candidates to have taken and passed the written and performance exams in the FES program. Recent work has shown that the current ACGME/ABS required case volume may not be enough to ensure trainees pass the FES skills exam. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a simulation-based mastery-learning curriculum delivered on a novel physical simulation platform to prepare trainees to pass the FES manual skills exam. The newly developed endoscopy training system (ETS) was used as the training platform. Seventeen PGY 1 (10) and PGY 2 (7) general surgery residents completed a pre-training assessment consisting of all 5 FES tasks on the GI Mentor II. Subjects then trained to previously determined expert performance benchmarks on each of 5 ETS tasks. Once training benchmarks were reached for all tasks, a post-training assessment was performed with all 5 FES tasks. Two subjects were lost to follow-up and never returned for training or post-training assessment. One additional subject failed to complete any portion of the curriculum, but did return for post-training assessment. The group had minimal endoscopy experience (median 0, range 0-67) and minimal prior simulation experience. Three trainees (17.6%) achieved a passing score on the pre-training FES assessment. Training consisted of an average of 48 ± 26 repetitions on the ETS platform distributed over 5.1 ± 2 training sessions. Seventy-one percent achieved proficiency on all 5 ETS tasks. There was dramatic improvement demonstrated on the mean post-training FES assessment when compared to pre-training (74.0 ± 8 vs. 50.4 ± 16, p skills exam. This simulation-based mastery learning curriculum using the ETS is feasible for training novices and

  19. 基于流动医院的白内障超声乳化手术培训模式的探索%Exploration of cataract phacoemulsification surgery training models based upon mobile hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 鲍永珍; 李明武; 黎晓新

    2011-01-01

    In mobile hospitals, numerous cataract patients have recovered visual acuity after cataract surgeries, during which a lot of eligible cataract surgeons have been trained.During the process of training, Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University People' s Hospital explored two new cataract surgery training models and gained good training results.Combination of these two models has significantly elevated completion rate of independently performed cataract surgeries, and lowered incidence of surgery complications.%基于流动医院的白内障复明手术给无数白内障患者带来了光明,同时也培养了一批合格的白内障手术医师。在实施复明手术的过程中,北京大学人民医院眼科中心探索了2种新的白内障手术培训模式,取得了良好的手术培训效果。通过2种模式的有机结合,显著提高了受训眼科医师的白内障手术独立完成率,并降低了手术并发症的发生率。

  20. Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery MedlinePlus What is bariatric surgery? Bariatric surgery helps people who are very obese to ... What are the endocrine-related benefits of bariatric surgery? Bariatric surgery and the weight loss that results can: ...

  1. A pilot investigation of a Pediatric Surgery Journal Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, William Shihao; Puligandla, Pramod; Baird, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The CanMEDS competency "scholar" encompasses the creation, dissemination, application, and translation of medical knowledge. We hypothesize that a structured journal club (JC) for pediatric surgical trainees would meet these objectives in an enjoyable and long-lasting manner. A JC involving two pediatric surgery training programs was created with each session focusing on a specific study design. Pre-tests/post-tests were administered before/after each session with durability of learning assessed during the following session. Metrics analyzed included participant satisfaction and an appraisal of evidence-based medicine (EBM) principals. Test results were analyzed using the paired T-test with pPediatric Surgery Journal Club addresses scholarly training objectives in a highly satisfactory manner and yields durable learning. A web-based curriculum based on this model could serve as an important educational tool for trainees and attending staff alike. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....

  3. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  4. Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism: a comparative assessment of virtue-based leadership development in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Schulz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism (STEPP was developed in 2011 to train tomorrow's leaders during residency. It is based on virtue ethics and takes an approach similar to West Point military academy. The purpose of this research was: (i to compare the virtue profiles of our residents with that of the military cohort using a standardized virtue assessment tool; and (ii to assess the value of virtue education on residents. Methods: As part of STEPP, otolaryngology residents participated in a virtue-based validated assessment tool called Virtue in Action (VIA Inventory. This was completed at the initiation of STEPP in July 2011 as well as 1 year later in June 2012. Comparison of the VIA to a military cohort was performed. Leadership ‘Basic Training’ is a series of forums focused on virtues of initiative, integrity, responsibility, self-discipline, and accountability. A pre- and post-test was administered assessing resident perceptions of the value of this ‘Basic Training’. Results: Virtues are shared between otolaryngology residents (n=9 and military personnel (n=2,433 as there were no significant differences in strength scores between two military comparison groups and otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS residents. There was a significant improvement (p<0.001 in the understanding of components of the leadership vision and a significant improvement in the understanding of key leadership concepts based on ‘Basic Training’. All residents responded in the post-test that the STEPP program was valuable, up from 56%. Conclusions: A virtue-based approach is valued by residents as a part of leadership training during residency.

  5. Validation of an inanimate low cost model for training minimal invasive surgery (MIS) of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula (AE/TEF) repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricic, Maximiliano Alejo; Bailez, María Marcela; Rodriguez, Susana P

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of the validation of an inanimate model created for training thoracoscopic treatment of esophageal atresia with lower tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF). We used different domestic materials such as a piece of wood (support), corrugated plastic tubes (PVC) of different sizes to simulate ribs, intercostal spaces, trachea and spine and tubular latex balloons to simulate the esophagus and lungs to make the basic model. This device was inserted into the thoracic cavity of a rubber dummy simulating a 3kg newborn with a work area volume of 50ml. The model was designed taking into account the experience of doing this procedure in neonates. The cost of the materials used was 50 US$. Regular video endoscopic equipment and 3mm instruments were used. Thirty-nine international faculty or pediatric surgeons attending hands on courses with different levels of training in minimal invasive surgery (MIS) repair of EA/TEF performed the procedure in the model. We compared the performance of the practitioners with their experience in thoracoscopic repair of EA. A Likert-type scale was used to evaluate results. Previous experience in MIS, anatomical appearance of the model, surgical anatomy compared to a real patient, and utility as a training method were analyzed. We also used a checklist to assess performance. We evaluated: number of errors and types of injuries, quality of the anastomosis, and duration of procedure. To analyze the results we used a T-test, chi-square test and Excel® database to match up some results. Thirty-nine questionnaires were completed. Seven surgeons were experts (≥30 TEF/EA repairs as surgeon), 10 had intermediate level of experience (5 to 29 repairs as surgeon) and 22 were beginners (less than 5 repairs). To simplify the analysis we divided the respondents into low experience LE (MIS operative room setting and team work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism: a comparative assessment of virtue-based leadership development in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kristine; Puscas, Liana; Tucci, Debara; Woodard, Charles; Witsell, David; Esclamado, Ramon M.; Lee, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Surgical Training and Education in Promoting Professionalism (STEPP) was developed in 2011 to train tomorrow's leaders during residency. It is based on virtue ethics and takes an approach similar to West Point military academy. The purpose of this research was: (i) to compare the virtue profiles of our residents with that of the military cohort using a standardized virtue assessment tool; and (ii) to assess the value of virtue education on residents. Methods As part of STEPP, otolaryngology residents participated in a virtue-based validated assessment tool called Virtue in Action (VIA) Inventory. This was completed at the initiation of STEPP in July 2011 as well as 1 year later in June 2012. Comparison of the VIA to a military cohort was performed. Leadership ‘Basic Training’ is a series of forums focused on virtues of initiative, integrity, responsibility, self-discipline, and accountability. A pre- and post-test was administered assessing resident perceptions of the value of this ‘Basic Training’. Results Virtues are shared between otolaryngology residents (n=9) and military personnel (n=2,433) as there were no significant differences in strength scores between two military comparison groups and otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) residents. There was a significant improvement (p<0.001) in the understanding of components of the leadership vision and a significant improvement in the understanding of key leadership concepts based on ‘Basic Training’. All residents responded in the post-test that the STEPP program was valuable, up from 56%. Conclusions A virtue-based approach is valued by residents as a part of leadership training during residency. PMID:24172053

  7. Machine Translation in the Hands of Trainee Translators – an Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sycz-Opoń Joanna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Automated translation (machine translation, MT is systematically gaining popularity among professional translators, who claim that editing MT output requires less time and effort than translating from scratch. MT technology is also offered in leading translator’s workstations, e.g., SDL Trados Studio, memoQ, Déjà Vu and Wordfast. Therefore, the dilemma arises: should MT be introduced into formal translation training? In order to answer this question, first, it is necessary to understand how trainee translators actually use MT.

  8. Does change in self-reported mindfulness mediate the clinical benefits of mindfulness training? A controlled study using the French translation of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Heeren, Alexandre; Deplus, Sandrine; Peschard, Virginie; Nef, François; Kotsou, Ilios; Dierickx, Christophe; Mondillon, Laurie; Robinaugh, Donald J.; Philippot, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness training improves mental health and psychological functioning. Although several questionnaires have been developed to measure mindfulness, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) is currently one of the most widely used scales. However, uncertainty remains about wheth- er the effects of mindfulness training can be unambiguously attributed to change in self-reported mindfulness. The present study was designed to answer three major questions: First, relative to a wait-list g...

  9. Arthroscopic skills assessment and use of box model for training in arthroscopic surgery using Sawbones – “FAST” workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Saumitra; Radi, Mohamed Abdel; Ramadan, Islam Karam-allah; Said, Hatem Galal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Arthroscopic skills training outside the operative room may decrease risks and errors by trainee surgeons. There is a need of simple objective method for evaluating proficiency and skill of arthroscopy trainees using simple bench model of arthroscopic simulator. The aim of this study is to correlate motor task performance to level of prior arthroscopic experience and establish benchmarks for training modules. Methods: Twenty orthopaedic surgeons performed a set of tasks to assess a) arthroscopic triangulation, b) navigation, c) object handling and d) meniscus trimming using SAWBONES “FAST” arthroscopy skills workstation. Time to completion and the errors were computed. The subjects were divided into four levels; “Novice”, “Beginner”, “Intermediate” and “Advanced” based on previous arthroscopy experience, for analyses of performance. Results: The task performance under transparent dome was not related to experience of the surgeon unlike opaque dome, highlighting the importance of hand-eye co-ordination required in arthroscopy. Median time to completion for each task improved as the level of experience increased and this was found to be statistically significant (p 85%) of subjects across all the levels reported improvement in performance with sequential tasks. Conclusion: Use of the arthroscope requires visuo-spatial coordination which is a skill that develops with practice. This simple box model can reliably differentiate the arthroscopic skills based on experience and can be used to monitor progression of skills of trainees in institutions. PMID:27801643

  10. Theorizing About Translation and Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    The act of translation between languages and cultures has been going on for centuries, but the act of theorizing about-translation is of recent origin. In the last forty years translation scholars have attempted to understand the process of translation and evaluate its merits giving rise to a whole range of conceptualizing which is now called translation studies. Translation studies , therefore, has grown within important scholastic enclosures of the west attempting to conduct political and i...

  11. 整合药科类院校资源优势培养中药文献翻译人才之思路探索%A Probe into the Advantages of Training Translators of Documents on Chi-nese Herbs by Unifying the Competitive Resources of a Pharmaceutical Uni-versity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怡华

    2014-01-01

    Considering that translating documents on traditional Chinese herbs requires specialized translators,this paper firstly discusses the general modes of training translators in universities in China and probes the innovative modes of training translators of documents on traditional Chinese herbs in a pharmaceutical university by making use of the university's source superiority.%中药文献翻译需专门的翻译人才。本文讨论了现有的翻译人才模式,再就中药文献的特点,对药科类院校以自有资源优势为依托,采用复合型人才培养模式培养中药文献翻译人才的思路进行了探讨。

  12. The Medical Mission and Modern Core Competency Training: A 10-Year Follow-Up of Resident Experiences in Global Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Caroline A; Swanson, Jordan; McCullough, Meghan; Taro, Trisa B; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Bradshaw, Allison; Campbell, Alex; Magee, William P; Magee, William P

    2016-09-01

    The emphasis on cultural competency for physicians and surgeons is increasingly important, as communication with both patients and other providers significantly affects individual and system-wide outcomes. International surgical training has been shown to improve leadership skills, cultural competency, and technical proficiency of participants in short-term follow-up. This study explores the long-term impact of international surgical mission experiences on developing participants' core competencies, professional outcomes, and commitment to global health. All 208 plastic and reconstructive surgeons who completed the Operation Smile Regan/Stryker fellowship programs between 2006 and 2015 were surveyed electronically. One hundred sixty-five surveys were returned, for an overall response rate of 79.3 percent. The majority of participants reported that the fellowship positively impacted all six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. Most participants who were attending physicians at the time of the survey were practicing general plastic surgery, with 42 percent in an academic/teaching environment, 32 percent in assistant/associate professor positions, and 6 percent in either a program director or department chairman position. The majority currently volunteer on local or international missions, and all respondents would consider volunteering again. Carefully structured and rigorously proctored programs such as the Regan/Stryker Fellowship offer plastic surgery residents the opportunity to gain valuable professional and personal experiences that benefit them long after their service experience. Programs of this nature can not only effectively improve cultural competency of physicians, but also positively influence their attitudes toward leadership and direct that potential to meet the growing need for surgical care in low- and middle-income countries.

  13. Reduction in pulmonary complications in high risk patients undergoing surgery for total hip replacement under general anesthesia by preoperative intensive inspiratory muscle training:A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingqiang Ma; Hongguang Bao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of preoperative inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on the incidence of atelectasis in patients at high risk of postoperative pulmonary complications scheduled for elective total hip replacement surgery under general anesthesia. Methods: Thirty two high-risk paticnts undergoing elective total hip replacement surgery under general anesthesia were chosen from Nanjing Medical University, Affiliated Nanjing First Hospital. In this single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive preoperative inspiratory muscle training or conventional treatment (CT). The major effectiveness outcome variables were atelectasis and duration of postoperative hospitalization. Results: Both groups were comparable prior to surgery. Seven patients in the CT group and 3 in the IMT group developed atelectasis (P = 0.25). Median duration of postoperative hospitalization was 13 days (range, 10~17 days) in the IMT group versus 16 days (range, 11~23 days) in the CT group (Mann-Whitney U statistics, Z =-2.22, P = 0.03). Mean postoperative inspiratory pressure was 5% higher in the IMT group. Conclusion: Preoperative intensive inspiratory muscle training appears to reduce the incidence of atelectasis and duration of postoperative hospitalization in patients at high risk of developing postoperative pulmonary complications who were scheduled for elective total hip replacement surgery under general anesthesia.

  14. A new possibility in thoracoscopic virtual reality simulation training: development and testing of a novel virtual reality simulator for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Katrine; Bjerrum, Flemming; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Petersen, René Horsleben; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Konge, Lars

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to develop virtual reality simulation software for video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy, to explore the opinions of thoracic surgeons concerning the VATS lobectomy simulator and to test the validity of the simulator metrics. Experienced VATS surgeons worked with computer specialists to develop a VATS lobectomy software for a virtual reality simulator. Thoracic surgeons with different degrees of experience in VATS were enrolled at the 22nd meeting of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) held in Copenhagen in June 2014. The surgeons were divided according to the number of performed VATS lobectomies: novices (0 VATS lobectomies), intermediates (1-49 VATS lobectomies) and experienced (>50 VATS lobectomies). The participants all performed a lobectomy of a right upper lobe on the simulator and answered a questionnaire regarding content validity. Metrics were compared between the three groups. We succeeded in developing the first version of a virtual reality VATS lobectomy simulator. A total of 103 thoracic surgeons completed the simulated lobectomy and were distributed as follows: novices n = 32, intermediates n = 45 and experienced n = 26. All groups rated the overall user realism of the VATS lobectomy scenario to a median of 5 on a scale 1-7, with 7 being the best score. The experienced surgeons found the graphics and movements realistic and rated the scenario high in terms of usefulness as a training tool for novice and intermediate experienced thoracic surgeons, but not very useful as a training tool for experienced surgeons. The metric scores were not statistically significant between groups. This is the first study to describe a commercially available virtual reality simulator for a VATS lobectomy. More than 100 thoracic surgeons found the simulator realistic, and hence it showed good content validity. However, none of the built-in simulator metrics could significantly distinguish between novice, intermediate

  15. A Brief Introduction of Communicative Translation Teaching Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁宇; 方艾若

    2013-01-01

      The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new translation teaching method which is based on Skopos theory and commu⁃nicative translation competence training. It makes a brief analysis of the functionalist framework for translation teaching. When more and more universities of China open translation courses for under graduates and postgraduates, it is hoped that this paper could slightly contribute to the translation teaching field.

  16. Translation brings China and World Closer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunBin

    2005-01-01

    Meaningful exchanges between people who don't speak the same language would be difficult, if not impossible, without translation. In the 21st century China's industries related to translation, such as information, publishing, education, training, development of software and audio and video equipment, have seen unprecedented progress.

  17. Effect observation about eye movement training to cataract patients before surgery%白内障患者术前眼球运动训练的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马新荣

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨术前眼球运动训练在白内障手术效果的支持。方法:对161名白内障患者进行有效的术前眼球运动训练。结果:161例患者经过术前眼球运动训练,手术效果良好未见明显并发症。结论:白内障患者手术前进行眼球运动训练,可使患者术中很好的配合手术,提高手术成功率。%Objective:Discuss the support of effects about eye movement training to cataract surgery.Method:By giving 161 preoperative cataract patients effective eye movement training.Result:after 161 cataract patients received preoperative eye movement training,they had good operation effects without apparent complications.Conclusion:If cataract patients receive eye movement training before surgery,they can cooperate more positively during operation,and the success rate of surgery will be improved greatly.

  18. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fax/Phone Home » Thyroid Surgery Leer en Español Thyroid Surgery GENERAL INFORMATION Your doctor may recommend that ... made in conjunction with your endocrinologist and surgeon. Thyroid Surgery FAQs QUESTIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS When thyroid surgery ...

  19. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  20. An analytical drilling force model and GPU-accelerated haptics-based simulation framework of the pilot drilling procedure for micro-implants surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fei; Lu, Wen Feng; Wong, Yoke San; Foong, Kelvin Weng Chiong

    2012-12-01

    The placement of micro-implants is a common but relatively new surgical procedure in clinical dentistry. This paper presents a haptics-based simulation framework for the pilot drilling of micro-implants surgery to train orthodontists to successfully perform this essential procedure by tactile sensation, without damaging tooth roots. A voxel-based approach was employed to model the inhomogeneous oral tissues. A preprocessing pipeline was designed to reduce imaging noise, smooth segmentation results and construct an anatomically correct oral model from patient-specific data. In order to provide a physically based haptic feedback, an analytical drilling force model based on metal cutting principles was developed and adapted for the voxel-based approach. To improve the real-time response, the parallel computing power of Graphics Processing Units is exploited through extra efforts for data structure design, algorithms parallelization, and graphic memory utilization. A prototype system has been developed based on the proposed framework. Preliminary results show that, by using this framework, proper drilling force can be rendered at different tissue layers with reduced cycle time, while the visual display has also been enhanced.

  1. Translator's preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiell, James T

    2013-08-01

    Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. 职业教育商务英语翻译人才的培养模式研究%Research on the Training Mode of Business English Translation Talents in Vocational Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤成娟

    2016-01-01

    当前英语作为全球交流的主要语言是极其重要的,当今社会对商务英语翻译的需求是越来越高,英语翻译不觉间就成为了热门的行业。针对这类人才稀缺的问题,我们需要在人才的培养上加大力度,以职业培养为主,最后达到语言技能与商务能力的同时提高。%The current English as the main language of global communication is extremely important, today's social needs for business English translation is more and more high, English translation and it has become a hot industry. For this type of talent scarcity problem, we need to strengthen the cultivation of talents, to improve the occupation training, and finally achieve the language skills and business ability at the same time.

  3. Translating 10 lessons from lean six sigma project in paper-based training site to electronic health record-based primary care practice: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, Sohaib

    2013-01-01

    Lean Six Sigma is a well-proven methodology to enhance the performance of any business, including health care. The strategy focuses on cutting out waste and variation from the processes to improve the value and efficiency of work. This article walks through the journey of "green belt" training using a Lean Six Sigma approach and the implementation of a process improvement project that focused on wait time for patients to be examined in an urban academic primary care clinic without requiring added resources. Experiences of the training and the project at an urban paper-based satellite clinic have informed the planning efforts of a data and performance team, including implementing a 15-minute nurse "pre-visit" at primary care sites of an accountable care organization.

  4. On Feminist Translation Theory and Literary Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄东睿

    2015-01-01

    Feminist translation theory emerged in the late 70s and early 80s of 20th Century. It is the combination of the feminist movement and the“cultural turn”of translation. It was introduced to China in the 1980s, and with the development of the transla⁃tion theory and translation practice, more and more Chinese translators want to study the feminist translation theory from the deep levels.

  5. 数字化三维手术模拟在正颌外科专科医师培训中的应用%Application of digital three-dimensional surgical simulation system in specialist training of orthognathic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈末伦; 王旭东

    2016-01-01

    牙颌面畸形患者面部形态异常和咬合功能障碍常较严重,需要采用正颌—正畸联合治疗的方法进行矫正。治疗牙颌面畸形的正颌手术术野狭小、操作复杂、风险较大,其手术教学和操作培训手段有限,限制了此类技术的推广应用。文章介绍了将数字化三维手术设计与模拟系统应用于正颌外科专科医师培训,可取得良好的手术教学效果。实践表明,通过手术虚拟操作,可使受训医师加深对牙颌面畸形和正颌外科手术的理解。%Patients with dento-maxillofacial deformities often suffer relatively severe facial anomalies and occlusal dysfunction, which need to be corrected with combined orthodontic and orthognathic treatment.Orthognathic surgery is very complicated with narrow operative field and relatively high risk.The means of orthognathic surgery teaching and operation training are limited,which restricts the promotion of orthognathic surgical technology.In this study,a digital three-dimensional surgical design and simulation system was applied to specialist training of orthognathic surgery with satisfactory results.Practice proves that through virtual operation training,the trained surgeons obtained a deeper understanding of dento-maxillofacial deformities and orthognathic surgery.

  6. An Image Processing Approach to Linguistic Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubatur, Shruthi; Sreehari, Suhas; Hegde, Rajeshwari

    2011-12-01

    The art of translation is as old as written literature. Developments since the Industrial Revolution have influenced the practice of translation, nurturing schools, professional associations, and standard. In this paper, we propose a method of translation of typed Kannada text (taken as an image) into its equivalent English text. The National Instruments (NI) Vision Assistant (version 8.5) has been used for Optical character Recognition (OCR). We developed a new way of transliteration (which we call NIV transliteration) to simplify the training of characters. Also, we build a special type of dictionary for the purpose of translation.

  7. Construction of Teaching Practical Training System for Chinese Medicine Acupuncture Surgery%中医针灸外科学实训教学体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宝强; 王树东

    2011-01-01

    高等中医院校中医针灸外科学教学多以理论讲授为主,并受到教学资源的限制,学生实践操作能力较差.作者多年来通过丰富实训教学内容、尝试PBL等多元化教学模式、实施阶段性实践培训和多站式技能考核方法、加强教师临床技能等手段,不断完善中医针灸外科学实训教学体系,全面提高了学生的思维创新能力及中医外科临床技能.%The Theory teaching is the main way in the Chinese medicine acupuncture Surgery in Higher TCM Colleges, and the students' practical operating abilities were poor because of the teaching resources limitation.The author has been perfected the Teaching Practical Training System of Chinese medicine acupuncture Surgery for years, by rich the Training Teaching content, try to use the multiple teaching such as PBL, carry out the practice training by stage and multistate skill examination method, as well as enhance the teachers' clinical skills, which make overall improvement in students' thinking innovative ability and the clinical skills of TCM Surgery innovative ability.

  8. Deconstructive Reconsideration of Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳清

    2014-01-01

    This paper is on the deconstructive reconsideration of the definition of translation, the relation of source text and translation, as well as the relation of translator and author. It also points out the differences between tranditioanal concepts of translation and deconstructive reconsideration of translation.

  9. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson's Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  10. Translator Studies in Retrospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勤

    2009-01-01

    The concern about translator has run for thousands of years on which many translators and translation scholars have made comments.A rough examination of the translator within translation studies at home and abroad is expounded in a loosely chronological way as follows.

  11. On Becoming a Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2015-01-01

    Douglas Robinson’s Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  12. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio...

  13. Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良杰

    2013-01-01

    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  14. Word reading and translation in bilinguals: The impact of formal and informal translation expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo M. García

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies on bilingual word reading and translation have examined the effects of lexical variables (e.g., concreteness, cognate status by comparing groups of non-translators with varying levels of L2 proficiency. However, little attention has been paid to another relevant factor: translation expertise (TI. To explore this issue, we administered word reading and translation tasks to two groups of non-translators possessing different levels of informal TI (Experiment 1, and to three groups of bilinguals possessing different levels of translation training (Experiment 2. Reaction-time recordings showed that in all groups reading was faster than translation and unaffected by concreteness and cognate effects. Conversely, in both experiments, all groups translated concrete and cognate words faster than abstract and non-cognate words, respectively. Notably, an advantage of backward over forward translation was observed only for low-proficiency non-translators (in Experiment 1. Also, in Experiment 2, the modifications induced by translation expertise were more marked in the early than in the late stages of training and practice. The results suggest that TI contributes to modulating inter-equivalent connections in bilingual memory.

  15. Is there a future for neuroprotective agents in cardiac surgery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Walter M

    2010-01-01

    This article gives an overview of neuroprotective drugs that were recently tested in clinical trials in cardiac surgery. Also, recommendations are given for successful translational research and considerations for management during cardiac surgery.

  16. Significance of Linguistics in Translation Education at the University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erton, Ismail; Tanbi, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    Translation studies--that is translation and Interpretation, is a field that evolved as a sub-discipline of Linguistics and its related subjects. In the course of time, it developed as a separate area of study with roots still attached to its origins. Hence, the training of translator and the interpreter cannot be totally separated from…

  17. Survey of the patients with cleft lip and palate in China who were funded for surgery by the Smile Train Program from 2000 to 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qiao-juan; SHI Bing; SHI Zong-dao; ZHENG Qian; WANG Yan

    2006-01-01

    Background Cleft lip (CL) and cleft palate (CP) are two of the most frequent congenital malformations.Many epidemiologic studies on this deformity have been conducted worldwide, often producing inconsistent results. This study assessed epidemiology and some genetic aspects of cleft lip and palate in a Chinese sample from the Smile Train Program and to compare with other methodologically sound surveys.Methods The general information, family history, classification of cleft and associated malformations of 8000CL and CP surgery patients were analyzed.Results Of the 8000 cases, 7812 had complete data. The distribution of cleft types is 17.04% with CP, 23.39%with CL and 59.58% with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Unilateral clefts were more common than bilateral, with involved 29 CP cases, 41 CL and 156 CLP. The frequency of associated malformations in CLP (3.35%) was higher than CL (2.24%) and CP (2.22%) (P<0.05). Patients with CP or CLP were born less often in the winter than in the summer (P<0.05). A history of family members having clefts occurred in 6.84% of patients. The proportion of CLP cases (7.56%) was significantly higher than that of CL cases (5.64%) (P<0.05).Conclusions The different types of clefts appeared in the highest proportion in CLP and lowest proportion in CP. Males are more common with CL and CLP and less common with CP. These characteristics are the same as those of other Chinese surveys but different from some European reports.

  18. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  19. Training a cataract surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Babar Qureshi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Training in cataract surgery is one of the key factors needed to ensure high quality cataract surgery with good visual outcomes and patient satisfaction. The training has to impart the right skills to the right person by the right trainer and in the right environment.

  20. Lung surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pneumonectomy; Lobectomy; Lung biopsy; Thoracoscopy; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery; VATS ... You will have general anesthesia before surgery. You will be asleep and unable to feel pain. Two common ways to do surgery on your lungs are thoracotomy and video- ...

  1. Turbinate surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbinectomy; Turbinoplasty; Turbinate reduction; Nasal airway surgery; Nasal obstruction - turbinate surgery ... There are several types of turbinate surgery: Turbinectomy: All or ... This can be done in several different ways, but sometimes a ...

  2. Cataract Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Videos: What Do Cataracts Look Like? Cataract Surgery Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Elena M ... how they work. What to expect with cataract surgery Before surgery: Your ophthalmologist will measure your eye ...

  3. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio...... output and keystrokes were recorded. Oral and written translation data were examined in order to investigate if task times and translation quality differed in the three modalities. Although task times were found to be highest in written translation, the quality was not consistently better. In addition...

  4. Simulation Training in Hysteroscopic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Hysteroscopy detects uterine cavity pathology by direct visualisation of the endometrial lining, making use of a vaginally inserted endoscope. The additional insertion of an instrument through the endoscope provides the opportunity for obtainment of histology and treatment of pathologies, and for st

  5. On Using Very Large Target Vocabulary for Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Jean, Sébastien; Cho, Kyunghyun; Memisevic, Roland; Bengio, Yoshua

    2014-01-01

    Neural machine translation, a recently proposed approach to machine translation based purely on neural networks, has shown promising results compared to the existing approaches such as phrase-based statistical machine translation. Despite its recent success, neural machine translation has its limitation in handling a larger vocabulary, as training complexity as well as decoding complexity increase proportionally to the number of target words. In this paper, we propose a method that allows us ...

  6. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) ... bariatric surgery might be an option. About Bariatric Surgery Bariatric surgery had its beginnings in the 1960s, ...

  7. The validity of sheep mandible model used in the simulation-based preclinical practice training of periodontal surgery%羊下颌模型在牙周手术教学中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许杰; 杨俊; 吴天明; 冀虎圣; 聂晨阳; 张伟; 曹敏; 陈发明

    2016-01-01

    Sheep mandible model was used in periodontal surgery simulation operation.The array of experi-ments proved that the sheep mandible model can imitate human oral and periodontal condition.Differential parts of the model were suitable for implementation of periodontal flap surgery,gingivoectomy,apically repositioned flap surgery and other common periodontal surgery.Using of sheep mandible model in the simulation -based preclinical practice training of periodontal surgery,can improve students'operation skills,strengthen the study effect.The sheep model is feasible in the teaching of periodontal surgery for undergraduates and advanced trainees.%选用羊下颌模型探索牙周手术模拟操作的可行性。实验证明羊下颌模型能够较真实的模拟人类口腔牙周情况,可利用不同部位的解剖特点,选择进行牙周翻瓣术、龈切术、根向复位瓣术等多种常见牙周手术。采用羊下颌模型进行牙周手术模拟操作的临床前教学,可以提高学生操作技能,强化学习效果,值得在牙周病学本科生教学和各层次牙周病学继续教育学习班操作课程中进一步推广。

  8. An Experimental Study of Translation Competence Training in the Setting of Multi--medium and Internet%多媒体网络环境下学习者翻译能力培养策略的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梅

    2011-01-01

    在翻译能力结构分析和培养策略探索的基础上,采用翻译测试和问卷调查两种实证研究的方式,着重考察了在多媒体网络环境下,“以学习者为中心”的“过程教学法”对学生翻译能力的影响。通过对实验组和控制组进行一个学期的培训后,数据分析结果表明,此教学法对提高学生的翻译能力具有明显成效。%Translation competence training is the key to the cultivation of qualified translation per- sonnel. Based on the structural analysis of translation competence and studies of its training strategy, the paper will apply both ways of test and questionnaires to investigate the effectiveness of the learnercentered and process--oriented teaching approach based on multi--media net. After the training strategy is experimented on students for one term, data analysis shows that (he new approach can improve students' translation competence obviously.

  9. Corpora and Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽莉

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Recent years have witnessed a significant growth of corpora heat. One of the many fields where corpora have a growing impact is translation, both at a descriptive and a practical level. Chesterman pointed out that the focus of Translation Studies shifted from translation itself to translators, from regulative to descriptive studies, from philosophical to empirical studies (Chesterman, 1998).

  10. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The intricacies of language still eludes even the most sophisticated technology IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  11. Translators and Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Technology is not yet advanced enough to capture the nuances of language It is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  12. Lost in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zhitao; Chen Wen

    2011-01-01

    IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  13. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program...

  14. On translation equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雏凤

    2009-01-01

    Nida's translation theories, especially for his "Dynamic equivalence theory", are highly praised and adopted in Chinese translation circle. Howev-er, there are a lot of criticism and misunderstanding at the same time. This paper explores the issue on translation equivalence so as to benefit our translation studies on both theory and practice level.

  15. FACTORS REGULATING LIBERAL TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海红

    2012-01-01

    Literal translation and liberal translation are two important methods and both play key roles in translation.However,some textbooks say that most translations are literal translations while others maintain most are liberal ones,besides,some others suggest a combination of the two.This paper focuses on the facts that regulate liberal translation.Because of the differences in culture,society,history,geography,and so on,there exists a great difference between Chinese language and English language,which does naturally lead to the liberal translation.

  16. [Robotic surgery in gynecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csorba, Roland

    2012-06-24

    Minimally invasive surgery has revolutionized gynecological interventions over the past 30 years. The introduction of the da Vinci robotic surgery in 2005 has resulted in large changes in surgical management. The robotic platform allows less experienced laparoscopic surgeons to perform more complex procedures. It can be utilized mainly in general gynecology and reproductive gynecology. The robot is being increasingly used for procedures such as hysterectomy, myomectomy, adnexal surgery, and tubal anastomosis. In urogynecology, the robot is being utilized for sacrocolopexy as well. In the field of gynecologic oncology, the robot is being increasingly used for hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy in oncologic diseases. Despite the rapid and widespread adaption of robotic surgery in gynecology, there are no randomized trials comparing its efficacy and safety to other traditional surgical approaches. This article presents the development, technical aspects and indications of robotic surgery in gynecology, based on the previously published reviews. Robotic surgery can be highly advantageous with the right amount of training, along with appropriate patient selection. Patients will have less blood loss, less post-operative pain, faster recovery, and fewer complications compared to open surgery and laparoscopy. However, until larger randomized control trials are completed which report long-term outcomes, robotic surgery cannot be stated to have priority over other surgical methods.

  17. Overview of the Inland California Translational Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkas, Linda H.

    2017-05-01

    The mission of the Inland California Translational Consortium (ICTC), an independent research consortium comprising a unique hub of regional institutions (City of Hope [COH], California Institute of Technology [Caltech], Jet Propulsion Laboratory [JPL], University of California Riverside [UCR], and Claremont Colleges Keck Graduate Institute [KGI], is to institute a new paradigm within the academic culture to accelerate translation of innovative biomedical discoveries into clinical applications that positively affect human health and life. The ICTC actively supports clinical translational research as well as the implementation and advancement of novel education and training models for the translation of basic discoveries into workable products and practices that preserve and improve human health while training and educating at all levels of the workforce using innovative forward-thinking approaches.

  18. Some Major Steps to Translation and Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hojat Shamami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is an overview of the main issues at the core of theorizing translation practice and the features of a good translator or how to be a good translator and of course what are the Skills to become a Freelance Translator and Translation process. In this world of science and technology there is knowledge explosion every day. This knowledge which is generally written in the English language needs to be transmitted in various languages so that people who do not know how to speak and write the original language can get the knowledge necessary for industrial development and technological innovation to keep up with the rest of the world. To transmit this knowledge effectively, there is a need for competent translators in various languages.

  19. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  20. Stylistic Requirement for Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yin-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Stylistic research is subordinate to language use research. The fast maturing modern stylistics has greatly boosted trans-lation studies. Translation has a close relationship with stylistics. Many problems can be solved in translation practice by stylis-tic theories and analysis methods. Based on a brief introduction of stylistics and the relationship between stylistics and transla-tion, this paper will give a specific analysis of the stylistic requirement for translation.

  1. Design of Virtual Surgery Training Platform System for Navy Medical Team%海上医疗队虚拟手术训练平台系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晶; 王海威; 王德利; 丁宇; 王全玉; 王宏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To design a surgical training platform system suitable for sea swing, heave, and bumpy environment for the navy medical team of different surgical specialties. Methods The virtual surgery training platform system was designed to solve the problems including mobile portability and environmental adaptability by utilization of truckle with brake, fixing with magnetic materials and bracket, etc. The virtual surgery training platform system integrated force -feedback device, graphic workstation as well as three-dimensional display device to build a software-hardware combination system in order to simulate and imitate various martial circumstances. Results During the "Harmonious Mission2011", the medical team used this system to do the simulation training for the tibia and fibula fracture fixation. The system achieved the design requirements and could be used to do virtual surgery training in different maritime environment. Conclusion The application of the system can improve the availability and pertinence of the treatment skills training for the medical team, so as to promote the ability of martial medical treatment.%目的:研制一种适用于海上摇摆、垂荡、颠簸环境下,海上医疗队进行跨学科专业的手术训练平台系统.方法:为解决移动便携和海上舰船环境适应性问题,采取带刹车滚轮、磁性材料固定、支架固定等措施,以集成力反馈设备、图形工作站、三维立体显示等设备建立该系统,设计能够模拟不同海况环境条件的移动虚拟手术训练平台系统.结果:在海军执行和谐使命系列任务中,医疗队员使用该系统进行胫腓骨骨折内固定术的模拟训练.经实际检验,该系统实现了设计要求,可在不同海上环境下提供虚拟手术训练.结论:该系统的应用,能提高海上医疗队员海战救治技能训练的针对性和有效性,从而有利于提高海上医疗救治能力.

  2. [Haemorrhage after thyroid surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swirta, Jarosław S; Barczyński, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Haemorrhage after thyroid surgery is rare, but if it occurs it is a life-threatening condition necessitating emergency surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate prevalence and risk factors of haemorrhage after thyroid surgery. A retrospective analysis was undertaken in a group of 8931 consecutive patients with various thyroid diseases treated in 2004-2013 at our institution. Potential risk factors for postoperative haemorrhage after thyroid surgery were analysed using logistic regression model. Haemorrhage after thyroid operation necessitating emergency surgery occurred in 40 (0.45%) of 8931 patients. None of the patients died within the perioperative period. Bleeding occurred within first 24 hours following surgery in 38 (95%) patients, and in the remaining 2 (5%) patients in more than 24 hours after initial surgery. The following risk factors for bleeding after thyroid operation were identified: male sex (OR 3.618; 1.762-7.430; p or = 70 years (OR 3.052; 1.275-7.304; p = 0.012), surgery for hyperthyroidism (OR 2.873; 1.511-5.462; p = 0.001), smoking (OR 2.855; 1.502-5.428; p = 0.001), subtotal thyroidectomy in contrast to total thyroidectomy or lobectomy (OR 2.853; 1.356-6.004; p=0.006), and thyroid operation undertaken by resident in training in general surgery (OR 2.596; 1.393-4.837; p = 0.003). Haemorrhage after thyroid operation necessitating emergency surgical intervention occurs most frequently within first 24 hour following surgery. Hence, for safety reasons a minimum of 24-hour hospital stay is recommended in all patients with risk factors for postoperative bleeding after thyroid operation. Quality monitoring of thyroid surgery should include also risk factors for postoperative bleeding.

  3. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  4. Translation-coupling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2015-05-19

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  5. Real-Time Augmented Reality for Robotic-Assisted Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Kibsgaard; Kraus, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Training in robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery is crucial, but the training with actual surgery robots is relatively expensive. Therefore, improving the efficiency of this training is of great interest in robotic surgical education. One of the current limitations of this training is the ...

  6. Application of operation robot in standardization training for resident docto rs in general surgery%机器人手术教学在普通外科住院医师规范化培训中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鹏; 李丽; 胡先贵; 张浩; 赵志青

    2015-01-01

    目的:为了提高普通外科住院医师规范化培训中的临床教学效果。方法我们将基于机器人手术的教学模式有针对性地初步应用到普外科临床教学中,将107名规范化培训的住院医师分两组:传统方法手术教学组(51人)和手术机器人教学组(56人)。将两组相关教学效果用SPSS软件统计对比分析。结果发现该教学模式在普通外科住院医师规范化培训的中具有其独特的优势,能使培训的住院医师更仔细观察腹部的解剖,普外科疾病特征和手术操作的细节,提升他们的学习腹部手术的兴趣,优化临床教学效果。结论运用该教学模式可提升普通外科的住院医师规范化培训的临床教学的实际效果。%Objective To improve the teaching of general surgery effect of standardization training of residents.Methods We apllied the robot operation mode of teaching into clinical teaching of department of general surgery, the 107 resident doctors of standardized training is divided into two groups:the traditional method of teaching operation group and operation robot teaching group . Comparative analysis of two groups of related teaching effect was done by using the SPSS software. Results We found that it had its unique advantages in surgery teaching:making the resident doctors successfully observe the abdominal anatomy and operation details, improving their learning interest and confidence of abdominal surgery, optimizing the learning effect. Conclusion So the teaching mode with operation robotic can improve teaching effect of the resident standardization training in general surgery.

  7. Translation Theory 'Translated': Three Perspectives on Translation in Organizational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the mo......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings.......Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented...

  8. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  9. Linguistic Levels of Translation: A Generic Exploration of Translation Difficulties in Literary Textual Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Madkour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study research was based on a generic exploration of the translation problems that graduate students face in literary translation. Literary translation is fundamental to translation programs at higher education due to the upsurge that has occurred in publishing classical and modern literary works from various cultures. However, literary texts have special characteristics that make the process of transferring them from one language into another a daunting task. Translating literary texts is difficult even for professional translators because misinterpreting the messages of the source texts can lead to distorting the aesthetic aspects of the literary work. Students need to learn various linguistic levels of literary translation as well as strategies and methods of translation. Learning the linguistics levels of translation necessitates providing adequate training that is based on enhancing students’ cognitive abilities. Cognitive-based translation training helps students learn the procedures of solving the problems of translating sound and literary devices. Cognitive approaches are relevant to the translation process since cognition implies mental activities that students can use to understand and synthesize the literary text, and reconstruct it creatively. Therefore, the current study aimed at examining the relationship between cognitive teaching methodologies and students’ performance in literary translation. To examine this relationship, qualitative and quantitative data was collected from graduate students at the College of Languages and Translation at Imam Mohammed bin Saud Islamic University (IMAMU University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, corpus data was gathered from authentic literary texts including, novels, short stories, and poetry, to investigate the effect of linguistic analysis and cognitive strategies on the quality of literary translation. Quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the

  10. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ...

  11. Dental Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ...

  12. Barriers to Neurosurgical Training in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Need for a Phased Approach to Global Surgery Efforts to Improve Neurosurgical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Elie; Yee, Philip; Hodaie, Mojgan

    2017-02-01

    Neurosurgery in low-income countries is faced with multiple challenges. Although the most common challenges include infrastructure and physical resource deficits, an underemphasized barrier relates to the methods and components of surgical training. The role of important aspects, including didactic surgical training, surgical decision-making, workshops, conferences, and assessment methods, has not been duly studied. Knowledge of these issues is a crucial step to move closer to strengthening surgical capacity in low-income countries. We designed an online survey to assess self-perceived and objectively measured barriers to neurosurgical training in various Sub-Saharan African countries. Key outcomes included perception toward adequacy of neurosurgery training and barriers to neurosurgical training at each individual site. Only 37% of responders felt that their training program adequately prepared them for handling incoming neurosurgical cases. Top perceived limitations of neurosurgery training included lack of physical resources (25% of all responses), lack of practical workshops (22%), lack of program structure (18%), and lack of topic-specific lectures (10%). Our results show that most responders believe their training program is inadequate and are interested in improving it through international collaborations. This implies that activities directed at strengthening surgical capacity must address this important necessity. One important strategy is the use of online educational tools. In consideration of the observed limitations in care, resources, and training, we recommend a phased approach to neurosurgical growth in low-income settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Evaluation of Systemic On-the-job Training Effects in Nurses of Pediatric Surgery%小儿外科护理人员系统岗位培训及效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑琼; 胡丽君

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the training methods and effects of systemic on-the-job training on the nurses of pediatric surgery.Methods From January 2010 to February 2011,26 selected nurses from department of pediatric surgery were involved in the 10-month-training.The effects were evaluated by comparing the scores of the theory and skills assessment before and after the training and their self-evaluation.Results Compared to the scores oi nurses' specialise knowledge, nursing skills and comprehensive abilities before training,the data showed significant differences after the training(P<0.01), The satisfactions oi training contents, training methods, the training teachers and time arrangement were 87.50%, 91.67 % ,85.83 % and 87.50% respectivley.'The top five effects of nurse-self-evaluation were improving job confidence( 100%) , improving communication skills(95.83 %),improving learning skills(91.67%),improving culture attainments(91.67%) ,and improving job-promoting capacity(83.33%).Conclusion The systemic on-the-job training on the nurses oi pediatric surgery is an effective way to improve the specialist knowledge,nursing skills and comprehensive abilities, which contributes to more confidence and better practice ability for nurses.%目的 探讨小儿外科护理人员系统岗位培训的方法及其效果.方法 选择2010年1月至2011年2月重庆医科大学附属儿童医院小儿外科在岗的26名小儿外科护理人员为研究对象,进行为期10个月培训.比较培训前后理论及技能操作考核成绩,并通过培训后参训人员自评对岗位培训进行效果评价.结果 培训后,参训人员的理论和技能操作考核成绩均有提高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).在自评中,对培训满意度方面排名前四位为"培训内容"、"培训方式"、"授课教师"、" 时间安排",其满意度分别为87.50%、91.67%、85.83%和 87.50%.在自评中,培训对参训人员自身帮助与否方面的排名前五位为"培训可以提

  14. contemporary translation studies and bible translation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the source text to the translation process, the product and/or reception of ... The methodological impact was a shift from normative linguistic-based ... ary Society Period, with formal-equivalent translations being made by mis- ... the theoretical foundation of the functional-equivalent approach problem- ... After a review of.

  15. Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Richard; Alatise, Olusegun Isaac; Anderson, Benjamin O; Audisio, Riccardo; Autier, Philippe; Aggarwal, Ajay; Balch, Charles; Brennan, Murray F; Dare, Anna; D'Cruz, Anil; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Fleming, Kenneth; Gueye, Serigne Magueye; Hagander, Lars; Herrera, Cristian A; Holmer, Hampus; Ilbawi, André M; Jarnheimer, Anton; Ji, Jia-Fu; Kingham, T Peter; Liberman, Jonathan; Leather, Andrew J M; Meara, John G; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Murthy, Shilpa S; Omar, Sherif; Parham, Groesbeck P; Pramesh, C S; Riviello, Robert; Rodin, Danielle; Santini, Luiz; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Shrime, Mark; Thomas, Robert; Tsunoda, Audrey T; van de Velde, Cornelis; Veronesi, Umberto; Vijaykumar, Dehannathparambil Kottarathil; Watters, David; Wang, Shan; Wu, Yi-Long; Zeiton, Moez; Purushotham, Arnie

    2015-09-01

    Surgery is essential for global cancer care in all resource settings. Of the 15.2 million new cases of cancer in 2015, over 80% of cases will need surgery, some several times. By 2030, we estimate that annually 45 million surgical procedures will be needed worldwide. Yet, less than 25% of patients with cancer worldwide actually get safe, affordable, or timely surgery. This Commission on global cancer surgery, building on Global Surgery 2030, has examined the state of global cancer surgery through an analysis of the burden of surgical disease and breadth of cancer surgery, economics and financing, factors for strengthening surgical systems for cancer with multiple-country studies, the research agenda, and the political factors that frame policy making in this area. We found wide equity and economic gaps in global cancer surgery. Many patients throughout the world do not have access to cancer surgery, and the failure to train more cancer surgeons and strengthen systems could result in as much as US $6.2 trillion in lost cumulative gross domestic product by 2030. Many of the key adjunct treatment modalities for cancer surgery--e.g., pathology and imaging--are also inadequate. Our analysis identified substantial issues, but also highlights solutions and innovations. Issues of access, a paucity of investment in public surgical systems, low investment in research, and training and education gaps are remarkably widespread. Solutions include better regulated public systems, international partnerships, super-centralisation of surgical services, novel surgical clinical trials, and new approaches to improve quality and scale up cancer surgical systems through education and training. Our key messages are directed at many global stakeholders, but the central message is that to deliver safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery to all, surgery must be at the heart of global and national cancer control planning.

  16. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory......, be applied to translation and goes on to present a case study which involves a firm in the translation industry and which illustrates quality management in practice. The paper shows that applying quality management to translation is feasible and that doing so may translate into sustained growth....

  17. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory......, be applied to translation and goes on to present a case study which involves a firm in the translation industry and which illustrates quality management in practice. The paper shows that applying quality management to translation is feasible and that doing so may translate into sustained growth....

  18. On Advertisement Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-lu

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement language is a special practical writing with abundant imagination, great creativity and instigation. During translation the diversity in social culture, language and ethnic psychology, etc. will be directly reflected into its effect, presenting both the trouble in business of translators and also significant influences on the business brand. Starting from the features of adver⁃tisement language itself, this paper integrates translation situations and measures from several schools over the latest 20 years, gives typical examples in advertising translation and analyzes from varies perspectives and points out some problems in today ’s ad⁃vertisement translation,aiming to provide some constructive opinions for translation of advertisements.

  19. Film Name Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓晓

    2014-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction A good translation of the name should convey the information of the film and attract the audience’s desire for going to the cinema.Translation of film names should have business,information,culture,aesthetic features,while a short eye-catching name aims to leave the audience an unforgettable impression.This thesis discusses the translation of English film names from the aspects of the importance of English film name translation,principles for translating English film names and methods of English film name translation.

  20. Translation between representation languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  1. A standardized resident training program in endoscopic surgery in general and in laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair in particular

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miserez, Marc; Arregui, Maurice; Bisgaard, Thue

    2009-01-01

    The need for acquisition of specific laparoscopic skills has emphasized the role of a preclinical laboratory-training program. However, for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair with a steep learning curve, especially for totally extraperitoneal repair, preclinical skill training remains a challeng...

  2. Impact of established skills in open surgery on the proficiency gain process for laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel C; Miskovic, Danilo; Tang, Benjie; Hanna, George B

    2010-06-01

    Laparoscopic training traditionally follows open surgical training. This study aimed to investigate the impact of experience in open surgery on the laparoscopic proficiency gain process. A survey form investigating the importance of open experience before the start of laparoscopic training was sent to surgical experts and trainees in the United Kingdom. A separate experimental study objectively assessed the effects of open experience on laparoscopic skill acquisition using a virtual reality simulator. In the study, 11 medical students with no prior surgical experience (group A) and 14 surgical trainees with open but no laparoscopic experience in (group B) performed 250 simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Psychomotor skills were evaluated by motion analysis and video-based global rating scores. Before the first and after the fifth and tenth operation, knowledge of laparoscopic techniques was assessed by a written test and by self-reported confidence levels indicated on a questionnaire. The 80 experts and 282 trainees who responded to the survey believed prior open experience aids confidence levels, knowledge, and skills acquisition. In the simulation study, no intergroup difference was found for any parameter after the first procedure. Group B scored significantly higher in the laparoscopic knowledge test before training began (42.7% vs. 64.3%; p = 0.002), but no significant difference was found after five operations. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of confidence. Group B had a significantly shorter total operation time only at the first operation (2,305.6 s vs. 1,884.6 s; p = 0.037). No significant intergroup difference in path length, number of movements, or video-based global rating scores was observed. Prior open experience does not aid the laparoscopic learning process, as demonstrated in a simulated setting. Given the wealth of evidence demonstrating translation of virtual skills to the operating theater, we propose that the safe and

  3. Customised 3D Printing: An Innovative Training Tool for the Next Generation of Orbital Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scawn, Richard L; Foster, Alex; Lee, Bradford W; Kikkawa, Don O; Korn, Bobby S

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is the process by which three dimensional data fields are translated into real-life physical representations. 3D printers create physical printouts using heated plastics in a layered fashion resulting in a three-dimensional object. We present a technique for creating customised, inexpensive 3D orbit models for use in orbital surgical training using 3D printing technology. These models allow trainee surgeons to perform 'wet-lab' orbital decompressions and simulate upcoming surgeries on orbital models that replicate a patient's bony anatomy. We believe this represents an innovative training tool for the next generation of orbital surgeons.

  4. Translation and Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the issue of quality in translation. Specifically, the question under consideration is whether quality assurance in relation to translation is feasible and, if so, what some of the implications for translation theory, translation practice and the teaching...... of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...... theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified...

  5. Accommodating Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  6. Living in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how......, as humans, we generate meaning, interpret meaning, and reformulate or translate meaning. I also reflect on the way computing has influenced research into these phenomena as seen e.g. in my creation of the Translog program and in projects I have been involved in, such as OFT (Translation of Professional...... for global communication purposes, and for improving research into translation, the phenomenon of translation and the world of translation in which we all live....

  7. Nose Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Health Home Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly ... Terms of Use © Copyright 2017. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery 1650 Diagonal Rd Alexandria, ...

  8. After Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... side effects. There is usually some pain with surgery. There may also be swelling and soreness around ... the first few days, weeks, or months after surgery. Some other questions to ask are How long ...

  9. One or two trainees per workplace in a structured multimodality training curriculum for laparoscopic surgery? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial - DRKS00004675.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Felix; Jede, Felix; Minassian, Andreas; Gondan, Matthias; Hendrie, Jonathan D; Gehrig, Tobias; Linke, Georg R; Kadmon, Martina; Fischer, Lars; Müller-Stich, Beat P

    2014-04-23

    Laparoscopy training courses have been established in many centers worldwide to ensure adequate skill learning before performing operations on patients. Different training modalities and their combinations have been compared regarding training effects. Multimodality training combines different approaches for optimal training outcome. However, no standards currently exist for the number of trainees assigned per workplace. This is a monocentric, open, three-arm randomized controlled trial. The participants are laparoscopically-naive medical students from Heidelberg University. After a standardized introduction to laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with online learning modules, the participants perform a baseline test for basic skills and LC performance on a virtual reality (VR) trainer. A total of 100 students will be randomized into three study arms, in a 2:2:1 ratio. The intervention groups participate individually (Group 1) or in pairs (Group 2) in a standardized and structured multimodality training curriculum. Basic skills are trained on the box and VR trainers. Procedural skills and LC modules are trained on the VR trainer. The control group (Group C) does not receive training between tests. A post-test is performed to reassess basic skills and LC performance on the VR trainer. The performance of a cadaveric porcine LC is then measured as the primary outcome using standardized and validated ratings by blinded experts with the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills. The Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Surgical skills score and the time taken for completion are used as secondary outcome measures as well as the improvement of skills and VR LC performance between baseline and post-test. Cognitive tests and questionnaires are used to identify individual factors that might exert influence on training outcome. This study aims to assess whether workplaces in laparoscopy training courses for beginners should be used by one trainee or two trainees

  10. Translating HOL to Dedukti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Assaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dedukti is a logical framework based on the lambda-Pi-calculus modulo rewriting, which extends the lambda-Pi-calculus with rewrite rules. In this paper, we show how to translate the proofs of a family of HOL proof assistants to Dedukti. The translation preserves binding, typing, and reduction. We implemented this translation in an automated tool and used it to successfully translate the OpenTheory standard library.

  11. Factoring Adult Learners’ Generational Mix in Translator Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakwe George Mbotake

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the incidence of androgogical principles and practices in the postgraduate Translator Training programme of the Advanced School of Translators and Interpreters (ASTI in Cameroon.  It posits that teaching that engages androgogical principles and practices are more germane to professional postgraduate Translator Training programmes that educate and service adult students.  As a relatively uncharted area in Translation Studies, the paper seeks to assess students and faculty’s attitudes towards the principles and practices of adult education and the difficulties encountered in their effective implementation. The aim of the study is to recommend androgogically-oriented translation teaching methods as a more effective alternative to effete pedagogical approaches.   The subjects for this study comprised a convenience sample of 41 trainee translators and 08 translator trainers of ASTI. Three data collection methods were used: an affective survey questionnaire, classroom observation, and a literature review component, which provided empirical data on the principles and practices of andragogy and pedagogy. The study demonstrates that knowledge of adult learners goes beyond the most commonly studied demographic variables of age and gender, and uncovers new variables that influence learning and student satisfaction in Translator Training. Keywords: Higher Education, Translator Training, Adult Education, Androgogy, Generational Mix

  12. Translation teaching in Macao’s polytechnic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lurdes Nogueira Escaleira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article "Translation teaching in Higher Education in Macau at the Polytechnic" aims to discuss the issues around teaching and learning of Chinese / Portuguese Translation in Macau, and the role played by the Macau Polytechnic Institute in translators training. For more than four centuries, Macau has been a place of intercultural contact where the Portuguese and the Chinese, now the current official languages, have coexisted and implied constant translation efforts; today, Macau is seen as an important platform between the People's Republic of China and Portuguese Speaking Countries, which has stressed the importance of translation professionals. Despite several attempts, Macau’s public higher education was only established in 1991, as well as a translation degree program; until then, and for more than a century, the translators training was held by a government department. We will discuss several curricular structures implemented over the years in the Macao Polytechnic Institute for training translators who can intermediate between Chinese and Portuguese languages and cultures growingly expanding in Macau, given the significant increase in the demand for properly trained translators/interpreters

  13. Robotic surgery in gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkatout, Ibrahim; Mettler, Liselotte; Maass, Nicolai; Ackermann, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgery is the most dynamic development in the sector of minimally invasive operations currently. It should not be viewed as an alternative to laparoscopy, but as the next step in a process of technological evolution. The advancement of robotic surgery, in terms of the introduction of the Da Vinci Xi, permits the variable use of optical devices in all four trocars. Due to the new geometry of the "patient cart," an operation can be performed in all spatial directions without re-docking. Longer instruments and the markedly narrower mechanical elements of the "patient cart" provide greater flexibility as well as access similar to those of traditional laparoscopy. Currently, robotic surgery is used for a variety of indications in the treatment of benign gynecological diseases as well as malignant ones. Interdisciplinary cooperation and cooperation over large geographical distances have been rendered possible by telemedicine, and will ensure comprehensive patient care in the future by highly specialized surgery teams. In addition, the second operation console and the operation simulator constitute a new dimension in advanced surgical training. The disadvantages of robotic surgery remain the high costs of acquisition and maintenance as well as the laborious training of medical personnel before they are confident with using the technology.

  14. Bssiness Correspondence Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静

    2009-01-01

    It is widely-acknowtedged that business correspondence works as a bridge between the writer and the reader.Taking its characteristics into consideration,this essay illustrates how to do business correspondence translation.Only by abiding by all those fcatures can the translator achieve the aim of translation.

  15. Translation is Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟婧妤

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the art in translation.First,the translation and art are defined and some historic views are illustrated.Then the author lays emphasis on how to convey the artistic information and provides some methods on how to achieve artistic effect in translation.

  16. Metaphor and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    坎曼丽·麦麦提; 朱毅

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author first analyzed the nature of metaphor and difficulties in metaphor translation, displayed the fac-tors that will influence the translation between English and Chinese metaphors, and then explored the metaphor translation strate-gies by taking some English and Chinese idioms as examples.

  17. Found in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 18th World Congress of the International Federation of Translators(FIT) is bound to increase China’s international exposure.Shortly before the congress,Guo Xiaoyong,Executive Vice President of the Translators Association of China(TAC),spoke to Beijing Review about his expectations for the event and his evaluation of translation and interpretation services in China.

  18. Using Pragmatic in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井琳

    2013-01-01

    Translating process is coordination of the source language and target language. As the source language and translation language readers are in different cultural background, so their understanding of the environment is different. When the translator express their understanding in the receptor language, he must figure out the best relevance between source language and target language, which can achieve pragmatic equivalence.

  19. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws and ... Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, and is best performed by ...

  20. OVERVIEW OF TRANSLATION- JAHIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yuslina Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research tries to contrive Jahiz's stands and ideas in translation which he has discussed in his two books named "Al-Bayan Wal-Tabyeen" and "Al-Haiwan". As it was known this issue of translation was emergence since long period of time, and there was no need toward translation, however, after Arabian and Persian assembled with Greek philosophers had increasingly the need and concerned on Religion Sciences and others, for instances: Mathematics, Medicine, Logic, Engineering, Business and others which were existed during that time. The translation movement had gone by several stages in the different periods and being developed during Abassid period for example, the works of "Hanen Ibn Ishaq" and his own school which the translators had faced difficulties and problems in their translation. To summarize, this research has found a number of results that the "Jahiz" was precedence than others who had stated the conditions of translation before 12th century ago. Besides, these conditions appropriate till nowadays, he had also pointed these conditions cannot be applied in translation of literature texts and holy texts because its might be obliterated the savoir faire. "Jahiz" had looked through this issue seriously, he tried to help translators in this area and he had stated in his famous books the conditions of translation and he had given his ideas toward translation benefited from his previous experience in translation the ancient philosopher's books from Persian to Arabic. Though, the readers could benefit his ideas in translation generally and for the translator specifically, also his books became as a heritage references and cannot be neglected at all in translation work.

  1. [Safety culture in orthopedics and trauma surgery : Course concept: interpersonal competence by the German Society for Orthopaedics and Trauma (DGOU) and Lufthansa Aviation Training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepfer, A-K; Seemann, R; Merschin, D; Stange, R; Egerth, M; Münzberg, M; Mutschler, M; Bouillon, B; Hoffmann, R

    2017-06-22

    Patient safety has become a central and measurable key factor in the routine daily medical practice. The human factor plays a decisive role in safety culture and has moved into focus regarding the reduction of treatment errors and undesired critical incidents. Nonetheless, the systematic training in communication and interpersonal competences has so far only played a minor role. The German Society of Orthopaedics and Trauma (DGOU) in cooperation with the Lufthansa Aviation Training initiated a course system for interpersonal competence. Several studies confirmed the reduction of critical incidents and costs after implementation of a regular and targeted human factor training. The interpersonal competence should be an essential component of specialist training within the framework of a 3‑column model.

  2. A Writer, a Translator and a Translator

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Marinčič

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the French translation of the short story Amy by the Slovenian writer Mira Mihelič, made by Elza Jereb for the anthology Nouvelles slovènes (Paris, 1969). The original text, a classical narrative involving some modernist strategies, presents a syntactical feature rather unusual in Slovenian (although typical of the author Mira Mihelič): a very frequent use of participles and participial structures. Elza Jereb’s translation is accurate and precise, preserving not only th...

  3. Baudelaire: Translator-Auctoritas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zapata

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve visibility in the media and a position recognized by both the public and their peers, translators are compelled to take advantage of spaces of enunciation such as those provided by prefaces, criticism, or biographical notes. Thanks to these spaces, in which translators deploy discursive and institutional strategies that allow them to position themselves and their translation project, translators acquire the status of translator-auctoritas, that is, a level of symbolic authority capable of endowing them with a public image. Through the detailed analysis of the editorial strategies and institutional calculations implemented by Baudelaire in order to position his project of translating Edgar Allan Poe, we show how the poet achieves the status of translator-auctoritas and the role the latter played in the construction of his own literary identity.

  4. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  5. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  6. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  7. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Mandarin translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  8. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  9. Multilateral collaboration between technical communicators and translators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a multilateral international project (Thompson and Carter 1973, Moreno-Lopez 2004) in technical communication and translator training programmes and discusses its use of technologies in what is seen as the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing collaborati...

  10. Robotic Surgery in Gynecologic Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert DeBernardo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic surgery for the management of gynecologic cancers allows for minimally invasive surgical removal of cancer-bearing organs and tissues using sophisticated surgeon-manipulated, robotic surgical instrumentation. Early on, gynecologic oncologists recognized that minimally invasive surgery was associated with less surgical morbidity and that it shortened postoperative recovery. Now, robotic surgery represents an effective alternative to conventional laparotomy. Since its widespread adoption, minimally invasive surgery has become an option not only for the morbidly obese but for women with gynecologic malignancy where conventional laparotomy has been associated with significant morbidity. As such, this paper considers indications for robotic surgery, reflects on outcomes from initial robotic surgical outcomes data, reviews cost efficacy and implications in surgical training, and discusses new roles for robotic surgery in gynecologic cancer management.

  11. 3D 打印技术在脊柱外科手术教学和训练中的应用%Application of 3D printing technology in the teaching and training of spine surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波; 刘颖; 邱晓文; 贺西京

    2015-01-01

    Spinal disorders show an increasing trend in these years.However,the training of young doctors in spine surgery still follows the old pattern.On the basis of introducing 3D printer to make 3D model to guide operation,our hospital further used the 3D printing equal proportion model to train young doctors in surgical techniques.The training consists of explanation of the model,teaching of key points,and young trainees'operation on the equal proportion model and result analysis so as to help them grasp the key points as soon as possible.Results show that after the one-year training with the new method,the young doctors became familiar with and skillful in inserting pedicle screws in the full-length spine.Therefore,applying the 3D printing equal proportion model into spine surgery training is feasible with obvious effects.%脊柱疾病呈现出逐年上升的趋势,而脊柱外科青年医师的培训却还是依照旧的模式。西安交通大学医学部第二附属医院在引进3D 打印机制作3D 模型指导手术的前提下,更进一步运用3D 打印等比例模型对青年医师的手术技巧进行训练。经过模型讲解、要点传授以及青年医师亲手在等比例模型上进行操作和分析得失,使其能够尽快掌握技术要领。结果显示,青年医师接受新的方法培训后,能够在1年内熟悉和精通脊柱全长的椎弓根螺钉的置入技巧。因此,将3D 打印等比例模型运用于脊柱外科手术训练是切实可行且效果比较明显的训练方法。

  12. Foreignizing Translation and Domesticating Translation of Hong Kong Movie Titles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧韵

    2014-01-01

    Generally,the movie title translation strategy would be divided into two:domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy.The movie title translation in Hong Kong is chosen to be the material for the analysis of the domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy,compared with that of Mainland China.

  13. On Peter Newmark’s Semanic Translation & Communicative Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; ZHANG Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Peter Newmark has written many preeminent works on translation theory. He classifies the translation texts into differ⁃ent types,and puts forward his great translation methods-communiative translation and semantic translation. This paper is aimed to explain the creative work by Peter Nwmark in the translation theory.

  14. virtX - evaluation of a computer-based training system for mobile C-arm systems in trauma and orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, O J; Teistler, M; Duwenkamp, C; Wagner, M; Marschollek, M; Plischke, M; Raab, B W; Stürmer, K M; Pretschner, D P; Dresing, K

    2008-01-01

    Operating room personnel (ORP) operating mobile image intensifier systems (C-arms) need training to produce high quality radiographs with a minimum of time and X-ray exposure. Our study aims at evaluating acceptance, usability and learning effect of the CBT system virtX that simulates C-arm based X-ray imaging in the context of surgical case scenarios. Prospective, interventional study conducted during an ORP course with three groups: intervention group 1 (training on a PC using virtX), and 2 (virtX with a C-arm as input device), and a control group (training without virtX) - IV1, IV2 and CG. All participants finished training with the same exercise. Time needed to produce an image of sufficient quality was recorded and analyzed using One-Way-ANOVA and Dunnett post hoc test (alpha = .05). Acceptance and usability of virtX have been evaluated using a questionnaire. CG members (n = 21) needed more time for the exercise than those of IV2 (n = 20): 133 +/- 55 vs. 101 +/- 37 sec. (p = .03). IV1 (n = 12) also performed better than CG (128 +/- 48 sec.), but this was not statistically significant. Seventy-nine participants returned a questionnaire (81% female, age 34 +/- 9 years, professional experience 8.3 +/- 7.6 years; 77% regularly used a C-arm). 83% considered virtX a useful addition to conventional C-arm training. 91% assessed virtual radiography as helpful for understanding C-arm operation. Trainees experienced virtX as substantial enhancement of C-arm training. Training with virtX can reduce the time needed to perform an imaging task.

  15. Translation of Untranslatable Words — Integration of Lexical Approximation and Phrase-Table Extension Techniques into Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Michael; Arora, Karunesh; Sumita, Eiichiro

    This paper proposes a method for handling out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words that cannot be translated using conventional phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) systems. For a given OOV word, lexical approximation techniques are utilized to identify spelling and inflectional word variants that occur in the training data. All OOV words in the source sentence are then replaced with appropriate word variants found in the training corpus, thus reducing the number of OOV words in the input. Moreover, in order to increase the coverage of such word translations, the SMT translation model is extended by adding new phrase translations for all source language words that do not have a single-word entry in the original phrase-table but only appear in the context of larger phrases. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is investigated for the translation of Hindi to English, Chinese, and Japanese.

  16. Text Type and Translation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福娟

    2015-01-01

    Translation strategy and translation standards are undoubtedly the core problems translators are confronted with in translation. There have arisen many kinds of translation strategies in translation history, among which the text type theory is considered an important breakthrough and a significant complement of traditional translation standards. This essay attempts to demonstrate the value of text typology (informative, expressive, and operative) to translation strategy, emphasizing the importance of text types and their communicative functions.

  17. Empirical Investigation of Optimization Algorithms in Neural Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Parnia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Training neural networks is a non-convex and a high-dimensional optimization problem. In this paper, we provide a comparative study of the most popular stochastic optimization techniques used to train neural networks. We evaluate the methods in terms of convergence speed, translation quality, and training stability. In addition, we investigate combinations that seek to improve optimization in terms of these aspects. We train state-of-the-art attention-based models and apply them to perform neural machine translation. We demonstrate our results on two tasks: WMT 2016 En→Ro and WMT 2015 De→En.

  18. The climb to break the glass ceiling in surgery: trends in women progressing from medical school to surgical training and academic leadership from 1994 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Jonathan S; Chartrand, Genevieve; Moo, Tracy-Ann; Moore, Maureen; Yeo, Heather

    2016-10-01

    There have been many efforts to increase the number of women surgeons. We provide an update of women surgeon representation along the pathway to surgical academia. Data was extracted from Association of American Medical Colleges FACTS and Faculty Administrative Management Online User System as well as GME annual reports starting in 1994 until the last year available for each. The proportion of graduating women medical students has increased on average .5% per year from 1994 to 2014. Women general surgery trainees have more than doubled in number over the same period but represented 38.3% of all general surgery trainees in 2014. Women Full Professors increased on average .3% from 1994 to 2015 but still make up less than 10% of all Full Professors. Despite improvements over the past 20 years, there are still large gender gaps in surgery for trainees and academic leadership. At the current rate of increase, women Full Professors will not achieve gender parity until in 2136. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chunk Alignment for Corpus-Based Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Dong

    2011-01-01

    Since sub-sentential alignment is critically important to the translation quality of an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) system, which operates by finding and combining phrase-level matches against the training examples, we developed a new alignment algorithm for the purpose of improving the EBMT system's performance. This new…

  20. Endodontic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, B S; Rhodes, J S

    2014-03-01

    A better understanding of endodontic disease and the causes of treatment failure has refined the role of surgery in endodontics. The advent of newer materials, advances in surgical armamentarium and techniques have also led to an improved endodontic surgical outcome. The aim of this article is to provide a contemporary and up-to-date overview of endodontic surgery. It will focus primarily on the procedures most commonly performed in endodontic surgery.

  1. What Is That Translation For? A Functional View of Translation Assessment from a Pedagogical Perspective: A Response to Hans G. Honig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Gunilla; Rogers, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    A response to a paper on Translation Quality Assessment and the training of translators looks at parallel developments in second/foreign language learning/teaching, particularly in error analysis, error evaluation, and language authenticity. Argues criteria used to assess quality of translations in a professional context, for which functionalism…

  2. Online Localization of "Zooniverse" Citizen Science Projects--On the Use of Translation Platforms as Tools for Translator Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at describing the way in which online translation platforms can facilitate the process of training translators. "Zooniverse," a website hosting a variety of citizen science projects in which everyone can take part, was used as an example of such a concept. The first section of this paper is focused on the history, idea…

  3. Translation domains in multiferroics

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, D; Leo, N; Jungk, T.; Soergel, E.; Becker, P.; Bohaty, L.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-01-01

    Translation domains differing in the phase but not in the orientation of the corresponding order parameter are resolved in two types of multiferroics. Hexagonal (h-) YMnO$_3$ is a split-order-parameter multiferroic in which commensurate ferroelectric translation domains are resolved by piezoresponse force microscopy whereas MnWO$_4$ is a joint-order-parameter multiferroic in which incommensurate magnetic translation domains are observed by optical second harmonic generation. The pronounced ma...

  4. Relevance Theory in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Jun; Jiang Min

    2008-01-01

    In perspective of relevance theory, translation is regarded as communication. According to relevance theory, communication not only requires encoding, transfer and decoding processes, but also involves inference in addition. As communication, translation decision-making is also based on the human beings' inferential mental faculty. Concentrating on relevance theory, this paper tries to analyze and explain some translation phenomena in two English versions of Cai Gen Tan-My Crude Philosophy of Life.

  5. Transliteration in EST Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新然

    2016-01-01

    Firstly, this paper presents the definition of transliteration and its important position in EST translation. Secondly, in terms of the previous practice and experience in EST translation, four main transliteration techniques are concluded and analyzed. But meanwhile, there are still some negative issues and phenomena. As a result, it is worthy to make good use of the existing transliteration techniques and create more proper ones to remove the obstructions and promote the development of EST translation.

  6. The Impact of Patient Safety Training on Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residents' Attitudes and Knowledge: A Mixed Method Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrow, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that in the United States, more than 40,000 patients are injured each day because of preventable medical errors. Patient safety experts and graduate medical education accreditation leaders recognize that medical education reform must include the integration of safety training focused on error causation, system engineering, and…

  7. Cultural bridge: translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易菲

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers study on the relation between culture and language, language and translation, or culture and translation. Indeed, the three subjects are inseparable. It's incomprehensive to look into just two of them for a linguist. It's more useful for us to study on the relation between them, because we can extend our eyesight and searching scope and propel our translation business. Moreover, studying on them provides a rich material for other fields, such as sociology, translation, cross-cultural communication as well as give other subjects a lead to deep further.

  8. Translational research in neuroanaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganne S Umamaheswara Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Translational research in anaesthesia provided great solutions to medicine, well beyond its scope, in the past. Exciting opportunities exist for neuroanaesthesiologists to conduct translational research not just in anaesthesia alone but in the wider realm of neurosciences. This research is expected to provide solutions to clinical neuroscience questions and to help understand some of the complex neurocognitive functions. Despite several technical developments, progress in translational sciences has been rather slow in the recent years. Re-orientation of the research programmes to a translational format with the involvement of all the stakeholders is likely to conserve the cost and provide rapid solutions to the healthcare.

  9. Feminist Translation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟

    2008-01-01

    Feminist translation studies have underg one rapid development in China in recent years.However,most of its research rema ins on the inquiry of the influence on the theoretical layer.In this thesis,I tr y to probe carefully into the translation of "Men and Women,Women and the City" done by Zhu Hong in an attempt to find out wh at is the difference that exits in the translation between the Chinese female tr anslators and the western feminist translators.

  10. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim;

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom.......Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research...

  11. Trusted Translation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  12. Vajon in Translated Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the structures the discourse marker vajon forms in translated Hungarian fiction. Although translation data has been deployed in the study of discourse markers (Aijmer & Simon- Vandenbergen, 2004, such studies do not account for translation-specific phenomena which can influence the data of their analysis. In addition, translated discourse markers could offer insights into the idiosyncratic properties of translated texts as well as the culturally defined norms of translation that guide the creation of target texts. The analysis presented in this paper extends the cross-linguistic approach beyond contrastive analysis with a detailed investigation of two corpora of translated texts in order to identify patterns which could be a sign of translation or genre norms impacting the target texts. As a result, a distinct, diverging pattern emerges between the two corpora: patterns of explicit polarity show a marked difference. However, further research is needed to clarify whether these are due to language, genre, or translation norms.

  13. Translating the Untranslatable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jie; WANG Ping

    2015-01-01

    Translations contribute to our knowledge and understanding in various fields of daily life, as they open us to a greater awareness of the world in which we live. The deeper we are delved into the meaning of the translation, the more questions are raised, among which, translatable/untranslatable argument strikes the most. In this article, factors including cultural vocabulary va⁃cancy and different image associations leading to temporary untranslatability are presented. Besides, the strategies to change this situation to relatively translatable are given as well.

  14. Improving qualified rate of rehabilitation training for patients with shoulder arthroscopy surgeries%提高肩关节镜术后患者康复功能锻炼达标率的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    真启云; 王辉; 费文勇

    2015-01-01

    运用持续质量改进,提高肩关节镜术后患者康复功能锻炼达标率,促进患者关节功能康复。对影响达标率的原因进行调查分析,制订计划和改进措施,实施并评价效果。运用PDCA从支具佩戴、用具创新、康复器材、锻炼场所、训练图谱、健教形式、评估反馈等方面进行持续质量改进,使肩关节镜术后康复功能锻炼达标率由49.66%提高至70.83%。科学的质量持续改进减轻了患者疼痛,提高了关节功能,减轻了护士工作量,激发了护士工作热情,有效提高了肩关节镜术后患者康复功能锻炼达标率。%Continuous Quality Improvements were used to increase qualiifed rate of rehabilitation training for patients with shoulder arthroscopy surgeries, and to improve the recovery of patients' shoulder functions. In this study, the authors investigated and analyzed factors affecting the qualiifed rate, made plans and improvement measures, then carried out plans and evaluated the effects ifnally. By using PDCA cycle, they implemented Continuous Quality Improvements on every aspect including brace wearing, innovation of the appliance, rehabilitation equipment, exercise places, training graphics, health education methods, evaluation and feedback. They increased the qualiifed rate of rehabilitation training from 49.66% to 70.83%. Through scientiifcally and consistently improving process, they alleviated patients' pain, improved joint functions, reduced the nurses' workload, stimulated nurses' passion, and then increased qualified rate of rehabilitation training for patients with shoulder arthroscopy surgeries effectively.

  15. American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Neck Mass in Adults is now available in Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. The guideline addresses the ... Interested in systematic review training? SAGE, publisher of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery , will offer three grants ...

  16. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... etc.). Surgery is also an option for the treatment of hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease or a “toxic nodule” (see Hyperthyroidism brochure ), for large and multinodular goiters and for any goiter that may be causing ... MEANS OF TREATMENT? Surgery is definitely indicated to remove nodules suspicious ...

  17. Low-Cost Simulation of Robotic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Kasper; Jensen, Rasmus Steen; Kraus, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The high expenses associated with acquiring and maintaining robotic surgical equipment for minimally invasive surgery entail that training on this equipment is also expensive. Virtual reality (VR) training simulators can reduce this training time; however, the current simulators are also quite...... expensive. Therefore, we propose a low-cost simulation of minimally invasive surgery and evaluate its feasibility. Using off-the-shelf hardware and a commercial game engine, a prototype simulation was developed and evaluated against the use of a surgical robot. The participants of the evaluation were given...... suitable option for a low-cost simulation of robotic surgery....

  18. Low-Cost Simulation of Robotic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Kasper; Jensen, Rasmus Steen; Kraus, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The high expenses associated with acquiring and maintaining robotic surgical equipment for minimally invasive surgery entail that training on this equipment is also expensive. Virtual reality (VR) training simulators can reduce this training time; however, the current simulators are also quite...... expensive. Therefore, we propose a low-cost simulation of minimally invasive surgery and evaluate its feasibility. Using off-the-shelf hardware and a commercial game engine, a prototype simulation was developed and evaluated against the use of a surgical robot. The participants of the evaluation were given...... suitable option for a low-cost simulation of robotic surgery....

  19. Influence of Cultural Differences on Advertisement Translation and Trademark Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓玮

    2014-01-01

    Advertisement translation and trademark translation are becoming more and more prevailing and influential under the increasing development of internationalization of business. This paper attempts to analyze the influence of cultural differences on advertisement translation and trademark translation. It finds that advertisement translation and trademark translation are under the impressive influence of the differences between Chinese and Western cultures. This paper aims to stress the cultural differences in advertisement translation and trademark translation and reminds translators of the importance of noticing cultural differences and finding a proper point between foreign cultures and native cultures.

  20. Translation from research to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Ernst; Spector, Myron; Libera, Jeanette; Gertzman, Arthur; Woo, Savio L-Y; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Lysaght, Michael; Coury, Arthur; Kaplan, David; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2006-12-01

    The article summarizes the collective views expressed at the fourth session of the workshop Tissue Engineering--the Next Generation, which was devoted to the translation of results of tissue engineering research into applications. Ernst Hunziker described the paradigm of a dual translational approach, and argued that tissue engineering should be guided by the dimensions and physiological setting of the bodily compartment to be repaired. Myron Spector discussed collagen-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. Jeanette Libera focused on the biological and clinical aspects of cartilage tissue engineering, and described a completely autologous procedure for engineering cartilage using the patient's own chondrocytes and blood serum. Arthur Gertzman reviewed the applications of allograft tissues in orthopedic surgery, and outlined the potential of allograft tissues as models for biological and medical studies. Savio Woo discussed a list of functional tissue engineering approaches designed to restore the biochemical and biomechanical properties of injured ligaments and tendons to be closer to that of the normal tissues. Specific examples of using biological scaffolds that have chemoattractants as well as growth factors with unique contact guidance properties to improve their healing process were shown. Anthony Ratcliffe discussed the translation of the results of research into products that are profitable and meet regulatory requirements. Michael Lysaght challenged the proposition that commercial and clinical failures of early tissue engineering products demonstrate a need for more focus on basic research. Arthur Coury described the evolution of tissue engineering products based on the example of Genzyme, and how various definitions of success and failure can affect perceptions and policies relative to the status and advancement of the field of tissue engineering.

  1. Translation as Literary Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Stefano, B. Follkart

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)

  2. Translations and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tresguerres, Romualdo

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the role played by local translational symmetry in the context of gauge theories of fundamental interactions. Translational connections and fields are introduced, with special attention being paid to their universal coupling to other variables, as well as to their contributions to field equations and to conserved quantities.

  3. Text Coherence in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  4. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  5. Students' Differentiated Translation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the study…

  6. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  7. Translational Health Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowski, Wolf; John, Jürgen; IJzerman, Maarten; Scheffler, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Translational health economics (THE) can be defined as the use of theoretical concepts and empirical methods in health economics to bridge the gap between the decision to fund and use a new health technology in clinical practice (the backend of translational medicine) and the decision to invest into

  8. Translation as Literary Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Stefano, B. Follkart

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)

  9. Culture Difference and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冬兰

    2012-01-01

    Culture difference is necessary to be paid attention to during the process of translating.Culture difference is caused by different history,regions,customs,religions and the modes of thinking.Having the awareness of the culture difference will make translation more accurate and successful.

  10. Lost in Translation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Translating sacred scriptures is not only a praxis that is crucial for the fruitful, i.e. non-distorted and unbiased dialogue between different religious traditions, but also raises some fundamental theoretical questions when it comes to translating the sacred texts of the religious other or

  11. Staging Ethnographic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))......Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))...

  12. Staging Ethnographic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))......Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))...

  13. Terminology, a Translational Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Helga

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of qualified terminology and its implications for terminological activity. Argues that students have to learn how to organize their terminological activity. Suggests that translation is a special kind of intercultural communication and is an indispensable part of translational action. Argues that terminology be examined…

  14. Translation between cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Oliveira Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.

  15. Translations toward Connected Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Mark; Leikin, Roza

    2010-01-01

    The translation principle allows students to solve problems in different branches of mathematics and thus to develop connectedness in their mathematical knowledge. Successful application of the translation principle depends on the classroom mathematical norms for the development of discussions and the comparison of different solutions to one…

  16. A CASE FOR TRANSLATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THORNTON-SMITH, C.B.

    MOST OF THE CRITICISMS OF TRANSLATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOL LANGUAGE COURSES FOCUS ON THE SUPPOSEDLY DIFFICULT PROBLEMS OF SELECTING, USING, AND GRADING TRANSLATION TESTS AS OPPOSED TO THE OBJECTIVE TESTS GENERALLY USED BY ADVOCATES OF AUDIOLINGUALISM. BUT MOST OF THESE CRITICISMS FAIL TO RECOGNIZE THAT THE PROCESS OF LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE…

  17. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  18. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  19. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  20. Translation lexicon acquisition from bilingual dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doermann, David S.; Ma, Huanfeng; Karagol-Ayan, Burcu; Oard, Douglas W.

    2001-12-01

    Bilingual dictionaries hold great potential as a source of lexical resources for training automated systems for optical character recognition, machine translation and cross-language information retrieval. In this work we describe a system for extracting term lexicons from printed copies of bilingual dictionaries. We describe our approach to page and definition segmentation and entry parsing. We have used the approach to parse a number of dictionaries and demonstrate the results for retrieval using a French-English Dictionary to generate a translation lexicon and a corpus of English queries applied to French documents to evaluation cross-language IR.