WorldWideScience

Sample records for surgery laboratory experience

  1. An Organoleptic Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John M.

    1996-12-01

    Flavorings in foods and fragrances in personal care products is a topic often discussed in chemistry classes designed for the general education of non-science majors. A laboratory experiment has been designed to accompany the lecture topic. Compounds in ten different classes of organic molecules that are used in the fragrance and food industry are provided to students. Students whiff the vapors of each compound and describe the organoleptic properties using a set of terms utilized in the fragrance and food industry. A set of questions guides students to an understanding of the relationship between structure of molecules and smell. Students are permitted to create their own fragrance based on the results of the experiment. Student response has been favorable. The experiment rectifies misconceptions students have about structure and odor, and gives positive reinforcement to the lecture material.

  2. Embedding Laboratory Experience in Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, James R.; Barroso, Luciana R.; Simpson, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Demonstrations can be very effective at enhancing student learning and represent a mechanism for embedding laboratory experiences within a classroom setting. A key component to an effective demonstration is active student engagement throughout the entire process, leading to a guided laboratory experience in a lecture setting. Students are involved…

  3. Thoracoscopic surgery: the Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coosemans, W; Lerut, T E; Van Raemdonck, D E

    1993-09-01

    Despite the already wide experience with video-assisted techniques in laparoscopic surgery, video-assisted thoracic surgery only recently came to be developed. This is clearly seen in a survey reflecting the experience among Belgian surgeons. A majority of the surgeons (63%) had limited experience (1 to 5 interventions), and only 28.5% had fairly considerable (between 11 and 20 interventions) or considerable (more than 20 interventions) experience. The majority of interventions performed were the treatment of pneumothorax, lung biopsies, wedge resections, and intrathoracic staging procedures, accounting for 209 (70%) of the 296 interventions collected in this survey. The remaining interventions display a wide variety of different thoracic procedures including lobectomy (4) and esophagectomy (20) for carcinoma. The overall technical success rate was 91% in this survey. Our own experience with 71 interventions or attempts reflects the same evolution with an overall technical success rate in 85% (60 patients). Pneumothorax was the most frequently performed intervention (35 patients), with a technical success rate of 94.5% (32 patients). Recurrences requiring further treatment occurred in 5 of the 32 patients (14.3%). All recurrences occurred before endostaplers were available, after which there were no failures in 12 consecutive cases. Other procedures successfully performed were lung biopsy/wedge resection (6), lung cancer staging procedures (3), lobectomy (1), hemothorax (3), chest wall neurinoma (2), sympathectomy (5), dorsal mediastinal neurinoma (1), thymectomy (1), esophagectomy (3), benign esophageal tumor enucleation (2), and Belsey Mark IV antireflux procedure (1). Furthermore, special emphasis was given to the development of video-assisted mediastinoscopy, which greatly facilitates teaching and interpreting this operation. Endoscopic myotomy using endostaplers was performed in 2 patients with Zenker's diverticulum. From our experience, however, it becomes

  4. Customized Laboratory Experience in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Karen J.; Rink, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    A new physical chemistry laboratory experience has been designed for upper-level undergraduate chemistry majors. Students customize the first 10 weeks of their laboratory experience by choosing their own set of experiments (from a manual of choices) and setting their own laboratory schedule. There are several topics presented in the accompanying…

  5. Asepsis and bacteriology: a realignment of surgery and laboratory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlich, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the origins of aseptic surgery in the German-speaking countries. It interprets asepsis as the outcome of a mutual realignment of surgery and laboratory science. In that process, phenomena of surgical reality were being modelled and simplified in the bacteriological laboratory so that they could be subjected to control by the researcher's hands and eyes. Once control was achieved, it was being extended to surgical practice by recreating the relevant features of the controlled laboratory environment in the surgical work place. This strategy can be seen in the adoption of Robert Koch's bacteriology by German-speaking surgeons, and the resulting technical changes of surgery, leading to a set of beliefs and practices, which eventually came to be called 'asepsis'.

  6. Fluid Flow Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilimpochapornkul, Viroj; Obot, Nsima T.

    1986-01-01

    The undergraduate fluid mechanics laboratory at Clarkson University consists of three experiments: mixing; drag measurements; and fluid flow and pressure drop measurements. The latter experiment is described, considering equipment needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained. (JN)

  7. Laboratory Experience for Teaching Sensory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, Ana L.; Farfan, Fernando D.; Felice, Carmelo J.

    2009-01-01

    The major challenge in laboratory teaching is the application of abstract concepts in simple and direct practical lessons. However, students rarely have the opportunity to participate in a laboratory that combines practical learning with a realistic research experience. In the Bioengineering Department, we started an experiential laboratory…

  8. Laboratory Experiments on Low-crested Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Zanuttigh, B.; van der Meer, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    The ducument describe 3D tests at scale 1:20 performed in the Laboratory at Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.The wave obliquity was one of the main parameters, which were studied in the wave basin experiments. The experiments provide unique information about the influences...

  9. Effect of residents' previous laparoscopic surgery experience on initial robotic suturing experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Gokhan Sami; Walsh, Teresa M; Borahay, Mostafa; Zeybek, Burak; Wen, Michael; Breitkopf, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To assess the impact of gynecology residents' previous laparoscopic experience on the learning curve of robotic suturing techniques and the value of initial structured teaching in dry lab prior to surgery. Methods. Thirteen gynecology residents with no previous robotic surgery experience were divided into Group 1, consisting of residents with 2 or fewer laparoscopic experiences, and Group 2, consisting of residents with 3 or more laparoscopic experiences. Group 1 had a dry-laboratory training in suturing prior to their initial experience in the operating room. Results. For all residents, it took on average 382 ± 159 seconds for laparoscopic suturing and 326 ± 196 seconds for robotic suturing (P = 0.12). Residents in Group 1 had a lower mean suture time than residents in Group 2 for laparoscopic suturing (P = 0.009). The residents in Group 2, however, had a lower mean suture time on the robot compared to Group 1 (P = 0.5). Conclusion. Residents with previous laparoscopic suturing experience may gain more from a robotic surgery experience than those with limited laparoscopic surgery experience. In addition, dry lab training is more efficient than hands-on training in the initial phase of teaching for both laparoscopic and robotic suturing skills.

  10. Laboratory Experiments on Low-crested Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Zanuttigh, B.; van der Meer, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    in a wave channel at small scale, and scale effects regarding wave transmission and reflection were studied in a wave channel at a large scale facility. The paper describes the experiments and associated databank with respect to objectives, test program, set-ups and measurements. Results, guidelines......New unique laboratory experiments on low-crested structures (LCSs) have been performed within the DELOS project. The experiments were carried out in three European laboratories aiming at extending and completing existing available information with respect to a wide range of engineering design...

  11. Remote Experiments in Control Engineering Education Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica B Naumović

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Automatic Control Engineering Laboratory (ACEL - WebLab, an under-developed, internet-based remote laboratory for control engineering education at the Faculty of Electronic Engineering in Niš. Up to now, the remote laboratory integrates two physical systems (velocity servo system and magnetic levitation system and enables some levels of measurement and control. To perform experiments in ACEL-WebLab, the "LabVIEW Run Time Engine"and a standard web browser are needed.

  12. Minimally invasive pediatric surgery: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Departmental survey of the pediatric laparoscopic and thoracoscopic procedures. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective study from January 1999 to December 2007. The various types of surgeries, number of patients, complications and conversions of laparoscopic and thoracoscopic procedures were analyzed. Results: The number of minimally invasive procedures that had been performed over the past 9 years is 734, out of which thoracoscopic procedures alone were 48. The majority of the surgeries were appendicectomy (31%, orchiopexy (19% and diagnostic laparoscopy (16%. The other advanced procedures include laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty, surgery for Hirschprung′s disease, thoracosocpic decortication, congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair, nephrectomy, fundoplication, etc. Our complications are postoperative fever, bleeding, bile leak following choledochal cyst excision and pneumothorax following bronchogenic cyst excision. A case of empyema thorax following thoracoscopic decortication succumbed due to disseminated tuberculosis. Our conversion rate was around 5% in the years 1999 to 2001, which has come down to 3% over the past few years. Conversions were for sliding hiatus hernia, nephrectomy, perforated adherent appendicitis, Meckel′s diverticulum, thoracoscopic decortication and ileal perforation. Conclusion: The minimally invasive pediatric surgical technique is increasingly accepted world wide and the need for laparoscopic training has become essential in every teaching hospital. It has a lot of advantages, such as less pain, early return to school and scarlessness. Our conversion rate has come down from 5% to 3% with experience and now we do more advanced procedures with a lower complication rate.

  13. Discovery & Interaction in Astro 101 Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Frank Patrick; Maurone, Philip; DeWarf, Laurence E.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of low-cost, high-performance computing hardware and software has transformed the manner by which astronomical concepts can be re-discovered and explored in a laboratory that accompanies an astronomy course for arts students. We report on a strategy, begun in 1992, for allowing each student to understand fundamental scientific principles by interactively confronting astronomical and physical phenomena, through direct observation and by computer simulation. These experiments have evolved as :a) the quality and speed of the hardware has greatly increasedb) the corresponding hardware costs have decreasedc) the students have become computer and Internet literated) the importance of computationally and scientifically literate arts graduates in the workplace has increased.We present the current suite of laboratory experiments, and describe the nature, procedures, and goals in this two-semester laboratory for liberal arts majors at the Astro 101 university level.

  14. The General Surgery Chief Resident Operative Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Frederick Thurston; Horvath, Karen D.; Goldin, Adam B.; Gow, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The chief resident (CR) year is a pivotal experience in surgical training. Changes in case volume and diversity may impact the educational quality of this important year. OBJECTIVE To evaluate changes in operative experience for general surgery CRs. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Review of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs from 1989–1990 through 2011–2012 divided into 5 periods. Graduates in period 3 were the last to train with unrestricted work hours; those in period 4 were part of a transition period and trained under both systems; and those in period 5 trained fully under the 80-hour work week. Diversity of cases was assessed based on Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education defined categories. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Total cases and defined categories were evaluated for changes over time. RESULTS The average total CR case numbers have fallen (271 in period 1 vs 242 in period 5, P surgery training may be jeopardized by reduced case diversity. Chief resident cases are crucial in surgical training and educators should consider these findings as surgical training evolves. PMID:23864049

  15. Laboratory experiments on arc deflection and instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.; Karasik, M.

    2000-03-21

    This article describes experiments on arc deflection instability carried out during the past few years at the Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The approach has been that of plasma physicists interested in arcs, but they believe these results may be useful to engineers who are responsible for controlling arc behavior in large electric steel furnaces.

  16. Retained sponge after abdominal surgery: experience from a third ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retained sponge after abdominal surgery: experience from a third world country. ... Abstract. Background: Retained abdominal sponge after surgery is a quite rare condition which can have heavy medico-legal consequences; ... Article Metrics.

  17. Experience Of Thoracic Surgery Performed Under Difficult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Thoracic surgery was performed in 32 patients in Medina Hospital. Most of these ... We had two post-operative complications and 2 patients died after having surgery for .... (long standing chest drains, pleural fenestration) and being in ...

  18. The BDX experiment at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celentano, Andrea [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Genova (Italy). et al.

    2015-06-01

    The existence of MeV-GeV dark matter (DM) is theoretically well motivated but remarkably unexplored. The Beam Dump eXperiment (BDX) at Jefferson Laboratory aims to investigate this mass range. Dark matter particles will be detected through scattering on a segmented, plastic scintillator detector placed downstream of the beam-dump at one of the high intensity JLab experimental Halls. The experiment will collect up to 1022 electrons-on-target (EOT) in a one-year period. For these conditions, BDX is sensitive to the DM-nucleon elastic scattering at the level of a thousand counts per year, and is only limited by cosmogenic backgrounds. The experiment is also sensitive to DM-electron elastic and inelastic scattering, at the level of 10 counts/year. The foreseen signal for these channels is a high-energy (> 100 MeV) electromagnetic shower, with almost no background. The experiment has been presented in form of a Letter of Intent to the laboratory, receiving positive feedback, and is currently being designed.

  19. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimenstein, Izak B.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular “niche of knowledge.” This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining “Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology” (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal. PMID:27688928

  20. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimenstein, Izak B

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  1. Laboratory experiments from the toy store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclelland, H. T.

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to further understanding of materials science. This material could be taught to a typical student of materials science or manufacturing at the high school level or above. The objectives of this experiment are as follows: (1) to qualitatively demonstrate the concepts of elasticity, plasticity, and the strain rate and temperature dependence of the mechanical properties of engineering materials; (2) to qualitatively demonstrate the basics of extrusion including material flow, strain rate dependence of defects, lubrication effects, and the making of hollow shapes by extrusion (the two parts may be two separate experiments done at different times when the respective subjects are covered); and (3) to demonstrate the importance of qualitative observations and the amount of information which can be gathered without quantitative measurements.

  2. Relativistic Electron Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Marvel, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an undergraduate laboratory experiment to make independent measurements of the momentum and kinetic energy of relativistic electrons from a \\beta -source. The momentum measurements are made with a magnetic spectrometer and a silicon surface-barrier detector is used to measure the kinetic energy. A plot of the kinetic energy as a function of momentum compared to the classical and relativistic predictions clearly shows the relativistic nature of the electrons. Accurate values for the rest mass of the electron and the speed of light are also extracted from the data.

  3. Rotating, hydromagnetic laboratory experiment modelling planetary cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Douglas H.

    2009-10-01

    This dissertation describes a series of laboratory experiments motivated by planetary cores and the dynamo effect, the mechanism by which the flow of an electrically conductive fluid can give rise to a spontaneous magnetic field. Our experimental apparatus, meant to be a laboratory model of Earth's core, contains liquid sodium between an inner, solid sphere and an outer, spherical shell. The fluid is driven by the differential rotation of these two boundaries, each of which is connected to a motor. Applying an axial, DC magnetic field, we use a collection of Hall probes to measure the magnetic induction that results from interactions between the applied field and the flowing, conductive fluid. We have observed and identified inertial modes, which are bulk oscillations of the fluid restored by the Coriolis force. Over-reflection at a shear layer is one mechanism capable of exciting such modes, and we have developed predictions of both onset boundaries and mode selection from over-reflection theory which are consistent with our observations. Also, motivated by previous experimental devices that used ferromagnetic boundaries to achieve dynamo action, we have studied the effects of a soft iron (ferromagnetic) inner sphere on our apparatus, again finding inertial waves. We also find that all behaviors are more broadband and generally more nonlinear in the presence of a ferromagnetic boundary. Our results with a soft iron inner sphere have implications for other hydromagnetic experiments with ferromagnetic boundaries, and are appropriate for comparison to numerical simulations as well. From our observations we conclude that inertial modes almost certainly occur in planetary cores and will occur in future rotating experiments. In fact, the predominance of inertial modes in our experiments and in other recent work leads to a new paradigm for rotating turbulence, starkly different from turbulence theories based on assumptions of isotropy and homogeneity, starting instead

  4. Danish experience with paediatric epilepsy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Ebba von Celsing; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Madsen, Flemming Find

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy surgery is increasingly used to treat children with medically intractable epilepsy. This study investigates the aetiology and seizure outcome in Danish children operated between 1996 and 2010. METHODS: Retrospectively collected data on structural magnetic resonance imaging...... (MRI) diagnoses, surgical procedures and seizure outcomes classified according to the Engel Classification were used. Changes over time grouped as 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 95 children underwent epilepsy surgery. Sixty-three operations were performed...... of children who undergo epilepsy surgery have a good, worthwhile seizure outcome. The seizure outcome for Danish children corresponds to that of other epilepsy surgery centres. The clinical criteria for selection of patients changed over time. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Danish Data Protection...

  5. Laboratory Experiments of Rip Current Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, R.; Coco, G.; Lomonaco, P.; Dalrymple, R. A.; Alvarez, A.; Gonzalez, M.; Medina, R.

    2014-12-01

    The hypothesis of rip current generation from purely hydrodynamic processes is here investigated through laboratory experiments. The experiments have been performed at the Cantabria Coastal and Ocean Basin (CCOB) with a segmented wavemaker consisting of 64 waveboards. The basin measures 25m in the cross-shore and 32m in the alongshore direction and the water depth at the wavemaker is 1m. A concrete plane sloping (1:5) beach has been built in the opposite side of the wave machine, its toe is 15m from the waveboards. Reflective lateral walls covered the full length of the basin. The set of instruments consists of 33 wave gauges deployed along two longshore and two cross-shore transects, 7 acoustic Doppler velocimeters and 15 run-up wires. Furthermore a set of two cameras has been synchronized with the data acquisition system. Two types of experiments have been performed to specifically study the generation of rip currents under wave group forcing. First, similarly to the experiments of Fowler and Dalrymple (Proc. 22nd Int. Conf. Coast. Eng.,1990), two intersecting wave trains with opposite directions have been imposed. They give rise to the formation of a non-migrating rip current system with a wavelength that depends on wave frequency and direction. Second, single wave trains with alongshore periodic amplitude attenuation have been imposed. Although the attenuation has been set such that the incident wave field has the same envelope as in the first type of experiments, the rip current system differs due to diffraction and interference processes. The results for different wave conditions (maximum incident wave height from 0.2m to 0.4m, wave period from 1.4s to 2s) will be presented and the intensity of the rip currents will be compared to the alongshore variation in wave set-up. This research is part of the ANIMO project funded by the Spanish Government under contract BIA2012-36822.

  6. Turbulent flows and intermittency in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmet, F.; Antonia, R. A.; Danaila, L.

    2001-10-01

    In turbulent flows, the transfer of energy from large to small scales is strongly intermittent, in contradiction with Kolmogorov's (Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 30 (1941) 299; hereafter K41) assumptions. The statistical properties associated with these energy transfer fluctuations at a given scale r have been widely studied theoretically, experimentally and numerically over the last 30 years or so. Such fluctuations are also encountered in various Planetary and Space Science domains. The present paper presents a review of laboratory experiments which clearly display the fractal nature of the (spatial or temporal) energy distribution at scale r, the departures from the K41 predictions being generally quantified through high-order moments of velocity increments.

  7. [The experimental surgery and your relation with the university: an experience report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Feijo, Daniel Haber; Silva, José Antonio Cordero da; Botelho, Nara Macedo; Henriques, Marcus Vinicius

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory of experimental surgery represents one of the key points for the university, especially in the biomedical area. This focuses on the university's tripod of primary structure that are teaching, research and extension, which are essential for formation of humanistic and practice of a good doctor that is based, first of all, on scientific evidence and critical knowledge. The importance of a laboratory of experimental surgery centers for medical education was regulated from the new curriculum guidelines of the Ministério da Educação e Cultura, establishing a mandatory laboratory within college centers. Therefore, it is of great importance to the contribution of the laboratories of experimental surgery in the curriculum, both in the discipline of surgical technics and experimental surgery, and an incentive for basic research. Thus, the study presents the experience of 15 years of the Laboratory of Experimental Surgery from Universidade do Estado do Pará, with the goal show the importance of this to medical graduation and the university.

  8. Time while waiting: patients' experiences of scheduled surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tracey; Teucher, Ulrich C; Casson, Alan G

    2014-12-01

    Research on patients' experiences of wait time for scheduled surgery has centered predominantly on the relative tolerability of perceived wait time and impacts on quality of life. We explored patients' experiences of time while waiting for three types of surgery with varied wait times--hip or knee replacement, shoulder surgery, and cardiac surgery. Thirty-two patients were recruited by their surgeons. We asked participants about their perceptions of time while waiting in two separate interviews. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), we discovered connections between participant suffering, meaningfulness of time, and agency over the waiting period and the lived duration of time experience. Our findings reveal that chronological duration is not necessarily the most relevant consideration in determining the quality of waiting experience. Those findings helped us create a conceptual framework for lived wait time. We suggest that clinicians and policy makers consider the complexity of wait time experience to enhance preoperative patient care.

  9. Photocatalysis - a physical chemistry laboratory experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langham, B.L.; Gravelle, S.J. [Saint Vincent College, Latrobe, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A Physical Chemistry Laboratory experiment was created that examines photocatalytic decomposition of organic compounds. Photocatalytic decomposition is a technique in which a solution containing a semiconducting material is irradiated with UV light, and the compounds in the solution are decomposed. This technique is commonly used for the destruction of environmentally detrimental compounds. In this experiment, the students study the photocatalytic, reduction of 1,4-benzoquinone, and the photocatalytic oxidation of 2-chlorophenol. The students examine the effect of different catalysts, the rate of the reaction, and the formation of intermediates and products. Each catalyst has a different effect on the rate of decomposition, depending on the oxidation and reduction potential of the compound and the band gap of the catalyst. The UV/Vis spectrometer will he used to study the affect of different catalysts on the initial rate of decomposition of 1,4-benzoquinone and 2-chlorophenol. The products and intermediates of each reaction are examined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

  10. Magnetized laboratory plasma jets: Experiment and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrafel, Peter; Bell, Kate; Greenly, John; Seyler, Charles; Kusse, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Experiments involving radial foils on a 1 M A , 100 n s current driver can be used to study the ablation of thin foils and liners, produce extreme conditions relevant to laboratory astrophysics, and aid in computational code validation. This research focuses on the initial ablation phase of a 20 μ m Al foil (8111 alloy), in a radial configuration, driven by Cornell University's COBRA pulsed power generator. In these experiments ablated surface plasma (ASP) on the top side of the foil and a strongly collimated axial plasma jet are observed developing midway through the current rise. With experimental and computational results this work gives a detailed description of the role of the ASP in the formation of the plasma jet with and without an applied axial magnetic field. This ˜1 T field is applied by a Helmholtz-coil pair driven by a slow, 150 μ s current pulse and penetrates the load hardware before arrival of the COBRA pulse. Several effects of the applied magnetic field are observed: (1) without the field extreme-ultraviolet emission from the ASP shows considerable azimuthal asymmetry while with the field the ASP develops azimuthal motion that reduces this asymmetry, (2) this azimuthal motion slows the development of the jet when the field is applied, and (3) with the magnetic field the jet becomes less collimated and has a density minimum (hollowing) on the axis. PERSEUS, an XMHD code, has qualitatively and quantitatively reproduced all these experimental observations. The differences between this XMHD and an MHD code without a Hall current and inertial effects are discussed. In addition the PERSEUS results describe effects we were not able to resolve experimentally and suggest a line of future experiments with better diagnostics.

  11. FEBEX II Project THG Laboratory Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missana, T.

    2004-07-01

    The main roles of the bentonite in a radioactive waste repository is to act as a geochemical barrier against the radionuclides migration. The effectiveness of this geochemical barrier depends on the surface properties of the solid phases and on the physico-chemical environment generated by the interaction of the solid phases with the groundwater. Within the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barriers Experiment) project, a program of laboratory tests was designed to study and to understand the processes taking place in the clay barrier. Since the first stages of the project, these laboratory tests enabled to isolate different processes, making easier their interpretation, and provided fundamental parameters to be used in the Thermo Hydro Mechanical (THM) and Thermo Hydro Geochemical (THG) models. Additionally, experimental data enabled to check the predictive capability of these models. In the second phase of the project, laboratory tests focused on all those relevant aspects not sufficiently covered during FEBEX I. Particularly, the following main objectives were proposed for the THG investigations during FEBEX II : Attainment of a reliable description of the pore water chemistry at different geochemical conditions. Identification of the different types of water present in the bentonite and to determine the amount of available water for the solute transport.Evaluation of the potential effects of the extraction pressure in the chemical composition of the water obtained by squeezing methods.Study of the effects of the exchange complex in the rheological properties of the clay.Identification and modelling of the surface processes occurring in smectite, determination of the solubility constants of smectite and the formation constants of the surface complexes.Understanding of the mechanisms involved in the sorption of different radionuclides in the bentonite. Investigation of the diffusion mechanisms of conservative neutral and anionic species to have a deeper insight on the

  12. Asepsis and Bacteriology: A Realignment of Surgery and Laboratory Science1

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the origins of aseptic surgery in the German-speaking countries. It interprets asepsis as the outcome of a mutual realignment of surgery and laboratory science. In that process, phenomena of surgical reality were being modelled and simplified in the bacteriological laboratory so that they could be subjected to control by the researcher’s hands and eyes. Once control was achieved, it was being extended to surgical practice by recreating the relevant features of the controll...

  13. Danish experience with paediatric epilepsy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Ebba von Celsing; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Madsen, Flemming Find

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy surgery is increasingly used to treat children with medically intractable epilepsy. This study investigates the aetiology and seizure outcome in Danish children operated between 1996 and 2010. METHODS: Retrospectively collected data on structural magnetic resonance imaging...... (MRI) diagnoses, surgical procedures and seizure outcomes classified according to the Engel Classification were used. Changes over time grouped as 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 95 children underwent epilepsy surgery. Sixty-three operations were performed...... in Denmark and 50 abroad. In all, 14 children needed reoperation. The median follow-up period was four years. At the latest follow-up, Engel class I (indicating no disabling seizures) was found in 67% of the patients. Cortical dysplasia, mesial temporal sclerosis and tumour were the most common MRI findings...

  14. Meteorological Development Laboratory Student Career Experience Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, C., Sr.

    2007-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy. The NWS's Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL) supports this mission by developing meteorological prediction methods. Given this mission, NOAA, NWS, and MDL all have a need to continually recruit talented scientists. One avenue for recruiting such talented scientist is the Student Career Experience Program (SCEP). Through SCEP, MDL offers undergraduate and graduate students majoring in meteorology, computer science, mathematics, oceanography, physics, and statistics the opportunity to alternate full-time paid employment with periods of full-time study. Using SCEP as a recruiting vehicle, MDL has employed students who possess some of the very latest technical skills and knowledge needed to make meaningful contributions to projects within the lab. MDL has recently expanded its use of SCEP and has increased the number of students (sometimes called co- ops) in its program. As a co-op, a student can expect to develop and implement computer based scientific techniques, participate in the development of statistical algorithms, assist in the analysis of meteorological data, and verify forecasts. This presentation will focus on describing recruitment, projects, and the application process related to MDL's SCEP. In addition, this presentation will also briefly explore the career paths of students who successfully completed the program.

  15. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  16. Danish experience with paediatric epilepsy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Ebba von Celsing; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Madsen, Flemming Find

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy surgery is increasingly used to treat children with medically intractable epilepsy. This study investigates the aetiology and seizure outcome in Danish children operated between 1996 and 2010. METHODS: Retrospectively collected data on structural magnetic resonance imaging...... in Denmark and 50 abroad. In all, 14 children needed reoperation. The median follow-up period was four years. At the latest follow-up, Engel class I (indicating no disabling seizures) was found in 67% of the patients. Cortical dysplasia, mesial temporal sclerosis and tumour were the most common MRI findings...

  17. Colon cancer surgery. Five years of experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Rubio Silveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: Colon-rectal cancer is one of the most frequent neoplams in eastern countries and it is the second most frequent type of cancer just behind cancer of the lungs and of the breast respectively. In spite of the advances in the last few years in regards to treatment, colon cancer is the most frequent cause of death due to cancer. Objective: To know morbimortality due to cancer of the colon after both, surgery and oncological treatment. Method: Descriptive - retrospective sdtudy carried out at the Military hospital ¨Dr. Octavio de la Concepción y de la Pedraja¨ from Camaguey Province from January 1999 to January 2004.The sample was composed by 20 patients operated of well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the colon. The variables under study were: Age, Sex, place, anatomical localization of the tumor, anatomoclinical stage according to Dukes classification, evidencies of far metastases, type of surgery type of oncologic treatment. Results: There was a predominance of males (55% aged more than 45 years old. 55% of the tumors were located in the sigmoid colon. There was a resect of the tumor in 16 cases and only 2 have died due to the disease . Chemotherapy with 5 fluoruracile was applied to 9 patients, with good results.

  18. Density Estimations in Laboratory Debris Flow Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz de Oliveira, Gustavo; Kulisch, Helmut; Malcherek, Andreas; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2016-04-01

    Bulk density and its variation is an important physical quantity to estimate the solid-liquid fractions in two-phase debris flows. Here we present mass and flow depth measurements for experiments performed in a large-scale laboratory set up. Once the mixture is released and it moves down the inclined channel, measurements allow us to determine the bulk density evolution throughout the debris flow. Flow depths are determined by ultrasonic pulse reflection, and the mass is measured with a total normal force sensor. The data were obtained at 50 Hz. The initial two phase material was composed of 350 kg debris with water content of 40%. A very fine pebble with mean particle diameter of 3 mm, particle density of 2760 kg/m³ and bulk density of 1400 kg/m³ in dry condition was chosen as the solid material. Measurements reveal that the debris bulk density remains high from the head to the middle of the debris body whereas it drops substantially at the tail. This indicates lower water content at the tail, compared to the head and the middle portion of the debris body. This means that the solid and fluid fractions are varying strongly in a non-linear manner along the flow path, and from the head to the tail of the debris mass. Importantly, this spatial-temporal density variation plays a crucial role in determining the impact forces associated with the dynamics of the flow. Our setup allows for investigating different two phase material compositions, including large fluid fractions, with high resolutions. The considered experimental set up may enable us to transfer the observed phenomena to natural large-scale events. Furthermore, the measurement data allows evaluating results of numerical two-phase mass flow simulations. These experiments are parts of the project avaflow.org that intends to develop a GIS-based open source computational tool to describe wide spectrum of rapid geophysical mass flows, including avalanches and real two-phase debris flows down complex natural

  19. Operational Amplifier Experiments for the Chemistry Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    Provides details of experiments that deal with the use of operational amplifiers and are part of a course in instrumental analysis. These experiments are performed after the completion of a set of electricity and electronics experiments. (DDR)

  20. Perspectives and experiences of elective surgery patients regarding pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeh, Nahid; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives and experiences of elective surgery patients regarding pain management. A qualitative design, based on the content analysis approach, was used to collect and analyze the experience of 20 elective surgery patients who all had abdominal surgery in surgical wards in two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. After employing purposeful sampling for the selection of the participants, semistructured interviews were held for data collection. During the data analysis, three main themes emerged: "perceptions of pain management goals", "patients' views of nurses' role in pain management", and "interaction in pain management". It was concluded that understanding the factors that influence pain management after surgery from the patients' viewpoint will contribute to the body of knowledge of nurses in order to promote the quality of nursing care.

  1. Laboratory Experiments for Network Security Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustoloni, Jose Carlos

    2006-01-01

    We describe a sequence of five experiments on network security that cast students successively in the roles of computer user, programmer, and system administrator. Unlike experiments described in several previous papers, these experiments avoid placing students in the role of attacker. Each experiment starts with an in-class demonstration of an…

  2. Minimally Invasive Thoracic Surgery in Pediatric Patients: The Taiwan Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive technology or laparoscopic surgery underwent a major breakthrough over the past two decades. The first experience of thoracoscopy in children was reported around 1980 for diagnosis of intrathoracic pathology and neoplasia. Up until the middle of the 1990s, the surgical community in Taiwan was still not well prepared to accept the coming era of minimally invasive surgery. In the beginning, laparoscopy was performed in only a few specialties and only relatively short or simple surgeries were considered. But now, the Taiwan’s experiences over the several different clinical scenarios were dramatically increased. Therefore, we elaborated on the experience about pectus excavatum: Nuss procedure, primary spontaneous hemopneumothorax, thoracoscopic thymectomy, and empyema in Taiwan.

  3. Laboratory Experiment on Electrokinetic Remediation of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed-Ali, Alya H.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is a method of decontaminating soil containing heavy metals and polar organic contaminants by passing a direct current through the soil. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory is described to demonstrate electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with copper. A 30 cm electrokinetic cell with an applied voltage of 30…

  4. Microcontroller-based Feedback Control Laboratory Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available this paper is a result of the implementation of the recommendations on enhancing hands-on experience of control engineering education using single chip, small scale computers such as microcontrollers. A set of microcontroller-based feedback control experiments was developed for the Electrical Engineering curriculum at the University of North Florida. These experiments provided hands-on techniques that students can utilize in the development of complete solutions for a number of servo control problems. Significant effort was devoted to software development of feedback controllers and the associated signal conditioning circuits interfacing between the microcontroller and the physical plant. These experiments have stimulated the interest of our students in control engineering.

  5. [Minimally Invasive Surgery in Pediatric Oncology. Tertiary center experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Chacón Villalba, J; Rodríguez Caraballo, L; Marco Macián, A; Segarra Llido, V; Vila Carbó, J J

    2015-07-20

    To describe our experience using Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) techniques in tertiary center with specific oncological pediatric surgery unit. Retrospective review of patients undergoing MIS techniques in pediatric oncology surgery unit between January 2011 and December 2014. MIS procedures were considered made by both techniques such as laparoscopy and thoracoscopy with both diagnostic and therapeutic intent. 4 procedures were diagnostic and the rest were therapeutic: During the study, 56 procedures were performed by MIS. By type of technique, 13 were thoracoscopic (7 metastasectomies, 6 thoracic masses) and 43 laparoscopic (3 hepatic masses, 3 pancreatic masses 7 abdominal masses, 2 ovarian masses, 2 typhlitis 1 splenic mass and 25 oophorectomy for ovarian cryopreservation). In 5 cases (2 thoracic masses 1 pancreatic mass abdominal masses) conversion to open surgery to complete the procedure (2 for caution in the absence of vascular control bleeding 1 and 2 for lack of space) was necessary. In all cases safety principles of oncological surgery were respected. Providing an adecuate selection of patiens, MIS techniques are safe, reproducible and fulfill the objectives of quality of cancer surgery.

  6. Improving Target Characterization for Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, D. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Huntington, C. M.; Doss, F. W.; Krauland, C. M.; Distefano, C. A.

    2010-11-01

    We have fabricated and characterized targets for laboratory astrophysics since 2003, and have made improvements focusing on characterizing particular target features and their variances. Examples of measurements include machined features, material thickness and uniformity, location and thickness of glue, and mating conditions between adjacent materials. Measurements involve new technology and characterization methods, such as pre-shot radiography. More accurate characterization also leads to improvements in fabrication techniques, and helps integrate new technology into our build process. Quantifying variances more precisely also helps us better evaluate each fabrication method for both accuracy and consistency. We present these characterization methods and their impact on fabrication. This work is funded by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC via grant DEFC52- 08NA28616, by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-FG52-09NA29548, and by the National Laser User Facility Program, grant number DE-FG52-09NA29034.

  7. Paediatric surgery: trends in UK surgical trainees' operative experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngson, G G; Adams, S; Winton, E

    2006-02-01

    This study assesses the effects of the reconfiguration of postgraduate surgical training and changes to work patterns through legislation within UK on the operative experience of trainees completing specialty training in paediatric surgery. Data were collected from the consolidation record of operative experience submitted by every candidate sitting the Intercollegiate Specialty Board Examination in Paediatric Surgery in UK from 1996 through 2004. A number of index procedures were chosen as surrogates of the overall operative experience and underwent detailed analysis. These comprised operations performed in the following categories: Neonatal Surgery, General Paediatric Surgery, Paediatric Urology, Paediatric Oncology, and Emergency Paediatric Surgery. Sixty-three sets of data comprising 12,866 operations were ultimately identified as being suitable for analysis. The average number of operations performed annually by trainees increased over the study period as did the number in each of the operative categories. The number of operations performed with senior assistance or supervision increased over this period by an average of 12.5%. This trend was also evident in emergency surgery where the average number of sample procedures performed by trainees increased by 28% over the study period. In 1995, reforms to the training grade within UK reduced the time spent in specialist training from a previously unregulated period to 72 months of higher surgical training. Subsequent directives in response to health and safety legislation have further abbreviated the length of time spent at the workplace, initially to 72 hours and more recently to 58 hours per week. This combination has been generally perceived throughout the surgical community as prejudicial to acquisition of clinical and operative competence. This study, however, fails to endorse this perception and suggests to the contrary that perhaps through increased delegation, the volume of training operations is being

  8. [Experience with laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareková, L; Zálabská, E; Hanovcová, I

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium difficile is currently a significant cause of nosocomial diarrhea. For several years, the number of infectious cases in the community has also been increasing. Since the beginning of 2010, quite a large increase in the number of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) has been noted in Pardubice Regional Hospital (PRH). The objectives of this study were to describe and evaluate the methods used in the laboratory diagnosis of CDIs in PRH, and to describe the laboratory diagnostic algorithm used here. Samples of stools were taken from symptomatic patients hospitalized or examined in the outpatient departments of PRH from 1 July 2010 to 31 December 2012. For the detection of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin A/B, the dual test based upon the principle enzyme immunoassays C. Diff Quik Chek Complete, Techlabo (D-EIA) was used. The system GeneXpert PCR Cepheid (PCR) was used for confirmation of laboratory findings. Since the beginning of 2011, all the GDH-positive samples were cultured. A total of 2,040 samples were examined. The D-EIA test was used for examination of 2,014 samples. Of those, 1,373 (68.2 %) samples were GDH- and toxin A/B-negative. In 359 (17.8 %) samples, both GDH and toxin A/B were detected. The D-EIA sensitivity and specificity for detecting toxigenic strains in stool samples were 21.8% and 97.2%, respectively. The PPV and NPV rates calculated for the populations with prevalence rates of disorders of 5%, 10%, 20% and 50 % were 0.29, 0.46, 0.66, 0.88 and 0.96, 0.92, 0.83, 0.55, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of GDH for the detection of Clostridium difficile in stools were 100.0% and 96.2%, respectively. PCR examination was carried out in 140 samples. Of those, 82 samples were PCR-positive. The gene for the production of toxin B was detected in 47%, the finding suspected for ribotype 027 (gene for toxin B, binary toxin and deletion of tcdC) in 48%. In 5% of the samples, the gene for toxin B and the gene for the binary

  9. Laboratory plate tectonics: a new experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, R F

    1976-03-26

    A "continent" made of a layer of hexagonally packed black polyethylene spheres floating in clear silicon oil breaks into subcontinents when illuminated by an ordinary incandescent light bulb. This experiment may be a useful model of plate tectonics driven by horizontal temperature gradients. Measurements of the spreading rate are made to establish the feasibility of this model.

  10. Indirect laryngeal surgery in the clinical voice laboratory: the renewal of a lost art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogikyan, N D; Pynnonen, M

    2000-05-01

    Since the advent of precision instruments and safe techniques for direct laryngoscopic surgery under general anesthesia, indirect laryngeal surgery has become very uncommon. A review of the recent literature finds that few authors advocate indirect surgery under topical anesthesia, and many otolaryngologists dismiss this technique as being either of only historical interest or an idiosyncratic method practiced only by a handful of clinicians. The societal mandate for cost-effective healthcare and the availability of relatively low-cost, high-quality endoscopes and video equipment warrant a renewed and broader interest in this type of surgery. In this article, we review a series of 27 indirect surgical procedures performed under topical anesthesia in the clinical voice laboratory. We discuss the indications, outcomes, advantages, and disadvantages of this surgery, and we present a brief analysis of its cost-effectiveness. We conclude that indirect laryngeal surgery in the clinical voice laboratory is an effective, safe, efficient, and less costly alternative to some procedures routinely performed under general anesthesia.

  11. Millikan's Oil-Drop Experiment as a Remotely Controlled Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Bodo; Grober, Sebastian; Vetter, Martin; Jodl, Hans-Jorg

    2012-01-01

    The Millikan oil-drop experiment, to determine the elementary electrical charge e and the quantization of charge Q = n [middle dot] e, is an essential experiment in physics teaching but it is hardly performed in class for several reasons. Therefore, we offer this experiment as a remotely controlled laboratory (RCL). We describe the interactivity…

  12. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Experiments to Undergraduate Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Peter T.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Reviews the principles of liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (LCEC), an analytical technique that incorporates the advantages of both liquids chromatography and electrochemistry. Also suggests laboratory experiments using this technique. (MLH)

  13. Laser Speckle Photography: Some Simple Experiments for the Undergraduate Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes simple speckle photography experiments which are easy to set up and require only low cost standard laboratory equipment. Included are procedures for taking single, double, and multiple exposures. (JN)

  14. Our experience on brachial plexus blockade in upper extremity surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Uslukaya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Peripheral nerve blocks are usually used either alone or along with general anesthesia for postoperative analgesia. We also aimed to present the results and experiences.Materials and methods: This retrospective study was conducted to scan the files of patients who underwent orthopedic upper extremity surgery with peripheral nerve block between September 2009 and October 2010. After ethics committee approval was obtained, 114 patients who were ASA physical status I-III, aged 18-70, performed upper extremity surgery in the Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic were included to study. Patients’ demographic data, clinical diagnoses, premedication status, peripheral block type, local anesthetic dose, stimuplex needle types, hemodynamic parameters at the during surgery, the first postoperative analgesic requirements, complications and patient satisfaction were recorded.Results: Demographic data were similar to each other. Brachial plexus block was commonly performed for the forearm surgery. Infraclavicular block was performed the most frequently to patients. As the classical methods in the supine position were preferred in 98.2% of patients, Stimuplex A needle (B. Braun, Melsungen AG, Germany have been used for blockage in 80.7% of patients. Also, in 54.4% of patients, 30 ml of local anesthetic solution composed of bupivacaine + prilocaine was used for blockade. Blocks applied to patients had provided adequate anesthesia.Conclusion: Since the brachial plexus blockade guided peripheral nerve stimulator for upper extremity surgery provide adequate depth of anesthesia and analgesia, it may be a good alternative to general anesthesia because of unwanted side effects

  15. Democratic design experiments: between parliament and laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva; Ehn, Pelle;

    2015-01-01

    been performed and accomplished in participatory practices. In this article we discuss how participatory design may be reinvigorated as a design research programme for democratic design experiments in the light of the de-centring of human-centredness and the foregrounding of collaborative......For more than four decades participatory design has provided exemplars and concepts for understanding the democratic potential of design participation. Despite important impacts on design methodology participatory design has however been stuck in a marginal position as it has wrestled with what has...

  16. General Surgery Resident Vascular Operative Experience in the Era of Endovascular Surgery and Vascular Fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huan; Maximus, Steven; Kim, Jerry J; Smith, Brian; Kim, Dennis; Koopmann, Matthew; DeVirgilio, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Advances in endovascular surgery have resulted in a decline in major open arterial reconstructions nationwide. Our objective is to investigate the effect of endovascular surgery on general surgery resident experience with open vascular surgery. Between 2004 and 2014, 112 residents graduated from two academic institutions in Southern California. Residents were separated into those who graduated in 2004 to 2008 (period 1) and in 2009 to 2014 (period 2). Case volumes of vascular procedures were compared using two-sample t test. A total of 43 residents were in period 1 and 59 residents were in period 2. In aggregate, there was no significant difference in open cases recorded between the two periods (84 vs 87, P = 0.194). Subgroup analysis showed period 2 recorded significantly fewer cases of open aneurysm repair (5 vs 3, P surgery residents experienced a significant decline in several index open major arterial reconstruction cases. This decline was offset by maintenance of dialysis access procedures. If the trend continues, future general surgeons will not be proficient in open vascular procedures.

  17. SINGLE INCISION LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY: USE OF CONVENTIONAL LAPAROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS IN SINGLE INCISION LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY: OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haridarshan Sira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laparoscopic surgery has undergone several modifications since its advent. There has been a shift from a standard multiport approach to more minimalistic approaches. SILS is a major step in this evolutionary process. We present our experience with SILS using conventional laparoscopic instruments and without the need for a SILS port. METHODS 211 patients in Fortis Hospitals, Bangalore, India, who underwent SILS for various abdominal conditions from May 2009 to May 2011 were included in the study. Variables such as operating time, conversion to multi-port laparoscopy or open surgery, complications, analgesia requirements and hospital stay were included. RESULTS 211 patients underwent SILS using conventional laparoscopic instruments for Gallstones, Appendicitis, Morbid Obesity, Gynaecological conditions and Renal cysts. Average age group was 48.5 years; mean duration of hospital stay was 46.5 hours; 166 Laparoscopic cholecystectomies were done, out of which 47 were acute cholecystitis. There were no cases converted to open surgeries. CONCLUSION Single Incision Laparoscopic surgery is technically feasible and as effective as conventional laparoscopic surgery. It is a safe procedure and provides an advantage with regards to analgesia requirement, length of hospital stay and early return to work. Cosmetically, it is superior to multiport laparoscopy.

  18. Assessing herbicide leaching from field measurements and laboratory experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas Sánchez, Mª Victoria; Calderón, M.J.; Fernández Luque, José Enrique; Hermosín, M.C.; Moreno Lucas, Félix; Cornejo, J.

    2001-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments with undisturbed soil columns were performed for assessing the mobility and persistence of chloridazon and lenacil in a clayey soil in the marshes of Lebrija, southwest Spain. In the laboratory we tried to evaluate the herbicides fate when applied with doses greater than normal, as it happens by overlap when spraying the herbicides. Thus, the herbicides doses in the field experiments were similar to those applied by the growers in the area, while the doses app...

  19. Project-Based Laboratory Experiences in Mechanical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Sharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe project-based laboratories in Mechanical Engineering designed to provide semester-long team experiences which mimic the real life industrial processes of design, development, testing and optimization. The labs are focused on courses at the sophomore level and thus require special attention to constraints of student backgrounds and experience. This paper describes laboratory projects in Dynamics and Fluid Mechanics.

  20. Establishing laboratory standards for biological flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ronald B.; Moriarity, Debra M.

    1989-01-01

    The general objective of this research was to assess the effects of exposure to simulated microgravity on ultrastructural aspects of the contractile system in chicken skeletal muscle cells. This general objective had two specific experimental components: (1) the progression of changes in cell morphology, fusion, and patterns of contractile filament organization in muscle cell cultures grown in hollow fibers in the Clinostat were evaluated, with appropriate controls; (2) to initiate experiments in which muscle cells were grown on the surface of microcarrier beads. The ultimate objective of this second portion of the work is to determine if these beads can be rotated in a bioreactor and thereby obtain a more accurate approximation of the effects of simulated microgravity on differentiated muscle cells.

  1. A Model for Designing Adaptive Laboratory Evolution Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaCroix, Ryan A.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Feist, Adam M.

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of mutations is a cornerstone of the evolutionary theory of adaptation, capitalizing on the rare chance that a mutation confers a fitness benefit. Natural selection is increasingly being leveraged in laboratory settings for industrial and basic science applications. Despite...... increasing deployment, there are no standardized procedures available for designing and performing adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) experiments. Thus, there is a need to optimize the experimental design, specifically for determining when to consider an experiment complete and for balancing outcomes...... adaptive laboratory evolution can achieve....

  2. Single incision laparoscopic surgery – is it time for laboratory skills training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaski, Dariusz; Makarewicz, Wojciech; Bobowicz, Maciej; Kobiela, Jarosław; Nateghi, Behzad; Proczko, Monika; Madejewska, Ilona; Gruca, Zbigniew; Śledzinski, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Introduction With the introduction of new surgical equipment, there is always the need for new, more advanced training. The authors try to answer whether the use of the newest generation tools has an impact on achieving better results in single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) technique during the exercises in the surgical skills laboratory. Material and methods There were 51 participants in the study: 44 ‘novices’ and 7 ‘experts’. All subjects performed the ‘advanced grasping’ exercise according to the FLS programme manual using four types of laparoscopic approach including two SILS ports and SILS-dedicated instruments. The outcome measures involved task completion time and the number of errors. Results Tasks using straight laparoscopic instruments set together with classic three-port access as well as SILS access ports were finished significantly faster when compared with SILS-dedicated instruments (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in performance times between the two setups with straight instruments (p < 0.05) and both setups with SILS-dedicated instruments, irrespective of the use of curved or dynamic articulated tools. Students with no previous laparoscopic experience had significantly worse task completion times in all tasks in comparison to students with laparoscopic laboratory training and the ‘experts’ group. Conclusions The use of the straight instruments in the SILS technique remain similar to its performance in full triangulation. SILS-dedicated instruments paradoxically increase the task completion time irrespective of possessed skills. The study showed the necessity of a SILS-dedicated tools training programme. PMID:24130635

  3. [Initial experience in robot-assisted colorectal surgery in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Sáenz, Eduardo; Ramírez-Ramírez, Moisés Marino; Zubieta-O'Farrill, Gregorio; García-Hernández, Luis

    Colorectal surgery has advanced notably since the introduction of the mechanical suture and the minimally invasive approach. Robotic surgery began in order to satisfy the needs of the patient-doctor relationship, and migrated to the area of colorectal surgery. An initial report is presented on the experience of managing colorectal disease using robot-assisted surgery, as well as an analysis of the current role of this platform. A retrospective study was conducted in order to review five patients with colorectal disease operated using a robot-assisted technique over one year in the initial phase of the learning curve. Gender, age, diagnosis and surgical indication, surgery performed, surgical time, conversion, bleeding, post-operative complications, and hospital stay, were analysed and described. A literature review was performed on the role of robotic assisted surgery in colorectal disease and cancer. The study included 5 patients, 3 men and 2 women, with a mean age of 62.2 years. Two of them were low anterior resections with colorectal primary anastomoses, one of them extended with a loop protection ileostomy, a Frykman-Goldberg procedure, and two left hemicolectomies with primary anastomoses. The mean operating time was 6hours and robot-assisted 4hours 20minutes. There were no conversions and the mean hospital stay was 5 days. This technology is currently being used worldwide in different surgical centres because of its advantages that have been clinically demonstrated by various studies. We report the first colorectal surgical cases in Mexico, with promising results. There is enough evidence to support and recommend the use of this technology as a viable and safe option. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Laboratory Experiments in Teaching Public Economics and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špačková Zuzana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with classroom experiments in economics, which have been derived from laboratory experiments. These experiments cover a broad range of topics, from strictly economic ones (like market games or auctions to those with overlaps to other domains such as public policy. The paper discusses different methodologies of research and classroom experiments, introduces the benefits of the latter and presents a concrete teaching experiment used in public economics courses at the Faculty of Economics and Administration of Masaryk University. Another link between economic experiments and public policy is outlined here as well, namely the importance of experimental results for public policy makers.

  5. Impact Crater Experiments for Introductory Physics and Astronomy Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    Activity-based collisional analysis is developed for introductory physics and astronomy laboratory experiments. Crushable floral foam is used to investigate the physics of projectiles undergoing completely inelastic collisions with a low-density solid forming impact craters. Simple drop experiments enable determination of the average acceleration,…

  6. Glycosidation of Methanol with Ribose: An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Erin; Cook, Katie; Pritchard, Meredith R.; Stripe, Wayne; Bruch, Martha; Bendinskas, Kestutis

    2010-01-01

    This exercise provides students hands-on experience with the topics of glycosidation, hemiacetal and acetal formation, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ([superscript 1]H NMR) spectroscopy, and kinetic and thermodynamic product formation. In this laboratory experiment, the methyl acetal of ribose is synthesized, and the kinetic and thermodynamic…

  7. Application of robotics in general surgery: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ninh T; Hinojosa, Marcelo W; Finley, David; Stevens, Melinda; Paya, Mahbod

    2004-10-01

    Robotic surgery was recently approved for clinical use in general abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to review our experience with the da Vinci surgical system during laparoscopic general surgical procedures. Eighteen patients underwent robotically assisted laparoscopic abdominal surgery between June 2002 and March 2003. Main outcome measures were operative time, room setup time, robotic arm-positioning and surgical time, blood loss, conversion to laparoscopy, length of stay, and morbidity. The types of robotically assisted laparoscopic procedures were excision of gastric leiomyoma (n = 1), Heller myotomy (n = 1), cholecystectomy (n = 2), gastric banding (n = 2), Nissen fundoplication (n = 4), and gastric bypass (n = 8). The mean room setup time was 63 +/- 14 minutes, and the mean robotic arm-positioning time was 16 +/- 7 minutes. Conversion to laparoscopy occurred in two (11%) of 18 cases because of equipment difficulty (n = 1) and technical difficulty (n = 1). Estimated blood loss was 91 +/- 71 mL. The mean operative time was 156 +/- 42 minutes, and the robotic operative time was 27% of the total operative time. The mean length of hospital stay was 2.2 +/- 1.5 days. There was one postoperative wound infection and one anastomotic stricture. Robotically assisted laparoscopic abdominal surgery is feasible and safe; however, the theoretical advantages of the da Vinci surgical system were not clinically apparent.

  8. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy – early experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šimon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS lobectomy is the anatomical resection of a whole lobe ofthe lung followed by removal of the lymph nodes from the mediastinum using a thoracoscope and an access incision(small thoracotomy ≤ 5 cm without using the rib spreader. Aim: To present the early experience with VATS lobectomy. Material and methods: Five patients were treated surgically using the VATS technique of anatomical lung resection atthe 2nd Department of Surgery, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, University Hospital of L. Pasteur, Košice, (Slovak Republicwithin 12 months from 10.2008 to 10.2009. Lobectomy was performed in 4 patients and pneumonectomy in 1 patient. Results: The mean operating time was 120 min (range 80-170 min. Following lobectomy a drain was inserted into thepleural cavity in 4 cases, whereas there was no drainage after 1 pneumonectomy. Drains were removed 2-5 days afterthe surgery. Four patients suffered from lung carcinoma (1 squamous cell carcinoma, 3 adenocarcinomas; 1 patienthad chondroid hamartoma. Postoperative condition was good in all patients. There were no early complications andpatients were released home on the 6th postoperative day on average. Conclusions: The advantages of VATS lobectomy have been widely discussed. There is a consensus that in elderlypatients with non-small cell lung cancer VATS lobectomy accompanied by mediastinal lymphadenectomy reduces theincidence of complications after the surgery and patients recover faster.

  9. Use of the virtual instrumentation laboratory for the assessment of human factors in surgery and anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berguer, R; Loeb, R G; Smith, W D

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that human factors issues for anesthesiologists, surgeons, and other operating room personnel require serious attention. We have established a program of collaboration between the University of California Davis Medical Center Departments of Anesthesiology and Surgery and the California State University Sacramento Biomedical Engineering Program to address ergonomic problems in anesthesiology and surgery using a Virtual Instrumentation Laboratory. A 17-workstation Virtual Instrument Laboratory using LabVIEW software on Power Macintosh platforms permits rapid prototyping of medical monitor displays as well as rapid development of data acquisition and processing circuits for physiologic data collection. The Virtual Instrument Lab has been used for three Master's thesis projects and a BME course titled Human Factors in the Design of Medical and Assistive Technology. Course projects have included: 1) The design of novel physiologic data displays for potential use in anesthesia workstations, and 2) The measurement of surface electromyographic signals and heart rate variability to investigate the physical and mental workload of performing laparoscopic surgery. The Virtual Instrument Lab allows BME students to investigate relatively complex human factors issues in anesthesiology and surgery in a short time span.

  10. CSI flight experiment projects of the Naval Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Shalom

    1993-02-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is involved in an active program of CSI flight experiments. The first CSI flight experiment of the Naval Research Laboratory, the Low Power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) dynamics experiment, has successfully measured vibrations of an orbiting satellite with a ground-based laser radar. The observations, made on January 7, 8 and 10, 1991, represent the first ever measurements of this type. In the tests, a narrowband heterodyne CO2 laser radar, operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, detected vibration induced differential-Doppler signatures of the LACE satellite. Power spectral densities of forced oscillations and modal frequencies and damping rates of free-damped vibrations were obtained and compared with finite element structural models of the LACE system. Another manifested flight experiment is the Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX) designed to demonstrate active and passive damping with piezo-electric (PZT) sensors and actuators. This experiment was developed under the management of the Air Force Phillips Laboratory with integration of the experiment at NRL. It is to ride as a secondary, or 'piggyback,' experiment on a future Navy satellite.

  11. A Model for Designing Adaptive Laboratory Evolution Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCroix, Ryan A; Palsson, Bernhard O; Feist, Adam M

    2017-04-15

    The occurrence of mutations is a cornerstone of the evolutionary theory of adaptation, capitalizing on the rare chance that a mutation confers a fitness benefit. Natural selection is increasingly being leveraged in laboratory settings for industrial and basic science applications. Despite increasing deployment, there are no standardized procedures available for designing and performing adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) experiments. Thus, there is a need to optimize the experimental design, specifically for determining when to consider an experiment complete and for balancing outcomes with available resources (i.e., laboratory supplies, personnel, and time). To design and to better understand ALE experiments, a simulator, ALEsim, was developed, validated, and applied to the optimization of ALE experiments. The effects of various passage sizes were experimentally determined and subsequently evaluated with ALEsim, to explain differences in experimental outcomes. Furthermore, a beneficial mutation rate of 10(-6.9) to 10(-8.4) mutations per cell division was derived. A retrospective analysis of ALE experiments revealed that passage sizes typically employed in serial passage batch culture ALE experiments led to inefficient production and fixation of beneficial mutations. ALEsim and the results described here will aid in the design of ALE experiments to fit the exact needs of a project while taking into account the resources required and will lower the barriers to entry for this experimental technique.IMPORTANCE ALE is a widely used scientific technique to increase scientific understanding, as well as to create industrially relevant organisms. The manner in which ALE experiments are conducted is highly manual and uniform, with little optimization for efficiency. Such inefficiencies result in suboptimal experiments that can take multiple months to complete. With the availability of automation and computer simulations, we can now perform these experiments in an optimized

  12. On integrating large eddy simulation and laboratory turbulent flow experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstein, Fernando F

    2009-07-28

    Critical issues involved in large eddy simulation (LES) experiments relate to the treatment of unresolved subgrid scale flow features and required initial and boundary condition supergrid scale modelling. The inherently intrusive nature of both LES and laboratory experiments is noted in this context. Flow characterization issues becomes very challenging ones in validation and computational laboratory studies, where potential sources of discrepancies between predictions and measurements need to be clearly evaluated and controlled. A special focus of the discussion is devoted to turbulent initial condition issues.

  13. A Contribution to Real-Time Experiments in Remote Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Janík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on realization of hard real-time control of experiments in on-line laboratories. The presented solution utilizes already developed on-line laboratory portal that is based on open-source Scilab environment. The customized solution is based on Linux RTAI platform with RTAI-XML server, Comedi and jRTAILab with support of ScicosLab environment. It generates real-time executable code that is used to operate student experiments performed on Humusoft CE152 Magnetic Levitation plant.

  14. Development of sensorial experiments and their implementation into undergraduate laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield Lee, Deborah Christina

    "Visualization" of chemical phenomena often has been limited in the teaching laboratories to the sense of sight. We have developed chemistry experiments that rely on senses other than eyesight to investigate chemical concepts, make quantitative determinations, and familiarize students with chemical techniques traditionally designed using only eyesight. Multi-sensory learning can benefit all students by actively engaging them in learning through stimulation or an alternative way of experiencing a concept or ideas. Perception of events or concepts usually depends on the information from the different sensory systems combined. The use of multi-sensory learning can take advantage of all the senses to reinforce learning as each sense builds toward a more complete experience of scientific data. Research has shown that multi-sensory representations of scientific phenomena is a valuable tool for enhancing understanding of chemistry as well as displacing misconceptions through experience. Multi-sensory experiences have also been shown to enrich memory performance. There are few experiments published which utilize multiple senses in the teaching laboratory. The sensorial experiments chosen were conceptually similar to experiments currently performed in undergraduate laboratories; however students collect different types of data using multi-sensory observations. The experiments themselves were developed by using chemicals that would provide different sensory changes or capitalizing on sensory observations that were typically overlooked or ignored and obtain similar and precise results as in traditional experiments. Minimizing hazards and using safe practices are especially essential in these experiments as students utilize senses traditionally not allowed to be used in the laboratories. These sensorial experiments utilize typical equipment found in the teaching laboratories as well as inexpensive chemicals in order to aid implementation. All experiments are rigorously tested

  15. The role of psychological support in cardiac surgery: initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Sansone

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific literature has pointed out several predictors of negative outcome after surgery such as pain and depression, negatively affecting the postoperative outcome in cardiac surgery. From January 2009 until June 2010, 15 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery were enrolled. The patients were assessed by psychological evaluation either in the hospital stay either in the rehabilitation period with the aim of identifying their emotional condition (sentiments about the onset of the disease, support received from family and friends even by means of preformed tests for anxiety and depression (tests of Stay and Back. Thus, in our preliminary experience, the psychological evaluation failed to detect the occurrence of postoperative complications. Conversely, the psychological evaluation is very effective in detecting a poor emotional state and the psychological support decreases the degree of anxiety and depression with positive effects on postoperative outcome. In conclusion, a standardize test for anxiety and depression should be used for patients at hospital admission to detect who may benefits by psychological support.

  16. Raising environmental awareness through applied biochemistry laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Ashraf, S

    2013-01-01

    Our environment is under constant pressure and threat from various sources of pollution. Science students, in particular chemistry students, must not only be made aware of these issues, but also be taught that chemistry (and science) can provide solutions to such real-life issues. To this end, a newly developed biochemistry laboratory experiment is described that guides students to learn about the applicability of peroxidase enzymes to degrade organic dyes (as model pollutants) in simulated waste water. In addition to showing how enzymes can potentially be used for waste water remediation, various factors than can affect enzyme-based reactions such as pH, temperature, concentration of substrates/enzymes, and denaturants can also be tested. This "applied biotechnology" experiment was successfully implemented in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course to enhance students' learning of environmental issues as well important biochemistry concepts. Student survey confirmed that this laboratory experiment was successful in achieving the objectives of raising environmental awareness in students and illustrating the usefulness of chemistry in solving real-life problems. This experiment can be easily adopted in an introductory biochemistry laboratory course and taught as an inquiry-guided exercise.

  17. An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up…

  18. Women's Experiences in the Engineering Laboratory in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Masako

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to examine Japanese women undergraduate engineering students' experiences of interacting with departmental peers of the same year in the laboratory setting by using interview data of 32 final-year students at two modestly selective national universities in Japan. Expectation state theory that explains unequal…

  19. Lidocaine Metabolism and Toxicity: A Laboratory Experiment for Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusek, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory exercise for dental students is presented using a toxic dose of lidocaine in place of an anesthetic dose of pentobarbital. The use of lidocaine demonstrates its toxic and lethal actions and increases the relevance of the experience for dental students. (Author/MLW)

  20. Snow isotope diffusion rates measured in a laboratory experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wel, L. G.; Gkinis, V.; Pohjola, V. A.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The diffusion of stable water isotopes in snow was measured in two controlled laboratory experiments. Two batches of snow of different isotopic composition were stacked alternately with varying layer thicknesses. The stack was stored in a freezer room at constant temperature for several months, and

  1. Differentiating Biochemistry Course Laboratories Based on Student Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2011-01-01

    Content and emphases in undergraduate biochemistry courses can be readily tailored to accommodate the standards of the department in which they are housed, as well as the backgrounds of the students in the courses. A more challenging issue is how to construct laboratory experiences for a class with both chemistry majors, who usually have little or…

  2. A Unit Cell Laboratory Experiment: Marbles, Magnets, and Stacking Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David C.

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate first-semester general chemistry laboratory experiment introducing face-centered, body-centered, and simple cubic unit cells is presented. Emphasis is placed on the stacking arrangement of solid spheres used to produce a particular unit cell. Marbles and spherical magnets are employed to prepare each stacking arrangement. Packing…

  3. A Virtual Rock Physics Laboratory Through Visualized and Interactive Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanorio, T.; Di Bonito, C.; Clark, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    As new scientific challenges demand more comprehensive and multidisciplinary investigations, laboratory experiments are not expected to become simpler and/or faster. Experimental investigation is an indispensable element of scientific inquiry and must play a central role in the way current and future generations of scientist make decisions. To turn the complexity of laboratory work (and that of rocks!) into dexterity, engagement, and expanded learning opportunities, we are building an interactive, virtual laboratory reproducing in form and function the Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory, at Stanford University. The objective is to combine lectures on laboratory techniques and an online repository of visualized experiments consisting of interactive, 3-D renderings of equipment used to measure properties central to the study of rock physics (e.g., how to saturate rocks, how to measure porosity, permeability, and elastic wave velocity). We use a game creation system together with 3-D computer graphics, and a narrative voice to guide the user through the different phases of the experimental protocol. The main advantage gained in employing computer graphics over video footage is that students can virtually open the instrument, single out its components, and assemble it. Most importantly, it helps describe the processes occurring within the rock. These latter cannot be tracked while simply recording the physical experiment, but computer animation can efficiently illustrate what happens inside rock samples (e.g., describing acoustic waves, and/or fluid flow through a porous rock under pressure within an opaque core-holder - Figure 1). The repository of visualized experiments will complement lectures on laboratory techniques and constitute an on-line course offered through the EdX platform at Stanford. This will provide a virtual laboratory for anyone, anywhere to facilitate teaching/learning of introductory laboratory classes in Geophysics and expand the number of courses

  4. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery: what to expect from an initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ramos Teixeira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is less traumatic when compared to traditional surgery techniques, with well-established advantages. The objective of this study was to report the experience in laparoscopic surgical treatment of colorectal diseases. METHOD: Catalog all patients submitted to laparoscopic colorectal surgery performed by one surgeon and perform a descriptive analysis of key data from these records. RESULTS: The study analyzed data from 43 patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Most were females (n=30; 69.77% in relation to males (n=13; 30.23%, mean age of 57.21 years old. Among the indications for surgery, diverticular disease was the most frequent (n=20; 46.51%, followed by malignancy (n=13; 30.23%. Most patients underwent rectosigmoidectomy (n=28; 65.12%, followed by right hemicolectomy (n=6; 13.95%, with conversions in five cases (11.63%. The study observed a tendency towards increased number of surgeries, reduced average operative time as well as decreased conversions to laparotomy along the studied period. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is a safe procedure, and with the technical development of the team, the results have been increasingly good.A videolaparoscopia colorretal apresenta-se como uma tática operatória menos traumática com vantagens bem-estabelecidas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar a experiência no tratamento cirúrgico videolaparoscópico das afecções colorretais. MÉTODO: Catalogar todos os pacientes submetidos à cirurgia colorretal videolaparoscópica realizadas por um único cirurgião e realizar uma análise descritiva dos principais dados a partir dos prontuários destes. RESULTADOS: O estudo analisou dados de 43 pacientes que foram submetidos à cirurgia colorretal por videolaparoscopia. A maioria era do gênero feminino (n=30; 69,77% em relação ao masculino (n=13; 30,23% com média de idade de 57,21 anos. Dentre as indicações cirúrgicas, doença diverticular

  5. Single-port video-assisted thoracic surgery for early lung cancer: initial experience in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Shingo; Usuda, Jitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Single-port video-assisted thoracic surgery (SPVATS) emerged several years ago as a new, minimally invasive surgery for diseases in the field of respiratory surgery, and is increasingly becoming a subject of interest for some thoracic surgeons in Europe and Asia. However, the adoption rate of this procedure in the United States and Japan remains low. We herein reviewed our experience of SPVATS for early lung cancer in our center, and evaluated the safety and minimal invasiveness of this technique. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patients who had undergone SPVATS for pathological stage I lung cancer in Nippon Medical School Chiba Hokusoh Hospital between September 2012 and October 2015. In SPVATS, an approximately 4-cm incision was made at the 4th or 5th intercostal space between the anterior and posterior axillary lines. A rib spreader was not used at the incision site, and surgical manipulation was performed very carefully in order to avoid contact between surgical instruments and the intercostal nerves. The same surgeon performed surgery on all patients, and analyzed laboratory data before and after surgery. Results Eighty-four patients underwent anatomical lung resection for postoperative pathological stage I lung cancer. The mean wound length was 4.2 cm. Eighty-four patients underwent lobectomy and segmentectomy, respectively. The mean preoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) was 1.85%±0.36%. Our patients consisted of 49 men (58.3%) and 35 women (41.7%), with 64, 18, 1, and 1 having adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and small-cell lung cancer, respectively. The mean operative time was 175±21 min, operative blood loss 92±18 mL, and duration of drain placement 1.9±0.6 days. The duration of the postoperative hospital stay was 7.1±1.7 days, numeric rating scale (NRS) 1 week after surgery 2.8±0.6, and occurrence rate of allodynia 1 month after surgery 10.7%. No patient developed serious

  6. Numerical support of laboratory experiments: Attenuation and velocity estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Erik; Madonna, Claudio; Frehner, Marcel; Almqvist, Bjarne

    2014-02-01

    We show that numerical support of laboratory experiments can significantly increase the understanding and simplify the interpretation of the obtained laboratory results. First we perform simulations of the Seismic Wave Attenuation Module to measure seismic attenuation of reservoir rocks. Our findings confirm the accuracy of this system. However, precision can be further improved by optimizing the sensor positions. Second, we model wave propagation for an ultrasonic pulse transmission experiment used to determine pressure- and temperature-dependent seismic velocities in the rock. Multiple waves are identified in our computer experiment, including bar waves. The metal jacket that houses the sample assembly needs to be taken into account for a proper estimation of the ultrasonic velocities. This influence is frequency-dependent.

  7. Multi-robots to micro-surgery: Selected robotic applications at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center

    1996-11-01

    The Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center (ISRC) at Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program organization, pursuing research, development and applications in a wide range of field. Activities range from large-scale applications such as nuclear facility dismantlement for the US Department of Energy (DOE), to aircraft inspection and refurbishment, to automated script and program generation for robotic manufacturing and assembly, to miniature robotic devices and sensors for remote sensing and micro-surgery. This paper describes six activities in the large and small scale that are underway and either nearing technology transfer stage or seeking industrial partners to continue application development. The topics of the applications include multiple arm coordination for intuitively maneuvering large, ungainly work pieces; simulation, analysis and graphical training capability for CP-5 research reactor dismantlement; miniature robots with volumes of 16 cubic centimeters and less developed for inspection and sensor deployment; and biomedical sensors to enhance automated prosthetic device production and fill laparoscopic surgery information gap.

  8. Experience with flexible stapling techniques in laparoscopic and conventional surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Karl-Hermann; Breithaupt, Wolfram; Schulz, Thomas; Reinisch, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    Currently, advanced minimal-access surgery cannot be realized without the application of modern stapling devices. The introduction of stapling devices with a flexible shaft and computer-assisted steering abilities was followed by the technical basis to provide just these features. This study aimed to assess the clinical application of stapling devices connected to a flexible shaft supported by a computer-assisted drive for maneuvering the system and to study its feasibility, learning curve problems, and clinical safety criteria regarding morbidity of the patients. The experience with laparoscopic and open gastrointestinal and colorectal surgery was evaluated. Patients with esophageal, gastric, and colorectal diseases were selected. The stapling system consisted of a power console connected to a flexible shaft and a remote control unit. On the tip of the flexible shaft stapler, loading units could be attached and operated by the remote control. A circular loading unit, size 29 mm, was used for esophageal, gastric, and rectal anastomoses. The linear stapler (length, 55/75 mm) was applied for the gastric tube after esophageal resection, for the jejunal pouch after total gastrectomy, and for division and closure of small bowel. It also was used during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or laparoscopic fundoplication with COLLIS-gastroplasty. All data from the procedures were prospectively assessed and documented. A literature analysis was performed to compare morbidity data and leak rates with those of the current study. During an 8-year period, 394 patients (253 men and 141 women) were included in this study, and laparoscopic technique was performed in 52% of the cases. The mean age of the patients was 63 years (range, 16-93 years), and 33% of the patients had an American Society of Anesthesia classification of 3 or 4. A total of 1,258 firings were performed. The procedures included 54 esophageal resections, 90 gastric operations, and 197 colorectal resections. In

  9. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, S C; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.; Dunn, J. P.; Brockington, S.; Case, A; Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven rail guns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: $n_e\\approx n_i \\sim 10^{16}$ cm$^{-3}$, $T_e \\approx T_i \\approx 1.4$ eV, $V_{\\rm jet}\\approx 30$-100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}\\approx 1$...

  10. Two years of experience with robot-assisted anti-reflux surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanberg Jensen, Jonas; Kold Antonsen, Henning; Durup, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Robot-assisted anti-reflux surgery (RAAS) is an alternative to conventional laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery (CLAS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate initial Danish experiences with robot-assisted anti-reflux surgery compared to conventional laparoscopic anti...... no particular advantages to performing antireflux surgery as robot-assisted procedures neither intra-operatively nor at follow-up.......-reflux surgery incorporating follow-up and evaluation of possible learning curve. Material and methods Patients undergoing primary RAAS or CLAS at The Department of Surgery A, Odense University Hospital and The Department of General Surgery, Kolding Hospital from April 2013 to April 2015 was included...

  11. Wiki Laboratory Notebooks: Supporting Student Learning in Collaborative Inquiry-Based Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, Gwendolyn Angela; Grøndahl, Lisbeth; Boman, Simon; Andrews, Trish

    2016-06-01

    Recent examples of high-impact teaching practices in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory that include course-based undergraduate research experiences and inquiry-based experiments require new approaches to assessing individual student learning outcomes. Instructors require tools and strategies that can provide them with insight into individual student contributions to collaborative group/teamwork throughout the processes of experimental design, data analysis, display and communication of their outcomes in relation to their research question(s). Traditional assessments in the form of laboratory notebooks or experimental reports provide limited insight into the processes of collaborative inquiry-based activities. A wiki environment offers a collaborative domain that can potentially support collaborative laboratory processes and scientific record keeping. In this study, the effectiveness of the wiki in supporting laboratory learning and assessment has been evaluated through analysis of the content and histories for three consenting, participating groups of students. The conversational framework has been applied to map the relationships between the instructor, tutor, students and laboratory activities. Analytics that have been applied to the wiki platform include: character counts, page views, edits, timelines and the extent and nature of the contribution by each student to the wiki. Student perceptions of both the role and the impact of the wiki on their experiences and processes have also been collected. Evidence has emerged from this study that the wiki environment has enhanced co-construction of understanding of both the experimental process and subsequent communication of outcomes and data. A number of features are identified to support success in the use of the wiki platform for laboratory notebooks.

  12. Development, Evaluation and Use of a Student Experience Survey in Undergraduate Science Laboratories: The Advancing Science by Enhancing Learning in the Laboratory Student Laboratory Learning Experience Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, Simon C.; Bucat, Robert B.; Buntine, Mark A.; Burke da Silva, Karen; Crisp, Geoffrey T.; George, Adrian V.; Jamie, Ian M.; Kable, Scott H.; Lim, Kieran F.; Pyke, Simon M.; Read, Justin R.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Yeung, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    Student experience surveys have become increasingly popular to probe various aspects of processes and outcomes in higher education, such as measuring student perceptions of the learning environment and identifying aspects that could be improved. This paper reports on a particular survey for evaluating individual experiments that has been developed over some 15 years as part of a large national Australian study pertaining to the area of undergraduate laboratories-Advancing Science by Enhancing Learning in the Laboratory. This paper reports on the development of the survey instrument and the evaluation of the survey using student responses to experiments from different institutions in Australia, New Zealand and the USA. A total of 3153 student responses have been analysed using factor analysis. Three factors, motivation, assessment and resources, have been identified as contributing to improved student attitudes to laboratory activities. A central focus of the survey is to provide feedback to practitioners to iteratively improve experiments. Implications for practitioners and researchers are also discussed.

  13. The Effect of Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Experiments on Science Education Students' Chemistry Laboratory Attitudes, Anxiety and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Evrim

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to search the effect of guided inquiry laboratory experiments on students' attitudes towards chemistry laboratory, chemistry laboratory anxiety and their academic achievement in the laboratory. The study has been carried out with 37 third-year, undergraduate science education students, as a part of their Science Education Laboratory…

  14. Gamification of the Laboratory Experience to Encourage Student Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Drace

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The American Society for Microbiology (ASM Task Force on Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Microbiology Students published recommendations for introductory microbiology courses that suggest teaching specific skill sets in the laboratory beyond just fundamental knowledge and concepts of microbiology (6; however, students can sometimes view a skills-based laboratory experience as a task list of unrelated assignments to complete for a grade. Therefore, providing explicit connections throughout the lecture and laboratory exercises is critical for a truly integrated learning experience. Several pedagogical techniques can provide a coherent framework throughout a course. For example, case-based studies can connect lecture with laboratory skills and increase student engagement by applying newly developed knowledge and skills to tackle real-world simulations (2, 3. One reason that case-based studies succeed is that they can provide intrinsic motivations and an alternate purpose for students to engage with the material. A more recent trend in pedagogy involves using game design elements to increase student engagement and motivation. Gamification is the application of game design (accruing points or badges, reaching significant levels of accomplishment, or other reward elements in a non-game context to motivate or influence participation (1, 5. A natural extension of both of these methods is to gamify a case-based approach where a fictional scenario is presented for students to role-play as scientists using their developed skills to solve a complex problem. The typical microbiology laboratory, as described by the ASM Task Force, can easily incorporate game design elements without extensive modification of the exercises themselves. Instead, gamification involves structuring the lab in a way that gives the course a coherent and unified purpose. This ultimately allows the student to see how the principles and concepts of lecture and laboratory connect

  15. A pilot experience in physics laboratory for a professional school

    CERN Document Server

    Montalbano, Vera; Di Renzone, Simone; Frati, Serena

    2013-01-01

    The reform of the upper secondary school in Italy has recently introduced physics in the curricula of professional schools, in realities where it was previously absent. Many teachers, often with a temporary position, are obliged to teaching physics in schools where the absence of the laboratory is added to the lack of interest of students who feel this matter as very far from their personal interests and from the preparation for the work which could expect from a professional school. We report a leaning path for introducing students to the measurement of simple physical quantities, which continued with the study of some properties of matter (volume, mass, density) and ending with some elements of thermodynamics. Educational materials designed in order to involve students in an active learning, actions performed for improving the quality of laboratory experience and difficulties encountered are presented. Finally, we compare the active engagement of these students with a similar experience performed in a very ...

  16. Beryllium Drive Disc Characterization for Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmar, J. R.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.

    2009-11-01

    Laboratory Astrophysics scales large-scale phenomena, such as core-collapse supernovae shocks, down to the sub-millimeter scale for investigation in a laboratory setting. In some experiments, targets are constructed with a 20μm thick beryllium disc attached to a polyimide tube. A shockwave is created by irradiating the Be disc with ˜ 4kJ of energy from the Omega Laser. The Be material is rolled into a 20μm sheet and then machined to a 2.5mm diameter. Characterizing the roughness and knowing if there are any major features on the initial surface could affect interpretations of data taken during experiments. Structure in the Beryllium discs could become an important parameter in future high-fidelity computer simulations. Surfaces were characterized with a Scanning Electron Microscope and an Atomic Force Microscope.

  17. Laboratory experiments on drought and runoff in blanket peat

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, J; Burt, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Global warming might change the hydrology of upland blanket peats in Britain. We have therefore studied in laboratory experiments the impact of drought on peat from the North Pennines of the UK. Runoff was dominated by surface and near-surface flow; flow decreased rapidly with depth and differed from one type of cover to another. Infiltration depended on the intensity of rain, and runoff responded rapidly to rain, with around 50% of rainwater emerging as overland flow. Drought changed the str...

  18. The Underground Laboratory in South Korea : facilities and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeongduk

    2017-01-01

    We have developed underground physics programs for last 15 years in South Korea. The scientific and technical motivation for this initiative was the lack of local facility of a large accelerator in Korea. Thanks to the large underground electric power generator in Yangyang area, we could construct a deep underground laboratory (Yangyang Laboratory, Y2L) and has performed some pioneering experiments for dark matter search and double beta decay experiments. Since year of 2013, a new research center in the Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Center for Underground Physics (CUP), is approved by the government and Y2L laboratory is managed by CUP. Due to the limited space in Y2L, we are proposing to construct a new deep underground laboratory where we can host larger scale experiments of next generation. The site is in an active iron mine, and will be made in 1100 meter underground with a space of about 2000 m2 by the end of 2019. I will describe the status and future plan for this underground laboratory. CUP has two main experimental programs. (1) Identification of dark matter : The annual modulation signal of DAMA/LIBRA experiment has been contradictory to many other experiments such as XENON100, LUX, and Super CDMS. Yale University and CUP (COSINE-100) experimentalists agreed to do an experiment together at the Y2L and recently commissioned a 100kg scale low background NaI(Tl) crystal experiment. In future, we will develop NaI(Tl) crystals with lower internal backgrounds and try to run identical detectors at both north and south hemisphere. Low mass WIMP search is also planned with a development of low temperature sensors coupled with highly scintillating crystals. (2) Neutrinoless double beta decay search : The mass of the lightest neutrino and the Majorana nature of the neutrinos are not determined yet. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiment can answer both of the questions directly, and ultra-low backgrounds and excellent energy resolution are critical to

  19. Women's experiences in the engineering laboratory in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Masako

    2014-07-01

    This qualitative study aims to examine Japanese women undergraduate engineering students' experiences of interacting with departmental peers of the same year in the laboratory setting by using interview data of 32 final-year students at two modestly selective national universities in Japan. Expectation state theory that explains unequal relationship between men and women is used as a framework. Findings suggest that women generally had a discouraging experience while working with their male peers. Specifically, women participated less and lost confidence by comparing with the men who appeared to be confident and competent.

  20. Cosmetic surgery in inpatients with eating disorders: attitudes and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Janelle W; Schreyer, Colleen C; Sarwer, David B; Heinberg, Leslie J; Redgrave, Graham W; Guarda, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Body image disturbance is frequent among individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery and core to the pathology of eating disorders (ED); however, there is little research examining cosmetic surgery in ED. This study examined body image related measures, ED behaviors, and depression as predictors of attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in 129 women with ED. Patients who had undergone surgery (n=16, 12%) were compared to those who had not. Having a purging diagnosis, linking success to appearance, and making physical appearance comparisons were predictive of more favorable cosmetic surgery attitudes. All of those who had undergone surgery had purging diagnoses and, on average, were older, had higher BMIs, and were more likely to make physical appearance comparisons and know someone who had undergone surgery. In ED, acceptance and pursuit of cosmetic surgery appears to be related to social group influences more than weight and shape disturbance, media influences, or mood.

  1. Experience versus complication rate in third molar surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Khawalde Mohammed

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The records of 1087 patients who underwent surgical removal of third molar teeth were prospectively examined to analyse the possible relationship between postoperative complications and the surgeon's experience parameter. Method and materials Seven surgeons (three specialists in surgical dentistry [specialists SD] and four oral and maxillofacial Senior House Officers [OMFS residents] carried out the surgical procedures. For each patient, several variables were recorded including age, gender, radiographic position of extracted teeth, treating surgeon, duration of surgery and postoperative complications. Results Analysis of the data revealed some differences in the incidence of complications produced by the specialists SD and OMFS residents. The main statistically relevant differences were increase the incidences of trismus, nerve paraesthesia, alveolar osteitis and infection in the resident-treated group, while the specialist-treated group showed higher rates of post-operative bleeding. Conclusion The higher rate of postoperative complications in the resident-treated group suggests that at least some of the complications might be related to surgical experience. Further work needs to compare specialists of training programmes with different years of experience, using large cross – sectional studies.

  2. Design of Laboratory Experiments to Study Photoionization Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William James; Davis, Josh; Drake, R. Paul

    2017-06-01

    Here we present the theoretical foundation for a laboratory experiment to study photoionization fronts. Photoionization fronts play important roles in the formation and evolution of structure in the Universe. A properly designed experiment will have to control the recombination rate, electron impact ionization rate, and the initial thermal spectrum. We show that such an experiment can be designed, but requires the use of the largest high-energy-density laser facilities, such as Omega, Z, and NIF. We also show that prior experiments do not actually generate photoionization fronts, rather a heat front is produced by heat conductions. We show some initial simulation results of the current experimental design and characterize the ionization front.

  3. Laparoscopic skill laboratory in urological surgery: tools and methods for resident training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C. M. Torricelli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Laparoscopy has certainly brought considerable benefits to patients, but laparoscopic surgery requires a set of skills different from open surgery, and learning in the operating room may increase surgical time, and even may be harmful to patients. Several training programs have been developed to decrease these potential prejudices. PURPOSES: to describe the laparoscopic training program for urological residents of the "Hospital das Clinicas" of the Sao Paulo Medical School, to report urological procedures that are feasible in dry and wet labs, and to perform a critical analysis of the cost-benefit relation of advanced laparoscopic skills laboratory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The laparoscopic skill lab has two virtual simulators, three manual simulators, and four laparoscopic sets for study with a porcine model. The urology residents during their first year attend classes in the virtual and manual simulator and helps the senior urological resident in activities carried out with the laparoscopic sets. During the second year, the urological resident has six periods per week, each period lasting four hours, to perform laparoscopic procedures with a porcine model. Results: In a training program of ten weeks, one urological resident performs an average of 120 urological procedures. The most common procedures are total nephrectomy (30%, bladder suture (30%, partial nephrectomy (10%, pyeloplasty (10%, ureteral replacement or transuretero anastomosis (10%, and others like adrenalectomy, prostatectomy, and retroperitoneoscopy. These procedures are much quicker and caused less morbidity. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic skills laboratory is a good method for achieving technical ability.

  4. Fibrin sealant in general surgery. Personal experience and literary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubitosi, Adelmo; Ruggiero, Roberto; Docimo, Giovanni; Esposito, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In consideration of the use of fibrin glue in a general surgery department, authors analyze their last two years series. Operations on liver and biliary ducts, bowel and proctologic surgery, thyroid and breast surgery, abdominal wall hernias, fistulas and difficult wounds are considered with a literary review on fibrin sealant.

  5. Novel Dissection Station for Endolaryngeal Microsurgery and Laser Surgery: Development and Dissection Course Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Francesco; Presutti, Livio; Caversaccio, Marco; Bonali, Marco; Anschuetz, Lukas

    2017-06-01

    Objective We aimed to develop and validate an ex vivo dissection station for endolaryngeal surgery suitable for different kinds of laryngeal specimen and any type of operating technique (CO2 laser, cold instruments by endoscopic or microscopic techniques). Study Design Experimental construction and validation of a highly specialized dissection station. Setting Laboratory and international dissection course. Methods We designed a lightweight dissection station made of polycarbonate resin approved for use with a CO2 laser. The cylindrical box hosts an articulated laryngeal support. The laryngoscope is positioned on an articulated arm, which is fixed on the construction's footplate. Validation of the larynx box was performed during an international dissection course on laryngeal surgery held in January 2016. Results We assessed the suitability of our novel dissection station among specialized laryngologists with a mean experience of 14 years. Feedback from the participants was very positive, with a mean general impression of 9.5 (out of 10 points) and a recommendation score of 9.6 for further use. Its utility in transforming the taught surgical steps into daily practice has been highly recognized, with a score of 9.5. Conclusion The lightweight and transparent larynx box is suitable for any kind of laryngeal specimen, and any surgical intervention can be taught at reasonable cost. It is safe and suitable for use with CO2 lasers. Validation among experienced surgeons revealed its suitability in the teaching of endolaryngeal microsurgery and laser surgery.

  6. An in silico DNA cloning experiment for the biochemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory exercise introduces students to concepts in recombinant DNA technology while accommodating a major semester project in protein purification, structure, and function in a biochemistry laboratory for junior- and senior-level undergraduate students. It is also suitable for forensic science courses focused in DNA biology and advanced high school biology classes. Students begin by examining a plasmid map with the goal of identifying which restriction enzymes may be used to clone a piece of foreign DNA containing a gene of interest into the vector. From the National Center for Biotechnology Initiative website, students are instructed to retrieve a protein sequence and use Expasy's Reverse Translate program to reverse translate the protein to cDNA. Students then use Integrated DNA Technologies' OligoAnalyzer to predict the complementary DNA strand and obtain DNA recognition sequences for the desired restriction enzymes from New England Biolabs' website. Students add the appropriate DNA restriction sequences to the double-stranded foreign DNA for cloning into the plasmid and infecting Escherichia coli cells. Students are introduced to computational biology tools, molecular biology terminology and the process of DNA cloning in this valuable single session, in silico experiment. This project develops students' understanding of the cloning process as a whole and contrasts with other laboratory and internship experiences in which the students may be involved in only a piece of the cloning process/techniques. Students interested in pursuing postgraduate study and research or employment in an academic biochemistry or molecular biology laboratory or industry will benefit most from this experience.

  7. Laboratory experiment on bioremediation of crude oil by microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, M.; Wang, L. [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Cao, L.; Sun, P. [State Ocean Administration, Qingdao, Shandong (China). North China Sea Environmental Monitoring Center

    2009-07-01

    Bioremediation has been touted as a promising method to remove oil from seawater. Studies have shown that 4 bacteria N1, N2, N3 and N4, isolated from seawater and oil-polluted coastal sediments in Qingdao Port, have a strong ability to degrade crude oil. Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted based on the microbial remediation functions of the bacterium flora. This paper reported on a study in which shake flask experiments were used to investigate the degradation conditions of the 4 strains. The flask tests were followed by small model basin tests where 4 strains were applied to the simulated marine environment. In the model basin test, the biodegradation rate reached 86.22 per cent. In the simulation experiment, the crude oil was analyzed by gas chromatography before and after biodegradation. The study showed that shake flask experiments provided better biodegradation conditions for the bacteria, resulting in high degradation rates. The 3 stages of laboratory-scale studies produced very similar biodegradation trends, although the degradation rate decreased slightly. It was concluded that the predominant flora chosen for this study may be feasible in treating contaminated sea water. 19 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  8. Design of laboratory experiments to study radiation-driven implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, P. A.; Trantham, M.; Malamud, G.; Klein, S. R.; Davis, J.; VanDervort, R.; Shvarts, D.; Drake, R. P.; Stone, J. M.; Fraenkel, M.; Frank, Y.; Raicher, E.

    2017-03-01

    The interstellar medium is heterogeneous with dense clouds amid an ambient medium. Radiation from young OB stars asymmetrically irradiate the dense clouds. Bertoldi (1989) developed analytic formulae to describe possible outcomes of these clouds when irradiated by hot, young stars. One of the critical parameters that determines the cloud's fate is the number of photon mean free paths in the cloud. For the extreme cases where the cloud size is either much greater than or much less than one mean free path, the radiation transport should be well understood. However, as one transitions between these limits, the radiation transport is much more complex and is a challenge to solve with many of the current radiation transport models implemented in codes. We present the design of laboratory experiments that use a thermal source of x-rays to asymmetrically irradiate a low-density plastic foam sphere. The experiment will vary the density and hence the number of mean free paths of the sphere to study the radiation transport in different regimes. We have developed dimensionless parameters to relate the laboratory experiment to the astrophysical system and we show that we can perform the experiment in the same transport regime.

  9. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website′s sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izak B Dimenstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post′s material, can improve the website′s visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  10. Experimental methods: Extra-laboratory experiments extending the reach of experimental economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charness, G.; Gneezy, U.; Kuhn, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new organizing scheme for classifying types of experiments. In addition to the standard categories of laboratory and field experiments, we suggest a new category: "extra-laboratory experiments." These are experiments that have the same spirit as laboratory experiments, but are conducted

  11. Experimental methods: Extra-laboratory experiments extending the reach of experimental economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charness, G.; Gneezy, U.; Kuhn, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new organizing scheme for classifying types of experiments. In addition to the standard categories of laboratory and field experiments, we suggest a new category: "extra-laboratory experiments." These are experiments that have the same spirit as laboratory experiments, but are conducted

  12. [Some notes on the history of the experimental surgery laboratory. Reflections on its relevance in education and surgical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza-Rodea, Anabel Sofía; Padilla-Sánchez, Luis; de la Garza-Aguilar, Javier; Neri-Vela, Rolando

    2007-01-01

    The progress of medicine has largely been due to research, and for surgery, in particular, the experimental surgical laboratory has been considered fundamental to the surgeon's education. In this study, a general view of experimental surgery is given in animal models based on bioethical norms as well as to design, create and apply different surgical procedures before performing in humans. Experimental surgery also facilitates surgical teaching and promotes the surgeon's scientific reasoning. Methods. This is a retrospective and descriptive study. Data were collected from direct and indirect sources of available publications on the historical, bioethical and educational aspects of medicine, focusing on surgery. The important facts corresponding to the field of experimental surgery and applicable in Mexico were selected. Concepts of experimental surgical models and of the experimental surgery laboratory were described. Bioethical considerations are emphasized for care of experimental animals. Finally, this work focuses on the importance of surgical experimentation in current and future development of the surgical researcher. Conclusions. Experimentation with animal models in a surgical laboratory is essential for surgical teaching and promotes development of the scientific thought in the surgeon. It is necessary for surgical research and is fundamental for making progress in surgery, treatment and medicine as science.

  13. Cryogenic Fracturing: Laboratory Visualization Experiments and Numerical Simulations Using Peridynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Short, R.; Edmiston, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    Typical hydraulic fracturing operations involve the use of a large quantity of water, which can be problematic for several reasons including possible formation (permeability) damage, disposal of waste water, and the use of precious local water resource. An alternate reservoir permeability enhancing technology not requiring water is cryogenic fracturing. This method induces controlled fracturing of rock formations by thermal shock and has potentially important applications in the geothermal and hydrocarbon industries. In this process, cryogenic fluid—such as liquid nitrogen—is injected into the subsurface, causing fracturing due to thermal gradients. These fractures may improve the formation permeability relative to that achievable by hydraulic fracturing alone. We conducted combined laboratory visualization and numerical simulations studies of thermal-shock-induced fracture initiation and propagation resulting from liquid nitrogen injection in rock and analog materials. The experiment used transparent soda-lime glass cubes to facilitate real-time visualization of fracture growth and the fracture network geometry. In this contribution, we report the effect of overall temperature difference between cryogenic fluid and solid material on the produced fracture network, by pre-heating the glass cubes to several temperatures and injecting liquid nitrogen. Temperatures are monitored at several points by thermocouple and the fracture evolution is captured visually by camera. The experiment was modeled using a customized, thermoelastic, fracture-capable numerical simulation code based on peridynamics. The performance of the numerical code was validated by the results of the laboratory experiments, and then the code was used to study the different factors affecting a cryogenic fracturing operation, including the evolution of residual stresses and constitutive relationships for material failure. In complex rock such as shale, understanding the process of cryogenic

  14. Georgia Teachers in Academic Laboratories: Research Experiences in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D.

    2005-12-01

    The Georgia Intern-Fellowships for Teachers (GIFT) is a collaborative effort designed to enhance mathematics and science experiences of Georgia teachers and their students through summer research internships for teachers. By offering business, industry, public science institute and research summer fellowships to teachers, GIFT provides educators with first-hand exposure to the skills and knowledge necessary for the preparation of our future workforce. Since 1991, GIFT has placed middle and high school mathematics, science and technology teachers in over 1000 positions throughout the state. In these fellowships, teachers are involved in cutting edge scientific and engineering research, data analysis, curriculum development and real-world inquiry and problem solving, and create Action Plans to assist them in translating the experience into changed classroom practice. Since 2004, an increasing number of high school students have worked with their teachers in research laboratories. The GIFT program places an average of 75 teachers per summer into internship positions. In the summer of 2005, 83 teachers worked in corporate and research environments throughout the state of Georgia and six of these positions involved authentic research in geoscience related departments at the Georgia Institute of Technology, including aerospace engineering and the earth and atmospheric sciences laboratories. This presentation will review the history and the structure of the program including the support system for teachers and mentors as well as the emphasis on inquiry based learning strategies. The focus of the presentation will be a comparison of two placement models of the teachers placed in geoscience research laboratories: middle school earth science teachers placed in a 6 week research experience and high school teachers placed in 7 week internships with teams of 3 high school students. The presentation will include interviews with faculty to determine the value of these experiences

  15. The Heavy Photon Search experiment at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celentano, Andrea [INFN-GENOVA

    2014-11-01

    The Heavy Photon Search experiment (HPS) at Jefferson Laboratory will search for a new U(1) massive gauge boson, or "heavy-photon", mediator of a new fundamental interaction, called "dark-force", that couples to ordinary photons through kinetic mixing. HPS has sensitivity in the mass range 20 MeV – 1 GeV and coupling epsilon2 between 10-5 and 10-10. The HPS experiment will look for the e+e- decay of the heavy photon, by resonance search and detached vertexing, in an electron beam fixed target experiment. HPS will use a compact forward spectrometer, which employs silicon microstrip detectors for vertexing and tracking, and a PbWO4 electromagnetic calorimeter for energy measurement and fast triggering.

  16. Simulations of Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments using the CRASH code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantham, Matthew; Kuranz, Carolyn; Fein, Jeff; Wan, Willow; Young, Rachel; Keiter, Paul; Drake, R. Paul

    2015-11-01

    Computer simulations can assist in the design and analysis of laboratory astrophysics experiments. The Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) at the University of Michigan developed a code that has been used to design and analyze high-energy-density experiments on OMEGA, NIF, and other large laser facilities. This Eulerian code uses block-adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) with implicit multigroup radiation transport, electron heat conduction and laser ray tracing. This poster will demonstrate some of the experiments the CRASH code has helped design or analyze including: Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor, magnetized flows, jets, and laser-produced plasmas. This work is funded by the following grants: DEFC52-08NA28616, DE-NA0001840, and DE-NA0002032.

  17. Constraining PCP Violating Varying Alpha Theory through Laboratory Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, Debaprasad; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; Chen, Pisin; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-06

    In this report we have studied the implication of a parity and charge-parity (PCP) violating interaction in varying alpha theory. Due to this interaction, the state of photon polarization can change when it passes through a strong background magnetic field. We have calculated the optical rotation and ellipticity of the plane of polarization of an electromagnetic wave and tested our results against different laboratory experiments. Our model contains a PCP violating parameter {beta} and a scale of alpha variation {omega}. By analyzing the laboratory experimental data, we found the most stringent constraints on our model parameters to be 1 {le} {omega} {le} 10{sup 13} GeV{sup 2} and -0.5 {le} {beta} {le} 0.5. We also found that with the existing experimental input parameters it is very difficult to detect the ellipticity in the near future.

  18. Does Prior Laparoscopic and Open Surgery Experience Have Any Impact on Learning Curve in Transition to Robotic Surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Adayener

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been 15 years since the Food And Drug Administration approved the Da Vinci® robotic surgery system. Robotic applications are being used extensively in urology, particularly in radical prostatectomy. Like all high-tech products, this system also has a high cost and a steep learning curve, therefore, preventing it from becoming widespread. There are various studies on the effect of open surgery or laparoscopy experience on the learning curve of robotic surgery. Analyzing these interactions well will provide valuable information on making the training period of robotic system more efficient.

  19. Elucidating GPR Response to Biological Activity: Field and Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoflias, G. P.; Schillig, P. C.; McGlashan, M. A.; Roberts, J. A.; Devlin, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies of the geophysical signatures of biological processes in earth environments have resulted in the emergent field of “biogeophysics”. The ability to monitor remotely and to quantify active biological processes in the subsurface can have transformative implications to a wide range of investigations, including the bioremediation of contaminated sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to detect the products of microbial activity in the subsurface, such as changes in bulk electrical conductivity, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and the formation of biogenic gas. We present field and laboratory experiments that offer insights to the response of GPR signals to microbial activity. In the field, time-lapse borehole radar tomography was used to monitor biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume over a period of two years. A dense grid of fourteen borehole pairs monitoring the bioactive region showed radar wave velocity changes of +/-4% and signal attenuation changes of +/-25%. These GPR observations correlated spatially and temporally to independent measurements of groundwater velocity and geochemical variations that occurred in response to microbial activity. The greatest relative changes in radar wave velocity of propagation and attenuation were observed in the region of enhanced bacterial stimulation where biomass growth was the greatest. Radar wave velocity and attenuation decreased during periods of enhanced biostimulation. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to further assess radar response to biomass growth. The first experiment monitored GPR wave transmission through a water-saturated quartz-sand reactor during the course of enhanced biostimulation. Radar wave velocity initially decreased as a result of bacterial activity and subsequently increased rapidly as biogenic gas formed in the pore space. Radar signal attenuation increased during the course of the experiment as a result of an

  20. CANDU steam generator life management: laboratory data and plant experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, R.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Nickerson, J.H.; Subash, N. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Wright, M.D

    2001-10-01

    As CANDU reactors enter middle age, and the potential value of the plants in a deregulated market is realized, life management and life extension issues become increasingly important. An accurate assessment of critical components, such as the CANDU 6 steam generators (SGs), is crucial for successful life extension, and in this context, material issues are a key factor. For example, service experience with Alloy 900 tubing indicates very low levels of degradation within CANDU SGs; the same is also noted worldwide. With little field data for extrapolation, life management and life extension decisions for the tube bundles rely heavily on laboratory data. Similarly, other components of the SGs, in particular the secondary side internals, have only limited inspection data upon which to base a condition assessment. However, in this case there are also relatively little laboratory data. Decisions on life management and life extension are further complicated--not only is inspection access often restricted, but repair or replacement options for internal components are, by definition, also limited. The application of CANDU SG life management and life extension requires a judicious blend of in-service data, laboratory research and development (R and D) and materials and engineering judgment. For instance, the available laboratory corrosion and fretting wear data for Alloy 800 SG tubing have been compared with plant experience (with all types of tubing), and with crevice chemistry simulations, in order to provide an appropriate inspection guide for a 50-year SG life. A similar approach has been taken with other SG components, where the emphasis has been on known degradation mechanisms worldwide. This paper provides an outline of the CANDU SG life management program, including the results to date, a summary of the supporting R and D program showing the integration with condition assessment and life management activities, and the approach taken to life extension for a typical

  1. The Online Laboratory: Conducting Experiments in a Real Labor Market

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, John J; Zeckhauser, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Online labor markets have great potential as platforms for conducting experiments, as they provide immediate access to a large and diverse subject pool and allow researchers to conduct randomized controlled trials. We argue that online experiments can be just as valid---both internally and externally---as laboratory and field experiments, while requiring far less money and time to design and to conduct. In this paper, we first describe the benefits of conducting experiments in online labor markets; we then use one such market to replicate three classic experiments and confirm their results. We confirm that subjects (1) reverse decisions in response to how a decision-problem is framed, (2) have pro-social preferences (value payoffs to others positively), and (3) respond to priming by altering their choices. We also conduct a labor supply field experiment in which we confirm that workers have upward sloping labor supply curves. In addition to reporting these results, we discuss the unique threats to validity in...

  2. Microrelief-Controlled Overland Flow Generation: Laboratory and Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface microrelief affects overland flow generation and the related hydrologic processes. However, such influences vary depending on other factors such as rainfall characteristics, soil properties, and initial soil moisture conditions. Thus, in-depth research is needed to better understand and evaluate the combined effects of these factors on overland flow dynamics. The objective of this experimental study was to examine how surface microrelief, in conjunction with the factors of rainfall, soil, and initial moisture conditions, impacts overland flow generation and runoff processes in both laboratory and field settings. A series of overland flow experiments were conducted for rough and smooth surfaces that represented distinct microtopographic characteristics and the experimental data were analyzed and compared. Across different soil types and initial moisture conditions, both laboratory and field experiments demonstrated that a rough soil surface experienced a delayed initiation of runoff and featured a stepwise threshold flow pattern due to the microrelief-controlled puddle filling-spilling-merging dynamics. It was found from the field experiments that a smooth plot surface was more responsive to rainfall variations especially during an initial rainfall event. However, enhanced capability of overland flow generation and faster puddle connectivity of a rough field plot occurred during the subsequent rain events.

  3. [Robotics in general surgery: personal experience, critical analysis and prospectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracastoro, Gerolamo; Borzellino, Giuseppe; Castelli, Annalisa; Fiorini, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Today mini invasive surgery has the chance to be enhanced with sophisticated informative systems (Computer Assisted Surgery, CAS) like robotics, tele-mentoring and tele-presence. ZEUS and da Vinci, present in more than 120 Centres in the world, have been used in many fields of surgery and have been tested in some general surgical procedures. Since the end of 2003, we have performed 70 experimental procedures and 24 operations of general surgery with ZEUS robotic system, after having properly trained 3 surgeons and the operating room staff. Apart from the robot set-up, the mean operative time of the robotic operations was similar to the laparoscopic ones; no complications due to robotic technique occurred. The Authors report benefits and disadvantages related to robots' utilization, problems still to be solved and the possibility to make use of them with tele-surgery, training and virtual surgery.

  4. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Case Log: General Surgery Resident Thoracic Surgery Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansier, Nicole; Varghese, Thomas K.; Verrier, Edward D.; Drake, F. Thurston; Gow, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    Background General surgery resident training has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, with likely impact on specialty exposure. We sought to assess trends in general surgery resident exposure to thoracic surgery using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) case logs over time. Methods The ACGME case logs for graduating general surgery residents were reviewed from academic year (AY) 1989–1990 to 2011–2012 for defined thoracic surgery cases. Data were divided into 5 eras of training for comparison: I, AY89 to 93; II, AY93 to 98; III, AY98 to 03; IV, AY03 to 08; V, AY08 to 12. We analyzed quantity and types of cases per time period. Student t tests compared averages among the time periods with significance at a p values less than 0.05. Results A total of 21,803,843 general surgery cases were reviewed over the 23-year period. Residents averaged 33.6 thoracic cases each in period I and 39.7 in period V. Thoracic cases accounted for nearly 4% of total cases performed annually (period I 3.7% [134,550 of 3,598,574]; period V 4.1% [167,957 of 4,077,939]). For the 3 most frequently performed procedures there was a statistically significant increase in thoracoscopic approach from period II to period V. Conclusions General surgery trainees today have the same volume of thoracic surgery exposure as their counterparts over the last 2 decades. This maintenance in caseload has occurred in spite of work-hour restrictions. However, general surgery graduates have a different thoracic surgery skill set at the end of their training, due to the predominance of minimally invasive techniques. Thoracic surgery educators should take into account these differences when training future cardiothoracic surgeons. PMID:24968766

  5. Rural patients’ experiences accessing surgery in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, Nancy; Dickinson, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background More than 33% of Canadians live in rural areas. The vulnerability of rural surgical patients makes them particularly sensitive to barriers to accessing health care. This study aims to describe rural patients’ experiences accessing local non-specialist, family physician–surgeon care and regional specialist surgical care when no local surgical care was available. Methods We conducted a qualitative pilot study of self-selected patients. Interviews were analyzed using a modified Delphi technique and NVivo qualitative software. Results The needs of rural surgical patients were reflective of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: physiologic, safety and security, community belonging and self-esteem/self-actualization. Rural patients expressed a strong desire for individualized care in a familiar environment. When such care was not available, patients found it difficult to meet even basic physiologic needs. Maternity patients and marginalized populations were particularly vulnerable. Conclusion Rural patients seem to prefer individualized care in a familiar environment to address more of their qualitative emotional, psychological and cultural needs rather than only the physiologic needs of surgery. Larger studies are needed to delineate more clearly the qualitative aspects of surgical care. PMID:21092429

  6. Rural patients' experiences accessing surgery in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, Nancy; Dickinson, Paul

    2010-12-01

    More than 33% of Canadians live in rural areas. The vulnerability of rural surgical patients makes them particularly sensitive to barriers to accessing health care. This study aims to describe rural patients' experiences accessing local nonspecialist, family physician-surgeon care and regional specialist surgical care when no local surgical care was available. We conducted a qualitative pilot study of self-selected patients. Interviews were analyzed using a modified Delphi technique and NVivo qualitative software. The needs of rural surgical patients were reflective of Maslow's hierarchy of needs: physiologic, safety and security, community belonging and self-esteem/self-actualization. Rural patients expressed a strong desire for individualized care in a familiar environment. When such care was not available, patients found it difficult to meet even basic physiologic needs. Maternity patients and marginalized populations were particularly vulnerable. Rural patients seem to prefer individualized care in a familiar environment to address more of their qualitative emotional, psychological and cultural needs rather than only the physiologic needs of surgery. Larger studies are needed to delineate more clearly the qualitative aspects of surgical care.

  7. Using data assimilation in laboratory experiments of geophysical flows

    CERN Document Server

    Galmiche, M; Thivolle-Cazat, E; Verron, J; Galmiche, Martin; Sommeria, Joel; Thivolle-Cazat, Emmanuelle; Verron, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Data assimilation is used in numerical simulations of laboratory experiments in a stratified, rotating fluid. The experiments are performed on the large Coriolis turntable (Grenoble, France), which achieves a high degree of similarity with the ocean, and the simulations are performed with a two-layer shallow water model. Since the flow is measured with a high level of precision and resolution, a detailed analysis of a forecasting system is feasible. Such a task is much more difficult to undertake at the oceanic scale because of the paucity of observations and problems of accuracy and data sampling. This opens the way to an experimental test bed for operational oceanography. To illustrate this, some results on the baroclinic instability of a two-layer vortex are presented.

  8. Translating weight loss into agency: Men's experiences 5 years after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Natvik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fewer men than women with severe obesity undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss, and knowledge about men's situation after surgery, beyond medical status, is lacking. Our aim was to explore men's experiences with life after bariatric surgery from a long-term perspective. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 men, aged 28–60 years, between 5 and 7 years after surgery. The analysis was inspired by Giorgi's phenomenological method. We found that agency was pivotal for how the men understood themselves and their lives after surgery. Weight loss meant regaining opportunities for living and acting in unrestricted and independent daily lives, yet surgery remained a radical treatment with complex consequences. Turning to surgery had involved conceptualizing their own body size as illness, which the men had resisted doing for years. After surgery, the rapid and major weight loss and the feelings of being exhausted, weak, and helpless were intertwined. The profound intensity of the weight loss process took the men by surprise. Embodying weight loss and change involved an inevitable renegotiating of experiences connected to the large body. Having bariatric surgery was a long-term process that seemed unfinished 5 years after surgery. Restrictions and insecurity connected to health and illness persist, despite successful weight loss and embodied change. Bariatric surgery initiated a complex and long-lasting life-changing process, involving both increased capacity for agency and illness-like experiences.

  9. Resonant solar neutrino oscillation versus laboratory neutrino oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chong-Sa

    1987-02-01

    The interplay between resonant solar neutrino oscillations and neutrino oscillations in laboratory experiments is investigated in a 3 generation model. Due to the assumed hierarchy of neutrino masses, together with our choice of a convenient parameterization of the 3 generation mixing matrix, we can derive a simple analytic formula which reduces the solar neutrino problem to an effective 2 generation problem. The reduction makes it apparent that the allowed range of mixing and mass parameters crucially depend on whether the survival probability of solar neutrinos S satisfies S greater than or equal to 1/3 or not. The formulae for probabilities of laboratory neutrino oscillations are also greatly simplified. We argue that a combination of the observed solar neutrino depletion and data obtained from reactor experiments seems to rule out some range of neutrino masses. If a sizable nu/sub ..mu../ ..-->.. nu/sub e/ oscillation is observed at accelerators, as suggested at this Workshop, it severely restricts the range of 2 mixing angles.

  10. Pain experiences of men and women after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnnes, Ann Kristin; Parry, Monica; Lie, Irene; Fagerland, Morten Wang; Watt-Watson, Judy; Rustøen, Tone; Stubhaug, Audun; Leegaard, Marit

    2016-10-01

    To compare the prevalence and severity of pain in men and women during the first year following cardiac surgery and to examine the predictors of persistent postoperative pain 12 months post surgery. Persistent pain has been documented after cardiac surgery, with limited evidence for differences between men and women. Prospective cohort study of patients in a randomised controlled trial (N = 416, 23% women) following cardiac surgery. Secondary data analysis of data collected prior to surgery, across postoperative days 1-4, at two weeks, and at one, three, six and 12 months post surgery. The main outcome was worst pain intensity (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form). Twenty-nine percent (97/339) of patients reported persistent postoperative pain at rest at 12 months that was worse in intensity and interference for women than for men. For both sexes, a more severe co-morbidity profile, lower education and postoperative pain at rest at one month post surgery were associated with an increased probability for persistent postoperative pain at 12 months. Women with more concerns about communicating pain and a lower intake of analgesics in the hospital had an increased probability of pain at 12 months. Sex differences in pain are present up to one year following cardiac surgery. Strategies for sex-targeted pain education and management pre- and post-surgery may lead to better pain outcomes. These results suggest that informing patients (particularly women) about the benefits of analgesic use following cardiac surgery may result in less pain over the first year post discharge. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Kinetics of Papain: An Introductory Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornely, Kathleen; Crespo, Eric; Earley, Michael; Kloter, Rachel; Levesque, Aime; Pickering, Mary

    1999-05-01

    Enzyme kinetics experiments are popular in the undergraduate laboratory. These experiments have pedagogic value because they reinforce the concepts of Michaelis-Menten kinetics covered in the lecture portion of the course and give students the experience of calculating kinetic constants from data they themselves have generated. In this experiment, we investigate the kinetics of the thiol protease papain. The source of the papain is commercially available papaya latex. A specific substrate, Na-benzoyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA), is used, which takes advantage of the fact that papain interacts with a phenylalanine residue two amino acids away from the peptide bond cleaved. Upon hydrolysis by papain, a bright yellow product is released, p-nitroaniline. This allows the reaction to be monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of formation of the p-nitroaniline product as a function of the increase in absorbance of the solution at the lmax of p-nitroaniline (400 nm) over time at various substrate concentrations. These data are used to plot a Lineweaver-Burk plot from which the vmax and KM are obtained. If time permits, students carry out additional investigations in which e of p-nitroaniline is measured, the enzyme solution protein concentration is measured, the enzyme purity is evaluated by SDS-PAGE, and a pH-rate profile is constructed from experimental data.

  12. Subduction to Continental Delamination: Insights From Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogus, O. H.; Corbi, F.; Faccenna, C.; Pysklywec, R. N.

    2009-05-01

    The evolution of the lithosphere through subduction-collision and delamination and its surface/crustal response (topography/deformation) is investigated in this work. We present a series of lithosphere scale two dimensional (2-D) and three dimensional (3-D) laboratory experiments to better understand such processes. In these experiments, an idealized viscously deforming crust-mantle lithosphere-mantle system is configured with silicone putty (representing lithospheric mantle and upper crust) and glucose syrup (representing the upper mantle and lower crust). The initial focus was to investigate the physical development of delamination versus continental subduction without plate convergence. Experiments show that the delamination or continental subduction is strongly dependent on the density of the crust (both crust and mantle lithosphere subducts when crust has a higher density, instead of delamination), while in the investigated range, the viscosity of the weak layer does not have much influence on the process. In all the experiments, the topography is asymmetric with subsidence above the delaminating hinge due to the dynamic vertical pulling driven by the delaminating slab, and uplift above the delaminated region due to the buoyancy of asthenosphere. Our investigation on the oceanic subduction with a convergence rate of ~ 3cm/year plate velocity suggests that subduction -collision - delamination is well defined and at the end, the delaminating crust from the lithosphere is overthrusted on top of the overriding plate. Our results provide integrated insights on the Alpine-Himalayan type orogenies, in particular the neotectonic evolution of Eastern Anatolian plateau.

  13. Experimenting from a distance—remotely controlled laboratory (RCL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, Sebastian; Vetter, Martin; Eckert, Bodo; Jodl, Hans-Jörg

    2007-05-01

    The use of computers and multimedia, as well as the World Wide Web and new communication technologies, allows new forms of teaching and learning such as distance learning, blended learning, use of virtual libraries and many more. The herewith discussed remotely controlled laboratory (RCL) project shall offer an additional contribution. The basic idea is for a user to connect via the Internet with a computer from place A to a real experiment carried out in place B. An overview of our technical and didactical developments as well as an outlook on future plans is presented. Currently, about ten RCLs have been implemented. The essential characteristics of an RCL are the intuitive use and interactivity (operating the technical parameters), the possibility of different points of view of the ongoing experiment thanks to web cams and the quickest possible transfer of the data measured by the user. A reasonable use of sensibly chosen real experiments as remote labs allows a new form of homework and exercises, as well as project work and the execution of experiments, which usually would be a teacher's prerogative only.

  14. ASTROPHYSICAL JETS AS HYPERSONIC BUCKSHOT: LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS AND SIMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Frank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbig-Haro (HH jets are commonly thought of as homogeneous beams of plasma traveling at hypersonic velocities. Structure within jet beams is often attributed to periodic or "pulsed" variations of conditions at the jet source. In this contribution we offer an alternative to "pulsed" models of protostellar jets. Using direct numerical simulations and laboratory experiments we explore the possibility that jets are chains of sub-radial clumps propagating through a moving inter-clump medium. Our simulations explore an idealization of this scenario by injecting small (r ¿jet spheres embedded in an otherwise smooth inter-clump jet flow. The spheres are initialized with velocities differing from the jet velocity by ¿ 15%. We find the consequences of shifting from homogeneous to heterogeneous flows are significant as clumps interact with each other and with the inter-clump medium in a variety of ways. We also present new experiments that, for the first time, directly address issues of magnetized astrophysical jets. Our experiments explore the propagation and stability of super-magnetosonic, radiatively cooled, and magnetically dominated bubbles with internal, narrow jets. The results are scalable to astrophysical environments via the similarity of dimensionl ss numbers controlling the dynamics in both settings. These experiments show the jets are subject to kink mode instabilities which quickly fragment the jet into narrow chains of hypersonic knots, providing support for the "clumpy jet" paradigm.

  15. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Intercomparison Studies of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidovits, Paul [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Aerosols containing black carbon (and some specific types of organic particulate matter) directly absorb incoming light, heating the atmosphere. In addition, all aerosol particles backscatter solar light, leading to a net-cooling effect. Indirect effects involve hydrophilic aerosols, which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that affect cloud cover and cloud stability, impacting both atmospheric radiation balance and precipitation patterns. At night, all clouds produce local warming, but overall clouds exert a net-cooling effect on the Earth. The effect of aerosol radiative forcing on climate may be as large as that of the greenhouse gases, but predominantly opposite in sign and much more uncertain. The uncertainties in the representation of aerosol interactions in climate models makes it problematic to use model projections to guide energy policy. The objective of our program is to reduce the uncertainties in the aerosol radiative forcing in the two areas highlighted in the ASR Science and Program Plan. That is, (1) addressing the direct effect by correlating particle chemistry and morphology with particle optical properties (i.e. absorption, scattering, extinction), and (2) addressing the indirect effect by correlating particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity with particle size, chemistry, and morphology. In this connection we are systematically studying particle formation, oxidation, and the effects of particle coating. The work is specifically focused on carbonaceous particles where the uncertainties in the climate relevant properties are the highest. The ongoing work consists of laboratory experiments and related instrument inter-comparison studies both coordinated with field and modeling studies, with the aim of providing reliable data to represent aerosol processes in climate models. The work is performed in the aerosol laboratory at Boston College. At the center of our laboratory setup are two main sources for the production of aerosol particles: (a

  16. Experience with a new OR dedicated to robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autschbach, R; Falk, V; Stein, H; Mohr, F W

    2000-01-01

    The use of robotic technology for minimally-invasive cardiac surgery requires a new operating room (OR) environment. Remote surgery is performed by isolating the surgeon in a central control-room, while the surgical manipulator is located in the OR. Due to the complex nature of these new procedures and the limited access that, unlike in open cardiac surgery, no longer allows direct visualisation of the heart, extensive intra-operative monitoring is essential. The OR features an angiography unit that allows multidisciplinary procedures to be carried out in close collaboration with interventional cardiologists.

  17. Discrepancies Between Laboratory Shock Experiments on Minerals and Natural Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carli, P. S.; Xie, Z.; Sharp, T. G.

    2009-12-01

    Numerous laboratory shock recovery experiments performed over the past 50 years have provided substantial data on the effects of shock waves on rocks and minerals. However, it has become increasingly clear that the pressure "calibrations" based on shock effects observed in these experiments are inconsistent with interpretations based on static high-pressure data. A fundamental question is whether shock pressures are somehow different from static high pressures. Fifty years ago, many journal reviewers doubted that phase transformations could take place on a sub-microsecond time scale. Shock wave workers responded by invoking "special" properties of shock compression. However, all available evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that phase transitions under shock pressure are no different from phase transitions under static high pressures. The discrepancies noted above result from the fact that the parameter space, especially shock pressure duration, accessible to shock recovery experiments is so small by comparison with natural events. Furthermore virtually all shock recovery experiments on rocks and minerals have used high impedance sample containers, with the result that the samples have been subjected to thermodynamic loading paths substantially from a natural event. Consider the case of a chondritic meteorite made up of minerals having a wide range of shock properties. In a natural shock event the transient (nano-second scale) shock pressure at the shock front can vary by as much as an order of magnitude from grain to grain or even within a single grain. There are corresponding local differences in shock temperature. Assuming a mineral grain size of about a mm, the pressure inhomogeneities will equilibrate in less than a microsecond, wheras the temperature inhomogenities will require seconds to equilibrate. Recent studies of high-pressure phases in meteorites have provided evidence for pressure durations in the range of seconds, long enough for high pressure

  18. Volume of Cataract Surgery and Surgeon Gender: The Florida Ambulatory Surgery Center Experience 2005 Through 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Dustin D; Margo, Curtis E; Campbell, Robert R; Greenberg, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Cataract is the most common surgically reversible cause of vision loss and the most common major surgical procedure performed in the United States. To understand how gender composition might affect differences in health services, we examined the surgeon gender-specific rates of routine cataract surgery performed in ambulatory surgical centers in Florida. Routine cataract surgeries were identified through the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration (AHCA) ambulatory surgery center dataset. The background of individual surgeons was determined by linking license numbers in the dataset to physician profiles publicly available from AHCA. From 2005 through 2012, women ophthalmologists in Florida performed roughly half the annual rate of cataract surgery as their male counterparts. This difference is not explained by greater time in clinical practice for men. Further investigation into the causes of this gender-volume disparity is warranted to determine what roles choice and barriers may play.

  19. Diffusion Experiments in Opalinus Clay: Laboratory, Large-Scale Diffusion Experiments and Microscale Analysis by RBS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Alonso de los Rios, U.; Missana, T.; Cormenzana, J.L.; Mingarro, M.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.

    2008-08-06

    The Opalinus Clay (OPA) formation in the Zurcher Weiland (Switzerland) is a potential host rock for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Samples collected in the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory (URL), where the OPA formation is located at a depth between -200 and -300 m below the surface, were used to study the radionuclide diffusion in clay materials. Classical laboratory essays and a novel experimental set-up for large-scale diffusion experiments were performed together to a novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), to understand the transport properties of the OPA and to enhance the methodologies used for in situ diffusion experiments. Through-Diffusion and In-Diffusion conventional laboratory diffusion experiments were carried out with HTO, 36{sup C}l-, I-, 22{sup N}a, 75{sup S}e, 85{sup S}r, 233{sup U}, 137{sup C}s, 60{sup C}o and 152{sup E}u. Large-scale diffusion experiments were performed with HTO, 36{sup C}l, and 85{sup S}r, and new experiments with 60{sup C}o, 137{sup C}s and 152{sup E}u are ongoing. Diffusion experiments with RBS technique were done with Sr, Re, U and Eu. (Author) 38 refs.

  20. Common experiences of patients following suboptimal treatment outcomes: implications for epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Dinusha K; McIntosh, Anne M; Bladin, Peter F; Wilson, Sarah J

    2014-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the patient experience of unsuccessful medical interventions, particularly in the epilepsy surgery field. The present review aimed to gain insight into the patient experience of seizure recurrence after epilepsy surgery by examining the broader literature dealing with suboptimal results after medical interventions (including epilepsy surgery). To capture the patient experience, the literature search focused on qualitative research of patients who had undergone medically unsuccessful interventions, published in English in scholarly journals. Twenty-two studies were found of patients experiencing a range of suboptimal outcomes, including seizure recurrence, cancer recurrence and progression, unsuccessful joint replacement, unsuccessful infertility treatment, organ transplant rejection, coronary bypass graft surgery, and unsuccessful weight-loss surgery. In order of frequency, the most common patient experiences included the following: altered social dynamics and stigma, unmet expectations, negative emotions, use of coping strategies, hope and optimism, perceived failure of the treating team, psychiatric symptoms, and control issues. There is support in the epilepsy surgery literature that unmet expectations and psychiatric symptoms are key issues for patients with seizure recurrence, while other common patient experiences have been implied but not systematically examined. Several epilepsy surgery specific factors influence patient perceptions of seizure recurrence, including the nature of postoperative seizures, the presence of postoperative complications, and the need for increased postoperative medications. Knowledge of common patient experiences can assist in the delivery of patient follow-up and rehabilitation services tailored to differing outcomes after epilepsy surgery.

  1. Hypervelocity Impact Experiments in the Laboratory Relating to Lunar Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, M. J.; Parnell, J.; Bowden, S. A.; Crawford, I. A.

    2010-12-01

    The results of a set of laboratory impact experiments (speeds in the range 1-5 km s-1) are reviewed. They are discussed in the context of terrestrial impact ejecta impacting the Moon and hence lunar astrobiology through using the Moon to learn about the history of life on Earth. A review of recent results indicates that survival of quite complex organic molecules can be expected in terrestrial meteorites impacting the lunar surface, but they may have undergone selective thermal processing both during ejection from the Earth and during lunar impact. Depending on the conditions of the lunar impact (speed, angle of impact etc.) the shock pressures generated can cause significant but not complete sterilisation of any microbial load on a meteorite (e.g. at a few GPa 1-0.1% of the microbial load can survive, but at 20 GPa this falls to typically 0.01-0.001%). For more sophisticated biological products such as seeds (trapped in rocks) the lunar impact speeds generate shock pressures that disrupt the seeds (experiments show this occurs at approximately 1 GPa or semi-equivalently 1 km s-1). Overall, the delivery of terrestrial material of astrobiological interest to the Moon is supported by these experiments, although its long term survival on the Moon is a separate issue not discussed here.

  2. Scaled Laboratory Collisionless Shock Experiments in the Large Plasma Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S. E.; Schaeffer, D.; Everson, E.; Bondarenko, A.; Winske, D.; Constantin, C.; Niemann, C.

    2013-12-01

    Collisionless shocks in space plasmas have been investigated since the fifties and are typically studied via in-situ satellite observations, which are limited due to the large structure of collisionless shocks in space environments relative to the satellite observation platform. Scaled, repeatable experiments in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA provide a test bed for studying collisionless shocks in the laboratory, where questions of ion and electron heating and acceleration can be addressed and examined in detail. The experiments are performed by ablating a graphite or plastic target using the Raptor kilojoule-class laser facility at UCLA. The laser provides an on-target energy in the range of 100-500 J that drives a super-Alfvénic (MA > 1) debris plasma across a background magnetic field (200-800 G) into the ambient, magnetized LAPD plasma. Typical plasma parameters in the LAPD consist of a H+ or He+ ambient plasma with a core column (diameter > 20 cm ) density ni ~ 1013 cm-3 and electron temperature Te ~ 10 eV embedded in a larger plasma discharge (diameter ~ 80 cm) of density ni ~ 1012 cm-3 and Te ~ 5 eV. The ambient ion temperature is Ti ~ 1 eV. Experimental results from the latest collisionless shock campaign will be presented and compared with two dimensional hybrid simulations of the experiment. Fielded diagnostics include Thomson scattering, ion spectroscopy, magnetic flux probes, Langmuir probes, and microwave reflectometry.

  3. Radon transport in fractured soil. Laboratory experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, A.

    1997-10-01

    Radon (Rn-222) transport in fractured soil has been investigated by laboratory experiments and by modelling. Radon transport experiments have been performed with two sand columns (homogeneous and inhomogeneous) and one undisturbed clayey till column containing a net of preferential flow paths (root holes). A numerical model (the finite-element model FRACTRAN) and an analytic model (a pinhole model) have been applied in simulations if soil gas and radon transport in fractured soil. Experiments and model calculations are included in a discussion of radon entry rates into houses placed on fractured soil. The main conclusion is, that fractures does not in general alter transport of internally generated radon out of soil, when the pressure and flow conditions in the soil is comparable to the conditions prevailing under a house. This indicates the important result, that fractures in soil have no impact on radon entry into a house beyond that of an increased gas permeability, but a more thorough investigation of this subject is needed. Only in the case where the soil is exposed to large pressure gradients, relative to gradients induced by a house, may it be possible to observe effects of radon exchange between fractures and matrix. (au) 52 tabs., 60 ill., 5 refs.

  4. Laboratory astrophysical collisionless shock experiments on Omega and NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sook; Ross, J. S.; Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; Ryutov, D.; Casey, D.; Drake, R. P.; Fiksel, G.; Froula, D.; Gregori, G.; Kugland, N. L.; Kuranz, C.; Levy, M. C.; Li, C. K.; Meinecke, J.; Morita, T.; Petrasso, R.; Plechaty, C.; Remington, B.; Sakawa, Y.; Spitkovsky, A.; Takabe, H.; Zylstra, A. B.

    2016-03-01

    We are performing scaled astrophysics experiments on Omega and on NIF. Laser driven counter-streaming interpenetrating supersonic plasma flows can be studied to understand astrophysical electromagnetic plasma phenomena in a controlled laboratory setting. In our Omega experiments, the counter-streaming flow plasma state is measured using Thomson scattering diagnostics, demonstrating the plasma flows are indeed super-sonic and in the collisionless regime. We observe a surprising additional electron and ion heating from ion drag force in the double flow experiments that are attributed to the ion drag force and electrostatic instabilities. [1] A proton probe is used to image the electric and magnetic fields. We observe unexpected large, stable and reproducible electromagnetic field structures that arise in the counter-streaming flows [2]. The Biermann battery magnetic field generated near the target plane, advected along the flows, and recompressed near the midplane explains the cause of such self-organizing field structures [3]. A D3He implosion proton probe image showed very clear filamentary structures; three-dimensional Particle-In-Cell simulations and simulated proton radiography images indicate that these filamentary structures are generated by Weibel instabilities and that the magnetization level (ratio of magnetic energy over kinetic energy in the system) is ∼0.01 [4]. These findings have very high astrophysical relevance and significant implications. We expect to observe true collisionless shock formation when we use >100 kJ laser energy on NIF.

  5. Unsteady magnetic reconnection in laboratory experiments with current sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Anna

    2009-11-01

    According to present notion, unsteady magnetic reconnection in current sheets (CS) is basic to dramatic natural phenomena: solar and stellar flares, substorms in the Earth and other planetary magnetospheres, as well as to disruptive instabilities in tokamak plasmas. We present a review of laboratory experiments studying evolution of CS formed in 3D and 2D magnetic configurations with an X line, in the CS-3D device. Usually CS exists during an extended period in a metastable stage, without essential changes of its structure and parameters. Under certain conditions this stage may be suddenly interrupted by unsteady phase of magnetic reconnection, which manifests itself in a rapid change of the magnetic field topology, current redistribution, excitation of pulsed electric fields, and other dynamic effects. The unsteady phase results in effective conversion of magnetic energy into the energy of plasma and accelerated particles, and may finally bring about the CS disruption. In the context of the solar flares, a metastable CS is associated with a pre-flare situation, while CS disruption -- with the flare itself. The physical mechanisms triggering the unsteady magnetic reconnection in the laboratory produced current sheets are discussed. Supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project # 09-02-00971).

  6. A Simple Laboratory Experiment to Measure e/k

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Fred

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of fundamental constants is common practice in instructional laboratories. A number of the equipment manufacturers have developed apparatus for such applications, e.g., the determination of e by the Millikan oil drop method or the determination of the speed of light with fiber optics. Other experiments determine not a single constant, but a combination of constants, e.g., e/m by electron beam deflection in a magnetic field or h/e by the photoelectric effect. About 30 years ago Carl E. Miller and I proposed a method of measuring e/k, the ratio of the electron charge to Boltzmann's constant, that was reasonably simple but not necessarily inexpensive because it involved the use of a sensitive electrometer. In recent years, however, inexpensive digital multimeters (DMM), many costing less than 30, have found their way into the physics laboratory. The purpose of this paper is to suggest the use of two DMMs, one operating as a voltmeter and the other as an ammeter, in a simple circuit involving a junction transistor and a variable potential source. Even the potential source can be quite simple, a 1.5-V battery and a 1-kΩ potentiometer, as shown in Fig. 1. If available, a variable dc power supply replacing the battery and potentiometer would be more convenient.

  7. DEFORMATION MONITORING OF MATERIALS UNDER STRESS IN LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Skarlatos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Photogrammetry is a valid alternative solution to linear variable differential transformer (LVDT measurements in structural testing in laboratory conditions. Although the use of LVDTs boasts a high degree of accuracy, on the other hand it is limiting as it offers measurements between two points and it thus might be unable to capture localized deformations and strains over a bigger area of a structural specimen. In this aspect photogrammetry seems to offer certain advantages. Commercial solutions provide limited testing envelopes, while on the other hand, the wide range on new materials need more versatile techniques. Based on the need to develop an in-house photogrammetric toolbox to support several structural and material experiments in the department Advanced Pore Morphology (APM aluminium foam specimens developed at Fraunhofer IFAM in Germany and cured at CUT, were tested under monotonic compressive load. Data acquisition, analysis and results, along with lessons learnt from the process are presented in this work.

  8. Tritium operating experience at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, L.; Bekris, N.; Besserer, U.; Glugla, M.; Hellriegel, W.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Rohrig, H.D.; Schubert, K.; Vollmer, T.; Wendel, J. [Karlsruhe Research Centre, Tritium Laboratory (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe began operations with gram amounts of tritium in March 1995. Since then, the experimental facilities CAPRICE and PETRA have been routinely in operation. New experimental activities include the analysis of tritium in first wall materials of fusion devices and the development of methods for the detritiation of graphite and carbon fibre composite tiles. The experience gained with Tritium Retention Systems, with the Tritium Transfer System, with portable uranium getter beds and in this context with tritium accountancy is reported. The incorporation of a new Pd packed column into the Isotope Separation System, the increase in storage capacity of the Tritium Storage System, the improvements of the analytical instrumentation and some repair activities are also described. (authors)

  9. Interrelationship between Plasma Experiments in the Laboratory and in Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepke, Mark E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Funds were expended to offset the travel costs of three students and three postdoctoral research associates to participate in and present work at the 2015 International Workshop on the Interrelationship between Plasma Experiments in the Laboratory and in Space (IPELS2015), 23-28 August 2015, Pitlochry, Scotland, UK. Selection was priority-ranked by lab-space engagement, first, and topic relevance, second. Supplementary selection preference was applied to under-represented populations, applicants lacking available travel-resources in their home research group, applicants unusually distant from the conference venue, and the impact of the applicant’s attendance in increasing the diversity of conference participation. One support letter per student was required. The letters described the specific benefit of IPELS2015 to the student dissertation or the postdoc career development, and document the evidence for the ordering criteria.

  10. LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS TO SIMULATE CO2 OCEAN DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen M. Masutani

    1999-12-31

    This Final Technical Report summarizes the technical accomplishments of an investigation entitled ''Laboratory Experiments to Simulate CO{sub 2} Ocean Disposal'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's University Coal Research Program. This investigation responds to the possibility that restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions may be imposed in the future to comply with the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The primary objective of the investigation was to obtain experimental data that can be applied to assess the technical feasibility and environmental impacts of oceanic containment strategies to limit release of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal and other fossil fuel combustion systems into the atmosphere. A number of critical technical uncertainties of ocean disposal of CO{sub 2} were addressed by performing laboratory experiments on liquid CO{sub 2} jet break-up into a dispersed droplet phase, and hydrate formation, under deep ocean conditions. Major accomplishments of this study included: (1) five jet instability regimes were identified that occur in sequence as liquid CO{sub 2} jet disintegration progresses from laminar instability to turbulent atomization; (2) linear regression to the data yielded relationships for the boundaries between the five instability regimes in dimensionless Ohnesorge Number, Oh, and jet Reynolds Number, Re, space; (3) droplet size spectra was measured over the full range of instabilities; (4) characteristic droplet diameters decrease steadily with increasing jet velocity (and increasing Weber Number), attaining an asymptotic value in instability regime 5 (full atomization); and (5) pre-breakup hydrate formation appears to affect the size distribution of the droplet phase primary by changing the effective geometry of the jet.

  11. Rainfall estimation using moving cars as rain gauges - laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, E.; Haberlandt, U.; Sester, M.; Fitzner, D.

    2013-11-01

    The spatial assessment of short time-step precipitation is a challenging task. Low density of observation networks, as well as the bias in radar rainfall estimation motivated the new idea of exploiting cars as moving rain gauges with windshield wipers or optical sensors as measurement devices. In a preliminary study, this idea has been tested with computer experiments (Haberlandt and Sester, 2010). The results have shown that a high number of possibly inaccurate measurement devices (moving cars) provide more reliable areal rainfall estimations than a lower number of precise measurement devices (stationary gauges). Instead of assuming a relationship between wiper frequency (W) and rainfall intensity (R) with an arbitrary error, the main objective of this study is to derive valid W-R relationships between sensor readings and rainfall intensity by laboratory experiments. Sensor readings involve the wiper speed, as well as optical sensors which can be placed on cars and are usually made for automating wiper activities. A rain simulator with the capability of producing a wide range of rainfall intensities is designed and constructed. The wiper speed and two optical sensors are used in the laboratory to measure rainfall intensities, and compare it with tipping bucket readings as reference. Furthermore, the effect of the car speed on the estimation of rainfall using a car speed simulator device is investigated. The results show that the sensor readings, which are observed from manual wiper speed adjustment according to the front visibility, can be considered as a strong indicator for rainfall intensity, while the automatic wiper adjustment show weaker performance. Also the sensor readings from optical sensors showed promising results toward measuring rainfall rate. It is observed that the car speed has a significant effect on the rainfall measurement. This effect is highly dependent on the rain type as well as the windshield angle.

  12. Transformation of fault slip modes in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, Vasilii; Alexey, Ostapchuk; Markov, Vadim

    2017-04-01

    Slip mode of crust fault can vary because of many reasons. It's well known that fault structure, material of fault gouge, pore fluid et al. in many ways determines slip modes from creep and slow slip events to mega-earthquakes [1-3]. Therefore, the possibility of fault slip transformation due to external action is urgent question. There is popular and developing approach of fluid injection into central part of fault. The phenomenon of earthquakes induced due to pumping of water was investigated on small and large scales [4, 5]. In this work the laboratory experiments were conducted to study the evolution of the experimental fault slip when changing the properties of the interstitial fluid. The scheme of experiments is the classical slider-model set-up, in which the block under the shear force slips along the interface. In our experiments the plexiglas block 8x8x3 cm3 in size was put on the plexiglas base. The contact of the blocks was filled with a thin layer (about 3 mm thick) of a granular material. The normal load varied from 31 to 156 kPa. The shear load was applied through a spring with stiffness 60 kN/m, and the rate of spring deformation was 20 or 5 mcm/s. Two parameters were recorded during experiments: the shear force acting on the upper block (with an accuracy of 1 N) and its displacement relatively the base (with an accuracy of 0.1 μm). The gouge was composed of quartz sand (97.5%) and clay (2.5%). As a moisturizer were used different fluids with viscosity varying from 1 to 103 mPa x s. Different slip modes were simulated during slider-experiments. In our experiments slip mode is the act of instability manifested in an increase of slip velocity and a drop of shear stress acting on a movable block. The amplitude of a shear stress drop and the peak velocity of the upper block were chosen as the characteristics of the slip mode. In the laboratory experiments, slip events of one type can be achieved either as regularly recurring (regular mode) or as random

  13. Cyclic deformations in the Opalinus clay: a laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Emanuel; Huggenberger, Peter; Möri, Andreas; Meier, Edi

    2015-04-01

    The influence of tunnel climate on deformation cycles of joint openings and closings is often observed immediately after excavation. At the EZ-B niche in the Mt. Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland), a cyclic deformation of the shaly Opalinus clay has been monitored for several years. The deformation cycles of the joints parallel to the clay bedding planes correlate with seasonal variations in relative humidity of the air in the niche. In winter, when the relative humidity is the lowest (down to 65%), the joints open as the clay volume decreases, whereas they tend to close in the summer when the relative humidity reaches up to 100%. Furthermore, in situ measurements have shown the trend of an increasingly smaller aperture of joints with time. A laboratory experiment was carried out to reproduce the observed cyclic deformation in a climate chamber using a core sample of Opalinus clay. The main goal of the experiment was to investigate the influence of the relative humidity on the deformation of the Opalinus clay while excluding the in situ effects (e.g. confining stress). The core sample of Opalinus clay was put into a closed ended PVC tube and the space between the sample and the tube was filled with resin. Then, the sample (size: 28 cm × 14 cm × 6.5 cm) was cut in half lengthways and the open end was cut, so that the half-core sample could move in one direction. The mounted sample was exposed to wetting and drying cycles in a climate chamber. Air temperature, air humidity and sample weight were continuously recorded. Photographs taken at regular time intervals by a webcam allowed the formation/deformation of cracks on the surface of the sample to be monitored. A crackmeter consisting of a double-plate capacitor attached to the core sample was developed to measure the dynamics of the crack opening and closing. Preliminary results show that: - Deformation movements during different climate cycles can be visualized with the webcam - The crackmeter signal gives a

  14. Design of laboratory experiments to study photoionization fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R. P.; Hazak, G.; Keiter, P. A.; Davis, J. S.; Patterson, C. R.; Frank, A.; Blackman, E.; Busquet, M.

    2016-10-01

    This paper analyzes the requirements of a photoionization-front experiment that could be driven in the laboratory, using thermal sources to produce the necessary flux of ionizing photons. It reports several associated conclusions. Such experiments will need to employ the largest available facilities, capable of delivering many kJ to MJ of energy to an x-ray source. They will use this source to irradiate a volume of neutral gas, likely of N, on a scale of a few mm to a few cm, increasing with source energy. For a gas pressure of several to ten atmospheres at room temperature, and a source temperature near 100 eV, one will be able to drive a photoionization front through a system of tens to hundreds of photon mean free paths. The front should make the familiar transition from the so-called R-Type to D-Type as the radiation flux diminishes with distance. The N is likely to reach the He-like state. Preheating from the energetic photons appears unlikely to become large enough to alter the essential dynamics of the front beyond some layer near the surface. For well-chosen experimental conditions, competing energy transport mechanisms are small. Supported by the U.S. DOE by NNSA Grants DE-NA0002956 (SSAA) and DE-NA0002719 (NLUF), by LLE, and by LLNL.

  15. Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production by Direct Sunlight: A Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Atif; Sahin, Musa

    2003-11-01

    The demand for hydrogen will increase within the next decades as a result of the necessity to produce clean and environmentally and economically accepted fuels from natural and renewable energy resources. In principle, hydrogen has the potential to play an important role in future energy systems because of the diversity of its applications, the variety of ways in which it can be stored, its general environmental advantages, and especially because of the possibility of producing hydrogen by splitting water using photocatalysts and solar energy. Methods and techniques of photocatalytic reactions are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, many times in instructional settings, little attention is given to how it is used for the production of hydrogen. In the present investigation a photocatalytic hydrogen production experiment suitable for use in undergraduate chemistry laboratories is described. The experiment can be used to introduce students to the concept of a renewable and sustainable hydrogen energy system of the future, as well as its production techniques, and to demonstrate the use of a CdS/ZnS photocatalyst system for photocatalytic hydrogen production from direct sunlight.

  16. Patient experiences with interventions to reduce surgery cancellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovlid, Einar; von Plessen, Christian; Haug, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    The cancellation of planned surgery harms patients, increases waiting times and wastes scarce health resources. Previous studies have evaluated interventions to reduce cancellations from medical and management perspectives; these have focused on cost, length of stay, improved efficiency, and redu......The cancellation of planned surgery harms patients, increases waiting times and wastes scarce health resources. Previous studies have evaluated interventions to reduce cancellations from medical and management perspectives; these have focused on cost, length of stay, improved efficiency......, and reduced post-operative complications. In our case a hospital had experienced high cancellation rates and therefore redesigned their pathway for elective surgery to reduce cancelations. We studied how patients experienced interventions to reduce cancellations....

  17. Plastic surgery-myths and realities in developing countries: experience from eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Brijesh; Koirala, Robin; Tripathi, Nalini; Shrestha, Kajan Raj; Adhikary, Buddhinath; Shah, Surendra

    2011-01-01

    B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, is the only tertiary care referral centre in the eastern region of Nepal. This paper discusses the author's experience of starting a plastic surgery unit in eastern Nepal regarding need and present status of plastic surgery care in Nepal. Methods. We analyzed the data of patients treated in Plastic surgery unit from July 2007 to February 2009. We did evaluation regarding type of patients, procedures, and their outcome. We also evaluated the limitations and their possible solutions to overcome the barriers to establish effective plastic surgical centers in developing countries. Results. Plastic surgery services were started as a unit in general surgery by single plastic surgeon and one general surgery resident on rotation. Total 848 patients were treated for different plastic-surgery-related conditions, which included 307 acute burn patients 541 general plastic surgery patients. Trauma constituted the major bulk 22%, followed by tumors 20%, while aesthetic surgery operations were only 10.1%. Conclusions. In developing countries, aesthetic procedures constitute very small part of plastic surgery interventions and plastic surgery units are primarily required for reconstructive needs for optimum management of patients.

  18. Experience with a Professionally Oriented Astronomy Laboratory for Nonscience Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Clarence H.

    1980-01-01

    Presents the philosophy and mechanics of a professionally oriented astronomy laboratory for nonscience majors. Design of the laboratory, description of the exercises, and the results of using this approach at the University of Kansas are also described. (HM)

  19. Robotic surgery in complicated gynecologic diseases: Experience of Tri-Service General Hospital in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Jen Tan

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: The present analyses include various complicated gynecologic conditions, which make the estimation of the effectiveness of robotic surgery in each situation individually not appropriate. However, our experiences do show that robotic surgery is feasible and safe for patients with complicated gynecologic diseases.

  20. Patients' experiences of postoperative intermediate care and standard surgical ward care after emergency abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Vester-Andersen, Morten; Nielsen, Martin Vedel

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To elicit knowledge of patient experiences of postoperative intermediate care in an intensive care unit and standard postoperative care in a surgical ward after emergency abdominal surgery. BACKGROUND: Emergency abdominal surgery is common, but little is known about how patie...

  1. Studies on nutritional status in general surgery patients by clinical, anthropometric, and laboratory parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, M; Straub, M; Kraft, K; Bittner, R

    1996-06-01

    We assessed the nutritional status of general surgery patients with and without cancer from a western European population in this prospective study. Anamnestic (weight development, abdominal complaints) and anthropometric (fat tissue measurements) data were collected on six groups of patients: cancer of the stomach (n = 13), pancreas (n = 13), colorectal (n = 23), breast (n = 12), and two control groups with benign diseases, ages 20-45 and 50-75 y. From these data, body mass index and ideal body weight were calculated. Concentrations of albumin, transferrin, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and creatinine height index were determined by biochemical tests. A weight loss of more than 10% was found in only 31% of gastric and 61% of pancreatic cancer patients. Significant values from anthropometric data were also found only in these groups. In biochemical tests, only the creatinine height index was reduced in all patients with pancreatic cancer. The remaining laboratory changes were so unspecific in all other parameters that no conclusions could be drawn as to the status of the patient's nutritional condition. For the evaluation of nutritional status, only relatively simple and inexpensive anamnestic and anthropometric measurements are necessary.

  2. iPads in the Science Laboratory: Experience in Designing and Implementing a Paperless Chemistry Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, Tiffany L.; Schwartz, Pauline M.

    2013-01-01

    In the fall of 2012, 20 General Chemistry Honors students at the University of New Haven were issued the new iPad 3 to incorporate these devices both in the classroom and the laboratory. This paper will focus on the integration of the iPad into the laboratory curriculum while creating a paperless experience, an environment where no paper would…

  3. Eight-year experience in esophageal cancer surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Esophageal cancer remains a major and lethal health problem. In Nepal, not much has been explored about its management. The aim of this study was to conduct a retrospective review of esophageal cancer patients undergoing surgery or combined modality treatment at a cancer hospital in Nepal. Materials and Methods: Resectable cases were treated primarily with surgery. Locally advanced cases with doubtful or obviously unresectability underwent preoperative chemo/radiation or chemoradiation followed by surgery. Results: Among 900 patients, 103 were treated with curative intent. Mean age of patients was 54 years, and 100% of the patients presented with complaint of dysphagia. Surgery as a single modality of treatment was done in 57% of cases, and the remaining underwent combined modality treatment. Transthoracic and transhiatal approaches were used in 95% and 5% of cases, respectively. Nodal sampling, two-field (2-FD, and three-field lymphadenectomy (3-FD were done in 18%, 59%, and 20% of cases, respectively. A majority of patients had pathological stage III disease (46.6%. In-hospitality mortality was 5%, and anastomotic leakage rate was 14%. In 87% of patients, R0 resection was achieved. Overall, 4-year survival was 20%. A R0 resection, early-stage disease and 3-FD favored the survival advantage (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The mortality, complication, and survival results were in the acceptable range. R0 resection and radical nodal dissection should be standard practice.

  4. Emulating JWST Exoplanet Transit Observations in a Testbed laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touli, D.; Beichman, C. A.; Vasisht, G.; Smith, R.; Krist, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    The transit technique is used for the detection and characterization of exoplanets. The combination of transit and radial velocity (RV) measurements gives information about a planet's radius and mass, respectively, leading to an estimate of the planet's density (Borucki et al. 2011) and therefore to its composition and evolutionary history. Transit spectroscopy can provide information on atmospheric composition and structure (Fortney et al. 2013). Spectroscopic observations of individual planets have revealed atomic and molecular species such as H2O, CO2 and CH4 in atmospheres of planets orbiting bright stars, e.g. Deming et al. (2013). The transit observations require extremely precise photometry. For instance, Jupiter transit results to a 1% brightness decrease of a solar type star while the Earth causes only a 0.0084% decrease (84 ppm). Spectroscopic measurements require still greater precision ppm. The Precision Projector Laboratory (PPL) is a collaboration between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to characterize and validate detectors through emulation of science images. At PPL we have developed a testbed to project simulated spectra and other images onto a HgCdTe array in order to assess precision photometry for transits, weak lensing etc. for Explorer concepts like JWST, WFIRST, EUCLID. In our controlled laboratory experiment, the goal is to demonstrate ability to extract weak transit spectra as expected for NIRCam, NIRIS and NIRSpec. Two lamps of variable intensity, along with spectral line and photometric simulation masks emulate the signals from a star-only, from a planet-only and finally, from a combination of a planet + star. Three masks have been used to simulate spectra in monochromatic light. These masks, which are fabricated at JPL, have a length of 1000 pixels and widths of 2 pixels, 10 pixels and 1 pixel to correspond respectively to the noted above JWST instruments. From many-hour long observing

  5. Laboratory experiments for estimating chemical osmotic parameters of mudstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, S.; Tokunaga, T.; Mogi, K.; Ito, K.; Takeda, M.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have quantitatively shown that mudstone can act as semi-permeable membrane and can generate abnormally high pore pressure in sedimentary basins. Reflection coefficient is one of the important properties that affect the chemical osmotic behavior of mudstones. However, not many quantitative studies on the reflection coefficient of mudstones have been done. We have developed a laboratory apparatus to observe chemical osmotic behavior, and a numerical simulation technique to estimate the reflection coefficient and other relating properties of mudstones. A core sample of siliceous mudstone obtained from the drilled core at Horonobe, Japan, was set into the apparatus and was saturated by 0.1mol/L sodium chloride solution. Then, the up-side reservoir was replaced with 0.05mol/L sodium chloride solution, and temporal changes of both pressure and concentration of the solution in both up-side and bottom-side reservoirs were measured. Using the data obtained from the experiment, we estimated the reflection coefficient, effective diffusion coefficient, hydraulic conductivity, and specific storage of the sample by fitting the numerical simulation results with the observed ones. A preliminary numerical simulation of groundwater flow and solute migration was conducted in the area where the core sample was obtained, using the reflection coefficient and other properties obtained from this study. The result suggested that the abnormal pore pressure observed in the region can be explained by the chemical osmosis.

  6. Dust Ejection from Planetary Bodies by Temperature Gradients: Laboratory Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kelling, Thorben; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Klacka, Jozef; Reiss, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that dusty bodies in a gaseous environment eject dust particles if they are illuminated. We find that even more intense dust eruptions occur when the light source is turned off. We attribute this to a compression of gas by thermal creep in response to the changing temperature gradients in the top dust layers. The effect is studied at a light flux of 13 kW/(m*m) and 1 mbar ambient pressure. The effect is applicable to protoplanetary disks and Mars. In the inner part of protoplanetary disks, planetesimals can be eroded especially at the terminator of a rotating body. This leads to the production of dust which can then be transported towards the disk edges or the outer disk regions. The generated dust might constitute a significant fraction of the warm dust observed in extrasolar protoplanetary disks. We estimate erosion rates of about 1 kg/s for 100 m parent bodies. The dust might also contribute to subsequent planetary growth in different locations or on existing protoplanets which ...

  7. Cometary Materials Originating from Interstellar Ices: Clues from Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresneau, A.; Abou Mrad, N.; d’Hendecourt, L. LS; Duvernay, F.; Flandinet, L.; Orthous-Daunay, F.-R.; Vuitton, V.; Thissen, R.; Chiavassa, T.; Danger, G.

    2017-03-01

    We use laboratory experiments to derive information on the chemistry occurring during the evolution of astrophysical ices from dense molecular clouds to interplanetary objects. Through a new strategy that consists of coupling very high resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), we investigate the molecular content of the organic residues synthesized from different initial ice compositions. We also obtain information on the evolution of the soluble part of the residues after their over-irradiation. The results give insight into the role of water ice as a trapping and diluting agent during the chemical evolution. They also give information about the importance of the amount of ammonia in such ices, particularly regarding its competition with the carbon chemistry. All of these results allow us to build a first mapping of the evolution of soluble organic matter based on its chemical and physical history. Furthermore, our results suggest that interstellar ices should lead to organic materials enriched in heteroatoms that present similarities with cometary materials but strongly differ from meteoritic organic material, especially in their C/N ratios.

  8. Dynamics of spacecraft control laboratory experiment (SCOLE) slew maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakad, Y. P.

    1987-01-01

    This is the first of two reports on the dynamics and control of slewing maneuvers of the NASA Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE). In this report, the dynamics of slewing maneuvers of SCOLE are developed in terms of an arbitrary maneuver about any given axis. The set of dynamical equations incorporate rigid-body slew maneuver and three-dimensional vibrations of the complete assembly comprising the rigid shuttle, the flexible beam, and the reflector with an offset mass. The analysis also includes kinematic nonlinearities of the entire assembly during the maneuver and the dynamics of the interaction between the rigid shuttle and the flexible appendage. The final set of dynamical equations obtained for slewing maneuvers is highly nonlinear and coupled in terms of the flexible modes and the rigid-body modes. The equations are further simplified and evaluated numerically to include the first ten flexible modes and the SCOLE data to yield a model for designing control systems to perform slew maneuvers.

  9. Joint Langley Research Center/Jet Propulsion Laboratory CSI experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neat, Gregory W.; O'Brien, John F.; Lurie, Boris J.; Garnica, Angel; Belvin, W. K.; Sulla, Jeff; Won, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a joint Control Structure Interaction (CSI) experiment in which Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) damping devices were incorporated into the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Phase 0 Testbed. The goals of the effort were twofold: (1) test the effectiveness of the JPL structural damping methods in a new structure and (2) assess the feasibility of combining JPL local control methods with the LaRC multiple input multiple output global control methods. Six dampers (2 piezoelectric active members, 4 viscous dampers), placed in three different regions of the structure, produced up to 26 dB attenuation in target modes. The combined control strategy in which the JPL damping methods contributed local control action and the LaRC control scheme provided global control action, produced and overall control scheme with increased stability margins and improved performance. This paper presents an overview of the technologies contributed from the two centers, the strategies used to combine them, and results demonstrating the success of the damping and cooperative control efforts.

  10. Frictional sliding in layered rock: laboratory-scale experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buescher, B.J.; Perry, K.E. Jr.; Epstein, J.S.

    1996-09-01

    The work is part of the rock mechanics effort for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program. The laboratory-scale experiments are intended to provide high quality data on the mechanical behavior of jointed structures that can be used to validate complex numerical models for rock-mass behavior. Frictional sliding between simulated rock joints was studied using phase shifting moire interferometry. A model, constructed from stacks of machined and sandblasted granite plates, contained a central hole bore normal to the place so that frictional slip would be induced between the plates near the hole under compressive loading. Results show a clear evolution of slip with increasing load. Since the rock was not cycled through loading- unloading, the quantitative differences between the three data sets are probably due to a ``wearing-in`` effect. The highly variable spatial frequency of the data is probably due to the large grain size of the granite and the stochastic frictional processes. An unusual feature of the evolution of slip with increasing load is that as the load gets larger, some plates seem to return to a null position. Figs, 6 refs.

  11. The digital computer as a metaphor for the perfect laboratory experiment: Loophole-free Bell experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel; Hess, Karl

    2016-12-01

    Using Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments as an example, we demonstrate that the combination of a digital computer and algorithms, as a metaphor for a perfect laboratory experiment, provides solutions to problems of the foundations of physics. Employing discrete-event simulation, we present a counterexample to John Bell's remarkable "proof" that any theory of physics, which is both Einstein-local and "realistic" (counterfactually definite), results in a strong upper bound to the correlations that are being measured in Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. Our counterexample, which is free of the so-called detection-, coincidence-, memory-, and contextuality loophole, violates this upper bound and fully agrees with the predictions of quantum theory for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments.

  12. EXPERIENCE OF USING INDIVIDUAL TITAN IMPLANTS IN NASAL RECONSTRUCTION SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Epishev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Clinical use of implants based on patient’s individual topographic anatomical features. Materials and methods. The paper describes two case reports involving the correction of nasal anatomical structure affected during the surgery for facial cancer. Using selective laser sintering technology we manufactured 2 intricate 3D-deformed individual implants from Ti70V30 alloy powders. Implant design was based on CAT/MRT data. Clinical use was conducted on the premises of the department of head and neck surgery in Chelyabinsk Regional Oncological Dispensary. Results. In the fi rst case we obtained an impressive functional result – huge and wide nasal cavity, nose skeleton, and easy nasal breathing. In 30 days we performed endoscopic video-analysis (via nasal passages which showed that 65% of implant surface was covered with mucosa. In the second case, the designed implant allowed the combined surgery including excision of soft tissues, atypical resection of the upper jaw (left part and the left cheek, left maxillary sinusotomy and reconstruction of the left part of the nose and the left cheek with implant and skin fl ap. Conclusion. Clinical use revealed pros and contras of the applied technology. Among contras there are relatively high cost of technology, high standards of competency of a surgeon, a programmer and engineers. Pros include free modeling and setting the implant parameters before operation, exact match between implant size/shape and topographic anatomical data of a certain patient. 

  13. Virtual planning for craniomaxillofacial surgery--7 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphs, Nicolai; Haberl, Ernst-Johannes; Liu, Weichen; Keeve, Erwin; Menneking, Horst; Hoffmeister, Bodo

    2014-07-01

    Contemporary computer-assisted surgery systems more and more allow for virtual simulation of even complex surgical procedures with increasingly realistic predictions. Preoperative workflows are established and different commercially software solutions are available. Potential and feasibility of virtual craniomaxillofacial surgery as an additional planning tool was assessed retrospectively by comparing predictions and surgical results. Since 2006 virtual simulation has been performed in selected patient cases affected by complex craniomaxillofacial disorders (n = 8) in addition to standard surgical planning based on patient specific 3d-models. Virtual planning could be performed for all levels of the craniomaxillofacial framework within a reasonable preoperative workflow. Simulation of even complex skeletal displacements corresponded well with the real surgical result and soft tissue simulation proved to be helpful. In combination with classic 3d-models showing the underlying skeletal pathology virtual simulation improved planning and transfer of craniomaxillofacial corrections. Additional work and expenses may be justified by increased possibilities of visualisation, information, instruction and documentation in selected craniomaxillofacial procedures. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lava-substrate heat transfer: Laboratory experiments and thermodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, M.; Fagents, S. A.; Hamilton, C. W.; Wright, R.; Crawford, I.

    2012-12-01

    We have performed laboratory experiments and numerical modeling to investigate the heat transfer from a lava flow into various substrate materials, focusing on the effects of the differing thermophysical properties of substrate materials. Initial motivation for this project developed from the desire to understand the loss of solar wind volatiles embedded in lunar regolith deposits that were subsequently covered by a lava flow. The Moon lacks a significant atmosphere and magnetosphere, leaving the surface regolith exposed to bombardment by solar flare and solar wind particles, and by the cosmogenic products of galactic cosmic rays. Preservation of particle-rich regolith deposits may have occurred by the emplacement of an active lava flow on top of the regolith layer, provided the embedded particles survive heating by the lava. During future expeditions to the lunar surface, ancient regolith deposits could be sampled through surface drilling to extract the extra-lunar particles, revealing a history of the solar activity and galactic events not available on the Earth. This project also has important implications for terrestrial lava flows, particularly in the prediction of lava flow hazards. Lava erupted on Earth may be emplaced on various substrates, including solid lava rock, volcanic tephra, sands, soils, etc. The composition, grain size, consolidation, moisture content, etc. of these materials will vary greatly and have different effects on the cooling of the flow. Accounting for specific properties of the substrate could be an important improvement in lava flow models We have performed laboratory experiments in collaboration with the Department of Art and Art History at the University of Hawaii at Manoa in which ~5-6 kg of basalt, collected at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, is melted to ~1200 °C. The lava is poured into a device constructed of calcium silicate sheeting that has been filled with a solid or particulate substrate material and embedded with thermocouples

  15. Our Experience with Short Stem Hip Replacement Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Rastogi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Context- A short anatomical metaphyseal femoral stem is a desirable hip implant for bone and soft tissue preserving hip replacing surgery in young arthritic patients. Physiological loading of the proximal femur prevents stress shielding and preserves bone stock of the femur in the long run. Thus it is an ideal hip implant suited for conservative hip surgeries in active young adults with arthritic hips. Materials and methods- 50 Proxima hip replacements were performed on 41 patients with a mean age of 45 over a 3-year period (between July 2006 and September 2009. Diagnosis of hip pathologies varied from osteoarthritis secondary to avascular necrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, post-tubercular arthritis to dysplastic hips. 9 of these patients had symptomatic bilateral hip involvement and underwent bilateral hip replacement in a single sitting. All patient had a Proxima metaphyseal stem implantation( DePuy, Warsaw with either a large diameter metal on metal or pinnacle articulation. Clinical and radiological evaluation was done at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and then yearly thereafter. Statiscal analysis used- VAS and Harris hip score formed the basis of evaluation Results- These patients were followed up for a mean period of 49 months (Range 36-72 months. The average incision size was 14.38 cm (10-18 cm and blood loss was 269 ml (175-450 ml. There was no peri-operative mortality or serious morbidity in any patients. One patient had an intraoperative lateral cortex crack that required only delayed rehabilitation. Five of the 41 patients (12.1 % had complications with three recovering completely and one requiring revision of femoral stem for aseptic loosening. One patient was lost in follow-up. Harris hip score improved from 52 to 89.3 at last follow-up. Overall 95.1% (39/41 patients had an excellent outcome at last follow-up. Conclusion- We conclude that Proxima metaphyseal stem provided clinically and radiologically stable fixation through snug fit

  16. Near surface geophysical techniques on subsoil contamination: laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; Giampaolo, Valeria; Rizzo, Enzo

    2016-04-01

    Hydrocarbons contamination of soil and groundwater has become a serious environmental problem, because of the increasing number of accidental spills caused by human activities. The starting point of any studies is the reconstruction of the conceptual site model. To make valid predictions about the flow pathways following by hydrocarbons compound is necessary to make a correct reconstruction of their characteristics and the environment in which they move. Near-surface geophysical methods, based on the study of electrical and electromagnetic properties, are proved to be very useful in mapping spatial distribution of the organic contaminants in the subsurface. It is well known, in fact, that electrical properties of the porous media are significantly influenced by hydrocarbons because, when contaminants enter the rock matrix, surface reaction occur between the contaminant and the soil grain surface. The main aim of this work is to investigate the capability of near-surface geophysical methods in mapping and monitoring spatial distribution of contaminants in a controlled setting. A laboratory experiment has been performed at the Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA (Marsico Nuovo, PZ) where a box-sand has been contaminated by diesel. The used contaminant is a LNAPL, added to the sand through a drilled pipe. Contaminant behaviour and its migration paths have been monitored for one year by Electrical Resistivity measurements. In details, a Cross Borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography techniques were used to characterize the contamination dynamics after a controlled hydrocarbon spillage occurring in the vadose zone. The approach with cross-borehole resistivity imaging provide a great advantage compared to more conventional surface electrical resistivity tomography, due to the high resolution at high depth (obviously depending on the depth of the well instrumented for the acquisition). This method has been shown to provide good information on the distribution of

  17. Sampling Participants' Experience in Laboratory Experiments: Complementary challenges for more complete data collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eMcAuliffe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Speelman and McGann's (2013 examination of the uncritical way in which the mean is often used in psychological research raises questions both about the average's reliability and its validity. In the present paper, we argue that interrogating the validity of the mean involves, amongst other things, a better understanding of the person's experiences, the meaning of their actions, at the time that the behaviour of interest is carried out. Recently emerging approaches within Psychology and Cognitive Science have argued strongly that experience should play a more central role in our examination of behavioural data, but the relationship between experience and behaviour remains very poorly understood. We outline some of the history of the science on this fraught relationship, as well as arguing that contemporary methods for studying experience fall into one of two categories. Wide approaches tend to incorporate naturalistic behaviour settings, but sacrifice accuracy and reliability in behavioural measurement. Narrow approaches maintain controlled measurement of behaviour, but involve too specific a sampling of experience, which obscures crucial temporal characteristics. We therefore argue for a novel, mid-range sampling technique, that extends Hurlburt's Descriptive Experience Sampling, and adapts it for the controlled setting of the laboratory. This Controlled Descriptive Experience Sampling may be an appropriate tool to help calibrate both the mean and the meaning of an experimental situation with one another.

  18. Sampling Participants' Experience in Laboratory Experiments: Complementary Challenges for More Complete Data Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Alan; McGann, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Speelman and McGann's (2013) examination of the uncritical way in which the mean is often used in psychological research raises questions both about the average's reliability and its validity. In the present paper, we argue that interrogating the validity of the mean involves, amongst other things, a better understanding of the person's experiences, the meaning of their actions, at the time that the behavior of interest is carried out. Recently emerging approaches within Psychology and Cognitive Science have argued strongly that experience should play a more central role in our examination of behavioral data, but the relationship between experience and behavior remains very poorly understood. We outline some of the history of the science on this fraught relationship, as well as arguing that contemporary methods for studying experience fall into one of two categories. "Wide" approaches tend to incorporate naturalistic behavior settings, but sacrifice accuracy and reliability in behavioral measurement. "Narrow" approaches maintain controlled measurement of behavior, but involve too specific a sampling of experience, which obscures crucial temporal characteristics. We therefore argue for a novel, mid-range sampling technique, that extends Hurlburt's descriptive experience sampling, and adapts it for the controlled setting of the laboratory. This controlled descriptive experience sampling may be an appropriate tool to help calibrate both the mean and the meaning of an experimental situation with one another.

  19. Female college students and cosmetic surgery: an investigation of experiences, attitudes, and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Cash, Thomas F; Magee, Leanne; Williams, Emily Fleming; Thompson, J Kevin; Roehrig, Megan; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey; Agliata, Allison Kanter; Wilfley, Denise E; Amidon, Amy D; Anderson, Drew A; Romanofski, Michelle

    2005-03-01

    This large, multisite study investigated female college students' experiences with and attitudes about cosmetic surgery. The study also assessed the relationship between several aspects of body image, including appearance satisfaction and investment and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, and interest in cosmetic surgery. Thirty (5 percent) of the 559 women surveyed reported that they had undergone cosmetic surgery. Two thirds of respondents reported knowing someone who had received cosmetic surgery, and approximately one third indicated that a family member had undergone surgery. Overall, participants held relatively favorable attitudes about surgery. Regression analysis suggested that a greater psychological investment in physical appearance and greater internalization of mass media images of beauty predicted more favorable attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Fourteen women (2.5 percent) screened positive for body dysmorphic disorder based on the nature and severity of their self-reported body-image concerns. Results of this study provide new information on young women's experiences and attitudes about cosmetic surgery and how these attitudes relate to body image.

  20. Hands-on laboratory Experience in Teaching-Learning Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Walter C.; Burkholder, Timothy

    1990-01-01

    The results of actual student participation, with organized group discussions, which show that laboratory teaching remains the premiere mechanism for teaching and learning organ-system physiology are discussed. Laboratories using a pithed frog, a turtle heart, an anesthetized rabbit, and noninvasive recordings from students during exercise are…

  1. Clinical and laboratory experience of chorionic villous sampling in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-14

    Dec 14, 2013 ... clinical and laboratory procedures, including general characteristics of women, indications and outcome, complications, ... that has to provide for supportive therapies, rehabilitation ... completed until the samples are analyzed in the laboratory ... involves the use of aspiration needles set made up of gauge.

  2. An "in Silico" DNA Cloning Experiment for the Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M.

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory exercise introduces students to concepts in recombinant DNA technology while accommodating a major semester project in protein purification, structure, and function in a biochemistry laboratory for junior- and senior-level undergraduate students. It is also suitable for forensic science courses focused in DNA biology and advanced…

  3. [AESOP 3000--computer-assisted surgery, personal experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasalický, M A; Sváb, J; Fried, M; Melechovský, D

    2002-07-01

    At present the most widely used system of CAS is a vocally controlled manipulator of the laparoscope AESOP 3000 (Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning) which makes it possible to implement some operations without the assistance of another surgeon ("Solo-surgery"). Because of financial costs the so far little used equipment ZEUS or DA VINCI are already "master-slave" systems with several robot arms where the surgeon operates by means of manipulators in the controlling unit without direct contact with the patient. At the First Surgical Clinic, General Faculty Hospital and First Medical Faculty Charles Universitx the authors use the robot system AESOP 3000 since March 2000, in particular in laparoscopic gastric banding on account of obesity, in laparoscopic cholecystectomies, laparoscopic gastroenteroanastomoses and operations in the area if the hiatus. This system made it possible to reduce the number of assisting physicians. E.g. in gastric banding one assistant is sufficient, in laparoscopic cholecystectomy it is possible to operate only with a suture nurse. The application of AESOP is particularly useful in laparoscopic appendectomies and inguinal hernioplasties where it makes possible so-called "solo-surgery" or "one man surgery". No doubt, it is however necessary to have the possibility to call immediately another doctor to the operation theatre in case of necessary conversion of laparoscopy of laparotomy. The authors did not record any case of unwanted movement of the robot arm or another serious technical problem. As compared with a manually guided laparoscope during the use of AESOP the number of unwanted or inadequate shifts of the optical equipment or its angular rotation decreased considerably.

  4. Testicular sparing surgery in small testis masses: A multinstitutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Galosi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of benign testicular tumors is increasing in particular in small lesion incidentally found at scrotal ultrasonography. Primary aim of this study was to perform radical surgery in malignant tumor. Secondary aim was to verify the efficacy of the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway recently adopted in management of small masses with testis sparing surgery in benign lesions. Materials and methods: In this multicenter study, we reviewed all patients with single testis lesion less than 15 mm at ultrasound as main diameter. We applied the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway described by Sbrollini et al. (Arch Ital Urol Androl 2014; 86:397 which comprises: 1 testicular tumor markers, 2 repeated scrotal ultrasound at the tertiary center, 3 surgical exploration with inguinal approach, intraoperative ultrasound, and intraoperative pathological examination. Definitive histology was reviewed by a dedicated uro-pathologist. Results: Twenty-eight patients completed this clinical flowchart. The mean lesion size was 9.3 mm (range 2.5-15. Testicular tumor markers were normal except in a case. Intraoperative ultrasound was necessary in 8/28 cases. We treated 11/28 (39.3% with immediate radical orchiectomy and 17/28 (60.7% with testis-sparing surgery. Definitive pathological results were: malignant tumor in 6 cases (seminoma, benign tumor in 10 cases (5 Leydig tumors, 2 Sertoli tumors, 1 epidermoid cyst, 1 adenomatoid tumor, 1 angiofibroma, benign disease in 11 (8 inflammation with haemorragic infiltration, 2 tubular atrophy, 1 fibrosis, and normal parenchyma in 1 case. We observed a good concordance between frozen section examination and definitive histology. Any malignant tumor was treated conservatively. Any delayed orchiectomy was necessary based on definitive histology. Conclusions: The incidence of benign lesions in 60% of small testis lesions with normal tumor markers makes orchiectomy an overtreatment. Testicular sparing surgery of single

  5. Pygopagus Conjoined Twins for Separation Surgery: an Interesting Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanwatsarkar Sadhana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Conjoined twins are rarely encountered in the clinical practice of the anaesthetist and the issues that have to be considered in their anaesthetic management are unique and fascinating. Pygopagus are one of the rare type of conjoined twins with only a handful of cases reported in the literature. We present the case of one and half month old male pygopagus conjoined twins who were joined together dorsally in lower lumbar and sacral region and shared a single thecal sac. They were brought to our hospital for separation surgery.

  6. Comparison of laboratory and immediate diagnosis of coagulation for patients under oral anticoagulation therapy before dental surgery

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental surgery can be carried out on patients under oral anticoagulation therapy by using haemostyptic measures. The aim of the study was a comparative analysis of coagulation by laboratory methods and immediate patient diagnosis on the day of the planned procedure. Methods On the planned day of treatment, diagnoses were carried out on 298 patients for Prothrombin Time (PT), the International Normalised Ratio (INR), and Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT). The decision to pr...

  7. Fluorescence quantum yield measurements of fluorescent proteins: a laboratory experiment for a biochemistry or molecular biophysics laboratory course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kathryn P; Dillon, Rebecca; Knowles, Michelle K

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins are commonly used in cell biology to assess where proteins are within a cell as a function of time and provide insight into intracellular protein function. However, the usefulness of a fluorescent protein depends directly on the quantum yield. The quantum yield relates the efficiency at which a fluorescent molecule converts absorbed photons into emitted photons and it is necessary to know for assessing what fluorescent protein is the most appropriate for a particular application. In this work, we have designed an upper-level, biochemistry laboratory experiment where students measure the fluorescence quantum yields of fluorescent proteins relative to a standard organic dye. Four fluorescent protein variants, enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), mCitrine, and mCherry, were used, however the methods described are useful for the characterization of any fluorescent protein or could be expanded to fluorescent quantum yield measurements of organic dye molecules. The laboratory is designed as a guided inquiry project and takes two, 4 hr laboratory periods. During the first day students design the experiment by selecting the excitation wavelength, choosing the standard, and determining the concentration needed for the quantum yield experiment that takes place in the second laboratory period. Overall, this laboratory provides students with a guided inquiry learning experience and introduces concepts of fluorescence biophysics into a biochemistry laboratory curriculum.

  8. Global general pediatric surgery partnership: The UCLA-Mozambique experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Vanda; Martins, Deborah B; Karan, Abraar; Johnson, Brittni; Shekherdimian, Shant; Miller, Lee T; Taela, Atanasio; DeUgarte, Daniel A

    2017-09-01

    There has been increasing recognition of the disparities in surgical care throughout the world. Increasingly, efforts are being made to improve local infrastructure and training of surgeons in low-income settings. The purpose of this study was to review the first 5-years of a global academic pediatric general surgery partnership between UCLA and the Eduardo Mondlane University in Maputo, Mozambique. A mixed-methods approach was utilized to perform an ongoing needs assessment. A retrospective review of admission and operative logbooks was performed. Partnership activities were summarized. The needs assessment identified several challenges including limited operative time, personnel, equipment, and resources. Review of logbooks identified a high frequency of burn admissions and colorectal procedures. Partnership activities focused on providing educational resources, on-site proctoring, training opportunities, and research collaboration. This study highlights the spectrum of disease and operative case volume of a referral center for general pediatric surgery in sub-Saharan Africa, and it provides a context for academic partnership activities to facilitate training and improve the quality of pediatric general surgical care in limited-resource settings. Level IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Epilepsy surgery in Belgium, the experience in Gent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, P; Vandekerckhove, T; Achten, E; Thiery, E; Goossens, L; Vonck, K; D'Have, M; Van Hoey, G; Vanrumste, B; Legros, B; Defreyne, L; De Reuck, J

    1999-12-01

    hippocampectomy was the most commonly performed procedure (n = 42). In 13 patients, complete lesionectomies were performed for epileptogenic structural lesions in and outside the temporal lobe. In 2 patients, only partial lesionectomies were possible; in 5 patients, only biopsies in combination with partial lesionectomies could be performed. Anterior 2/3 callosotomy was performed in 4 patients and hemispherectomy was performed in 2 patients. Postsurgical seizure control, after average follow-up of 50 months (range: 12-98 months), was excellent in 49 patients who became seizure-free. In these patients, antiepileptic therapy was tapered 2 years after surgery. Patients in whom only biopsies or partial lesionectomies were performed have poor seizure control. Epilepsy surgery is a rewarding therapeutic alternative for patients with medically refractory epilepsy. Comprehensive presurgical evaluation and epilepsy surgery provide excellent neurological, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and imaging research opportunities.

  10. Kinetic Analysis of Metal Ions: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on the adaptation of a kinetic method of analysis of metal ions for use in an undergraduate teaching laboratory. Background information, procedures used, and analysis of typical results obtained are provided. (JN)

  11. Touring the Tomato: A Suite of Chemistry Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sayantani; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Medina, Nancy; Stark, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    An eight-session interdisciplinary laboratory curriculum has been designed using a suite of analytical chemistry techniques to study biomaterials derived from an inexpensive source such as the tomato fruit. A logical

  12. Measurement and Its Reliability: An Introductory Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultney, Sherman K.

    1971-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity about measurement and its reliability for general education students. The measurement focuses on automobile speeds and allows for estimates of errors, experimental design, and relativity in addition to kinematical concepts. (DS)

  13. Strengthening Laboratory Management Towards Accreditation: The Lesotho experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mothabeng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Lesotho Ministry of Health and Social Welfare’s (MOHSW 5-year strategic plan, as well as their national laboratory policy and yearly operational plans, directly addresses issues of accreditation, indicating their commitment to fulfilling their mandate. As such, the MOHSW adopted the World Health Organization Regional Headquarters for Africa’s Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Toward Accreditation (WHO–AFRO–SLIPTA process and subsequently rolled out the Strengthening Laboratory Management Towards Accreditation (SLMTA programme across the whole country, becoming the first African country to do so. Methods: SLMTA in Lesotho was implemented in two cohorts. Twelve and nineteen laboratory supervisors and quality officers were enrolled in Cohort 1 and Cohort 2, respectively. These 31 participants represented 18 of the 19 laboratories nationwide. For the purposes of this programme, the Queen Elizabeth II (QE II Central Laboratory had its seven sections of haematology, blood bank, cytology, blood transfusion, microbiology, tuberculosis laboratory and chemistry assessed as separate sections. Performance was tracked using the WHO–AFRO-SLIPTA checklist, with assessments carried out at baseline and at the end of SLMTA. Two methods were used to implement SLMTA: the traditional ‘three workshops’ approach and twinning SLMTA with mentorship. The latter, with intensive follow-up visits, was concluded in 9 months and the former in 11 months. A standard data collection tool was used for site visits.Results: Of the 31 participants across both cohorts, 25 (81% graduated (9 from Cohort 1 and 16 from Cohort 2. At baseline, all but one laboratory attained a rating of zero stars, with the exception attaining one star. At the final assessment, 7 of the 25 laboratories examined at baseline were still at a rating of zero stars, whilst 8 attained one star, 5 attained two stars and 4 attained three stars. None scored above three stars

  14. The ACGME case log: general surgery resident experience in pediatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Kenneth W; Drake, F Thurston; Aarabi, Shahram; Waldhausen, John H

    2013-08-01

    General surgery (GS) residents in ACGME programs log cases performed during their residency. We reviewed designated pediatric surgery (PS) cases to assess for changes in performed cases over time. The ACGME case logs for graduating GS residents were reviewed from academic year (AY) 1989-1990 to 2010-2011 for designated pediatric cases. Overall and designated PS cases were analyzed. Data were combined into five blocks: Period I (AY1989-90 to AY1993-94), Period II (AY1994-95 to AY1998-99), Period III (AY1999-00 to AY2002-03), Period IV (AY2003-04 to AY2006-07), and Period V (AY2007-08 to AY2010-11). Periods IV and V were delineated by implementation of duty hour restrictions. Student t-tests compared averages among the time periods with significance at P pediatric cases declined for each period from an average of 47.7 in Period I to 33.8 in Period V. These changes are due to a decline in hernia repairs, which account for half of cases. All other cases contributed only minimally to the pediatric cases. The only laparoscopic cases in the database were anti-reflux procedures, which increased over time. GS residents perform a diminishing number of designated PS cases. This decline occurred before the onset of work-hour restrictions. These changes have implications on the capabilities of the current graduating workforce. However, the case log does not reflect all cases trainees may be exposed to, so revision of this list is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The ACGME case log: General surgery resident experience in pediatric surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Kenneth W.; Drake, F. Thurston; Aarabi, Shahram; Waldhausen, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Background General surgery (GS) residents in ACGME programs log cases performed during their residency. We reviewed designated pediatric surgery (PS) cases to assess for changes in performed cases over time. Methods The ACGME case logs for graduating GS residents were reviewed from academic year (AY) 1989–1990 to 2010–2011 for designated pediatric cases. Overall and designated PS cases were analyzed. Data were combined into five blocks: Period I (AY1989–90 to AY1993–94), Period II (AY1994–95 to AY1998–99), Period III (AY1999–00 to AY2002–03), Period IV (AY2003–04 to AY2006–07), and Period V (AY2007–08 to AY2010–11). Periods IV and V were delineated by implementation of duty hour restrictions. Student t-tests compared averages among the time periods with significance at P < .05. Results Overall GS case load remained relatively stable. Of total cases, PS cases accounted for 5.4% in Period I and 3.7% in Period V. Designated pediatric cases declined for each period from an average of 47.7 in Period I to 33.8 in Period V. These changes are due to a decline in hernia repairs, which account for half of cases. All other cases contributed only minimally to the pediatric cases. The only laparoscopic cases in the database were anti-reflux procedures, which increased over time. Conclusions GS residents perform a diminishing number of designated PS cases. This decline occurred before the onset of work-hour restrictions. These changes have implications on the capabilities of the current graduating workforce. However, the case log does not reflect all cases trainees may be exposed to, so revision of this list is recommended. PMID:23932601

  16. INCLUSION OF GEOGRAPHY IN INTERNSHIP LABORATORIES: an experience in process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Juscélia de Oliveira Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper is about internship and teaching procedures used in partnership with a university, elementary school, and a high school, which use geography laboratories as a space for activities and practices for interns, students, teachers, and professors. Reflecting theory-practice-theory during the internship was fundamental and important for the interns during that stage. Planning educational activities, practical classes, dialogues between teachers from different areas all had positive responses in this experience. These actions have shown a way to narrow a specific knowledge with the pedagogical knowledge during the development of the course. RESUMO: O trabalho discute Estágio Supervisionado e os procedimentos didáticos adotados na parceria entre universidade e escola básica, onde o uso dos laboratórios de Geografia, pelos estagiários e alunos do ensino fundamental e médio, representa mais uma possibilidade para o exercício da docência, durante as atividades do estágio. A reflexão teoria-prática-teoria na vivência do estágio constituiu fundamento importante e presente nas atividades dos estagiários. Planejamento de atividades educativas, aulas práticas, diálogos entre os professores de áreas específicas e da área pedagógica, trabalho coletivo entre alunos e professores e o acesso a outros espaços formadores, por alunos e professores da escola básica, constituíram resultado positivo e a sinalização das possibilidades de efetivação do Estágio Supervisionado, a partir da lógica da flexibilidade na formação acadêmica. E, ainda, um caminho para estreitar a relação entre os conhecimentos específicos e os pedagógicos durante a formação do profissional professor.

  17. Transanal surgery for obstructed defecation syndrome: Literature review and a single-center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Cheng; Wan, Song-Lin; Yaseen, SM; Ren, Xiang-Hai; Tian, Cui-Ping; Ding, Zhao; Zheng, Ken-Yan; Wu, Yun-Hua; Jiang, Cong-Qing; Qian, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) is a functional disorder commonly encountered by colorectal surgeons and gastroenterologists, and greatly affects the quality of life of patients from both societal and psychological aspects. The underlying anatomical and pathophysiological changes of ODS are complex. However, intra-rectal intussusception and rectocele are frequently found in patients with ODS and both are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of ODS. With the development of evaluation methods in anorectal physiology laboratories and radiology studies, a great variety of new operative procedures, especially transanal procedures, have been invented to treat ODS. However, no procedure has been proved to be superior to others at present. Each operation has its own merits and defects. Thus, choosing appropriate transanal surgical procedures for the treatment of ODS remains a challenge for all surgeons. This review provides an introduction of the current problems and options for treatment of ODS and a detailed summary of the essential assessments needed for patient evaluation before carrying out transanal surgery. Besides, an overview of the benefits and problems of current transanal surgical procedures for treatment of ODS is summarized in this review. A report of clinical experience of some transanal surgical techniques used in the authors’ center is also presented. PMID:27672293

  18. Causes and outcomes of revisional bariatric surgery: initial experience at a single center

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bariatric surgery has become more prevalent owing to the worldwide obesity epidemic. With the growing number of bariatric procedures performed annually, the requirement for revisional and secondary operations is increasing accordingly. This study aimed to evaluate the initial experience of revisional bariatric surgery at a single specialized center. Methods A retrospective review of the prospectively established database identified all patients who underwent revisional bariatric surge...

  19. Development and Use of Online Prelaboratory Activities in Organic Chemistry to Improve Students' Laboratory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, Jennifer L.; Al Mughalaq, Mohammad; Butler, Hailee

    2017-01-01

    Online prelaboratory videos and quizzes were prepared for all experiments in CHEM 231, Organic Chemistry I Laboratory. It was anticipated that watching the videos would help students be better prepared for the laboratory, decrease their anxiety surrounding the laboratory, and increase their understanding of the theories and concepts presented.…

  20. [Brief discussion on experiences from laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan-Hong; Guan, Ya-Yi; Cao, Jian-Ping; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Yan-Juan; Zhang, Min-Qi; Zhou, Xiao-Jun

    2013-12-01

    The laboratory certification and accreditation is the development trend of domestic and international laboratories. The National Institute for Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention passed through the site assessment in September 2012 successfully, 26 items in 8 fields declared were all adopted. This article summarizes some work experiences during carrying out the laboratory certification and accreditation.

  1. Perioperative Nurses' Work Experience With Robotic Surgery: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Jung; De Gagne, Jennie C; Kang, Hee Sun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the work experience of perioperative nurses involved in robotic surgery. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Participants were 15 nurses who had been on a robotic surgery team at one of five major university hospitals in Seoul, South Korea. Participants were one male and 14 female nurses (mean age, 31.33 [SD, 4.19] years; range, 25-41 years). Their experience as robotic surgery nurses ranged from 8 months to 6 years. Nurses' experiences with robotic surgery were categorized within four main themes: (1) constant checking on patients' safety and the robot's functions; (2) unexpected robotic machine errors or malfunctions; (3) feelings of burden in a robotic surgical team; and (4) need and desire for more information and education. This study showed that there are common concerns about patient safety and the possibility of emergencies related to robot system failure among nurses. Offering more support for nurses involved in robotic surgery should be a priority to empower them to play an extended role in robotic surgery.

  2. Designing Online Resources in Preparation for Authentic Laboratory Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Rachel; Parisky, Alex; Leong, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Professional development for science teachers can be benefited through active learning in science laboratories. However, how online training materials can be used to complement traditional laboratory training is less understood. This paper explores the design of online training modules to teach molecular biology and user perception of those modules that were part of an intensive molecular biology "boot camp" targeting high school biology teachers in the State of Hawaii. The John A. Burns School of Medicine at the University of Hawaii had an opportunity to design and develop professional development that prepares science teachers with an introduction of skills, techniques, and applications for their students to conduct medical research in a laboratory setting. A group of 29 experienced teachers shared their opinions of the online materials and reported on how they used the online materials in their learning process or teaching.

  3. Progress of Jinping Underground laboratory for Nuclear Astrophysics experiment JUNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping

    2015-08-01

    Direct measurement of the cross sections for the key nuclear reactions in hydrostatic stellar evolution within Gamow window, which makes use of low background at deep underground laboratory, is crucial to solve key scientific questions in nuclear astrophysics. JUNA project aims at direct measurement of (α,γ), (α,n) reactions in hydrostatic helium burning and (p, γ), (p, α) reactions in hydrostatic hydrogen burning based on Jinping deep underground laboratory in China. The progress of experimental techniques, which include the accelerator system with high stability and high intensity, the detector system, and the shielding material with low background, will be presented.

  4. Armor breakup and reformation in a degradational laboratory experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orrú, Clara; Blom, Astrid; Uijttewaal, Wim S. J

    2016-01-01

    ... (trimodal reach) and a downstream sand reach, and the experiment was conducted under conditions without sediment supply. In the initial stage of the experiment an armor formed over the trimodal r...

  5. Restructuring a General Microbiology Laboratory into an Investigative Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutch, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an investigative laboratory sequence based upon the isolation and characterization of soil bacteria to aid microbiology teachers in providing students with activities that expose them to basic techniques of microbiology as well as demonstrates the scientific process and the experimental analysis of microorganisms. (ZWH)

  6. Raising Environmental Awareness through Applied Biochemistry Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Ashraf, S.

    2013-01-01

    Our environment is under constant pressure and threat from various sources of pollution. Science students, in particular chemistry students, must not only be made aware of these issues, but also be taught that chemistry (and science) can provide solutions to such real-life issues. To this end, a newly developed biochemistry laboratory experiment…

  7. Laboratory Experiences in an Introduction to Natural Science Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Sister Marquita

    1984-01-01

    Describes a two-semester course designed to meet the needs of future elementary teachers, home economists, and occupational therapists. Laboratory work includes homemade calorimeters, inclined planes, and computing. Content areas of the course include measurement, physics, chemistry, astronomy, biology, geology, and meteorology. (JN)

  8. A Virtual Laboratory on Natural Computing: A Learning Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Leandro Nunes; Muñoz, Yupanqui Julho; de Freitas, Leandro Rubim; El-Hani, Charbel Niño

    2008-01-01

    Natural computing is a terminology used to describe computational algorithms developed by taking inspiration from information processing mechanisms in nature, methods to synthesize natural phenomena in computers, and novel computational approaches based on natural materials. The virtual laboratory on natural computing (LVCoN) is a Web environment…

  9. Raising Environmental Awareness through Applied Biochemistry Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Ashraf, S.

    2013-01-01

    Our environment is under constant pressure and threat from various sources of pollution. Science students, in particular chemistry students, must not only be made aware of these issues, but also be taught that chemistry (and science) can provide solutions to such real-life issues. To this end, a newly developed biochemistry laboratory experiment…

  10. Integrating Interdisciplinary Research-Based Experiences in Biotechnology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rupa S.; Wales, Melinda E.

    2012-01-01

    The increasingly interdisciplinary nature of today's scientific research is leading to the transformation of undergraduate education. In addressing these needs, the University of Houston's College of Technology has developed a new interdisciplinary research-based biotechnology laboratory curriculum. Using the pesticide degrading bacterium,…

  11. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  12. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  13. Redefining Authentic Research Experiences in Introductory Biology Laboratories and Barriers to Their Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spell, Rachelle M.; Guinan, Judith A.; Miller, Kristen R.; Beck, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating authentic research experiences in introductory biology laboratory classes would greatly expand the number of students exposed to the excitement of discovery and the rigor of the scientific process. However, the essential components of an authentic research experience and the barriers to their implementation in laboratory classes are…

  14. Green Fluorescent Protein-Focused Bioinformatics Laboratory Experiment Suitable for Undergraduates in Biochemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Laura

    2017-01-01

    An introductory bioinformatics laboratory experiment focused on protein analysis has been developed that is suitable for undergraduate students in introductory biochemistry courses. The laboratory experiment is designed to be potentially used as a "stand-alone" activity in which students are introduced to basic bioinformatics tools and…

  15. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Cations in Water Samples: An Experiment for the Introductory Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursell, Christopher J.; Chandler, Bert; Bushey, Michelle M.

    2004-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis is gradually working its way into the undergraduate laboratory curriculum. Typically, experiments utilizing this newer technology have been introduced into analytical or instrumental courses. The authors of this article have introduced an experiment into the introductory laboratory that utilizes capillary electrophoresis…

  16. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment in Bioinorganic Chemistry: Ligation States of Myoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Although there are numerous inorganic model systems that are readily presented as undergraduate laboratory experiments in bioinorganic chemistry, there are few examples that explore the inorganic chemistry of actual biological molecules. We present a laboratory experiment using the oxygen-binding protein myoglobin that can be easily incorporated…

  17. Simulated and Virtual Science Laboratory Experiments: Improving Critical Thinking and Higher-Order Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nicole A.

    2013-01-01

    Virtual laboratory experiments using interactive computer simulations are not being employed as viable alternatives to laboratory science curriculum at extensive enough rates within higher education. Rote traditional lab experiments are currently the norm and are not addressing inquiry, Critical Thinking, and cognition throughout the laboratory…

  18. Simulated and Virtual Science Laboratory Experiments: Improving Critical Thinking and Higher-Order Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nicole A.

    2013-01-01

    Virtual laboratory experiments using interactive computer simulations are not being employed as viable alternatives to laboratory science curriculum at extensive enough rates within higher education. Rote traditional lab experiments are currently the norm and are not addressing inquiry, Critical Thinking, and cognition throughout the laboratory…

  19. A Laboratory Experiment on EM Backscatter from Farley-Buneman and Gradient Drift Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alport, M. J.; D'Angelo, N.; Pécseli, Hans

    1981-01-01

    Results are reported of a laboratory experiment on Bragg backscatter of 3-cm microwaves by turbulent waves driven by the Farley-Buneman and gradient drift instabilities. The present work is the third in a series of laboratory experiments performed to test, under controlled conditions, prevalent...... ideas on EM scattering by equatorial and high-latitude ionospheric waves and irregularities....

  20. Correlation between experience targets and competence for general surgery certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Siqueira, J R; Gough, M J

    2016-06-01

    Working time restrictions and public expectation have stimulated competence-based assessment in surgery. Nevertheless, certification of completion of training, and board accreditation across the developed world, still rely on experiential models based on indicative numbers as markers of operative competence. This study assessed the correlation between trainer assessment of competence and completion of indicative numbers. Analysis of UK Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme portfolios of general surgical trainees in a single Local Education and Training Board allowed comparison of Procedure Based Assessment (PBA) scores (level of competence) for cholecystectomy, segmental colectomy and Hartmann's procedure with operative numbers. Among 121 trainees, there was a positive correlation between operative numbers and 1058 PBA scores for cholecystectomy (rs  = 0·532, P < 0·001), segmental colectomy (rs  = 0·552, P < 0·001) and Hartmann's procedure (rs  = 0·663, P < 0·001). Of those who completed the indicative numbers defined for each procedure to achieve certification of completion of training, only eight of 30 performing cholecystectomy, eight of 52 undertaking segmental colectomy and seven of 36 performing Hartmann's procedure had achieved three PBAs at the level considered to represent independent operating (level 4). More than half of all assessments (259 of 428, 60·5 per cent; 85 of 132 cholecystectomy, 140 of 217 colectomy and 34 of 79 Hartmann's) performed after trainees had completed their indicative numbers were scored below level 4. A minimum number of index procedures did not reflect competence in a significant proportion of trainees. A more reliable tool is required for certification. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Children subjected to cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease. Part 2 - parental emotional experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menahem, Samuel; Poulakis, Zeffie; Prior, Margot

    2008-08-01

    Parents experience considerable distress when their children are subjected to cardiac surgery. This study investigated their psychological and emotional experiences. As part of a prospective study reviewing the emotional and psychological outcomes of children aged 2-12 years subjected to cardiac surgery, that age group being chosen to allow for objective testing following infancy and before adolescence, their parents were assessed prior to and 12-50 months following the surgery. The measures reviewed their mental health, locus of control, family functioning and social support. There were 39 children. Most of the parental information was obtained from the mothers, who reported increased anxiety, and a tendency to attribute events to luck and/or chance greater than published norms, irrespective of the cardiac anomaly, whether the surgery was 'curative', or if further surgery was required. At follow-up, their ratings approximated to norms, except for a continued perception that life events were a function of fate and beyond one's control. The results confirmed that a substantial increase in the emotional distress of mothers at the time of surgery essentially resolved by 12 months or later. In contrast, they still seemed not to feel in 'control' when reviewed on follow-up.

  2. Commencing open heart surgery in resource limited countries: lessons from the LASUTH experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oludara, Mobolaji Adewale; Nwiloh, Jonathan; Fabamwo, Adetokunbo; Adebola, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of commencing cardiac surgery in developing countries of Africa is onerous. We present a model from the experience of carrying out open cardiac surgical procedures at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH) with three separate missions between 2004 and 2006. This paper details the challenges of starting open heart surgery in a resource limited environment. We propose that owing to the huge financial investment needed, government sponsorship as well as collaboration with overseas based and local non-governmental agencies may be required to jump start the process of open cardiac surgery. Local staff training opportunities are also provided by such missions and this can further be complemented by overseas exposure in areas of need for capacity building. In our centre, the initial investment has led to the recruitment of additional trained staff including 2 cardiothoracic surgeons. Further benefits of training of 2 perfusionists and a nurse has improved capacity in cardiac surgery service at our center.

  3. From laboratory plasma experiments to space plasma experiments with `CubeSat' nano-satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Christine

    2016-09-01

    `CubeSat' nano-satellites provide low-cost access to space. SP3 laboratory's involvement in the European Union `QB50' `CubeSat' project [www.qb50.eu] which will launch into space 50 `CubeSats' from 27 Countries to study the ionosphere and the lower thermosphere will be presented. The Chi Kung laboratory plasma experiment and the Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype can be tailored to investigate expanding magnetized plasma physics relevant to space physics (solar corona, Earth's aurora, adiabatic expansion and polytropic studies). Chi Kung is also used as a plasma wind tunnel for ground-based calibration of the University College London QB50 Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer. Space qualification of the three Australian QB50 `CubeSats' (June 2016) is carried out in the WOMBAT XL space simulation chamber. The QB50 satellites have attitude control but altitude control is not a requirement. SP3 is developing end-to-end miniaturised radiofrequency plasma propulsion systems (such as the Pocket Rocket and the MiniHel thrusters with power and propellant sub-systems) for future `CubeSat' missions.

  4. A Thin Layer Chromatography Laboratory Experiment of Medical Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Loretta; Desai, Ankur; Sharma, Ajit

    2006-01-01

    A thin layer chromatography experiment of medical importance is described. The experiment involves extraction of lipids from simulated amniotic fluid samples followed by separation, detection, and scanning of the lecithin and sphingomyelin bands on TLC plates. The lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio is calculated. The clinical significance of this…

  5. A "Greenhouse Gas" Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Elaine; Paul, Melissa; Como, Charles; Barat, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This experiment and analysis offer an effective experience in greenhouse gas reduction. Ammoniated water is flowed counter-current to a simulated flue gas of air and CO2 in a packed column. The gaseous CO2 concentrations are measured with an on-line, non- dispersive, infrared analyzer. Column operating parameters include total gas flux, dissolved…

  6. A Thin Layer Chromatography Laboratory Experiment of Medical Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Loretta; Desai, Ankur; Sharma, Ajit

    2006-01-01

    A thin layer chromatography experiment of medical importance is described. The experiment involves extraction of lipids from simulated amniotic fluid samples followed by separation, detection, and scanning of the lecithin and sphingomyelin bands on TLC plates. The lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio is calculated. The clinical significance of this…

  7. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Modules for Probing Gold Nanoparticle Interfacial Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayake, Akila G.; Gunatilake, Sameera R.; Ameer, Fathima S.; Gadogbe, Manuel; Smith, Laura; Mlsna, Deb; Zhang, Dongmao

    2015-01-01

    Three gold-nanoparticle (AuNP) undergraduate experiment modules that are focused on nanoparticles interfacial phenomena have been developed. Modules 1 and 2 explore the synthesis and characterization of AuNPs of different sizes but with the same total gold mass. These experiments enable students to determine how particle size affects the AuNP…

  8. Microcomputer-Based Digital Signal Processing Laboratory Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinari, Jr., Rocco; Rao, S. Sathyanarayan

    1985-01-01

    Describes a system (Apple II microcomputer interfaced to flexible, custom-designed digital hardware) which can provide: (1) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) computation on real-time data with a video display of spectrum; (2) frequency synthesis experiments using the inverse FFT; and (3) real-time digital filtering experiments. (JN)

  9. A Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Richard P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for experiments that illustrate the nature of cyclic voltammetry and its application in the characterization of organic electrode processes. The experiments also demonstrate the concepts of electrochemical reversibility and diffusion-controlled mass transfer. (JN)

  10. A Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Richard P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for experiments that illustrate the nature of cyclic voltammetry and its application in the characterization of organic electrode processes. The experiments also demonstrate the concepts of electrochemical reversibility and diffusion-controlled mass transfer. (JN)

  11. Preliminary experience with laparoscopic surgery in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adisa, A O; Arowolo, O A; Salako, A A; Lawal, O O

    2009-12-01

    This study presents a pioneer experience with laparoscopic operations in a General Surgical unit of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Consecutive patients who had laparoscopic operations from April through December 2008 were prospectively studied. Following clinical diagnosis, initial diagnostic laparoscopy was undertaken in all patients, followed by therapeutic open or laparoscopic procedures. All procedures were done under general anaesthesia. Duration of operation and outcome including complications were recorded. In all, there were 12 patients (8 males, 4 females), aged 15 to 50 years. Eight patients had clinical diagnoses of acute appendicitis, one each had undetermined right lower abdominal pain suspected ectopic gestation, adhesive intestinal obstruction and metastatic liver disease. The first 4 patients with inflammed appendix confirmed at laparoscopy had open appendicectomy. Of the next cohort of 5 patients, laparoscopic appendicectomy was completed in four but converted to open procedure in one. Normal findings were noted in the lady with suspected ectopic gestation. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis was done for adhesive intestinal obstruction while a laparoscopic liver biopsy was done for the patient with metastatic liver disease. Operative time ranged from 55-105 minutes with marked reduction in operation time as confidence and experience grew. No intraoperative complication was observed but one patient had superficial port site infection postoperatively. We conclude that with good patient selection and some improvisation, laparoscopic general surgical operations are feasible with acceptable outcome even in a poor resource setting.

  12. A teaching intervention for reading laboratory experiments in college-level introductory chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Maria Kristine

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects that a pre-laboratory guide, conceptualized as a "scientific story grammar," has on college chemistry students' learning when they read an introductory chemistry laboratory manual and perform the experiments in the chemistry laboratory. The participants (N = 56) were students enrolled in four existing general chemistry laboratory sections taught by two instructors at a women's liberal arts college. The pre-laboratory guide consisted of eight questions about the experiment, including the purpose, chemical species, variables, chemical method, procedure, and hypothesis. The effects of the intervention were compared with those of the traditional pre-laboratory assignment for the eight chemistry experiments. Measures included quizzes, tests, chemistry achievement test, science process skills test, laboratory reports, laboratory average, and semester grade. The covariates were mathematical aptitude and prior knowledge of chemistry and science processes, on which the groups differed significantly. The study captured students' perceptions of their experience in general chemistry through a survey and interviews with eight students. The only significant differences in the treatment group's performance were in some subscores on lecture items and laboratory items on the quizzes. An apparent induction period was noted, in that significant measures occurred in mid-semester. Voluntary study with the pre-laboratory guide by control students precluded significant differences on measures given later in the semester. The groups' responses to the survey were similar. Significant instructor effects on three survey items were corroborated by the interviews. The researcher's students were more positive about their pre-laboratory tasks, enjoyed the laboratory sessions more, and were more confident about doing chemistry experiments than the laboratory instructor's groups due to differences in scaffolding by the instructors.

  13. Laboratory experiments duplicate conditions in the Earth’s crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peselnick, L.; Dieterich, J.H.; Stewart, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental device that simulates conditions in the Earth's crust at depths of up to 30 kilometers has been constructed by geophysicists working at the U.S Geological Survey laboratories in Menlo Park, California. A high pressure "bomb" is being used to experimentally measure the velocity of seismic waves in different types of rock at various confining pressures and temperatures. The principal purpose of these measurements is to determine the elastic and non-elastic properties of rocks and minerals under conditions of high-pressure such as exist deep in the Earth's crust. 

  14. 4,5-Diphenyl-1-methylimidazole: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Paul T.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures used are provided for the synthesis of 4,5-diphenyl-methylimidazole. This experiment on the chemistry of heterocycles is ideally suited for beginning undergraduate organic chemistry students. (JN)

  15. Arterial pseudoaneurysms following hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ielpo, Benedetto; Caruso, Riccardo; Prestera, Antonio; De Luca, Giuseppe Massimiano; Duran, Hipolito; Diaz, Eduardo; Fabra, Isabel; Olivares, Sergio; Quijano, Yolanda; Vicente, Emilio

    2015-01-31

    Arterial pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon lethal complication following hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery. Aim of this study is to present and discuss the experience of a high volume oncological center. Since 2007 all major surgeries performed at Sanchinarro Oncological Center have been included in a prospective database looking for postoperative arterial pseudonaurysm. Until June 2014, among 559 hepato-pancreato-biliary procedures, a total of 14 arterial pseudoaneurysms have been identified (2.5%). Sentinel bleeding was in 57% of cases. Failed arterial embolization occurred in 2 cases. Overall mortality rate was 28.5%. We also identified 3 asymptomatic pseudoaneurysms, one of them managed without embolization, developing a sudden bleeding and died after surgery. According to our experience, pseudoaneurysm incidence is higher than reported in current literature and it can be successfully managed through arterial embolization. Furthermore, we found 3 asymptomatic pseudoaneurysms, whose management is still controversial.

  16. Is expertise in pediatric surgery necessary to perform laparoscopic splenectomy in children? An experience from a department of general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaglio, Marcello; Romano, Fabrizio; Garancini, Mattia; Degrate, Luca; Luperto, Margherita; Uggeri, Fabio; Scotti, Mauro; Uggeri, Franco

    2012-06-01

    Splenectomy is frequently required in children for various hematologic pathologic findings. Because of progress in minimally invasive techniques, laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) has become feasible. The objective of this report is to present a monocentric experience and to evaluate the efficacy of and complications observed after laparoscopic splenic procedures in a department of general surgery. 57 consecutive LSs have been performed in a pediatric population between January 2000 and October 2010. There were 33 females and 24 males with a median age of 12 years (range 4-17). Indications were: hereditary spherocytosis 38 cases, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura 10, sickle cell disease (SCD) 6, thrombocytopenic thrombotic purpura 2 and non-hodgkin lymphoma 1 case. Patients were operated on using right semilateral position, employing Atlas Ligasure vessel sealing system in 49 cases (86%) and Harmonic Scalpel + EndoGIA in 8. In 24 patients (42.1%), a cholecystectomy was associated. Two patients required conversion to open splenectomy (3.5%). In three cases, a minilaparotomy was performed for spleen removal (5.2%). Accessory spleens were identified in three patients (5.2%). Complications (8.8%) included bleeding (two), abdominal collection (one) and pleural effusion (two). There was no mortality. Average operative time was 128 min (range 80-220). Average length of stay was 3 days (range 2-7). Mean blood loss was 80 ml (range 30-500) with a transfusion rate of 1.7% (one patient). Laparoscopic spleen surgery is safe, reliable and effective in the pediatric population with hematologic disorders and is associated with minimal morbidity, zero mortality, and a short length of stay. Ligasure vessel sealing system shortened operative time and blood loss. On the basis of the results, we consider laparoscopic approach the gold standard for the treatment of these patients even in a department of general surgery.

  17. Using Castration Surgery in Male Rats to Demonstrate the Physiological Effects of Testosterone on Seminal Vesicle Anatomy in an Undergraduate Laboratory Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Rachelle M.; Conant, Stephanie B.; Grabowski, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Rats can be used as a model organism to teach physiological concepts in a laboratory setting. This article describes a two-part laboratory that introduces students to hypothesis testing, experimental design, the appropriate use of controls and surgical techniques. Students perform both a castration and sham-control surgery on male rats and test…

  18. Use of image guidance in endoscopic endonasal surgeries: a 5-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, M; Jalessi, M; Sharifi, G; Khamesi, S; Bahrami, E; Hammami, M R; Behzadi, A H

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) is standard practice in sinonasal disease and is becoming more accepted in the performance of anterior skull base resections. We report our experience with image-guided surgery (IGS) in difficult cases of paranasal sinus (PNS) and skull base pathologies and discuss advantages and disadvantages of this technique. A retrospective chart review was performed for the period 2004-2009. Degree of PNS involvement, indication for IGS, incidence of major complications, need for revision surgery, and technical data regarding the system were gathered. Sixty-two of 86 patients were followed for at least one year and therefore included in the analysis. Indications for IGS were mostly revision surgery for polyposis (42%), chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) of frontal and/or sphenoid sinuses (14.5%), skull base tumours (30.6%), and foreign body removal (4.8%). Revision rates after IGS in polyposis, CRS, and benign skull base tumours were 7.7%, 11.11%, and 7.1%, respectively. IGS is of particular benefit in the management of sinonasal polyposis, benign skull base tumours, palliative surgery, and foreign body removal. IGS may avoid trauma to the orbit and anterior skull base and reduces the rate of revision surgeries rendering more meticulous and complete operations possible. We also think it could be helpful for foreign body removal.

  19. Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations on magnetic instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Stefani, F; Kasprzyk, Ch; Paredes, A; Ruediger, G; Seilmayer, M

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields of planets, stars and galaxies are generated by self-excitation in moving electrically conducting fluids. Once produced, magnetic fields can play an active role in cosmic structure formation by destabilizing rotational flows that would be otherwise hydrodynamically stable. For a long time, both hydromagnetic dynamo action as well as magnetically triggered flow instabilities had been the subject of purely theoretical research. Meanwhile, however, the dynamo effect has been observed in large-scale liquid sodium experiments in Riga, Karlsruhe and Cadarache. In this paper, we summarize the results of some smaller liquid metal experiments devoted to various magnetic instabilities such as the helical and the azimuthal magnetorotational instability, the Tayler instability, and the different instabilities that appear in a magnetized spherical Couette flow. We conclude with an outlook on a large scale Tayler-Couette experiment using liquid sodium, and on the prospects to observe magnetically triggered ...

  20. Radiative Transfer Theory Verified by Controlled Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Goldstein, Dennis H.; Chowdhary, Jacek; Lompado, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of high-accuracy controlled laboratory measurements of the Stokes reflection matrix for suspensions of submicrometer-sized latex particles in water and compare them with the results of a numerically exact computer solution of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE). The quantitative performance of the VRTE is monitored by increasing the volume packing density of the latex particles from 2 to 10. Our results indicate that the VRTE can be applied safely to random particulate media with packing densities up to 2. VRTE results for packing densities of the order of 5 should be taken with caution, whereas the polarized bidirectional reflectivity of suspensions with larger packing densities cannot be accurately predicted. We demonstrate that a simple modification of the phase matrix entering the VRTE based on the so-called static structure factor can be a promising remedy that deserves further examination.

  1. Exploring Partners' Experiences in Living with Patients Who Undergo Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallwork, Anna; Tremblay, Lynn; Chi, Monica; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2017-08-01

    Bariatric surgery is effective in assisting persons with severe obesity in achieving significant weight loss and improved health; however, success depends on one's lifelong commitment to lifestyle modifications post-operatively. Life partners can be essential to the success of bariatric patients as they can serve as a primary resource to patients and healthcare teams. This study aimed to explore bariatric patients' partner's experiences in order to help inform clinical practice in bariatric care to better address patient and partner needs. This study utilized a grounded theory analysis of ten semi-structured interviews of male partners of bariatric surgery patients to form a general explanatory framework of the partner experience. Participants described three interconnected processes of change that followed after their spouses surgeries: (1) effort put forth to engage in the surgical process with their spouses, (2) adoption of the behavioural changes made by their spouses and (3) adjustment to a "new normal". For those who engaged in all three processes, optimism for the future and an enriching and synergistic harmonized lifestyle with their spouse was reached. Bariatric surgery in one partner can impact couples' dietary behaviours, physical and leisure activities, physical and emotional intimacy and relationship quality as a whole. Pursuing bariatric surgery as a couple is a unique process. This study highlights the necessity to approach bariatric care in a way that targets the whole spousal unit as engaging both members in lifestyle modification may improve the quality of both their health and relationship overall.

  2. Robot-assisted cardiac surgery using the da vinci surgical system: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eung Re; Lim, Cheong; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Jun Sung; Park, Kay Hyun

    2015-04-01

    We report our initial experiences of robot-assisted cardiac surgery using the da Vinci Surgical System. Between February 2010 and March 2014, 50 consecutive patients underwent minimally invasive robot-assisted cardiac surgery. Robot-assisted cardiac surgery was employed in two cases of minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass, 17 cases of mitral valve repair, 10 cases of cardiac myxoma removal, 20 cases of atrial septal defect repair, and one isolated CryoMaze procedure. Average cardiopulmonary bypass time and average aorta cross-clamping time were 194.8±48.6 minutes and 126.1±22.6 minutes in mitral valve repair operations and 132.0±32.0 minutes and 76.1±23.1 minutes in myxoma removal operations, respectively. During atrial septal defect closure operations, the average cardiopulmonary bypass time was 128.3±43.1 minutes. The median length of stay was between five and seven days. The only complication was that one patient needed reoperation to address bleeding. There were no hospital mortalities. Robot-assisted cardiac surgery is safe and effective for mitral valve repair, atrial septal defect closure, and cardiac myxoma removal surgery. Reducing operative time depends heavily on the experience of the entire robotic surgical team.

  3. The PADME experiment at Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The PADME experiment will search for the invisible decay of Dark Photons produced in interactions of positron from the DA$\\Phi$NE Linac on a target. The collaboration aims at reaching a sensitivity of $\\sim10^{-3}$ on the coupling constant for values of Dark Photon masses up to $23.7\\,\\mbox{MeV}$.

  4. User Experience in Digital Games: Differences between Laboratory and Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatalo, Jari; Hakkinen, Jukka; Kaistinen, Jyrki; Nyman, Gote

    2011-01-01

    Playing entertainment computer, video, and portable games, namely, digital games, is receiving more and more attention in academic research. Games are studied in different situations with numerous methods, but little is known about if and how the playing situation affects the user experience (UX) in games. In addition, it is hard to understand and…

  5. Laboratory experiments of bucket foundations under cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This report collects information on the experimental campaign concerning bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading conducted by the authors between 2011 and 2014. The report includes a step by step manual on the test procedures and a number of information and graphs for each experiment. In ...

  6. Ion Exchange Chromatography and Spectrophotometry: An Introductory Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which students use ion exchange chromatography to separate a mixture of chloro complexes of transition metal ions and then use spectrophotometry to define qualitatively the efficiency of the ion exchange columns. Background information, materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  7. Unveiling the curtain of superposition: Recent gedanken and laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, E.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    What is the true meaning of quantum superposition? Can a particle genuinely reside in several places simultaneously? These questions lie at the heart of this paper which presents an updated survey of some important stages in the evolution of the three-boxes paradox, as well as novel conclusions drawn from it. We begin with the original thought experiment of Aharonov and Vaidman, and proceed to its non-counterfactual version. The latter was recently realized by Okamoto and Takeuchi using a quantum router. We then outline a dynamic version of this experiment, where a particle is shown to “disappear” and “re-appear” during the time evolution of the system. This surprising prediction based on self-cancellation of weak values is directly related to our notion of Quantum Oblivion. Finally, we present the non-counterfactual version of this disappearing-reappearing experiment. Within the near future, this last version of the experiment is likely to be realized in the lab, proving the existence of exotic hitherto unknown forms of superposition. With the aid of Bell’s theorem, we prove the inherent nonlocality and nontemporality underlying such pre- and post-selected systems, rendering anomalous weak values ontologically real.

  8. Laboratory experiments of bucket foundations under cyclic loading

    OpenAIRE

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    This report collects information on the experimental campaign concerning bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading conducted by the authors between 2011 and 2014. The report includes a step by step manual on the test procedures and a number of information and graphs for each experiment. In addition, all the tests performed with the relevant features are listed.

  9. Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment in the Introductory Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Mark A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses a simplified Millikan oil-drop experiment which emphasizes the enplanation of basic concepts in mechanics and electrostatics, the use of home-made apparatus, the request for an individual's observation of his own drop, and the application of statistical analysis in data interpretation. (CC)

  10. A Comparison of Training Experience, Training Satisfaction, and Job Search Experiences between Integrated Vascular Surgery Residency and Traditional Vascular Surgery Fellowship Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvard, Benjamin; Shames, Murray; Schanzer, Andres; Rectenwald, John; Chaer, Rabih; Lee, Jason T

    2015-10-01

    The first 2 integrated vascular residents in the United States graduated in 2012, and in 2013, 11 more entered the job market. The purpose of this study was to compare the job search experiences of the first cohort of integrated 0 + 5 graduates to their counterparts completing traditional 5 + 2 fellowship programs. An anonymous, Web-based, 15-question survey was sent to all 11 graduating integrated residents in 2013 and to the 25 corresponding 5 + 2 graduating fellows within the same institution. Questions focused on the following domains: training experience, job search timelines and outcomes, and overall satisfaction with each training paradigm. Survey response was nearly 81% for the 0 + 5 graduates and 64% for the 5 + 2 graduates. Overall, there was no significant difference between residents and fellows in the operative experience obtained as measured by the number of open and endovascular cases logged. Dedicated research time during the entire training period was similar between residents and fellows. Nearly all graduates were extremely satisfied with their training and had positive experiences during their job searches with respect to starting salaries, numbers of offers, and desired practice type. More 0 + 5 residents chose academic and mixed practices over private practices compared with 5 + 2 fellowship graduates. Although longer term data are needed to understand the impact of the addition of 0 + 5 graduating residents to the vascular surgery work force, preliminary survey results suggest that both training paradigms (0 + 5 and 5 + 2) provide positive training experiences that result in excellent job search experiences. Based on the current and future need for vascular surgeons in the work force, the continued growth and expansion of integrated 0 + 5 vascular surgery residency positions as an alternative to traditional fellowship training is thus far justified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Laboratory: Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Teaching Fundamental Concepts of Rheology in Context of Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernengo, Jennifer; Purdy, Caitlin; Farrell, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a biomedical engineering experiment that introduces students to rheology. Healthy and sickle-cell blood analogs are prepared that are composed of chitosan particles suspended in aqueous glycerol solutions, which substitute for RBCs and plasma, respectively. Students study flow properties of the blood analogs with a viscometer…

  12. Laboratory: Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Teaching Fundamental Concepts of Rheology in Context of Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernengo, Jennifer; Purdy, Caitlin; Farrell, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a biomedical engineering experiment that introduces students to rheology. Healthy and sickle-cell blood analogs are prepared that are composed of chitosan particles suspended in aqueous glycerol solutions, which substitute for RBCs and plasma, respectively. Students study flow properties of the blood analogs with a viscometer…

  13. The Heavy Photon Search experiment at Jefferson Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Napoli Marzio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many beyond Standard Model theories predict a new massive gauge boson, aka “dark” or “heavy photon”, directly coupling to hidden sector particles with dark charge. The heavy photon is expected to mix with the Standard Model photon through kinetic mixing and therefore couple weakly to normal charge. The Heavy Photon Search (HPS experiment will search for the heavy photon at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab, in the mass range 20-1000 MeV/c2 and coupling to electric charge ϵ2 = α′/α in the range 10−5 to 10−10. HPS will look for the e+e− decay channel of heavy photons radiated by electron Bremsstrahlung, employing both invariant mass search and detached vertexing techniques. The experiment employs a compact forward spectrometer comprising silicon microstrip detectors for vertexing and tracking and an electromagnetic calorimeter for particle identification and triggering.

  14. Experimenting with Impacts in a Conceptual Physics or Descriptive Astronomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    What follows is a description of the procedure for and results of a simple experiment on the formation of impact craters designed for the laboratory portions of lower mathematical-level general education science courses such as conceptual physics or descriptive astronomy. The experiment provides necessary experience with data collection and…

  15. Responses to Anomalous Data Obtained from Repeatable Experiments in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jer-Yann

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible responses to anomalous data obtained from experiments that are repeatable by carrying out additional or alternative experiments in the laboratory. Based on an analysis of responses from scientists to anomalous data taken from identification experiments on the Vinland Map, it was assumed…

  16. Does Competition Enhance Performance or Cheating? A Laboratory Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Schwieren, Christiane; Weichselbaumer, Doris

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally test whether competing for a desired reward does not only affect individuals’ performance, but also their tendency to cheat. Recent doping scandals in sports as well as forgery and plagiarism scandals in academia have been partially explained by „competitive pressures“, which suggests a link between competition and cheating. In our experiment subjects conduct a task where they have the possibility to make use of illegitimate tools to better their results. We fi...

  17. The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Patty L.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

  18. The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Patty L.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

  19. Investigating Affective Experiences in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Students' Perceptions of Control and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Malakpa, Zoebedeh; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning requires the integration of cognitive and affective learning with the psychomotor, i.e., hands-on learning. The undergraduate chemistry laboratory is an ideal place for meaningful learning to occur. However, accurately characterizing students' affective experiences in the chemistry laboratory can be a very difficult task. While…

  20. Combustion and Energy Transfer Experiments: A Laboratory Model for Linking Core Concepts across the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Jose C.; Dubetz, Terry A.; Schmidt, Diane L.; Isern, Sharon; Beatty, Thomas; Brown, David W.; Gillman, Edward; Alberte, Randall S.; Egiebor, Nosa O.

    2007-01-01

    Core concepts can be integrated throughout lower-division science and engineering courses by using a series of related, cross-referenced laboratory experiments. Starting with butane combustion in chemistry, the authors expanded the underlying core concepts of energy transfer into laboratories designed for biology, physics, and engineering. This…

  1. Screening for Saponins Using the Blood Hemolysis Test. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotheeswaran, Subramaniam

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment for undergraduate chemistry laboratories involving a chemical found in plants and some sea animals. Discusses collection and identification of material, a hemolysis test, preparation of blood-coated agar plates, and application of samples. (CW)

  2. The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: I. Fundamentals and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsionsky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The fundamentals, as well as the instrumentation of the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique that is used in an undergraduate laboratory experiment are being described. The QCM response can be easily used to change the properties of any system.

  3. An educational physics laboratory experiment for directly measuring the speed of light

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Lyutskanov; Peicho Popov; Krassimira Kardjilova; Vladimir Pulov; Mariela Mihova

    2010-01-01

    With the aid of modern electronics the speed of light was directly measured by timing the delay of a light pulse from a laser in reflecting from a mirror in experiment performed in educational Physics Laboratory.

  4. The work of fault growth in laboratory sandbox experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Justin W.; Cooke, Michele L.; Souloumiac, Pauline; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Mary, Baptiste C. L.; Maillot, Bertrand

    2015-12-01

    Contractional sandbox experiments that simulate crustal accretion and direct shear tests both provide direct data on the amount of work required to create faults (Wprop) in granular materials. Measurements of force changes associated with faulting reveal the work consumed by fault growth, which can be used to predict fault growth path and timing. Within the contractional experiments, the sequence and style of early faulting is consistent for the range of sand pack thicknesses tested, from 12 to 30 mm. Contrary to expectations that Wprop is only a material property, the experimental data show that for the same material, Wprop increases with sand pack thickness. This normal stress dependence stems from the frictional nature of granular materials. With the same static and sliding friction values, incipient faults initiated deeper in the sand pack have larger shear stress drops, due to increased normal compression, σn. For CV32 sand, the relationship between Wprop and σn, calculated from the force drop data as Wprop (J/m2) = 2.0 ×10-4 (m)σn (Pa), is consistent with the relationship calculated from direct shear test data as Wprop (J/m2) = 2.4 ×10-4 (m)σn (Pa). Testing of different materials within the contractional sandbox (fine sand and glass beads) shows the sensitivity of Wprop to material properties. Both material properties and normal stress should be considered in calculations of the work consumed by fault growth in both analog experiments and crustal fault systems.

  5. A laboratory experiment on coupled non-identical pendulums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ang; Zeng Jingyi; Yang Hujiang; Xiao Jinghua, E-mail: yanghj@bupt.edu.cn, E-mail: jhxiao@bupt.edu.cn [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2011-09-15

    In this paper, coupled pendulums with different lengths are studied. Through steel magnets, each pendulum is coupled with others, and a stepping motor is used to drive the whole system. To record the data automatically, we designed a data acquisition system with a CCD camera connected to a computer. The coupled system shows in-phase, locked-phase and anti-phase synchronizations when the driving frequency and the coupling strength are changed. With background knowledge from general physics and the simplicity of the equipment, this experiment is easy to implement and would be of interest to undergraduate students.

  6. Subpicosecond compression experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, B.E.; Russell, S.J.; Kinross-Wright, J.M. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The authors report on recent experiments using a magnetic chicane compressor at 8 MeV. Electron bunches at both low (0.1 nC) and high (1 nC) charges were compressed from 20 ps to less than 1 ps (FWHM). A transverse deflecting rf cavity was used to measure the bunch length at low charge; the bunch length at high charge was inferred from an induced energy spread of the beam. The longitudinal centrifugal-space charge force is calculated using a point-to-point numerical simulation and is shown not to influence the energy-spread measurement.

  7. The microphysics of ash tribocharging: New insights from laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, M. S.; Dufek, J.

    2014-12-01

    The spectacular lightning strokes observed during eruptions testify to the enormous potentials that can be generated within plumes. Related to the charging of individual ash particles, large electric fields and volcanic lightning have been observed at Eyjafjallajokull, Redoubt, and Sakurajima, among other volcanoes. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for plume electrification, including charging from the brittle failure of rock, charging due to phase change as material is carried aloft, and triboelectric charging, also known as contact charging. While the first two mechanisms (fracto-emission and volatile charging) have been described by other authors (James et al, 2000 and McNutt et al., 2010, respectively), the physics of tribocharging--charging related to the collisions of particles--of ash are still relatively unknown. Because the electric fields and lightning present in volcanic clouds result from the multiphase dynamics of the plume itself, understanding the electrodynamics of these systems may provide a way to detect eruptions and probe the interior of plumes remotely. In the present work, we describe two sets of experiments designed to explore what controls the exchange of charge during particle collisions. We employ natural material from Colima, Mt. Saint Helens, and Tungurahua. Our experiments show that the magnitude and temporal behavior of ash charging depend on a number of factors, including particle size, shape, chemistry, and collisional energy. The first set of experiments were designed to determine the time-dependent electrostatic behavior of a parcel of ash. These experiments consist of fluidizing an ash bed and monitoring the current induced in a set of ring electrodes. As such, we are able to extract charging rates for ash samples driven by different flow rates. The second experimental setup allows us to measure how much charge is exchanged during a single particle-particle collision. Capable of measuring charges as small as 1 fC, this

  8. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity

  9. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, R.C.; Kelly, K.J.; Warnock, W.W.

    1996-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period of limited original equipment manufacturer (OEM) model availability. Approximately 90% of all conversions were performed on compact of full-size vans and pickups, and 90% of the conversions were to bi-fuel operation. With a positive response from the fleet managers, this program helped the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT for fiscal years 1993 and 1994, despite limited OEM model availability. The conversions also helped to establish the infrastructure needed to support further growth in the use of alternative fuel vehicles. In conclusion, the program has been successful in helping the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT, establishing infrastructure, increasing the displacement of imported oil, and evaluating the emissions performance of converted vehicles. With the relatively widespread availability of OEM vehicles in the 1996 model year, the program is now being phased out.

  10. Monitoring of biogas plants - experiences in laboratory and full scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Habermann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To control and regulate the biogas process there are online process parameters and offline process parameters, which basically don’t differ between pilot biogas plants and industrial biogas plants. Generally, temperature, pH-value, volume flow rate and sometimes redox potential are measured online. An online-measurement of the dissolved volatile fatty acids and an online-detection of dissolved hydrogen both directly in the liquid phase as well as near-infrared spectroscopy are under development. FOS/TAC-analysis is the most common offline-analysis of the biogas process and normally it is carried out by the plant operator directly at the biogas plant. For example dry matter, organic dry matter, nitrogen and fatty acids are other analyses, which are carried out but by a laboratory. Microbiological analyses of biogas plants are very expensive and time-consuming and are therefore in Germany very rare. Microbiological analyses are mainly for research purposes. For example the Fluorescence in situ Hybridiation (FISH is used for characterization of the populations. Electric-optical measurement should be established as a new method to investigate the vitality of the methane producing microorganisms. In a cooperation project, which is promoted by the German ministry for technology, between IASP and Chair of Bioprocess Engineering at TU Berlin, this method is proper investigated using a device from the firm EloSystems. The microorganisms are brought in an electrical field of different frequencies. In this field the microorganisms direct themselves differently according to their physiological state. At the end of this project an early detection of process disturbance will be possible with the help of this method. In this presentation the result of the first tests are presented.

  11. [The value of surgical experience gained during the Great Patriotic War for the modern military surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, N A; Samokhvalov, L M

    2015-05-01

    The surgical experience gained during the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) is a basis of the modern Russian military surgery, which allows providing any options for surgical care to the wounded. The article describes the main achievements of the military surgeons in our country during the Great Patriotic War, which helped the Soviet (Russian) military field surgery to achieve a leading position in the world of military medicine. The role of the united martial medical doctrine, three editions of "Guidelines for the military surgery", the qualified surgical assistance as a mean that helped to deliver surgical care to the wounded, the introduction of specialized medical care, technology development of medical triage, as well as the origins of the tactics of a multi-stage surgical treatment of combat trauma and special treatment of minimally wounded during the war. The problems in establishing registers of combat injuries. and training military surgeons are analysed.

  12. The Heavy Photon Search experiment at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Napoli, Marzio [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Catania (Italy). Lab. et al.

    2015-06-01

    Many beyond Standard Model theories predict a new massive gauge boson, a.k.a. 'dark' or 'heavy photon', directly coupling to hidden sector particles with dark charge. The heavy photon is expected to mix with the Standard Model photon through kinetic mixing and therefore couple weakly to normal charge. The Heavy Photon Search (HPS) experiment will search for the heavy photon at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), in the mass range 20-1000 MeV/c2 and coupling to electric charge ϵ2 = α'/α in the range 10-5 to 10-10. HPS will look for the e+e- decay channel of heavy photons radiated by electron Bremsstrahlung, employing both invariant mass search and detached vertexing techniques. The experiment employs a compact forward spectrometer comprising silicon microstrip detectors for vertexing and tracking and an electromagnetic calorimeter for particle identification and triggering.

  13. Laboratory experiments in innovation research: a methodological overview and a review of the current literature

    OpenAIRE

    Brüggemann, Julia; Bizer, Kilian

    2016-01-01

    Innovation research has developed a broad set of methodological approaches in recent decades. In this paper, we propose laboratory experiments as a fruitful methodological addition to the existing methods in innovation research. Therefore, we provide an overview of the existing methods, discuss the advantages and limitations of laboratory experiments, and review experimental studies dealing with different fields of innovation policy, namely intellectual property rights, financial instruments,...

  14. Ambulatory surgery in orthopedics: experience of over 10,000 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ferrero, M A; Faour-Martín, O; Simon-Perez, C; Pérez-Herrero, M; de Pedro-Moro, J A

    2014-03-01

    The concept of day surgery is becoming an increasingly important part of elective surgery worldwide. Relentless pressure to cut costs may constrain clinical judgment regarding the most appropriate location for a patient's surgical care. The aim of this study was to determine clinical and quality indicators relating to our experience in orthopedic day durgery, mainly in relation to unplanned overnight admission and readmission rates. Additionally, we focused on describing the main characteristics of the patients that experienced complications, and compared the patient satisfaction rates following ambulatory and non-ambulatory procedures. We evaluated 10,032 patients who underwent surgical orthopedic procedures according to the protocols of our Ambulatory Surgery Unit. All complications that occurred were noted. A quality-of-life assessment (SF-36 test) was carried out both pre- and postoperatively. Ambulatory substitution rates and quality indicators for orthopedic procedures were also determined. The major complication rate was minimal, with no mortal cases, and there was a high rate of ambulatory substitution for the procedures studied. Outcomes of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement postoperatively. An unplanned overnight admission rate of 0.14 % was achieved. Our institution has shown that it is possible to provide good-quality ambulatory orthopedic surgery. There still appears to be the potential to increase the proportion of these procedures. Surgeons and anesthesiologists must strongly adhere to strict patient selection criteria for ambulatory orthopedic surgery in order to reduce complications in the immediate postoperative term.

  15. From laboratory experiments to LISA Pathfinder: achieving LISA geodesic motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Boatella, C.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Brandt, N.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Ciani, G.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Fertin, D.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Giardini, D.; Gibert, F.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jeannin, O.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Perreca, A.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Rais, B.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Zweifel, P.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a quantitative assessment of the performance of the upcoming LISA Pathfinder geodesic explorer mission. The findings are based on the results of extensive ground testing and simulation campaigns using flight hardware, flight control and operations algorithms. The results show that, for the central experiment of measuring the stray differential acceleration between the LISA test masses, LISA Pathfinder will be able to verify the overall acceleration noise to within a factor 2 of the LISA requirement at 1 mHz and within a factor 6 at 0.1 mHz. We also discuss the key elements of the physical model of disturbances, coming from LISA Pathfinder and ground measurement that will guarantee the LISA performance.

  16. From laboratory experiments to LISA Pathfinder: achieving LISA geodesic motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonucci, F; Cavalleri, A; Congedo, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Armano, M [European Space Astronomy Centre, European Space Agency, Villanueva de la Canada, 28692 Madrid (Spain); Audley, H; Bogenstahl, J [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik und Universitaet Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Auger, G; Binetruy, P [APC UMR7164, Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Benedetti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e Tecnologie Industriali, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Boatella, C [CNES, DCT/AQ/EC, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse, Cedex 9 (France); Bortoluzzi, D; Bosetti, P; Cristofolini, I [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Strutturale, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Brandt, N [Astrium GmbH Claude-Dornier-Strasse, 88090 Immenstaad (Germany); Caleno, M; Cesa, M [European Space Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Chmeissani, M [IFAE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ciani, G [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States); Conchillo, A [ICE-CSIC/IEEC, Facultat de Ciencies, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Cruise, M, E-mail: Stefano.Vitale@unitn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-07

    This paper presents a quantitative assessment of the performance of the upcoming LISA Pathfinder geodesic explorer mission. The findings are based on the results of extensive ground testing and simulation campaigns using flight hardware, flight control and operations algorithms. The results show that, for the central experiment of measuring the stray differential acceleration between the LISA test masses, LISA Pathfinder will be able to verify the overall acceleration noise to within a factor 2 of the LISA requirement at 1 mHz and within a factor 6 at 0.1 mHz. We also discuss the key elements of the physical model of disturbances, coming from LISA Pathfinder and ground measurement that will guarantee the LISA performance.

  17. From laboratory experiments to LISA Pathfinder: achieving LISA geodesic motion

    CERN Document Server

    Antonucci, F; Audley, H; Auger, G; Benedetti, M; Binetruy, P; Boatella, C; Bogenstahl, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Bosetti, P; Brandt, N; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesa, M; Chmeissani, M; Ciani, G; Conchillo, A; Congedo, G; Cristofolini, I; Cruise, M; Danzmann, K; De Marchi, F; Diaz-Aguilo, M; Diepholz, I; Dixon, G; Dolesi, R; Dunbar, N; Fauste, J; Ferraioli, L; Fertin, D; Fichter, W; Fitzsimons, E; Freschi, M; Marin, A García; Marirrodriga, C García; Gerndt, R; Gesa, L; Giardini, D; Gibert, F; Grimani, C; Grynagier, A; Guillaume, B; Guzmán, F; Harrison, I; Heinzel, G; Hewitson, M; Hollington, D; Hough, J; Hoyland, D; Hueller, M; Huesler, J; Jeannin, O; Jennrich, O; Jetzer, P; Johlander, B; Killow, C; Llamas, X; Lloro, I; Lobo, A; Maarschalkerweerd, R; Madden, S; Mance, D; Mateos, I; McNamara, P W; Mendestì, J; Mitchell, E; Monsky, A; Nicolini, D; Nicolodi, D; Nofrarias, M; Pedersen, F; Perreur-Lloyd, M; Perreca, A; Plagnol, E; Prat, P; Racca, G D; Rais, B; Ramos-Castro, J; Reiche, J; Perez, J A Romera; Robertson, D; Rozemeijer, H; Sanjuan, J; Schleicher, A; Schulte, M; Shaul, D; Stagnaro, L; Strandmoe, S; Steier, F; Sumner, T J; Taylor, A; Texier, D; Trenkel, C; Tombolato, D; Vitale, S; Wanner, G; Ward, H; Waschke, S; Wass, P; Weber, W J; Zweifel, P

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative assessment of the performance of the upcoming LISA Pathfinder geodesic explorer mission. The findings are based on the results of extensive ground testing and simulation campaigns using flight hardware and flight control and operations algorithms. The results show that, for the central experiment of measuring the stray differential acceleration between the LISA test masses, LISA Pathfinder will be able to verify the overall acceleration noise to within a factor two of the LISA requirement at 1 mHz and within a factor 10 at 0.1 mHz. We also discuss the key elements of the physical model of disturbances, coming from LISA Pathfinder and ground measurement, that will guarantee the LISA performance.

  18. Value of clinical and laboratory inflammation factors in the postoperative period after laparoscopic urogynecological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, Günter-Karl; Anapolski, Michael; Soltész, Stefan; Spüntrup, Carolin; Mettler, Liselotte; Schollmeyer, Thoralf; Alkatout, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Leukocytes and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are often used to detect infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and screening validity of leukocytes and CRP levels as well as body temperature >38° C to predict infections after laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. The study included 287 patients suffering from genital prolapse higher than POP-Q I. In addition to the sacrocolpopexy, a laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy was performed in cases of preexisting uterus (n = 171). Leukocytes and CRP levels were analyzed preoperatively and 4 days after surgery. Early and late onset of infections was documented. Urinary tract infection was identified as the most frequent early postoperative complication (11.4%). Early wound infections were found in 2.8% of the patients (8/287). Late onset of infections was found in 1% of patients (3/287). Areas under ROC curves were low for both leukocytes (0.52, 95% CI: 0.37-0.66) and CRP levels (0.60, 95% CI: 0.44-0.77). Our findings question the benefit of routine determination of leukocytes and CRP levels 4 days after surgery. The sensitivity and specificity of leukocytes and CRP levels are probably more significant after normalization of the initial tissue response (days 8-10). © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. [The experiments with laboratory animals from a bioethical point of view--history, modern time, perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaladze, R A

    2004-01-01

    The origin of laboratory animal science was called forth by violent development of experimental biology and medicine in the XIX century on the one hand, and on the other hand by the necessity to have standard healthy animals for experiments with strictly definite biological characteristics. With this aim in view management technology and animal use in experiments have been constantly improved. "Laboratory animal" notion has been formed by the end of the XIX century. At the beginning of laboratory animal science development ethical problems were not as urgent as they are now. It is established that the three Rs bioethical conception of W.M.S. Russel and R.L. Burch (1959) has influence on modern state and perspectives of the development of animal experimental methods. It is shown that the existence of laboratory animal protection laws and the reflection in them of compulsory ethical review of scientific project and statistics of used laboratory animals is absolutely necessary.

  20. Piezoelectric osteotomy in hand surgery: first experiences with a new technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaenel Oliver Von

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hand and spinal surgery nerve lesions are feared complications with the use of standard oscillating saws. Oral surgeons have started using a newly developed ultrasound bone scalpel when performing precise osteotomies. By using a frequency of 25–29 kHz only mineralized tissue is cut, sparing the soft tissue. This reduces the risk of nerve lesions. As there is a lack of experience with this technique in the field of orthopaedic bone surgery, we performed the first ultrasound osteotomy in hand surgery. Method While performing a correctional osteotomy of the 5th metacarpal bone we used the Piezosurgery® Device from Mectron [Italy] instead of the usual oscillating saw. We will report on our experience with one case, with a follow up time of one year. Results The cut was highly precise and there were no vibrations of the bone. The time needed for the operation was slightly longer than the time needed while using the usual saw. Bone healing was good and at no point were there any neurovascular disturbances. Conclusion The Piezosurgery® Device is useful for small long bone osteotomies. Using the fine tip enables curved cutting and provides an opportunity for new osteotomy techniques. As the device selectively cuts bone we feel that this device has great potential in the field of hand- and spinal surgery.

  1. Laboratory Experiments on Enhanced Oil Recovery with Nitrogen Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siregar

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous studies, nitrogen injection could recover oil up to 45-90% of initial reserves. Although this method has a very good ability to produce oil, sometimes the operation pressure is higher than leak off formation pressure. In this study, operation pressure used a low pressure to solve this problem under immiscible process. Objective of this study is to determine the effect of injection pressure and displacement rate on oil recovery performance of continuous one dimensional nitrogen gas injection with a slim tube apparatus. The effect of nitrogen gas-oil contact on the gas composition was investigated using Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer apparatus. In the experiments, nitrogen gas was injected into an oil sample of 38.5 oAPI gravity at various rates: 20 cc/hr, 30 cc/hr and 36.66/hr under 1500 psi pressure, and then at 20 cc/hr undr 2500 psi pressure. The results showed that an increase in injection rate increased oil recovery factor. The recovery factor lies between 40-54% of original oil in place. Gas analysis before injection and at the injection outlet showed a change of composition. when oil was contacted by nitrogen, indicating that some molecular mass transfer had taken place.

  2. Closing the loop on improvement: Packaging experience in the Software Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waligora, Sharon R.; Landis, Linda C.; Doland, Jerry T.

    1994-01-01

    As part of its award-winning software process improvement program, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has developed an effective method for packaging organizational best practices based on real project experience into useful handbooks and training courses. This paper shares the SEL's experience over the past 12 years creating and updating software process handbooks and training courses. It provides cost models and guidelines for successful experience packaging derived from SEL experience.

  3. Oscillating load-induced acoustic emission in laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Alexander; Lockner, David A.; Stroganova, S.; Stanchits, S.; Smirnov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of acoustic emission (AE) were studied. A pre-fractured cylinder of granite was loaded in a triaxial machine at 160 MPa confining pressure until stick-slip events occurred. The experiments were conducted at a constant strain rate of 10−7 s−1 that was modulated by small-amplitude sinusoidal oscillations with periods of 175 and 570 seconds. Amplitude of the oscillations was a few percent of the total load and was intended to simulate periodic loading observed in nature (e.g., earth tides or other sources). An ultrasonic acquisition system with 13 piezosensors recorded acoustic emissions that were generated during deformation of the sample. We observed a correlation between AE response and sinusoidal loading. The effect was more pronounced for higher frequency of the modulating force. A time-space spectral analysis for a “point” process was used to investigate details of the periodic AE components. The main result of the study was the correlation of oscillations of acoustic activity synchronized with the applied oscillating load. The intensity of the correlated AE activity was most pronounced in the “aftershock” sequences that followed large-amplitude AE events. We suggest that this is due to the higher strain-sensitivity of the failure area when the sample is in a transient, unstable mode. We also found that the synchronization of AE activity with the oscillating external load nearly disappeared in the period immediately after the stick-slip events and gradually recovered with further loading.

  4. Recording the PHILAE Touchdown using CASSE: Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapmeyer, Martin; Faber, Claudia; Tune, Jean-Baptiste; Arnold, Walter; Witte, Lars; Schröder, Silvio; Roll, Reinhard; Chares, Bernd; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Möhlmann, Diedrich; Seidensticker, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    The landing of Philae on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is scheduled for November 11, 2014. Its landing feet house the triaxial acceleration sensors of CASSE (Comet Acoustic Surface Sounding Experiment) which will thus be the first sensors to be in mechanical contact with the cometary surface. It is planned that CASSE will be in listening mode to record the deceleration of the lander by the collision with the comet. The analysis of this data will not only support an engineering analysis of the landing process itself but also yield information about the mechanical properties of the comet's surface. Here, we describe a series of controlled landings of a lander model. The tests were conducted in the Landing & Mobility Test Facility (LAMA) of the DLR Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, where an industrial robot can be programmed to move landers or rovers along predefined paths and under simulated low gravity. The qualification model of the Philae landing gear was used in the tests. It consists of three legs manufactured of carbon fiber and metal joints. Attached to each leg is a foot with two soles and a mechanically driven ice screw to secure the lander on the comet. The right one of these soles, if viewed from the outside towards the lander body, houses a Brüel & Kjaer DeltaTron 4506 triaxial piezoelectric accelerometer as used on the spacecraft. Orientation of the three axes was such that the X-axis of the accelerometer points downwards while the Y and Z axes are horizontal. This somewhat uncommon orientation was necessary due to the position of the electric connector on the 4506. Data was recorded at a sampling rate of 8.2 kHz for a duration of 2 s. Touchdown measurements were conducted on three types of ground with different landing velocities. Landings with low velocities were carried out on the concrete floor of the LAMA to determine the stiffness of the landing gear based on the deceleration data measured with the accelerometer. Landings on fine

  5. Space Weathering Effects on Sulfates and Carbonates: Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Catherine; Bu, Caixia; Rodriguez lopez, Gerard; McFadden, Lucy Ann; Li, Jian-Yang; Ruesch, Ottaviano

    2016-10-01

    Introduction: The solar wind plasma continuously streams from the Sun, interacting with the surfaces of airless bodies throughout the solar system. Sulfates and carbonates, identified by the UV-Vis spectral slope [1] and 3.4 / 4.0 μm absorption features [2] on the surface of Ceres, will be exposed to solar H, He at ~1keV/amu. We investigate the stability of anhydrous salts under 4 keV He+ irradiation as proxy for the solar wind.Experiment: Anhydrous MgSO4, Na2SO4, and Na2CO3 powders are pressed into pellets, with compositions confirmed by XRD. Pellet samples are placed in ultra-high vacuum (10-9 Torr) and the effects of 4keV He+ irradiation on surface composition and chemistry are monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy, as a function of ion fluence. We measure ex situ diffuse optical reflectance prior and subsequent to irradiation through ranges 0.2-2.5µm (Lambda 1050) and 0.6-10µm (Thermo Nicolet 670).Results: Ion irradiation of MgSO4 damages the crystal structure, preferentially removing oxygen along with sulfur. XPS measurements imply the formation of MgO after 5x1017 He+cm-2 (~15,000 years at 2.7AU). During irradiation, we observe secondary ion ejection (Mg, MgO, O, OH, H, S, and SO) and neutral SO2. In addition, XPS sulfur spectra suggest the presence of a small amount of trapped SO2, confirming this decomposition product observed in the optical UV spectra at ~240 and 280nm [3,4] with dehydration, as well as in the IR at ~7.8μm [5] with irradiation. Our observations are consistent with the potential decomposition pathway for MgSO4 to SO2 provided by McCord et al. (2001) [6]. Spectral darkening and reddening in the UV-Vis region after irradiation are observed by ex situ optical spectroscopy. We suggest that space weathering by solar ions limits the stability of salts on Ceres and other airless bodies, which influences the optical reflectance.Acknowledgements: We thank the NASA SSW program for support

  6. Detecting Tsunami Source Energy and Scales from GNSS & Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. T.; Yim, S. C.; Mohtat, A.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, tsunami warnings based on the earthquake magnitude have not been very accurate. According to the 2006 U.S. Government Accountability Office report, an unacceptable 75% false alarm rate has prevailed in the Pacific Ocean (GAO-06-519). One of the main reasons for those inaccurate warnings is that an earthquake's magnitude is not the scale or power of the resulting tsunami. For the last 10 years, we have been developing both theories and algorithms to detect tsunami source energy and scales, instead of earthquake magnitudes per se, directly from real-time Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations along coastlines for early warnings [Song 2007; Song et al., 2008; Song et al., 2012; Xu and Song 2013; Titov et al, 2016]. Here we will report recent progress on two fronts: 1) Examples of using GNSS in detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, and the 2015 M8.3 Illapel earthquake. 2) New results from recent state-of-the-art wave-maker experiments and comparisons with GNSS data will also be presented. Related reference: Titov, V., Y. T. Song, L. Tang, E. N. Bernard, Y. Bar-Sever, and Y. Wei (2016), Consistent estimates of tsunami energy show promise for improved early warning, Pur Appl. Geophs., DOI: 10.1007/s00024-016-1312-1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. Song, Y. T., L.-L. Fu, V. Zlotnicki, C. Ji, V. Hjorleifsdottir, C.K. Shum, and Y. Yi, 2008: The role of horizontal impulses of the faulting continental slope in generating the 26 December 2004 Tsunami (2007

  7. Experience of monitoring the recurrent laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery with endotracheal intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:To analysis clinical experience of applying recurrent laryngeal monitoring endotracheal tube (NIM EMG Endotracheal Tube in the surgery of thyroid. Method: A retrospective analysis of 84 patients who underwent endotracheal intubation laryngeal nerve monitoring by thyroid surgery in the Chinese-Japanese Friendship Hospital of Jilin University from March to December in 2015. To summarize the experience of intubation with NIM EMG Endotracheal Tube. Result 77 (91.7%had initial intubation achievement in the 84 patients.FROM the 77 cases we had gotten s atisfactory nerve monitoring signal.Whereas there are 7 cases (8.3% appear abnormal EMG or signal missing, in the 7 cases there is one which being intubated too deep, 3 cases which being intubated too shallow and 3 cases with malrotation intubation.Conclusion: We got the satisfactory signals after adjust1ing the tube by using the visual laryngoscope.

  8. Initial experience with stereoscopic visualization of three-dimensional ultrasound data in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronningsaeter, A; Lie, T; Kleven, A; Mørland, T; Langø, T; Unsgård, G; Myhre, H O; Mårvik, R

    2000-11-01

    Initial in vivo and in vitro experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of stereoscopically displaying three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound data from neurosurgery, laparoscopic surgery, and vascular surgery. Stereoscopic visualization was illustrated by four video sequences, which can be downloaded from http://www.us.unimed. sintef.no/. These sequences show a brain tumor, hepatic arteries in relation to the gallbladder, a model that mimics a neuroendoscope in a cyst, and a "flight" into model of an artery with an intima flap. The experiments indicate that stereoscopic display of ultrasound data is feasible when there is sufficient contrast between the objects of interest and the surrounding tissue. True 3D vision improves perception, thus enhancing the ability to understand complex anatomic structures such as irregular lesions and tortuous vessels.

  9. Pure laparoscopic and robot-assisted laparoscopic reconstructive surgery in congenital megaureter: a single institution experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Fu

    Full Text Available To report our experience of pure laparoscopic and robot-assisted laparoscopic reconstructive surgery in congenital megaureter, seven patients (one bilateral with symptomatic congenital megaureter underwent pure laparoscopic or robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. The megaureter was exposed at the level of the blood vessel and was isolated to the bladder narrow area. Extreme ureter trim and submucosal tunnel encapsulation or papillary implantations and anti-reflux ureter bladder anastomosis were performed intraperitoneally by pure laparoscopic or robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. The clinical data of seven patients after operation were analyzed, including the operation time, intraoperative complications, intraoperative bleeding volumes, postoperative complications, postoperative hospitalization time and pathological results. All of the patients were followed. The operation was successfully performed in seven patients. The mean operation times for pure laparoscopic surgery and robotic-assistant laparoscopic surgery were 175 (range: 150-220 and 187 (range: 170-205 min, respectively, and the mean operative blood loss volumes were 20 (range: 10-30 and 28.75 (range: 15-20 ml, respectively. There were no intraoperative complications. The postoperative drainage time was 5 (range: 4-6 and 5.75 (range: 5-6 d, respectively, and the indwelling catheter time was 6.33 (range: 4-8 d and 7 (range: 7-7 d, respectively. The postoperative hospitalization time was 7.67 (range: 7-8 d and 8 (range: 7-10 d, respectively. There was no obvious pain, no secondary bleeding and no urine leakage after the operation. Postoperative pathology reports revealed chronic urothelial mucosa inflammation. The follow-up results confirmed that all patients were relieved of their symptoms. Both pure laparoscopic and robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery using different anti-reflux ureter bladder anastomoses are safe and effective approaches in the minimally invasive treatment of

  10. Virtual reality robotic surgery warm-up improves task performance in a dry laboratory environment: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendvay, Thomas S; Brand, Timothy C; White, Lee; Kowalewski, Timothy; Jonnadula, Saikiran; Mercer, Laina D; Khorsand, Derek; Andros, Justin; Hannaford, Blake; Satava, Richard M

    2013-06-01

    Preoperative simulation warm-up has been shown to improve performance and reduce errors in novice and experienced surgeons, yet existing studies have only investigated conventional laparoscopy. We hypothesized that a brief virtual reality (VR) robotic warm-up would enhance robotic task performance and reduce errors. In a 2-center randomized trial, 51 residents and experienced minimally invasive surgery faculty in General Surgery, Urology, and Gynecology underwent a validated robotic surgery proficiency curriculum on a VR robotic simulator and on the da Vinci surgical robot (Intuitive Surgical Inc). Once they successfully achieved performance benchmarks, surgeons were randomized to either receive a 3- to 5-minute VR simulator warm-up or read a leisure book for 10 minutes before performing similar and dissimilar (intracorporeal suturing) robotic surgery tasks. The primary outcomes compared were task time, tool path length, economy of motion, technical, and cognitive errors. Task time (-29.29 seconds, p = 0.001; 95% CI, -47.03 to -11.56), path length (-79.87 mm; p = 0.014; 95% CI, -144.48 to -15.25), and cognitive errors were reduced in the warm-up group compared with the control group for similar tasks. Global technical errors in intracorporeal suturing (0.32; p = 0.020; 95% CI, 0.06-0.59) were reduced after the dissimilar VR task. When surgeons were stratified by earlier robotic and laparoscopic clinical experience, the more experienced surgeons (n = 17) demonstrated significant improvements from warm-up in task time (-53.5 seconds; p = 0.001; 95% CI, -83.9 to -23.0) and economy of motion (0.63 mm/s; p = 0.007; 95% CI, 0.18-1.09), and improvement in these metrics was not statistically significantly appreciated in the less-experienced cohort (n = 34). We observed significant performance improvement and error reduction rates among surgeons of varying experience after VR warm-up for basic robotic surgery tasks. In addition, the VR warm-up reduced errors on

  11. Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel first-year chemistry laboratory experiment that connects solubility, equilibrium, and chemical periodicity concepts. It employs a unique format that asks students to replicate experiments described in different sample lab reports, each lacking some essential information, rather than follow a scripted procedure. This structure is…

  12. Computation of Chemical Shifts for Paramagnetic Molecules: A Laboratory Experiment for the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Benjamin P.; Simpson, Scott; Zurek, Eva; Autschbach, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    A computational experiment investigating the [superscript 1]H and [superscript 13]C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of molecules with unpaired electrons has been developed and implemented. This experiment is appropriate for an upper-level undergraduate laboratory course in computational, physical, or inorganic chemistry. The…

  13. Computation of Chemical Shifts for Paramagnetic Molecules: A Laboratory Experiment for the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Benjamin P.; Simpson, Scott; Zurek, Eva; Autschbach, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    A computational experiment investigating the [superscript 1]H and [superscript 13]C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of molecules with unpaired electrons has been developed and implemented. This experiment is appropriate for an upper-level undergraduate laboratory course in computational, physical, or inorganic chemistry. The…

  14. Discovering Inexpensive, Effective Catalysts for Solar Energy Conversion: An Authentic Research Laboratory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Sarah E.; Hooker, Paul D.; Nickel, Anne-Marie; Leichtfuss, Amanda R.; Adams, Carissa S.; de la Cerda, Dionisia; She, Yuqi; Gerken, James B.; Pokhrel, Ravi; Ambrose, Nicholas J.; Khaliqi, David; Stahl, Shannon S.; Schuttlefield Christus, Jennifer D.

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical water oxidation is a major focus of solar energy conversion efforts. A new laboratory experiment has been developed that utilizes real-time, hands-on research to discover catalysts for solar energy conversion. The HARPOON, or Heterogeneous Anodes Rapidly Perused for Oxygen Overpotential Neutralization, experiment allows an array of…

  15. Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 8. Microscale Simultaneous Photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mena-Brito, Rodrigo; Fregoso-Infante, Arturo

    2005-01-01

    A microscale experiment in which the simultaneous oxidation of an organic compound and the reduction of a metal ion are photocatalytically performed in an aqueous slurry containing TiO[subscript 2] irradiated with UV light. This experiment can be performed in the laboratory session with simple chemicals and equipments.

  16. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm laboratory experiments : Data analysis and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.; Jin, F.; DAriano, M; Fei, SM; Haven, E; Hiesmayr, B; Jaeger, G; Khrennikov, A; Larsson, JA

    2012-01-01

    Data produced by laboratory Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPRB) experiments is tested against the hypothesis that the statistics of this data is given by quantum theory of this thought experiment. Statistical evidence is presented that the experimental data, while violating Bell inequalities, does n

  17. Cross-Disciplinary Thermoregulation and Sweat Analysis Laboratory Experiences for Undergraduate Chemistry and Exercise Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Gregory; Taylor, Nichole; Glen, Mary; Tomlin, Dona; Gaul, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-disciplinary (CD) learning experiences benefit student understanding of concepts and curriculum by offering opportunities to explore topics from the perspectives of alternate fields of study. This report involves a qualitative evaluation of CD health sciences undergraduate laboratory experiences in which concepts and students from two…

  18. An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Mark

    2004-01-01

    An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

  19. Lysozyme Thermal Denaturation and Self-Interaction: Four Integrated Thermodynamic Experiments for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Schaefle, Nathaniel J.; Muth, Gregory W.; Miessler, Gary L.; Clark, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of an effort to infuse our physical chemistry laboratory with biologically relevant, investigative experiments, we detail four integrated thermodynamic experiments that characterize the denaturation (or unfolding) and self-interaction of hen egg white lysozyme as a function of pH and ionic strength. Students first use Protein Explorer to…

  20. Discovering Inexpensive, Effective Catalysts for Solar Energy Conversion: An Authentic Research Laboratory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Sarah E.; Hooker, Paul D.; Nickel, Anne-Marie; Leichtfuss, Amanda R.; Adams, Carissa S.; de la Cerda, Dionisia; She, Yuqi; Gerken, James B.; Pokhrel, Ravi; Ambrose, Nicholas J.; Khaliqi, David; Stahl, Shannon S.; Schuttlefield Christus, Jennifer D.

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical water oxidation is a major focus of solar energy conversion efforts. A new laboratory experiment has been developed that utilizes real-time, hands-on research to discover catalysts for solar energy conversion. The HARPOON, or Heterogeneous Anodes Rapidly Perused for Oxygen Overpotential Neutralization, experiment allows an array of…

  1. Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel first-year chemistry laboratory experiment that connects solubility, equilibrium, and chemical periodicity concepts. It employs a unique format that asks students to replicate experiments described in different sample lab reports, each lacking some essential information, rather than follow a scripted procedure. This structure is…

  2. Thermodynamic Exploration of Eosin-Lysozyme Binding: A Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Andrew J.; Hartsell, Lydia R.; Krueger, Brent P.; Pikaart, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a modular pair of experiments for use in the undergraduate physical chemistry and biochemistry laboratories. Both experiments examine the thermodynamics of the binding of a small molecule, eosin Y, to the protein lysozyme. The assay for binding is the quenching of lysozyme fluorescence by eosin through resonant energy transfer. In…

  3. Getting started with robotics in general surgery with cholecystectomy: the Canadian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Shiva; Davies, Ward; Schlachta, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The value of robotics in general surgery may be for advanced minimally invasive procedures. Unlike other specialties, formal fellowship training opportunities for robotic general surgery are few. As a result, most surgeons currently develop robotic skills in practice. Our goal was to determine whether robotic cholecystectomy is a safe and effective bridge to advanced robotics in general surgery. Methods Before performing advanced robotic procedures, 2 surgeons completed the Intuitive Surgical da Vinci training course and agreed to work together on all procedures. Clinical surgery began with da Vinci cholecystectomy with a plan to begin advanced procedures after at least 10 cholecystectomies. We performed a retrospective review of our pilot series of robotic cholecystectomies and compared them with contemporaneous laparoscopic controls. The primary outcome was safety, and the secondary outcome was learning curve. Results There were 16 procedures in the robotics arm and 20 in the laparoscopic arm. Two complications (da Vinci port-site hernia, transient elevation of liver enzymes) occurred in the robotic arm, whereas only 1 laparoscopic patient (slow to awaken from anesthetic) experienced a complication. None was significant. The mean time required to perform robotic cholecystectomy was significantly longer than laparoscopic surgery (91 v. 41 min, p robotic procedures (14 v. 11 min, p = 0.015). We observed a trend showing longer mean anesthesia time for robotic procedures (23 v. 15 min). Regarding learning curve, the mean operative time needed for the first 3 robotic procedures was longer than for the last 3 (101 v. 80 min); however, this difference was not significant. Since this experience, the team has confidently gone on to perform robotic biliary, pancreatic, gastresophageal, intestinal and colorectal operations. Conclusion Robotic cholecystectomy can be performed reliably; however, owing to the significant increase in operating room resources, it

  4. Plasma physics and environmental perturbation laboratory. [magnetospheric experiments from space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Current work aimed at identifying the active magnetospheric experiments that can be performed from the Space Shuttle, and designing a laboratory to carry out these experiments is described. The laboratory, known as the PPEPL (Plasma Physics and Environmental Perturbation Laboratory) consists of 35-ft pallet of instruments connected to a 25-ft pressurized control module. The systems deployed from the pallet are two 50-m booms, two subsatellites, a high-power transmitter, a multipurpose accelerator, a set of deployable canisters, and a gimbaled instrument platform. Missions are planned to last seven days, during which two scientists will carry out experiments from within the pressurized module. The type of experiments to be performed are outlined.

  5. Plasma physics and environmental perturbation laboratory. [magnetospheric experiments from space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Current work aimed at identifying the active magnetospheric experiments that can be performed from the Space Shuttle, and designing a laboratory to carry out these experiments is described. The laboratory, known as the PPEPL (Plasma Physics and Environmental Perturbation Laboratory) consists of 35-ft pallet of instruments connected to a 25-ft pressurized control module. The systems deployed from the pallet are two 50-m booms, two subsatellites, a high-power transmitter, a multipurpose accelerator, a set of deployable canisters, and a gimbaled instrument platform. Missions are planned to last seven days, during which two scientists will carry out experiments from within the pressurized module. The type of experiments to be performed are outlined.

  6. Albumen Glue, New Material for Conjunctival Graft Surgery, an Animal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartiwa, A.; Miraprahesti, R.; Sovani, I.; Enus, S.; Boediono, A.

    2017-02-01

    Attach conjunctival graft commonly used are suture technique and fibrin glue. This study was to investigate albumen glue as an alternative to suture technique in attaching conjunctival graft in rabbits. Aim of this study was to compare the conjunctival wound healing between albumen glue and suture technique in rabbit eye as a model. There was an experimental animal study included 32 eyes (16 rabbits) in PT. Bio Farma (Persero) and Histology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Padjadjaran University from March 2014 to July 2104. The study consisted of albumen glue group and suture technique group. The examination included the comparison of conjunctival graft attachment and histologic examination by microscopically was done to obtain the wound gap, then analyze by Mann-Whitney test. The results indicated that the graft attachment was significantly better-using albumen glue (grade 4) compared to suture (grade 2-3) on day-1 after surgery (p=0,000). The wound gap was smaller using albumen glue (0-0,33 μm versus 5,33-14 μm ; p=0,0005) on 10 minutes after surgery and 0 μm versus 0,33-4 μm ; p=0,0005 on day-7 after surgery. In conclusion, the graft attachment using albumen glue was better and the wound gap was smaller using albumen glue than suture technique.

  7. Laboratory errors leading to nonmelanoma skin cancer recurrence after Mohs micrographic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabielinski, Marilyn; Leithauser, Laurel; Godsey, Tonja; Gloster, Hugh M

    2015-08-01

    Compared with standard surgical excision, Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) provides superior cure rates for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Although cure rates of NMSC approach 99% with MMS, local recurrences occasionally occur. The authors sought to identify histological features during frozen section examination that were associated with local recurrence of NMSC after MMS. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients undergoing a second MMS procedure to treat locally recurrent NMSC over a 20-month period. Histological slides were reviewed to assess for possible causes of local recurrence. Of 3,169 NMSCs treated, 22 were locally recurrent. Possible causes of recurrence identified after MMS included dense inflammation in the final margin at sites affected by tumor in prior slides (27%), visible remaining tumor (23%), missing epidermal or dermal tissue (23%), and actinic keratosis (4%). One recurrence was possibly explained by incorrect mapping. No abnormality could be detected in 18% of cases. Possible limitations include the small sample size, retrospective design, and the possibility that some patients may have been lost to follow-up. Local recurrences after MMS are extremely rare. When recurrences do occur, they can be attributed to errors in histological interpretation or tumor mapping.

  8. Análise laboratorial das ceratites infecciosas secundárias à cirurgia refrativa Laboratory analysis of infectious keratitis in patients following refractive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Leal

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os resultados laboratoriais de amostras de pacientes com ceratite infecciosa pós-cirurgia refrativa. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados pacientes do Departamento de Oftalmologia da UNIFESP, que foram submetidos a tratamento para ceratite infecciosa, entre janeiro de 1988 e junho de 2001, e que haviam sido submetidos à ceratomia radial (CR, ceratotomia fotorrefrativa (PRK ou laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK. Previamente, as infecções foram classificadas como precoces, quando ocorreram até 30 dias após a cirurgia, e tardias quando diagnosticadas após 30 dias. RESULTADOS: Das 93 amostras, 39 eram de (42% pacientes submetidos à ceratotomia radial, sendo 14 (36% infecções precoces e 25 (64% infecções tardias; 38 (41% pacientes submetidos a LASIK, sendo 21 (55% infecções precoces e 17 (45% infecções tardias; 16 (17% eram de pacientes submetidos à ceratotomia fotorrefrativa, sendo 10 (62,5% infecções precoces e 6 (37,5% infecções tardias. Oitenta e seis amostras de córnea coletadas foram submetidas a cultivo e esfregaço para bactérias, 43 cultivos (50% e 43 esfregaços (50% foram positivos. Setenta e duas amostras foram submetidas a cultivo e esfregaço para fungos, 2 cultivos (3% e 4 esfregaços (6% foram positivos. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados obtidos revelam uma concordância de 80,2% entre cultivo e esfregaço para bactéria. Não houve relação estatisticamente significante entre o tipo de cirurgia e o tempo de manifestação da infecção.PURPOSE: To describe the laboratory findings in patients with infectious keratitis, who underwent refractive surgery, correlating the surgical procedure and the time of infection manifestation, and the results of culture and smears. METHODS: The previous samples were obtained from patients submitted to radial keratotomy (RK, photorefractive keratectomy (PRK and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK at the Ophthalmology Department of UNIFESP. The infections were classified as

  9. Robotic surgery of locally advanced gastric cancer: a single-surgeon experience of 41 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, C; Procopiuc, L

    2012-01-01

    The mainstay of curative gastric cancer treatment is open gastric resection with regional lymph node dissection. Minimally invasive surgery is yet to become an established technique with a well defined role. Robotic surgery has by-passed some of the limitations of conventional laparoscopy and has proven both safe and feasible. We present our initial experience with robotic surgery based on 41 gastric cancer patients. We especially wish to underline the advantages of the robotic system when performing the digestive tract anastomoses. We present the techniques of end-to-side eso-jejunoanastomoses (using a circular stapler or manual suture) and side-to-side eso-jejunoanastomoses. In our hands, the results with circular stapled anastomoses were good and we advocate against manual suturing when performing anastomoses in robotic surgery. Moreover, we recommend performing totally intracorporeal anastomoses which have a better post-operative outcome, especially in obese patients. We present three methods of realising the total intracorporeal eso-jejuno-anastomosis with a circular stapler: manual purse-string suture, using the OrVil and the double stapling technique. The eso-jejunoanastomosis is one of the most difficult steps in performing the total gastrectomy, but these techniques allow the surgeon to choose the best option for each case. We consider that surgeons who undertake total gastrectomies must have a special training in performing these anastomoses.

  10. Anaesthetic management and perioperative complications during deep brain stimulation surgery: Our institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Bala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS surgery is an established therapeutic option for alleviating movement disorders. It represents unique challenges for anaesthesiologists. We retrospectively reviewed the patients, who underwent this surgery at our institution, to study anaesthetic management and perioperative complications. Materials and Methods: After taking approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee, medical, surgical and anaesthesia records of 67 patients who were admitted to undergo DBS surgery during 11 years period (January 2001 to December 2011 were retrieved and reviewed. Sixty-five patients underwent the procedure. Various anaesthetic events and perioperative complications were noted and appropriate statistical analysis was carried out to analyse the data. Results: Electrode placement under monitored anaesthesia care (MAC was the most commonly used technique (86% of patients. Intra-operative complications occurred in 16 patients (24% whereas post-operative complication occurred in 10 patients (15.4%. There was one mortality. Though age >60 years and American Society of Anesthesiologists status > II were found to be the risk factors for post-operative complications in the bivariate analysis; they were not significant in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: We report our experience of DBS surgery, which was performed using MAC in majority of patients, though general anaesthesia is also feasible. Further prospective randomised studies comprising large number of patients are warranted to corroborate our finding and to find out the most suitable sedative agent.

  11. Clinical experience with a high definition exoscope system for surgery of pineal region lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Kurtis; Drazin, Doniel; Black, Keith L; Williams, James; Berci, George; Mamelak, Adam N

    2014-07-01

    VITOM-90 (Karl Storz Endoscopy, Tuttlingen, Germany) is a new technology that can be used as an alternative to the operating microscope. We have found that this device substantially improves surgeon comfort during infra-tentorial supracerebellar approaches to pineal region masses, and now report our experiences. The VITOM-90 is a specially designed scope that is attached to a high definition (HD) digital camera and displayed on a HD video monitor. This system was utilized in five patients undergoing infratentorial supracerebellar approaches for pineal region lesions. Surgical outcomes and pathologies are described. The device was used by three surgeons during five procedures. Three patients underwent surgery in the sitting position and two in the modified prone (Concorde) position. Pathologies included pineocytoma, lipoma, and germinoma. Total resection was achieved in three patients and subtotal in two patients. Surgeon assessment was positive; surgeons indicated that surgery with the VITOM-90 was more comfortable than with the operating microscope. Lack of stereopsis was considered a minor drawback. The VITOM-90 permitted a natural head and neck position. Operating room personnel and residents reported improved visualization of the anatomy. Using the VITOM-90 benefited surgeons during pineal region surgery by reducing strain and allowing the surgeon to operate from a comfortable position without increased operative time or complications. The improved comfort levels may translate into safer, more accurate surgeries in this complex area.

  12. Promoting Student Involvement with Environmental Laboratory Experiments in a General Microbiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Brancaccio Taras

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive study of a series of laboratory exercises on environmental microbiology carried out by students in a general microbiology course during eight of the twelve weeks of the semester. The revised laboratory component is predicated upon seawater and sediment samples collected by student pairs using marine sampling equipment on a field trip aboard a research vessel. Two longitudinal studies were performed: assay for antibiotic production from isolated actinomycetes and construction and observation of Winogradsky columns. Two additional experiments: culturing microalgae and water testing for coliforms also used the samples collected by the students. The advantages of long-term, challenging laboratory experiences actively involving the students in group process, self-direction, and scientific practices are discussed. Also considered are development of laboratory skills, scientific competencies, and students’ self-confidence in carrying out such environmental investigations. Plans for future assessment of student learning are presented.

  13. Promoting Student Involvement with Environmental Laboratory Experiments in a General Microbiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Brancaccio Taras

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive study of a series of laboratory exercises on environmental microbiology carried out by students in a general microbiology course during eight of the twelve weeks of the semester. The revised laboratory component is predicated upon seawater and sediment samples collected by student pairs using marine sampling equipment on a field trip aboard a research vessel. Two longitudinal studies were performed: assay for antibiotic production from isolated actinomycetes and construction and observation of Winogradsky columns. Two additional experiments: culturing microalgae and water testing for coliforms also used the samples collected by the students. The advantages of long-term, challenging laboratory experiences actively involving the students in group process, self-direction, and scientific practices are discussed. Also considered are development of laboratory skills, scientific competencies, and students’ self-confidence in carrying out such environmental investigations. Plans for future assessment of student learning are presented.

  14. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Candidate experiments definition and preliminary concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, R. V.; Hollinden, A. B.

    1973-01-01

    The candidate definition studies on the zero-g cloud physics laboratory are covered. This laboratory will be an independent self-contained shuttle sortie payload. Several critical technology areas have been identified and studied to assure proper consideration in terms of engineering requirements for the final design. Areas include chambers, gas and particle generators, environmental controls, motion controls, change controls, observational techniques, and composition controls. This unique laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, or other type techniques to support the object under study. This report also covers the candidate experiment definitions, chambers and experiment classes, laboratory concepts and plans, special supporting studies, early flight opportunities and payload planning data for overall shuttle payload requirements assessments.

  15. Serum S100B levels after meningioma surgery: A comparison of two laboratory assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiniger Carolyn F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background S100B protein is a potential biomarker of central nervous system insult. This study quantitatively compared two methods for assessing serum concentration of S100B. Methods A prospective, observational study performed in a single tertiary medical center. Included were fifty two consecutive adult patients undergoing surgery for meningioma that provided blood samples for determination of S100B concentrations. Eighty samples (40 pre-operative and 40 postoperative were randomly selected for batch testing. Each sample was divided into two aliquots. These were analyzed by ELISA (Sangtec and a commercial kit (Roche Elecsys® for S100B concentrations. Statistical analysis included regression modelling and Bland-Altman analysis. Results A parsimonious linear model best described the prediction of commercial kit values by those determined by ELISA (y = 0.045 + 0.277*x, x = ELISA value, R2 = 0.732. ELISA measurements tended to be higher than commercial kit measurements. This discrepancy increased linearly with increasing S100B concentrations. At concentrations above 0.7 μg/L the paired measurements were consistently outside the limits of agreement in the Bland-Altman display. Similar to other studies that used alternative measurement methods, sex and age related differences in serum S100B levels were not detected using the Elecsys® (p = 0.643 and 0.728 respectively. Conclusion Although a generally linear relationship exists between serum S100B concentrations measured by ELISA and a commercially available kit, ELISA values tended to be higher than commercial kit measurements particularly at concentrations over 0.7 μg/L, which are suggestive of brain injury. International standardization of commercial kits is required before the predictive validity of S100B for brain damage can be effectively assessed in clinical practice.

  16. Understanding the life experiences of Brazilian women after bariatric surgery: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaleno, Ronis; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2010-08-01

    The increase in bariatric surgeries has called into question the aspects that contribute to or impair the results. Psychosocial factors directly influence the results of the surgery, but a lot of controversy exists in relation to the degree of influence of these factors. We propose a qualitative investigation to understand the significance of the surgery for women and how these factors influence the outcomes. This study is a clinical-qualitative method, through the semi-directed interview with open-ended questions in an intentional sample, closed by saturation, with seven women operated in a period of 1.5-3 years, following the definition of emergent categories and qualitative content analysis. The experience of acceptance and social reinsertion is a motivating factor to keep up the challenge of weight loss; social discrimination is a risk factor leading to losing the stimulus to continue the process; the recuperation of self-esteem and personal identity is a factor that improves the quality of life and psychopathological symptoms; disillusionment is an important risk factor, linked principally to the experiences of failure. We observe the necessity of qualitative studies that serve the health team in the handling of these patients, aiming for a greater understanding of their psychological dynamics and of the meanings that weight loss has for them.

  17. Factors Associated with Increased Experience of Postoperative Pain after Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Markus; Allvin, Renée; Bäckström, Ragnar; Stenberg, Erik

    2017-07-01

    Patients with high body mass index (BMI), pre-existing pain and young age and women seem to experience more postoperative pain. Few studies have, however, addressed these risk factors amongst obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The aim of the present study was to evaluate risk factors for postoperative pain following laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery. In this cohort study, we used data from the PAIN OUT register for postoperative pain during the first 24 h after surgery. Primary outcome measure was severity of pain after surgery. Multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate BMI, young age, gender and pre-existing pain as independent risk factors for postoperative pain. We included 192 patients in this study. Younger age (B -0.08, 95%CI -0.11 to -0.05/year; p < 0.001), female gender (B 0.92, 95%CI 0.10-1.75; p = 0.029) and pre-existing pain (B 1.06, 95%CI 0.03-2.09; p = 0.044) were all associated with an increased risk for postoperative pain. In the multivariate analyses, only young age ((adjusted OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.92-0.97/year; p < 0.001) and pre-existing pain (adjusted OR 2.56, 95%CI 1.09-6.00; p = 0.031) remained as independent risk factors for severe postoperative pain. Younger age and pre-existing pain are associated with severe postoperative pain during the first 24 h after laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery, whereas female gender and high BMI are not.

  18. Simulated and Virtual Science Laboratory Experiments: Improving Critical Thinking and Higher-Order Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nicole A.

    Virtual laboratory experiments using interactive computer simulations are not being employed as viable alternatives to laboratory science curriculum at extensive enough rates within higher education. Rote traditional lab experiments are currently the norm and are not addressing inquiry, Critical Thinking, and cognition throughout the laboratory experience, linking with educational technologies (Pyatt & Sims, 2007; 2011; Trundle & Bell, 2010). A causal-comparative quantitative study was conducted with 150 learners enrolled at a two-year community college, to determine the effects of simulation laboratory experiments on Higher-Order Learning, Critical Thinking Skills, and Cognitive Load. The treatment population used simulated experiments, while the non-treatment sections performed traditional expository experiments. A comparison was made using the Revised Two-Factor Study Process survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and the Scientific Attitude Inventory survey, using a Repeated Measures ANOVA test for treatment or non-treatment. A main effect of simulated laboratory experiments was found for both Higher-Order Learning, [F (1, 148) = 30.32,p = 0.00, eta2 = 0.12] and Critical Thinking Skills, [F (1, 148) = 14.64,p = 0.00, eta 2 = 0.17] such that simulations showed greater increases than traditional experiments. Post-lab treatment group self-reports indicated increased marginal means (+4.86) in Higher-Order Learning and Critical Thinking Skills, compared to the non-treatment group (+4.71). Simulations also improved the scientific skills and mastery of basic scientific subject matter. It is recommended that additional research recognize that learners' Critical Thinking Skills change due to different instructional methodologies that occur throughout a semester.

  19. How to introduce a program of Enhanced Recovery after Surgery? The experience of the CAPIO group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, J-F; Paget, C; Perlier, F; Demesmay, F

    2016-12-01

    The traditional model of hospital care has been challenged by the development of a care-management process that allows early patient autonomy (outpatient surgery, Enhanced Recovery after Surgery). Hospitalization has been transformed in response to this development, based on innovative medical and organizational strategies. Within a surgical service, the deployment of these processes requires the creation of a support structure, with re-organization of existing structures, analysis of potential obstacles, implementation of management tools, and ongoing follow-up of organizational function, clinical results, organizational and patient satisfaction. These will ultimately assess adaptation of structures within these new organizations. In this article, we share our insights based on experience gained over the past six years by surgical teams of the CAPIO group.

  20. Applications of neuronavigation system in cranial surgery: experience of a single center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mohsen; Pahlavani, Mehrdad; Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Shirani-Bidabadi, Mohammad; Ketabchi, Ebrahim; Karimi-Yarandi, Kourosh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Since the advent of navigational systems in neurosurgery, various implications have been introduced for them in spine and brain practices. Although, the range of surgeries in which these systems are being used is getting wider over time, their application is becoming more specific in certain situations. Methods: This means that defining specific indications for their usage is not as easy as it was previously thought. Brief reviewing of the available literature showed various navigation systems proposed and used in neurosurgery. Results: In this study, we review case selection criteria, techniques, and the results of neuronavigation applications in the patients underwent neurosurgical operations in the Sina hospital (Tehran, Iran) during 2011. Conclusions: The findings of our survey and experiences prove the efficacy and advantages of this technique that reduces the risk of neurovascular damage, neural tissue manipulation, operation time, and bleeding. Keywords: Neuronavigation, Cranial surgery, Navigational system

  1. Influence of surgeon's experience and supervision on re-operation rate after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Jacobsen, Steffen; Krasheninnikoff, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Society of Anaesthesiologists score, New Mobility Score, time to surgery and type of implant, surgery by unsupervised junior registrars was still a significant independent risk factor for re-operation in technically demanding proximal femoral fractures. CONCLUSION: Unsupervised junior registrars should......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the performing surgeon's experience and degree of supervision on re-operation rate among patients admitted with a proximal femoral fracture (PFF). METHODS: Prospective study of 600 consecutive patients with proximal femoral fracture in our multimodal...... rehabilitation programme, between 2002 and 2004. Re-operation rate was assessed 6 months postoperatively. Surgeons were grouped as unsupervised junior registrars versus experienced surgeons operating or supervising. Fractures were stratified as technically undemanding or demanding. RESULTS: Unsupervised junior...

  2. Influence of surgeon's experience and supervision on re-operation rate after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Jacobsen, Steffen; Krasheninnikoff, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Society of Anaesthesiologists score, New Mobility Score, time to surgery and type of implant, surgery by unsupervised junior registrars was still a significant independent risk factor for re-operation in technically demanding proximal femoral fractures. CONCLUSION: Unsupervised junior registrars should......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the performing surgeon's experience and degree of supervision on re-operation rate among patients admitted with a proximal femoral fracture (PFF). METHODS: Prospective study of 600 consecutive patients with proximal femoral fracture in our multimodal...... rehabilitation programme, between 2002 and 2004. Re-operation rate was assessed 6 months postoperatively. Surgeons were grouped as unsupervised junior registrars versus experienced surgeons operating or supervising. Fractures were stratified as technically undemanding or demanding. RESULTS: Unsupervised junior...

  3. A Low Cost Implementation of an Existing Hands-on Laboratory Experiment in Electronic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Onime

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In engineering the pedagogical content of most formative programmes includes a significant amount of practical laboratory hands-on activity designed to deliver knowledge acquisition from actual experience alongside traditional face-to-face classroom based lectures and tutorials; this hands-on aspect is not always adequately addressed by current e-learning platforms. An innovative approach to e-learning in engineering, named computer aided engineering education (CAEE is about the use of computer aids for the enhanced, interactive delivery of educational materials in different fields of engineering through two separate but related components; one for classroom and another for practical hands-on laboratory work. The component for hands-on laboratory practical work focuses on the use of mixed reality (video-based augmented reality tools on mobile devices/platforms. This paper presents the computer aided engineering education (CAEE implementation of a laboratory experiment in micro-electronics that highlights some features such as the ability to closely implement an existing laboratory based hands-on experiment with lower associated costs and the ability to conduct the experiment off-line while maintaining existing pedagogical contents and standards.

  4. Setting up robotic surgery in gynaecology: the experience of the Strasbourg teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sananès, N; Garbin, O; Hummel, M; Youssef, C; Vizitiu, R; Lemaho, D; Rottenberg, D; Diemunsch, P; Wattiez, A

    2011-06-01

    Teleoperated surgical robots could provide a genuine breakthrough in laparoscopy and it is for this reason that the development of robot-assisted laparoscopy is one of the priorities of the Strasbourg University Hospitals' strategic plan. The hospitals purchased a da Vinci S(®) robot in June 2006 and Strasbourg has, in IRCAD, one of the few robotic surgery training centres in the world. Our experience has, however, revealed the difficulties involved in setting up robotic surgery, the first of which are organizational issues. This prospective work was carried out between December 2007 and September 2008, primarily to examine the possibility of setting up robotic surgery on a regular basis for gynaecological surgical procedures at the Strasbourg University Hospitals. We maintained a "logbook" in which we prospectively noted all the resources implemented in setting up the robotic surgery service. The project was divided into two phases: the preparatory phase up until the first hysterectomy and then the second phase with the organization of subsequent hysterectomies. The first surgical procedure took 5 months to organize, and followed 25 interviews, 10 meetings, 53 telephone conversations and 48 e-mails with a total of 40 correspondents. The project was presented to seven separate groups, including the hospital medical commission, the gynaecology unit committee and the surgical staff. Fifteen members of the medical and paramedical team attended a two-day training course. Preparing the gynaecology department for robotic surgery required freeing up 8.5 days of "physician time" and 12.5 days of "nurse time". In the following five months, we performed five hysterectomies. Preparation for each procedure involved on average 5 interviews, 19 telephone conversations and 11 e-mails. The biggest obstacle was obtaining an operating slot, as on average it required 18 days, four telephone calls and four e-mails to be assigned a slot in the operating theatre schedule, which is

  5. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Facilitating Active Learning of Concepts in Transport Phenomena: Experiment with a Subliming Solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utgikar, Vivek P.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment based on the sublimation of a solid was introduced in the undergraduate Transport Phenomena course. The experiment required the students to devise their own apparatus and measurement techniques. The theoretical basis, assignment of the experiment, experimental results, and student/instructor observations are described in this paper.…

  6. Gaslini's tracheal team: preliminary experience after one year of paediatric airway reconstructive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre Michele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background congenital and acquired airway anomalies represent a relatively common albeit challenging problem in a national tertiary care hospital. In the past, most of these patients were sent to foreign Centres because of the lack of local experience in reconstructive surgery of the paediatric airway. In 2009, a dedicated team was established at our Institute. Gaslini's Tracheal Team includes different professionals, namely anaesthetists, intensive care specialists, neonatologists, pulmonologists, radiologists, and ENT, paediatric, and cardiovascular surgeons. The aim of this project was to provide these multidisciplinary patients, at any time, with intensive care, radiological investigations, diagnostic and operative endoscopy, reconstructive surgery, ECMO or cardiopulmonary bypass. Aim of this study is to present the results of the first year of airway reconstructive surgery activity of the Tracheal Team. Methods between September 2009 and December 2010, 97 patients were evaluated or treated by our Gaslini Tracheal Team. Most of them were evaluated by both rigid and flexible endoscopy. In this study we included 8 patients who underwent reconstructive surgery of the airways. Four of them were referred to our centre or previously treated surgically or endoscopically without success in other Centres. Results Eight patients required 9 surgical procedures on the airway: 4 cricotracheal resections, 2 laryngotracheoplasties, 1 tracheal resection, 1 repair of laryngeal cleft and 1 foreign body removal with cardiopulmonary bypass through anterior tracheal opening. Moreover, in 1 case secondary aortopexy was performed. All patients achieved finally good results, but two of them required two surgeries and most required endoscopic manoeuvres after surgery. The most complex cases were the ones who had already been previously treated. Conclusions The treatment of paediatric airway anomalies requires a dedicated multidisciplinary approach and a

  7. Hepatobilio-pancreatic robotic surgery: initial experience from a single center institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Yolanda; Vicente, Emilio; Ielpo, Benedetto; Duran, Hipolito; Diaz, Eduardo; Fabra, Isabel; Malave, Luis; Ferri, Valentina; Plaza, Carlos; Lindemann, Jan Lammel; D'Andrea, Vito; Caruso, Riccardo

    2016-12-30

    The use of robotic surgery in the hepatobilio-pancreatic (HBP) field is still limited. Our aim is to present our early experience of robotic liver resection. A retrospective review of robotic pancreatic and liver resection was performed at Sanchinarro University hospital from October 2010 to April 2016. Since the beginning of the robotic program in our center, 22 hepatic procedures and 45 pancreatic robotic procedures have been performed. Of the 21 patients subjected to liver resection, 13 (65%) were for malignancy. There were two left hepatectomies, one right hepatectomy, one associated liver partition and portal vein ligation staged procedure (both steps by robotic approach), three bisegmentectomies and three segmentectomies, eight wedge resections, and three pericystectomies. The mean operating time was 282 min. The overall conversion rate and postoperative complication rate were 4.7 and 19%, respectively. The mean length of hospital stay was 13.4 days (range 4-64 days). Of the 45 patients subjected to pancreatic resection, 22 were male and 23 female. The average age of all patients was 62 years (range 31-82 years). The mean operating room (OR) time was 370 min (120-780 min). Among the procedures performed were 15 pancreatico-duodenectomies, 19 distal pancreatectomies, and 11 enucleations. All procedures in the HBP area were R0. Our early experience shows that robotic surgery is a safe and feasible procedure in the HBP area. The complication and mortality rates are comparable to those of open surgery, but with the advantages of minimally invasive surgery.

  8. An excellent navigation system and experience in craniomaxillofacial navigation surgery: a double-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiewen; Wu, Jinyang; Wang, Xudong; Yang, Xudong; Wu, Yunong; Xu, Bing; Shi, Jun; Yu, Hongbo; Cai, Min; Zhang, Wenbin; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Hao; Shen, Guofang; Zhang, Shilei

    2016-06-16

    Numerous problems regarding craniomaxillofacial navigation surgery are not well understood. In this study, we performed a double-center clinical study to quantitatively evaluate the characteristics of our navigation system and experience in craniomaxillofacial navigation surgery. Fifty-six patients with craniomaxillofacial disease were included and randomly divided into experimental (using our AccuNavi-A system) and control (using Strker system) groups to compare the surgical effects. The results revealed that the average pre-operative planning time was 32.32 mins vs 29.74 mins between the experimental and control group, respectively (p > 0.05). The average operative time was 295.61 mins vs 233.56 mins (p > 0.05). The point registration orientation accuracy was 0.83 mm vs 0.92 mm. The maximal average preoperative navigation orientation accuracy was 1.03 mm vs 1.17 mm. The maximal average persistent navigation orientation accuracy was 1.15 mm vs 0.09 mm. The maximal average navigation orientation accuracy after registration recovery was 1.15 mm vs 1.39 mm between the experimental and control group. All patients healed, and their function and profile improved. These findings demonstrate that although surgeons should consider the patients' time and monetary costs, our qualified navigation surgery system and experience could offer an accurate guide during a variety of craniomaxillofacial surgeries.

  9. A Global Remote Laboratory Experimentation Network and the Experiment Service Provider Business Model and Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Ivar Eikaas

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from the IST KAII Trial project ReLAX - Remote LAboratory eXperimentation trial (IST 1999-20827, and contributes with a framework for a global remote laboratory experimentation network supported by a new business model. The paper presents this new Experiment Service Provider business model that aims at bringing physical experimentation back into the learning arena, where remotely operable laboratory experiments used in advanced education and training schemes are made available to a global education and training market in industry and academia. The business model is based on an approach where individual experiment owners offer remote access to their high-quality laboratory facilities to users around the world. The usage can be for research, education, on-the-job training etc. The access to these facilities is offered via an independent operating company - the Experiment Service Provider. The Experiment Service Provider offers eCommerce services like booking, access control, invoicing, dispute resolution, quality control, customer evaluation services and a unified Lab Portal.

  10. Insights From Laboratory Experiments On Simulated Faults With Application To Fracture Evolution In Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen L. Karner, Ph.D

    2006-06-01

    Laboratory experiments provide a wealth of information related to mechanics of fracture initiation, fracture propagation processes, factors influencing fault strength, and spatio-temporal evolution of fracture properties. Much of the existing literature reports on laboratory studies involving a coupling of thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and/or chemical processes. As these processes operate within subsurface environments exploited for their energy resource, laboratory results provide insights into factors influencing the mechanical and hydraulic properties of geothermal systems. I report on laboratory observations of strength and fluid transport properties during deformation of simulated faults. The results show systematic trends that vary with stress state, deformation rate, thermal conditions, fluid content, and rock composition. When related to geophysical and geologic measurements obtained from engineered geothermal systems (e.g. microseismicity, wellbore studies, tracer analysis), laboratory results provide a means by which the evolving thermal reservoir can be interpreted in terms of physico-chemical processes. For example, estimates of energy release and microearthquake locations from seismic moment tensor analysis can be related to strength variations observed from friction experiments. Such correlations between laboratory and field data allow for better interpretations about the evolving mechanical and fluid transport properties in the geothermal reservoir – ultimately leading to improvements in managing the resource.

  11. Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy With Comprehensive Development of the Physical Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Golden, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This book presents experiments which will teach physics relevant to astronomy. The astronomer, as instructor, frequently faces this need when his college or university has no astronomy department and any astronomy course is taught in the physics department. The physicist, as instructor, will find this intellectually appealing when faced with teaching an introductory astronomy course. From these experiments, the student will acquire important analytical tools, learn physics appropriate to astronomy, and experience instrument calibration and the direct gathering and analysis of data. Experiments that can be performed in one laboratory session as well as semester-long observation projects are included. This textbook is aimed at undergraduate astronomy students.

  12. Influence of Arousal, Previous Experience, and Age on Surgery Preparation of Same Day of Surgery and In-Hospital Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Jan; Melamed, Barbara G.

    1984-01-01

    Studied two pediatric surgery populations (N=66) to determine differences in retention of preparatory information. Results showed that children exposed to a hospital-relevant film retained more information than those children not prepared regardless of age, IQ, previous experience, sex, and time of film preparation. (LLL)

  13. The generation and amplification of intergalactic magnetic fields in analogue laboratory experiments with high power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, G.; Reville, B.; Miniati, F.

    2015-11-01

    The advent of high-power laser facilities has, in the past two decades, opened a new field of research where astrophysical environments can be scaled down to laboratory dimensions, while preserving the essential physics. This is due to the invariance of the equations of magneto-hydrodynamics to a class of similarity transformations. Here we review the relevant scaling relations and their application in laboratory astrophysics experiments with a focus on the generation and amplification of magnetic fields in cosmic environment. The standard model for the origin of magnetic fields is a multi stage process whereby a vanishing magnetic seed is first generated by a rotational electric field and is then amplified by turbulent dynamo action to the characteristic values observed in astronomical bodies. We thus discuss the relevant seed generation mechanisms in cosmic environment including resistive mechanism, collision-less and fluid instabilities, as well as novel laboratory experiments using high power laser systems aimed at investigating the amplification of magnetic energy by magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. Future directions, including efforts to model in the laboratory the process of diffusive shock acceleration are also discussed, with an emphasis on the potential of laboratory experiments to further our understanding of plasma physics on cosmic scales.

  14. The laboratory of the mind thought experiments in the natural sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, James Robert

    1993-01-01

    Thought experiments are performed in the laboratory of the mind. Beyond this metaphor it is difficult to say just what these remarkable devices for investigating nature are or how they work. Though most scientists and philosophers would admit their great importance, there has been very little serious study of them. This volume is the first book-length investigation of thought experiments. Starting with Galileo's argument on falling bodies, Brown describes numerous examples of the most influential thought experiments from the history of science. Following this introduction to the subject, some substantial and provocative claims are made, the principle being that some thought experiments should be understood in the same way that platonists understand mathematical activity: as an intellectual grasp of an independently existing abstract realm. With its clarity of style and structure, The Laboratory of the Mind will find readers among all philosophers of science as well as scientists who have puzzled over how thou...

  15. Does operative experience during residency correlate with reported competency of recent general surgery graduates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Arash; Lai, Sarah; Butterworth, Sonia; Hameed, Morad; Schiller, Dan; Skarsgard, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Identification of attributes of residency training that predict competency would improve surgical education. We hypothesized that case experience during residency would correlate with self-reported competency of recent graduates. Methods Aggregate case log data of residents enrolled in 2 general surgery programs were collected over a 12-month period and stratified into Surgical Council on Resident Education (SCORE) categories. We surveyed recent (surgery (4, 0.04%), and the least common EU procedure was abdomen–spleen (1, 0.1%). The questionnaire response rate was 45%. For EC procedures, self-reported competency was highest in skin and soft tissue, thoracic and head and neck (each 100%) and lowest in vascular–venous (54%), whereas for EU procedures it was highest in abdomen–general (100%) and lowest in vascular–arterial (62%). The correlation between case volume and self-reported competency was poor (R = 0.2 for EC procedures). Conclusion Self-reported competency correlates poorly with operative case experience during residency. Other curriculum factors, including specific rotations and timing, balance between inpatient and outpatient surgical experience and competition for cases, may contribute to procedural competency acquisition during residency. PMID:22854144

  16. Early clinical experience with a new preloaded one-piece intraocular lens in paediatric cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, D B; Chan, T K J

    2016-09-01

    PurposeTo report the clinical experience of using the Tecnis PCB00 (Abbott Medical Optics, Santa Ana, CA, USA) preloaded one-piece intraocular lens (IOL) in the setting of a tertiary referral centre for paediatric cataract.MethodsA retrospective case note review of all paediatric cataract surgeries using the Tecnis PCB00 IOL, at a single UK paediatric ophthalmology department.ResultsNine eyes in seven patients received the IOL between December 2014 and January 2016. All patients underwent lens aspiration and insertion of the IOL 'in the bag.' The indications for surgery included developmental cataract (8/9) and traumatic cataract (1/9). Mean age at the time of surgery was 7 years (range 2-14). The median improvement in logMAR best-corrected visual acuity was 0.475 (range 0.250-1.500). The mean follow-up duration was 5 months (range 1-13). No operative or post-operative complications occurred as a result of using the device.ConclusionThe Tecnis PCB00 preloaded IOL appears to be a safe and effective device in treating paediatric cataract.

  17. Use of natural user interfaces for image navigation during laparoscopic surgery: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A; Moyano-Cuevas, José L; Pérez, Eva María; Maestre, Juan

    2017-03-28

    Surgical environments require special aseptic conditions for direct interaction with the preoperative images. We aim to test the feasibility of using a set of gesture control sensors combined with voice control to interact in a sterile manner with preoperative information and an integrated operating room (OR) during laparoscopic surgery. Two hepatectomies and two partial nephrectomies were performed by three experienced surgeons in a porcine model. The Kinect, Leap Motion, and MYO armband in combination with voice control were used as natural user interfaces (NUIs). After surgery, surgeons completed a questionnaire about their experience. Surgeons required <10 min training with each NUI. They stated that NUIs improved the access to preoperative patient information and kept them more focused on the surgical site. The Kinect system was reported as the most physically demanding NUI and the MYO armband in combination with voice commands as the most intuitive and accurate. The need to release one of the laparoscopic instruments in order to use the NUIs was identified as the main limitation. The presented NUIs are feasible to directly interact in a more intuitive and sterile manner with the preoperative images and the integrated OR functionalities during laparoscopic surgery.

  18. [Initial clinical experience with deep sclerectomy in ambulatory surgery in glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrová, S; Pesková, H; Lesták, J

    1999-01-01

    Deep sclerectomy is a non-perforating filtering operation used in surgical treatment of open angle glaucomas. The advantage of the operation is the creation of gradual filtration due to the thin trabecular Descement membrane which reduces markedly the risk of development of postoperative complications typical for perforating antiglaucomatous operations. The authors operated at the out-patient department 10 eyes of 8 patients (age 46-81 years). Indications for deep sclerectomy was seven times primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), once capsular glaucoma and twice normotensive glaucoma (NTG). In all eyes deep sclerectomy was indicated because of decompensation of the intraocular pressure with maximum tolerated therapy before surgery. None of the eyes were operated previously. The mean value of intraocular pressure before surgery was 25.1 +/- 6.5 mm Hg. From the results ensues that in nine operated eyes the intraocular pressure at the end of the 6-month follow-up period was compensated without supplementary therapy, only in one eye beta-blockers were prescribed one month after surgery. The cause of failure of filtration was the development of superficial adherence at the site of microperforatiion of the trabecular Descemet membrane which developed during operation. The mean intraocular pressure values at the end of the investigation period were 14.3 +/- 2.8 mm Hg. In two eyes haemorrhage into the anterior chamber was observed on the first day after surgery, the blood was absorbed within 24 hours. Hypotonia in two eyes was only transient and was not associated with a change in the depth of the anterior chamber or other complications. In none of the patients a decline of visual acuity was observed. In three operated eyes a change of refraction was necessary due to discontinuation of miotics after surgery. Deep sclerectomy is a delicate microsurgical technique which calls for experience and skill of the surgeon. The most complicated task is to prevent perforation of the

  19. Experience with dedicated geriatric surgical consult services: Meeting the need for surgery in the frail elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie E Hardin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosemarie E Hardin1, Thierry Le Jemtel2, Michael E Zenilman11Department of Surgery, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Tulane Medical Center, New Orleans, LA, USABackground: Surgeons are increasingly faced with consultation for intervention in residents of geriatric centers or in patients who suffer from end stage medical disease. We review our experience with consult services dedicated to the needs of these frail patients.Study design: Patients were prospectively followed after being evaluated by three different geriatric surgical consult services: Group 1 was based at a geriatric center associated with a tertiary medical center, Group 2 was based at a community geriatric center, and Group 3 was based with an hospital-based service for ambulatory patients with end stage congestive heart failure.Results: A total of 256 frail elderly patients underwent of 311 general surgical procedures ranging from major abdominal and vascular procedures to minor procedures such as debridement of decubitus ulcers, long-term intravenous access, enterostomy and enteral tube placement. Almost half of the surgical volume in Group 1 and 3 were ‘maintenance’ (decubitus debridement, long term intravenous or stomal or tube care; all of Group 2 were for treatment of decubiti. There was minimal morbidity and mortality from surgery itself, and overall one year survival for Groups 1, 2, and 3 was 46%, 60%, and 79%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that each group had its own unique indicators of decreased survival: Group 1 dementia and coronary artery disease, in Group 2 gender and coronary artery disease, and Group 3, gender alone. Age, number of comorbid illnesses, and type of surgery (major vs minor were not significant indicators.Conclusions: This is the first review of the role of dedicated surgical consult services which focused on residents of geriatric centers and frail elderly. Conditions routinely encountered

  20. Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment: Electrocoagulation of Oily Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Jorge G.; Takimoto, Martha M.; Vasquez, Ruben C.; Basak, Sanjay; Myung, Noseung; Rajeshwar, Krishnan

    1995-11-01

    A laboratory experiment illustrating the principle and application of electrocoagulation is described using oil-water emulsions as the medium to be treated and iron as the anode. The destabilized oil droplets are shown to be separated from the aqueous phase via electrolysis and iron hydrooxide coagulant formation. This simple experiment is shown to afford opportunities for exploring concepts related to colloid chemistry, electrochemistry, corrosion, and analytical chemistry.

  1. Lecture Meets Laboratory - Experimental Experiences for Large Audiences: Concept and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Temmen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lecture courses are an integral part of academia with a long tradition. The efficiency of such courses can be notably increased by active participation of students in the learning process. This article will elaborate on a re-structuring of an engineering lecture attended by more than 400 students; during the course, laboratory experiments are integrated directly into the lecture, allowing students to gain their own practical experience.

  2. Laboratory experiments on current flow between stationary and moving electrodes in magnetoplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Reiner L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed in order to investigate the basic physics of current flow between tethered electrodes in magnetoplasmas. The major findings are summarized. The experiments are performed in an effectively very large laboratory plasma in which not only the nonlinear current collection is addressed but also the propagation and spread of currents, the formation of current wings by moving electrodes, the current closure, and radiation from transmission lines. The laboratory plasma consists of a pulsed dc discharge whose Maxwellian afterglow provides a quiescent, current-free uniform background plasma. Electrodes consisting of collectors and electron emitters are inserted into the plasma and a pulsed voltage is applied between two floating electrodes via insulated transmission lines. Besides the applied current in the wire, the total current density in the plasma is obtained from space and time resolved magnetic probe measurements via Maxwell's law. Langmuir probes yield the plasma parameters.

  3. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A DERIVATIVE CYCLOHEXANONE CHALCONE-TYPE, AS AN INTEGRAL LABORATORY EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla E. Hernández-González

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, chemistry teachers are searching new models that allow integrative laboratory experiences, converging interdisciplinary knowledge of the Chemistry field. With this framework of ideas, this work describes the synthesis and characterization of the (2E,6E-2,6-bis(4-methoxybenzylidenecyclohexanone compound as axis of knowledge in order to encourage the students to develop their cognitive skills, such as critical thinking and problem solving, and also interpretation and analysis of results. The compound was synthesized by a Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction, involving an aromatic aldehyde and cyclohexanone. The compound was characterized spectroscopically by NMR, IR and UV-Vis. Melting point and solubility tests were also performed. The chemical structure was confirmed by single crystal X-Ray diffraction. In conclusion, this laboratory experience allows students to get involved with the techniques and procedures commonly used in the organic chemistry laboratory to the synthesis and characterization of organic compounds.

  4. Pediatric Vascular Surgery Review with a 30-Year-Experience in a Tertiary Referral Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seung-Kee; Cho, Sungsin; Kim, Hyun-Young; Kim, Sang Joon

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric vascular disease is rare, and remains a big challenge to vascular surgeons. In contrast to adults, surgery for pediatric vascular disease is complicated by issues related to small size, future growth, and availability of suitable vascular conduit. During the last 30 years, 131 major vascular operations were performed in a tertiary referral center, Seoul National University Hospital, including aortoiliac aneurysm, acute or chronic arterial occlusion, renovascular hypertension, portal venous hypertension, trauma, tumor invasion to major abdominal vessels, and others. Herein we review on the important pediatric vascular diseases and share our clinical experiences on these rare diseases. PMID:28690995

  5. In vivo experiments of a surgical robot with vision field control for Single Port Endoscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yuta; Kobayashi, Yo; Watanabe, Hiroki; Tomono, Yu; Noguchi, Takehiko; Takahashi, Yu; Toyoda, Kazutaka; Uemura, Munenori; Ieiri, Satoshi; Ohdaira, Takeshi; Tomikawa, Morimasa; Hashizume, Makoto; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2011-01-01

    Recently, robotics systems are focused to assist in Single Port Endoscopic Surgery (SPS). However, the existing system required a manual operation of vision and viewpoint, hindering the surgical task. We proposed a surgical endoscopic robot for SPS with dynamic vision control, the endoscopic view being manipulated by a master controller. The prototype robot consists of a manipulator for vision control, and dual tool tissue manipulators (gripping: 5DOFs, cautery: 3DOFs) can be attached at the tip of sheath manipulator. In particular, this paper focuses on an in vivo experiment. We showed that vision control in the stomach and a cautery task by a cautery tool could be effectively achieved.

  6. Sex reassignment surgery for male to female transsexuals: initial experience in Okayama university hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagai,Atsushi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The first case of sex reassignment surgery (SRS in our hospital was performed in January 2001; as of February, 2005, 4 cases of MTF-SRS had been performed. In the 2 most recent cases, we used penile and scrotal skin flaps to avoid complications. The depth and width of the new vagina was made to be adequate for sexual intercourse. Future attention should be focused on devising a surgical technique that will help prevent the complications of partial necrosis of the epidermal skin and wound dehiscence. Although ours is only an initial experience, we describe our surgical technique herein.

  7. Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Alokya P.; Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in ocean acidity since preindustrial times may have deleterious consequences for marine organisms, particularly those with calcareous structures. We present a laboratory experiment to investigate this impact with general, introductory, environmental, and nonmajors chemistry students. For simplicity and homogeneity, calcite was…

  8. Designing Experiments on Thermal Interactions by Secondary-School Students in a Simulated Laboratory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkos, Ioannis; Psillos, Dimitris; Hatzikraniotis, Euripides

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of investigative activities with manipulations in a virtual laboratory on students' ability to design experiments. Sample: Fourteen students in a lower secondary school in Greece attended a teaching sequence on thermal phenomena based on the use of information and…

  9. Bacterial Production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate): An Undergraduate Student Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kristi L.; Oldham, Charlie D.; May, Sheldon W.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary course that is cross-listed between five departments, we developed an undergraduate student laboratory experiment for culturing, isolating, and purifying the biopolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), PHB. This biopolyester accumulates in the cytoplasm of bacterial cells under specific growth conditions, and it has…

  10. Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Insecticides from Juice: An Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Samantha A.; Hunter, Ronald E., Jr.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ryan, P. Barry

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to target analytical chemistry students and to teach them about insecticides in food, sample extraction, and cleanup. Micro concentrations (sub-microgram/mL levels) of 12 insecticides spiked into apple juice samples are extracted using liquid-liquid extraction and cleaned up using either a primary-secondary…

  11. Understanding Fluorescence Measurements through a Guided-Inquiry and Discovery Experiment in Advanced Analytical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek-Vera, Grazyna; Salin, Eric Dunbar

    2011-01-01

    An experiment on fluorescence spectroscopy suitable for an advanced analytical laboratory is presented. Its conceptual development used a combination of the expository and discovery styles. The "learn-as-you-go" and direct "hands-on" methodology applied ensures an active role for a student in the process of visualization and discovery of concepts.…

  12. Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Alokya P.; Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in ocean acidity since preindustrial times may have deleterious consequences for marine organisms, particularly those with calcareous structures. We present a laboratory experiment to investigate this impact with general, introductory, environmental, and nonmajors chemistry students. For simplicity and homogeneity, calcite was…

  13. Gravimetric Analysis of Bismuth in Bismuth Subsalicylate Tablets: A Versatile Quantitative Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric; Cheung, Ken; Pauls, Steve; Dick, Jonathan; Roth, Elijah; Zalewski, Nicole; Veldhuizen, Christopher; Coeler, Joel

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, lower- and upper-division students dissolved bismuth subsalicylate tablets in acid and precipitated the resultant Bi[superscript 3+] in solution with sodium phosphate for a gravimetric determination of bismuth subsalicylate in the tablets. With a labeled concentration of 262 mg/tablet, the combined data from three…

  14. Nitration of Phenols Using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2]: Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Urvashi; Mande, Hemant; Ghalsasi, Prasanna

    2012-01-01

    An easy-to-complete, microwave-assisted, green chemistry, electrophilic nitration method for phenol using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2] in acetic acid is discussed. With this experiment, students clearly understand the mechanism underlying the nitration reaction in one laboratory session. (Contains 4 schemes.)

  15. X-Ray Diffraction of Intermetallic Compounds: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Skakuj, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students synthesize the intermetallic compounds AlNi and AlNi3 and study them by X-ray diffractometry. The compounds are synthesized in a simple one-step reaction occurring in the solid state. Powder X-ray diffractograms are recorded for the two compounds…

  16. Microwave-Assisted Esterification: A Discovery-Based Microscale Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Maureen K.; King, Ryan P.; Wagner, Alexander J.; King, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    An undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment has been developed that features a discovery-based microscale Fischer esterification utilizing a microwave reactor. Students individually synthesize a unique ester from known sets of alcohols and carboxylic acids. Each student identifies the best reaction conditions given their particular…

  17. The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: Measuring Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsionsky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The study explains the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique, which is often used as an undergraduate laboratory experiment for measuring the mass of a system. QCM can be used as a mass sensor only when the measured mass is rigidly attached to the surface.

  18. Coulometric Titration of Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) with Spectrophotometric Endpoint Detection: An Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.; Young, Vaneica Y.; Killian, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is commonly used as an anticoagulant in blood-collection procedures. In this experiment for the instrumental analysis laboratory, students determine the quantity of EDTA in commercial collection tubes by coulometric titration with electrolytically generated Cu[superscript 2+]. The endpoint is detected…

  19. The effect of noise in a performance measure on work motivation: A real effort laboratory experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; van Praag, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an individual real effort laboratory experiment where subjects are paid for measured performance. Measured performance equals actual performance plus noise. We compare a stable environment where the noise is small with a volatile environment where the noise is

  20. Non-stop lab week: A real laboratory experience for life sciences postgraduate courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Maria João; Silva, Joana Vieira; Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Fardilha, Margarida

    2016-05-01

    At the Portuguese universities, practical classes of life sciences are usually professor-centered 2-hour classes. This approach results in students underprepared for a real work environment in a research/clinical laboratory. To provide students with a real-life laboratory environment, the Non-Stop Lab Week (NSLW) was created in the Molecular Biomedicine master program at the University of Aveiro, Portugal. The unique feature of the NSLW is its intensity: during a 1-week period, students perform a subcloning and a protein expression project in an environment that mimics a real laboratory. Students work autonomously, and the progression of work depends on achieving the daily goals. Throughout the three curricular years, most students considered the intensity of the NSLW a very good experience and fundamental for their future. Moreover, after some experience in a real laboratory, students state that both the techniques and the environment created in the NSLW were similar to what they experience in their current work situation. The NSLW fulfills a gap in postgraduate students' learning, particularly in practical skills and scientific thinking. Furthermore, the NSLW experience provides skills to the students that are crucial to their future research area. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:297-303, 2016.

  1. Transitioning from Expository Laboratory Experiments to Course-Based Undergraduate Research in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ted M.; Ricciardo, Rebecca; Weaver, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    General chemistry courses predominantly use expository experiments that shape student expectations of what a laboratory activity entails. Shifting within a semester to course-based undergraduate research activities that include greater decision-making, collaborative work, and "messy" real-world data necessitates a change in student…

  2. Reform in a General Chemistry Laboratory: How Do Students Experience Change in the Instructional Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, I.; O'Connor, J.; Pancho, R.; Chrzanowski, M.; Sandi-Urena, S.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the experience of a cohort of students exposed consecutively to two substantially different environments in their General Chemistry Laboratory programme. To this end, the first semester in a traditional expository programme was followed by a semester in a cooperative, problem-based, multi-week format. The focus…

  3. If you pay peanuts: a laboratory experiment on reward schemes in employment service contracting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meerendonk, A.; Onderstal, S.

    2010-01-01

    The design of tenders and contracts is a crucial factor in the success or failure of the contracting-out of reintegration services. In a laboratory experiment with professionals from private reintegration service providers, we tested two tender designs. In the first design, the government announces

  4. Development of a Web-Enabled Learning Platform for Geospatial Laboratories: Improving the Undergraduate Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Amy B.; Nelson, Sarah; Huang, Bruce; He, Yuhong; Wilson, Kathi

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a web-enabled learning platform providing remote access to geospatial software that extends the learning experience outside of the laboratory setting. The platform was piloted in two undergraduate courses, and includes a software server, a data server, and remote student users. The platform was designed to improve the quality…

  5. Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient Particle-in-a-Box Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantum-dot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantum-dot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;…

  6. Thermodynamics of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) Micellization: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolongo, Juan P.; Mirenda, Martin

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is presented that allows a thermodynamic characterization of micelle formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solutions. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the degree of micelle ionization (alpha) are obtained at different temperatures by conductimetry. The molar standard free energy…

  7. Variability of Biological Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Aerobic Aquifer Determined by Laboratory Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    The biological aerobic degradation of 7 aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, p-dichlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene and biphenyl) was studied for 149 days in replicate laboratory batch experiments with groundwater and sediment from 8 localities representing a 15 m × 30 m...

  8. If you pay peanuts: a laboratory experiment on reward schemes in employment service contracting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meerendonk, A.; Onderstal, S.

    2010-01-01

    The design of tenders and contracts is a crucial factor in the success or failure of the contracting-out of reintegration services. In a laboratory experiment with professionals from private reintegration service providers, we tested two tender designs. In the first design, the government announces

  9. Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Insecticides from Juice: An Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Samantha A.; Hunter, Ronald E., Jr.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ryan, P. Barry

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to target analytical chemistry students and to teach them about insecticides in food, sample extraction, and cleanup. Micro concentrations (sub-microgram/mL levels) of 12 insecticides spiked into apple juice samples are extracted using liquid-liquid extraction and cleaned up using either a primary-secondary…

  10. Determination of Mercury in Milk by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence: A Green Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Green analytical chemistry principles were introduced to undergraduate students in a laboratory experiment focused on determining the mercury concentration in cow and goat milk. In addition to traditional goals, such as accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and limits of detection in method selection and development, attention was paid to the…

  11. The effect of noise in a performance measure on work motivation: A real effort laboratory experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; van Praag, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an individual real effort laboratory experiment where subjects are paid for measured performance. Measured performance equals actual performance plus noise. We compare a stable environment where the noise is small with a volatile environment where the noise is large

  12. Book Review "Advances on remote laboratories and e-learning experiences"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A. del Alamo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Book Review "Advances on remote laboratories and e-learning experiences", book editors: Luís Gomes and Javier García-Zubía, University of Deusto, Spain. Reviewed by Jesús A. del Alamo, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, M.I.T.

  13. Suitability of coarse-grade gypsum for sodic soil reclamation: a laboratory experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshout, van den S.; Kamphorst, A.

    1990-01-01

    Costs of sodic soil reclamation can be reduced when coarse-grade gypsum is used, as the production and transport prices of this gypsum are much lower than that of agricultural-grade gypsum. In a feasibility study laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the leaching water requirements for f

  14. X-Ray Diffraction of Intermetallic Compounds: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Skakuj, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students synthesize the intermetallic compounds AlNi and AlNi3 and study them by X-ray diffractometry. The compounds are synthesized in a simple one-step reaction occurring in the solid state. Powder X-ray diffractograms are recorded for the two compounds…

  15. Nitration of Phenols Using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2]: Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Urvashi; Mande, Hemant; Ghalsasi, Prasanna

    2012-01-01

    An easy-to-complete, microwave-assisted, green chemistry, electrophilic nitration method for phenol using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2] in acetic acid is discussed. With this experiment, students clearly understand the mechanism underlying the nitration reaction in one laboratory session. (Contains 4 schemes.)

  16. Transitioning from Expository Laboratory Experiments to Course-Based Undergraduate Research in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ted M.; Ricciardo, Rebecca; Weaver, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    General chemistry courses predominantly use expository experiments that shape student expectations of what a laboratory activity entails. Shifting within a semester to course-based undergraduate research activities that include greater decision-making, collaborative work, and "messy" real-world data necessitates a change in student…

  17. Measurement of the Compressibility Factor of Gases: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Bendelsmith, Andrew J.; Kuwata, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students measure the compressibility factor of two gases, helium and carbon dioxide, as a function of pressure at constant temperature. The experimental apparatus is relatively inexpensive to construct and is described and diagrammed in detail.…

  18. A Stopped-Flow Kinetics Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Using Noncorrosive Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigodich, Richard V.

    2014-01-01

    Stopped-flow kinetics techniques are important to the study of rapid chemical and biochemical reactions. Incorporation of a stopped-flow kinetics experiment into the physical chemistry laboratory curriculum would therefore be an instructive addition. However, the usual reactions studied in such exercises employ a corrosive reagent that can over…

  19. Early experience with the Intel iPSC/860 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, M.T.; Geist, G.A.; Drake, J.B.

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the early experience in using the Intel iPSC/860 parallel supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The hardware and software are described in some detail, and the machine's performance is studied using both simple computational kernels and a number of complete applications programs. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Early experience with the Intel iPSC/860 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, M.T.; Geist, G.A.; Drake, J.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US))

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the early experience in using the Intel iPSC/860 parallel supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The hardware and software are described in some detail, and the machine's performance is studied using both simple computational kernels and a number of complete applications programs.

  1. Measurement of the Compressibility Factor of Gases: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Bendelsmith, Andrew J.; Kuwata, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students measure the compressibility factor of two gases, helium and carbon dioxide, as a function of pressure at constant temperature. The experimental apparatus is relatively inexpensive to construct and is described and diagrammed in detail.…

  2. A Stopped-Flow Kinetics Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Using Noncorrosive Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigodich, Richard V.

    2014-01-01

    Stopped-flow kinetics techniques are important to the study of rapid chemical and biochemical reactions. Incorporation of a stopped-flow kinetics experiment into the physical chemistry laboratory curriculum would therefore be an instructive addition. However, the usual reactions studied in such exercises employ a corrosive reagent that can over…

  3. Patient experiences of adjusting to life in the first 2 years after bariatric surgery: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Y; Hayes, C; Small, P K; Mahawar, K; Ling, J

    2017-10-01

    There is currently little research into the experiences of those who have undergone bariatric surgery, or how surgery affects their lives and social interactions. Adopting a constructivist grounded theory methodological approach with a constant comparative analytical framework, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 18 participants (11 female, 7 male) who had undergone permanent bariatric surgical procedures 5-24 months prior to interview. Findings revealed that participants regarded social encounters after bariatric surgery as underpinned by risk. Their attitudes towards social situations guided their social interaction with others. Three profiles of attitudes towards risk were constructed: Risk Accepters, Risk Contenders and Risk Challengers. Profiles were based on participant-reported narratives of their experiences in the first two years after surgery. The social complexities which occurred as a consequence of bariatric surgery required adjustments to patients' lives. Participants reported that social aspects of bariatric surgery did not appear to be widely understood by those who have not undergone bariatric surgery. The three risk attitude profiles that emerged from our data offer an understanding of how patients adjust to life after surgery and can be used reflexively by healthcare professionals to support both patients pre- and post-operatively. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  4. Copper sulphate reduces the metabolic activity of Gammarus fossarum in laboratory and field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidlin, Lara, E-mail: lara.schmidlin@unibas.ch; Fumetti, Stefanie von; Nagel, Peter

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Copper-contaminated food significantly reduces the ETS activity of G. fossarum. • The ETS and feeding activity of G. fossarum were significantly higher in the lab. • A combination of test chamber experiments in the laboratory and field is optimal. - Abstract: The specialised fauna of freshwater springs is affected by contamination of the water with xenobiotics from human activities in the surrounding landscape. We assessed the effects of exposure to toxins in laboratory and field experiments by using copper sulphate as a model substance and Gammarus fossarum Koch, 1836, as the model organism. This amphipod is a common representative of the European spring fauna and copper is a widespread contaminant, mainly from agricultural practice. The experiments were conducted in test chambers placed in flow channels and directly in a spring. The gammarids were fed with conditioned beech leaf discs, which had been exposed to a 0.8 mg Cu/L solution for 96 h. The feeding activity of the amphipods was quantified on the level of the organism; and the respiratory electron transport system (ETS) assay was conducted in order to determine changes on the cellular level in the test organisms. The results show that the feeding activity, when the leaf discs were contaminated with copper, was not significantly different from the control. The ETS activity of the gammarids, which had been feeding on the copper contaminated leaf discs was however significantly reduced. The results followed the same pattern for gammarids from both the laboratory and the spring. By conducting the experiments not only in a laboratory but also directly in a spring in the field, we took a crucial step towards a more realistic approach when examining environmental pollutants on an organism. Our findings demonstrate the importance of conducting experiments out in the field, in natural conditions, as well as in the laboratory.

  5. Designing and interpreting laboratory experiments for hydrodynamical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes in rivers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    In this talk, I will articulate a general philosophy for the design of laboratory experiments for fluvial processes; discuss important concepts of scaling, scale limitation, and process coupling that should be considered in designing experiments and interpreting experimental results; and provide concrete examples of how this approach can be used to probe river mechanics, sedimentary biogeochemistry, benthic/hyporheic ecology, and downstream migration of reactive solutes and particles. It is challenging to design laboratory experiments to probe fluvial processes because river systems show extremely strong interactions over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Biological and ecological processes are especially difficult to study in the laboratory because they are influenced by a wide range of system conditions, and we do not currently have a strong theoretical basis to quantitatively generalize experimental observations. Further, many seemingly basic and invariant chemical and biological properties - such as sorption coefficients, reaction rate constants, respiration rates, and nutrient uptake rates - change over space and time in fluvial systems because these environments are highly dynamic over a wide range of temporal scales, show strong longitudinal connectivity, and have strong heterogeneity in the surrounding and underlying sediments. Laboratory studies can be used to systematically investigate these effects, thereby providing considerable insight into generally important controlling mechanisms, with the caveat that larger-scale drivers and process interactions must be considered when translating the results to the field. Laboratory experiments can best be targeted to discriminate alternate hypotheses regarding important governing processes, and to independently test the effects of each important variable. Once this information is obtained, it should be codified in the form of quantitative, theoretical relationships that can be subsequently evaluated in

  6. Student Reciprocal Peer Teaching as a Method for Active Learning: An Experience in an Electrotechnical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-García, Miguel A.; Moreda, Guillermo P.; Hernández-Sánchez, Natalia; Valiño, Vanesa

    2012-10-01

    Active learning is one of the most efficient mechanisms for learning, according to the psychology of learning. When students act as teachers for other students, the communication is more fluent and knowledge is transferred easier than in a traditional classroom. This teaching method is referred to in the literature as reciprocal peer teaching. In this study, the method is applied to laboratory sessions of a higher education institution course, and the students who act as teachers are referred to as "laboratory monitors." A particular way to select the monitors and its impact in the final marks is proposed. A total of 181 students participated in the experiment, experiences with laboratory monitors are discussed, and methods for motivating and training laboratory monitors and regular students are proposed. The types of laboratory sessions that can be led by classmates are discussed. This work is related to the changes in teaching methods in the Spanish higher education system, prompted by the Bologna Process for the construction of the European Higher Education Area

  7. The Colorful Chemical Bottle Experiment Kit: From School Laboratory To Public Demonstration

    CERN Document Server

    Limpanuparb, Taweetham

    2015-01-01

    The blue bottle experiment was first introduced to the chemical education literature as a simple demonstration on kinetics. Its original formulation contains only glucose, NaOH and small amount of methylene blue. The solution turns blue when shaken and fades to colorless upon standing. This bluing/de-bluing cycle may be repeated and may be compared to blood colors in animal's respiratory cycle. Inspired by the blue bottle experiment, the colorful chemical bottle experiment kit was commercially developed in 2006. The kit is a versatile pedagogical tool, not only for physical chemistry but also for analytical, biological and organic chemistry. It also helps teaching concepts in scientific method and laboratory safety. This manuscript contains four parts, brief review on literature relating to the blue bottle experiment, description of the colorful chemical bottle experiment kit, pedagogical discussion of the experiments and preliminary evaluation from students.

  8. Insight into the dynamics of granular column collapse using Discrete Element Methods and laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hugo; Mangeney, Anne; Farin, Maxime; Richard, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The mechanical behavior of granular flows is still an open issue. In particular, quantitative agreement between the detailed dynamics of the flow and laboratory experiments is necessary to better constrain the performance and limits of the models. We propose here to compare quantitatively the flow profiles and the force during granular column collapse simulated using Discrete Element Models and laboratory experiments. These small scale experiments are performed with dry granular material released initially from a cylinder on a sloping plane. The flow profiles and the acoustic signal generated by the granular impacts and stresses on the plane are recorded systematically [Farin et al., 2015]. These experiments are simulated using the Discrete Element Method Modys [Richard et al., 2000]. We show that the effect of the removing gate should be taken into account in the model in order to quantatively reproduce the flow dynamics. Furthermore we compare the simulated and observed acoustic signals that are generated by the fluctuating stresses exerted by the grains on the substrate in different frequency bands. [1] P. Richard et Luc Oger. 2000 Etude de la géométrie de milieux granulaires modèles tridimensionnels par simulation numérique. [2] Farin, M., Mangeney, A., Toussaint, R., De Rosny, J., Shapiro, N., Dewez, T., Hibert, C., Mathon, C., Sedan, O., Berger. 2015, Characterization of rockfalls from seismic signal: insights from laboratory experiments

  9. Experiences of social support among women presenting for obstetric fistula repair surgery in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Alexis C; Wilson, Sarah M; Mosha, Mary V; Masenga, Gileard G; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Terroso, Korrine E; Watt, Melissa H

    2016-01-01

    Objective An obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury resulting in uncontrollable leakage of urine and/or feces and can lead to physical and psychological challenges, including social isolation. Prior to and after fistula repair surgery, social support can help a woman to reintegrate into her community. The aim of this study was to preliminarily examine the experiences of social support among Tanzanian women presenting with obstetric fistula in the periods immediately preceding obstetric fistula repair surgery and following reintegration. Patients and methods The study used a mixed-methods design to analyze cross-sectional surveys (n=59) and in-depth interviews (n=20). Results Women reported widely varying levels of social support from family members and partners, with half of the sample reporting overall high levels of social support. For women experiencing lower levels of support, fistula often exacerbated existing problems in relationships, sometimes directly causing separation or divorce. Many women were assertive and resilient with regard to advocating for their fistula care and relationship needs. Conclusion Our data suggest that while some women endure negative social experiences following an obstetric fistula and require additional resources and services, many women report high levels of social support from family members and partners, which may be harnessed to improve the holistic care for patients. PMID:27660492

  10. Experimenting with impacts in a conceptual physics or descriptive astronomy laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2016-07-01

    What follows is a description of the procedure for and results of a simple experiment on the formation of impact craters designed for the laboratory portions of lower mathematical-level general education science courses such as conceptual physics or descriptive astronomy. The experiment provides necessary experience with data collection and analysis as well as practice with quantitative skills such as measurement and calculation in a manner that does not exceed the mathematical scope of the courses while, due to its hands-on nature and interesting topic, remaining engaging.

  11. Magnetic field reversals: the geodynamo, laboratory experiments and models (Lewis Fry Richardson Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauve, S.

    2009-04-01

    I will first compare reversals of Earth's magnetic field known from palaeomagnetic data to the ones observed in a laboratory experiment for the magnetic field generated by a turbulent flow of liquid sodium (VKS experiment). Despite major differences between the flow in Earth's core and in the experiment, both systems display reversals that share a lot of similar properties. I will understand them using a simple model in the framework of low dynamical system theory. Finally, I will discuss what can be learnt from numerical simulations.

  12. The Laboratory of the Mind Thought Experiments in the Natural Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, James Robert

    2010-01-01

    Newton's bucket, Einstein's elevator, Schrödinger's cat - these are some of the best-known examples of thought experiments in the natural sciences. But what function do these experiments perform? Are they really experiments at all? Can they help us gain a greater understanding of the natural world?  How is it possible that we can learn new things just by thinking?   In this revised and updated new edition of his classic text The Laboratory of the Mind, James Robert Brown continues to defend apriorism in the physical world. This edition features two new chapters, one on "counter

  13. Near-death experience in a boy undergoing uneventful elective surgery under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ursula; Forster, Alain; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Habre, Walid; Iselin-Chaves, Irène A

    2006-01-01

    Near-death experience (NDE) is a complex subjective experience, which may include affective elements such as a sense of peacefulness, paranormal components such as a sensation of floating out of the body, and a perception of being in a dark tunnel and seeing a brilliant light. It is usually reported to occur in association with a wide range of life-threatening situations, as for instance, cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We report on an episode of NDE that occurred in a 12-year-old boy who underwent a general anesthesia for an elective uncomplicated surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first case of NDE in a child that has been reported in this context.

  14. Tracheotomy improves experiment success rate in mice during urethane anesthesia and stereotaxic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldestad, Olve; Karlsen, Pernille; Molden, Sturla; Storm, Johan F

    2009-01-30

    Urethane anesthesia is frequently used for acute experiments on small rodents in physiology and neuroscience. Severe respiratory distress is a common side-effect of urethane anesthesia in many strains of mice. Associated complications interfere with completion of experiments, and as a consequence more animals must be sacrificed. During experiments with stereotaxic brain surgery, we found that intubation by means of tracheotomy is an efficient way to maintain patent airways in these animals. Artificial ventilation of the animals is not required. In this paper we describe a simple, fast and reliable method for intubation of mice in experiments that involve a stereotaxic instrument. The method proved considerably easier to learn and apply than conventional intubation through the oral route. The incidence of breathing problems decreased from 77% in untreated mice to 9% in those that underwent tracheotomy. In addition, the success rate for our acute electrophysiological experiments increased from 24 to 77%. We conclude that tracheotomy reduces the number of sacrificed animals, and saves time and labor.

  15. Simulating the volatilization of solvents in unsaturated soils during laboratory and field infiltration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H. Jean; Jaffe, Peter R.; Smith, James A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes laboratory and field experiments which were conducted to study the dynamics of trichloroethylene (TCE) as it volatilized from contaminated groundwater and diffused in the presence of infiltrating water through the unsaturated soil zone to the land surface. The field experiments were conducted at the Picatinny Arsenal, which is part of the United States Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. In both laboratory and field settings the gas and water phase concentrations of TCE were not in equilibrium during infiltration. Gas-water mass transfer rate constants were calibrated to the experimental data using a model in which the water phase was treated as two phases: a mobile water phase and an immobile water phase. The mass transfer limitations of a volatile organic compound between the gas and liquid phases were described explicitly in the model. In the laboratory experiment the porous medium was nonsorbing, and water infiltration rates ranged from 0.076 to 0.28 cm h−1. In the field experiment the water infiltration rate was 0.34 cm h−1, and sorption onto the soil matrix was significant. The laboratory-calibrated gas-water mass transfer rate constant is 3.3×10−4 h−1 for an infiltration rate of 0.076 cm h−1 and 1.4×10−3 h−1 for an infiltration rate of 0.28 cm h−1. The overall mass transfer rate coefficients, incorporating the contribution of mass transfer between mobile and immobile water phases and the variation of interfacial area with moisture content, range from 3×10−4 h−1 to 1×10−2 h−1. A power law model relates the gas-water mass transfer rate constant to the infiltration rate and the fraction of the water phase which is mobile. It was found that the results from the laboratory experiments could not be extrapolated to the field. In order to simulate the field experiment the very slow desorption of TCE from the soil matrix was incorporated into the mathematical model. When desorption from the soil

  16. Solute and heat transport model of the Henry and hilleke laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D; Dausman, Alyssa M; Sukop, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    SEAWAT is a coupled version of MODFLOW and MT3DMS designed to simulate variable-density ground water flow and solute transport. The most recent version of SEAWAT, called SEAWAT Version 4, includes new capabilities to represent simultaneous multispecies solute and heat transport. To test the new features in SEAWAT, the laboratory experiment of Henry and Hilleke (1972) was simulated. Henry and Hilleke used warm fresh water to recharge a large sand-filled glass tank. A cold salt water boundary was represented on one side. Adjustable heating pads were used to heat the bottom and left sides of the tank. In the laboratory experiment, Henry and Hilleke observed both salt water and fresh water flow systems separated by a narrow transition zone. After minor tuning of several input parameters with a parameter estimation program, results from the SEAWAT simulation show good agreement with the experiment. SEAWAT results suggest that heat loss to the room was more than expected by Henry and Hilleke, and that multiple thermal convection cells are the likely cause of the widened transition zone near the hot end of the tank. Other computer programs with similar capabilities may benefit from benchmark testing with the Henry and Hilleke laboratory experiment.

  17. No extensive experience in open procedures is needed to learn lobectomy by video-assisted thoracic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Petersen, René Horsleben; Hansen, Henrik Jessen;

    2012-01-01

    Lobectomies done by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) result in fewer complications and less pain and save total costs compared with the traditional approach. However, the majority of procedures are still performed via open thoracotomies, because VATS lobectomy is considered difficult to learn......, requiring experience in open surgery, and causing complications in the initial phase of the learning curve. The aim of this study was to describe a training model appreciating patient safety during training and to explore the initial learning curve for a trainee rather inexperienced in open surgery....

  18. Communication and laboratory performance in parapsychology experiments: demand characteristics and the social organization of interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooffitt, Robin

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports findings from a conversation analytic study of experimenter-participant interaction in parapsychology experiments. It shows how properties of communication through which the routine business of the experiment is conducted may have an impact on the research participant's subsequent performance. In this, the study explores social psychological features of the psychology laboratory. In particular, it examines aspects of Orne's (1962) account of what he called the demand characteristics of the psychological experiment. The data come from a corpus of audio recordings of experimenter-participant interaction during experiments on extra-sensory perception. These kinds of experiments, and the phenomena they purport to study, are undoubtedly controversial; however, the paper argues that there are grounds for social psychologists to consider parapsychology experiments as a class (albeit distinctive) of psychology experiments, and, therefore, as sites in which general social psychological and communicative phenomena can be studied. The empirical sections of the paper examine interaction during part of the experimental procedure when the experimenter verbally reviews a record of the participant's imagery reported during an earlier part of the experiment. The analysis shows that the way in which the experimenter acknowledges the research participants' utterances may be significant for the trajectory of the experiment and explores how the participants' subsequent performance in the experiment may be influenced by interactionally generated contingencies.

  19. Early experience with laparoscopic surgery in children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola Olusegun Talabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopy is not yet routinely employed in many Paediatric Surgical Units in Nigeria despite the advantages it offers. This study describes the preliminary experience with laparoscopic procedures in a single centre. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of all children who had laparoscopic surgery between January 2009 and December 2013 at the Paediatric Surgical Unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile-Ife was carried out. Their sociodemographic, preoperative and intraoperative data along with postoperative records were subjected to descriptive analysis. Results: Eleven (44% diagnostic and 14 (56% therapeutic procedures were performed on 25 children whose age ranged from 5 months to 15 years (Median: 84 months, Mean: 103 ± 64.1 months, including eight (32% females and 17 (68% males. Indications included acute appendicitis in 12 (48%, intra-abdominal masses in six (24%, three (12% disorders of sexual differentiation, two (8% ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunctions and impalpable undescended testes in two (8% children. The procedures lasted 15-90 minutes (Mean = 54 (±21.6 minutes. Conversion rate was 17% for two patients who had ruptured retrocaecal appendices. No intra operative complications were recorded while three (12% patients had superficial port site infections post-operatively. All diagnostic (11 and two therapeutic procedures were done as day case surgery. The mean duration of hospital stay was 3.1 (±3.3 days for those who had appendectomies. Conclusion: Laparoscopic surgery in children is safe and feasible in our hospital. We advocate increased use of laparoscopy in paediatric surgical practice in Nigeria and similar developing settings.

  20. Laparoscopic single port surgery in children using Triport: our early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Ismael A Salas; Garcia, Isabella; Pimpalwar, Ashwin

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopy has become the gold standard technique for appendectomy and cholecystectomy. With the emergence of newer laparoscopic instruments which are roticulating and provide 7 degrees of freedom it is now possible to perform these operations through a single umbilical incision rather than the standard 3-4 incisions and thus lead to more desirable cosmetic results and less postoperative pain. The newer reticulating telescopes provide excellent exposure of the operating field and allow the operations to proceed routinely. Recently, ports [Triports (Olympus surgery)/SILS ports] especially designed for single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) have been developed. We herein describe our experience with laparoscopic single port appendectomies and cholecystectomies in children using the Triport. This is a retrospective cohort study of children who underwent single incision laparoscopic surgery between May 2009 and August 2010 at Texas Children's Hospital and Ben Taub General Hospital in Houston Texas by a single surgeon. Charts were reviewed for demographics, type of procedure, operative time, early or late complications, outcome and cosmetic results. Fifty-four patients underwent SILS. A total of 50 appendectomies (early or perforated) and 4 cholecystectomies were performed using this new minimally invasive approach. The average operative time for SILS/LESS appendectomy was 54 min with a range between 25 and 205 min, while operative time for SILS cholecystectomy was 156 min with a range of 75-196 min. Only small percentage (4%) of appendectomies (mostly complicated) were converted to standard laparoscopy, but none were converted to open procedure. All patients were followed up in the clinic after 3-4 weeks. No complications were noted and all patients had excellent cosmetic results. Parents were extremely satisfied with the cosmetic results. SILS/LESS is a safe, minimally invasive approach for appendectomy and cholecystectomy in children. This new approach is

  1. Comparison of laboratory and field experience of PWSCC in Alloy 182 weld metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Meunier, M.-C.; Steltzlen, F. [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, Paris La Defense (France); Calonne, O.; Foucault, M. [AREVA NP, Centre Technique, Le Creusot Cedex (France); Combrade, P. [ACXCOR, Saint Etienne (France); Amzallag, C. [EDF, SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France)

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory studies of stress corrosion cracking of the nickel base weld metal, Alloy 182, in simulated PWR primary water suggest similar resistance to crack initiation and somewhat enhanced propagation rates relative to wrought Alloy 600. By contrast, field experience of cracking in the primary circuits of PWRs shows in general much better performance for Alloy 182 relative to Alloy 600 than would be anticipated from laboratory studies. This paper endeavours to resolve this apparent conundrum. It draws on the conclusions of recent research that has focussed on the role of surface finish, particularly cold work and residual stresses resulting from different fabrication processes, on the risk of initiating IGSCC in nickel base alloys in PWR primary water. It also draws on field experience of stress corrosion cracking that highlights the important role of surface finish for crack initiation. (author)

  2. Laboratory experiments on membrane filter sampling of airborne mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys atra corda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Nikulin, M.; Tuomainen, M.; Berg, S.; Parikka, P.; Hintikka, E.-L.

    A membrane filter method for sampling of airborne stachybotrystoxins was studied in the laboratory. Toxigenic strains of Stachybotrys atra on wallpaper, grain, hay and straw were used as toxin sources in the experiments. Air samples were collected on cellulose nitrate and polycarbonate membrane filters at air flow rates of 10-20 ℓ min -1. After the filter sampling, the air was passed through methanol. The results showed that stachybotrystoxins (trichothecenes) were concentrated in airborne fungal propagules, and thus can be collected on filters. Polycarbonate filters with a pore size of 0.2 μm collected the highest percentage of toxic samples. The laboratory experiments indicated that polycarbonate filter sampling for the collection of airborne mycotoxins is a promising method for extension to field measurements.

  3. Implementing a robotics curriculum at an academic general surgery training program: our initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Joshua S; Juza, Ryan M; Sasaki, Jennifer; Rogers, Ann M; Pauli, Eric M; Haluck, Randy S; Estes, Stephanie J; Lyn-Sue, Jerome R

    2016-09-01

    The robotic surgical platform is being utilized by a growing number of hospitals across the country, including academic medical centers. Training programs are tasked with teaching their residents how to utilize this technology. To this end, we have developed and implemented a robotic surgical curriculum, and share our initial experience here. Our curriculum was implemented for all General Surgical residents for the academic year 2014-2015. The curriculum consisted of online training, readings, bedside training, console simulation, participating in ten cases as bedside first assistant, and operating at the console. 20 surgical residents were included. Residents were provided the curriculum and notified the department upon completion. Bedside assistance and operative console training were completed in the operating room through a mix of biliary, foregut, and colorectal cases. During the fiscal years of 2014 and 2015, there were 164 and 263 robot-assisted surgeries performed within the General Surgery Department, respectively. All 20 residents completed the online and bedside instruction portions of the curriculum. Of the 20 residents trained, 13/20 (65 %) sat at the Surgeon console during at least one case. Utilizing this curriculum, we have trained and incorporated residents into robot-assisted cases in an efficient manner. A successful curriculum must be based on didactic learning, reading, bedside training, simulation, and training in the operating room. Each program must examine their caseload and resident class to ensure proper exposure to this platform.

  4. The Frozen Elephant Trunk Technique: European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Position and Bologna Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Luca; Pantaleo, Antonio; Leone, Alessandro; Murana, Giacomo; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Pacini, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Complex lesions of the thoracic aorta are traditionally treated in 2 surgical steps with the elephant trunk technique. A relatively new approach is the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique, which potentially allows combined lesions of the thoracic aorta to be treated in a 1-stage procedure combining endovascular treatment with conventional surgery using a hybrid prosthesis. These are very complex and time-consuming operations, and good results can be obtained only if appropriate strategies for myocardial, cerebral, and visceral protection are adopted. However, the FET technique is associated with a non-negligible incidence of spinal cord injury, due to the extensive coverage of the descending aorta with the excessive sacrifice of intercostal arteries. The indications for the FET technique include chronic thoracic aortic dissection, acute or chronic type B dissection when endovascular treatment is contraindicated, chronic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta, and chronic aneurysm of the distal arch. The FET technique is also indicated in acute type A aortic dissection, especially when the tear is localized in the aortic arch; in cases of distal malperfusion; and in young patients. In light of the great interest in the FET technique, the Vascular Domain of the European Association for cardio-thoracic Surgery published a position paper reporting the current knowledge and the state of the art of the FET technique. Herein, we describe the surgical techniques involved in the FET technique and we report our experience with the FET technique for the treatment of complex aortic disease of the thoracic aorta. PMID:28180096

  5. An initial experience with a digital drainage system during the postoperative period of pediatric thoracic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Altair da Silva; Bachichi, Thiago; Holanda, Caio; Rizzo, Luiz Augusto Lucas Martins De

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To report an initial experience with a digital drainage system during the postoperative period of pediatric thoracic surgery. Methods: This was a prospective observational study involving consecutive patients, ≤ 14 years of age, treated at a pediatric thoracic surgery outpatient clinic, for whom pulmonary resection (lobectomy or segmentectomy via muscle-sparing thoracotomy) was indicated. The parameters evaluated were air leak (as quantified with the digital system), biosafety, duration of drainage, length of hospital stay, and complications. The digital system was used in 11 children (mean age, 5.9 ± 3.3 years). The mean length of hospital stay was 4.9 ± 2.6 days, the mean duration of drainage was 2.5 ± 0.7 days, and the mean drainage volume was 270.4 ± 166.7 mL. The mean maximum air leak flow was 92.78 ± 95.83 mL/min (range, 18-338 mL/min). Two patients developed postoperative complications (atelectasis and pneumonia, respectively). The use of this digital system facilitated the decision-making process during the postoperative period, reducing the risk of errors in the interpretation and management of air leaks. PMID:28117476

  6. Using Laboratory Experiments to Design Efficient Market Institutions: The case of wholesale electricity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Staropoli, Carine; Jullien, Celine

    2006-01-01

    International audience; This paper assesses the contribution of laboratory experiments to the economics of design applied to the electricity industry. The analysis is dedicated to wholesale markets, and reviews the results accumulated to date concerning both the general architecture of power markets and the very details of the market rules or institution, that is the auction rule. We argue that these experimental results contribute to a better understanding of the performances properties and ...

  7. Application of maximum entropy optimal projection design synthesis to the NASA Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Dave; Davis, Larry

    1984-01-01

    The scope of this study covered steady-state, continuous-time vibration control under disturbances applied to the Space Shuttle and continuous-time models of actuators, sensors, and disturbances. Focus was on a clear illustration of the methodology, therefore sensor/actuator dynamics were initially ignored, and a finite element model of the NASA Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) was conducted, including products of inertia and offset of reflector CM from the mast tip.

  8. A Laboratory experiment on vermicomposting of winery residues and sewage sledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano, M. D.; Molina, M. J.; Llinares, J.; Pons, V.; Pallares, L.

    2009-07-01

    Organic waste addition to agricultural soils is proposed as a disposal strategy to improve the structural properties and organic matter content of soils. In this work, the results obtained after a vermicomposting process are reported. The process has been performed mixing rabitt crop wastes with increasing addition of either vinasse bio solids or municipal sewage sludges. For this purpose, a laboratory experiment was conducted in which both wastes were inoculated with earthworms (Eisenia foetida) and maintained under controlled conditions for 4 months. (Author)

  9. UBioLab: a web-LABoratory for Ubiquitous in-silico experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Bartocci, Ezio; Cacciagrano, Diletta; Di Berardini, Maria Rita; Merelli, Emanuela; Vito, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The huge and dynamic amount of bioinformatic resources (e.g., data and tools) available nowadays in Internet represents a big challenge for biologists - for what concerns their management and visualization - and for bioinformaticians - for what concerns the possibility of rapidly creating and executing in-silico experiments involving resources and activities spread over the WWW hyperspace. Any framework aiming at integrating such resources as in a physical laboratory has imperatively to tackl...

  10. Laboratory experiments in the study of the chemistry of the outer planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T. W.

    It is shown that much information about planetary chemistry and physics can be gained through laboratory work. The types of experiments relevant to planetary research concern fundamental properties, spectral/optical properties, 'Miller-Urey' syntheses, and detailed syntheses. Specific examples of studies of the chemistry in the atmosphere of Titan are described with attention given to gas phase chemistry in the troposphere and the composition of model Titan aerosols. A list of work that still needs to be done is provided.

  11. A Laboratory Plasma Experiment for Studying Magnetic Dynamics of Accretion Discs and Jets

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, S. C.; Bellan, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    This work describes a laboratory plasma experiment and initial results which should give insight into the magnetic dynamics of accretion discs and jets. A high-speed multiple-frame CCD camera reveals images of the formation and helical instability of a collimated plasma, similar to MHD models of disc jets, and also plasma detachment associated with spheromak formation, which may have relevance to disc winds and flares. The plasmas are produced by a planar magnetized coaxial gun. The resulting...

  12. XperimentR: painless annotation of a biological experiment for the laboratory scientist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomlinson Chris D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today’s biological experiments often involve the collaboration of multidisciplinary researchers utilising several high throughput ‘omics platforms. There is a requirement for the details of the experiment to be adequately described using standardised ontologies to enable data preservation, the analysis of the data and to facilitate the export of the data to public repositories. However there are a bewildering number of ontologies, controlled vocabularies, and minimum standards available for use to describe experiments. There is a need for user-friendly software tools to aid laboratory scientists in capturing the experimental information. Results A web application called XperimentR has been developed for use by laboratory scientists, consisting of a browser-based interface and server-side components which provide an intuitive platform for capturing and sharing experimental metadata. Information recorded includes details about the biological samples, procedures, protocols, and experimental technologies, all of which can be easily annotated using the appropriate ontologies. Files and raw data can be imported and associated with the biological samples via the interface, from either users’ computers, or commonly used open-source data repositories. Experiments can be shared with other users, and experiments can be exported in the standard ISA-Tab format for deposition in public databases. XperimentR is freely available and can be installed natively or by using a provided pre-configured Virtual Machine. A guest system is also available for trial purposes. Conclusion We present a web based software application to aid the laboratory scientist to capture, describe and share details about their experiments.

  13. Novel Axillary Approach for Brachial Plexus in Robotic Surgery: A Cadaveric Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihangir Tetik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus surgery using the da Vinci surgical robot is a new procedure. Although the supraclavicular approach is a well known described and used procedure for robotic surgery, axillary approach was unknown for brachial plexus surgery. A cadaveric study was planned to evaluate the robotic axillary approach for brachial plexus surgery. Our results showed that robotic surgery is a very useful method and should be used routinely for brachial plexus surgery and particularly for thoracic outlet syndrome. However, we emphasize that new instruments should be designed and further studies are needed to evaluate in vivo results.

  14. Effect of Biochar on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Nitrogen Cycling in Laboratory and Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Nikolas; Harter, Johannes; Kaldamukova, Radina; Ruser, Reiner; Graeff-Hönninger, Simone; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    The extensive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in agriculture is a major source of anthropogenic N2O emissions contributing 8% to global greenhouse gas emissions. Soil biochar amendment has been suggested as a means to reduce both CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. The reduction of N2O emissions by biochar has been demonstrated repeatedly in field and laboratory experiments. However, the mechanisms of the reduction remain unclear. Further it is not known how biochar field-weathering affects GHG emissions and how agro-chemicals, such as the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), that is often simultaneously applied together with commercial N-fertilizers, impact nitrogen transformation and N2O emissions from biochar amended soils. In order investigate the duration of the biochar effect on soil N2O emissions and its susceptibility to DMPP application we performed a microcosm and field study with a high-temperature (400 ° C) beech wood derived biochar (60 t ha-1 and 5 % (w/w) biochar in the field and microcosms, respectively). While the field site contained the biochar already for three years, soil and biochar were freshly mixed for the laboratory microcosm experiments. In both studies we quantified GHG emissions and soil nitrogen speciation (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium). While the field study was carried out over the whole vegetation period of the sunflower Helianthus annuus L., soil microcosm experiments were performed for up to 9 days at 28° C. In both experiments a N-fertilizer containing DMPP was applied either before planting of the sunflowers or at the beginning of soil microcosms incubation. Laboratory microcosm experiments were performed at 60% water filled pore space reflecting average field conditions. Our results show that biochar effectively reduced soil N2O emissions by up to 60 % in the field and in the soil microcosm experiments. No significant differences in N2O emission mitigation potential between field-aged and fresh

  15. Validation experiment of a numerically processed millimeter-wave interferometer in a laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogi, Y., E-mail: kogi@fit.ac.jp; Higashi, T.; Matsukawa, S. [Department of Information Electronics, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Mase, A. [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-0811 (Japan); Kohagura, J.; Yoshikawa, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5202 (Japan); Kuwahara, D. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    We propose a new interferometer system for density profile measurements. This system produces multiple measurement chords by a leaky-wave antenna driven by multiple frequency inputs. The proposed system was validated in laboratory evaluation experiments. We confirmed that the interferometer generates a clear image of a Teflon plate as well as the phase shift corresponding to the plate thickness. In another experiment, we confirmed that quasi-optical mirrors can produce multiple measurement chords; however, the finite spot size of the probe beam degrades the sharpness of the resulting image.

  16. Validation experiment of a numerically processed millimeter-wave interferometer in a laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Y; Higashi, T; Matsukawa, S; Mase, A; Kohagura, J; Nagayama, Y; Kawahata, K; Kuwahara, D; Yoshikawa, M

    2014-11-01

    We propose a new interferometer system for density profile measurements. This system produces multiple measurement chords by a leaky-wave antenna driven by multiple frequency inputs. The proposed system was validated in laboratory evaluation experiments. We confirmed that the interferometer generates a clear image of a Teflon plate as well as the phase shift corresponding to the plate thickness. In another experiment, we confirmed that quasi-optical mirrors can produce multiple measurement chords; however, the finite spot size of the probe beam degrades the sharpness of the resulting image.

  17. Low-cost nonlinear optics experiment for undergraduate instructional laboratory and lecture demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchiello, Rozane de F.; Pereira, Luiz A. A.; Gómez, Sergio L.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a simple and affordable experiment on the thermal lens effect, suitable for an undergraduate educational laboratory or as a tabletop demonstration in a lecture on nonlinear optics. Such an experiment exploits the formation of a lens in an absorbing medium illuminated by a laser beam with a Gaussian intensity profile. As an absorber, we use a commercial soy sauce, which exhibits a strong thermal lensing effect. Additionally, we show how to measure the radius of a Gaussian beam using the knife-edge method, and how to estimate the focal length of the induced thermal lens.

  18. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: Measuring Matter Antimatter Asymmetries at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Parkes, Chris; Gutierrez, J

    2015-01-01

    This document is the student manual for a third year undergraduate laboratory experiment at the University of Manchester. This project aims to measure a fundamental difference between the behaviour of matter and antimatter through the analysis of data collected by the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The three-body dmecays $B^\\pm \\rightarrow h^\\pm h^+ h^-$, where $h^\\pm$ is a $\\pi^\\pm$ or $K^\\pm$ are studied. The inclusive matter antimatter asymmetry is calculated, and larger asymmetries are searched for in localized regions of the phase-space.

  19. The LUNA experiment at Gran Sasso Laboratory: Studying stars by going underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmetti, Alessandra [Università degli Studi di Milano and INFN Milano Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano,ITALY (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Accurate knowledge of thermonuclear reaction rates is a key issue in nuclear astrophysics: it is important for understanding the energy generation, neutrino production and the synthesis of the elements in stars and during primordial nucleosynthesis. Cross-section measurements are mainly hampered by the very low counting rate and cosmic background. An underground location is extremely advantageous for such studies, as demonstrated by the LUNA experiment in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy). This paper reports on the results recently obtained by this experiment and on the future perspectives in the field.

  20. Experience of quality management system in a clinical laboratory in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary A. Audu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues: Quality-management systems (QMS are uncommon in clinical laboratories in Nigeria, and until recently, none of the nation’s 5 349 clinical laboratories have been able to attain the certifications necessary to begin the process of attaining international accreditation. Nigeria’s Human Virology Laboratory (HVL, however, began implementation of a QMS in 2006, and in 2008 it was determined that the laboratory conformed to the requirements of ISO 9001:2000 (now 2008, making it the first diagnostic laboratory to be certified in Nigeria. The HVL has now applied for the World Health Organization (WHO accreditation preparedness scheme. The experience of the QMS implementation process and the lessons learned therein are shared here.Description: In 2005, two personnel from the HVL spent time studying quality systems in a certified clinical laboratory in Dakar, Senegal. Following this peer-to-peer technical assistance, several training sessions were undertaken by HVL staff, a baseline assessment was conducted, and processes were established. The HVL has monitored its quality indicators and conducted internal and external audits; these analyses (from 2007 to 2009 are presented herein.Lessons learned: Although there was improvement in the pre-analytical and analytical indicators analysed and although data-entry errors decreased in the post-analytical process, the delay in returning laboratory test results increased significantly. There were several factors identified as causes for this delay and all of these have now been addressed except for an identified need for automation of some high-volume assays (currently being negotiated. Internal and external audits showed a trend of increasing non-conformities which could be the result of personnel simply becoming lax over time. Application for laboratory accreditation, however, could provide the renewed vigour needed to correct these non-conformities.Recommendation: This experience shows that

  1. Modification of the Miyake-Apple technique for simultaneous anterior and posterior video imaging of wet laboratory-based corneal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Johnson C H; Meadows, Howard; Gupta, Aanchal; Yeung, Sonia N; Moloney, Gregory

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a modification of the Miyake-Apple posterior video analysis for the simultaneous visualization of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces during wet laboratory-based deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). A human donor corneoscleral button was affixed to a microscope slide and placed onto a custom-made mounting box. A big bubble DALK was performed on the cornea in the wet laboratory. An 11-diopter intraocular lens was positioned over the aperture of the back camera of an iPhone. This served to video record the posterior view of the corneoscleral button during the big bubble formation. An overhead operating microscope with an attached video camcorder recorded the anterior view during the surgery. The anterior and posterior views of the wet laboratory-based DALK surgery were simultaneously captured and edited using video editing software. The formation of the big bubble can be studied. This video recording camera system has the potential to act as a valuable research and teaching tool in corneal lamellar surgery, especially in the behavior of the big bubble formation in DALK.

  2. Design of a Flexible Hardware Interface for Multiple Remote Electronic practical Experiments of Virtual Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Said

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to present a new design of a Flexible Hardware Interface (FHI based on PID control techniques to use in a virtual laboratory. This flexible hardware interface allows the easy implementation of different and multiple remote electronic practical experiments for undergraduate engineering classes. This interface can be viewed as opened hardware architecture to easily develop simple or complex remote experiments in the electronic domain. The philosophy of the use of this interface can also be expanded to many other domains as optic experiments for instance. It is also demonstrated that software can be developed to enable remote measurements of electronic circuits or systems using only Web site Interface. Using standard browsers (such as Internet explorer, Firefox, Chrome or Safari, different students can have a remote access to different practical experiments at a time.

  3. Using polymer mats to biodegrade atrazine in groundwater: laboratory column experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, B. M.; Franzmann, P. D.; Davis, G. B.; Elbers, J.; Zappia, L. R.

    2002-02-01

    Large-scale column experiments were undertaken to evaluate the potential of in situ polymer mats to deliver oxygen into groundwater to induce biodegradation of the pesticides atrazine, terbutryn and fenamiphos contaminating groundwater in Perth, Western Australia. The polymer mats, composed of woven silicone (dimethylsiloxane) tubes and purged with air, were installed in 2-m-long flow-through soil columns. The polymer mats proved efficient in delivering dissolved oxygen to anaerobic groundwater. Dissolved oxygen concentrations increased from biodegradation rates, suggesting that organic carbon was not limiting biodegradation. Atrazine degradation rates estimated in the column experiments were similar to rates determined in laboratory culture experiments, using pure cultures of atrazine-mineralising bacteria. No significant degradation of terbutryn or fenamiphos was observed under the experimental conditions within the time frames of the study. Results from these experiments indicate that remediation of atrazine in a contaminated aquifer may be achievable by delivery of oxygen using an in situ polymer mat system.

  4. One-dimensional light localization with classical scatterers: An advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, K. J.; Barker, S.; Guthrie, J.; Hagood, B.; Havey, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    The phenomenon of electronic wave localization through disorder remains an important area of fundamental and applied research. Localization of all wave phenomena, including light, is thought to exist in a restricted one-dimensional geometry. We present here a series of experiments to illustrate, using a straightforward experimental arrangement and approach, the localization of light in a quasi-one-dimensional physical system. In the experiments, reflected and transmitted light from a stack of glass slides of varying thickness reveals an Ohm's law type behavior for small thicknesses, and evolution to exponential decay of the transmitted power for larger thicknesses. For larger stacks of slides, a weak departure from one-dimensional behavior is also observed. The experiment and analysis of the results, showing many of the essential features of wave localization, is relatively straightforward, economical, and suitable for laboratory experiments at an undergraduate level.

  5. Experiences of social support among women presenting for obstetric fistula repair surgery in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis AC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexis C Dennis1 Sarah M Wilson1–3 Mary V Mosha4 Gileard G Masenga4 Kathleen J Sikkema1,5,6 Korrine E Terroso1 Melissa H Watt1 1Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, 2Department of Veterans Affairs, Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center, 3Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 4Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center, Moshi, Tanzania; 5Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Objective: An obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury resulting in uncontrollable leakage of urine and/or feces and can lead to physical and psychological challenges, including social isolation. Prior to and after fistula repair surgery, social support can help a woman to reintegrate into her community. The aim of this study was to preliminarily examine the experiences of social support among Tanzanian women presenting with obstetric fistula in the periods immediately preceding obstetric fistula repair surgery and following reintegration.Patients and methods: The study used a mixed-methods design to analyze cross-sectional surveys (n=59 and in-depth interviews (n=20.Results: Women reported widely varying levels of social support from family members and partners, with half of the sample reporting overall high levels of social support. For women experiencing lower levels of support, fistula often exacerbated existing problems in relationships, sometimes directly causing separation or divorce. Many women were assertive and resilient with regard to advocating for their fistula care and relationship needs.Conclusion: Our data suggest that while some women endure negative social experiences following an obstetric fistula and require additional resources and services, many women report high levels of social support from family members and partners, which may be harnessed to improve the holistic

  6. The Danish Fracture Database can monitor quality of fracture-related surgery, surgeons' experience level and extent of supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Jon; Gromov, Kirill; Brix, Michael

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The importance of supervision and of surgeons' level of experience in relation to patient outcome have been demonstrated in both hip fracture and arthroplasty surgery. The aim of this study was to describe the surgeons' experience level and the extent of supervision for: 1) fracture......-related surgery in general; 2) the three most frequent primary operations and reoperations; and 3) primary operations during and outside regular working hours. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 9,767 surgical procedures were identified from the Danish Fracture Database (DFDB). Procedures were grouped based...... on the surgeons' level of experience, extent of supervision, type (primary, planned secondary or reoperation), classification (AO Müller), and whether they were performed during or outside regular hours. RESULTS: Interns and junior residents combined performed 46% of all procedures. A total of 90% of surgeries...

  7. The Danish Fracture Database can monitor quality of fracture-related surgery, surgeons' experience level and extent of supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. J.; Gromov, K.; Brix, M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The importance of supervision and of surgeons' level of experience in relation to patient outcome have been demonstrated in both hip fracture and arthroplasty surgery. The aim of this study was to describe the surgeons' experience level and the extent of supervision for: 1) fracture......-related surgery in general; 2) the three most frequent primary operations and reoperations; and 3) primary operations during and outside regular working hours. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 9,767 surgical procedures were identified from the Danish Fracture Database (DFDB). Procedures were grouped based...... on the surgeons' level of experience, extent of supervision, type (primary, planned secondary or reoperation), classification (AO Muller), and whether they were performed during or outside regular hours. RESULTS: Interns and junior residents combined performed 46% of all procedures. A total of 90% of surgeries...

  8. Laparoscopic surgery for complicated diverticular disease: a single-centre experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Royds, J

    2012-10-01

    The role of laparoscopic surgery in the management of patients with diverticular disease is still not universally accepted. The aim of our study was to evaluate the results of laparoscopic surgery for diverticular disease in a centre with a specialist interest in minimally invasive surgery.

  9. Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer: a single-centre experience of 120 cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Daniel W

    2011-10-01

    For colorectal surgeons, laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery poses a new challenge. The defence of the questionable oncological safety tempered by the impracticality of the long learning curve is rapidly fading. As a unit specialising in minimally invasive surgery, we have routinely undertaken rectal cancer surgery laparoscopically since 2005.

  10. Single-port access laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer: initial experience with 10 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Orhan; Nielsen, Claus B; Jespersen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Single-port access laparoscopic surgery is emerging as a method to improve the morbidity and cosmetic benefits of conventional laparoscopic surgery and minimize the surgical trauma. However, the feasibility of this procedure in rectal surgery has not yet been determined....

  11. A comparison of traditional physical laboratory and computer-simulated laboratory experiences in relation to engineering undergraduate students' conceptual understandings of a communication systems topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Giti

    2005-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate an alternative to the use of traditional physical laboratory activities in a communication systems course. Specifically, this study examined whether as an alternative, computer simulation is as effective as physical laboratory activities in teaching college-level electronics engineering education students about the concepts of signal transmission, modulation and demodulation. Eighty undergraduate engineering students participated in the study, which was conducted at a southeastern four-year university. The students were randomly assigned to two groups. The groups were compared on understanding the concepts, remembering the concepts, completion time of the lab experiments and perception toward the laboratory experiments. The physical group's (n = 40) treatment was to conduct laboratory experiments in a physical laboratory. The students in this group used equipment in a controlled electronics laboratory. The Simulation group's (n = 40) treatment was to conduct similar experiments in a PC laboratory. The students in this group used a simulation program in a controlled PC lab. At the completion of the treatment, scores on a validated conceptual test were collected once after the treatment and again three weeks after the treatment. Attitude surveys and qualitative study were administered at the completion of the treatment. The findings revealed significant differences, in favor of the simulation group, between the two groups on both the conceptual post-test and the follow-up test. The findings also revealed significant correlation between simulation groups' attitude toward the simulation program and their post-test scores. Moreover, there was a significant difference between the two groups on their attitude toward their laboratory experience in favor of the simulation group. In addition, there was significant difference between the two groups on their lab completion time in favor of the simulation group. At the same time, the

  12. Intermediate-Scale Laboratory Experiments of Subsurface Flow and Transport Resulting from Tank Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.

    2014-09-30

    Washington River Protection Solutions contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to conduct laboratory experiments and supporting numerical simulations to improve the understanding of water flow and contaminant transport in the subsurface between waste tanks and ancillary facilities at Waste Management Area C. The work scope included two separate sets of experiments: •Small flow cell experiments to investigate the occurrence of potential unstable fingering resulting from leaks and the limitations of the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) simulator to predict flow patterns and solute transport behavior under these conditions. Unstable infiltration may, under certain conditions, create vertically elongated fingers potentially transporting contaminants rapidly through the unsaturated zone to groundwater. The types of leak that may create deeply penetrating fingers include slow release, long duration leaks in relatively permeable porous media. Such leaks may have occurred below waste tanks at the Hanford Site. •Large flow experiments to investigate the behavior of two types of tank leaks in a simple layered system mimicking the Waste Management Area C. The investigated leaks include a relatively large leak with a short duration from a tank and a long duration leak with a relatively small leakage rate from a cascade line.

  13. Adolescent Bariatric Surgery Program Characteristics: The Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) Study Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsky, M.P.; Inge, T.H.; Teich, S.; Eneli, I.; Miller, R.; Brandt, M.L.; Helmrath, M.; Harmon, C.M.; Zeller, M.H.; Jenkins, T.M.; Courcoulas, A.; Buncher, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The number of adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery (WLS) has increased in response to the increasing prevalence of severe childhood obesity. Adolescents undergoing WLS require unique support, which may differ from adult programs. The aim of this study was to describe institutional and programmatic characteristics of centers participating in Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS), a prospective study investigating safety and efficacy of adolescent WLS. Methods Data were obtained from the Teen-LABS database and site survey completed by Teen-LABS investigators. The survey queried (1) institutional characteristics, (2) multidisciplinary team composition, (3) clinical program characteristics, and (4) clinical research infrastructure. Results All centers had extensive multidisciplinary involvement in the assessment, preoperative education and post-operative management of adolescents undergoing WLS. Eligibility criteria, pre-operative clinical and diagnostic evaluations were similar between programs. All programs have well developed clinical research infrastructure, use adolescent-specific educational resources, and maintain specialty equipment, including high weight capacity diagnostic imaging equipment. Conclusions The composition of clinical team and institutional resources are consistent with current clinical practice guidelines. These characteristics, coupled with dedicated research staff, have facilitated enrollment of 242 participants into Teen-LABS. PMID:24491361

  14. The effects of the addition of a pediatric surgery fellow on the operative experience of the general surgery resident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Alexander; Garwe, Tabitha; Adeseye, Ademola; Ruiz-Elizalde, Alejandro; Churchill, Warren; Tuggle, David; Mantor, Cameron; Lees, Jason

    2015-06-01

    Adding fellows to surgical departments with residency programs can affect resident education. Our specific aim was to evaluate the effect of adding a pediatric surgery (PS) fellow on the number of index PS cases logged by the general surgery (GS) residents. At a single institution with both PS and GS programs, we examined the number of logged cases for the fellows and residents over 10 years [5 years before (Time 1) and 5 years after (Time 2) the addition of a PS fellow]. Additionally, the procedure related relative value units (RVUs) recorded by the faculty were evaluated. The fellows averaged 752 and 703 cases during Times 1 and 2, respectively, decreasing by 49 (P = 0.2303). The residents averaged 172 and 161 cases annually during Time 1 and Time 2, respectively, decreasing by 11 (P = 0.7340). The total number of procedure related RVUs was 4627 and 6000 during Times 1 and 2, respectively. The number of cases logged by the PS fellows and GS residents decreased after the addition of a PS fellow; however, the decrease was not significant. Programs can reasonably add an additional PS fellow, but care should be taken especially in programs that are otherwise static in size.

  15. Adolescent bariatric surgery program characteristics: the Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) study experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsky, Marc P; Inge, Thomas H; Teich, Steven; Eneli, Ihuoma; Miller, Rosemary; Brandt, Mary L; Helmrath, Michael; Harmon, Carroll M; Zeller, Meg H; Jenkins, Todd M; Courcoulas, Anita; Buncher, Ralph C

    2014-02-01

    The number of adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery (WLS) has increased in response to the increasing prevalence of severe childhood obesity. Adolescents undergoing WLS require unique support, which may differ from adult programs. The aim of this study was to describe institutional and programmatic characteristics of centers participating in Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS), a prospective study investigating safety and efficacy of adolescent WLS. Data were obtained from the Teen-LABS database, and site survey completed by Teen-LABS investigators. The survey queried (1) institutional characteristics, (2) multidisciplinary team composition, (3) clinical program characteristics, and (4) clinical research infrastructure. All centers had extensive multidisciplinary involvement in the assessment, pre-operative education, and post-operative management of adolescents undergoing WLS. Eligibility criteria and pre-operative clinical and diagnostic evaluations were similar between programs. All programs have well-developed clinical research infrastructure, use adolescent-specific educational resources, and maintain specialty equipment, including high weight capacity diagnostic imaging equipment. The composition of clinical team and institutional resources is consistent with current clinical practice guidelines. These characteristics, coupled with dedicated research staff, have facilitated enrollment of 242 participants into Teen-LABS. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Fault healing promotes high-frequency earthquakes in laboratory experiments and on natural faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Thomas, Amanda M.; Glaser, Steven D.; Nadeau, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Faults strengthen or heal with time in stationary contact and this healing may be an essential ingredient for the generation of earthquakes. In the laboratory, healing is thought to be the result of thermally activated mechanisms that weld together micrometre-sized asperity contacts on the fault surface, but the relationship between laboratory measures of fault healing and the seismically observable properties of earthquakes is at present not well defined. Here we report on laboratory experiments and seismological observations that show how the spectral properties of earthquakes vary as a function of fault healing time. In the laboratory, we find that increased healing causes a disproportionately large amount of high-frequency seismic radiation to be produced during fault rupture. We observe a similar connection between earthquake spectra and recurrence time for repeating earthquake sequences on natural faults. Healing rates depend on pressure, temperature and mineralogy, so the connection between seismicity and healing may help to explain recent observations of large megathrust earthquakes which indicate that energetic, high-frequency seismic radiation originates from locations that are distinct from the geodetically inferred locations of large-amplitude fault slip

  17. Real-time laboratory exercises to test contingency plans for classical swine fever: experiences from two national laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenen, K.; Uttenthal, Åse; Meindl-Böhmer, A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to adequately and efficiently handle outbreaks of contagious diseases such as classical swine fever (CSF), foot and mouth disease or highly pathogenic avian influenza, competent authorities and the laboratories involved have to be well prepared and must be in possession of functioning...... of a well-documented laboratory contingency plan. The major pitfalls encountered were shortage of space, difficulties in guaranteeing biosecurity and sufficient supplies of sterile equipment and consumables. The need for a standardised laboratory information management system, that is used by all those...

  18. The Cold Atom Laboratory: a facility for ultracold atom experiments aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveline, David; CAL Team

    2016-05-01

    Spread across the globe there are many different experiments in cold quantum gases, enabling the creation and study of novel states of matter, as well as some of the most accurate inertial sensors currently known. The Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL), being built at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), will be a multi-user facility that will allow the first study of ultracold quantum gases in the microgravity conditions of the International Space Station (ISS). The microgravity environment offers a wealth of advantages for studies of cold atoms, including expansion into extremely weak traps and achieving unearthly cold temperatures. It will also enable very long interaction times with released samples, thereby enhancing the sensitivity of cold atom interferometry. We will describe the CAL mission objectives and the flight hardware architecture. We will also report our ongoing technology development for the CAL mission, including the first microwave evaporation to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) on a miniaturized atom chip system, demonstrated in JPL's CAL Ground Testbed. We will present the design, setup, and operation of two experiments that reliably generate and probe BECs and dual-species mixtures of Rb-87 and K-39 (or K-41). CAL is scheduled to launch to the ISS in 2017. The CAL mission is supported by NASA's SLPS and ISS-PO. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under Contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  19. Evidence of lead biomagnification in invertebrate predators from laboratory and field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Avenida Universidad 940, CP 20131 Aguascalientes (Mexico); Rico-Martinez, Roberto, E-mail: rrico@correo.uaa.mx [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Avenida Universidad 940, CP 20131 Aguascalientes (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    This report includes atomic absorption data from water column, elutriates and zooplankton that demonstrate that lead biomagnifies at El Niagara reservoir, Mexico. Results include field data (bioaccumulation factors) (BAFs) and laboratory data (bioconcentration factors) (BCFs). Two findings: high BAFs for invertebrate predator like Acanthocyclops robustus, Asplanchna brightwellii, Culex sp. larvae, and Hyalella azteca, compared to grazer species Moina micrura and Simocephalus vetulus; low BCF's found for some predators, suggested that lead biomagnifications were taking place. The presence of Moina micrura in the gut of Asplanchna allowed us to design experiments where A. brightwellii was fed lead-exposed M. micrura neonates. The BAF of Asplanchna was 123,684, BCF was 490. Asplanchna individuals fed exposed Moina had 13.31 times more lead than Asplanchna individuals just exposed 48-h to lead, confirming that lead biomagnification occurs. Results of two fish species showed no lead biomagnification, suggesting that lead biomagnification might be restricted to invertebrate predators. - Highlights: > Study shows lead biomagnification evidence in reservoirs where top predators are invertebrates. > Study discusses why in previous studies lead biomagnifications were not detected. > Evidence of biomagnification comes from field and laboratory studies. - This study shows evidence (from field and laboratory experiments) of lead biomagnification in a freshwater reservoir where the main predators are invertebrates.

  20. BOW SHOCK FRAGMENTATION DRIVEN BY A THERMAL INSTABILITY IN LABORATORY ASTROPHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Pickworth, L. A.; Swadling, G. F.; Skidmore, J.; Hall, G. N.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G.; De Grouchy, P.; Music, J.; Suttle, L. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Ciardi, A. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 6, UMR 8112, LERMA, F-75005, Paris (France); Rodriguez, R.; Gil, J. M.; Espinosa, G. [Departamento de Fisica de la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, E-35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Hartigan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 S. Main, Houston, TX 77521-1892 (United States); Hansen, E.; Frank, A., E-mail: f.suzuki@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    The role of radiative cooling during the evolution of a bow shock was studied in laboratory-astrophysics experiments that are scalable to bow shocks present in jets from young stellar objects. The laboratory bow shock is formed during the collision of two counterstreaming, supersonic plasma jets produced by an opposing pair of radial foil Z-pinches driven by the current pulse from the MAGPIE pulsed-power generator. The jets have different flow velocities in the laboratory frame, and the experiments are driven over many times the characteristic cooling timescale. The initially smooth bow shock rapidly develops small-scale nonuniformities over temporal and spatial scales that are consistent with a thermal instability triggered by strong radiative cooling in the shock. The growth of these perturbations eventually results in a global fragmentation of the bow shock front. The formation of a thermal instability is supported by analysis of the plasma cooling function calculated for the experimental conditions with the radiative packages ABAKO/RAPCAL.

  1. Bow shock fragmentation driven by a thermal instability in laboratory-astrophysics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki-Vidal, F; Ciardi, A; Pickworth, L A; Rodriguez, R; Gil, J M; Espinosa, G; Hartigan, P; Swadling, G F; Skidmore, J; Hall, G N; Bennett, M; Bland, S N; Burdiak, G; de Grouchy, P; Music, J; Suttle, L; Hansen, E; Frank, A

    2015-01-01

    The role of radiative cooling during the evolution of a bow shock was studied in laboratory-astrophysics experiments that are scalable to bow shocks present in jets from young stellar objects. The laboratory bow shock is formed during the collision of two counter-streaming, supersonic plasma jets produced by an opposing pair of radial foil Z-pinches driven by the current pulse from the MAGPIE pulsed-power generator. The jets have different flow velocities in the laboratory frame and the experiments are driven over many times the characteristic cooling time-scale. The initially smooth bow shock rapidly develops small-scale non-uniformities over temporal and spatial scales that are consistent with a thermal instability triggered by strong radiative cooling in the shock. The growth of these perturbations eventually results in a global fragmentation of the bow shock front. The formation of a thermal instability is supported by analysis of the plasma cooling function calculated for the experimental conditions with...

  2. Crack-Detection Experiments on Simulated Turbine Engine Disks in NASA Glenn Research Center's Rotordynamics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woike, Mark R.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The development of new health-monitoring techniques requires the use of theoretical and experimental tools to allow new concepts to be demonstrated and validated prior to use on more complicated and expensive engine hardware. In order to meet this need, significant upgrades were made to NASA Glenn Research Center s Rotordynamics Laboratory and a series of tests were conducted on simulated turbine engine disks as a means of demonstrating potential crack-detection techniques. The Rotordynamics Laboratory consists of a high-precision spin rig that can rotate subscale engine disks at speeds up to 12,000 rpm. The crack-detection experiment involved introducing a notch on a subscale engine disk and measuring its vibration response using externally mounted blade-tip-clearance sensors as the disk was operated at speeds up to 12 000 rpm. Testing was accomplished on both a clean baseline disk and a disk with an artificial crack: a 50.8-mm- (2-in.-) long introduced notch. The disk s vibration responses were compared and evaluated against theoretical models to investigate how successful the technique was in detecting cracks. This paper presents the capabilities of the Rotordynamics Laboratory, the baseline theory and experimental setup for the crack-detection experiments, and the associated results from the latest test campaign.

  3. First results of the IGEX dark matter experiment at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, S.; Morales, A.; Aalseth, C.E.; Avignone, F.T.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Garcia, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Hensley, W.K.; Irastorza, I.G.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Klimenko, A.A.; Miley, H.S.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Osetrov, S.B.; Pogosov, V.S.; Puimedon, J.; Reeves, J.H.; Sarsa, M.L.; Scopel, S.; Smolnikov, A.A.; Tamanyan, A.G.; Vasenko, A.A.; Vasiliev, S.I.; Villar, J.A

    2001-04-01

    The enriched {sup 76}Ge double-beta decay detectors from the International Germanium EXperiment (IGEX), operating in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory with an overbuden of 2450 m.w.e., were recently upgraded to use them also in a search for WIMPs. This paper presents a description of the experiment and the data analysis as well as a new exclusion plot, {sigma}(m), derived from the IGEX data for WIMP-nucleon spin-independent interaction. To obtain this result, 30 days of data from one 2-kg IGEX detector, with an energy threshold E{sub thr} {approx} 4 keV, have been considered. These results improve the exclusion limits derived from other conventional ionization germanium experiments in the {approx} 50 GeV DAMA region.

  4. Investigating Controls on Denitrification Rates During Managed Aquifer Recharge: Linking Field and Laboratory Column Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, G.; Beganskas, S.; Weir, W. B.; Karim, P.; Saltikov, C.; Hernandez, J.; Fisher, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    We present initial results from a series of laboratory column experiments aimed at elucidating the underlying controls on water quality improvement during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). During field infiltration experiments, we have observed decreases in nitrate (NO3-) concentrations of up to 20% at infiltration rates as high as 15 m/day in the presence of woodchips, but no nitrate removal in the absence of woodchips at slower infiltration rates. These results suggest that the extent of nitrate removal is strongly influenced by the rate of infiltrating water and the presence of a carbon amendment in the form of redwood chips or biochar, which facilitates microbial processing. We probe these relationships at a finer spatial scale with laboratory flow-through column experiments. The columns are constructed as analogues to field experiments, with fluid and substrate sampled directly from field sites. Each day, we sample fluid along the length of the column during experiments to analyze for nitrate, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved organic carbon, in order to track changes in redox conditions and biogeochemistry. The experimental setup allows us to finely control the fluid flow rate and fluid residence time, in order to quantify the relationship between nitrate removal rate and total infiltration rate over a wider range of conditions than is possible during field studies. To determine how the addition of reactive media might increase nitrate removal rates, we conduct side-by-side comparisons of native soil and soil amended with a carbon source. We also analyze changes in nitrate isotope enrichment and microbial ecology to gain a better understanding of the microbial processes and communities responsible for nitrate removal. These field and lab experiments are helping us learn how fluid flow rate, soil type, and availability of carbon sources influences nitrate removal during infiltration for MAR, which can improve the quality of MAR water resources.

  5. Randomized block experimental designs can increase the power and reproducibility of laboratory animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized block experimental designs have been widely used in agricultural and industrial research for many decades. Usually they are more powerful, have higher external validity, are less subject to bias, and produce more reproducible results than the completely randomized designs typically used in research involving laboratory animals. Reproducibility can be further increased by using time as a blocking factor. These benefits can be achieved at no extra cost. A small experiment investigating the effect of an antioxidant on the activity of a liver enzyme in four inbred mouse strains, which had two replications (blocks) separated by a period of two months, illustrates this approach. The widespread failure to use these designs more widely in research involving laboratory animals has probably led to a substantial waste of animals, money, and scientific resources and slowed down the development of new treatments for human and animal diseases.

  6. Iceberg capsize hydrodynamics: a comparison of laboratory experiments and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, J. C.; Cathles, L. M.; Correa-Legisos, S.; Ellowitz, J.; Darnell, K.; Zhang, W. W.; MacAyeal, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Large icebergs are often observed to capsize in open water near fjords. During capsize, large amounts of gravitational potential energy are released which can lead to coastal tsunamis, mixing of the water column, and possibly lead to further calving at the glacier terminus. This process is rarely studied; in nature the scale and irregular timing of the events makes observations exceedingly difficult. Here we compare laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of the capsize process to better understand the coupling of the hydrodynamic forces to the solid iceberg. Although the characteristic Reynolds number is much lower for both the laboratory model and the numerical simulations, the comparison provides a starting point to quantify and identify generic features that can be estimated in the field, such as hydrodynamic pressure, water flow velocities, vertical mixing, and elastic stresses on the iceberg itself, which could lead to fracture.

  7. Determining the EDTA Content in a Consumer Shower Cleaner. An Introductory Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Willis A.

    2000-10-01

    At Altoona College, Chemistry 11 is offered to students as a preparatory course for the University's Chemical Principles course, Chem 12. A relevant laboratory is a source of motivation for the students to learn the chemistry. One way of making the laboratory relevant is to analyze the chemical components of consumer products. Several new shower-cleaning products have been introduced, which advertise that cleaning the shower is no longer necessary. The cleaners work using a combination of surfactants, alcohols, and a chelating agent. The Web site of a popular shower cleaner lists EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate ion) as the chelating agent. The classic EDTA/calcium complexometric titration can be used to determine the EDTA content of the cleaner. This article describes the experiment to determine the EDTA content in a shower-cleaning product.

  8. Surgery for massive malignant tumors of the left atrium – one center’s experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrushchuk, Uladzimir; Ostrovsky, Youry; Zharkov, Vladimir; Krutau, Valery; Yudina, Olga; Ilyina, Tatsiana; Grinchuk, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surgery for primary non-resectable malignant tumors of the left atrium is controversial. Today heart autotransplantation as a method of surgical treatment for patients suffering primary massive malignant tumors of the left atrium is still not sufficiently studied. Material and methods We provide information on our single-center 5-year experience in performing surgical interventions for massive malignant tumors of the left atrium and including cases of 5 patients (3 males – 60%, 2 females – 40%). One case (1/5, 20%) involved debulking surgery with partial resection of the left atrial (LA) wall and its reconstruction using a xenopericardium patch. Orthotopic heart transplantation was performed in 1 patient (1/5, 20%) and heart autotransplantation (HA) in the 3 other cases (3/5, 60%). Results Mean myocardial ischemia duration was 165.6 ±12.0 minutes (range: 137–198), cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) duration was 248.6 ±36.6 minutes (range: 188–392), and intervention duration was 498.0 ±77.4 minutes (range: 330–780). Mean total blood loss was estimated to be 2432 ±616.5 ml (range: 1610–4880). Major in-hospital complications were registered in 4 patients (4/5, 80%). In-hospital mortality was registered in 3 patients (3/5, 60%). Survival time in 2 (2/5, 40%) patients discharged from the hospital was 29 and 9 months, respectively. Both died because of disease progression. Conclusions Surgery in patients with massive resectable primary malignant tumor of the left atrium is associated with high incidence of major hospital complications and mortality. Heart autotransplantation with radical tumor resection is the treatment of choice for these cases. The surgical approach implies thorough primary hemostasis and selection of a proper surgical approach, allowing revision of all the regions of intervention during each step. The possibility of excessive tension and bleeding in the area of bicaval anastomosis should be considered when performing heart

  9. Flexible robotic retrograde renoscopy: description of novel robotic device and preliminary laboratory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mihir M; Aron, Monish; Gill, Inderbir S; Pascal-Haber, Georges; Ukimura, Osamu; Kaouk, Jihad H; Stahler, Gregory; Barbagli, Federico; Carlson, Christopher; Moll, Fredric

    2008-07-01

    To describe a novel flexible robotic system for performing retrograde intrarenal surgery. Remote robotic flexible ureterorenoscopy was performed bilaterally in 5 acute swine (10 kidneys). A novel 14F robotic catheter system, which manipulated a passive optical fiberscope mounted on a remote catheter manipulator was used. The technical feasibility, efficiency, and reproducibility of accessing all calices were assessed. Additionally, laser lithotripsy of calculi and laser ablation of renal papillae were performed. The robotic catheter system could be introduced de novo in eight ureters; two ureters required balloon dilation. The ureteroscope could be successfully manipulated remotely into 83 (98%) of the 85 calices. The time required to inspect all calices within a given kidney decreased with experience from 15 minutes in the first kidney to 49 seconds in the last (mean 4.6 minutes). On a visual analog scale (1, worst to 10, best), the reproducibility of caliceal access was rated at 8, and instrument tip stability was rated at 10. A renal pelvic perforation constituted the solitary complication. Histologic examination of the ureter showed changes consistent with acute dilation without areas of necrosis. A novel robotic catheter system is described for performing retrograde ureterorenoscopy. The potential advantages compared with conventional manual flexible ureterorenoscopy include an increased range of motion, instrument stability, and improved ergonomics. Ongoing refinement is likely to expand the role of this technology in retrograde intrarenal surgery in the near future.

  10. Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Experiment Laboratory engineering concepts/design tradeoffs. Volume 1: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, R. V.; Eaton, L. R.; Wilkinson, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    The work is summarized which was accomplished from January 1974 to October 1974 for the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory. The definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineation of candidate experiments that require the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity are reported. The experiment program and the laboratory concept for a Spacelab payload to perform cloud microphysics research are defined. This multimission laboratory is planned to be available to the entire scientific community to utilize in furthering the basic understanding of cloud microphysical processes and phenomenon, thereby contributing to improved weather prediction and ultimately to provide beneficial weather control and modification.

  11. [Low field intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging for brain tumour surgery: preliminary experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Pedro; García, Sergio; González, Josep; Reyes, Luis Alberto; Torales, Jorge; Valero, Ricard; Oleaga, Laura; Enseñat, Joaquim

    Intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) is a recently introduced tool in the most advanced neurosurgical operating rooms worldwide. We present our preliminary experience in brain tumour surgery with low field PoleStar N30® intraoperative MRI since its introduction in 2013 in the Barcelona Clinic Hospital. A prospective non-randomised study was conducted on cases operated on using iMRI and intention of complete removal up to October 2015. A record was made of the data as regards surgical times, resection rates, histological diagnosis, hospital stay, and survival rates during follow-up. The study included 50 patients, with a mean age of 55 years (±13.7), a preoperative mean Karnofsky of 92 (being 81 post-operatively), and a mean follow-up of 10.5 months (±6.5). There were 26% re-operations due to recurrence. High-grade gliomas were reported in 56%, low-grade gliomas in 24%, and 20% "Other" tumours. Overall hospital stay was 10 days (±4.5). Depending on the histologiacl diagnosis, the "Others" group had a longer hospital stay. Overall, there were 52% complete removal, 18% of maximum removals, and 30% of partial removals. The overall survival rates during follow-up was 84%. iMRI is a safe and effective tool for brain tumour surgery. Its use allows an increase in resection rates, and minimises post-operative complications. Its implementation involves an increase in surgical time, which improves with the characteristic learning curve. More studies are needed to establish its role in the long-term survival of patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Urological laparoscopic surgery: Our experience of first 100 cases in Dicle University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali Sancaktutar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study the experience and results of first100 laparoscopic surgery is presented.Materials and methods: The laparoscopic surgical operationswere reviewed between July 2010 and October 2011,retrospectively.Results: During a year period we performed of 100 laparoscopicinterventions. The ratio of male to female and themean age was 57/43 and 48,65±8,94 years respectively.The kind of operation and total numbers were like this: simplenephrectomy 34, radical nephrektomy 22, renal cyst excision21, orchiectomy 7, ureterolitotomy 4, adrenalectomy 4,orchiopexy 3, pyeloplasti 2, nefroureterectomy+cystectomy1, nefroureterectomy+partial cystectomy 1 nefroureterectomy1 patient.Transperitoneal approach was used for 91 patients whileretroperitoneal approach was used to 9 patients. The operationwas completed by open surgical interventions foronly 6 of 100 patients. The reason for open proceduresduring laparoscopy was not reaching to renal pedicles forthree patients, adhesions to pararenal tissue and colonfor 2 patients and splenic artery injury for 1 patient. Threepatients needed blood transfusions. Except these patientsthere wasn’t any complications and mortalities. When performingright nephrectomy and adrenalectomy the fourthport was used to ecartate liver. Except these cases in alloperations 3 ports was used. The mean hospitalizationstay was 1,7(1-8 days. The operation times of mostlyperformed operations were like these minute (interval:simple nephrectomy 95 (70-135, radical nephrectomy 148(125-190, renal cyst excision 45 (20-80, orchiectomy 41(30-45, ureterolithotomy 104 (95-135, orchiopexy 85 (80-100, adrenalectomy 148 (110-180, pyeloplasty 170 (160-180 nefroureterectomy 150 minutes.Conclusions: The results, success and complication ratesof laparoscopic operations which are performed in our clinicswere found as similar to literature. The laparoscopicsurgery is alternative to open surgery that it can be usedsafely and effectively. J Clin

  13. Diffusion Experiments with Opalinus and Callovo-Oxfordian Clays: Laboratory, Large-Scale Experiments and Microscale Analysis by RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Alonso, U.; Missana, T.; Cormenzana, J.L.; Mingarro, M.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.

    2009-09-25

    Consolidated clays are potential host rocks for deep geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste. Diffusion is the main transport process for radionuclides (RN) in these clays. Radionuclide (RN) diffusion coefficients are the most important parameters for Performance Assessment (PA) calculations of clay barriers. Different diffusion methodologies were applied at a laboratory scale to analyse the diffusion behaviour of a wide range of RN. Main aims were to understand the transport properties of different RNs in two different clays and to contribute with feasible methodologies to improve in-situ diffusion experiments, using samples of larger scale. Classical laboratory essays and a novel experimental set-up for large-scale diffusion experiments were performed, together to a novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), for diffusion analyses at the micrometer scale. The main experimental and theoretical characteristics of the different methodologies, and their advantages and limitations are here discussed. Experiments were performed with the Opalinus and the Callovo-Oxfordian clays. Both clays are studied as potential host rock for a repository. Effective diffusion coefficients ranged between 1.10{sup -}10 to 1.10{sup -}12 m{sup 2}/s for neutral, low sorbing cations (as Na and Sr) and anions. Apparent diffusion coefficients for strongly sorbing elements, as Cs and Co, are in the order of 1.10-13 m{sup 2}/s; europium present the lowest diffusion coefficient (5.10{sup -}15 m{sup 2}/s). The results obtained by the different approaches gave a comprehensive database of diffusion coefficients for RN with different transport behaviour within both clays. (Author) 42 refs.

  14. Fusion virtual laboratory: The experiments' collaboration platform in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, H., E-mail: nakanisi@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kojima, M.; Takahashi, C.; Ohsuna, M.; Imazu, S.; Nonomura, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Hasegawa, M. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8560 (Japan); Yoshikawa, M. [PRC, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    'Fusion virtual laboratory (FVL)' is the experiments' collaboration platform covering multiple fusion projects in Japan. Major Japanese fusion laboratories and universities are mutually connected through the dedicated virtual private network, named SNET, on SINET4. It has 3 different categories; (i) LHD remote participation, (ii) bilateral experiments' collaboration, and (iii) remote use of supercomputer. By extending the LABCOM data system developed at LHD, FVL supports (i) and (ii) so that it can deal with not only LHD data but also the data of two remote experiments: QUEST at Kyushu University and GAMMA10 at University of Tsukuba. FVL has applied the latest 'cloud' technology for both data acquisition and storage architecture. It can provide us high availability and performance scalability of the whole system. With a well optimized TCP data transferring method, the unified data access platform for both experimental data and numerical computation results could become realistic on FVL. The FVL project will continue demonstrating the ITER-era international collaboration schemes and the necessary technology.

  15. Colonization by aerobic bacteria in karst: Laboratory and in situ experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personne, J.-C.; Poty, F.; Mahler, B.J.; Drogue, C.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the potential for bacterial colonization of different substrates in karst aquifers and the nature of the colonizing bacteria. Laboratory batch experiments were performed using limestone and PVC as substrates, a natural bacterial isolate and a known laboratory strain (Escherichia coli [E. coli]) as inocula, and karst ground water and a synthetic formula as growth media. In parallel, fragments of limestone and granite were submerged in boreholes penetrating two karst aquifers for more than one year; the boreholes are periodically contaminated by enteric bacteria from waste water. Once a month, rock samples were removed and the colonizing bacteria quantified and identified. The batch experiments demonstrated that the natural isolate and E. coli both readily colonized limestone surfaces using karst ground water as the growth medium. In contrast, bacterial colonization of both the limestone and granite substrates, when submerged in the karst, was less intense. More than 300 bacterial strains were isolated over the period sampled, but no temporal pattern in colonization was seen as far as strain, and colonization by E. coli was notably absent, although strains of Salmonella and Citrobacter were each observed once. Samples suspended in boreholes penetrating highly fractured zones were less densely colonized than those in the borehole penetrating a less fractured zone. The results suggest that contamination of karst aquifers by enteric bacteria is unlikely to be persistent. We hypothesize that this may be a result of the high flow velocities found in karst conduits, and of predation of colonizing bacteria by autochthonous zooplankton.

  16. Modeling extreme wave heights from laboratory experiments with the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. D.; Guedes Soares, C.; Cherneva, Z.; Onorato, M.

    2014-04-01

    Spatial variation of nonlinear wave groups with different initial envelope shapes is theoretically studied first, confirming that the simplest nonlinear theoretical model is capable of describing the evolution of propagating wave packets in deep water. Moreover, three groups of laboratory experiments run in the wave basin of CEHIPAR (Canal de Experiencias Hidrodinámicas de El Pardo, known also as El Pardo Model Basin) was founded in 1928 by the Spanish Navy. are systematically compared with the numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Although a little overestimation is detected, especially in the set of experiments characterized by higher initial wave steepness, the numerical simulation still displays a high degree of agreement with the laboratory experiments. Therefore, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation catches the essential characteristics of the extreme waves and provides an important physical insight into their generation. The modulation instability, resulting from the quasi-resonant four-wave interaction in a unidirectional sea state, can be indicated by the coefficient of kurtosis, which shows an appreciable correlation with the extreme wave height and hence is used in the modified Edgeworth-Rayleigh distribution. Finally, some statistical properties on the maximum wave heights in different sea states have been related with the initial Benjamin-Feir index.

  17. Exploration of the Kinked Jet in the Crab Nebula with Scaled Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chikang

    2015-11-01

    X-ray images from the Chandra X-ray Observatory show that the South-East jet in the Crab nebula changes direction every few years. This remarkable phenomenon is also frequently observed for jets in other pulsar-wind nebulae and in other astrophysical objects. Numerical simulations suggest that it may be a consequence of current-driven, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities taking place in the jet, yet that is just a hypothesis without verification in controlled experiments. To that end, we recently conducted scaled laboratory experiments that reproduced this phenomenon. In these experiments, a supersonic plasma jet was generated in the collision of two laser-produced plasma plumes, and this jet was radiographed from the side using 15-MeV and 3-MeV protons. It was observed that if self-generated toroidal magnetic fields around the jet were strong enough, they triggered plasma instabilities that caused substantial deflections throughout the jet propagation, mimicking the kinked jet structure seen in the Crab Nebula. We have modeled these laboratory experiments with comprehensive two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations, which in conjunction with the experiments provide compelling evidence that we have an accurate model of the most important physics of magnetic fields and MHD instabilities in the observed jet in the Crab Nebula. The work described here was performed in part at the LLE National Laser User's Facility (NLUF), and was supported in part by US DOE (Grant No. DE-FG03- 03SF22691), LLNL (subcontract Grant No. B504974) and LLE (subcontract Grant No. 412160-001G).

  18. Laboratory Automation and Intra-Laboratory Turnaround Time: Experience at the University Hospital Campus Bio-Medico of Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Silvia; De Cesaris, Marina; Hart, Jonathan George; Urbano, Michele; Vitali, Massimiliano Andrea; Fragliasso, Fulvio; Dicuonzo, Giordano

    2015-12-01

    Intra-laboratory turnaround time (TAT) is a key indicator of laboratory performance. Improving TAT is a complex task requiring staff education, equipment acquisition, and adequate TAT monitoring. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intra-laboratory TAT after laboratory automation implementation (June 2013-June 2014) and to compare it to that in the preautomation period (July 2012-May 2013). Intra-laboratory TAT was evaluated both as the mean TAT registered and the percentage of outlier (OP) exams. The mean TAT was 36, 38, and 34 min during the study periods, respectively. These values respected the goal TAT established at 45 min. The OP, calculated at 45 min as well as at 60 min, decreased from 26 to 21 and from 11 to 5, respectively. From a focused analysis on blood count cell, troponin I, and prothrombin (PT) test, TAT improvement was more evident for tests requiring longer preanalytical process. The follow-up of TAT from June 2013 to June 2014 revealed the reduction of the mean TAT as well as of the OP exams after automation implementation and that automation more strongly affects the test in the preanalytical phase including centrifugation of the sample, such as troponin I and PT.

  19. Evaluation of the use of surrogate Laminaria digitata in eco-hydraulic laboratory experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAUL Maike; HENRY Pierre-Yves T

    2014-01-01

    Inert surrogates can avoid husbandry and adaptation problems of live vegetation in laboratories. Surrogates are generally used for experiments on vegetation-hydrodynamics interactions, but it is unclear how well they replicate field conditions. Here, surrogates for the brown macroalgae Laminaria digitata were developed to reproduce its hydraulic roughness. Plant shape, stiffness and buoyancy of L. digitata were evaluated and compared to the properties of inert materials. Different surrogate materials and shapes were exposed to unidirectional flow. It is concluded that buoyancy is an important factor in low flow conditions and a basic shape might be sufficient to model complex shaped plants resulting in the same streamlined shape.

  20. An Laboratory Experiment for Comparing Effectiveness of Three Types of Online Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Lin; WANG Kanliang

    2008-01-01

    The widespread use of Internet accelerates the rapid development of business to customer electronic commerce. To reduce information overload and help their customers to make better purchase decisions, e-commerce websites are beginning to use online recommendations. This paper compares the effectiveness of three types of online recommendations, the personalized recommendation, best sellers, and consumers' reviews, which are widely used in e-commerce. This research used a laboratory experiment combined with a questionnaire. This paper also establishes an integrated model of the facts that influence recommendation effectiveness.

  1. An experiment towards characterizing seahorse sound in a laboratory controlled environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saran, A; Sreepada, R.A; Chakraborty, B.; Fernandes, W.A; Srivastava, R.; Kuncolienker, D.S.; Gawde, G.

    N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o n E l e c t r o n i c T e c h n o l o g i e s 1 5 t h & 1 6 t h A p r i l 2 K 1 1 | 138 An Experiment towards Characterizing Seahorse Sound in a Laboratory Controlled Environment Arvind K. Saran1, R.... A. Sreepada1, Bishwajit Chakraborty1, William Fernandes1, Ratan Srivastava1 1National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India Dinanath Sinai Kuncolienker 2 , Gajanan Gawde2 2Goa Engineering College, Farmagudi Ponda, Goa, India...

  2. A Laboratory Plasma Experiment for Studying Magnetic Dynamics of Accretion Discs and Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, S C

    2002-01-01

    This work describes a laboratory plasma experiment and initial results which should give insight into the magnetic dynamics of accretion discs and jets. A high-speed multiple-frame CCD camera reveals images of the formation and helical instability of a collimated plasma, similar to MHD models of disc jets, and also plasma detachment associated with spheromak formation, which may have relevance to disc winds and flares. The plasmas are produced by a planar magnetized coaxial gun. The resulting magnetic topology is dependent on the details of magnetic helicity injection, namely the force-free state eigenvalue alpha_gun imposed by the coaxial gun.

  3. Anisotropic viscosity and fabric evolution from laboratory experiments and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lars; Warren, Jessica; Zimmerman, Mark; Kohlstedt, David; Skemer, Philip; Hirth, Greg

    2013-04-01

    Crystallographic alignment of grains during solid-state deformation imparts anisotropic material properties to the bulk rock, which results in significant macroscopic anisotropy in viscosity. The majority of previous laboratory studies on geological materials have performed experiments on relatively untextured samples, making it difficult to quantify the magnitude of anisotropy. Here we present results of laboratory deformation experiments that first produce strong crystallographic fabrics and then test the viscosity of these textured aggregates in multiple stress states. Our results are used in a model for shear zone evolution to reproduce field measurements of strain variation across a natural shear zone. Two sets of deformation experiments were performed in a gas-medium apparatus at 1473 K and 300 MPa confining pressure. In the first set of experiments (Hansen et al., Nature, 2012), large-strain torsion imparts a fabric in which the dominant [100] orientation is parallel to the shear direction and the dominant [010] orientation is normal to the shear plane, typical of a fabric due to shear on the (010)[100] slip system. Subsequent tension parallel to the initial torsion axis occurs with most grains having unfavorable orientations for slip on available slip systems. In the second set of experiments, samples were initially deformed in tension and subsequently deformed in torsion, with the torsion axis parallel to the initial tensional load. Tension imparts a fabric in which the dominant [100] orientation is parallel to the tension direction, with girdles of [010] and [001] axes. Subsequent torsion occurs with some grains having favorable orientations for (100)[001] slip and other grains having unfavorable orientations for slip on available slip systems. Electron-backscatter diffraction maps of axial sections of samples reveal that the crystallographic fabric reorients into a more favorable orientation at a shear strain of ~1.5. In both sets of experiments the

  4. Partners' experiences of the postdischarge period after day surgery - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majholm, Birgitte; Esbensen, Bente A; Thomsen, Thordis;

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objectives.  Day surgery shifts the responsibility of care from the hospital to patients and their families. This study explored how partners of day surgery patients experienced their role after patient discharge. Background.  Many surgical procedures formerly requiring inpatient care...... are now carried out on a day surgery basis, shifting responsibility of care to patients and their partners/relatives. Little is known about how partners of day surgery patients manage this responsibility. Design.  Qualitative descriptive. Methods.  Individual semi-structured interviews with 11 partners...... of day surgery patients who had undergone shoulder surgery. Systematic text condensation was used to analyse data. Results.  The following aspects were identified: the first is 'It's all about being there for the patient by taking care of the patient's needs and by mobilising one's network,' referring...

  5. Estimated Uncertainties in the Idaho National Laboratory Matched-Index-of-Refraction Lower Plenum Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald M. McEligot; Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Ryan C. Johnson

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments in the MIR (Matched-Index-of-Refraction) flow system at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing, and turbulence models for typical Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) plenum geometries in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. The experiments use optical techniques, primarily particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the INL MIR flow system. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in passages and around objects to be obtained without locating a disturbing transducer in the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. The objective of the present report is to develop understanding of the magnitudes of experimental uncertainties in the results to be obtained in such experiments. Unheated MIR experiments are first steps when the geometry is complicated. One does not want to use a computational technique, which will not even handle constant properties properly. This report addresses the general background, requirements for benchmark databases, estimation of experimental uncertainties in mean velocities and turbulence quantities, the MIR experiment, PIV uncertainties, positioning uncertainties, and other contributing measurement uncertainties.

  6. Accretion shocks in the laboratory: Design of an experiment to study star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Hartigan, P.

    2017-06-01

    We present the design of a laboratory-astrophysics experiment to study magnetospheric accretion relevant to young, pre-main-sequence stars. Spectra of young stars show evidence of hotspots created when streams of accreting material impact the surface of the star and create shocks. The structures that form during this process are poorly understood, as the surfaces of young stars cannot be spatially resolved. Our experiment would create a scaled ;accretion shock; at a major (several kJ) laser facility. The experiment drives a plasma jet (the ;accretion stream;) into a solid block (the ;stellar surface;), in the presence of a parallel magnetic field analogous to the star's local field. We show that this experiment is well-scaled when the incoming jet has ρ ∼10-6 -10-5gcm-3 and u ∼ 100 - 200kms-1 in an imposed field of B ∼ 10 T. Such an experiment would represent an average accretion stream onto a pre-main sequence star with B ∼ 700 G.

  7. Dedicated Laboratory Setup for CO2 TEA Laser Propulsion Experiments at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Israel I.; Kenoyer, David; Myrabo, Leik N.; Notaro, Samuel

    2010-10-01

    Laser propulsion research progress has traditionally been hindered by the scarcity of photon sources with desirable characteristics, as well as integrated specialized flow facilities in a dedicated laboratory environment. For TEA CO2 lasers, the minimal requirements are time-average powers of >100 W), and pulse energies of >10 J pulses with short duration (e.g., 0.1 to 1 μs); furthermore, for the advanced pulsejet engines of interest here, the laser system must simulate pulse repetition frequencies of 1-10 kilohertz or more, at least for two (carefully sequenced) pulses. A well-equipped laser propulsion laboratory should have an arsenal of sensor and diagnostics tools (such as load cells, thrust stands, moment balances, pressure and heat transfer gages), Tesla-level electromagnet and permanent magnets, flow simulation facilities, and high-speed visualization systems, in addition to other related equipment, such as optics and gas supply systems. In this paper we introduce a cutting-edge Laser Propulsion Laboratory created at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, one of the very few in the world to be uniquely set up for beamed energy propulsion (BEP) experiments. The present BEP research program is described, along with the envisioned research strategy that will exploit current and expanded facilities in the near future.

  8. Granular and particle-laden flows: from laboratory experiments to field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannay, R.; Valance, A.; Mangeney, A.; Roche, O.; Richard, P.

    2017-02-01

    This review article provides an overview of dry granular flows and particle fluid mixtures, including experimental and numerical modeling at the laboratory scale, large scale hydrodynamics approaches and field observations. Over the past ten years, the theoretical and numerical approaches have made such significant progress that they are capable of providing qualitative and quantitative estimates of particle concentration and particle velocity profiles in steady and fully developed particulate flows. The next step which is currently developed is the extension of these approaches to unsteady and inhomogeneous flow configurations relevant to most of geophysical flows. We also emphasize that the up-scaling from laboratory experiments to large scale geophysical flows still poses some theoretical physical challenges. For example, the reduction of the dissipation that is responsible for the unexpected long run-out of large scale granular avalanches is not observed at the laboratory scale and its physical origin is still a matter of debate. However, we believe that the theoretical approaches have reached a mature state and that it is now reasonable to tackle complex particulate flows that incorporate more and more degrees of complexity of natural flows.

  9. Scaled laboratory experiments explain the kink behaviour of the Crab Nebula jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. K.; Tzeferacos, P.; Lamb, D.; Gregori, G.; Norreys, P. A.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Follett, R. K.; Froula, D. H.; Koenig, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Park, H. S.; Remington, B. A.; Ryutov, D. D.; Wilks, S. C.; Betti, R.; Frank, A.; Hu, S. X.; Sangster, T. C.; Hartigan, P.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Woolsey, N. C.

    2016-10-01

    The remarkable discovery by the Chandra X-ray observatory that the Crab nebula's jet periodically changes direction provides a challenge to our understanding of astrophysical jet dynamics. It has been suggested that this phenomenon may be the consequence of magnetic fields and magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, but experimental demonstration in a controlled laboratory environment has remained elusive. Here we report experiments that use high-power lasers to create a plasma jet that can be directly compared with the Crab jet through well-defined physical scaling laws. The jet generates its own embedded toroidal magnetic fields; as it moves, plasma instabilities result in multiple deflections of the propagation direction, mimicking the kink behaviour of the Crab jet. The experiment is modelled with three-dimensional numerical simulations that show exactly how the instability develops and results in changes of direction of the jet.

  10. Small scale magnetosphere: Laboratory experiment, physical model and Hall MHD simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaikhislamov, I F; Zakharov, Yu P; Boyarintsev, E L; Melekhov, A V; Posukh, V G; Ponomarenko, A G

    2011-01-01

    A problem of magnetosphere formation on ion inertia scale around weakly magnetized bodies is investigated by means of laboratory experiment, analytical analysis and 2.5D Hall MHD simulation. Experimental evidence of specific magnetic field generated by the Hall term is presented. Direct comparison of regimes with small and large ion inertia length revealed striking differences in measured magnetopause position and plasma stand off distance. Analytical model is presented, which explains such basic features of mini-magnetosphere observed in previous kinetic simulations as disappearance of bow shock and plasma stopping at Stoermer particle limit instead of pressure balance distance. Numerical simulation is found to be in a good agreement with experiments and analytical model. It gives detailed spatial structure of Hall field and reveals that while ions penetrate deep inside mini-magnetosphere electrons overflow around it along magnetopause boundary.

  11. Soliton generation by internal tidal beams impinging on a pycnocline: laboratory experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mercier, Matthieu J; Gostiaux, Louis; Gerkema, Theo; Magalhães, Jorge M; Da Silva, José C B; Dauxois, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first laboratory experiments that show the generation of internal solitary waves by the impingement of a quasi-two-dimensional internal wave beam on a pycnocline. These experiments were inspired by observations of internal solitary waves in the deep ocean from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, where this so-called mechanism of 'local generation' was argued to be at work, here in the form of internal tidal beams hitting the thermocline. Nonlinear processes involved here are found to be of two kinds. First, we observe the generation of a mean flow and higher harmonics at the location where the principal beam reflects from the surface and pycnocline; their characteristics are examined using particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Second, we observe internal solitary waves that appear in the pycnocline, detected with ultrasonic probes; they are further characterized by a bulge in the frequency spectrum, distinct from the higher harmonics. Finally, the relevance of our re...

  12. Effects of Organic Enrichment on Sandy Beach Meiofauna:A Laboratory Microcosm Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianing; ZHOU Hong,; ZHANG Zhinan; CONG Bingqing; XU Shuhui

    2011-01-01

    Meiofauna samples from intertidal sediments of Qingdao No.2 Bathing Beach,China,were collected for field study,and subjected to organic enrichment in a laboratory microcosm experiment for 21 d.There were three different treatments including non-organic addition as the control,low-organic enrichment (2 g DW green algae per 150 mL) and high-organic enrichment (10 g DW green algae per 150 mL).After 21 d,the meiofauna richness decreased in both organic enrichment treatments.Among the three treatments,total meiofauna abundance was significantly different,and the control groups had higher abundance than the other two treatment groups.However,the responses of the meiofauna abundance in the two organic enrichment treatments were non-significantly different.The relationship of meiofaunal abundance and nematode/copepod ratios to organic matter and oxygen level in the microcosm experiments were discussed.

  13. Early Results on Radioactive Background Characterization for Sanford Laboratory and DUSEL Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, D -M; Thomas, K; Gray, F

    2009-01-01

    Measuring external sources of background for a deep underground laboratory at the Homestake Mine is an important step for the planned low-background experiments. The naturally occurring $\\gamma$-ray fluxes at different levels in the Homestake Mine are studied using NaI detectors and Monte Carlo simulations. A simple algorithm is developed to convert the measured $\\gamma$-ray rates into $\\gamma$-ray fluxes. A good agreement between the measured and simulated $\\gamma$-ray fluxes is achieved with the knowledge of the chemical composition and radioactivity levels in the rock. The neutron fluxes and $\\gamma$-ray fluxes are predicted by Monte Carlo simulations for different levels including inaccessible levels that are under construction for the planned low background experiments.

  14. Variability of Biological Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Aerobic Aquifer Determined by Laboratory Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    The biological aerobic degradation of 7 aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, p-dichlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene and biphenyl) was studied for 149 days in replicate laboratory batch experiments with groundwater and sediment from 8 localities representing a 15 m × 30 m...... section of an aerobic aquifer. Compared to biologically deactivated control experiments all compounds were biologically degraded. Degradation curves were very reproducible for some compounds (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, o-dichlorobenzene and p-dichlorobenzene) and less reproducible for other (naphthalene......, naphthlene and biphenyl, but not for o-xylene, o-dichlorobenzene, and p-dichlorobenzene. The maximum variation in degradation rates was 15 times in the case of biphenyl. Significant co-variation in degradation rates was found between benzene and toluene, and between p- and o-dichlorobenzene....

  15. Effect of the soil treated with biochar on the rye-grass in laboratory experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulyás Miklós

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of biochars to improve soils and to mitigate global climate change is a popular research area all over the world, although it is not a new topic. In our study, wood chips char (BC and animal bone char (ABC were applied. The pot experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions. 2 grams of rye-grass (Lolium perenne were seeded into each pot. The following various soil parameters were measured: pH (KCl, AL-P2O5, AL-K2O, total water soluble salt content and organic matter content. The measured parameters from the plant samples were: total-P, total-K and micronutrients. Results show that the negative or positive effect of pyrolysis solids cannot be determined clearly, further experiments are needed.

  16. Limits on WIMP cross-sections from the NAIAD experiment at the Boulby Underground Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Alner, G J; Arnison, G J; Barton, J C; Bewick, A; Bungau, C; Camanzi, B; Carson, M J; Davidge, D; Daw, E; Dawson, J V; Davies, G J; Davies, J C; Duffy, C; Durkin, T J; Gamble, T; Hart, S P; Hollingworth, R; Homer, G J; Howard, A S; Ivaniouchenkov, Yu; Jones, W G; Joshi, M K; Kirkpatrick, J; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lawson, T B; Lebedenko, V; Lehner, M J; Lewin, J D; Lightfoot, P K; Liubarsky, I; Lüscher, R; McMillan, J E; Morgan, B; Murphy, A; Nickolls, A; Nicklin, G; Paling, S M; Preece, R M; Quenby, J J; Roberts, J W; Robinson, M; Smith, N J T; Smith, P F; Spooner, N J C; Sumner, T J; Tovey, Daniel R; Tziaferi, E

    2005-01-01

    The NAIAD experiment (NaI Advanced Detector) for WIMP dark matter searches at the Boulby Underground Laboratory (North Yorkshire, UK) ran from 2000 until 2003. A total of 44.9 kg x years of data collected with 2 encapsulated and 4 unencapsulated NaI(Tl) crystals with high light yield were included in the analysis. We present final results of this analysis carried out using pulse shape discrimination. No signal associated with nuclear recoils from WIMP interactions was observed in any run with any crystal. This allowed us to set upper limits on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent and WIMP-proton spin-dependent cross-sections. The NAIAD experiment has so far imposed the most stringent constraints on the spin-dependent WIMP-proton cross-section.

  17. Viscosity by Fluorescence Depolarization of Probe Molecules. A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, Charles F.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Sharma, Shiv K.

    2005-06-01

    This two-session undergraduate laboratory experiment in physical chemistry involves the measurement of the viscosity of solutions using both a conventional method and a new method based on the fluorescence depolarization of a probe molecule. By comparing the results of the two approaches, students will come to a fundamental understanding of how a macroscopic property (viscosity) and molecular-level properties (molecular dynamics parameters) relate. They will also further their understandnig of the physical chemistry of fluorescence and learn how to perform spectroscopic measurements where polarization conditions are important. The experiment also has ramifications in the practical world, because the optical approach has shown promise as the basis for a sensor for in-situ viscostiy measurement.

  18. A laboratory experiment for a new free-standing pupil mask coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haze, K.; Enya, K.; Kotani, T.; Abe, L.; Nakagawa, T.; Matsuhara, H.; Sato, T.; Yamamuro, T.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory experiment on a new free-standing pupil mask coronagraph for the direct observation of exoplanets. We focused on a binary-shaped pupil coronagraph, which is planned for installation in the next-generation infrared space telescope SPICA. Our laboratory experiments on the coronagraph were implemented inside a vacuum chamber (HOCT) to achieve greater thermal stability and to avoid air turbulence, and a contrast of 1.3×10-9 was achieved with PSF subtraction. We also carried out multi-color/broadband experiments to demonstrate that the pupil mask coronagraph works, in principle, at all wavelengths. We had previously manufactured a checker-board mask, a type of binary-shaped pupil mask, on a glass substrate, which had the disadvantages of light loss by transmission, ghosting from residual reflectance and a slightly different refractive index for each wavelength. Therefore, we developed a new free-standing mask in sheet metal, for which no substrate was needed. As a result of a He-Ne laser experiment with the free-standing mask, a contrast of 1.0×10-7 was achieved for the raw coronagraphic image. We also conducted rotated mask subtractions and numerical simulations of some errors in the mask shape and WFEs. Speckles are the major limiting factor. The free-standing mask exhibited about the same ability to improve contrast as the substrate mask. Consequently, the results of this study suggest that the binary-shaped pupil mask coronagraph can be applied to coronagraphic observations by SPICA and other telescopes.

  19. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Part II--A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment on Surface Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuttlefield, Jennifer D.; Larsen, Sarah C.; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2008-01-01

    Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a useful technique for measuring the infrared spectra of solids and liquids as well as probing adsorption on particle surfaces. The use of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in organic and inorganic chemistry laboratory courses as well as in undergraduate research was presented…

  20. Real-time laboratory exercises to test contingency plans for classical swine fever: experiences from two national laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenen, K.; Uttenthal, Åse; Meindl-Böhmer, A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to adequately and efficiently handle outbreaks of contagious diseases such as classical swine fever (CSF), foot and mouth disease or highly pathogenic avian influenza, competent authorities and the laboratories involved have to be well prepared and must be in possession of functioning co...

  1. Coupling Data Mining and Laboratory Experiments to Discover Drug Interactions Causing QT Prolongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorberbaum, Tal; Sampson, Kevin J; Chang, Jeremy B; Iyer, Vivek; Woosley, Raymond L; Kass, Robert S; Tatonetti, Nicholas P

    2016-10-18

    QT interval-prolonging drug-drug interactions (QT-DDIs) may increase the risk of life-threatening arrhythmia. Despite guidelines for testing from regulatory agencies, these interactions are usually discovered after drugs are marketed and may go undiscovered for years. Using a combination of adverse event reports, electronic health records (EHR), and laboratory experiments, the goal of this study was to develop a data-driven pipeline for discovering QT-DDIs. 1.8 million adverse event reports were mined for signals indicating a QT-DDI. Using 1.6 million electrocardiogram results from 380,000 patients in our institutional EHR, these putative interactions were either refuted or corroborated. In the laboratory, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology to measure the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel block (the primary mechanism by which drugs prolong the QT interval) to evaluate our top candidate. Both direct and indirect signals in the adverse event reports provided evidence that the combination of ceftriaxone (a cephalosporin antibiotic) and lansoprazole (a proton-pump inhibitor) will prolong the QT interval. In the EHR, we found that patients taking both ceftriaxone and lansoprazole had significantly longer QTc intervals (up to 12 ms in white men) and were 1.4 times more likely to have a QTc interval above 500 ms. In the laboratory, we found that, in combination and at clinically relevant concentrations, these drugs blocked the hERG channel. As a negative control, we evaluated the combination of lansoprazole and cefuroxime (another cephalosporin), which lacked evidence of an interaction in the adverse event reports. We found no significant effect of this pair in either the EHR or in the electrophysiology experiments. Class effect analyses suggested this interaction was specific to lansoprazole combined with ceftriaxone but not with other cephalosporins. Coupling data mining and laboratory experiments is an efficient method for identifying QT

  2. Stability of quasi-Keplerian Shear Flow in a Laboratory Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schartman, Ethan; Ji, Hantao; Burin, Michael J.; Goodman, Jeremy

    2012-06-19

    Subcritical transition to turbulence has been proposed as a source of turbulent viscosity required for the associated angular momentum transport for fast accretion in Keplerian disks. Previously cited laboratory experiments in supporting this hypothesis were performed either in a di erent type of flow than Keplerian or without quantitative measurements of angular momentum transport and mean flow profile, and all of them appear to su er from Ekman e ects, secondary flows induced by nonoptimal axial boundary conditions. Such Ekman e ects are expected to be absent from astronomical disks, which probably have stress-free vertical boundaries unless strongly magnetized. Aims. To quantify angular momentum transport due to subcritical hydrodynamic turbulence, if exists, in a quasi-Keplerian flow with minimized Ekman e ects. Methods.We perform a local measurement of the azimuthal-radial component of the Reynolds stress tensor in a novel laboratory apparatus where Ekman e ects are minimized by flexible control of axial boundary conditions. Results.We find significant Ekman e ects on angular momentum transport due to nonoptimal axial boundary conditions in quasi-Keplerian flows. With the optimal control of Ekman e ects, no statistically meaningful angular momentum transport is detected in such flows at Reynolds number up to two millions. Conclusions. Either a subcritical transition does not occur, or, if a subcritical transition does occur, the associated radial transport of angular momentum in optimized quasi-Keplerian laboratory flows is too small to directly support the hypothesis that subcritical hydrodynamic turbulence is responsible for accretion in astrophysical disks. Possible limitations in applying laboratory results to astrophysical disks due to experimental geometry are discussed.

  3. Stability of quasi-Keplerian Shear Flow in a Laboratory Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schartman, Ethan; Ji, Hantao; Burin, Michael J.; Goodman, Jeremy

    2012-06-19

    Subcritical transition to turbulence has been proposed as a source of turbulent viscosity required for the associated angular momentum transport for fast accretion in Keplerian disks. Previously cited laboratory experiments in supporting this hypothesis were performed either in a di erent type of flow than Keplerian or without quantitative measurements of angular momentum transport and mean flow profile, and all of them appear to su er from Ekman e ects, secondary flows induced by nonoptimal axial boundary conditions. Such Ekman e ects are expected to be absent from astronomical disks, which probably have stress-free vertical boundaries unless strongly magnetized. Aims. To quantify angular momentum transport due to subcritical hydrodynamic turbulence, if exists, in a quasi-Keplerian flow with minimized Ekman e ects. Methods.We perform a local measurement of the azimuthal-radial component of the Reynolds stress tensor in a novel laboratory apparatus where Ekman e ects are minimized by flexible control of axial boundary conditions. Results.We find significant Ekman e ects on angular momentum transport due to nonoptimal axial boundary conditions in quasi-Keplerian flows. With the optimal control of Ekman e ects, no statistically meaningful angular momentum transport is detected in such flows at Reynolds number up to two millions. Conclusions. Either a subcritical transition does not occur, or, if a subcritical transition does occur, the associated radial transport of angular momentum in optimized quasi-Keplerian laboratory flows is too small to directly support the hypothesis that subcritical hydrodynamic turbulence is responsible for accretion in astrophysical disks. Possible limitations in applying laboratory results to astrophysical disks due to experimental geometry are discussed.

  4. Nobel Chemistry in the Laboratory: Synthesis of a Ruthenium Catalyst for Ring-Closing Olefin Metathesis--An Experiment for the Advanced Inorganic or Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, George E.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment for the upper-level undergraduate laboratory is described in which students synthesize a ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst, then use the catalyst to carry out the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The olefin metathesis reaction was the subject of the 2005 Nobel Prize in chemistry. The catalyst chosen for this…

  5. The physical significance of modons: Laboratory experiments and general integral constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flierl, Glenn R.; Stern, Melvin E.; Whitehead, John A.

    1983-11-01

    A barotropic jet emerging from a point source in a rotating fluid is deflected to the right (northern hemisphere) and starts to accumulate in an anticyclonic vortex. This gives rise to a cyclonic neighbor, and the dipole (modon) then propagates away from the source in a circular path. A modification of Batchelor's (1967) solution, which takes into account the different strenghts of the anticyclonic-cyclonic pair, is able to account for the path curvature. The experiment shows that highly organized modons can be realized in the laboratory with rather nondescript forcing. The ß-effect (not noticeably present in the experiment) should enhance the realizability of these structures in geophysical flows. Therefore, it is suggested that the modon model captures certain essential features of geophysical eddies. This is based on a derived theorem which shows that any slowly varying (not necessarily uniformly propagating) and isolated disturbance on the beta plane must have zero net relative angular momentum, so that the dipole is the simplest dynamically consistent representation of such a disturbance. Some interesting aspects of two-dimensional turbulence in a rotating fluid are also indicated by the laboratory esperiments and by the general integral theorems presented.

  6. Immersion and contact freezing experiments in the Mainz wind tunnel laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppers, Oliver; Mayer, Amelie; Diehl, Karoline; Mitra, Subir; Borrmann, Stephan; Szakáll, Miklós

    2016-04-01

    Immersion and contact freezing are of outmost important ice nucleation processes in mixed phase clouds. Experimental studies are carried out in the Mainz vertical wind tunnel laboratory in order to characterize these nucleation processes for different ice nucleating particles (INP), such as for mineral dust or biological particles. Immersion freezing is investigated in our laboratory with two different experimental techniques, both attaining contact-free levitation of liquid droplets and cooling of the surrounding air down to about -25 °C. In an acoustic levitator placed in the cold room of our laboratory, drops with diameters of 2 mm are investigated. In the vertical air stream of the wind tunnel droplets with diameter of 700 micron are freely floated at their terminal velocities, simulating the flow conditions of the free atmosphere. Furthermore, the wind tunnel offers a unique platform for contact freezing experiments. Supercooled water droplets are floated in the vertical air stream at their terminal velocities and INP are injected into the tunnel air stream upstream of them. As soon as INP collides with the supercooled droplet the contact freezing is initiated. The first results of immersion and contact freezing experiments with cellulose particles both in the acoustic levitator and in the wind tunnel will be presented. Cellulose is considered as typical INP of biological origin and a macrotracer for plant debris. Nucleating properties of cellulose will be provided, mainly focusing on the temperature, INP concentration, and specific surface area dependences of the freezing processes. Direct comparison between the different experimental techniques (acoustic levitator and wind tunnel), as well as between nucleation modes (immersion and contact freezing) will be presented. The work is carried out within the framework of the German research unit INUIT.

  7. Lighting up Protons with MorphFl, a Fluorescein-Morpholine Dyad: An Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tyson A.; Spangler, Michael; Burdette, Shawn C.

    2011-01-01

    A two-period organic laboratory experiment that includes fluorescence sensing is presented. The pH-sensitive sensor MorphFl is prepared using a Mannich reaction between a fluorescein derivative and the iminium ion of morpholine. During the first laboratory, students prepare MorphFl. The second session begins with characterizing the sensor using…

  8. Team-Based Learning, Faculty Research, and Grant Writing Bring Significant Learning Experiences to an Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Hedeel Guy; Heyl, Deborah L.; Liggit, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    This biochemistry laboratory course was designed to provide significant learning experiences to expose students to different ways of succeeding as scientists in academia and foster development and improvement of their potential and competency as the next generation of investigators. To meet these goals, the laboratory course employs three…

  9. Analyzing Inquiry Questions of High-School Students in a Gas Chromatography Open-Ended Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Mamlock-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of an open-ended inquiry experiment for high-school students, based on gas chromatography (GC). The research focuses on identifying the level of questions that students ask during the GC open inquiry laboratory, and it examines whether implementing the advanced inquiry laboratory opens up new directions for…

  10. Combinatorial Synthesis and Discovery of an Antibiotic Compound. An Experiment Suitable for High School and Undergraduate Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenberg, Scott E.; Su, Andrew I.

    2001-06-01

    An exercise demonstrating solution-phase combinatorial chemistry and its application to drug discovery is described. The experiment involves the synthesis of six libraries of three hydrazones, screening the libraries for antibiotic activity, and deconvolution to determine the active individual compound. The laboratory was designed for a high school classroom, though it can easily be expanded to suit a college introductory organic laboratory course.

  11. Botany Facility. Thermal Control (TC) subsystem test report on experiment container of laboratory model and breadboard centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, W.

    1986-11-01

    The Botany Facility TC (Thermal Control or Thermocouple) subsystem was tested in the environmental laboratory. All data could be generated within the required accuracy and to the required extent. The TC-subsystems of the Laboratory Model and Experiment Container and Centrifuge were successfully tested.

  12. EXPERIENCE WITH ROBOTIC LUMЕNIS CO LASER IN ENDOSCOPIC LARYNGEAL SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Novozhilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  2 The paper describes the first experience in using robotic CO laser at the Department of Head and Neck Tumors, Moscow City Cancer Hospital Sixty-Two. With advances in endoscopic techniques and anesthesiology, there have been new possibilities of usingdirect (rigid larygoscopy in conjunction with laser systems.The Lumеnis laser assembly consists of three interconnected components: a videocamera, an operating microscope, and directly CO laser. It includes a computer system that sets a program to perform an operation.The heart of the laser system is a scanning Digital Acu Blade micromanipulator. This unique assembly makes itpossible to control the area and depth of incision, to cut intricate shapes in relation to the surface anatomy, and to precisely control ablation and hemostasis. The effect of tissue carbonization during surgery is minimal at the expense of the physical characteristics and different modes of radiation. It is noted that this system allows organ-sparing treatment in cancer patients and their prompt rehabilitation after surgical interventions.

  13. ORGANIC CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENTS, POLYCHAETES (NEREIS VIRENS) AND THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS IN A LABORATORY FOOD CHAIN EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passa...

  14. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Final report of the first stage of the tracer retention understanding experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, A. [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Andersson, Peter [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Grundteknik, Solna (Sweden); Byegaard, Johan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Cvetkovic, V. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Water Resources Engineering; Birgersson, Lars [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-03-15

    The first stage of the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE) was performed as a SKB funded project. The overall objectives of TRUE are to develop the understanding of radionuclide migration and retention in fractured rock, to evaluate the realism in applied model concepts, and to assess whether the necessary input data to the models can be collected from site characterisation. Further, to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of different model approaches, and finally to provide in situ data on radionuclide migration and retention. The strive for address with multiple approaches is facilitated through a close collaboration with the Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes. The TRUE programme is a staged programme which addresses various scales from laboratory (< 0.5 m), detailed scale (< 10 m) and block scale (10-50 m). The First TRUE Stage was performed in the detailed scale with the specific objectives of providing data and conceptualising the investigated feature using conservative and sorbing tracers. Further, to improve methodologies for performing tracer tests, and to develop and test a methodology for obtaining pore volume/aperture data from epoxy resin injection, excavation and subsequent analyses. The experimental site is located at approximately 400 m depth in the northeastern part of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The identification of conductive fractures and the target feature has benefited from the use of BIPS borehole TV imaging combined with detailed flow logging. The assessment of the conductive geometry has been further sustained by cross-hole pressure interference data. The investigated target feature (Feature A) is a reactivated mylonite which has later undergone brittle deformation. The feature is oriented northwest, along the principal horizontal stress orientation, and is a typical conductor for Aespoe conditions. Hydraulic characterisation shows that the feature is relatively well isolated

  15. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    Summary Spain, as most other Mediterranean countries, faces near future water shortages, generalized pollution and loss of water dependent ecosystems. Aquifer recharge represents a promising option to become a source for indirect potable reuse purposes but presence of pathogens as well as organic and inorganic pollutants should be avoided. To this end, understanding the processes of biogeochemical degradation occurring within the aquifer during infiltration is capital. A set of laboratory batch experiments has been assembled in order to assess the behaviour of selected pesticides, drugs, estrogens, surfactant degradation products, biocides and phthalates under different redox conditions. Data collected during laboratory experiments and monitoring activities at the Sant Vicenç dels Horts test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model (i) of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes occurring in the batches and (ii) of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone at the test site. Keywords Aquifer recharge, batch experiments, emerging micropollutants, infiltration, numerical model, reclaimed water, redox conditions, Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). 1. Introduction In Spain, the Llobregat River and aquifers, which supply water to Barcelona, have been overexploited for years and therefore, suffer from serious damages: the river dries up on summer, riparian vegetation has disappeared and seawater has intruded the aquifer. In a global context, solutions to water stress problems are urgently needed yet must be sustainable, economical and safe. Recent developments of analytical techniques detect the presence of the so-called "emerging" organic micropollutants in water and soils. Such compounds may affect living organisms when occurring in the environment at very low concentrations (microg/l or ng/l). In wastewater and drinking water treatment plants, a remarkable removal of these chemicals from water can be obtained only using

  16. Impact of flow velocity on biochemical processes – a laboratory experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boisson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and predicting hydraulic and chemical properties of natural environments are current crucial challenges. It requires considering hydraulic, chemical and biological processes and evaluating how hydrodynamic properties impact on biochemical reactions. In this context, an original laboratory experiment to study the impact of flow velocity on biochemical reactions along a one-dimensional flow streamline has been developed. Based on the example of nitrate reduction, nitrate-rich water passes through plastic tubes at several flow velocities (from 6.2 to 35 mm min−1, while nitrate concentration at the tube outlet is monitored for more than 500 h. This experimental setup allows assessing the biologically controlled reaction between a mobile electron acceptor (nitrate and an electron donor (carbon coming from an immobile phase (tube that produces carbon during its degradation by microorganisms. It results in observing a dynamic of the nitrate transformation associated with biofilm development which is flow-velocity dependent. It is proposed that the main behaviors of the reaction rates are related to phases of biofilm development through a simple analytical model including assimilation. Experiment results and their interpretation demonstrate a significant impact of flow velocity on reaction performance and stability and highlight the relevance of dynamic experiments over static experiments for understanding biogeochemical processes.

  17. Transient groundwater chemistry near a river: Effects on U(VI) transport in laboratory column experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Haggerty, Roy; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Kent, Douglas B.; Istok, Jonathan D.; Greskowiak, Janek; Zachara, John M.

    2011-01-01

    In the 300 Area of a U(VI)-contaminated aquifer at Hanford, Washington, USA, inorganic carbon and major cations, which have large impacts on U(VI) transport, change on an hourly and seasonal basis near the Columbia River. Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the factors controlling U(VI) adsorption/desorption by changing chemical conditions over time. Low alkalinity and low Ca concentrations (Columbia River water) enhanced adsorption and reduced aqueous concentrations. Conversely, high alkalinity and high Ca concentrations (Hanford groundwater) reduced adsorption and increased aqueous concentrations of U(VI). An equilibrium surface complexation model calibrated using laboratory batch experiments accounted for the decrease in U(VI) adsorption observed with increasing (bi)carbonate concentrations and other aqueous chemical conditions. In the column experiment, alternating pulses of river and groundwater caused swings in aqueous U(VI) concentration. A multispecies multirate surface complexation reactive transport model simulated most of the major U(VI) changes in two column experiments. The modeling results also indicated that U(VI) transport in the studied sediment could be simulated by using a single kinetic rate without loss of accuracy in the simulations. Moreover, the capability of the model to predict U(VI) transport in Hanford groundwater under transient chemical conditions depends significantly on the knowledge of real-time change of local groundwater chemistry.

  18. Adsorption laboratory experiment for undergraduate chemical engineering: Introducing kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto, S.; Djatmiko Hadi, S.

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption laboratory experiment for undergraduate chemical engineering program is discussed. The experiment demonstrated adsorption of copper ions commonly found in wastewater using bio-sorbent, i.e. agricultural wastes. The adsorption was performed in a batch mode under various parameters: adsorption time (up to 120 min), initial pH (2 to 6), adsorbent dose (2.0 to 12.0 g L-1), adsorbent size (50 to 170 mesh), initial Cu2+ concentration (25 to 100 ppm) and temperatures (room temp to 40°C). The equilibrium and kinetic data of the experiments were calculated using the two commonly used isotherms: Langmuir and Lagergren pseudo-first-order kinetics. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cu2+ was found as 94.34 mg g-1. Thermodynamically, the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The calculated activation energy for the adsorption was observed as high as 127.94 kJ mol-1. Pedagogically, the experiment was assumed to be important in increasing student understanding of kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic concepts.

  19. ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY: DESCRIPTION AND SUMMARY OF DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2010-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory performed air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics code (CFD). An isothermal stratified flow experiment was designed and set to understand stratified flow phenomena in the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) and to provide experimental data for validating computer codes. The isothermal experiment focused on three flow characteristics unique in the VHTR air-ingress accident: stratified flow in the horizontal pipe, stratified flow expansion at the pipe and vessel junction, and stratified flow around supporting structures. Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids and water was used as light fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between heavy and light fluids is generated even for very small density differences. The code was validated by conducting blind CFD simulations and comparing the results to the experimental data. A grid sensitivity study was also performed based on the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for modeling confidence. As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

  20. Clinical Experience of External-route Retinal Detachment Surgery under a Surgical Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:.To evaluate the efficacy of external-route retinal reattachment surgery under a surgical microscope. Methods: A total of 86 patients (86 eyes) with rhegmatoge-nous retinal detachment underwent external-route retinal de-tachment surgery under a surgical microscope..Drainage of subretinal fluid,.transscleral cryotherapy,.scleral buckling, and intravitreal injection of gas were performed intraoperatively. Results:Among 85 patients,.81 achieved postoperative retinal re-attachment after the first surgery and 5 after two surgeries.. The visual acuity was elevated in 67 patients,.unchanged in 15, and decreased in 4. Conclusion: External-route retinal reattachment surgery under a surgical microscope is a convenient procedure for physicians to master and worthy of widespread application in clinical set-tings. (Eye Science 2014; 29:43-46).