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Sample records for surgery initial clinical

  1. Close Contact Casting vs Surgery for Initial Treatment of Unstable Ankle Fractures in Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Keith; Keene, David J; Mistry, Dipesh; Nam, Julian; Tutton, Elizabeth; Handley, Robert; Morgan, Lesley; Roberts, Emma; Briggs, Andrew; Lall, Ranjit; Chesser, Timothy J S; Pallister, Ian; Lamb, Sarah E

    2016-10-11

    Ankle fractures cause substantial morbidity in older persons. Surgical fixation is the contemporary intervention but is associated with infection and other healing complications. To determine whether initial fracture treatment with close contact casting, a molded below-knee cast with minimal padding, offers outcome equivalent to that with immediate surgery, with fewer complications and less health resource use. This was a pragmatic, equivalence, randomized clinical trial with blinded outcome assessors. A pilot study commenced in May 2004, followed by multicenter recruitment from July 2010 to November 2013; follow-up was completed May 2014. Recruitment was from 24 UK major trauma centers and general hospitals. Participants were 620 adults older than 60 years with acute, overtly unstable ankle fracture. Exclusions were serious limb or concomitant disease or substantial cognitive impairment. Participants were randomly assigned to surgery (n = 309) or casting (n = 311). Casts were applied in the operating room under general or spinal anesthesia by a trained surgeon. The primary 6-month, per-protocol outcome was the Olerud-Molander Ankle Score at 6 months (OMAS; range, 0-100; higher scores indicate better outcomes and fewer symptoms), equivalence prespecified as ±6 points. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, pain, ankle motion, mobility, complications, health resource use, and patient satisfaction. Among 620 adults (mean age, 71 years; 460 [74%] women) who were randomized, 593 (96%) completed the study. Nearly all participants (579/620; 93%) received allocated treatment; 52 of 275 (19%) who initially received casting later converted to surgery, which was allowable in the casting treatment pathway to manage early loss of fracture reduction. At 6 months, casting resulted in ankle function equivalent to that with surgery (OMAS score, 66.0 [95% CI, 63.6-68.5] for surgery vs 64.5 [95% CI, 61.8-67.2] for casting; mean difference, -0.6 [95% CI, -3.9 to 2.6]; P

  2. Quality Assurance and Improvement in Head and Neck Cancer Surgery: From Clinical Trials to National Healthcare Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Christian; Caballero, Carmela

    2018-05-24

    It is without question in the best interest of our patients, if we can identify ways to improve the quality of care we deliver to them. Great progress has been made within the last 25 years in terms of development and implementation of quality-assurance (QA) platforms and quality improvement programs for surgery in general, and within this context for head and neck surgery. As of now, we have successfully identified process indicators that impact outcome of our patients and the quality of care we deliver as surgeons. We have developed risk calculators to determine the risk for complications of individual surgical patients. We have created perioperative guidelines for complex head and neck procedures. We have in Europe and North America created audit registries that can gather and analyze data from institutions across the world to better understand which processes need change to obtain good outcomes and improve quality of care. QA platforms can be tested within the clearly defined environment of prospective clinical trials. If positive, such programs could be rolled out within national healthcare systems, if feasible. Testing quality programs in clinical trials could be a versatile tool to help head neck cancer patients benefit directly from such initiatives on a global level.

  3. Clinical outcomes of radiotherapy as initial local therapy for Graves’ ophthalmopathy and predictors of the need for post-radiotherapy decompressive surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, Roshan S; Liebman, Lang; Wojno, Ted; Hayek, Brent; Hall, William A; Crocker, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The optimal initial local treatment for patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is not fully characterized. The purpose of this retrospective study is to describe the clinical outcomes of RT as initial local therapy for GO and define predictors of the need for post-RT salvage bony decompressive surgery. 91 patients with active GO and without prior surgery were treated with RT as initial local therapy between 01/1999 and 12/2010, with a median follow-up period of 18.3 months (range 3.7 - 142 months). RT dose was 24 Gy in 12 fractions. 44 patients (48.4%) had prior use of steroids, with 31 (34.1%) being on steroids at the initiation of RT. The most common presenting symptoms were diplopia (79%), proptosis (71%) and soft tissue signs (62%). 84 patients (92.3%) experienced stabilization or improvement of GO symptoms. 58 patients (64%) experienced improvement in their symptoms. 19 patients (20.9%) underwent salvage post-RT bony decompressive surgery. Smoking status and total symptom score at 4 months were independent predictors of post-RT bony decompression with odds ratios of 3.23 (95% CI 1.03 – 10.2) and 1.59 (95% CI 1.06 – 2.4), respectively. Persistent objective vision loss at 4 months post-RT was the most important symptom type in predicting salvage decompression. Chronic dry eye occurred in 9 patients (9.9%) and cataracts developed in 4 patients (4.4%). RT is effective and well tolerated as initial local therapy for active GO, with only 21% of patients requiring decompressive surgery post RT. Most patients experience stabilization or improvement of GO symptoms, but moderate to significant response occurs in the minority of patients. Smoking status and total symptom severity at 4 months, primarily persistent objective vision loss, are the primary determinants of the need for post-RT salvage bony decompression. Patients who smoke or present with predominantly vision loss symptoms should be advised as to their lower likelihood of symptomatic response to RT

  4. Clinical Trials in Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY | www.sskenya.org/journal. The ANNALS of ... by two different experiments on small pox by Lady. Mary Wortley Montagu and ... through their 'animal magnetism' were nothing more than an expensive ...

  5. [Clinical pharmacy and surgery: Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarfaut, A; Nivoix, Y; Vigouroux, D; Kehrli, P; Gaudias, J; Kempf, J-F; Levêque, D; Gourieux, B

    2014-05-01

    Clinical pharmacy has been developed and evaluated in various medical hospital activities. Reviews conducted in this area reported a higher value of this discipline. In surgical services, evenly adverse drug events may occur, so clinical pharmacy activities must also help to optimize the management of drug's patient. The objectives of this literature review is to determine the profile of clinical pharmacy activities developed in surgical services and identify indicators. The research was conducted on Pubmed(®) database with the following keywords (2000-2013), "surgery", "pharmacy", "pharmacist", "pharmaceutical care", "impact" and limited to French or English papers. Studies dealing on simultaneously medical and surgical areas were excluded. Twenty-one papers were selected. The most frequently developed clinical pharmacy activities were history and therapeutic drug monitoring (antibiotics or anticoagulants). Two types of indicators were identified: activity indicators with the number of pharmaceutical interventions, their description and clinical signification, the acceptance rate and workload. Impact indicators were mostly clinical and economic impacts. The development of clinical pharmacy related to surgical patients is documented and appears to have, as for medical patients, a clinical and economical value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Initial evaluation of the "Trauma surgery course"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugnoli Gregorio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consequence of the low rate of penetrating injuries in Europe and the increase in non-operative management of blunt trauma is a decrease in surgeons' confidence in managing traumatic injuries has led to the need for new didactic tools. The aim of this retrospective study was to present the Corso di Chirurgia del Politrauma (Trauma Surgery Course, developed as a model for teaching operative trauma techniques, and assess its efficacy. Method the two-day course consisted of theoretical lectures and practical experience on large-sized swine. Data of the first 126 participants were collected and analyzed. Results All of the 126 general surgeons who had participated in the course judged it to be an efficient model to improve knowledge about the surgical treatment of trauma. Conclusion A two-day course, focusing on trauma surgery, with lectures and life-like operation situations, represents a model for simulated training and can be useful to improve surgeons' confidence in managing trauma patients. Cooperation between organizers of similar initiatives would be beneficial and could lead to standardizing and improving such courses.

  7. [Initial experience in robot-assisted colorectal surgery in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Sáenz, Eduardo; Ramírez-Ramírez, Moisés Marino; Zubieta-O'Farrill, Gregorio; García-Hernández, Luis

    Colorectal surgery has advanced notably since the introduction of the mechanical suture and the minimally invasive approach. Robotic surgery began in order to satisfy the needs of the patient-doctor relationship, and migrated to the area of colorectal surgery. An initial report is presented on the experience of managing colorectal disease using robot-assisted surgery, as well as an analysis of the current role of this platform. A retrospective study was conducted in order to review five patients with colorectal disease operated using a robot-assisted technique over one year in the initial phase of the learning curve. Gender, age, diagnosis and surgical indication, surgery performed, surgical time, conversion, bleeding, post-operative complications, and hospital stay, were analysed and described. A literature review was performed on the role of robotic assisted surgery in colorectal disease and cancer. The study included 5 patients, 3 men and 2 women, with a mean age of 62.2 years. Two of them were low anterior resections with colorectal primary anastomoses, one of them extended with a loop protection ileostomy, a Frykman-Goldberg procedure, and two left hemicolectomies with primary anastomoses. The mean operating time was 6hours and robot-assisted 4hours 20minutes. There were no conversions and the mean hospital stay was 5 days. This technology is currently being used worldwide in different surgical centres because of its advantages that have been clinically demonstrated by various studies. We report the first colorectal surgical cases in Mexico, with promising results. There is enough evidence to support and recommend the use of this technology as a viable and safe option. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Outpatient Surgery In Day Clinics*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-12-18

    Dec 18, 1971 ... over-supplied with hospital beds and nursing staff that we can afford such ... disposing to sepsis and deep-vein thrombosis? Finally, must we put our .... patients for surgery; by the same token, extra care was probably taken in.

  9. Clinical privileges for laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M H; Rosemurgy, A S

    1993-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has undergone an explosive growth. Its benefits to patients--shortened recovery time and less pain--became immediately obvious. The procedure's development and adaptation have largely been devised and implemented by ingenious and creative private practitioners, not the typical mode of introduction. Most or many new procedures in the past evolved from academic institutions after laboratory and then clinical trials. With rapid development and acceptance has come an additional new burden among medical practitioners: credentialing and granting clinical privileges.

  10. Femtosecond laser cataract surgery: technology and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Timothy V; Lawless, Michael; Chan, Colin Ck; Jacobs, Mark; Ng, David; Bali, Shveta J; Hodge, Chris; Sutton, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    The recent introduction of femtosecond lasers to cataract surgery has generated much interest among ophthalmologists around the world. Laser cataract surgery integrates high-resolution anterior segment imaging systems with a femtosecond laser, allowing key steps of the procedure, including the primary and side-port corneal incisions, the anterior capsulotomy and fragmentation of the lens nucleus, to be performed with computer-guided laser precision. There is emerging evidence of reduced phacoemulsification time, better wound architecture and a more stable refractive result with femtosecond cataract surgery, as well as reports documenting an initial learning curve. This article will review the current state of technology and discuss our clinical experience. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  11. Nurse-Initiated Telephone Follow Up after Ureteroscopic Stone Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackitt, Helen M; Eaton, Samuel H; Lentz, Aaron C

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings of a quality improvement (QI) project using the DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control) model designed to decrease the rate of emergency department (ED) visits and nurse advice line calls after ureteroscopic stone surgery. Results indicated that nurse-initiated follow- up phone calls can decrease ED visits.

  12. Application of robotics in general surgery: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ninh T; Hinojosa, Marcelo W; Finley, David; Stevens, Melinda; Paya, Mahbod

    2004-10-01

    Robotic surgery was recently approved for clinical use in general abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to review our experience with the da Vinci surgical system during laparoscopic general surgical procedures. Eighteen patients underwent robotically assisted laparoscopic abdominal surgery between June 2002 and March 2003. Main outcome measures were operative time, room setup time, robotic arm-positioning and surgical time, blood loss, conversion to laparoscopy, length of stay, and morbidity. The types of robotically assisted laparoscopic procedures were excision of gastric leiomyoma (n = 1), Heller myotomy (n = 1), cholecystectomy (n = 2), gastric banding (n = 2), Nissen fundoplication (n = 4), and gastric bypass (n = 8). The mean room setup time was 63 +/- 14 minutes, and the mean robotic arm-positioning time was 16 +/- 7 minutes. Conversion to laparoscopy occurred in two (11%) of 18 cases because of equipment difficulty (n = 1) and technical difficulty (n = 1). Estimated blood loss was 91 +/- 71 mL. The mean operative time was 156 +/- 42 minutes, and the robotic operative time was 27% of the total operative time. The mean length of hospital stay was 2.2 +/- 1.5 days. There was one postoperative wound infection and one anastomotic stricture. Robotically assisted laparoscopic abdominal surgery is feasible and safe; however, the theoretical advantages of the da Vinci surgical system were not clinically apparent.

  13. [Impact of digital technology on clinical practices: perspectives from surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Liu, X J

    2016-04-09

    Digital medical technologies or computer aided medical procedures, refer to imaging, 3D reconstruction, virtual design, 3D printing, navigation guided surgery and robotic assisted surgery techniques. These techniques are integrated into conventional surgical procedures to create new clinical protocols that are known as "digital surgical techniques". Conventional health care is characterized by subjective experiences, while digital medical technologies bring quantifiable information, transferable data, repeatable methods and predictable outcomes into clinical practices. Being integrated into clinical practice, digital techniques facilitate surgical care by improving outcomes and reducing risks. Digital techniques are becoming increasingly popular in trauma surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, plastic and reconstructive surgery, imaging and anatomic sciences. Robotic assisted surgery is also evolving and being applied in general surgery, cardiovascular surgery and orthopedic surgery. Rapid development of digital medical technologies is changing healthcare and clinical practices. It is therefore important for all clinicians to purposefully adapt to these technologies and improve their clinical outcomes.

  14. Imaging CT findings in cases of subdural hematoma after cardiovascular surgery. Initial signs of SDH

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    Maruyama, Michiyuki; Kuriyama, Yoshihiro; Sawada, Tohru; Ogawa, Makoto; Kaneko, Takaji; Sakamoto, Akira; Kawazoe, Kouhei; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Omae, Teruo

    1987-12-01

    A characteristic initial sign of CT findings, as seen in cases of subdural hematoma (SDH) after cardiovascular surgery, was reported. Central-nervous-system (CNS) complications after cardiovascular surgery have been thought to be due mainly to the ischemic brain damage caused by both reduced cerebral perfusion pressure and microembolism during extracorporeal circulation. However, we observed 8 cases of SDH in 39 patients suffering from major CNS complications after cardiovascular surgery. In view of these experiences, SDH was thought to be one of the most significant factors causing CNS complications after cardiovascular surgery. In the sequential CT scans of 8 cases of SDH, four exhibited a typical, small, spotty high-density area in the early period of SDH. The clinical courses of these four patients were relatively acute or subacute, and the initial small high-density area progressed to definite SDH findings in that region in the follow-up CT. These initial findings of CT scans were regarded as ''initial signs of SDH-ISS-''. Although there have been many reports concerning the sequential CT changes in SDH, there has been no report describing the above-mentioned finding. It was emphasized that ''ISS'' is of great importance in the early management for SDH.

  15. Factors Associated with Gender-Affirming Surgery and Age of Hormone Therapy Initiation Among Transgender Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Noor; Reisner, Sari L.; Zaslow, Shayne; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Keuroghlian, Alex S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Gender-affirming surgeries and hormone therapy are medically necessary treatments to alleviate gender dysphoria; however, significant gaps exist in the research and clinical literature on surgery utilization and age of hormone therapy initiation among transgender adults. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of electronic health record data from a random sample of 201 transgender patients of ages 18–64 years who presented for primary care between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2015 (inclusive) at an urban community health center in Boston, MA. Fifty percent in our analyses were trans masculine (TM), 50% trans feminine, and 24% reported a genderqueer/nonbinary gender identity. Regression models were fit to assess demographic, gender identity-related, sexual history, and mental health correlates of gender-affirming surgery and of age of hormone therapy initiation. Results: Overall, 95% of patients were prescribed hormones by their primary care provider, and the mean age of initiation of masculinizing or feminizing hormone prescriptions was 31.8 years (SD=11.1). Younger age of initiation of hormone prescriptions was associated with being TM, being a student, identifying as straight/heterosexual, having casual sexual partners, and not having past alcohol use disorder. Approximately one-third (32%) had a documented history of gender-affirming surgery. Factors associated with increased odds of surgery were older age, higher income levels, not identifying as bisexual, and not having a current psychotherapist. Conclusion: This study extends our understanding of prevalence and factors associated with gender-affirming treatments among transgender adults seeking primary care. Findings can inform future interventions to expand delivery of clinical care for transgender patients. PMID:29159310

  16. Clinical implications of medulloblastoma subgroups: incidence of CSF diversion surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christian; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Rutka, James T; Remke, Marc; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia; Bouffet, Eric; Taylor, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    While medulloblastoma was initially thought to comprise a single homogeneous entity, it is now accepted that it in fact comprises 4 discrete subgroups, each with its own distinct demographics, clinical presentation, transcriptomics, genetics, and outcome. Hydrocephalus is a common complication of medulloblastoma and not infrequently requires CSF diversion. The authors report the incidence of CSF diversion surgery in each of the subgroups of medulloblastoma (Wnt, Shh, Group 3, and Group 4). The medical and imaging records for patients who underwent surgery for medulloblastoma at The Hospital for Sick Children were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the requirement for CSF diversion surgery either before or within 60 days of tumor resection. The modified Canadian Preoperative Prediction Rule for Hydrocephalus (mCPPRH) was compared among subgroups. Of 143 medulloblastoma patients, treated from 1991 to 2013, sufficient data were available for 130 patients (15 with Wnt, 30 with Shh, 30 with Group 3, and 55 with Group 4 medulloblastomas). Of these, 28 patients (22%) ultimately underwent CSF diversion surgery: 0% with Wnt, 29% with Shh, 29% with Group 3, and 43% with Group 4 tumors. Patients in the Wnt subgroup had a lower incidence of CSF diversion than all other patients combined (p = 0.04). Wnt patients had a lower mCPPRH score (lower risk of CSF diversion, p = 0.045), were older, had smaller ventricles at diagnosis, and had no leptomeningeal metastases. The overall rate of CSF diversion surgery for Shh, Group 3, and Group 4 medulloblastomas is around 30%, but no patients in the present series with a Wnt medulloblastoma required shunting. The low incidence of hydrocephalus in patients with Wnt medulloblastoma likely reflects both host factors (age) and disease factors (lack of metastases). The absence of hydrocephalus in patients with Wnt medulloblastomas likely contributes to their excellent rate of survival and may also contribute to a higher quality

  17. Open and endovascular aneurysm repair in the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Emily L; Beck, Adam W

    2017-12-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative is a patient safety organization and a collection of procedure-based registries that can be utilized for quality improvement initiatives and clinical outcomes research. The Vascular Quality Initiative consists of voluntary participation by centers to collect data prospectively on all consecutive cases within specific registries which physicians and centers elect to participate. The data capture extends from preoperative demographics and risk factors (including indications for operation), through the perioperative period, to outcomes data at up to 1-year of follow-up. Additionally, longer-term follow-up can be achieved by matching with Medicare claims data, providing long-term longitudinal follow-up for a majority of patients within the Vascular Quality Initiative registries. We present the unique characteristics of the Vascular Quality Initiative registries and highlight important insights gained specific to open and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Vitreoretinal outpatient surgery: clinical and financial considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creuzot-Garcher, C; Aubé, H; Candé, F; Dupont, G; Guillaubey, A; Malvitte, L; Arnavielle, S; Bron, A

    2008-11-01

    Vitreoretinal surgery has benefited from great advances opening the opportunity for outpatient management. We report on the 6-month experience of outpatient surgery for vitreoretinal diseases. From November 2007 to April 2008, 270 patients benefited from a vitreoretinal surgery, with 173 retinal detachments, 63 epiretinal membranes, and 34 other procedures. Only 8.5% (n=23) of the patients had to stay at the hospital one or two nights. The main reasons were the distance from the hospital and surgery on a single-eye patient. The questionnaire given after the surgery showed that almost all the patients were satisfied with the outpatient setting. In contrast, the financial results showed a loss of income of around 400,000 euros due to the low level of payment of outpatient surgery in France by the national health insurance system. Vitreoretinal surgery can be achieved in outpatient surgery with an improvement in the information given to the patients and the overall organization of the hospitalization. However, the current income provided with vitreoretinal outpatient surgery is highly disadvantageous in France, preventing this method from being generalized.

  19. An Interdisciplinary Education Initiative to Promote Blood Conservation in Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Tamara S; Sherrod, Brad; Kindell, Linda

    Transfusion practices vary extensively for patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures, leading to high utilization of blood products despite evidence that transfusions negatively impact outcomes. An important factor affecting transfusion practice is recognition of the importance of teams in cardiac surgery care delivery. This article reports an evidenced-based practice (EBP) initiative constructed using the Society of Thoracic Surgery (STS) 2011 Blood Conservation Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) to standardize transfusion practice across the cardiac surgery team at a large academic medical center. Project outcomes included: a) Improvement in clinician knowledge related to the STS Blood Conservation CPGs; and b) Decreased blood product utilization for patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures. Participants' scores reflected an improvement in the overall knowledge of the STS CPGs noting a 31.1% (p = 0.012) increase in the number of participants whose practice reflected the Blood Conservation CPGs post intervention. Additionally, there was a reduction in overall blood product utilization for all patients undergoing cardiac surgery procedures post intervention (p = 0.005). Interdisciplinary education based on the STS Blood Conservation CPGs is an effective way to reduce transfusion practice variability and decrease utilization of blood products during cardiac surgery.

  20. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career. METHODS: Candidates commencing BST training during a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008 were included in a quantitative study. In addition a total of 2,536 candidates, representing all those who commenced surgical training in Ireland since 1960 were identified through the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) database and invited to complete an online survey. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 15, with p < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: During the 5-year quantitative study period there were 381 BST trainees. Gender was a significant predictor of career choice with women more likely to ultimately choose a nonsurgical career after initial surgical training (p = 0.049). Passing surgical membership examinations (MRCS) also was predictive of remaining in surgery (p = 0.005). Training region was not a significant predictor of ultimate career choice. There were 418 survey respondents. The influence of role models was most commonly cited as influencing candidates in choosing to commence surgical training. Candidates who rated "academic opportunity" (p = 0.023) and "intellectual challenge" (p = 0.047) as factors that influenced their decision to commence surgical training were more likely to ultimately continue their careers in a surgical speciality. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the career pathway of surgical trainees and confirms the importance of academic achievement in discriminating between candidates applying for surgical training schemes.

  1. Association of Cataract Surgery With Mortality in Older Women: Findings from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Victoria L; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Yu, Fei; Cauley, Jane A; Li, Wenjun; Thomas, Fridtjof; Virnig, Beth A; Coleman, Anne L

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested an association between cataract surgery and decreased risk for all-cause mortality potentially through a mechanism of improved health status and functional independence, but the association between cataract surgery and cause-specific mortality has not been previously studied and is not well understood. To examine the association between cataract surgery and total and cause-specific mortality in older women with cataract. This prospective cohort study included nationwide data collected from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial and observational study linked with the Medicare claims database. Participants in the present study were 65 years or older with a diagnosis of cataract in the linked Medicare claims database. The WHI data were collected from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 2015. Data were analyzed for the present study from July 1, 2014, through September 1, 2017. Cataract surgery as determined by Medicare claims codes. The outcomes of interest included all-cause mortality and mortality attributed to vascular, cancer, accidental, neurologic, pulmonary, and infectious causes. Mortality rates were compared by cataract surgery status using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for demographics, systemic and ocular comorbidities, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, and physical activity. A total of 74 044 women with cataract in the WHI included 41 735 who underwent cataract surgery. Mean (SD) age was 70.5 (4.6) years; the most common ethnicity was white (64 430 [87.0%]), followed by black (5293 [7.1%]) and Hispanic (1723 [2.3%]). The mortality rate was 2.56 per 100 person-years in both groups. In covariate-adjusted Cox models, cataract surgery was associated with lower all-cause mortality (adjusted hazards ratio [AHR], 0.40; 95% CI, 0.39-0.42) as well as lower mortality specific to vascular (AHR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.39-0.46), cancer (AHR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0

  2. Piezoelectric surgery in implant dentistry: clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Masako Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pizosurgery has therapeutic characteristics in osteotomies, such as extremely precise, selective and millimetric cuts and a clear operating field. Piezoelectricity uses ultrasonic frequencies, which cause the points specially designed for osteotomy to vibrate. The points of the instrument oscillate, allowing effective osteotomy with minimal or no injury to the adjacent soft tissues, membranes and nerve tissues. This article presents the various applications of piezoelectricity in oral implant surgery such as: removal of autogenous bone; bone window during elevation of the sinus membrane and removal of fractured implants. The cavitational effect caused by the vibration of the point and the spray of physiological solution, provided a field free of bleeding and easy to visualize. The study showed that the piezoelectric surgery is a new surgical procedurethat presents advantages for bone cutting in many situations in implant dentistry, with great advantages in comparison with conventional instrumentation. Operating time is longer when compared with that of conventional cutters.

  3. Strategic laparoscopic surgery for improved cosmesis in general and bariatric surgery: analysis of initial 127 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ninh T; Smith, Brian R; Reavis, Kevin M; Nguyen, Xuan-Mai T; Nguyen, Brian; Stamos, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    Strategic laparoscopic surgery for improved cosmesis (SLIC) is a less invasive surgical approach than conventional laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of SLIC for general and bariatric surgical operations. Additionally, we compared the outcomes of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with those performed by the SLIC technique. In an academic medical center, from April 2008 to December 2010, 127 patients underwent SLIC procedures: 38 SLIC cholecystectomy, 56 SLIC gastric banding, 26 SLIC sleeve gastrectomy, 1 SLIC gastrojejunostomy, and 6 SLIC appendectomy. SLIC sleeve gastrectomy was initially performed through a single 4.0-cm supraumbilical incision with extraction of the gastric specimen through the same incision. The technique evolved to laparoscopic incisions that were all placed within the umbilicus and suprapubic region. There were no 30-day or in-hospital mortalities or 30-day re-admissions or re-operations. For SLIC cholecystectomy, gastric banding, appendectomy, and gastrojejunostomy, conversion to conventional laparoscopy occurred in 5.3%, 5.4%, 0%, and 0%, respectively; there were no major or minor postoperative complications. For SLIC sleeve gastrectomy, there were no significant differences in mean operative time and length of hospital stay compared with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; 1 (3.8%) of 26 SLIC patients required conversion to five-port laparoscopy. There were no major complications. Minor complications occurred in 7.7% in the SLIC sleeve group versus 8.3% in the laparoscopic sleeve group. SLIC in general and bariatric operations is technically feasible, safe, and associated with a low rate of conversion to conventional laparoscopy. Compared with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, SLIC sleeve gastrectomy can be performed without a prolonged operative time with comparable perioperative outcomes.

  4. Initial clinical experience with the heartstring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazui, Toshinobu; Doi, Hirosato; Suzuki, Masato; Okamoto, Takashi; Koshima, Ryuji; Sugiki, Kenji; Ohno, Takemi

    2006-01-01

    The Heartstring is one of the devices that enable proximal anastomosis without clamping the aorta. We have applied the device not only to low-risk patients with normal aortas but also to high-risk patients with diseased aortas. The purpose of this study was to investigate the initial outcomes of using this device. The Heartstring was used on 87 patients between January and December 2004. The patients comprised 62 men and 25 women 48-86 years old (mean 68.4±8.4 years). The ascending aorta was evaluated by computed tomography (CT) scanning before surgery. If a patient's aorta was severely calcified, epiaortic echocardiography was performed. The aortas were ranked into four grades, and the preoperative patient's status were evaluated by the EuroSCORE. Angiography was performed on the third postoperative day. CT scanning revealed that 74 patients had no calcification in the ascending aorta, 10 patients had scattered calcification, and 3 patients had plate-like calcification. The EuroSCORE was 6.86±1.03. We performed 93 proximal anastomoses and 149 distal anastomoses. The average distal anastomosis was 1.6±0.6 sites per graft. Of the distal anastomoses, 74.2% were to the circumflex artery territory. Postoperative coronary angiography revealed that all grafts were patent. The Heartstring facilitates safe proximal anastomosis, even in high-risk patients. Their short-term outcome was good. The device assists in bypassing circumflex artery territory. Long-term follow-up is necessary. (author)

  5. Predictors of clinical outcome following lumbar disc surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebert, Jeffrey J; Fritz, Julie; Koppenhaver, S.L.

    2016-01-01

    scheduled for first time, single-level lumbar discectomy. Participants underwent a standardized preoperative evaluation including real-time ultrasound imaging assessment of lumbar multifidus function, and an 8-week postoperative rehabilitation programme. Clinical outcome was defined by change in disability....... CONCLUSIONS: Information gleaned from the clinical history and physical examination helps to identify patients more likely to succeed with lumbar disc surgery. While this study helps to inform clinical practice, additional research confirming these results is required prior to confident clinical...

  6. Clinical course of Crohn's disease first diagnosed at surgery for acute abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latella, G; Cocco, A; Angelucci, E; Viscido, A; Bacci, S; Necozione, S; Caprilli, R

    2009-04-01

    The severity of clinical activity of Crohn's disease is high during the first year after diagnosis and decreases thereafter. Approximately 50% of patients require steroids and immunosuppressants and 75% need surgery during their lifetime. The clinical course of patients with Crohn's disease first diagnosed at surgery has never been investigated. To assess the clinical course of Crohn's disease first diagnosed at surgery for acute abdomen and to evaluate the need for medical and surgical treatment in this subset of patients. Hospital clinical records of 490 consecutive Crohn's disease patients were reviewed. Patients were classified according to the Vienna criteria. Sex, extraintestinal manifestations, family history of inflammatory bowel diseases, appendectomy, smoking habit and medical/surgical treatments performed during the follow-up period were assessed. Kaplan-Meier survival method and Cox proportional hazards regression model. Of the 490 Crohn's disease patients, 115 had diagnosis of Crohn's disease at surgery for acute abdomen (Group A) and 375 by conventional clinical, radiological, endoscopic and histologic criteria (Group B). Patients in Group A showed a low risk of further surgery (Log Rank test pacute abdomen showed a low risk for reintervention and less use of steroids and immunosuppressants during follow-up than those not operated upon at diagnosis. Early surgery may represent a valid approach in the initial management of patients with Crohn's disease, at least in the subset of patients with ileal and complicated disease.

  7. NBME subject examination in surgery scores correlate with surgery clerkship clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jonathan A; Vigneswaran, Yalini; Gabryszak, Beth; Fogg, Louis F; Francescatti, Amanda B; Golner, Christine; Bines, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Most medical schools in the United States use the National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Examinations as a method of at least partial assessment of student performance, yet there is still uncertainty of how well these examination scores correlate with clinical proficiency. Thus, we investigated which factors in a surgery clerkship curriculum have a positive effect on academic achievement on the National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Examination in Surgery. A retrospective analysis of 83 third-year medical students at our institution with 4 unique clinical experiences on the general surgery clerkship for the 2007-2008 academic year was conducted. Records of the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 scores, National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Examination in Surgery scores, and essay examination scores for the groups were compared using 1-way analysis of variance testing. Rush University Medical Center, Chicago IL, an academic institution and tertiary care center. Our data demonstrated National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Examination in Surgery scores from the group with the heavier clinical loads and least time for self-study were statistically higher than the group with lighter clinical services and higher rated self-study time (p = 0.036). However, there was no statistical difference of National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Examination in Surgery scores between the groups with equal clinical loads (p = 0.751). Students experiencing higher clinical volumes on surgical services, but less self-study time demonstrated statistically higher academic performance on objective evaluation, suggesting clinical experience may be of higher value than self-study and reading. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Complications in paediatric craniofacial surgery: an initial four year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B M; Jani, P; Bingham, R M; Mackersie, A M; Hayward, R

    1992-04-01

    107 children undergoing transcranial craniofacial surgery in a paediatric hospital have been reviewed to assess the incidence and type of complications which arose. This represents the first 4 years' experience of the craniofacial team. There were no deaths or permanent adverse sequelae of surgery. A total of 53 complications were seen in 42 patients. In 9.3% of patients they were potentially life-threatening, serious in 12.1% and of a minor nature in 28%. The more serious complications were related either to haemorrhage and/or vasovagal shock at operation or to infection post-operatively. Infants undergoing monoblock frontofacial advancements and those with tracheostomies were at particular risk.

  9. Clinical applications of robotic technology in vascular and endovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, George A; Riga, Celia V; Mayer, Erik K; Cheshire, Nicholas J W; Bicknell, Colin D

    2011-02-01

    Emerging robotic technologies are increasingly being used by surgical disciplines to facilitate and improve performance of minimally invasive surgery. Robot-assisted intervention has recently been introduced into the field of vascular surgery to potentially enhance laparoscopic vascular and endovascular capabilities. The objective of this study was to review the current status of clinical robotic applications in vascular surgery. A systematic literature search was performed in order to identify all published clinical studies related to robotic implementation in vascular intervention. Web-based search engines were searched using the keywords "surgical robotics," "robotic surgery," "robotics," "computer assisted surgery," and "vascular surgery" or "endovascular" for articles published between January 1990 and November 2009. An evaluation and critical overview of these studies is reported. In addition, an analysis and discussion of supporting evidence for robotic computer-enhanced telemanipulation systems in relation to their applications in laparoscopic vascular and endovascular surgery was undertaken. Seventeen articles reporting on clinical applications of robotics in laparoscopic vascular and endovascular surgery were detected. They were either case reports or retrospective patient series and prospective studies reporting laparoscopic vascular and endovascular treatments for patients using robotic technology. Minimal comparative clinical evidence to evaluate the advantages of robot-assisted vascular procedures was identified. Robot-assisted laparoscopic aortic procedures have been reported by several studies with satisfactory results. Furthermore, the use of robotic technology as a sole modality for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and expansion of its applications to splenic and renal artery aneurysm reconstruction have been described. Robotically steerable endovascular catheter systems have potential advantages over conventional catheterization systems

  10. Diode laser surgery versus scalpel surgery in the treatment of fibrous hyperplasia: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, M B F; de Ávila, J M S; Abreu, M H G; Mesquita, R A

    2015-11-01

    Fibrous hyperplasia is treated by surgical incision using a scalpel, together with removal of the source of chronic trauma. However, scalpel techniques do not provide the haemostasis that is necessary when dealing with highly vascular tissues. Diode laser surgery can be used in the management of oral tissues due to its high absorption by water and haemoglobin, and has provided good results in both periodontal surgery and oral lesions. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of diode laser surgery to those of the conventional technique in patients with fibrous hyperplasia. A randomized clinical trial was performed in which surgical and postoperative evaluations were analyzed. On comparison of the laser-treated (study group) patients to those treated with a scalpel (control group), significant differences were observed in the duration of surgery and the use of analgesic medications. Over a 3-week period, clinical healing of the postoperative wound was significantly faster in the control group as compared to the study group. In conclusion, diode laser surgery proved to be more effective and less invasive when compared to scalpel surgery in the management of fibrous hyperplasia. However, wound healing proved to be faster when using scalpel surgery. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2011-03-01

    Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

  12. Clinical Outcomes of Penile Prosthesis Implantation Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Dede

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluating the outcomes of in­flatable penile prosthesis implantations and partner sat­isfaction. Methods: Data of 52 patients who underwent penile prosthesis implantation in single center between May 2010 and December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Types of prosthesis, complication and satisfaction rates of patients were recorded by EDITS (Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction questionnaire was used. Results: The mean age was 49.2±14.7 years for patients. The mean follow-up durations for 34.3±12.5 months. The mean hospital stay was 3.84±1.52 days. Evaluating of the couples satisfaction revealed that 44 (84% of the patient were very satisfied. There was not any complication and no patient need to underwent revision surgery. Conclusion: Inflatable penile prosthesis implants, with high levels of treatment success, patient and partner sat­isfaction, are effective and safe options for treatment of organic erectile dysfunction with acceptable complication and revision rates.

  13. Type A aortic dissection in Marfan syndrome: extent of initial surgery determines long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylski, Bartosz; Bavaria, Joseph E; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Branchetti, Emanuela; Desai, Nimesh D; Milewski, Rita K; Szeto, Wilson Y; Vallabhajosyula, Prashanth; Siepe, Matthias; Kari, Fabian A

    2014-04-01

    Data on outcomes after Stanford type A aortic dissection in patients with Marfan syndrome are limited. We investigated the primary surgery and long-term results in patients with Marfan syndrome who suffered aortic dissection. Among 1324 consecutive patients with aortic dissection type A, 74 with Marfan syndrome (58% men; median age, 37 years [first and third quartiles, 29 and 48 years]) underwent surgical repair (85% acute dissections; 68% DeBakey I; 55% composite valved graft, 30% supracoronary ascending replacement, 15% valve-sparing aortic root replacement; 12% total arch replacement; 3% in-hospital mortality) at 2 tertiary centers in the United States and Europe over the past 25 years. The rate of aortic reintervention with resternotomy was 24% (18 of 74) and of descending aorta (thoracic+abdominal) intervention was 30% (22 of 74) at a median follow-up of 8.4 years (first and third quartiles, 2.2 and 12.7 years). Freedom from need for aortic root reoperation in patients who underwent primarily a composite valved graft or valve-sparing aortic root replacement procedure was 95±3%, 88±5%, and 79±5% and in patients who underwent supracoronary ascending replacement was 83±9%, 60±13%, 20±16% at 5, 10, and 20 years. Secondary aortic arch surgery was necessary only in patients with initial hemi-arch replacement. Emergency surgery for type A dissection in patients with Marfan syndrome is associated with low in-hospital mortality. Failure to extend the primary surgery to aortic root or arch repair leads to a highly complex clinical course. Aortic root replacement or repair is highly recommended because supracoronary ascending replacement is associated with a high need (>40%) for root reintervention.

  14. Effect of benchmarking projects on outcomes of coronary artery bypass graft surgery: challenges and prospects regarding the quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiroaki; Motomura, Noboru; Murakami, Arata; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2012-06-01

    The Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database (JCVSD) was established in 2000 and initiated a benchmarking project to improve the quality of cardiovascular surgery. Although the importance of quality improvement initiatives has been emphasized, few studies have reported the effects on outcomes. To examine the time-trend effects in initial JCVSD participants (n = 44), we identified 8224 isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures performed between 2004 and 2007. The impact of surgery year was examined using a multiple logistic regression model that set previously identified clinical risk factors and surgery year as fixed effects. To examine the difference in outcomes between initial participants (n = 44) and halfway participants (n = 55), we identified 3882 isolated CABG procedures performed in 2007. The differences between the 2 hospital groups were examined using a multiple logistic regression model that set clinical risk factors, hospital procedure volume, and hospital groups as fixed effects. For operative mortality, the odds ratio of surgery year was 0.88 (P = .083). Observed/expected (OE) ratios for operative mortality were 0.71 in 2004, 0.73 in 2005, 0.63 in 2006, and 0.54 in 2007. As for composite mortality and major morbidities (reoperation, stroke, dialysis, infection, and prolonged ventilation), odds ratio of surgery year was 0.97 (P = .361). OE ratios for composite mortality and morbidities were 1.01 in 2004, 1.04 in 2005, 1.04 in 2006, and 0.94 in 2007. Compared with halfway participants, initial participants had a significantly lower rate of operative mortality (odds ratio = 0.527; P = .008) and composite mortality and major morbidities (odds ratio 0.820; P = .047). This study demonstrated that a quality improvement initiative for cardiovascular surgery has positive impacts on risk-adjusted outcomes. Although the primary target of benchmarking was 30-day mortality in Japan, major morbidities were less affected by those activities. Copyright

  15. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical treatment can complicate cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Facio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonists for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH regarding potential risks of complications in the setting of cataract surgery. AIM: To address recommendations, optimal control therapy, voiding symptoms and safety within the setting of cataract surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was performed using MEDLINE with MeSH terms and keywords "benign prostatic hyperplasia", "intraoperative floppy iris syndrome", "adrenergic alpha-antagonist" and "cataract surgery". In addition, reference lists from identified publications were reviewed to identify reports and studies of interest from 2001 to 2009. RESULTS: The first report of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS was observed during cataract surgery in patients taking systemic alpha-1 AR antagonists in 2005. It has been most commonly seen related to use of tamsulosin. Changes of medication and washout periods of up to 2 weeks have been attempted to reduce the risk of complications in the setting of cataract surgery. CONCLUSION: Patients under clinical treatment for BPH should be informed about potential risks of this drug class so that it can be discuss with their healthcare providers, in particular urologist and ophthalmologist, prior to cataract surgery.

  16. Initial evaluation of a femtosecond laser system in cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, John S M; Chen, Ivan N; Chan, Wai-Man; Ng, Jack C M; Chan, Vincent K C; Law, Antony K P

    2014-01-01

    To report the early experience and complications during cataract surgery with a noncontact femtosecond laser system. Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Retrospective case series. All patients had anterior capsulotomy or combined anterior capsulotomy and lens fragmentation using a noncontact femtosecond laser system (Lensar) before phacoemulsification. Chart and video reviews were performed retrospectively to determine the intraoperative complication rate. Risk factors associated with the complications were also analyzed. One hundred seventy eyes were included. Free-floating capsule buttons were found in 151 eyes (88.8%). No suction break occurred in any case. Radial anterior capsule tears occurred in 9 eyes (5.3%); they did not extend to the equator or posterior capsule. One eye (0.6%) had a posterior capsule tear. No capsular block syndrome developed, and no nuclei were dropped during irrigation/aspiration (I/A). Anterior capsule tags and miosis occurred in 4 eyes (2.4%) and 17 eyes (10.0%), respectively. Different severities of subconjunctival hemorrhages developed in 71 (43.8%) of 162 eyes after the laser procedure. The mean surgical time from the beginning to the end of suction was 6.72 minutes ± 4.57 (SD) (range 2 to 28 minutes). Cataract surgery with the noncontact femtosecond laser system was safe. No eye lost vision because of complications. Caution should be taken during phacoemulsification and I/A to avoid radial anterior capsule tears and posterior capsule tears. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical utility of carotid duplex ultrasound prior to cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Judith C; Kabbani, Loay S; Peterson, Edward L; Masabni, Khalil; Morgan, Jeffrey A; Brooks, Sara; Wertella, Kathleen P; Paone, Gaetano

    2016-03-01

    Clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of carotid duplex examination prior to cardiac surgery have been questioned by the multidisciplinary committee creating the 2012 Appropriate Use Criteria for Peripheral Vascular Laboratory Testing. We report the clinical outcomes and postoperative neurologic symptoms in patients who underwent carotid duplex ultrasound prior to open heart surgery at a tertiary institution. Using the combined databases from our clinical vascular laboratory and the Society of Thoracic Surgery, a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent carotid duplex ultrasound within 13 months prior to open heart surgery from March 2005 to March 2013 was performed. The outcomes between those who underwent carotid duplex scanning (group A) and those who did not (group B) were compared. Among 3233 patients in the cohort who underwent cardiac surgery, 515 (15.9%) patients underwent a carotid duplex ultrasound preoperatively, and 2718 patients did not (84.1%). Among the patients who underwent carotid screening vs no screening, there was no statistically significant difference in the risk factors of cerebrovascular disease (10.9% vs 12.7%; P = .26), prior stroke (8.2% vs 7.2%; P = .41), and prior transient ischemic attack (2.9% vs 3.3%; P = .24). For those undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 306 (17.8%) of 1723 patients underwent preoperative carotid duplex ultrasound. Among patients who had carotid screening prior to CABG, the incidence of carotid disease was low: 249 (81.4%) had minimal or mild stenosis (duplex scanning and those who did not. Primary outcomes of patients who underwent open heart surgery also showed no difference in the perioperative mortality (5.1% vs 6.9%; P = .14) and stroke (2.6% vs 2.4%; P = .85) between patients undergoing preoperative duplex scanning and those who did not. Operative intervention of severe carotid stenosis prior to isolated CABG occurred in 2 of the 17 patients (11.8%) identified who

  18. Clinical applications of gamma-detection probes - radioguided surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneebaum, S.; Stadler, J.; Skornick, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Radioguided surgery (RGS) is a surgical technique that enables the surgeon to identify tissue ''marked'' by a radionuclide before surgery, based on the tissue characteristics, the radioactive tracer and its carrying molecule, or the affinity of both. Thus, yet another tool has been added to the inspection and palpation traditionally used by the surgeon. Current clinical applications of radioguided surgery are: radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS) for colon cancer, sentinel-node mapping for malignant melanoma (which has become state-of-the-art), sentinel-node mapping for breast, vulvar and penile cancer, and detection of parathyroid adenoma and bone tumour (such as osteid osteoma). Although the same gamma-detecting probe (GDP) may be used for all these applications, the carrier substance and the radionuclide differ. MoAb and peptides are used for RIGS, sulphur colloid for sentinel-node mapping, iodine-125 for RIGS, technetium-99m for sentinel node, parathyroid and bone. The mode of injection also differs, but there are some common principles of gamma-guided surgery. RIGS enables the surgeon to corroborate tumour existence, find occult metastases, and assess the margins of resection; this may result in a change on the surgical plan. Sentinel lymph-node (SLN) scintigraphy for melanoma guides the surgeon to find the involved lymph nodes for lymph-node dissection. SLN for breast cancer is being investigated with promising results. This procedure has also changed the outlook of lymph-node pathology by giving the pathologist designated tissue samples for more comprehensive examination. Gamma-guided surgery will result in more accurate and less unnecessary surgery, better pathology and, hopefully, in better patient survival. (orig.)

  19. Vibration for Pain Reduction in a Plastic Surgery Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Mitchell George; Karadsheh, Murad Jehad; Krebiehl, Johanna Ruth; Ford, Dawn Marie; Ford, Ronald D

    2016-01-01

    Patients can experience significant pain during routine procedures in the plastic surgery clinic. Methods for clinical pain reduction are often impractical, time-consuming, or ineffective. Vibration is a safe, inexpensive, and highly applicable modality for pain reduction that can be readily utilized for a wide variety of procedures. This study evaluated the use of vibration as a viable pain-reduction strategy in the clinical plastic surgery setting. Patients requiring at least 2 consecutive procedures that are considered painful were enrolled in the study. These included injections, staple removal, and suture removal. In the same patient, one half of the procedures were performed without vibration and the other half with vibration. After completing the procedures, the patients rated their pain with vibration and without vibration. The patient and the researcher also described the experience with a short questionnaire. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. Patients reported significantly less pain on the Numeric Rating Scale pain scale when vibration was used compared with the control group (p reduction. It significantly reduces the pain experienced by patients during minor office procedures. Given its practicality and ease of use, it is a welcome tool in the plastic surgery clinic.

  20. Initial experience with robotic pancreatic surgery in Singapore: single institution experience with 30 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Brian K P; Low, Tze-Yi; Lee, Ser-Yee; Chan, Chung-Yip; Chung, Alexander Y F; Ooi, London L P J

    2018-05-24

    Presently, the worldwide experience with robotic pancreatic surgery (RPS) is increasing although widespread adoption remains limited. In this study, we report our initial experience with RPS. This is a retrospective review of a single institution prospective database of 72 consecutive robotic hepatopancreatobiliary surgeries performed between 2013 and 2017. Of these, 30 patients who underwent RPS were included in this study of which 25 were performed by a single surgeon. The most common procedure was robotic distal pancreatectomy (RDP) which was performed in 20 patients. This included eight subtotal pancreatectomies, two extended pancreatecto-splenectomies (en bloc gastric resection) and 10 spleen-saving-RDP. Splenic preservation was successful in 10/11 attempted spleen-saving-RDP. Eight patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomies (five hybrid with open reconstruction), one patient underwent a modified Puestow procedure and one enucleation of uncinate tumour. Four patients had extended resections including two RDP with gastric resection and two pancreaticoduodenectomies with vascular resection. There was one (3.3%) open conversion and seven (23.3%) major (>Grade II) morbidities. Overall, there were four (13.3%) clinically significant (Grade B) pancreatic fistulas of which three required percutaneous drainage. These occurred after three RDP and one robotic enucleation. There was one reoperation for port-site hernia and no 30-day/in-hospital mortalities. The median post-operative stay was 6.5 (range: 3-36) days and there were six (20%) 30-day readmissions. Our initial experience showed that RPS can be adopted safely with a low open conversion rate for a wide variety of procedures including pancreaticoduodenectomy. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  1. Breast tomosynthesis in clinical practice: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teertstra, Hendrik J.; Loo, Claudette E.; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den; Muller, Sara H.; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A.; Tinteren, Harm van; Rutgers, Emiel J.T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential value of tomosynthesis in women with an abnormal screening mammogram or with clinical symptoms. Mammography and tomosynthesis investigations of 513 woman with an abnormal screening mammogram or with clinical symptoms were prospectively classified according to the ACR BI-RADS criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of both techniques for the detection of cancer were calculated. In 112 newly detected cancers, tomosynthesis and mammography were each false-negative in 8 cases (7%). In the false-negative mammography cases, the tumor was detected with ultrasound (n=4), MRI (n=2), by recall after breast tomosynthesis interpretation (n=1), and after prophylactic mastectomy (n=1). Combining the results of mammography and tomosynthesis detected 109 cancers. Therefore in three patients, both mammography and tomosynthesis missed the carcinoma. The sensitivity of both techniques for the detection of breast cancer was 92.9%, and the specificity of mammography and tomosynthesis was 86.1 and 84.4%, respectively. Tomosynthesis can be used as an additional technique to mammography in patients referred with an abnormal screening mammogram or with clinical symptoms. Additional lesions detected by tomosynthesis, however, are also likely to be detected by other techniques used in the clinical work-up of these patients. (orig.)

  2. Clinical results of Trabectome surgery for open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizoguchi T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Takanori Mizoguchi,1 Shiro Nishigaki,2 Tomoki Sato,3 Harumi Wakiyama,4 Nobuchika Ogino2 1Mizoguchi Eye Clinic, Ophthalmology, Sasebo, 2Nishigaki Eye Clinic, Ophthalmology, Nagoya, 3Sato Eye Clinic, Ophthalmology, Arao, 4Japanese Red Cross Nagasaki Genbaku Hospital, Nagasaki, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to determine outcomes when using Trabectome surgery and to evaluate factors associated with its effects in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and exfoliation glaucoma (EXG. Methods: This was a prospective, non-randomized, observational, comparative cohort study in which Trabectome surgery was used alone in patients with POAG or EXG. Trabectome surgery was considered to have failed when at least one of the following three criteria was fulfilled: intraocular pressure (IOP ≥21 mmHg and a <20% reduction below the baseline IOP on two consecutive follow-up visits 3 months or more after surgery; need for additional glaucoma surgery; and an increase in number of medications compared with baseline. Results: The subjects were 32 males (34 eyes and 46 females (48 eyes. POAG was observed in 43 eyes and EXG in 39 eyes. IOP after Trabectome surgery decreased significantly from 22.3±6.8 mmHg at baseline to 14.0±3.9 mmHg (23.0% reduction at month 24 in all cases (P<0.0000. The success rate at 2 years was 51.2% for all cases (POAG, 50.9%; EXG, 49.2%. There was no significant difference in success rate between POAG and EXG (P=0.91. Preoperative IOP (P=0.033 and number of medications (P=0.041 were significant factors for surgical success/failure in multivariate logistic regression. No serious complications were observed. Conclusion: Trabectome surgery achieved favorable IOP control and was equally effective in patients with POAG and those with EXG. Its effects were influenced by preoperative IOP and number of preoperative medications. Keywords: Trabectome, primary open-angle glaucoma, exfoliation glaucoma, success rate, risk factors 

  3. 3D laparoscopic surgery: a prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrusa, Antonino; Di Buono, Giuseppe; Buscemi, Salvatore; Cucinella, Gaspare; Romano, Giorgio; Gulotta, Gaspare

    2018-04-03

    Since it's introduction, laparoscopic surgery represented a real revolution in clinical practice. The use of a new generation three-dimensional (3D) HD laparoscopic system can be considered a favorable "hybrid" made by combining two different elements: feasibility and diffusion of laparoscopy and improved quality of vision. In this study we report our clinical experience with use of three-dimensional (3D) HD vision system for laparoscopic surgery. Between 2013 and 2017 a prospective cohort study was conducted at the University Hospital of Palermo. We considered 163 patients underwent to laparoscopic three-dimensional (3D) HD surgery for various indications. This 3D-group was compared to a retrospective-prospective control group of patients who underwent the same surgical procedures. Considerating specific surgical procedures there is no significant difference in term of age and gender. The analysis of all the groups of diseases shows that the laparoscopic procedures performed with 3D technology have a shorter mean operative time than comparable 2D procedures when we consider surgery that require complex tasks. The use of 3D laparoscopic technology is an extraordinary innovation in clinical practice, but the instrumentation is still not widespread. Precisely for this reason the studies in literature are few and mainly limited to the evaluation of the surgical skills to the simulator. This study aims to evaluate the actual benefits of the 3D laparoscopic system integrating it in clinical practice. The three-dimensional view allows advanced performance in particular conditions, such as small and deep spaces and promotes performing complex surgical laparoscopic procedures.

  4. A retrospective explanatory case study of the implementation of a bleeding management quality initiative, in an Australian cardiac surgery unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Bronwyn Louise; Rickard, Claire M; Keogh, Samantha; Lin Fung, Yoke

    2018-03-09

    Bleeding management in cardiac surgery is challenging. Many guidelines exist to support bleeding management; however, literature demonstrates wide variation in practice. In 2012, a quality initiative was undertaken at The Prince Charles Hospital, Australia to improve bleeding management for cardiac surgery patients. The implementation of the quality initiative resulted in significant reductions in the incidence of blood transfusion, re-exploration for bleeding; superficial leg and chest wound infections; length of hospital stay, and cost. Given the success of the initiative, we sought to answer the question; "How and why was the process of implementing a bleeding management quality initiative in the cardiac surgery unit successful, and sustainable?" A retrospective explanatory case study design was chosen to explore the quality initiative. Analysis of the evidence was reviewed through phases of the 'Knowledgeto Action' planned change model. Data was derived from: (1) document analysis, (2) direct observation of the local environment, (3) clinical narratives from interviews, and analysed with a triangulation approach. The study period extended from 10/2011 to 6/2013. Results demonstrated the complexity of changing practice, as well as the significant amount of dedicated time and effort required to support individual, department and system wide change. Results suggest that while many clinicians were aware of the potential to apply improved practice, numerous barriers and challenges needed to be overcome to implement change across multiple disciplines and departments. The key successful components of the QI were revealed through the case study analysis as: (1) an appropriately skilled project manager to facilitate the implementation process; (2) tools to support changes in workflow and decision making including a bleeding management treatment algorithm with POCCTs; (3) strong clinical leadership from the multidisciplinary team and; (4) the evolution of the project

  5. Revision hip preservation surgery with hip arthroscopy: clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Benjamin G; Stake, Christine E; Lindner, Dror; El-Bitar, Youseff; Jackson, Timothy J

    2014-05-01

    To analyze and report the clinical outcomes of a cohort of patients who underwent revision hip preservation with arthroscopy and determine predictors of positive and negative outcomes. During the study period from April 2008 to December 2010, all patients who underwent revision hip preservation with arthroscopy were included. This included patients who had previous open surgery and underwent revision with arthroscopy. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores were obtained preoperatively and at 3-month, 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year follow-up time points. Any revision surgeries and conversions to total hip arthroplasty were noted. A multiple regression analysis was performed to look for positive and negative predictive factors for improvement in PROs after revision hip arthroscopy. Forty-seven hips in 43 patients had completed 2 years' follow-up or needed total hip arthroplasty. The mean length of follow-up was 29 months (range, 24 to 47 months). Of the hips, 31 (66%) had either unaddressed or incompletely treated femoroacetabular impingement. There was a significant improvement in all PRO scores at a mean of 29 months after revision (P arthroscopy can achieve moderately successful outcomes and remains a viable treatment strategy after failed primary hip preservation surgery. Preoperative predictors of success after revision hip arthroscopy include segmental labral defects, unaddressed or incompletely addressed femoroacetabular impingement, heterotopic ossification, and previous open surgery. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2014 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Humidification during laparoscopic surgery: overview of the clinical benefits of using humidified gas during laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binda, Maria Mercedes

    2015-11-01

    The peritoneum is the serous membrane that covers the abdominal cavity and most of the intra-abdominal organs. It is a very delicate layer highly susceptible to damage and it is not designed to cope with variable conditions such as the dry and cold carbon dioxide (CO2) during laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effects caused by insufflating dry and cold gas into the abdominal cavity after laparoscopic surgery. A literature search using the Pubmed was carried out. Articles identified focused on the key issues of laparoscopy, peritoneum, morphology, pneumoperitoneum, humidity, body temperature, pain, recovery time, post-operative adhesions and lens fogging. Insufflating dry and cold CO2 into the abdomen causes peritoneal damage, post-operative pain, hypothermia and post-operative adhesions. Using humidified and warm gas prevents pain after surgery. With regard to hypothermia due to desiccation, it can be fully prevented using humidified and warm gas. Results relating to the patient recovery are still controversial. The use of humidified and warm insufflation gas offers a significant clinical benefit to the patient, creating a more physiologic peritoneal environment and reducing the post-operative pain and hypothermia. In animal models, although humidified and warm gas reduces post-operative adhesions, humidified gas at 32 °C reduced them even more. It is clear that humidified gas should be used during laparoscopic surgery; however, a question remains unanswered: to achieve even greater clinical benefit to the patient, at what temperature should the humidified gas be when insufflated into the abdomen? More clinical trials should be performed to resolve this query.

  7. Audit of accuracy of clinical coding in oral surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naran, S; Hudovsky, A; Antscherl, J; Howells, S; Nouraei, S A R

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to study the accuracy of clinical coding within oral surgery and to identify ways in which it can be improved. We undertook did a multidisciplinary audit of a sample of 646 day case patients who had had oral surgery procedures between 2011 and 2012. We compared the codes given with their case notes and amended any discrepancies. The accuracy of coding was assessed for primary and secondary diagnoses and procedures, and for health resource groupings (HRGs). The financial impact of coding Subjectivity, Variability and Error (SVE) was assessed by reference to national tariffs. The audit resulted in 122 (19%) changes to primary diagnoses. The codes for primary procedures changed in 224 (35%) cases; 310 (48%) morbidities and complications had been missed, and 266 (41%) secondary procedures had been missed or were incorrect. This led to at least one change of coding in 496 (77%) patients, and to the HRG changes in 348 (54%) patients. The financial impact of this was £114 in lost revenue per patient. There is a high incidence of coding errors in oral surgery because of the large number of day cases, a lack of awareness by clinicians of coding issues, and because clinical coders are not always familiar with the large number of highly specialised abbreviations used. Accuracy of coding can be improved through the use of a well-designed proforma, and standards can be maintained by the use of an ongoing data quality assurance programme. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Clinical application of thoracic paravertebral anesthetic block in breast surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Socorro Faria

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Optimum treatment for postoperative pain has been of fundamental importance in surgical patient care. Among the analgesic techniques aimed at this group of patients, thoracic paravertebral block combined with general anesthesia stands out for the good results and favorable risk-benefit ratio. Many local anesthetics and other adjuvant drugs are being investigated for use in this technique, in order to improve the quality of analgesia and reduce adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effectiveness and safety of paravertebral block compared to other analgesic and anesthetic regimens in women undergoing breast cancer surgeries. METHODS: Integrative literature review from 1966 to 2012, using specific terms in computerized databases of articles investigating the clinical characteristics, adverse effects, and beneficial effects of thoracic paravertebral block. RESULTS: On the selected date, 16 randomized studies that met the selection criteria established for this literature review were identified. Thoracic paravertebral block showed a significant reduction of postoperative pain, as well as decreased pain during arm movement after surgery. CONCLUSION: Thoracic paravertebral block reduced postoperative analgesic requirement compared to placebo group, markedly within the first 24 h. The use of this technique could ensure postoperative analgesia of clinical relevance. Further studies with larger populations are necessary, as paravertebral block seems to be promising for preemptive analgesia in breast cancer surgery.

  9. Initiating statistical process control to improve quality outcomes in colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Deborah S; Stulberg, Jonah J; Lawrence, Justin K; Samia, Hoda; Delaney, Conor P

    2015-12-01

    Unexpected variations in postoperative length of stay (LOS) negatively impact resources and patient outcomes. Statistical process control (SPC) measures performance, evaluates productivity, and modifies processes for optimal performance. The goal of this study was to initiate SPC to identify LOS outliers and evaluate its feasibility to improve outcomes in colorectal surgery. Review of a prospective database identified colorectal procedures performed by a single surgeon. Patients were grouped into elective and emergent categories and then stratified by laparoscopic and open approaches. All followed a standardized enhanced recovery protocol. SPC was applied to identify outliers and evaluate causes within each group. A total of 1294 cases were analyzed--83% elective (n = 1074) and 17% emergent (n = 220). Emergent cases were 70.5% open and 29.5% laparoscopic; elective cases were 36.8% open and 63.2% laparoscopic. All groups had a wide range in LOS. LOS outliers ranged from 8.6% (elective laparoscopic) to 10.8% (emergent laparoscopic). Evaluation of outliers demonstrated patient characteristics of higher ASA scores, longer operating times, ICU requirement, and temporary nursing at discharge. Outliers had higher postoperative complication rates in elective open (57.1 vs. 20.0%) and elective lap groups (77.6 vs. 26.1%). Outliers also had higher readmission rates for emergent open (11.4 vs. 5.4%), emergent lap (14.3 vs. 9.2%), and elective lap (32.8 vs. 6.9%). Elective open outliers did not follow trends of longer LOS or higher reoperation rates. SPC is feasible and promising for improving colorectal surgery outcomes. SPC identified patient and process characteristics associated with increased LOS. SPC may allow real-time outlier identification, during quality improvement efforts, and reevaluation of outcomes after introducing process change. SPC has clinical implications for improving patient outcomes and resource utilization.

  10. e-Consultation Improves Efficacy in Thoracic Surgery Outpatient Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Nuria M; Gómez, Maria Teresa; Rodríguez, María; Jiménez López, Marcelo F; Aranda, Jose L; Bollo de Miguel, Elena; Diez, Florentino; Hernández Hernández, Jesús; Varela, Gonzalo

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is analysing the impact of the systematic versus occasional videoconferencing discussion of patients with two respiratory referral units along 6 years of time over the efficiency of the in-person outpatient clinics of a thoracic surgery service. Retrospective and comparative study of the evaluated patients through videoconferencing and in-person first visits during two equivalents periods of time: Group A (occasional discussion of cases) between 2008-2010 and Group B (weekly regular discussion) 2011-2013. Data were obtained from two prospective and electronic data bases. The number of cases discussed using e-consultation, in-person outpatient clinics evaluation and finally operated on under general anaesthesia in each period of time are presented. For efficiency criteria, the index: number of operated on cases/number of first visit outpatient clinic patients is created. Non-parametric Wilcoxon test is used for comparison. The mean number of patients evaluated at the outpatient clinics/year on group A was 563 versus 464 on group B. The median number of cases discussed using videoconferencing/year was 42 for group A versus 136 for group B. The mean number of operated cases/first visit at the outpatient clinics was 0.7 versus 0.87 in group B (P=.04). The systematic regular discussion of cases using videoconferencing has a positive impact on the efficacy of the outpatient clinics of a Thoracic Surgery Service measured in terms of operated cases/first outpatient clinics visit. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Bariatric Surgery in the United Kingdom: A Cohort Study of Weight Loss and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Clinical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ian J.; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Batterham, Rachel L.; Smeeth, Liam

    2015-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is becoming a more widespread treatment for obesity. Comprehensive evidence of the long-term effects of contemporary surgery on a broad range of clinical outcomes in large populations treated in routine clinical practice is lacking. The objective of this study was to measure the association between bariatric surgery, weight, body mass index, and obesity-related co-morbidities. Methods and Findings This was an observational retrospective cohort study using data from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink. All 3,882 patients registered in the database and with bariatric surgery on or before 31 December 2014 were included and matched by propensity score to 3,882 obese patients without surgery. The main outcome measures were change in weight and body mass index over 4 y; incident diagnoses of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, angina, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, fractures, obstructive sleep apnoea, and cancer; mortality; and resolution of hypertension and T2DM. Weight measures were available for 3,847 patients between 1 and 4 mo, 2,884 patients between 5 and 12 mo, and 2,258 patients between 13 and 48 mo post-procedure. Bariatric surgery patients exhibited rapid weight loss for the first four postoperative months, at a rate of 4.98 kg/mo (95% CI 4.88–5.08). Slower weight loss was sustained to the end of 4 y. Gastric bypass (6.56 kg/mo) and sleeve gastrectomy (6.29 kg/mo) were associated with greater initial weight reduction than gastric banding (2.77 kg/mo). Protective hazard ratios (HRs) were detected for bariatric surgery for incident T2DM, 0.68 (95% CI 0.55–0.83); hypertension, 0.35 (95% CI 0.27–0.45); angina, 0.59 (95% CI 0.40–0.87);MI, 0.28 (95% CI 0.10–0.74); and obstructive sleep apnoea, 0.55 (95% CI 0.40–0.87). Strong associations were found between bariatric surgery and the resolution of T2DM, with a HR of 9.29 (95% CI 6.84–12.62), and between bariatric surgery and the resolution of

  12. 78 FR 62506 - TRICARE; Coverage of Care Related to Non-Covered Initial Surgery or Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Duty member. Additionally, with respect to care that is related to a non-covered initial surgery or... interest; namely, protecting former active duty members who have received private sector care pursuant to a... incorporated by reference for the benefits provided in the civilian health care sector to active duty family...

  13. Routine clinical application of virtual reality in abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampogna, Gianluca; Pugliese, Raffaele; Elli, Marco; Vanzulli, Angelo; Forgione, Antonello

    2017-06-01

    The advantages of 3D reconstruction, immersive virtual reality (VR) and 3D printing in abdominal surgery have been enunciated for many years, but still today their application in routine clinical practice is almost nil. We investigate their feasibility, user appreciation and clinical impact. Fifteen patients undergoing pancreatic, hepatic or renal surgery were studied realizing a 3D reconstruction of target anatomy. Then, an immersive VR environment was developed to import 3D models, and some details of the 3D scene were printed. All the phases of our workflow employed open-source software and low-cost hardware, easily implementable by other surgical services. A qualitative evaluation of the three approaches was performed by 20 surgeons, who filled in a specific questionnaire regarding a clinical case for each organ considered. Preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative guidance was feasible for all patients included in the study. The vast majority of surgeons interviewed scored their quality and usefulness as very good. Despite extra time, costs and efforts necessary to implement these systems, the benefits shown by the analysis of questionnaires recommend to invest more resources to train physicians to adopt these technologies routinely, even if further and larger studies are still mandatory.

  14. Laparoscopic pectopexy: initial experience of single center with a new technique for apical prolapse surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kale

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To share our first experience with laparoscopic pectopexy, a new technique for apical prolapse surgery, and to evaluate the feasibility of this technique. Materials and Methods: Seven patients with apical prolapse underwent surgery with laparoscopic pectopexy. The lateral parts of the iliopectineal ligament were used for a bilateral mesh fixation of the descended structures. The medical records of the patients were reviewed, and the short-term clinical outcomes were analyzed. Results: The laparoscopic pectopexy procedures were successfully performed, without intraoperative and postoperative complications. De novo apical prolapse, de novo urgency, de novo constipation, stress urinary incontinence, anterior and lateral defect cystoceles, and rectoceles did not occur in any of the patients during a 6-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Although laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy has shown excellent anatomical and functional long-term results, laparoscopic pectopexy offers a feasible, safe, and comfortable alternative for apical prolapse surgery. Pectopexy may increase a surgeon's technical perspective for apical prolapse surgery.

  15. [Support Team for Investigator-Initiated Clinical Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hisako

    2017-07-01

    Investigator-initiated clinical research is that in which investigators plan and carry out their own clinical research in academia. For large-scale clinical research, a team should be organized and implemented. This team should include investigators and supporting staff, who will promote smooth research performance by fulfilling their respective roles. The supporting staff should include project managers, administrative personnel, billing personnel, data managers, and clinical research coordinators. In this article, I will present the current status of clinical research support and introduce the research organization of the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) study, an investigator-initiated international clinical research study, with particular emphasis on the role of the project management staff and clinical research coordinators.

  16. Left Transperitoneal Adrenalectomy with a Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery Combined Technique: Initial Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Sumino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS is a step toward the development of minimally invasive surgery. It is initially difficult for surgeons with limited experience to perform the surgery. We describe two cases of left adrenalectomy with a LESS combined with the addition of an accessory port. After a 2.5-cm skin incision was made at the level of the paraumbilicus to insert the primary 12-mm trocar for the laparoscope, a 5-mm nonbladed trocar was placed through the skin incision side-by-side with the primary trocar. A second 3-mm nonbladed trocar was then placed along the anterior axillary line; a multichannel trocar was not used as a single port. Both adrenalectomies were completed successfully. In patients with a minor adrenal tumor, a combined technique using LESS and an additional port is easier than LESS alone and may, therefore, be a bridge between the conventional laparoscopic approach and LESS.

  17. Evaluation of aesthetic abdominal surgery using a new clinical scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Alessandra Grassi; Ferreira, Marcus Castro; do Nascimento Remigio, Adelina Fatima; Gemperli, Rolf

    2012-02-01

    Evaluation of outcomes after aesthetic surgery still is a challenge in plastic surgery. The evaluation frequently is based on subjective criteria. This study used a new clinical grading scale to evaluate aesthetic results for plastic surgeries to the abdomen. The method scores each of the following five parameters: volume of subcutaneous tissue, contour, excess of skin, aspect of the navel, and quality of the scar on the abdominal wall. The scale options are 0 (poor), 1 (fair), and 2 (good), and the total rate can range from 0 to 10. The study included 40 women ages 18-53 years. Of these 40 women, 20 underwent traditional abdominoplasty, and 20 had liposuction alone. Preoperatively and at least 1 year later, photographic results were analyzed and scored by three independent plastic surgeons. In the abdominoplasty group, the average grade rose from 2.9±0.4 to 6.8±0.4 postoperatively. In the liposuction group, the average grade was 5.3±0.5 preoperatively and 7.7±0.4 postoperatively. In both groups, the average postoperative grade was significantly higher than the preoperative grade. The mean scores for groups A and L were significantly different, demonstrating that the scale was sensitive in identifying different anatomic abnormalities in the abdomen. The rating scale used for the aesthetic evaluation of the abdomen was effective in the analysis of two different procedures: conventional abdominoplasty and liposuction. Abdominoplasty provided the greater gain according to a comparison of the pre- and postoperative scores.

  18. Clinics of Oblivion: Makeover Culture and Cosmetic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines cosmetic surgery tourism, arguing that it can be meaningfully analysed as part of makeover culture. It shows that while cosmetic surgery tourism sits at a junction of cosmetic surgery and medical tourism, it also has much in common with contemporary tourism practices. The paper posits cosmetic surgery tourism not only as an economic and globalised phenomenon but also as a set of practices that are experienced, and that take place on the body (see also Cook, 2010; Bell et a...

  19. Postoperative laryngeal symptoms in a general surgery setting. Clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Girolamo; Cupido, Francesco; Lo Nigro, Chiara; Sciuto, Antonio; Sciumè, Carmelo; Modica, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Vocal cord injuries (VI), postoperative hoarseness (PH), dysphonia (DN), dysphagia (DG) and sore throat (ST) are common complications after general anesthesia; there is actually a lack of consensus to support the proper timing for post-operative laryngoscopy that is reliable to support the diagnosis of laryngeal or vocal fold lesions after surgery and there are no valid studies about the entity of laryngeal trauma in oro-tracheal intubation. Aim of our study is to evaluate the statistical relation between anatomic, anesthesiological and surgical variables in the case of PH, DG or impaired voice register. 50 patients (30 thyroidectomies, 8 videolaparoscopic cholecistectomies, 2 right emicolectomies, 2 left emicolectomies, 1 gastrectomy, 1 hemorrhoidectomy, 1 nefrectomy, 1 diagnostic videothoracoscopy, 1 superior right lung lobectomy, 1 appendicectomy, 1 incisional hernia repair, 1 low anterior rectal resection, 1 radical hysterectomy) underwent clinical evaluation and direct laryngoscopy before surgery, within 6 hours, after 72 hours and after 30 days, to evaluate motility and breathing space, phonatory motility, true and false vocal folds and arytenoids oedema. We evaluated also mean age (56.6 ± 3.6 years), male:female ratio (1:1.5), cigarette smoke (20%), atopic comorbidity (17/50 = 34%), Mallampati class (32% 1, 38% 2, 26% 3, 2% 4), mean duration of intubation (159 minutes, range 50 - 405 minutes), Cormack-Lehane score (34% 1, 22% 2, 22% 3, 2% 4), difficult intubation in 9 cases (18%). No complication during the laryngoscopy were registered. We investigated the statistic relationship between pre and intraoperative variables and laryngeal symptoms and lesions. In our experience, statistically significant relations were found in prevalence of vocal folds oedema in smokers (p < 0.005), self limiting DG and DN in younger patients (p < 0.005) and in thyroidectomy (p < 0.01), DG after thyroidectomy (p < 0.01). The short preoperative use of steroids and antihistaminic

  20. The Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative: a statewide Collaborative Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Victor; Schwalb, Jason M; Nerenz, David R; Pietrantoni, Lisa; Jones, Sharon; Jankowski, Michelle; Oja-Tebbe, Nancy; Bartol, Stephen; Abdulhak, Muwaffak

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Given the scrutiny of spine surgery by policy makers, spine surgeons are motivated to demonstrate and improve outcomes, by determining which patients will and will not benefit from surgery, and to reduce costs, often by reducing complications. Insurers are similarly motivated. In 2013, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan (BCBSM) and Blue Care Network (BCN) established the Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative (MSSIC) as a Collaborative Quality Initiative (CQI). MSSIC is one of the newest of 21 other CQIs that have significantly improved-and continue to improve-the quality of patient care throughout the state of Michigan. METHODS MSSIC focuses on lumbar and cervical spine surgery, specifically indications such as stenosis, disk herniation, and degenerative disease. Surgery for tumors, traumatic fractures, deformity, scoliosis, and acute spinal cord injury are currently not within the scope of MSSIC. Starting in 2014, MSSIC consisted of 7 hospitals and in 2015 included another 15 hospitals, for a total of 22 hospitals statewide. A standardized data set is obtained by data abstractors, who are funded by BCBSM/BCN. Variables of interest include indications for surgery, baseline patient-reported outcome measures, and medical history. These are obtained within 30 days of surgery. Outcome instruments used include the EQ-5D general health state score (0 being worst and 100 being the best health one can imagine) and EQ-5D-3 L. For patients undergoing lumbar surgery, a 0 to 10 numeric rating scale for leg and back pain and the Oswestry Disability Index for back pain are collected. For patients undergoing cervical surgery, a 0 to 10 numeric rating scale for arm and neck pain, Neck Disability Index, and the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association score are collected. Surgical details, postoperative hospital course, and patient-reported outcome measures are collected at 90-day, 1-year, and 2-year intervals. RESULTS As of July 1, 2015, a total of 6397 cases

  1. Work situation and sickness absence in the initial period after breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Lena-Marie; Wennman-Larsen, Agneta; Nilsson, Marie; Olsson, Mariann; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2011-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in women, many of whom are of working age, and the five-year survival rate in Sweden is approaching 90%. Accordingly, aspects of working life and sickness absence are of increasing importance for breast cancer survivors and may have a long-term impact on health and quality of life of these women. The aim was to elucidate the work situation and sickness absence during the initial period after breast cancer surgery and to explore factors associated with sickness absence. This is a cross-sectional questionnaire study 4-6 weeks after breast cancer surgery of women aged 20-63 years, and living in Stockholm. A consecutive sample of 933 women were invited and 756 (81%) accepted to participate. Logistic regression analyses were computed to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios for associations between sick leave and other variables. Most women (86%) were employed (including self-employed) at diagnosis, and 91% of those worked ≥75% of full-time. At time of survey, 56% were on sick leave, the majority for full-time. Low self-rated health, poorer health than before diagnosis, having a strenuous work posture, and younger age were associated with sick leave during the initial period after breast cancer surgery in both univariate and multivariate analyses. The results of this study is not fully consistent compared to previous studies in this field, often performed in later phases after breast cancer surgery or after other cancer diagnoses. Therefore our results indicate that knowledge is needed during all phases of the breast cancer trajectory to determine factors of importance regarding sick leave and their impact throughout the disease trajectory.

  2. Surgery as a Double-Edged Sword: A Clinically Feasible Approach to Overcome the Metastasis-Promoting Effects of Surgery by Blunting Stress and Prostaglandin Responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benish, Marganit; Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar

    2010-01-01

    Surgery remains an essential therapeutic approach for most solid malignancies, including breast cancer. However, surgery also constitutes a risk factor for promotion of pre-existing micrometastases and the initiation of new metastases through several mechanisms, including the release of prostaglandins and stress hormones (e.g., catecholamines and glucocorticoids). However, the perioperative period also presents an opportunity for cell mediated immunity (CMI) and other mechanisms to eradicate or control minimal residual disease, provided that the deleterious effects of surgery are minimized. Here, we discuss the key role of endogenous stress hormones and prostaglandins in promoting the metastatic process through their direct impact on malignant cells, and through their deleterious impact on anti-cancer CMI. We further discuss the effects of anesthetic techniques, the extent of surgery, pain alleviation, and timing within the menstrual cycle with respect to their impact on tumor recurrence and physiological stress responses. Last, we suggest an attractive perioperative drug regimen, based on a combination of a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor and a β-adrenergic blocker, which we found effective in attenuating immune suppression and the metastasis-promoting effects of surgery in several tumor models. This regimen is clinically applicable, and could potentially promote disease free survival in patients operated for breast and other types of cancer

  3. Surgery as a Double-Edged Sword: A Clinically Feasible Approach to Overcome the Metastasis-Promoting Effects of Surgery by Blunting Stress and Prostaglandin Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benish, Marganit; Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar, E-mail: shamgar@post.tau.ac.il [Neuroimmunology Research Unit, Department of Psychology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2010-11-24

    Surgery remains an essential therapeutic approach for most solid malignancies, including breast cancer. However, surgery also constitutes a risk factor for promotion of pre-existing micrometastases and the initiation of new metastases through several mechanisms, including the release of prostaglandins and stress hormones (e.g., catecholamines and glucocorticoids). However, the perioperative period also presents an opportunity for cell mediated immunity (CMI) and other mechanisms to eradicate or control minimal residual disease, provided that the deleterious effects of surgery are minimized. Here, we discuss the key role of endogenous stress hormones and prostaglandins in promoting the metastatic process through their direct impact on malignant cells, and through their deleterious impact on anti-cancer CMI. We further discuss the effects of anesthetic techniques, the extent of surgery, pain alleviation, and timing within the menstrual cycle with respect to their impact on tumor recurrence and physiological stress responses. Last, we suggest an attractive perioperative drug regimen, based on a combination of a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor and a β-adrenergic blocker, which we found effective in attenuating immune suppression and the metastasis-promoting effects of surgery in several tumor models. This regimen is clinically applicable, and could potentially promote disease free survival in patients operated for breast and other types of cancer.

  4. [Clinical Practice after Bariatric Surgery: Problems and Complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, Martina

    2015-12-09

    The number of patients undergoing bariatric surgery because of morbid obesity is increasing rapidly. Therefore, it is an important issue to be aware of outcome and complications after bariatric surgery. This mini-review presents a compilation of important gastrointestinal symptoms, as pain, diarrhea and dumping, and includes treatment options. It characterizes possible micronutrient deficiencies, gives instructions concerning the adaptation of drugs and illustrates possible adverse outcomes, such as excessive weight loss, insufficient weight loss and weight gain after bariatric surgery.

  5. Clinical study of salvage surgery after concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimane, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Taisuke; Shimotatara, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    As the use of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is becoming more widespread, with numerous facilities performing it to maintain function and form, the number of cases requiring salvage surgery is also increasing. We investigated the postoperative prognosis of patients who experienced complications during salvage surgery after CCRT. Subjects were 27 patients who underwent salvage surgery following CCRT at our department during the 7-year period between January 2005 and December 2011. We selected all cases of salvage surgery, comprising neck dissections, total laryngectomies, partial laryngectomies, esophageal resections, and reconstructive surgeries, for analysis. The results were favorable, with a complication rate during salvage surgery after CCRT of 14.8% and a survival rate of 77.8%. Although it is difficult to compare these complications and outcome findings with available reports on salvage surgery without CCRT, it is believed complications can arise in approximately half of the cases. Thus, surgeons should be cognizant of the potential for serious complications, which are sometimes unexpected. Different from our findings, the prognosis following salvage surgery is generally not thought to be favorable and therefore care should be taken to detect recurrence and provide treatment early in salvage surgery cases. (author)

  6. Beta-blocker use and clinical outcomes after primary vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, A.; Lindholt, J.S.; Nielsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    To explore the associations between beta-blocker use and clinical outcomes (death, hospitalisation with myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke, major amputation and recurrent vascular surgery) after primary vascular reconstruction.......To explore the associations between beta-blocker use and clinical outcomes (death, hospitalisation with myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke, major amputation and recurrent vascular surgery) after primary vascular reconstruction....

  7. Implementation of a quality improvement initiative in Belgian diabetic foot clinics: feasibility and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggen, Kris; Van Acker, Kristien; Beele, Hilde; Dumont, Isabelle; Félix, Patricia; Lauwers, Patrick; Lavens, Astrid; Matricali, Giovanni A; Randon, Caren; Weber, Eric; Van Casteren, Viviane; Nobels, Frank

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to describe the implementation and initial results of an audit-feedback quality improvement initiative in Belgian diabetic foot clinics. Using self-developed software and questionnaires, diabetic foot clinics collected data in 2005, 2008 and 2011, covering characteristics, history and ulcer severity, management and outcome of the first 52 patients presenting with a Wagner grade ≥ 2 diabetic foot ulcer or acute neuropathic osteoarthropathy that year. Quality improvement was encouraged by meetings and by anonymous benchmarking of diabetic foot clinics. The first audit-feedback cycle was a pilot study. Subsequent audits, with a modified methodology, had increasing rates of participation and data completeness. Over 85% of diabetic foot clinics participated and 3372 unique patients were sampled between 2005 and 2011 (3312 with a diabetic foot ulcer and 111 with acute neuropathic osteoarthropathy). Median age was 70 years, median diabetes duration was 14 years and 64% were men. Of all diabetic foot ulcers, 51% were plantar and 29% were both ischaemic and deeply infected. Ulcer healing rate at 6 months significantly increased from 49% to 54% between 2008 and 2011. Management of diabetic foot ulcers varied between diabetic foot clinics: 88% of plantar mid-foot ulcers were off-loaded (P10-P90: 64-100%), and 42% of ischaemic limbs were revascularized (P10-P90: 22-69%) in 2011. A unique, nationwide quality improvement initiative was established among diabetic foot clinics, covering ulcer healing, lower limb amputation and many other aspects of diabetic foot care. Data completeness increased, thanks in part to questionnaire revision. Benchmarking remains challenging, given the many possible indicators and limited sample size. The optimized questionnaire allows future quality of care monitoring in diabetic foot clinics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Preoperative lifestyle intervention in bariatric surgery: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalarchian, Melissa A; Marcus, Marsha D; Courcoulas, Anita P; Cheng, Yu; Levine, Michele D

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the impact of presurgery weight loss and lifestyle preparation on outcomes following bariatric surgery are needed. To evaluate whether a presurgery behavioral lifestyle intervention improves weight loss through a 24-month postsurgery period. Bariatric Center of Excellence at a large, urban medical center. Candidates for bariatric surgery were randomized to a 6-month behavioral lifestyle intervention or to 6 months of usual presurgical care. The lifestyle intervention consisted of 8 weekly face-to-face sessions, followed by 16 weeks of face-to-face and telephone sessions before surgery; the intervention also included 3 monthly telephone contacts after surgery. Assessments were conducted 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Participants who underwent surgery (n = 143) were 90.2% female and 86.7% White. Average age was 44.9 years, and average body mass index was 47.5 kg/m(2) at study enrollment. At follow-up, 131 (91.6%), 126 (88.1%), 117 (81.8%) patients participated in the 6-, 12-, and 24-month assessments, respectively. Percent weight loss from study enrollment to 6 and 12 months after surgery was comparable for both groups, but at 24 months after surgery, the lifestyle group had significantly smaller percent weight loss compared with the usual care group (26.5% versus 29.5%, respectively, P = .02). Presurgery lifestyle intervention did not improve weight loss at 24 months after surgery. The findings from this study raise questions about the utility and timing of adjunctive lifestyle interventions for bariatric surgery patients. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Initial incomplete surgery modifies prognosis in advanced ovarian cancer regardless of subsequent management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalbasa, Nicolae; Balescu, Irina; Dima, Simona; Herlea, Vlad; David, Leonard; Brasoveanu, Vladislav; Popescu, Irinel

    2015-04-01

    Prognosis in ovarian cancer is determined by completeness of cytoreduction and proper management by specialized oncological gynecologists. Incomplete initial debulking surgery in non-specialized Centers is, however, a reality and there is ongoing discussion about the best subsequent management of such patients. Patients with advanced ovarian cancer (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics--FIGO FIGO stages IIIC-IV) who had biopsy by laparotomy or incomplete cytoreduction followed or not by chemotherapy further referred to our Institution between January 2002 and May 2014 were included. The two groups of incomplete cytoreduction [followed by upfront surgery or followed by chemotherapy and interval debulking surgery (IDS)] were compared and also compared against a cohort of 197 patients with similar characteristics who underwent upfront maximal surgery according to the standard at our Iinstitution during the same period. A total of 99 eligible patients were identified. Sixty-seven of them underwent biopsies by laparotomy and 32 underwent incomplete cytoreduction in other institutions. Twenty-eight patients underwent direct re-operation while 71 patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by IDS. The mean overall survival duration for patients with upfront reoperation was 31 months and 54 months for patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and IDS, considerably lower than the 72 months obtained for the group of 197 patients with maximal up-front complete cytoreduction at our Institution. Primary biopsy or incomplete cytoreduction reduces survival regardless of the subsequent approach. However, if incomplete cytoreduction has occurred, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by IDS is preferable to up-front reoperation. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Radiotherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer treated with surgery alone as the initial treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hidekazu; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Hachiya, Kae; Okada, Sunaho; Kitahara, Masashi; Matsuyama, Katsuya; Matsuo, Masayuki [Gifu University, Gifu (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Although the technical developments of radiotherapy have been remarkable, there are currently few reports on the treatment results of radiotherapy for local recurrence of rectal cancer treated with surgery alone as initial treatment in this three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy era. Thus, we retrospectively evaluated the treatment results of radiotherapy for local recurrence of rectal cancer treated with surgery alone as the initial treatment. Thirty-two patients who underwent radiotherapy were enrolled in this study. The dose per fraction was 2.0–3.5 Gy. Because the treatment schedule was variable, the biological effective dose (BED) was calculated. Local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) rates from the completion of radiotherapy were calculated. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year LC rates were 51.5%, 24.5%, 19.6%, 19.6%, and 13.1%, respectively. LC rates were significantly higher for the high BED group (≥75 Gy10) than for the lower BED group (<75 Gy10). All patients who reported pain achieved pain relief. The duration of pain relief was significantly higher for the high BED group than for the lower BED group. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year OS rates were 82.6%, 56.5%, 45.2%, 38.7%, and 23.2%, respectively. There was a trend toward higher OS rates in with higher BED group compared to lower BED group. For patients with unresectable locally recurrent rectal cancer treated with surgery alone, radiotherapy is effective treatment. The prescribed BED should be more than 75 Gy10, if the dose to the organ at risk is within acceptable levels.

  11. Quality improvement initiative: Preventative Surgical Site Infection Protocol in Vascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizh, David; Ascher, Enrico; Raza Rizvi, Syed Ali; Hingorani, Anil; Amaturo, Michael; Johnson, Eric

    2018-02-01

    Objective A quality improvement initiative was employed to decrease single institution surgical site infection rate in open lower extremity revascularization procedures. In an attempt to lower patient morbidity, we developed and implemented the Preventative Surgical Site Infection Protocol in Vascular Surgery. Surgical site infections lead to prolonged hospital stays, adjunctive procedure, and additive costs. We employed targeted interventions to address the common risk factors that predispose patients to post-operative complications. Methods Retrospective review was performed between 2012 and 2016 for all surgical site infections after revascularization procedures of the lower extremity. A quality improvement protocol was initiated in January 2015. Primary outcome was the assessment of surgical site infection rate reduction in the pre-protocol vs. post-protocol era. Secondary outcomes evaluated patient demographics, closure method, perioperative antibiotic coverage, and management outcomes. Results Implementation of the protocol decreased the surgical site infection rate from 6.4% to 1.6% p = 0.0137). Patient demographics and comorbidities were assessed and failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference among the infection and no-infection groups. Wound closure with monocryl suture vs. staple proved to be associated with decreased surgical site infection rate ( p site infections in the vascular surgery population are effective and necessary. Our data suggest that there may be benefit in the incorporation of MRSA and Gram-negative coverage as part of the Surgical Care Improvement Project perioperative guidelines.

  12. Patients' perception of physician-initiated prayer prior to elective ophthalmologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siatkowski, R Michael; Cannon, Sterling L; Farris, Bradley K

    2008-02-01

    Prayer is an important part of many patients' and physicians' lives. There is little data in the literature regarding patients' perception of prayer from or with their doctors. To assess in a masked fashion patients' impression of prayer's role in a medical setting, and their perception of being offered and receiving prayer from their physician. Confidential survey of 567 consecutive patients who were offered prayer by their physician before elective eye surgery. Proportion of patients favoring physician-initiated prayer and weighted Likert responses to various positive and negative sentiments regarding their experience. Survey response rate was 53% (300 patients). Ninety-six percent of patients identified themselves as Christian. At least 90% of Christian patients responded favorably toward their prayer experience to each Likert question. Among the non-Christian patients, the proportion of negative impressions to the prayer experience ranged from 0 to 25%. Physician-initiated Christian-based prayer before surgery is well-received by a strong majority of Christian patients. Although the data are few, only a minority of non-Christians felt negatively regarding this experience.

  13. Psychology of plastic and reconstructive surgery: a systematic clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Sachin M; Magarakis, Michael; Manson, Paul N; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2010-12-01

    The authors sought to review the various types of patients with psychological abnormalities who may present to the plastic surgeon and the psychological impact of various plastic surgery procedures on these patients. After systematically searching the Embase and PubMed databases and following further refinement (based on the authors' inclusion and exclusion criteria), the authors identified 65 studies. In addition, the authors felt that important information was contained in four textbooks, two press releases, and one Internet database. The inclusion criteria were studies that investigated the psychological outcomes, background, and personality types of patients seeking specific plastic surgery procedures. In addition, studies that addressed the impact of plastic surgery on patients' psychological status and quality of life were also included. The authors excluded studies with fewer than 30 patients, studies that did not pertain to the particular plastic surgery procedures, and studies that addressed psychological sequelae of revision operations. Narcissistic and histrionic personality disorders and body dysmorphic disorder are the three most common psychiatric conditions encountered in patients seeking cosmetic surgery. Overall, plastic surgery not only restores the appearance and function of the disfigured body unit but also alleviates psychological distress. Identifying the psychologically challenging patient before surgical intervention will allow the patient to obtain the appropriate psychological assistance and may result in a healthier individual with or without associated plastic surgery procedures.

  14. Association of time-to-surgery with outcomes in clinical stage I-II pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with upfront surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Douglas S; Zhang, Chong; Presson, Angela P; Firpo, Matthew A; Mulvihill, Sean J; Scaife, Courtney L

    2018-04-01

    Time-to-surgery from cancer diagnosis has increased in the United States. We aimed to determine the association between time-to-surgery and oncologic outcomes in patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma undergoing upfront surgery. The 2004-2012 National Cancer Database was reviewed for patients undergoing curative-intent surgery without neoadjuvant therapy for clinical stage I-II pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. A multivariable Cox model with restricted cubic splines was used to define time-to-surgery as short (1-14 days), medium (15-42), and long (43-120). Overall survival was examined using Cox shared frailty models. Secondary outcomes were examined using mixed-effects logistic regression models. Of 16,763 patients, time-to-surgery was short in 34.4%, medium in 51.6%, and long in 14.0%. More short time-to-surgery patients were young, privately insured, healthy, and treated at low-volume hospitals. Adjusted hazards of mortality were lower for medium (hazard ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval, .90, 0.97) and long time-to-surgery (hazard ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval, 0.86, 0.96) than short. There were no differences in adjusted odds of node positivity, clinical to pathologic upstaging, being unresectable or stage IV at exploration, and positive margins. Medium time-to-surgery patients had higher adjusted odds (odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval, 1.03, 1.20) of receiving an adequate lymphadenectomy than short. Ninety-day mortality was lower in medium (odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval, 0.65, 0.85) and long time-to-surgery (odds ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval, 0.60, 0.88) than short. In this observational analysis, short time-to-surgery was associated with slightly shorter OS and higher perioperative mortality. These results may suggest that delays for medical optimization and referral to high volume surgeons are safe. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Initial Readability Assessment of Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tian; Elhadad, Noémie; Weng, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Various search engines are available to clinical trial seekers. However, it remains unknown how comprehensible clinical trial eligibility criteria used for recruitment are to a lay audience. This study initially investigated this problem. Readability of eligibility criteria was assessed according to (i) shallow and lexical characteristics through the use of an established, generic readability metric; (ii) syntactic characteristics through natural language processing techniques; and (iii) health terminological characteristics through an automated comparison to technical and lay health texts. We further stratified clinical trials according to various study characteristics (e.g., source country or study type) to understand potential factors influencing readability. Mainly caused by frequent use of technical jargons, a college reading level was found to be necessary to understand eligibility criteria text, a level much higher than the average literacy level of the general American population. The use of technical jargons should be minimized to simplify eligibility criteria text. PMID:26958204

  16. Single-port access laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer: initial experience with 10 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Orhan; Nielsen, Claus B; Jespersen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Single-port access laparoscopic surgery is emerging as a method to improve the morbidity and cosmetic benefits of conventional laparoscopic surgery and minimize the surgical trauma. However, the feasibility of this procedure in rectal surgery has not yet been determined.......Single-port access laparoscopic surgery is emerging as a method to improve the morbidity and cosmetic benefits of conventional laparoscopic surgery and minimize the surgical trauma. However, the feasibility of this procedure in rectal surgery has not yet been determined....

  17. Efficiency Analysis of Direct Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery in Elderly Patients with Blunt Traumatic Hemothorax without an Initial Thoracostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yen Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemothorax is common in elderly patients following blunt chest trauma. Traditionally, tube thoracostomy is the first choice for managing this complication. The goal of this study was to determine the benefits of this approach in elderly patients with and without an initial tube thoracostomy. Seventy-eight patients aged >65 years with blunt chest trauma and stable vital signs were included. All of them had more than 300 mL of hemothorax, indicating that a tube thoracostomy was necessary. The basic demographic data and clinical outcomes of patients with hemothorax who underwent direct video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery without a tube thoracostomy were compared with those who received an initial tube thoracostomy. Patients who did not receive a thoracostomy had lower posttrauma infection rates (28.6% versus 56.3%, P=0.061 and a significantly shorter length of stay in the intensive care unit (3.13 versus 8.27, P=0.029 and in the hospital (15.93 versus 23.17, P=0.01 compared with those who received a thoracostomy. The clinical outcomes in the patients who received direct VATS were more favorable compared with those of the patients who did not receive direct VATS.

  18. The efficacy of a smoking cessation programme in patients undergoing elective surgery - a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azodi, O. Sadr; Lindstrom, D.; Adami, J.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that smokers constitute an important risk group of patients undergoing surgery. It is unknown how smoking cessation intervention initiated 4 weeks prior to elective surgery affects the probability of permanent cessation. We randomly assigned 117 patients, scheduled to undergo elective...

  19. Clinics of Oblivion: Makeover Culture and Cosmetic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Jones

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines cosmetic surgery tourism, arguing that it can be meaningfully analysed as part of makeover culture. It shows that while cosmetic surgery tourism sits at a junction of cosmetic surgery and medical tourism, it also has much in common with contemporary tourism practices. The paper posits cosmetic surgery tourism not only as an economic and globalised phenomenon but also as a set of practices that are experienced, and that take place on the body (see also Cook, 2010; Bell et al. 2011. Chris Rojek’s work on contemporary tourist practices is deployed in order to argue that the cosmetic surgery tourist’s body is itself the ‘site’ to be visited and discovered; it is also the souvenir that is brought home. When body and site are brought together in cosmetic surgery tourism, they form a potent nexus that is unique to a contemporary moment tied up with globalisation and consumption, where both identity and self-transformation are managed through the body.

  20. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery using the iArmS operation support robot: initial experience in 43 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Toshihiro; Goto, Tetsuya; Nagm, Alhusain; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2017-05-01

    Objective The intelligent arm-support system, iArmS, which follows the surgeon's arm and automatically fixes it at an adequate position, was developed as an operation support robot. iArmS was designed to support the surgeon's forearm to prevent hand trembling and to alleviate fatigue during surgery with a microscope. In this study, the authors report on application of this robotic device to endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) and evaluate their initial experiences. Methods The study population consisted of 43 patients: 29 with pituitary adenoma, 3 with meningioma, 3 with Rathke's cleft cyst, 2 with craniopharyngioma, 2 with chordoma, and 4 with other conditions. All patients underwent surgery via the endonasal transsphenoidal approach using a rigid endoscope. During the nasal and sphenoid phases, iArmS was used to support the surgeon's nondominant arm, which held the endoscope. The details of the iArmS and clinical results were collected. Results iArmS followed the surgeon's arm movement automatically. It reduced the surgeon's fatigue and stabilized the surgeon's hand during ETSS. Shaking of the video image decreased due to the steadying of the surgeon's scope-holding hand with iArmS. There were no complications related to use of the device. Conclusions The intelligent armrest, iArmS, seems to be safe and effective during ETSS. iArmS is helpful for improving the precision and safety not only for microscopic neurosurgery, but also for ETSS. Ongoing advances in robotics ensure the continued evolution of neurosurgery.

  1. Impact of smoking on early clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Qiang; Zhao, Hang; Mei, YunQing; Shi, YunQing; Ma, RunHua; Ding, WenJun

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate the impact of persistent smoking versus smoking cessation over one month prior to surgery on early clinical outcomes in Chinese patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery in a retrospective study. Methods The peri-operative data of consecutive well-documented patients undergoing isolated CABG surgery from January 2007 to December 2013 were investigated and retrospectively analyzed. All included patients were divided into either a non-smo...

  2. Hospital-level Variation in Utilization of Surgery for Clinical Stage I-II Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Douglas S; Mulvihill, Sean J; Skarda, David E; Finlayson, Samuel R G; Stoddard, Gregory J; Ott, Mark J; Firpo, Matthew A; Scaife, Courtney L

    2017-07-11

    To (1) evaluate rates of surgery for clinical stage I-II pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), (2) identify predictors of not undergoing surgery, (3) quantify the degree to which patient- and hospital-level factors explain differences in hospital surgery rates, and (4) evaluate the association between adjusted hospital-specific surgery rates and overall survival (OS) of patients treated at different hospitals. Curative-intent surgery for potentially resectable PDAC is underutilized in the United States. Retrospective cohort study of patients ≤85 years with clinical stage I-II PDAC in the 2004 to 2014 National Cancer Database. Mixed effects multivariable models were used to characterize hospital-level variation across quintiles of hospital surgery rates. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of adjusted hospital surgery rates on OS. Of 58,553 patients without contraindications or refusal of surgery, 63.8% underwent surgery, and the rate decreased from 2299/3528 (65.2%) in 2004 to 4412/7092 (62.2%) in 2014 (P < 0.001). Adjusted hospital rates of surgery varied 6-fold (11.4%-70.9%). Patients treated at hospitals with higher rates of surgery had better unadjusted OS (median OS 10.2, 13.3, 14.2, 16.5, and 18.4 months in quintiles 1-5, respectively, P < 0.001, log-rank). Treatment at hospitals in lower surgery rate quintiles 1-3 was independently associated with mortality [Hazard ratio (HR) 1.10 (1.01, 1.21), HR 1.08 (1.02, 1.15), and HR 1.09 (1.04, 1.14) for quintiles 1-3, respectively, compared with quintile 5] after adjusting for patient factors, hospital type, and hospital volume. Quality improvement efforts are needed to help hospitals with low rates of surgery ensure that their patients have access to appropriate surgery.

  3. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis – case report of a patient with clinical deterioration after surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Hans-Rudolf

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is no evidence that the long-term effects of scoliosis surgery are superior to the long-term effects of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS itself, patients can fear the consequences of not under going this surgery due to incorrect or insufficient information. The main indication for surgical treatment in patients with AIS, is cosmetic. However spinal surgery may, along with other negative side effects, actually cause postoperative clinical deterioration. This complication of surgery has not yet been described in international literature. Case presentation A 15-year old female patient originally presenting with a well-compensated double curve pattern scoliosis. The patient was advised to undergo surgery due to the long-term negative impact of signs and symptoms of scoliosis upon her health. The patient agreed to surgery, which was performed in one of Germanys leading centres for spinal surgery. The thoracolumbar curve was corrected and fused, while the thoracic curve, clearly showing wedged vertebrae, defined as structural scoliosis, remained untreated. This operation left the patient with an unbalanced appearance, with radiological and clinical imbalance to the right. The clinical appearance of the patient though clearly deteriorated post-surgery. Furthermore, the wedged disc space below the fusion area indicates future problems with possible destabilisation accompanied probably by low back pain. Conclusion Scoliosis surgery for patients with AIS is mainly indicated for cosmetic or psychological reasons. Therefore the treatment leading to the best possible clinical appearance and balance has to be chosen. Patients should be informed that surgery will not necessarily improve their health status. Clinical deterioration after surgery may occur, and such information is crucial for an adequate informed consent.

  4. Rectal prolapse as initial clinical manifestation of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-W; Hsiao, C-W; Wu, C-C; Jao, S-W

    2008-04-01

    Rectal prolapse as the initial clinical manifestation of colorectal cancer is uncommon. We describe the case of a 75-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon after presenting with complete rectal prolapse. The tumor caused rectosigmoid intussusception and then it prolapsed out through the anus. She underwent rectosigmoidectomy and rectopexy. The postoperative course was uneventful. The relationship between colorectal cancer and rectal prolapse has not been clearly established. This case report describes an unusual presentation of colorectal cancer. It suggests that rectal prolapse can present as the initial symptom of colorectal cancer and may also be a presenting feature of the occult intra-abdominal pathology. The importance of adequate investigation such as colonoscopy should be emphasized in patients who develop a new onset of rectal prolapse.

  5. [Clinical trials of laparoscopic gastric cancer surgery in South Korea: review and prospect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunchao; Zhao, Gang; Cao, Hui

    2018-02-25

    Laparoscopic technology is gradually accepted in gastric cancer surgery, whose efficacy has been demonstrated by some clinical researches. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) are considered as the most important evidence to prove clinical outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer. Korean gastric surgeons have made great contributions to RCT in laparoscopic gastric cancer surgery. KLASS (Korean Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgery Study Group) is one of the most important forerunner and global leader of clinical trials of gastric cancer treatment. KLASS series clinical trials are attracting global attention because of the significant value of surgical treatment for gastric cancer. The RCTs in Korea involve in many aspects of laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer, including laparoscopy application in early gastric cancer (KLASS-01, KLASS-03 and KLASS-07), advanced gastric cancer (KLASS-02 and KLASS-06), function-preserving gastrectomy (KLASS-04,KLASS-05) and sentinel node navigation surgery (SENORITA trial). In order to share some informations of these RCTs, we review and prospect some important clinical trials of laparoscopic gastric cancer surgery in Korea. With the experience of Korean gastric surgeons, we can make more progress in our own clinical trials of laparoscopic gastric cancer surgery.

  6. Implementing a robotics curriculum at an academic general surgery training program: our initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Joshua S; Juza, Ryan M; Sasaki, Jennifer; Rogers, Ann M; Pauli, Eric M; Haluck, Randy S; Estes, Stephanie J; Lyn-Sue, Jerome R

    2016-09-01

    The robotic surgical platform is being utilized by a growing number of hospitals across the country, including academic medical centers. Training programs are tasked with teaching their residents how to utilize this technology. To this end, we have developed and implemented a robotic surgical curriculum, and share our initial experience here. Our curriculum was implemented for all General Surgical residents for the academic year 2014-2015. The curriculum consisted of online training, readings, bedside training, console simulation, participating in ten cases as bedside first assistant, and operating at the console. 20 surgical residents were included. Residents were provided the curriculum and notified the department upon completion. Bedside assistance and operative console training were completed in the operating room through a mix of biliary, foregut, and colorectal cases. During the fiscal years of 2014 and 2015, there were 164 and 263 robot-assisted surgeries performed within the General Surgery Department, respectively. All 20 residents completed the online and bedside instruction portions of the curriculum. Of the 20 residents trained, 13/20 (65 %) sat at the Surgeon console during at least one case. Utilizing this curriculum, we have trained and incorporated residents into robot-assisted cases in an efficient manner. A successful curriculum must be based on didactic learning, reading, bedside training, simulation, and training in the operating room. Each program must examine their caseload and resident class to ensure proper exposure to this platform.

  7. Cyanoacrylate Skin Microsealant for Preventing Surgical Site Infection after Vascular Surgery : A Discontinued Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhout, Bastiaan P.; Ott, Alewijn; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.; Oskam, Jacques; Ott, Alewijn; van den Dungen, Jan J. A. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    Background: Surgical site infections (SSI) after vascular surgery are related to substantial morbidity. Restriction of bacterial access to the site of surgery with a cyanoacrylate sealant is a new concept. We performed a randomized clinical trial to assess the effect of the sealing of skin with a

  8. Weight loss in orthognathic surgery: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Douglas; Williams, Rhodri W; Juj, Kiranjit; O'Connell, Susan; Isherwood, Grant; Hammond, Nichola

    2015-09-01

    To analyse weight change, body composition change and Body Mass Index change in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. A service evaluation was undertaken in orthognathic patients pre-operatively and at 4 weeks post-surgery. Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham outpatient department. Thirty-one patients scheduled for single- or two-jaw orthognathic surgery and rigid internal fixation. Immediately pre-operatively and at 4 weeks post-surgery the following information was gathered: (1) patient height; (2) patient weight (kg); (3) Patient Body Mass Index; and (4) patient body fat percentage. In the 4-week post-operative period, the average weight loss was -4·96 kg (range: -9·6 to +3·0 kg), with a body fat reduction of -3·07% (range: -5·80% to +2·30%) and an average reduction in Body Mass Index of -1·63 (range: -3·4 to +0·8). There was no statistically significant difference in weight loss (P = 0·1562) or body fat composition change (P = 0·2391) between single- or two-jaw surgery. There was no statistically significant difference in weight loss (P = 0·4858) or body fat composition change (P = 0·5321) between male and female patients. Weight loss observed was similar to that reported in studies using inter-maxillary fixation. Closer psychological and dietetic support is needed for patients who have a low normal or underweight Body Mass Index. Better and more bespoke tailored Oral Nutritional Supplementation must be provided for all orthognathic surgery patients to potentially reduce this significant weight loss.

  9. Patient engagement in clinical trials: The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative's leadership from theory to practical implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick-Lake, Bray

    2018-02-01

    Patient engagement is an increasingly important aspect of successful clinical trials. Over the past decade, as patient group involvement in clinical trials has continued to increase and diversify, the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative has not only recognized the crucial role patients play in improving the clinical trial enterprise but also made a deep commitment to help grow and shape the emerging field of patient engagement. This article describes the evolution of patient engagement including the origins of the patient engagement movement; barriers to successful engagement and remaining challenges to full and valuable collaboration between patient groups and trial sponsors; and Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative's role in influencing the field through organizational practices, formal project work and resulting recommendations, and external advocacy efforts.

  10. Initial clinical test of a breast-PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Koren, Courtney; Schreiman, Judith S.; Majewski, Stan; Marano, Gary D.; Abraham, Jame; Kurian, Sobha; Hazard, Hannah; Filburn, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this initial clinical study was to test a new positron emission/tomography imager and biopsy system (PEM/PET) in a small group of selected subjects to assess its clinical imaging capabilities. Specifically, the main task of this study is to determine whether the new system can successfully be used to produce images of known breast cancer and compare them to those acquired by standard techniques. The PEM/PET system consists of two pairs of rotating radiation detectors located beneath a patient table. The scanner has a spatial resolution of ∼2 mm in all three dimensions. The subjects consisted of five patients diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer ranging in age from 40 to 55 years old scheduled for pre-treatment, conventional whole body PET imaging with F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). The primary lesions were at least 2 cm in diameter. The images from the PEM/PET system demonstrated that this system is capable of identifying some lesions not visible in standard mammograms. Furthermore, while the relatively large lesions imaged in this study where all visualised by a standard whole body PET/CT scanner, some of the morphology of the tumours (ductal infiltration, for example) was better defined with the PEM/PET system. Significantly, these images were obtained immediately following a standard whole body PET scan. The initial testing of the new PEM/PET system demonstrated that the new system is capable of producing good quality breast-PET images compared standard methods.

  11. Burnout and Work Demands Predict Reduced Job Satisfaction in Health Professionals Working In a Surgery Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Mijakoski

    2015-03-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Adequate management of work demands, particularly excessive workload, time pressure, and lack of staff can lead to prevention of burnout and reduced job satisfaction in surgery clinic HPs, and contribute to better quality of patient care.

  12. Stapes surgery in residency: the UFPR clinical hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldart, Adriano Ulisses; Terruel, Igor; Enge, Dair Jocely; Kurogi, Adriana Sayuri; Buschle, Maurício; Mocellin, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    Surgery of the stapedius remains the established treatment for otosclerosis. Recent publications have showed that success in surgeries done by residents have decreased and hearing results are worse than those obtained by experienced otologic surgeons. To evaluate the experience of the otorhinolaryngology unit, Parana University, relative to stapes surgery done in the residency training program. A retrospective study of 114 stapes surgeries done in the past 9 years in 96 patients. Audiometric results were analysed according to the Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium guidelines and the Amsterdam Hearing Evaluation Plots. The improvement of the airway postoperative gap and thresholds were taken into account. 96 patients were included, most of them female adults (67.7%) and white (93.7%). Stapedectomy was done in 50.9% of cases, mostly under local anesthesia and sedation (96.5%), using mostly the Teflon prosthesis (37.7%). The surgical success rate was 50.88%, there was an 11.4% complication rate. Postoperative hearing gains considered as surgical success were inferior to published results in the literature, done by experienced surgeons.

  13. Clinical utility and impact of functional neuronavigation for glioma surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kyousuke; Anei, Ryogo; Ota, Takahiro; Kawai, Kensuke; Saito, Nobuhito

    2010-01-01

    After co-registration of functional MRI with finger tapping tasks for corticospinal tract tractography, the results were imported to a neuronavigation system (functional neuronavigation). Cortical and subcortical stimulation with 5-train electric pulses was then used to identify the motor system. Functional neuronavigation was a reliable and practical technique for preservation of the motor function in glioma surgery. (author)

  14. Clinical Subtypes of Dementia with Lewy Bodies Based on the Initial Clinical Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morenas-Rodríguez, Estrella; Sala, Isabel; Subirana, Andrea; Pascual-Goñi, Elba; Sánchez-Saudinós, MaBelén; Alcolea, Daniel; Illán-Gala, Ignacio; Carmona-Iragui, María; Ribosa-Nogué, Roser; Camacho, Valle; Blesa, Rafael; Fortea, Juan; Lleó, Alberto

    2018-06-04

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a heterogeneous disease in which clinical presentation, symptoms, and evolution widely varies between patients. To investigate the existence of clinical subtypes in DLB based on the initial clinical presentation. 81 patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable DLB were consecutively included. All patients underwent a neurological evaluation including a structured questionnaire about neuropsychiatric symptoms and sleep, an assessment of motor impairment (Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale subscale III), and a formal neuropsychological evaluation. Onset of core symptoms (hallucinations, parkinsonism, and fluctuations) and dementia were systematically reviewed from medical records. We applied a K-means clustering method based on the initial clinical presentation. Cluster analysis yielded three different groups. Patients in cluster I (cognitive-predominant, n = 46) presented more frequently with cognitive symptoms (95.7%, n = 44, p presented more frequently with psychotic symptoms (77.3%, n = 17), and had a shorter duration until the onset of hallucinations (p clinical DLB can be defined when considering the differential initial presentations. The proposed subtypes have distinct clinical profiles and progression patterns.

  15. Are preoperative experimental pain assessments correlated with clinical pain outcomes after surgery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangesland, Anders; Støren, Carl; Vaegter, Henrik B.

    2017-01-01

    of surgery, QST variables, clinical pain outcome measure and main result. Results Most studies showed moderate to high risk of bias. Type of surgery investigated include 7 studies on total knee replacement, 5 studies on caesarean section, 4 studies on thoracic surgery, 2 studies on herniotomy, 2 studies......Background Pain after surgery is not uncommon with 30% of patients reporting moderate to severe postoperative pain. Early identification of patients prone to postoperative pain may be a step forward towards individualized pain medicine providing a basis for improved clinical management through......, and (3) the association between QST and pain after surgery was investigated. Forty-four unique studies were identified, with 30 studies on 2738 subjects meeting inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the include studies was assessed and data extraction included study population, type...

  16. Initial investigation of 18F-NaF PET/CT for identification of vertebral sites amenable to surgical revision after spinal fusion surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quon, Andrew; Iagaru, Andrei; Dodd, Robert; Abreu, Marcelo Rodrigues de; Sprinz, Clarice; Hennemann, Sergio; Alves Neto, Jose Maria

    2012-01-01

    A pilot study was performed in patients with recurrent back pain after spinal fusion surgery to evaluate the ability of 18 F-NaF PET/CT imaging to correctly identify those requiring surgical intervention and to locate a site amenable to surgical intervention. In this prospective study 22 patients with recurrent back pain after spinal surgery and with equivocal findings on physical examination and CT were enrolled for evaluation with 18 F-NaF PET/CT. All PET/CT images were prospectively reviewed with the primary objective of identifying or ruling out the presence of lesions amenable to surgical intervention. The PET/CT results were then validated during surgical exploration or clinical follow-up of at least 15 months. Abnormal 18 F-NaF foci were found in 16 of the 22 patients, and surgical intervention was recommended. These foci were located at various sites: screws, cages, rods, fixation hardware, and bone grafts. In 6 of the 22 patients no foci requiring surgical intervention were found. Validation of the results by surgery (15 patients) or on clinical follow-up (7 patients) showed that 18 F-NaF PET/CT correctly predicted the presence of an abnormality requiring surgical intervention in 15 of 16 patients and was falsely positive in 1 of 16. In this initial investigation, 18 F-NaF PET/CT imaging showed potential utility for evaluation of recurrent symptoms after spinal fusion surgery by identifying those patients requiring surgical management. (orig.)

  17. The clinical utility of new combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection in cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawuyi LE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lola Elizabeth Lawuyi, Avinash Gurbaxani Moorfields Eye Hospital Dubai, Dubai, UAE Abstract: The maintenance of mydriasis throughout cataract extraction surgery and the control of ocular inflammation are crucial for successful surgical outcomes. The development of miosis during cataract surgery compromises the visualization of the surgical field and working space for surgeons. This may lead to complications that include posterior capsular tear and associated vitreous loss, longer surgical time, and postoperative inflammation. Postoperative inflammation is often uncomfortable and frustrating for patients. It causes pain, redness, and photophobia. This compromises the best-uncorrected vision following surgery and often leads to multiple clinic visits. This article examines the literature published on the current treatments used to manage mydriasis, pain, and inflammation in cataract extraction surgery. Combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection offers an exciting new class of medication for use in cataract surgery. With the recent approval of Omidria™ (combination of phenylephrine 1% and ketorolac 0.3% by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for intraocular use, we review the clinical utility of this new combination injection in cataract surgery. PubMed, MEDLINE, and conference proceedings were searched for the relevant literature using a combination of the following search terms: cataract extraction surgery, pupil dilation (mydriasis, miosis, phenylephrine, ketorolac, Omidria™, intracameral mydriatic. Relevant articles were reviewed and their references checked for further relevant literature. All abstracts were reviewed and full texts retrieved where available. Keywords: cataract extraction surgery, ketorolac, mydriasis, miosis, Omidria™, phenylephrine

  18. Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence of gastrointestinal tumors: initial clinical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina; Plamenova, Lilia; Keremedchiev, Momchil; Vladimirov, Borislav; Avramov, Latchezar

    2013-03-01

    The limitations of standard endoscopy for detection and evaluation of cancerous changes in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are significant challenge and initiate development of new diagnostic modalities. Therefore many spectral and optical techniques are applied recently into the clinical practice for obtaining qualitatively and quantitatively new data from gastrointestinal neoplasia with different level of clinical applicability and diagnostic success. One of the most promising approaches is fluorescence detection using naturally existing fluorescent molecules or added fluorescent markers. Deltaaminolevulinic acid / protoporphyrin IX is applied for exogenous fluorescent tumor detection in the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The 5-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. Highpower light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as a source and the excitation light is passed through the light-guide of standard video-endoscopic system to obtain 2-D visualization. Both kinds of spectra - autofluorescence signals and protoporphyrin IX signal are recorded and stored using a fiber-optic microspectrometer, as in endoscopy instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence signals. In such way 1-D detection and 2-D visualization of the lesions' fluorescence are received. The results from in vivo detection show significant differentiation between normal and abnormal tissues in 1-D spectroscopic regime, but only moderate discrimination in 2-D imaging.

  19. Parents' perceived obstacles to pediatric clinical trial participation: Findings from the clinical trials transformation initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Rachel G; Gamel, Breck; Bloom, Diane; Bradley, John; Jafri, Hasan S; Hinton, Denise; Nambiar, Sumathi; Wheeler, Chris; Tiernan, Rosemary; Smith, P Brian; Roberts, Jamie; Benjamin, Daniel K

    2018-03-01

    Enrollment of children into pediatric clinical trials remains challenging. More effective strategies to improve recruitment of children into trials are needed. This study used in-depth qualitative interviews with parents who were approached to enroll their children in a clinical trial in order to gain an understanding of the barriers to pediatric clinical trial participation. Twenty-four parents whose children had been offered the opportunity to participate in a clinical trial were interviewed: 19 whose children had participated in at least 1 clinical trial and 5 who had declined participation in any trial. Each study aspect, from the initial explanation of the study to the end of the study, can affect the willingness of parents to consent to the proposed study and future studies. Establishing trust, appropriate timing, a transparent discussion of risks and benefits oriented to the layperson, and providing motivation for children to participate were key factors that impacted parents' decisions. In order for clinical trial accrual to be successful, parents' priorities and considerations must be a central focus, beginning with initial trial design. The recommendations from the parents who participated in this study can be used to support budget allocations that ensure adequate training of study staff and improved staffing on nights and weekends. Studies of parent responses in outpatient settings and additional inpatient settings will provide valuable information on the consent process from the child's and parent's perspectives. Further studies are needed to explore whether implementation of such strategies will result in improved recruitment for pediatric clinical trials.

  20. Dedicated Operating Room Teams and Clinical Outcomes in an Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Pathway for Colorectal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Michael C; Hanna, Andrew; Benson, Andrew; Hobson, Deborah; Wu, Christopher L; Yuan, Christina T; Rosen, Michael; Wick, Elizabeth C

    2018-03-01

    Our aim was to determine whether the establishment of a dedicated operating room team leads to improved process measure compliance and clinical outcomes in an Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) program. Enhanced Recovery after Surgery programs involve the application of bundled best practices to improve the value of perioperative care. Successful implementation and sustainment of ERAS programs has been linked to compliance with protocol elements. Development of dedicated teams of anesthesia providers was a component of ERAS implementation. Intraoperative provider team networks (surgeons, anesthesiologists, and certified registered nurse anesthetists) were developed for all cases before and after implementation of colorectal ERAS. Four measures of centrality were analyzed in each network based on case assignments, and these measures were correlated with both rates of process measure compliance and clinical outcomes. Enhanced Recovery after Surgery provider teams led to a decrease in the closeness of anesthesiologists (p = 0.04) and significant increase in the clustering coefficient of certified registered nurse anesthetists (p = 0.005) compared with the pre-ERAS network. There was no significant change in centrality among surgeons (p = NS for all measures). Enhanced Recovery after Surgery designation among anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists-whereby individual providers received an in-service on protocol elements and received compliance data was strongly associated with high compliance (>0.6 of measures; p < 0.001 for each group). In addition, high compliance was associated with a significant reduction in length of stay (p < 0.01), surgical site infection (p < 0.002), and morbidity (p < 0.009). Dedicated operating room teams led to increased centrality among anesthesia providers, which in turn not only increased compliance, but also improved several clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. NIKE: a new clinical tool for establishing levels of indications for cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Mats; Albrecht, Susanne; Håkansson, Ingemar; Lorefors, Ragnhild; Ohlsson, Sven; Polland, Werner; Schmid, Andrea; Svensson, Göran; Wendel, Eva

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct a new clinical tool for establishing levels of indications for cataract surgery, and to validate this tool. Teams from nine eye clinics reached an agreement about the need to develop a clinical tool for setting levels of indications for cataract surgery and about the items that should be included in the tool. The tool was to be called 'NIKE' (Nationell Indikationsmodell för Kataraktextraktion). The Canadian Cataract Priority Criteria Tool served as a model for the NIKE tool, which was modified for Swedish conditions. Items included in the tool were visual acuity of both eyes, patients' perceived difficulties in day-to-day life, cataract symptoms, the ability to live independently, and medical/ophthalmic reasons for surgery. The tool was validated and tested in 343 cataract surgery patients. Validity, stability and reliability were tested and the outcome of surgery was studied in relation to the indication setting. Four indication groups (IGs) were suggested. The group with the greatest indications for surgery was named group 1 and that with the lowest, group 4. Validity was proved to be good. Surgery had the greatest impact on the group with the highest indications for surgery. Test-retest reliability test and interexaminer tests of indication settings showed statistically significant intraclass correlations (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] 0.526 and 0.923, respectively). A new clinical tool for indication setting in cataract surgery is presented. This tool, the NIKE, takes into account both visual acuity and the patient's perceived problems in day-to-day life because of cataract. The tool seems to be stable and reliable and neutral towards different examiners.

  2. Efficiency of Calatonia on clinical parameters in the immediate post-surgery period: a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ferreira Lasaponari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the efficiency of the Calatonia technique about clinical parameters and pain in the immediate post-surgical phase. METHOD: a randomised study was carried out with 116 patients subjected to a cholecystectomy, by laparoscopy, divided into an experimental group (58 patients and a placebo group (58 patients. The experimental group received the Calatonia technique, while the placebo was only subjected to non-intentional touches. RESULTS: The placebo group and the experimental group were considered homogeneous in terms of the variables: sex, age, physical status classification, duration of surgical procedures and also the time spent recovering in the Post-Anaesthetic Recovery Room. The only variable to show a statistically significant difference was the axillary temperature of the body. In relation to pain, the experimental group showed significant results, and hence it is possible to deduce that the relaxation caused by the Calatonia technique brought some relief of the general situation of pain. CONCLUSION: The application of Calatonia can take up the function of a resource complementary to assistance in the period immediately after surgery. Brazilian Register of Clinical Trials, UTN U1111-1129-9629.

  3. The Resident-Run Minor Surgery Clinic: A Pilot Study to Safely Increase Operative Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Brandon M; Fong, Zhi Ven; Patel, Madhukar S; Chang, David C; Petrusa, Emil; Mullen, John T; Phitayakorn, Roy

    General surgery training has evolved to align with changes in work hour restrictions, supervision regulations, and reimbursement practices. This has culminated in a lack of operative autonomy, leaving residents feeling inadequately prepared to perform surgery independently when beginning fellowship or practice. A resident-run minor surgery clinic increases junior resident autonomy, but its effects on patient outcomes have not been formally established. This pilot study evaluated the safety of implementing a resident-run minor surgery clinic within a university-based general surgery training program. Single institution case-control pilot study of a resident-run minor surgery clinic from 9/2014 to 6/2015. Rotating third-year residents staffed the clinic once weekly. Residents performed operations independently in their own procedure room. A supervising attending surgeon staffed each case prior to residents performing the procedure and viewed the surgical site before wound closure. Postprocedure patient complications and admissions to the hospital because of a complication were analyzed and compared with an attending control cohort. Massachusetts General Hospital General in Boston, MA; an academic tertiary care general surgery residency program. Ten third-year general surgery residents. Overall, 341 patients underwent a total of 399 procedures (110 in the resident clinic vs. 289 in the attending clinic). Minor surgeries included soft tissue mass excision (n = 275), abscess incision and drainage (n = 66), skin lesion excision (n = 37), skin tag removal (n = 15), and lymph node excision (n = 6). There was no significant difference in the overall rate of patients developing a postprocedure complication within 30 days (3.6% resident vs. 2.8% attending; p = 0.65); which persisted on multivariate analysis. Similar findings were observed for the rate of hospital admission resulting from a complication. Resident evaluations overwhelmingly supported the rotation, citing

  4. Fast-track rehabilitation in elective colorectal surgery patients: a prospective clinical and immunological single-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Matthias W; Eben, Ricarda; Angele, Martin K; Brandenburg, Franzis; Goetz, Alwin E; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2007-07-01

    Recent clinical data indicate that fast-track surgery (multimodal rehabilitation) leads to shorter postoperative length of hospital stay, faster recovery of gastrointestinal function as well as reduced morbidity and mortality rates. To date, no study has focused on the effects of fast-track surgery on postoperative immune function. This study was initiated to determine whether fast-track rehabilitation results in improved clinical and immunological outcome of patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Forty patients underwent either conventional or fast-track rehabilitation after colorectal surgery. In addition to clinical parameters (return of gastrointestinal function, food intake, pain score, complication rates and postoperative length of stay), we determined parameters of perioperative immunity by flow cytometry (lymphocyte subgroups) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (interleukin-6). Our findings indicate a better-preserved cell-mediated immune function (T cells, T-helper cells, natural killer cells) after fast-track rehabilitation, whereas the pro-inflammatory response (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6) was unchanged in both study groups. Furthermore, we detected a significantly faster return of gastrointestinal function (first bowel movement P<0.001, food intake P<0.05), significantly reduced pain scores in the postoperative course (P < 0.05) and a significantly shorter length of postoperative stay (P<0.001) in patients undergoing fast-track rehabilitation. Fast-track rehabilitation after colorectal surgery results in better-preserved cell-mediated immunity when compared with conventional postoperative care. Furthermore, patients undergoing fast-track rehabilitation suffer from less pain and have a faster return of gastrointestinal function in the postoperative course. In addition, postoperative length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in fast-track patients.

  5. Telemedicine in vascular surgery: clinical experience in a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaldo, Alessandro; Rousas, Nikolaos; Pane, Bianca; Spinella, Giovanni; Palombo, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    Over a three-year period we performed 630 carotid endarterectomy procedures in 588 patients. From these we selected 90 patients (group A) who fulfilled the criteria for discharge one day after surgery. These patients were given an electronic blood pressure meter, a video phone for use at home and an antihypertensive drug (amlodipine). Using web-based video conferencing, we monitored the patients every 4 hours for the first two days. The other 498 patients (group B) were discharged on the second postoperative day. There were no significant differences between the groups in demographic characteristics, risk factors, carotid lesions, operative time, postoperative complications or blood loss. No cervical hematomas developed in group A. No patients needed to be readmitted because of major complications relating to the carotid endarterectomy. During the video-communication, 28 patients (31%) with a hypertensive crisis were treated by administration of amlodipine. At discharge, a questionnaire showed that there was a feeling of insecurity in both groups: 87% in group A vs. 79% in group B (P > 0.05). In group A, insecurity decreased after the first video connection and disappeared after the 8th day postoperatively. Telemedicine appears feasible and useful in carotid endarterectomy and may have other applications in vascular surgery care.

  6. Treatment Availability Influences Physicians' Portrayal of Robotic Surgery During Clinical Appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Karen A; Fagerlin, Angela; Wei, John T; Williamson, Lillie D; Ubel, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    In order to empower patients as decision makers, physicians must educate them about their treatment options in a factual, nonbiased manner. We propose that site-specific availability of treatment options may be a novel source of bias, whereby physicians describe treatments more positively when they are available. We performed a content analysis of physicians' descriptions of robotic prostatectomy within 252 appointments at four Veterans Affairs medical centers where robotic surgery was either available or unavailable. We coded how physicians portrayed robotic versus open prostatectomy across specific clinical categories and in the appointment overall. We found that physicians were more likely to describe robotic prostatectomy as superior when it was available [F(1, 42) = 8.65, p = .005]. We also provide initial qualitative evidence that physicians may be shaping their descriptions of robotic prostatectomy in an effort to manage patients' emotions and demand for the robotic technology. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide empirical evidence that treatment availability influences how physicians describe the advantages and disadvantages of treatment alternatives to patients during clinical encounters, which has important practical implications for patient empowerment and patient satisfaction.

  7. Do first impressions count? Frailty judged by initial clinical impression predicts medium-term mortality in vascular surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B R; Batterham, A M; Hollingsworth, A C; Durrand, J W; Danjoux, G R

    2016-06-01

    Recognising frailty during pre-operative assessment is important. Frail patients experience higher mortality rates and are less likely to return to baseline functional status following the physiological insult of surgery. We evaluated the association between an initial clinical impression of frailty and all-cause mortality in 392 patients attending our vascular pre-operative assessment clinic. Prevalence of frailty assessed by the initial clinical impression was 30.6% (95% CI 26.0-35.2%). There were 133 deaths in 392 patients over a median follow-up period of 4 years. Using Cox regression, adjusted for age, sex, revised cardiac risk index and surgery (yes/no), the hazard ratio for mortality for frail vs. not-frail was 2.14 (95% CI 1.51-3.05). The time to 20% mortality was 16 months in the frail group and 33 months in the not-frail group. The initial clinical impression is a useful screening tool to identify frail patients in pre-operative assessment. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Initial experience of Da Vinci robotic thoracic surgery at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhehao; Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Chong; Wang, Luming; Wang, Zhitian; Rustam, Azmat; Du, Chengli; Lv, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Robot-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) is a relatively new but rapidly adopted technique, pioneered by the urological and gynecological departments. The primary objective of this study is to present the current status, a series of improvement and innovation of Da Vinci robotic surgery in the Department of Thoracic Surgery at First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University. In addition, we discuss the prospect of robotic surgical technology. PMID:29302429

  9. Setting up pre-admission visits for children undergoing day surgery: a practice development initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Maria; Cummins, Ann; Kelleher, Ann

    2010-06-01

    The hospital experience can bring about a range of negative emotions for children. The literature clearly states that children who are prepared for surgery recover faster and have fewer negative effects. Pre-admission programmes seek to prepare children (and their parents) for surgery. This paper describes in detail how a pre-admission programme was established for children and their families who were scheduled for day case surgery.

  10. Phrenic Nerve Palsy and Regional Anesthesia for Shoulder Surgery: Anatomical, Physiologic, and Clinical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Boghdadly, Kariem; Chin, Ki Jinn; Chan, Vincent W S

    2017-07-01

    Regional anesthesia has an established role in providing perioperative analgesia for shoulder surgery. However, phrenic nerve palsy is a significant complication that potentially limits the use of regional anesthesia, particularly in high-risk patients. The authors describe the anatomical, physiologic, and clinical principles relevant to phrenic nerve palsy in this context. They also present a comprehensive review of the strategies for reducing phrenic nerve palsy and its clinical impact while ensuring adequate analgesia for shoulder surgery. The most important of these include limiting local anesthetic dose and injection volume and performing the injection further away from the C5-C6 nerve roots. Targeting peripheral nerves supplying the shoulder, such as the suprascapular and axillary nerves, may be an effective alternative to brachial plexus blockade in selected patients. The optimal regional anesthetic approach in shoulder surgery should be tailored to individual patients based on comorbidities, type of surgery, and the principles described in this article.

  11. A clinical study of navigation accuracy during surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, Hidehiro; Uchiyama, Yoshitomo; Hoshida, Toru; Nakase, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Sakaki, Toshisuke

    2000-01-01

    It is essential to implement image-guided surgery or neuronavigation technologies that can be applied during functional surgery to localize targets accurately in the surgical field. Various navigation systems have been developed, such as the optical system and mechanical-arm-based system, to localize targets in the operative field. However, either the reference system, in optical systems, or the arm joint, in mechanical-arm-based systems, can sometimes interfere with surgical maneuvers. Therefore, we used the magnetic-force-based Computed Assisted Neurosurgery system (CANS system, Shimadzu, Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan) for neuronavigation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the CANS navigation system. Ten patients with medically refractory epilepsy underwent implantation of subdural electrode grids to detect the epilepsy focus, and then lobectomy or multiple subpial transection was performed after informed consent was obtained. The male/female ratio was 6:4 and the mean age was 30.7 years. The CANS navigator system consists mainly of a magnetic source, a localizer probe with magnetic sensor, a three-dimensional locating measuring instrument (digitizer), an image scanner, and a personal computer. To determine the localization accuracy, the probe was moved on the subdural electrode grid which typically consists of 64 or 16 platinum-iridium electrode contacts (3 mm in the diameter) embedded in a Silastic sheet. The array of electrodes was 8 x 8 cm or 2 x 8 cm and the center-to-center inter-electrode distance was 10 mm. We evaluated the inter-electrode distances and spatial relationships among the electrodes to quantitate the precision of the probe tip localization and assumed the nasion origin reference system to assess the distribution of target coordinates. The measurement errors of each component derived from different planes for the same targets were evaluated in ten patients. The error in X-dimension ranged from 0.38 mm to 7.8 mm, the error in Y

  12. Nutritional Recommendations for Adult Bariatric Surgery Patients: Clinical Practice12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherf Dagan, Shiri; Goldenshluger, Ariela; Globus, Inbal; Schweiger, Chaya; Kessler, Yafit; Kowen Sandbank, Galit; Ben-Porat, Tair; Sinai, Tali

    2017-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for morbid obesity and its associated metabolic complications. To ensure long-term postoperative success, patients must be prepared to adopt comprehensive lifestyle changes. This review summarizes the current evidence and expert opinions with regard to nutritional care in the perioperative and long-term postoperative periods. A literature search was performed with the use of different lines of searches for narrative reviews. Nutritional recommendations are divided into 3 main sections: 1) presurgery nutritional evaluation and presurgery diet and supplementation; 2) postsurgery diet progression, eating-related behaviors, and nutritional therapy for common gastrointestinal symptoms; and 3) recommendations for lifelong supplementation and advice for nutritional follow-up. We recognize the need for uniform, evidence-based nutritional guidelines for bariatric patients and summarize recommendations with the aim of optimizing long-term success and preventing complications. PMID:28298280

  13. Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Palsy After Cervical Spine Surgery: A Multicenter AOSpine Clinical Research Network Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Bydon, Mohamad; De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Smith, Zachary A.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Cho, Samuel K.; Baird, Evan O.; Mroz, Thomas E.; Fehlings, Michael; Arnold, Paul M.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Multicenter retrospective study. Objectives: To investigate the risk of symptomatic recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (RLNP) following cervical spine surgery, to examine risk factors for its development, and to report its treatment and outcomes. Methods: A multicenter study from 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network was performed. Each center screened for rare complications following cervical spine surgery, including RLNP. Patient...

  14. Parents' perceived obstacles to pediatric clinical trial participation: Findings from the clinical trials transformation initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel G. Greenberg

    2018-03-01

    In order for clinical trial accrual to be successful, parents' priorities and considerations must be a central focus, beginning with initial trial design. The recommendations from the parents who participated in this study can be used to support budget allocations that ensure adequate training of study staff and improved staffing on nights and weekends. Studies of parent responses in outpatient settings and additional inpatient settings will provide valuable information on the consent process from the child's and parent's perspectives. Further studies are needed to explore whether implementation of such strategies will result in improved recruitment for pediatric clinical trials.

  15. Clinically suspected anaphylaxis induced by sugammadex in a patient with Weaver syndrome undergoing restrictive mammoplasty surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedirli, Nurdan; Işık, Berrin; Bashiri, Mehrnoosh; Pampal, Kutluk; Kurtipek, Ömer

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Sugammadex is a cylodextrin derivate that encapsulates steroidal neuromuscular blocker agents and is reported as a safe and well-tolerated drug. In this case report, we present a patient who developed grade 3 anaphylaxis just after sugammadex administration. Patient concerns: A 22-year-old woman with diagnosis of Weaver syndrome was scheduled for bilateral mammoplasty and resection of unilateral accessory breast tissue resection. Anesthesia was induced and maintained by propofol, rocuronium, and remifentanil. At the end of the operation, sugammadex was administered and resulted in initially hypotension and bradycardia then the situation worsened by premature ventricular contraction and bigeminy with tachycardia, bronchospasm, and hypoxia. Diagnosis: The Ring and Messmer clinical severity scale grade 3 anaphylactic reaction occurred just after sugammadex injection and the patient developed prolonged hypotension with recurrent cardiac arrhythmias in postoperative 12 hours. Interventions: Treatment was initiated bolus injections of ephedrine, epinephrine, lidocaine, steroids and antihistaminic and continued with lidocaine bolus dosages and norepinephrine infusion for the postoperative period. Outcomes: The general condition of the patient improved to normal 3 hours after the sugammadex injection, and she was moved to the intensive care unit. At 2nd and 8th hours of intensive care unit follow-up, she developed premature ventricular contraction and bigeminy with the heart rate of 130 to 135 beats/min, which returned to sinus rhythm with 50 mg lidocaine. After that, no symptoms were observed and the patient was discharged to plastic surgery clinic at the following day. Lessons: Sugammadex may result in life-treating anaphylactic reaction even in a patient who did not previously expose to drug. Moreover, prolonged cardiovascular collapse and cardiac arrhythmias may occur. PMID:29505006

  16. American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Quality Initiative Joint Consensus Statement on Postoperative Gastrointestinal Dysfunction Within an Enhanced Recovery Pathway for Elective Colorectal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Traci L; McEvoy, Matthew D; Mythen, Michael Monty G; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Gupta, Ruchir; Holubar, Stefan D; Senagore, Anthony J; Gan, Tong Joo; Shaw, Andrew D; Thacker, Julie K M; Miller, Timothy E; Wischmeyer, Paul E; Carli, Franco; Evans, David C; Guilbert, Sarah; Kozar, Rosemary; Pryor, Aurora; Thiele, Robert H; Everett, Sotiria; Grocott, Mike; Abola, Ramon E; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott; Kent, Michael L; Feldman, Liane S; Fiore, Julio F

    2018-06-01

    The primary driver of length of stay after bowel surgery, particularly colorectal surgery, is the time to return of gastrointestinal (GI) function. Traditionally, delayed GI recovery was thought to be a routine and unavoidable consequence of surgery, but this has been shown to be false in the modern era owing to the proliferation of enhanced recovery protocols. However, impaired GI function is still common after colorectal surgery, and the current literature is ambiguous with regard to the definition of postoperative GI dysfunction (POGD), or what is typically referred to as ileus. This persistent ambiguity has impeded the ability to ascertain the true incidence of the condition and study it properly within a research setting. Furthermore, a rational and standardized approach to prevention and treatment of POGD is needed. The second Perioperative Quality Initiative brought together a group of international experts to review the published literature and provide consensus recommendations on this important topic with the goal to (1) develop a rational definition for POGD that can serve as a framework for clinical and research efforts; (2) critically review the evidence behind current prevention strategies and provide consensus recommendations; and (3) develop rational treatment strategies that take into account the wide spectrum of impaired GI function in the postoperative period.

  17. Clinical study of anti-reflux surgery for pediatric patients with primary vesico-ureteral reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamae, Koichi; Kitani, Kosuke; Miyamoto, Kenji; Nakakuma, Kensuke; Hamada, Yasuyuki; Nagano, Koji; Kawano, Tomoyasu; Nakamura, Toshiro

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the characteristics of 25 pediatric patients (41 ureters) with primary vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR) who underwent anti-reflux surgery. The patients comprised 14 males and 11 females. The median age at diagnosis and at operation was 5 years 3 months and 6 years 5 months, respectively. VUR grade comprised grade I, 4 cases, grade II, 3 cases, grade III, 11 cases, grade IV, 11 cases and grade V, 12 cases. We utilized the Cohen method as the anti-reflux surgery technique. VUR recurrence was detected in 1 case (2.9%) during follow-up. Moreover, there were no cases with progressive renal dysfunction or breakthrough infection. The rate of kidney with renal scar on scintigraphy before the operation was 48.9%, and the rate of kidney with renal dysfunction before the operation was 60.0%. As a result of Fisher's exact probability test, the risk factors of breakthrough infection (BTI) were high grade VUR and renal scar on scintigraphy. Based on our clinical results, our future strategy for the management of pediatric patients with primary VUR is proposed as follows. In all patients younger than 1 year old, antibacterial prophylaxis should be applied. For patients younger than 6 years old, the initial treatment should be antibacterial prophylaxis, but for patients with VUR of grade III or more, in cases of breakthrough infection or in cases with progressive renal dysfunction, surgical treatment should be considered. For patients older than 6 years with VUR of grade III or more, surgical treatment is strongly recommended. (author)

  18. Surgery planning and navigation by laser lithography plastic replica. Features, clinical applications, and advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihara, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Yuuko; Furuhata, Kentaro

    1995-01-01

    The use of three-dimensional replicas created using laserlithography has recently become popular for surgical planning and intraoperative navigation in plastic surgery and oral maxillofacial surgery. In this study, we investigated many clinical applications that we have been involved in regarding the production of three-dimensional replicas. We have also analyzed the features, application classes, and advantages of this method. As a result, clinical applications are categorized into three classes, which are 'three-dimensional shape recognition', 'simulated surgery', and 'template'. The distinct features of three-dimensional replicas are 'direct recognition', 'fast manipulation', and 'free availability'. Meeting the requirements of surgical planning and intraoperative navigation, they have produced satisfactory results in clinical applications. (author)

  19. Clinical results of salvage surgery in hypopharynx carcinoma after chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Hiroki; Gakibuchi, Masao; Asano, Takayuki; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Tomoyuki; Inoue, Youjiro

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of post-operative complications and treatment results of 60 cases of hypopharynx carcinoma receiving laryngo-pharyngo-esophagectomy followed by reconstruction with jejunum after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) from 1997 to 2006 in 6 hospitals was analyzed. The overall complication rate was 57%. There were 3 cases with carotid artery rupture (5%), 4 with jejunum necrosis (6%), 6 with major salivary fistula (10%), 8 with minor salivary fistula (13%), 8 with abscess alone (13%), 3 with trachea stoma necrosis (5%), and 3 with skin flap necrosis (5%). The death rate due to surgical complications was 3% (2/60). When the cases were divided into two groups, namely the cases with fistula and the cases without fistula, the number of days that permitted drinking was 18.1 in the latter and 81.8 in the former. The 5-year overall survival rate among all cases was 37%. We found that salvage surgery after CRT was effective for recurrent cases. These findings suggest that reconstruction with jejunum is a suitable type of operation with better surgical results. Care is required to reduce the incidence of post-operative complications. (author)

  20. Recent clinical innovations in thoracic surgery in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ze-Rui; Li, Zheng; Situ, Dong-Rong; Ng, Calvin S H

    2016-08-01

    The concept of personalized medicine, which aims to provide patients with targeted therapies while greatly reducing surgical trauma, is gaining popularity among Asian clinicians. Single port video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has rapidly gained popularity in Hong Kong for major lung resections, despite bringing new challenges such as interference between surgical instruments and insertion of the optical source through a single incision. Novel types of endocutters and thoracoscopes can help reduce the difficulties commonly encountered during single-port VATS. Our region has been the testing ground and has led the development of many of these innovations. Performing VATS, in particular single-port VATS in hybrid operating theatre helps to localise small pulmonary lesions with real-time images, thus increasing surgical accuracy and pushes the boundaries in treating subcentimeter diseases. Such approach may be assisted by use of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy in the same setting. In addition, sublobar resection can also be more individualised according to pathologic tumour subtype that require rapid intraoperative diagnostic test to guide appropriate surgical therapy. A focus on technology and innovation for large tumours that require chest wall resection and reconstructions have also been on going, with new materials and prostheses that may be tailored to each individual needs. The current paper reviews the literature pertaining to the above topics and discusses recent related innovations in Hong Kong, highlighting the study results and future perspectives.

  1. Infections in orthopaedic surgery : clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogely, Henri Charles

    2000-01-01

    The diagnostic difficulties, variability in outcome and the heterogeinity of the problem of orthopaedic infections stimulated the author to a study of the literature, and several clinical and experimental studies. The diagnosis prosthesis-related infection can only be reached with an acceptable

  2. Outcomes of secondary self-expandable metal stents versus surgery after delayed initial palliative stent failure in malignant colorectal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin Young; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2013-01-01

    When re-intervention is required due to an occluded first colorectal self-expanding metal stent for malignant colorectal obstruction, serious controversies exist regarding whether to use endoscopic re-stenting or surgery. To compare the clinical outcomes in patients who underwent stent re-insertion versus palliative surgery as a second intervention. A total of 115 patients who received either self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) insertion or palliative surgery for treatment of a second occurrence of malignant colorectal obstruction after the first SEMS placement were retrospectively studied between July 2005 and December 2009. The median overall survival (8.2 vs. 15.5 months) and progression-free survival (4.0 vs. 2.7 months) were not significantly different between the stent and surgery groups (p = 0.895 and 0.650, respectively). The median lumen patency in the stent group was 3.4 months and that in the surgery group was 7.9 months (p = 0.003). The immediate complication rate after second stent insertion was 13.9% and late complication rate was observed in 12 of 79 (15.2%) patients. There was no mortality related to the SEMS procedure. The complication and mortality rates associated with palliative surgery were 3.5% (2/57) and 12.3% (7/57), respectively. Although there is no significant difference in the overall survival between stenting and surgery, a secondary stent insertion had a lower mortality rate despite a shorter duration of temporary colorectal decompression compared to that of palliative surgery.

  3. Using an International Medical Advisory Board to guide clinical governance in a corporate refractive surgery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukich, John A

    2009-07-01

    To describe the role played by the International Medical Advisory Board (IMAB) in clinical and corporate governance at Optical Express, a corporate provider of refractive surgery. A review of goals, objectives, and actions of the IMAB. The IMAB has contributed to study design, data analysis, and selection of instruments and procedures. Through interactions with Optical Express corporate and clinical staff, the IMAB has supported management's effort to craft a corporate culture focused on continuous improvement in the safety and visual outcomes of refractive surgery. The IMAB has fashioned significant changes in corporate policies and procedures and has had an impact on corporate culture at Optical Express.

  4. Clinical impact of anatomo-functional evaluation of brain function during brain tumor surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Yohei; Takahashi, Jun; Hashimoto, Nobuo

    2009-01-01

    To attempt to improve surgical outcome of brain surgery, clinical significance of anatomo-functional evaluation of brain function during resection of brain tumors was assessed. Seventy four patients with glioma located near eloquent areas underwent surgery while awake. Intraoperative tractography-integrated functional neuronavigation and cortical/subcortical electrical stimulation were correlated with clinical symptoms during and after resection of tumors. Cortical functional areas were safely removed with negative electric stimulation and eloquent cortices could be removed in some circumstances. Subcortical functional mapping was difficult except for motor function. Studying cortical functional compensation allows more extensive removal of brain tumors located in the eloquent areas. (author)

  5. SPIDER ® sleeve gastrectomy--a new concept in single-trocar bariatric surgery: initial experience and technical details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, P; Nedelcu, M; Gagner, M

    2014-04-01

    Single port instrument delivery extended reach (SPIDER(®)) surgical system is a revolutionary surgical platform that allows triangulation of the surgical instruments while eliminating the crossing of instruments, the problematic characteristic of single access laparoscopic surgery. The purpose of this study was to analyze our initial experience with SPIDER(®) sleeve gastrectomy and to present the technical details of this new minimally invasive approach, performed in ten patients at the La Casamance Private Hospital between November 2012 and April 2013. All patients were reviewed at scheduled post-operative consultations at 1, 3 and 6 months. In addition to clinical examination, the post-operative consultation at one month also included a satisfaction survey using the Moorehead-Ardelt questionnaire. An initial series of ten sleeve gastrectomies were performed in female patients with a mean age of 41.5 years (range: 2-52). The mean BMI was 40.11 (range: 37.25-44.3). The intervention was performed through a single trocar in all patients with no "conversion" to classic laparoscopy or open surgery. The mean operative time was 61 ± 15.22 minutes (SD=standard deviation) (range: 43-96 min). The mean BMI at one month was 35.5 (SD:± 3.58, SEM: ± 1.13) (SEM=standard error of mean) with an average percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) of 32.9% (SD:± 8.56%, SEM:± 2.71%). The mean BMI at three months was 32.4 (SD: ± 2.78, SEM: ± 0.88) with an average %EWL of 52.7% (SD: ± 8.64%, SEM: ± 2.73%). The mean BMI at six months was 29.9 (SD:± 2.60, SEM: ± 0.98) with a mean %EWL of 68.8% (SD: ± 8.38%, SEM:± 3.17%). Complete remission of co-morbid conditions was observed in four patients, improvement in three others, and no change in a single patient. The mean duration of hospitalization was 3.1 days. The mean follow-up period was 161 days (SD:± 57.4 days, range: 90-243 days). There was no mortality and no intra-operative and post-operative complications were noted. The

  6. [The beginnings and the development of heart surgery in Debrecen; the consequence of Professor József Schnitzler's initiative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péterffy, Arpád

    2009-10-04

    In the early 1960s, cardiac surgery was founded in Debrecen in the department of thoracic surgery, on Professor József Schnitzler's initiative with the cooperation of the head surgeon Arpád Eisert from Nyíregyháza. During the first 5 years, between 1963-1968, 44 closed cardiac surgical procedures were performed (closure of patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonal and mitral stenosis, pericardectomy). The first open heart surgery was performed by Gábor Kovács visiting professor from Szeged in 1968, after the Pemco heart-lung machine, a donation by Béla Köteles and the Presbyterian Church in Cleveland had arrived. The cardiac surgical activity was led by Professor András Gömöry (1972-1983). During the first 20 years 310 open, 220 closed cardiac surgical, and 612 pacemaker operations were performed. After Professor Schnitzler's retirement in 1983, Arpád Péterffy was appointed the head of the entire department (general and cardio-thoracic surgery). In the last 25 years, 18,000 open, 1500 closed and 8500 pacemaker procedures altogether 32,000 were performed. In 2008 associate professor Tamás Szerafin became the head of the department of cardiac surgery.

  7. Clinical trials recruitment planning: A proposed framework from the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grant D; Bull, Jonca; Johnston McKee, Kelly; Mahon, Elizabeth; Harper, Beth; Roberts, Jamie N

    2018-03-01

    Patient recruitment is widely recognized as a key determinant of success for clinical trials. Yet a substantial number of trials fail to reach recruitment goals-a situation that has important scientific, financial, ethical, and policy implications. Further, there are important effects on stakeholders who directly contribute to the trial including investigators, sponsors, and study participants. Despite efforts over multiple decades to identify and address barriers, recruitment challenges persist. To advance a more comprehensive approach to trial recruitment, the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) convened a project team to examine the challenges and to issue actionable, evidence-based recommendations for improving recruitment planning that extend beyond common study-specific strategies. We describe our multi-stakeholder effort to develop a framework that delineates three areas essential to strategic recruitment planning efforts: (1) trial design and protocol development, (2) trial feasibility and site selection, and (3) communication. Our recommendations propose an upstream approach to recruitment planning that has the potential to produce greater impact and reduce downstream barriers. Additionally, we offer tools to help facilitate adoption of the recommendations. We hope that our framework and recommendations will serve as a guide for initial efforts in clinical trial recruitment planning irrespective of disease or intervention focus, provide a common basis for discussions in this area and generate targets for further analysis and continual improvement. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and implementation of a clinical pathway approach to simulation-based training for foregut surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Kiyoyuki W; Buchholz, Joseph; LaMarra, Denise; Karakousis, Giorgos C; Aggarwal, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary demands on resident education call for integration of simulation. We designed and implemented a simulation-based curriculum for Post Graduate Year 1 surgery residents to teach technical and nontechnical skills within a clinical pathway approach for a foregut surgery patient, from outpatient visit through surgery and postoperative follow-up. The 3-day curriculum for groups of 6 residents comprises a combination of standardized patient encounters, didactic sessions, and hands-on training. The curriculum is underpinned by a summative simulation "pathway" repeated on days 1 and 3. The "pathway" is a series of simulated preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative encounters in following up a single patient through a disease process. The resident sees a standardized patient in the clinic presenting with distal gastric cancer and then enters an operating room to perform a gastrojejunostomy on a porcine tissue model. Finally, the resident engages in a simulated postoperative visit. All encounters are rated by faculty members and the residents themselves, using standardized assessment forms endorsed by the American Board of Surgery. A total of 18 first-year residents underwent this curriculum. Faculty ratings of overall operative performance significantly improved following the 3-day module. Ratings of preoperative and postoperative performance were not significantly changed in 3 days. Resident self-ratings significantly improved for all encounters assessed, as did reported confidence in meeting the defined learning objectives. Conventional surgical simulation training focuses on technical skills in isolation. Our novel "pathway" curriculum targets an important gap in training methodologies by placing both technical and nontechnical skills in their clinical context as part of managing a surgical patient. Results indicate consistent improvements in assessments of performance as well as confidence and support its continued usage to educate surgery residents

  9. Complications of nonbiliary laparoscopic gastrointestinal surgery : Radiologic findings and clinical courses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seon Ah; Lee, Sang Hoon; Won, Yong Sung; Park, Young Ha; Kim, Jun Gi [St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun [St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    To evaluate the radiological findings and clinical course of the complications arising after nonbiliay laparoscopic gastrointestinal surgery (NLGS). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 131 patients who underwent NLGS (83 cases involving colorectal surgery, 18 splenectomies, 14 appendectomies, ten adrenalectomies, three lumbar sympathectomies, two Duhamel's operation, and one peptic ulcer perforation repair) over a four-year period. Among these 131 patients, the findings of fifteen in whom postoperative complications were confirmed were analysed. The radiologic examinations these patients underwent included CT (n=3D8), barium enema and fistulography (n=3D4), ultrasonography (n=3D3), ascending venography of the lower legs (n=3D2), and penile Doppler sonography (n=3D1). We evaluated the radiologic findings and clinical courses of early (within 2 weeks) and late (after 2 weeks) postoperative complications. Sixteen cases of postoperative complications developed in fifteen patients ; in 14 (17%) after colorectal surgery and in one (6%) after splenectomy. Eleven of the sixteen cases (69%) involved early complications, consisting of an abscess in three, ischemic colitis in two, hemoperitoneum in one, perforation of the colon in one, pancreatitis in one, recto-vaginal fistula in one, deep vein thrombosis after colorectal surgery in one, and abscess after splenectomy in one. The remaining five cases (31%) involved late complications which developed after colorectal surgery, comprising anastomosic site stricture in two, abdominal wall (trocar site) metastasis in one, colo-cutaneous fistula in one, and impotence in one. Among the 16 cases involving postoperative complications, recto-vaginal fistula, colon perforation, and abdominal wall metastasis were treated by surgery, while the other thirteen cases were treated conservatively. Various postoperative complications develop after NLGS, with a higher rate of these being noted in cases involving colorectal

  10. Complications of nonbiliary laparoscopic gastrointestinal surgery : Radiologic findings and clinical courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seon Ah; Lee, Sang Hoon; Won, Yong Sung; Park, Young Ha; Kim, Jun Gi; Kim, Hyun

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the radiological findings and clinical course of the complications arising after nonbiliay laparoscopic gastrointestinal surgery (NLGS). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 131 patients who underwent NLGS (83 cases involving colorectal surgery, 18 splenectomies, 14 appendectomies, ten adrenalectomies, three lumbar sympathectomies, two Duhamel's operation, and one peptic ulcer perforation repair) over a four-year period. Among these 131 patients, the findings of fifteen in whom postoperative complications were confirmed were analysed. The radiologic examinations these patients underwent included CT (n=3D8), barium enema and fistulography (n=3D4), ultrasonography (n=3D3), ascending venography of the lower legs (n=3D2), and penile Doppler sonography (n=3D1). We evaluated the radiologic findings and clinical courses of early (within 2 weeks) and late (after 2 weeks) postoperative complications. Sixteen cases of postoperative complications developed in fifteen patients ; in 14 (17%) after colorectal surgery and in one (6%) after splenectomy. Eleven of the sixteen cases (69%) involved early complications, consisting of an abscess in three, ischemic colitis in two, hemoperitoneum in one, perforation of the colon in one, pancreatitis in one, recto-vaginal fistula in one, deep vein thrombosis after colorectal surgery in one, and abscess after splenectomy in one. The remaining five cases (31%) involved late complications which developed after colorectal surgery, comprising anastomosic site stricture in two, abdominal wall (trocar site) metastasis in one, colo-cutaneous fistula in one, and impotence in one. Among the 16 cases involving postoperative complications, recto-vaginal fistula, colon perforation, and abdominal wall metastasis were treated by surgery, while the other thirteen cases were treated conservatively. Various postoperative complications develop after NLGS, with a higher rate of these being noted in cases involving colorectal

  11. Initial clinical experience with frameless radiosurgery for patients with intracranial metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, Reena; Ryken, Timothy C.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Pennington, Edward C.; Ritchie, Justine; Buatti, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To review the initial clinical experience with frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for treating intracranial metastatic disease. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients received frameless SRS for intracranial metastatic disease. Minimum follow-up was 6 months with none lost to follow-up. Patients had a median of 2 metastases and a maximum of 4. The median number of isocenters was 2 with median arcs of 10 and median dose of 17.5 Gy. Thirteen patients were treated for progressive/recurrent disease after surgical resection or whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Fifty-one patients were treated with frameless SRS as an an adjunct to initial treatment. Of the total treated, 17 were treated with SRS alone, 20 were treated with WBRT plus SRS, 16 were treated with surgical resection plus SRS, and the remaining 11 were treated with surgical resection plus WBRT plus SRS. Results: With a median actuarial follow-up period of 8.2 months, ultimate local control was 88%. The median time to progression was 8.1 months. The median overall survival was 8.7 months. Of the 17 patients treated with SRS alone, 86% had ultimate local control with mean overall survival of 7.1 months. Of the 13 patients who received surgical resection plus SRS without WBRT as primary treatment, there was 85% ultimate local control with an overall survival of 10.3 months. Three patients treated with initial surgery alone had recurrence treated with SRS 2-3 months after resection. All these patients obtained local control and median survival was >10 months. Of the 13 patients who received WBRT followed by SRS as boost treatment, 92% had local control and mean overall survival was 7.3 months. Of 7 patients who received SRS after recurrence after WBRT, 100% had local control with median survival of 8.2 months. For 8 patients who received surgery followed by WBRT and SRS, local control was 50%; however, ultimate intracranial control was achieved in 7 of 8 patients with repeat SRS and surgical

  12. Significance of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations to Plastic Surgery Residency Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Brian J; Zoghbi, Yasmina; Askari, Morad; Birnbach, David J; Shekhter, Ilya; Thaller, Seth R

    2017-09-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) have proven to be a powerful tool. They possess more than a 30-year track record in assessing the competency of medical students, residents, and fellows. Objective structured clinical examinations have been used successfully in a variety of medical specialties, including surgery. They have recently found their way into the subspecialty of plastic surgery. This article uses a systematic review of the available literature on OSCEs and their recent use in plastic surgery. It incorporates survey results assessing program directors' views on the use of OSCEs. Approximately 40% of programs surveyed use OSCEs to assess the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. We found that 40% use OSCEs to evaluate specific plastic surgery milestones. Objective structured clinical examinations are usually performed annually. They cost anywhere between $100 and more than $1000 per resident. Four milestones giving residents the most difficulties on OSCEs were congenital anomalies, noncancer breast surgery, breast reconstruction, and practice-based learning and improvement. It was determined that challenges with milestones were due to lack of adequate general knowledge and surgical ward patient care, as well as deficits in professionalism and system-based problems. Programs were able to remediate weakness found by OSCEs using a variety of methods. Objective structured clinical examinations offer a unique tool to objectively assess the proficiency of residents in key areas of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies. In addition, they can be used to assess the specific milestones that plastic surgery residents must meet. This allows programs to identify and improve identified areas of weakness.

  13. An overview of clinical governance policies, practices and initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Travaglia, Joanne F

    2008-02-01

    To map the emergence of, and define, clinical governance; to discuss current best practices, and to explore the implications of these for boards of directors and executives wishing to promote a clinical governance approach in their health services. Review and analysis of the published and grey literature on clinical governance from 1966 to 2006. Medline and CINAHL databases, key journals and websites were systematically searched. Central issues were identified in the literature as key to effective clinical governance. These include: ensuring that links are made between health services' clinical and corporate governance; the use of clinical governance to promote quality and safety through a focus on quality assurance and continuous improvement; the creation of clinical governance structures to improve safety and quality and manage risk and performance; the development of strategies to ensure the effective exchange of data, knowledge and expertise; and the sponsoring of a patient-centred approach to service delivery. A comprehensive approach to clinical governance necessarily includes the active participation of boards and executives in sponsoring and promoting clinical governance as a quality and safety strategy. Although this is still a relatively recent development, the signs are promising.

  14. Clinical and radiographic outcome of revision surgery of radial head prostheses: midterm results in 16 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveen, Jetske; Kodde, Izaäk F.; Koenraadt, Koen L. M.; Beumer, Annechien; The, Bertram; Eygendaal, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about revision surgery of radial head arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to report on the clinical and radiographic outcome of revision arthroplasty of the elbow with a bipolar metallic radial head prosthesis. Between 2006 and 2013, we used either a press-fit or cemented RHS

  15. Clinical evaluation of an automatic blood pressure controller during cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, R.H.A.M.; Schmartz, D.; Cantraine, F.R.L.; Barvais, L.; d Hollander, A.A.; Blom, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    During surgery, computers can be of great use to support the anesthesiologist in providing task automation. In this paper we describe a closed loop blood pressure controller and show the results of its clinical evalua- tion.Methods. The controller is based on a simple and robust

  16. Identification of Best Practices for Resident Aesthetic Clinics in Plastic Surgery Training: The ACAPS National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scott Hultman, MD, MBA, FACS

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: RACs are an important component of plastic surgery education. Most clinics are financially viable but carry high malpractice risk and consume significant resources. Best practices, to maximize patient safety and optimize resident education, include use of accredited procedural rooms and direct faculty supervision of all components of care.

  17. Towards patient-centered colorectal cancer surgery : focus on risks, decisions and clinical auditing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Heleen Simone

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to explore several aspects of both clinical decision making and quality assessment in colorectal cancer surgery. Part one focusses on benefits and risks of treatment options, preoperative information provision and Shared Decision Making (SDM); part two investigates changes

  18. Combining Clinical Information and Patient Reported Outcome Measures in Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, D.A. van

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the use of clinical information and Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) for patient evaluation in orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine. In the first part, we showed that the Dutch version of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) is a valid and reliable

  19. Surgery in sickle cell anemia | Fokam | Clinics in Mother and Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sickle cell anemia is a hemoglobin disorder with a wide range of clinical manifestations and complications. Medical treatment is the mainstay of management but surgery is indicated in some cases. The authors review the main surgical indications in sickle cell anemia as frequently encountered and review treatment ...

  20. Transanal minimally-invasive surgery (TAMIS: Technique and results from an initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ramon Silveira Mendes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is a minimally-invasive approach for rectal lesions. Superior exposure and access to the entire rectum result in lesser risk of compromised margins and lower recurrence rates, when compared to conventional transanal excision. The aim of this study was to describe a single institution's initial experience with transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS. This was a prospective review of our database. Elev- en procedures from January 2012 to June 2013 were analyzed. Results: eleven operations were completed. Five men were evaluated. Mean age was 62.9 (40-86. Mean follow-up was 9.3 (2-17 months. Average tumor size was 3.8 (1.8-8 cm. Mean distance from anal verge was 6.3 (3-12 cm. Mean operating time was 53.73 (28-118 min. Postoperative complica- tion rate was 9.1%. There were no readmissions. Mortality was null. Operative pathology disclosed the presence of adenoma in four patients, invasive adenocarcinoma in two, neu- roendocrine carcinoma in three, and no residual lesion in one case. TAMIS is a minimally- invasive procedure with low postoperative morbidity at the initial experience. TAMIS is a curative procedure for benign lesions and for selected early cancers. It is useful after neoadjuvant therapy for strictly selected cancers, pending the results of multi-institutional trials. Resumo: Microcirurgia endoscópica transanal é uma abordagem minimamente invasiva para lesões retais. Apresenta menor risco de margem comprometida e menores taxas de recorrência em comparação com excisão transanal convencional. Objetivou-se descrever a experiência inicial, de uma única instituição, com cirurgia minimamente invasiva transanal (TAMIS. Avaliação prospectiva de nosso banco de dados. Onze procedimentos de janeiro de 2012 a junho de 2013, foram analisados. Resultados: onze operações foram concluídas. Havia cinco homens. A média de idade foi de 62,9 (40-86. O acompanhamento médio foi de ww9,3 (2-17 meses. O

  1. Minimal access surgery in children: An initial experience of 28 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Abhaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : This study reports our 28 months experience with minimal access surgery (MAS in children. Materials and Methods : This was a review of all children who underwent MAS between December 2004 and March 2007 at the Departments of Paediatric Surgery, Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College (GSMC and King Edward the VII Memorial (KEM Hospital, India. Results and observations were tabulated and analysed, comparing with observations by various other authors regarding variety of indications such as, operative time, hospital stay, conversion rate, complications, safety, and feasibilty of MAS in neonates, in the appropriate operative groups. Results : A total of 199 procedures were performed in 193 children aged between 10 days and 12 years (average age: 5.7 years. One case of each, adrenal mass, retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy, laparoscopic congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH repair, and abdominoperineal pull-through for anorectal malformation, were converted to open surgeries due to technical difficulty. The overall conversion rate was 3%. Morbidity and mortality were very minimal and the procedures were well tolerated in majority of cases. Conclusion : We concluded that MAS procedures appear to be safe for a wide range of indications in neonates and children. Further development and expansion of its indications in neonatal and paediatric surgery requires further multi-institutional studies and larger cohort of patients, to compare with standards of open surgery.

  2. Clinical pathway for video-assisted thoracic surgery: the Hong Kong story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihoe, Alan D L

    2016-02-01

    A clinical pathway provides a scheduled, objective protocol for the multi-disciplinary, evidence-based management of patients with a specific condition or undergoing a specific procedure. In implementing a clinical pathway for the care of patients receiving video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) in Hong Kong, many insights were gained into what makes a clinical pathway work: meticulous preparation and team-building are keys to success; the pathway must be constantly reviewed and revisions made in response to evolving clinical need; and data collection is a key element to allow auditing and clinical research. If these can be achieved, a clinical pathway delivers not only measurable improvements in patient outcomes, but also fundamentally complements clinical advances such as VATS. This article narrates the story of how the clinical pathway for VATS in Hong Kong was created and evolved, highlighting how the above lessons were learned.

  3. Clinical experience of magnetic resonance angiography in hand surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Hidehiko; Yasui, Natsuo; Kitano, Motohiro; Sai, Eikoh

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography was performed in fourteen patients with congenital hand abnormalities. A two-dimentional time-of-flight imaging clearly demonstrated presence or absence of the radial, ulnar, and anterior interosseous arteires at forearm. However, smaller arteries such as digital arteries were depressed sometimes. This fact makes clinical application of the method somewhat limited. At present. appropriate applications in orthopaedic fields are evaluation of run-off of the major vessels after trauma or atherosclerotic diseases, venous vascular problems such as thrombophlebitis and aneurysm, and preoperative and post operative evaluation in microsurgery. If more detailed information is required, for example, in differential diagnosis of tumors conventional angiography or digital subtraction angiography is recommended. Because magnetic resonance angiography is non-invasive and does not need anesthesia, it is suitable especially for children. No requirement of contrast medium makes it easy to apply angiography to high risk patients and allergic patients to iodine. Technical advancement in near future will rise up magnetic resonance angiography to a standard evaluation method for vascular problems in orthopaedic fields very soon. (author)

  4. Value of Prophylactic Postoperative Antibiotic Therapy after Bimaxillary Orthognathic Surgery: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Eshghpour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antibiotic therapy before or after orthognathic surgery is commonly recommended by surgeons to minimize the risk of wound infection. This article evaluates the value of Prophylactic antibiotic therapy in order to diminish the incidence of postoperative wound infection after orthognathic surgery.   Materials and Methods: Fifty candidates for bimaxillary orthognathic surgery were divided into cases and controls. Cefazolin (1g was administered intravenously to all participants 30 mins prior to surgery followed by a similar dose 4 hours later. Case-group patients ingested amoxicillin (500 mg orally for 7 days after surgery. Postoperative wound infection was assessed using clinical features, and the P-value significance was set at P  Results: Both groups were similar according to gender, age, and operating time. During the follow-up period no infection was observed in either the case or control group.   Conclusion:  The results of this study suggest that long-term postoperative antibiotic therapy is not essential for the prevention of postoperative infection, and that application of aseptic surgical technique and hygiene instruction after surgery are sufficient.

  5. Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) inguinal hernia repair - recent clinical experiences of this novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yussra, Y; Sutton, P A; Kosai, N R; Razman, J; Mishra, R K; Harunarashid, H; Das, S

    2013-01-01

    Inguinal hernia remains the most commonly encountered surgical problem. Various methods of repair have been described, and the most suitable one debated. Single port access (SPA) surgery is a rapidly evolving field, and has the advantage of affording 'scarless' surgery. Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) for inguinal hernia repair is seen to be feasible in both total extraperitoneal (TEP) and transabdominal pre-peritoneal (TAPP) approaches. Data and peri-operative information on both of these however are limited. We aimed to review the clinical experience, feasibility and short term complications related to laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair via single port access. A literature search was performed using Google Scholar, Springerlink Library, Highwire Press, Surgical Endoscopy Journal, World Journal of Surgery and Medscape. The following search terms were used: laparoscopic hernia repair, TAPP, TEP, single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). Fourteen articles in English language related to SILS inguinal hernia repair were identified. Nine articles were related to TEP repair and the remaining 5 to TAPP. A total of 340 patients were reported within these studies: 294 patients having a TEP repair and 46 a TAPP. Only two cases of recurrence were reported. Various ports have been utilized, including the SILS port, Tri-Port and a custom- made port using conventional laparoscopic instruments. The duration of surgery was 40-100 minutes and the average length of hospital stay was one day. Early outcomes of this novel technique show it to be feasible, safe and with potentially better cosmetic outcome.

  6. Arterial Stump Thrombosis after Lung Resection Surgery: Clinical Presentation, Treatment and Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Padilla, Daniel; Peghini Gavilanes, Esteban; Revilla Ostolaza, Teresa Yolanda; Trujillo, María Dolores; Martínez Serna, Iván; Arenas Valls, Nuria; Girón Matute, Walther Iván; Larrosa-Barrero, Roberto; Manrique Mutiozabal, Adriana; Pérez Gallán, Marta; Zevallos, Annette; Sayas Catalán, Javier

    2016-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of arterial stump thrombosis (AST) after pulmonary resection surgery for lung cancer and to describe subsequent radiological follow-up and treatment. Observational, descriptive study of AST detected by computerized tomography angiography (CT) using intravenous contrast. Clinical and radiological variables were compared and a survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves was performed after dividing patients into 3 groups: patients with AST, patients with pulmonary embolism (PE), and patients without AST or PE. Nine cases of AST were detected after a total of 473 surgeries (1.9%), 6 of them in right-sided surgeries (67% of AST cases). Median time to detection after surgery was 11.3 months (interquartile range 2.7-42.2 months), and range 67.5 months (1.4-69.0 months). Statistically significant differences were found only in the number of CTs performed in AST patients compared to those without AST or PE, and in tumor recurrence in PE patients compared to the other 2 groups. No differences were found in baseline or oncological characteristics, nor in the survival analysis. In this series, AST prevalence was low and tended to occur in right-sided surgeries. Detection over time was variable, and unrelated to risk factors previous to surgery, histopathology, and tumor stage or recurrence. AST had no impact on patient survival. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Quality of Life After Cardiac Surgery Based on the Minimal Clinically Important Difference Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Nathalie; Bouchet, Jean Baptiste; Zufferey, Paul; Beraud, Anne Marie; Awad, Sahar; Sandri, Fabricio; Campisi, Salvator; Fuzellier, Jean François; Molliex, Serge; Vola, Marco; Morel, Jerome

    2018-03-23

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an increasingly important issue in assessing the consequences of any surgical or medical intervention. Our study aimed to evaluate change in HRQOL 6 months after elective cardiac surgery and to identify specific predictors of poor HRQOL. In this prospective, single-center study, HRQOL was evaluated before and 6 months after surgery using the SF-36 questionnaire and its two components: the physical component summary (PCS) and the mental component summary (MCS). We distinguished patients with worsening of HRQOL according to the minimal clinically important difference. All consecutive adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery were included. 326 patients completed the preoperative and postoperative SF-36 questionnaires and 24 patients died before completing follow-up questionnaires. Based on the definition used, clinically significant deterioration of HRQOL was observed in 93 patients (26.6%) for PCS and 99 patients (28.2%) for MCS. Renal replacement for acute renal failure and mechanical ventilation for longer than 48 hours were independent risk factors for PCS and MCS worsening or death. Although our study showed overall improvement of QOL after cardiac surgery, over a quarter of the patients manifested deterioration of HRQOL at 6 months post-surgery. The findings from this study should help clinicians to inform patients about their likely postoperative functional status and quality of life. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Feasibility of single-incision laparoscopic surgery for appendicitis in abnormal anatomical locations: A single surgeon′s initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanoop K Zachariah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is considered as a more technically demanding procedure than the standard laparoscopic surgery. Based on an initial and early experience, single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy (LA was found to be technically advantageous for dealing with appendicitis in unusual anatomical locations. This study aims to highlight the technical advantages of single-incision laparoscopic surgery in dealing with the abnormally located appendixes and furthermore report a case of acute appendicitis occurring in a sub-gastric position, which is probably the first such case to be reported in English literature. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the first 10 cases of single-incision LA which were performed by a single surgeon is presented here. Results: There were seven females and three males. The mean age of the patients was 30.6 (range 18-52 years, mean BMI was 22.7 (range 17-28 kg/m 2 and the mean operative time was 85.5 (range 45-150 min. The mean postoperative stay was 3.6 (range 1-7 days. The commonest position of the appendix was retro-caecal (50% followed by pelvic (30%. In three cases the appendix was found to be in abnormal locations namely sub-hepatic, sub-gastric and deep pelvic or para-vesical or para-rectal. All these cases could be managed with this technique without any conversions Conclusion: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery appears to be a feasible and safe technique for dealing with appendicitis in rare anatomical locations. Appendectomy may be a suitable procedure for the initial training in single-incision laparoscopic surgery.

  9. Clinical Benefit of Valvular Surgery in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Au, Wing-Kuk; Chan, Daniel; Sit, Ko-Yung; Zhen, Zhe; Ho, Kar-Lai; Wong, Debbie; Ho, Lai-Ming; Yap, Desmond; Lam, Yui-Ming; Lau, Chu-Pak; Tse, Hung-Fat; Chan, Tak-Mao; Yiu, Kai-Hang

    2018-06-20

    Concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in patients with significant valvular heart disease (VHD). This study sought to evaluate the clinical benefit of valvular surgery in patients with concomitant CKD.We evaluated 349 patients with significant VHD who were referred for surgery. Patients were divided into those with CKD stage ≥ 3 (CKD patients; n = 88) and those with CKD stage 1 or 2 (no CKD patients; n = 261). 63 patients did not receive surgery, of which 20 patients had CKD and 43 had no CKD. Mortality and change in eGFR were assessed after a median follow-up of 21 months.In the whole study population, 25% of the patients had CKD and these patients had higher mortality than those with no CKD. The annual mortality rates of patients with CKD who did and did not undergo surgery were 7.9% and 28.0%, respectively. In patients with no CKD, the annual mortality rates of those who did and did not undergo surgery were 1.8% and 2.3%, respectively. Importantly, surgery was associated with significant survival benefit in patients with CKD (log-rank test, P < 0.01), but was neutral in patients with no CKD. Multivariable analysis confirmed the survival benefit of valvular surgery in all patients, which was most significant in patients with CKD. Furthermore, eGFR was preserved in patients who underwent valvular surgery but declined significantly in those who did not.CKD is common in patients with significant VHD and, if left untreated surgically, these patients exhibit a high mortality.

  10. Use of computer-based clinical examination to assess medical students in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shallaly, Gamal E H A; Mekki, Abdelrahman M

    2012-01-01

    To improve the viewing of the video-projected structured clinical examination (ViPSCE), we developed a computerized version; the computer-based clinical examination (CCE). This was used to assess medical students' higher knowledge and problem solving skills in surgery. We present how we did this, test score descriptive statistics, and the students' evaluation of the CCE. A CCE in surgery was administered to assess a class of 43 final year medical students at the end of their surgical clerkship. Like the ViPSCE, the exam was delivered as a slide show, using a PowerPoint computer program. However, instead of projecting it onto a screen, each student used a computer. There were 20 slides containing either still photos or short video clips of clinical situations in surgery. The students answered by hand writing on the exam papers. At the end, they completed evaluation forms. The exam papers were corrected manually. Test score descriptive statistics were calculated and correlated with the students' scores in other exams in surgery. Administration of the CCE was straightforward. The test scores were normally distributed (mean = median = 4.9). They correlated significantly with the total scores obtained by the students in surgery (r = 0.68), and with each of the other exam modalities in surgery, such as the multiple choice and structured essay questions. Acceptability of the CCE to the students was high and they recommended the use of the CCE in other departments. CCE is feasible and popular with students. It inherits the validity and reliability of the ViPSCE with the added advantage of improving the viewing of the slides.

  11. Consecutive operative procedures in patients with Marfan syndrome up to 28 years after initial aortic root surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puluca, Nazan; Burri, Melchior; Cleuziou, Julie; Krane, Markus; Lange, Rüdiger

    2018-02-28

    Most patients (75%) with Marfan syndrome present with aortic root dilatation that may require surgical intervention. However, associated cardiovascular disorders are not limited to the aortic root. These patients frequently require consecutive operations on the remaining thoracic aorta or the heart valves. Our intent was to characterize the spectrum of such procedures. Data from all patients with Marfan syndrome undergoing aortic root surgery at our centre between 1988 and 2016 were analysed retrospectively. Overall, 73 patients (26 women) were selected for the study. The median age at 1st operation was 30 years (3-68 years). Indications for aortic root surgery were aneurysm (78%) and dissection (22%). Initially, 33 Bentall procedures and 40 valve-sparing root replacement procedures were performed, with a 97% rate of follow-up completion. The median follow up was 8 years (0-28 years). Survival at 1, 10 and 15 years was 100%, 85% and 82%, respectively. During follow-up monitoring, 48 subsequent procedures were performed in 33 patients (aorta, 23; aortic valve, 11; mitral valve, 7 and combined procedures, 7). The 30-day mortality rate after subsequent procedures was 4.2%. Freedom from subsequent operation and death (combined end-point) after 5, 10 and 15 years was 70%, 53% and 34%, respectively. After the initial surgery, subsequent procedures required in the setting of Marfan syndrome most often involve the remaining native aorta, followed by the aortic and mitral valves. The continued need for additional operative procedures remains high, even decades after the initial surgeries are undertaken. Therefore, long-term patient monitoring at specialized centres is imperative.

  12. Use of piezosurgery device in management of oral surgery complications: clincal case and clinical experience report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammartino, G; Riccitiello, F; Trosino, O; Marenzi, G; Cioffi, A; Mortellaro, C

    2012-05-01

    The root displacement into the maxillary sinus could be a complication of oral surgery in the upper jaw. In these cases, the root removal is needed in order to avoid the occurrence of sinus pathologies. Piezosurgery techniques could assure a safer management of such complications, because of the clear surgical visibility and the selective ability of cut. The aim of this article is to present a case of oral surgery complication (root displacement in the right maxillary sinus), in which piezosurgery technique helped for a correct and safe clinical management, allowing to reduce the soft tissue damage.

  13. From Diagnosis to Treatment: Clinical Applications of Nanotechnology in Thoracic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digesu, Christopher S; Hofferberth, Sophie C; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging field with potential as an adjunct to cancer therapy, particularly thoracic surgery. Therapy can be delivered to tumors in a more targeted fashion, with less systemic toxicity. Nanoparticles may aid in diagnosis, preoperative characterization, and intraoperative localization of thoracic tumors and their lymphatics. Focused research into nanotechnology's ability to deliver both diagnostics and therapeutics has led to the development of nanotheranostics, which promises to improve the treatment of thoracic malignancies through enhanced tumor targeting, controlled drug delivery, and therapeutic monitoring. This article reviews nanoplatforms, their unique properties, and the potential for clinical application in thoracic surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mast cell degranulation during abdominal surgery initiates postoperative ileus in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Wouter J.; The, Frans O.; van der Coelen, Dennis; Bennink, Roelof J.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; van Deventer, Sander J.; van den Wijngaard, René M.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2004-01-01

    Background & Aims: Inflammation of the intestinal muscularis following manipulation during surgery plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of postoperative ileus. Here, we evaluate the role of mast cell activation in the recruitment of infiltrates in a murine model. Methods: Twenty-four hours after

  15. One-Stop Clinic Utilization in Plastic Surgery: Our Local Experience and the Results of a UK-Wide National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Mark; Coelho, James; Gujral, Sameer; McKay, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. “See and treat” one-stop clinics (OSCs) are an advocated NHS initiative to modernise care, reducing cancer treatment waiting times. Little studied in plastic surgery, the existing evidence suggests that though they improve care, they are rarely implemented. We present our experience setting up a plastic surgery OSC for minor skin surgery and survey their use across the UK. Methods. The OSC was evaluated by 18-week wait target compliance, measures of departmental capacity, and patient satisfaction. Data was obtained from 32 of the 47 UK plastic surgery departments to investigate the prevalence of OSCs for minor skin cancer surgery. Results. The OSC improved 18-week waiting times, from a noncompliant mean of 80% to a compliant 95% average. Department capacity increased 15%. 95% of patients were highly satisfied with and preferred the OSC to a conventional service. Only 25% of UK plastic surgery units run OSCs, offering varying reasons for not doing so, 42% having not considered their use. Conclusions. OSCs are underutilised within UK plastic surgery, where a significant proportion of units have not even considered their benefit. This is despite associated improvements in waiting times, department capacity, and levels of high patient satisfaction. We offer our considerations and local experience instituting an OSC service. PMID:26236502

  16. Using Texting for Clinical Communication in Surgery: A Survey of Academic Staff Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdouse, Mohammed; Devon, Karen; Kayssi, Ahmed; Goldfarb, Jeremy; Rossos, Peter; Cil, Tulin D

    2018-03-01

    Text messaging has become ubiquitous and is being increasingly used within the health care system. The purpose of this study was to understand texting practices for clinical communication among staff surgeons at a large academic institution. Staff surgeons in 4 subspecialties (vascular, plastics, urology, and general surgery) were surveyed electronically. A total of 62 surgeons from general surgery (n = 33), vascular surgery (n = 6), plastic surgery (n = 13), and urology (n = 10) completed the study (response rate 30%). When conveying urgent patient-related information, staff surgeons preferred directly calling other staff surgeons (61.5%) and trainees (58.8%). When discussing routine patient information, staff surgeons used email to reach other staff surgeons (54.9%) but preferred texting (62.7%) for trainees. The majority of participants used texting because it is fast (65.4%), convenient (69.2%) and allows transmitting information to multiple recipients simultaneously (63.5%). Most felt that texting enhances patient care (71.5%); however, only half believed that it enhanced trainees' educational experiences. The majority believed that texting identifiable patient information breaches patient confidentiality. Our data showed high adoption of text messaging for clinical communication among surgeons, particularly with trainees. The majority of surgeons acknowledge security concerns inherent in texting for patient care. Existing mobile communication platforms fail to meet the needs of academic surgeons. Further research should include guidelines related to texting in clinical practice, educational implications of texting, and technologies to better meet the needs of clinicians working in an academic surgical settings.

  17. Incidence and risk factors for lower limb lymphedema after gynecologic cancer surgery with initiation of periodic complex decongestive physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deura, Imari; Shimada, Muneaki; Hirashita, Keiko; Sugimura, Maki; Sato, Seiya; Sato, Shinya; Oishi, Tetsuro; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Harada, Tasuku; Kigawa, Junzo

    2015-06-01

    Lower limb lymphedema (LLL) is one of the most frequent postoperative complications of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for gynecologic cancer. LLL often impairs quality of life, activities of daily living, sleep, and sex in patients with gynecologic cancer. We conducted this study to evaluate the incidence and risk factors for LLL after gynecologic cancer surgery in patients who received assessment and periodic complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). We retrospectively reviewed 126 cases of gynecologic cancer that underwent surgery involving retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy at Tottori University Hospital between 2009 and 2012. All patients received physical examinations to detect LLL and underwent CDP by nurse specialists within several months after surgery. The International Society of Lymphology staging of lymphedema severity was used as the diagnostic criteria. Of 126 patients, 57 (45.2%) had LLL, comprising 45 and 12 patients with stage 1 and stage 2 LLL, respectively. No patient had stage 3 LLL. LLL was present in 37 (29.4%) patients at the initial physical examination. Multivariate analysis revealed that adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy and age ≥ 55 years were independent risk factors for ≥ stage 2 LLL. To minimize the incidence of ≥ stage 2 LLL, gynecologic oncologists should be vigilant for this condition in patients who are ≥ 55 years and in those who undergo adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Patients should be advised to have a physical assessment for LLL and to receive education about CDP immediately after surgery involving retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for gynecologic cancer.

  18. Cost justification of clinical pharmacy services on a general surgery team: focus on diagnosis-related group cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertch, K E; Hatoum, H T; Willett, M S; Witte, K W

    1988-11-01

    We used a novel approach to cost-justify clinical pharmacy services on a general surgery team in nine diagnosis-related group cases. The clinical pharmacist monitored nine patients longitudinally on a general surgery team from admission to discharge and intervened in their therapeutic management. Each recommendation was analyzed for rationale, acceptance, perceived impact on quality and/or cost of patient care, whether self-initiated or solicited, and impact on patient outcome. Types of recommendations and outcomes were categorized by process and outcome measurement criteria. Total cost avoidance per patient was calculated using costs of drug therapy, laboratory tests, and length of stay. Accounting for cost of clinical pharmacy services, net cost avoidance per patient was calculated. The clinical pharmacist made 101 recommendations on nine patients. Physicians accepted 82 percent of the recommendations; 77 percent of the recommendations were self-initiated and 23 percent were solicited. Recommendations had a perceived impact on cost, quality, or both at 13, 31, and 56 percent, respectively. Most recommendations (79 percent) brought patient therapy to a level of conformance with current standards of practice as documented in the medical literature. Recommendations that potentially preserved a major organ function by preventing drug-induced toxicity or the exacerbation of existing problems constituted 16 percent of the total. None of the accepted recommendations adversely affected patient outcome and 23 percent directly resulted in a measurable positive outcome in patient care. A total of four hospital days was potentially saved for two cases. Based on objective outcome criteria, a 1.9-day increase in therapeutic control was documented per patient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technology in Craniofacial Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Woo Choi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to medicine via computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing. To investigate the current status of 3D printing technology and its clinical application, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. In addition, the benefits and possibilities of the clinical application of 3D printing in craniofacial surgery are reviewed, based on personal experiences with more than 500 craniofacial cases conducted using 3D printing tactile prototype models.

  20. Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technology in Craniofacial Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namkug

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to medicine via computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing. To investigate the current status of 3D printing technology and its clinical application, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. In addition, the benefits and possibilities of the clinical application of 3D printing in craniofacial surgery are reviewed, based on personal experiences with more than 500 craniofacial cases conducted using 3D printing tactile prototype models. PMID:26015880

  1. The clinical usefulness of initial serum procalcitonin as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The serum levels of WBC counts and C‑reactive protein in the aggravation group were elevated. However, the median value (interquartile range) of procalcitonin was relatively increased at 2.28 (0.41–7.84 ng/ml), demonstrating a significant difference. Conclusions: In conclusion, initial serum levels of procalcitonin might be ...

  2. Relationship Between Academic Performance and Student Self-Assessment of Clinical Performance in the College of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoho, Robert M; Vardaxis, Vassilios; Millonig, Kelsey

    2016-05-01

    Student self-assessment is viewed as an important tool in medical education. We sought to identify the relationship between student academic performance and third-year clinical performance self-assessment. No such study exists in podiatric medical education. Third-year podiatric medical students from the classes of 2012 through 2014 completed a self-assessment of their performance for each of five broad clinical podiatric medical domains (Professionalism, Medicine, Radiology, Surgery, and Biomechanics/Orthopedics). The assessment was completed after students finished the first 12 weeks of their third-year clinical rotations (PRE) and a second time at the conclusion of the third year (POST). The mean self-assessment score for PRE and POST surveys for all combined domains was determined for each student. This mean was compared with the student's 3-year cumulative grade point average (GPA). Students' clinical experiences for the year were essentially identical. No statistically significant correlation was identified between cumulative GPA and the PRE and POST clinical self-assessments or with the change between PRE and POST assessments based on the Pearson correlation test for each class separately or on the pooled data. Published studies in allopathic medical education have shown that students with lower GPAs tend to rate their clinical performance higher in initial clinical performance self-assessment. Our results show that student academic performance was not correlated with clinical performance self-assessment. These findings may be due to the explicit description of successful clinical competency completion, the orientation students receive before the start of clinical training, and the continuous feedback received from clinical preceptors.

  3. Clinical negligence claims in pediatric surgery in England: pattern and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyoka, Mandela

    2015-02-01

    We hypothesized that there has been an increase in the number of successful litigation claims in pediatric surgery in England. Our aim was to report the incidence, causes, and costs of clinical negligence claims against the National Health Service (NHS) in relation to pediatric surgery. We queried the NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) on litigation claims among children undergoing pediatric surgery in England (2004-2012). We decided a priori to only examine closed cases (decision and payment made). Data included year of claim, year of payment of claim, payment per claim, paid-to-closed ratio, and severity of outcome of clinical incident. Out of 112 clinical negligence claims in pediatric surgery, 93 (83%) were finalized-73 (65%) were settled and damages paid to the claimant and 20 (18%) were closed with no payment, and 19 (17%) remain open. The median payment was £13,537 (600-500,000) and median total cost borne by NHSLA was £31,445 (600-730,202). Claims were lodged at a median interval of 2 (0-13) years from time of occurrence with 55 (75%) cases being settled within the 3 years of being received. The commonest reasons for claims were postoperative complications (n=20, 28%), delayed treatment (n=16, 22%), and/or diagnosis (n=14, 19%). Out of 73, 17 (23%) closed claims resulted in case fatality. Conclusion: Two-thirds of all claims in pediatric surgery resulted in payment to claimant, and the commonest reasons for claims were postoperative complications, delayed treatment, and/or diagnosis. Nearly a quarter of successful claims were in cases where negligence resulted in case fatality. Pediatric surgeons should be aware of common diagnostic and treatment shortfalls as high-risk areas of increased susceptibility to clinical negligence claims. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Initial clinical experience with a sac-anchoring endoprosthesis for aortic aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donayre, Carlos E; Zarins, Christopher K; Krievins, Dainis K; Holden, Andrew; Hill, Andrew; Calderas, Carlos; Velez, Jaime; White, Rodney A

    2011-03-01

    size at 12 months. Initial clinical experience with this novel intrasac anchoring prosthesis is promising, with successful aneurysm exclusion and good short-term results. This new device platform has the potential to address the anatomic restrictions and limitations of current endografts. Further studies with a longer follow-up time are needed. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer: systematic reviews and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A; Lourenco, T; de Verteuil, R; Hernandez, R; Fraser, C; McKinley, A; Krukowski, Z; Vale, L; Grant, A

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic, laparoscopically assisted (hereafter together described as laparoscopic surgery) and hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) in comparison with open surgery for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Electronic databases were searched from 2000 to May 2005. A review of economic evaluations was undertaken by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in 2001. This review was updated from 2000 until July 2005. Data from selected studies were extracted and assessed. Dichotomous outcome data from individual trials were combined using the relative risk method and continuous outcomes were combined using the Mantel-Haenszel weighted mean difference method. Summaries of the results from individual patient data (IPD) meta-analyses were also presented. An economic evaluation was also carried out using a Markov model incorporating the data from the systematic review. The results were first presented as a balance sheet for comparison of the surgical techniques. It was then used to estimate cost-effectiveness measured in terms of incremental cost per life-year gained and incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for a time horizon up to 25 years. Forty-six reports on 20 studies [19 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and one IPD meta-analysis] were included in the review of clinical effectiveness. The RCTs were of generally moderate quality with the number of participants varying between 16 and 1082, with 10 having less than 100 participants. The total numbers of trial participants who underwent laparoscopic or open surgery were 2429 and 2139, respectively. A systematic review of four papers suggested that laparoscopic surgery is more costly than open surgery. However, the data they provided on effectiveness was poorer than the evidence from the review of effectiveness. The estimates from the systematic review of clinical effectiveness were

  6. Referral to Cardiac Rehabilitation After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery, and Valve Surgery: Data From the Clinical Outcomes Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Alexis L; Bradley, Steven M; Maynard, Charles; McCabe, James M

    2017-06-01

    Despite guideline recommendations that patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass surgery, or valve surgery be referred to cardiac rehabilitation, cardiac rehabilitation is underused. The objective of this study was to examine hospital-level variation in cardiac rehabilitation referral after PCI, coronary artery bypass surgery, and valve surgery. We analyzed data from the Clinical Outcomes Assessment Program, a registry of all nonfederal hospitals performing PCI and cardiac surgery in Washington State. We included eligible PCI, coronary artery bypass surgery, and valve surgery patients from 2010 to 2015. We analyzed PCI and cardiac surgery separately by performing multivariable hierarchical logistic regression for the outcome of cardiac rehabilitation referral at discharge, clustered by hospital. Patient-level covariates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, comorbidities, and procedure indication/status. Cardiac rehabilitation referral was reported in 48% (34 047/71 556) of PCI patients and 91% (21 831/23 972) of cardiac surgery patients. The hospital performing the procedure was a stronger predictor of referral than any individual patient characteristic for PCI (hospital referral range 3%-97%; median odds ratio, 5.94; 95% confidence interval, 4.10-9.49) and cardiac surgery (range 54%-100%; median odds ratio, 7.09; 95% confidence interval, 3.79-17.80). Hospitals having an outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program explained only 10% of PCI variation and 0% of cardiac surgery variation. Cardiac rehabilitation referral at discharge was less prevalent after PCI than cardiac surgery. The strongest predictor of cardiac rehabilitation referral was the hospital performing the procedure. Efforts to improve cardiac rehabilitation referral should focus on increasing referral after PCI, especially in low referral hospitals. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. The Influence of Preoperative and Postoperative Psychological Symptoms on Clinical Outcome after Shoulder Surgery: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koorevaar, Rinco C T; van 't Riet, Esther; Gerritsen, Marleen J J; Madden, Kim; Bulstra, Sjoerd K

    2016-01-01

    Psychological symptoms are highly prevalent in patients with shoulder complaints. Psychological symptoms in patients with shoulder complaints might play a role in the aetiology, perceived disability and pain and clinical outcome of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether preoperative symptoms of distress, depression, anxiety and somatisation were associated with a change in function after shoulder surgery and postoperative patient perceived improvement of pain and function. In addition, the change of psychological symptoms after shoulder surgery was analyzed and the influence of postoperative symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery on the change in function after shoulder surgery and perceived postoperative improvement of pain and function. A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed in a general teaching hospital. 315 consecutive patients planned for elective shoulder surgery were included. Outcome measures included change of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and anchor questions about improvement in pain and function after surgery. Psychological symptoms were identified before and 12 months after surgery with the validated Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ). Psychological symptoms were encountered in all the various shoulder diagnoses. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders persisted after surgery in 56% of patients, 10% of patients with no symptoms of psychological disorders before surgery developed new psychological symptoms. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders were not associated with the change of DASH score and perceived improvement of pain and function after shoulder surgery. Patients with symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery were less likely to improve on the DASH score. Postoperative symptoms of distress and depression were associated with worse perceived improvement of pain. Postoperative symptoms of distress, depression and somatisation were

  8. Virtual reality in the treatment of body image disturbances after bariatric surgery: a clinical case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Cárdenas-López, Georgina; Duran, Ximena; Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo M; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is an operation on the stomach and/or intestines that helps patients with extreme obesity to lose weight. Even if bariatric surgery, compared with traditional obesity treatment, is more effective in reducing BMI, this approach does not achieve equal results in every patient. More, following bariatric surgery common problems are body image dissatisfaction and body disparagement: there is a significant difference between the weight loss clinicians consider successful (50% of excess weight) and the weight loss potential patients expect to achieve (at least 67% of the excess weight). The paper discusses the possible role of virtual reality (VR) in addressing this problem within an integrated treatment approach. More, the clinical case of a female bariatric patient who experienced body dissatisfaction even after a 30% body weight loss and a 62% excess body weight loss, is presented and discussed.

  9. Clinical audit in dentistry: From a concept to an initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malleshi, Suchetha N; Joshi, Mahasweta; Nair, Soumya K; Ashraf, Irshad

    2012-11-01

    Clinical audit is a quality improvement process that aims to improve patient care through a systematic review of care against explicit criteria. It is a cyclic and multidisciplinary process which involves a series of steps from planning the audit through measuring the performance to implementing and sustaining the change. Although audit contains some facets of research, it is essential to understand the difference between the two. Auditing can be done right from the record maintaining, diagnosis and treatment and postoperative evaluation and follow-up. The immense potential of clinical audit can be utilized only when open-mindedness and innovativeness are encouraged and evidence-based work culture is cultivated.

  10. Online and smartphone based cognitive behavioral therapy for bariatric surgery patients: Initial pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Roger C M; Cassin, Stephanie E; Hawa, Raed; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    The respective rates of obesity in Canada and the United states are estimated to be 24.1% and 34.1%. Due to the increased incidence of obesity, Bariatric surgery has been recognized as one of the treatment options. Despite the success of Bariatric surgery, studies have proposed that it has neglected the contributions of other factors, such as psychological factors in the causation as well as the maintenance of obesity amongst individuals. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is largely a psychosocial intervention that has been shown to be efficacious, as studies have demonstrated that even brief CBT interventions could help in the reduction of binge eating and maintenance of weight loss. Previously identified problems with regards to the integration and the provision of such interventions include that of geographical barriers. In order to overcome the geographical barriers, telephone-based CBT has been conceptualized. Over the past decade, there has been massive advancement and development in Internet, Web-based and smartphone technologies, but there is still a paucity of applications in this area. Our current research objective is to determine if bariatric surgery patients will be receptive towards an online and smartphone based CBT intervention. The Bariatric Surgery Online CBT portal and Smartphone companion application was developed between July 2013 and December 2013. A low-cost methodology of developing the online portal was adopted. In terms of development, 4 core development phases were adopted. These included that of: a) Formulation of users' requirements, b) System design and development, c) System evaluation and d) System deployment and pilot application. The bariatric surgery workgroup from the Toronto Western Hospital helped with the recruitment of the subjects from the outpatient specialist service. Links to the web-portal was provided to each of the participants recruited. Since the inception of the online portal to date, in terms of usage rates, there

  11. Clinical evaluation of complete solo surgery with the "ViKY®" robotic laparoscope manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masanori; Nishinari, Naoto; Matsuya, Hideki; Tosha, Tsutomu; Minagawa, Yukihiro; Shimooki, Osamu; Abe, Tadashi

    2017-02-01

    Advancement in both surgical technique and medical equipment has enabled solo surgery. ViKY ® Endoscope Positioning System (ViKY ® ) is a robotic system that remotely controls an endoscope and provides direct vision control to the surgeon. Here, we report our experience with ViKY ® -assisted solo surgery. We retrospectively examined 25 cases of solo surgery TAPP with ViKY ® . ViKY ® was setup by the surgeon alone, and the setup duration was determined as the time at which the side rail was positioned and that when the endoscope was installed. For assessing the control unit, the number of false movements was counted. We compared the operative results between ViKY ® -assisted solo surgery TAPP and the conventional method with an assistant. The average time to set up ViKY ® was 7.9 min. The average number of commands for ViKY ® during surgery was 98.3, and the average number of errors and no response of control unit was 7.9. The mean duration of surgery was 136 min for the ViKY ® group, including the setup time, and 117 min for the conventional method. No case required an assistant during the operation. There was also no difference between the two groups with regard to postoperative complications and the rate of recurrence. ViKY ® proved reliable in recognizing orders with very few failures, and the operations were performed safely and were comparable to the conventional operations with assistants. Solo surgery with ViKY ® was beneficial in this clinical evaluation.

  12. Characteristics and clinical aspects of patients with spinal cord injury undergoing surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Simão de Melo-Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To identify the characteristics of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI undergoing surgery. METHODS: Previously, 321 patients with SCI were selected. Clinical and socio-demographic variables were collected. RESULTS: A total of 211 patients were submitted to surgery. Fall and injuries in the upper cervical and lumbosacral regions were associated with conservative treatment. Patients with lesions in the lower cervical spine, worse neurological status, and unstable injuries were associated with surgery. Individuals undergoing surgery were associated with complications after treatment. The authors assessed whether age influenced the characteristics of patients submitted to surgery. Subjects with <60 years of age were associated with motorcycle accidents and the morphologies of injury were fracture-dislocation. Elderly individuals were associated to fall, SCI in the lower cervical spine and the morphology of injury was listhesis. Subsequently, the authors analyzed the gender characteristics in these patients. Women who suffered car accidents were associated to surgery. Women were associated with paraparesis and the morphologic diagnosis was fracture-explosion, especially in the thoracolumbar transition and lumbosacral regions. Men who presented traumatic brain injury and thoracic trauma were related to surgery. These individuals had a worse neurological status and were associated to complications. Men and the cervical region were most affected, thereby, these subjects were analyzed separately (n= 92. The presence of complications increased the length of hospital stay. The simultaneous presence of morphological diagnosis, worst neurological status, tetraplegia, sensory, and motor alterations were associated with complications. Pneumonia and chest trauma were associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: These factors enable investments in prevention, rehabilitation, and treatment.

  13. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: current immediate clinical and oncological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Seid, Victor Edmond; Klajner, Sidney

    2014-10-21

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery continues to be a challenging operation associated to a steep learning curve. Robotic surgical systems have dramatically changed minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional, magnified and stable view, articulated instruments, and reduction of physiologic tremors leading to superior dexterity and ergonomics. Therefore, robotic platforms could potentially address limitations of laparoscopic rectal surgery. It was aimed at reviewing current literature on short-term clinical and oncological (pathological) outcomes after robotic rectal cancer surgery in comparison with laparoscopic surgery. A systematic review was performed for the period 2002 to 2014. A total of 1776 patients with rectal cancer underwent minimally invasive robotic treatment in 32 studies. After robotic and laparoscopic approach to oncologic rectal surgery, respectively, mean operating time varied from 192-385 min, and from 158-297 min; mean estimated blood loss was between 33 and 283 mL, and between 127 and 300 mL; mean length of stay varied from 4-10 d; and from 6-15 d. Conversion after robotic rectal surgery varied from 0% to 9.4%, and from 0 to 22% after laparoscopy. There was no difference between robotic (0%-41.3%) and laparoscopic (5.5%-29.3%) surgery regarding morbidity and anastomotic complications (respectively, 0%-13.5%, and 0%-11.1%). Regarding immediate oncologic outcomes, respectively among robotic and laparoscopic cases, positive circumferential margins varied from 0% to 7.5%, and from 0% to 8.8%; the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was between 10 and 20, and between 11 and 21; and the mean distal resection margin was from 0.8 to 4.7 cm, and from 1.9 to 4.5 cm. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is being undertaken by experienced surgeons. However, the quality of the assembled evidence does not support definite conclusions about most studies variables. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is associated to increased costs and operating time. It also seems to be

  14. Initial Experiments with the Leap Motion as a User Interface in Robotic Endonasal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglini, T A; Swaney, P J; Weaver, Kyle D; Webster, R J

    The Leap Motion controller is a low-cost, optically-based hand tracking system that has recently been introduced on the consumer market. Prior studies have investigated its precision and accuracy, toward evaluating its usefulness as a surgical robot master interface. Yet due to the diversity of potential slave robots and surgical procedures, as well as the dynamic nature of surgery, it is challenging to make general conclusions from published accuracy and precision data. Thus, our goal in this paper is to explore the use of the Leap in the specific scenario of endonasal pituitary surgery. We use it to control a concentric tube continuum robot in a phantom study, and compare user performance using the Leap to previously published results using the Phantom Omni. We find that the users were able to achieve nearly identical average resection percentage and overall surgical duration with the Leap.

  15. Initial Experiments with the Leap Motion as a User Interface in Robotic Endonasal Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglini, T. A.; Swaney, P. J.; Weaver, Kyle D.; Webster, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Leap Motion controller is a low-cost, optically-based hand tracking system that has recently been introduced on the consumer market. Prior studies have investigated its precision and accuracy, toward evaluating its usefulness as a surgical robot master interface. Yet due to the diversity of potential slave robots and surgical procedures, as well as the dynamic nature of surgery, it is challenging to make general conclusions from published accuracy and precision data. Thus, our goal in this paper is to explore the use of the Leap in the specific scenario of endonasal pituitary surgery. We use it to control a concentric tube continuum robot in a phantom study, and compare user performance using the Leap to previously published results using the Phantom Omni. We find that the users were able to achieve nearly identical average resection percentage and overall surgical duration with the Leap. PMID:26752501

  16. Clinical validation of synthetic brain MRI in children: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Hollie; Leach, James L.; Jones, Blaise V.; Care, Marguerite; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Merrow, Arnold C.; Alvarado, Enrique; Serai, Suraj D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of synthetic MR sequences generated through post-acquisition processing of a single sequence measuring inherent R1, R2, and PD tissue properties compared with sequences acquired conventionally as part of a routine clinical pediatric brain MR exam. Thirty-two patients underwent routine clinical brain MRI with conventional and synthetic sequences acquired (22 abnormal). Synthetic axial T1, T2, and T2 fluid attenuation inversion recovery or proton density-weighted sequences were made to match the comparable clinical sequences. Two exams for each patient were de-identified. Four blinded reviewers reviewed eight patients and were asked to generate clinical reports on each exam (synthetic or conventional) at two different time points separated by a mean of 33 days. Exams were rated for overall and specific finding agreement (synthetic/conventional and compared to gold standard consensus review by two senior reviewers with knowledge of clinical report), quality, and diagnostic confidence. Overall agreement between conventional and synthetic exams was 97%. Agreement with consensus readings was 84% (conventional) and 81% (synthetic), p = 0.61. There were no significant differences in sensitivity, specificity, or accuracy for specific imaging findings involving the ventricles, CSF, brain parenchyma, or vasculature between synthetic or conventional exams (p > 0.05). No significant difference in exam quality, diagnostic confidence, or noise/artifacts was noted comparing studies with synthetic or conventional sequences. Diagnostic accuracy and quality of synthetically generated sequences are comparable to conventionally acquired sequences as part of a standard pediatric brain exam. Further confirmation in a larger study is warranted. (orig.)

  17. Clinical validation of synthetic brain MRI in children: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Hollie; Leach, James L.; Jones, Blaise V.; Care, Marguerite; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Merrow, Arnold C.; Alvarado, Enrique; Serai, Suraj D. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of synthetic MR sequences generated through post-acquisition processing of a single sequence measuring inherent R1, R2, and PD tissue properties compared with sequences acquired conventionally as part of a routine clinical pediatric brain MR exam. Thirty-two patients underwent routine clinical brain MRI with conventional and synthetic sequences acquired (22 abnormal). Synthetic axial T1, T2, and T2 fluid attenuation inversion recovery or proton density-weighted sequences were made to match the comparable clinical sequences. Two exams for each patient were de-identified. Four blinded reviewers reviewed eight patients and were asked to generate clinical reports on each exam (synthetic or conventional) at two different time points separated by a mean of 33 days. Exams were rated for overall and specific finding agreement (synthetic/conventional and compared to gold standard consensus review by two senior reviewers with knowledge of clinical report), quality, and diagnostic confidence. Overall agreement between conventional and synthetic exams was 97%. Agreement with consensus readings was 84% (conventional) and 81% (synthetic), p = 0.61. There were no significant differences in sensitivity, specificity, or accuracy for specific imaging findings involving the ventricles, CSF, brain parenchyma, or vasculature between synthetic or conventional exams (p > 0.05). No significant difference in exam quality, diagnostic confidence, or noise/artifacts was noted comparing studies with synthetic or conventional sequences. Diagnostic accuracy and quality of synthetically generated sequences are comparable to conventionally acquired sequences as part of a standard pediatric brain exam. Further confirmation in a larger study is warranted. (orig.)

  18. Clinical outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for transverse and descending colon cancers in a community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takeru; Fujita, Hirofumi; Kunimoto, Yukihiro; Kimura, Taisei; Hayashi, Tomomi; Maeda, Toshiyuki; Yamakawa, Junichi; Mizumoto, Takuya; Ogino, Kazunori

    2013-08-01

    The feasibility, safety and oncological outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for transverse and descending colon cancers in a community hospital setting were evaluated. Twenty-six patients with transverse or descending colon cancers who underwent laparoscopic surgery at our hospital were included in this retrospective analysis (group A). Their outcomes were compared with those of 71 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer at other tumor sites (group B). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of operative time, estimated blood loss, postoperative hospital stay and morbidity rate. Extended lymphadenectomy was performed more frequently and the number of harvested lymph nodes was significantly higher in group B than in group A. However, no recurrence developed in group A, while recurrence occurred in four patients from group B. The 3-year disease-free survival rates were 100% for group A and 93.5% for group B. The 3-year overall survival rates were 100% for group A and 91.6% for group B. Laparoscopic surgery for transverse and descending colon cancers can be performed safely with oncological validity in a community hospital setting, provided there is careful selection of the patients and adequate lymphadenectomy considering the clinical stage of their disease. © 2013 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Lateral Transorbital Endoscopic Access to the Hippocampus, Amygdala, and Entorhinal Cortex: Initial Clinical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H Isaac; Bohman, Leif-Erik; Emery, Lyndsey; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Richardson, Andrew G; Davis, Kathryn A; Pollard, John R; Litt, Brian; Gausas, Roberta E; Lucas, Timothy H

    2015-01-01

    Transorbital approaches traditionally have focused on skull base and cavernous sinus lesions medial to the globe. Lateral orbital approaches to the temporal lobe have not been widely explored despite several theoretical advantages compared to open craniotomy. Recently, we demonstrated the feasibility of the lateral transorbital technique in cadaveric specimens with endoscopic visualization. We describe our initial clinical experience with the endoscope-assisted lateral transorbital approach to lesions in the temporal lobe. Two patients with mesial temporal lobe pathology presenting with seizures underwent surgery. The use of a transpalpebral or Stallard-Wright eyebrow incision enabled access to the intraorbital compartment, and a lateral orbital wall 'keyhole' opening permitted visualization of the anterior temporal pole. This approach afforded adequate access to the surgical target and surrounding structures and was well tolerated by the patients. To the best of our knowledge, this report constitutes the first case series describing the endoscope-assisted lateral transorbital approach to the temporal lobe. We discuss the limits of exposure, the nuances of opening and closing, and comparisons to open craniotomy. Further prospective investigation of this approach is warranted for comparison to traditional approaches to the mesial temporal lobe. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Surgery for vertigo: 10-year audit from a contemporary vertigo clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, U; Srivastava, A; Sikka, K; Thakar, A

    2015-12-01

    To present the profile of patients undergoing surgical treatment for vertigo at a contemporary institutional vertigo clinic. A retrospective analysis of clinical charts. The charts of 1060 patients, referred to an institutional vertigo clinic from January 2003 to December 2012, were studied. The clinical profile and long-term outcomes of patients who underwent surgery were analysed. Of 1060 patients, 12 (1.13 per cent) were managed surgically. Of these, disease-modifying surgical procedures included perilymphatic fistula repair (n = 7) and microvascular decompression of the vestibular nerve (n = 1). Labyrinth destructive procedures included transmastoid labyrinthectomy (n = 2) and labyrinthectomy with vestibular nerve section (n = 1). One patient with vestibular schwannoma underwent both a disease-modifying and destructive procedure (translabyrinthine excision). All patients achieved excellent vertigo control, classified as per the American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 1995 criteria. With the advent of intratympanic treatments, surgical treatments for vertigo have become further limited. However, surgery with directed intent, in select patients, can give excellent results.

  1. Causes of Ocular Surgery Cancellation and the Need of Anesthesia Preoperative Medicine Clinic (APMC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, Rehan Moinuddin; Al-Yafi, A.; Malak, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the causes of cancellation rate of elective ocular surgeries in our tertiary care center and to analyze the need of Anesthesia Preoperative Medicine Clinic (APMC). We conducted a prospective study from January 21, 2006 till 30 June, 2006 at King Fahd Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The selected patients for the surgery have gone through pre operative investigations including CBC, Random blood sugar, coagulation profile, renal function tests, urea and electrolytes, IOL calculation and their medical condition assessment for the chronic disease. Study was conducted on 240 patients from whom 180 were adults and 60 were pediatrics. Out of 240 patients, 45 patients were cancelled in which 40 were adults and 5 were pediatric patients. In 45 patients 23 were male and 22 were female having a ratio of 1:1. Age was ranging from one year to 60+ an average of 58 years. Surgeries include was anterior segment, pediatric, retinal and oculoplastic. All these patients 45/240 were postponed at a percentage of 19%. The causes of cancellation were, improper control of diabetes, poor control of hypertension, cardiac problem, chest infection or influenza in children, overburden list and miscellaneous. All these patients were cancelled by anesthesia (28 patients), by surgeon (9 patients) and medical team (8 patients) in the ward as the patients were at high risk for the surgeries. So the reason in maximum patient was lack of anesthesia preoperative medicine clinic. The number of cancellation of ocular surgery can be minimized by proper assessment of the patient at anesthesia pre-operative medicine clinic (APMC). (author)

  2. Octogenarians' post-acute care use after cardiac valve surgery and recovery: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Elizabeth; Dolansky, Mary A; Zullo, Melissa; Forman, Daniel E

    2017-12-21

    Octogenarians receiving cardiac valve surgery is increasing and recovery is challenging. Post-acute care (PAC) services assist with recovery, yet services provided in facilities do not provide adequate cardiac-focused care or long-term self-management support. The purpose of the paper was to report post-acute care discharge rates in octogenarians and propose clinical implications to improve PAC services. Using a 2003 Medicare Part A database, we studied post-acute care service use in octogenarians after cardiac valve surgery. We propose expansion of the Geriatric Cardiac Care model to include broader clinical therapy dynamics. The sample (n = 10,062) included patients over 80 years discharged from acute care following valve surgery. Post-acute care services were used by 68% of octagarians following cardiac valve surgery (1% intermediate rehabilitation, 35% skilled nursing facility, 32% home health). The large percentage of octagarians using PAC point to the importance of integrating geriatric cardiac care into post-acute services to optimize recovery outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Clinical Prediction Model for Postcardiac Surgery Atrial Fibrillation in an Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Weiling; Chew, Sophia T H; Shen, Liang; Ti, Lian Kah

    2016-08-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization. Current prediction models for postoperative AF are based primarily on Western populations. In this study, we sought to develop a clinical prediction rule for postcardiac surgery AF for a multiethnic Asian population. Two thousand one hundred sixty-eight patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft or valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were prospectively enrolled in this observational study between August 2008 and July 2012 at Singapore's 2 national heart centers. Postoperative AF was defined as an irregularly irregular electrocardiogram rhythm without identifiable P wave after surgery and before hospital discharge that lasted more than an hour, or affected hemodynamics (ie, systolic blood pressure 120 minutes (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.47-2.52, P Chinese ethnicity (Chinese versus Indian OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.28-3.41, P = 0.003) or Malay (Malay versus Indian OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.36-4.05, P = 0.002) to be independently associated with postoperative AF. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of the model was 0.704 (95% CI, 0.674-0.734). Internal validation produced an area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of 0.756 (95% CI, 0.690-0.821). Clinical risk factors for AF after cardiac surgery in an Asian population are similar to that reported from primarily Western populations, but specific ethnicity influences susceptibility.

  4. Clinical audit in dentistry: From a concept to an initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchetha N Malleshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical audit is a quality improvement process that aims to improve patient care through a systematic review of care against explicit criteria. It is a cyclic and multidisciplinary process which involves a series of steps from planning the audit through measuring the performance to implementing and sustaining the change. Although audit contains some facets of research, it is essential to understand the difference between the two. Auditing can be done right from the record maintaining, diagnosis and treatment and postoperative evaluation and follow-up. The immense potential of clinical audit can be utilized only when open-mindedness and innovativeness are encouraged and evidence-based work culture is cultivated.

  5. [Stumbling-blocks: initiating a psychosomatic pain clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, S; Lieberz, K

    2000-12-01

    Despite psychosocial factors playing an important role in the course of chronic pain disorder, there is a noticeable imbalance between demand and availability of psychosomatic care for these patients. This led us to establish a psychosomatic pain clinic within the framework of our outpatient clinic at the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy at the Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany. A recent study aimed at the evaluation of sociodemographic variables, state of chronification, symptom load and psychiatric comorbidity. Additionally we wanted to determine whether existing conditions at our hospital can be considered suitable for those patients. During the clinic's first year we assessed 40 consecutive patients based on a psychosomatic interview as well as a set of psychometric questionnaires (BDI, STAI, SCL-90-R). To detect differences between pain patients and psychotherapy inpatients, we compared the two groups in terms of sociodemographic variables and symptom load. Most pain patients were in advanced states of chronification, showing extensive psychiatric comorbidity, particularly anxiety and depressive syndromes. Drug addiction was found more infrequently. Use of the before mentioned questionnaires prevented us from underestimating existing anxiety syndromes. Pain patients differed substantially from psychotherapy inpatients in terms of age, education, family status and symptom load. Our examination routine effectively demonstrated the special needs of chronic pain patients. As there is significant demand for psychosomatic intervention in those patients, earlier referral appears highly desirable. As pain patients differ also greatly from the remaining hospital population, specialized therapeutic concepts must be developed.

  6. Robotic Laparoendoscopic Single-site Retroperitioneal Renal Surgery: Initial Investigation of a Purpose-built Single-port Surgical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Matthew J; Ramirez, Daniel; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2017-04-01

    Robotic single-site retroperitoneal renal surgery has the potential to minimize the morbidity of standard transperitoneal and multiport approaches. Traditionally, technological limitations of non-purpose-built robotic platforms have hindered the application of this approach. To assess the feasibility of retroperitoneal renal surgery using a new purpose-built robotic single-port surgical system. This was a preclinical study using three male cadavers to assess the feasibility of the da Vinci SP1098 surgical system for robotic laparoendoscopic single-site (R-LESS) retroperitoneal renal surgery. We used the SP1098 to perform retroperitoneal R-LESS radical nephrectomy (n=1) and bilateral partial nephrectomy (n=4) on the anterior and posterior surfaces of the kidney. Improvements unique to this system include enhanced optics and intelligent instrument arm control. Access was obtained 2cm anterior and inferior to the tip of the 12th rib using a novel 2.5-cm robotic single-port system that accommodates three double-jointed articulating robotic instruments, an articulating camera, and an assistant port. The primary outcome was the technical feasibility of the procedures, as measured by the need for conversion to standard techniques, intraoperative complications, and operative times. All cases were completed without the need for conversion. There were no intraoperative complications. The operative time was 100min for radical nephrectomy, and the mean operative time was 91.8±18.5min for partial nephrectomy. Limitations include the preclinical model, the small sample size, and the lack of a control group. Single-site retroperitoneal renal surgery is feasible using the latest-generation SP1098 robotic platform. While the potential of the SP1098 appears promising, further study is needed for clinical evaluation of this investigational technology. In an experimental model, we used a new robotic system to successfully perform major surgery on the kidney through a single small

  7. Open-Lung Ventilation Improves Clinical Outcomes in Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Douglas W; Trimer, Renata; Begot, Isis; Nasrala, Mara L S; Forestieri, Patricia; Mendez, Vanessa M F; Arena, Ross; Gomes, Walter J; Guizilini, Solange

    2016-06-01

    To compare pulmonary function, functional capacity, and clinical outcomes among conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV), early open-lung (EOL), and late open-lung (LOL) strategies after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB). Prospective, randomized, and double-blinded study. Two hospitals of the Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Ninety-three patients undergoing elective first-time OPCAB. Patients were randomized into 3 groups: CMV (n=31); LOL (n=32) initiated upon intensive care unit (ICU) arrival; EOL (n = 30) initiated after intubation. Spirometry was performed at bedside preoperatively and on postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, and 5. Partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) and pulmonary shunt fraction were evaluated presurgically and on POD 1; 6-minute walk test (6MWT) was performed presurgically and on POD 5. Both open-lung groups demonstrated higher forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second on PODs 1, 3 and 5 compared to the CMV group (pLOL groups were compared. Both open-lung strategies were able to promote higher pulmonary function preservation and greater recovery of functional capacity with better clinical outcomes after OPCAB. No difference in outcome was found when comparing initiation of OLS intraoperatively or after ICU arrival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Review of Current Clinical Applications of Three-Dimensional Printing in Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woojin; Job, Alan Varkey; Chen, Jing; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2018-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a transformative technology with a potentially wide range of applications in the field of orthopaedic spine surgery. This article aims to review the current applications, limitations, and future developments of 3D printing technology in orthopaedic spine surgery. Current preoperative applications of 3D printing include construction of complex 3D anatomic models for improved visual understanding, preoperative surgical planning, and surgical simulations for resident education. Intraoperatively, 3D printers have been successfully used in surgical guidance systems and in the creation of patient specific implantable devices. Furthermore, 3D printing is revolutionizing the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, allowing construction of biocompatible scaffolds suitable for cell growth and vasculature. Advances in printing technology and evidence of positive clinical outcomes are needed before there is an expansion of 3D printing applied to the clinical setting.

  9. [Clinical safety and professional liability claims in Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bori, G; Gómez-Durán, E L; Combalia, A; Trilla, A; Prat, A; Bruguera, M; Arimany-Manso, J

    2016-01-01

    The specialist in orthopaedic and traumatological surgery, like any other doctor, is subject to the current legal provisions while exercising their profession. Mandatory training in the medical-legal aspects of health care is essential. Claims against doctors are a reality, and orthopaedic and traumatological surgery holds first place in terms of frequency of claims according to the data from the General Council of Official Colleges of Doctors of Catalonia. Professionals must be aware of the fundamental aspects of medical professional liability, as well as specific aspects, such as defensive medicine and clinical safety. The understanding of these medical-legal aspects in the routine clinical practice can help to pave the way towards a satisfactory and safe professional career. The aim of this review is to contribute to this training, for the benefit of professionals and patients. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT): initial experience in a clinical setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaane, Per; Gullien, Randi; Eben, Ellen B.; Haakenaasen, Unni; Naess Jebsen, Ingvild; Krager, Mona; Bjoerndal, Hilde; Ekseth, Ulrika; Jahr, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a promising new technology. Some experimental clinical studies have shown positive results, but the future role and indications of this new technique, whether in a screening or clinical setting, need to be evaluated. Purpose: To compare digital mammography and DBT in a side-by-side feature analysis for cancer conspicuity, and to assess whether there is a potential additional value of DBT to standard state-of-the-art conventional imaging work-up with respect to detection of additional malignancies. Material and Methods: The study had ethics committee approval. A total of 129 women underwent 2D digital mammography including supplementary cone-down and magnification views and breast ultrasonography if indicated, as well as digital breast tomosynthesis. The indication for conventional imaging in the clinical setting included a palpable lump in 30 (23%), abnormal mammographic screening findings in 54 (42%), and surveillance in 45 (35%) of the women. The women were examined according to present guidelines, including spot-magnification views, ultrasonography, and needle biopsies, if indicated. The DBT examinations were interpreted several weeks after the conventional imaging without knowledge of the conventional imaging findings. In a later session, three radiologists performed a side-by-side feature analysis for cancer conspicuity in a sample of 50 cases. Results: State-of-the-art conventional imaging resulted in needle biopsy of 45 breasts, of which 20 lesions were benign and a total of 25 cancers were diagnosed. The remaining 84 women were dismissed with a normal/definitely benign finding and without indication for needle biopsy. The subsequent DBT interpretation found suspicious findings in four of these 84 women, and these four women had to be called back for repeated work-up with knowledge of the tomosynthesis findings. These delayed work-ups resulted in two cancers (increasing the cancer detection by 8%) and two

  11. Increasing medical student exposure to musculoskeletal medicine: the initial impact of the Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine Interest Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickelson DT

    2017-07-01

    . Surgical interest groups should target both the students interested in primary care and surgery. Medical schools can provide additional exposure to MSK medicine by leveraging interest groups that provide early clinical experiences and supplementary instruction. Keywords: musculoskeletal education, medical education, supplemental experience, student teaching

  12. Radiologic and clinical observation of tuberculous cavity in initial treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Jin Do

    1986-01-01

    Tuberculous cavity is important in diagnosis and observation in the course of pulmonary tuberculosis. Author analyzed the radiologic findings of cavity and average months of negative conversion in AFB culture in 89 cases of initial treatment. The results were as follows: 1. The more number of cavities, the longer period in negative conversion of AFB culture. 2. No relation between sums of diameter and thickness of cavity and average months of negative conversion in AFB culture. 3. In the cases of cavity with air-fluid level took longer period in negative conversion og AFB culture than those of cavity without air-fluid level, significantly. 4. No relation between radiologic findings of cavity and results of chemotherapy for pulmonary tuberculosis.

  13. STUDY OF CLINICAL OUTCOMES OF SUBFASCIAL PERFORATOR LIGATION SURGERY IN PERFORATOR INCOMPETENCE

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    Vasuki Rajam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic venous insufficiency presents with a spectrum of clinical features ranging from pain or heaviness of affected limbs to non-healing ulcers over the lower limbs and usually require some form of surgical intervention, performing direct perforator vein division preferably by subfascial endoscopic perforator ligation surgery for perforator incompetence, as despite aggressive conservative therapy including compression, lifestyle modification and venotonic medications which are of high cost treatment with increased risk of increasing symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective longitudinal clinical study of 30 patients selected by systematic sampling method from November 2014 to September 2015 at our institution was conducted to determine the results of subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery (SEPS in perforator incompetence. RESULTS For venous clinical severity scoring pre operatively and after 3 weeks post-surgery, the mean for VCSS pre-operatively was 6.66 and a standard deviation of 2.399. The T value was calculated and was found to be 4.9321 and p value of 0.00001(p value less than 0.05 is significant. Similarly for the cases with active ulcer, the size assessment pre-operatively and post-SEPS was again analysed using student t test and the mean ulcer size prior to surgery was found to be 3.3 and standard deviation of 1.984. The T value was calculated and was found to be 1.789009 and a p value of 0.04 (p value less than 0.05 is significant. CONCLUSION Our study concluded that favourable and significant ulcer healing rate with improvement and reduction in clinical severity suggests that SEPS plays an important role in surgical management of advanced stages of venous insufficiency.

  14. Initial experience with golimumab in clinical practice for ulcerative colitis

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    Luisa Castro-Laria

    Full Text Available Background: Golimumab is a TNF-blocking agent indicated as a second-line therapy in ulcerative colitis. Purpose: To research the effectiveness and safety of golimumab in patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical practice. Methods: Retrospective study of the effectiveness and safety of golimumab in patients with ulcerative colitis. All patients received golimumab 200 mg subcutaneously at week 0, and golimumab 100 mg subcutaneously at week 2. After the induction treatment, each patient received 50 mg sc. every 4 weeks in patients with body weight less than 80 kg, and 100 mg every 4 weeks in patients with body weight greater than or equal to 80 kg. Results: Study of a group of 23 ulcerative colitis patients, 7 of whom were naive to any anti-TNF therapy, and 16 patients who had previously been treated with an anti-TNF agent other than golimumab (non-naive patients. The average treatment time with golimumab was 14.3 weeks. Globally, withdrawal of corticosteroids was observed in 74% of cases. Clinical response was observed in 85.5% of patients who had not received biological treatment previously, and in patients who had previously received biological treatment the response rate was 75%. Conclusions: In this short study, golimumab seems to be an alternative treatment in naive and non-naive anti-TNF ulcerative colitis patients. It is also a safe therapy, given that there were no adverse effects in the patients studied.

  15. Initial Surgical Experience with Aortic Valve Repair: Clinical and Echocardiographic Results

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    Francisco Diniz Affonso da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Due to late complications associated with the use of conventional prosthetic heart valves, several centers have advocated aortic valve repair and/or valve sparing aortic root replacement for patients with aortic valve insufficiency, in order to enhance late survival and minimize adverse postoperative events. Methods: From March/2012 thru March 2015, 37 patients consecutively underwent conservative operations of the aortic valve and/or aortic root. Mean age was 48±16 years and 81% were males. The aortic valve was bicuspid in 54% and tricuspid in the remaining. All were operated with the aid of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Surgical techniques consisted of replacing the aortic root with a Dacron graft whenever it was dilated or aneurysmatic, using either the remodeling or the reimplantation technique, besides correcting leaflet prolapse when present. Patients were sequentially evaluated with clinical and echocardiographic studies and mean follow-up time was 16±5 months. Results: Thirty-day mortality was 2.7%. In addition there were two late deaths, with late survival being 85% (CI 95% - 68%-95% at two years. Two patients were reoperated due to primary structural valve failure. Freedom from reoperation or from primary structural valve failure was 90% (CI 95% - 66%-97% and 91% (CI 95% - 69%-97% at 2 years, respectively. During clinical follow-up up to 3 years, there were no cases of thromboembolism, hemorrhage or endocarditis. Conclusions: Although this represents an initial series, these data demonstrates that aortic valve repair and/or valve sparing aortic root surgery can be performed with satisfactory immediate and short-term results.

  16. Oral nutrition or water loading before hip replacement surgery; a randomized clinical trial

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    Ljunggren Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery induces insulin resistance that might be alleviated by a nutritional drink given preoperatively. The authors hypothesized that some of the beneficial effects of the drink could be attributed to the volume component (approximately 1 L rather than to the nutrients. Methods Sixty patients scheduled for elective total hip replacement under spinal anesthesia were recruited to a clinical trial, and randomly allocated to preoperative fasting, to oral ingestion of tap water, or to oral ingestion of a carbohydrate drink. An intravenous glucose tolerance test calculated glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity on the day before surgery, in the postoperative ward, and on the day after surgery. Other parameters were stress (cortisol in plasma and urine, muscle catabolism (urinary 3-methylhistidine, and wellbeing. Results Fifty-seven patients completed the study. In the postoperative ward, the glucose clearance and the insulin response had decreased from the previous day by 23% and 36%, respectively. Insulin sensitivity did not decrease until the next morning (−48% and was due to an increased insulin response (+51%. Cortisol excretion was highest on the day of surgery, while 3-methylhistidine increased 1 day later. Follow-up on the third postoperative day showed an average of 1.5 complications per patient. Wellbeing was better 2 weeks after than before the surgery. None of the measured parameters differed significantly between the study groups. Conclusions Preoperative ingestion of tap water or a nutritional drink had no statistically significant effect on glucose clearance, insulin sensitivity, postoperative complications, or wellbeing in patients undergoing elective hip surgery. Trial registration Registration number: NCT 01211184 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov

  17. Incidence, predictive factors, and clinical outcomes of acute kidney injury after gastric surgery for gastric cancer.

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    Chang Seong Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI, a serious surgical complication, is common after cardiac surgery; however, reports on AKI after noncardiac surgery are limited. We sought to determine the incidence and predictive factors of AKI after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and its effects on the clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 4718 patients with normal renal function who underwent partial or total gastrectomy for gastric cancer between June 2002 and December 2011. Postoperative AKI was defined by serum creatinine change, as per the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guideline. RESULTS: Of the 4718 patients, 679 (14.4% developed AKI. Length of hospital stay, intensive care unit admission rates, and in-hospital mortality rate (3.5% versus 0.2% were significantly higher in patients with AKI than in those without. AKI was also associated with requirement of renal replacement therapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that male gender; hypertension; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; hypoalbuminemia (<4 g/dl; use of diuretics, vasopressors, and contrast agents; and packed red blood cell transfusion were independent predictors for AKI after gastric surgery. Postoperative AKI and vasopressor use entailed a high risk of 3-month mortality after multiple adjustments. CONCLUSIONS: AKI was common after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and associated with adverse outcomes. We identified several factors associated with postoperative AKI; recognition of these predictive factors may help reduce the incidence of AKI after gastric surgery. Furthermore, postoperative AKI in patients with gastric cancer is an important risk factor for short-term mortality.

  18. Oral nutrition or water loading before hip replacement surgery; a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljunggren, Stefan; Hahn, Robert G

    2012-07-02

    Surgery induces insulin resistance that might be alleviated by a nutritional drink given preoperatively. The authors hypothesized that some of the beneficial effects of the drink could be attributed to the volume component (approximately 1 L) rather than to the nutrients. Sixty patients scheduled for elective total hip replacement under spinal anesthesia were recruited to a clinical trial, and randomly allocated to preoperative fasting, to oral ingestion of tap water, or to oral ingestion of a carbohydrate drink. An intravenous glucose tolerance test calculated glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity on the day before surgery, in the postoperative ward, and on the day after surgery. Other parameters were stress (cortisol in plasma and urine), muscle catabolism (urinary 3-methylhistidine), and wellbeing. Fifty-seven patients completed the study. In the postoperative ward, the glucose clearance and the insulin response had decreased from the previous day by 23% and 36%, respectively. Insulin sensitivity did not decrease until the next morning (-48%) and was due to an increased insulin response (+51%). Cortisol excretion was highest on the day of surgery, while 3-methylhistidine increased 1 day later. Follow-up on the third postoperative day showed an average of 1.5 complications per patient. Wellbeing was better 2 weeks after than before the surgery. None of the measured parameters differed significantly between the study groups. Preoperative ingestion of tap water or a nutritional drink had no statistically significant effect on glucose clearance, insulin sensitivity, postoperative complications, or wellbeing in patients undergoing elective hip surgery.

  19. Breast MR imaging for the assessment of residual disease following initial surgery for breast cancer with positive margins

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    Krammer, Julia [University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast Imaging Section, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Price, Elissa R. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Division of Women' s Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jochelson, Maxine S.; Watson, Elizabeth; Morris, Elizabeth A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast Imaging Section, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Murray, Melissa P. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    To determine the accuracy of post-operative MR in predicting residual disease in women with positive margins, emphasizing the size thresholds at which residual disease can be confidently identified. This IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study included 175 patients with MR after positive margins following initial surgery for breast cancer. Two expert readers independently re-evaluated MR images for evidence of residual disease at the surgical cavity and multifocal/multicentric disease. All patients underwent definitive surgery and MR findings were correlated to histopathology. 139/175 (79.4%) patients had residual disease at surgery. Average overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for residual disease at the surgical cavity were 73%, 72%, 91% and 45%, respectively. The readers identified 42/45 (93%, reader 1) and 43/45 (95%, reader 2) patients with residual invasive disease at the cavity of ≥5 mm and 22/22 (100%, both readers) patients with disease ≥10 mm. Average sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for unknown multifocal/multicentric disease were 90%, 96%, 93% and 86%, respectively. Post-operative breast MR can accurately depict ≥5-mm residual disease at the surgical cavity and unsuspected multifocal/multicentric disease. These findings have the potential to lead to more appropriate selection of second surgical procedures in women with positive margins. (orig.)

  20. Breast MR imaging for the assessment of residual disease following initial surgery for breast cancer with positive margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, Julia; Price, Elissa R.; Jochelson, Maxine S.; Watson, Elizabeth; Morris, Elizabeth A.; Murray, Melissa P.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of post-operative MR in predicting residual disease in women with positive margins, emphasizing the size thresholds at which residual disease can be confidently identified. This IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study included 175 patients with MR after positive margins following initial surgery for breast cancer. Two expert readers independently re-evaluated MR images for evidence of residual disease at the surgical cavity and multifocal/multicentric disease. All patients underwent definitive surgery and MR findings were correlated to histopathology. 139/175 (79.4%) patients had residual disease at surgery. Average overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for residual disease at the surgical cavity were 73%, 72%, 91% and 45%, respectively. The readers identified 42/45 (93%, reader 1) and 43/45 (95%, reader 2) patients with residual invasive disease at the cavity of ≥5 mm and 22/22 (100%, both readers) patients with disease ≥10 mm. Average sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for unknown multifocal/multicentric disease were 90%, 96%, 93% and 86%, respectively. Post-operative breast MR can accurately depict ≥5-mm residual disease at the surgical cavity and unsuspected multifocal/multicentric disease. These findings have the potential to lead to more appropriate selection of second surgical procedures in women with positive margins. (orig.)

  1. Clinical application of 3D computer simulation for upper limb surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Tsuyoshi; Moritomo, Hisao; Oka, Kunihiro; Arimitsu, Sayuri; Shimada, Kozo

    2008-01-01

    To perform precise orthopaedic surgery, we have been developing a surgical method using a custom-made surgical device designed based on preoperative three-dimensional computer simulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary results of its clinical application for corrective osteotomy of the upper extremity. Twenty patients with long bone deformities of the upper extremities (four cubitus varus deformities, nine malunited forearm fractures, six malunited distal radial fractures and one congenital deformity of the forearm) participated in this study. Three-dimensional computer models of the affected bone and the contralateral normal bone were constructed from computed tomography data. By comparing these models, the three-dimensional deformity axis and the accurate amount of deformity around it were quantified. Three-dimensional deformity correction was then simulated. A custom-made osteotomy template was designed and manufactured as a real plastic model aiming to reproduce the preoperative simulation in the actual operation. In the operation, we put the template on the bone surface, cut the bone through a slit on the template, and corrected the deformity as preoperatively simulated, followed by internal fixation. Radiographic and clinical evaluations were made in all cases before surgery and at the most recent follow-up. Corrective osteotomy was achieved as simulated in all cases. All patients had bone fusion within six months. Regarding the cubitus varus deformity, the average carrying angle and tilting angle were 5deg and 28deg after surgery. For malunited forearm fractures, angular deformities on radiographs were nearly nonexistent after surgery. All radiographic parameters in malunited distal radius fractures were normalized. The range of forearm rotation in cases of forearm malunion and that of wrist flexion-extension in cases of malunited distal radius improved after surgery. (author)

  2. Initial clinical outcomes of proton beam radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeong Il; Yoo, Gyu Sang; Cho, Sungkoo; Jung, Sang Hoon; Han, Youngyih; Park, Seyjoon; Lee, Boram; Kang, Wonseok; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Paik, Yong-Han; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon; Park, Hee Chul

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the initial outcomes of proton beam therapy (PBT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in terms of tumor response and safety. HCC patients who were not indicated for standard curative local modalities and who were treated with PBT at Samsung Medical Center from January 2016 to February 2017 were enrolled. Toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0. Tumor response was evaluated using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST). A total of 101 HCC patients treated with PBT were included. Patients were treated with an equivalent dose of 62-92 GyE 10 . Liver function status was not significantly affected after PBT. Greater than 80% of patients had Child-Pugh class A and albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade 1 up to 3-months after PBT. Of 78 patients followed for three months after PBT, infield complete and partial responses were achieved in 54 (69.2%) and 14 (17.9%) patients, respectively. PBT treatment of HCC patients showed a favorable infield complete response rate of 69.2% with acceptable acute toxicity. An additional follow-up study of these patients will be conducted.

  3. Evaluation of Preemptive Use of Analgesia of The Skin, Before and After Lower Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kashefi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perioperative pain is prevalent and poorly treated. Apart from that it makes the recovery from surgery unpleasent, pain often remains as a residual side effect of surgery, even though the tissue healing is complete. An essential observation is that tissue injury and the resulting nociceptor barrage initiates a cascade of events that can indelibly alter pain perception. Preemptive analgesia is the concept of initiating analgesic therapy before the onset of the noxious stimulus so as to prevent the nociceptor barrage and its consequences. However, anticipated clinical potency of preemptive analgesia, though has firmly grounded in the neurobiology of pain, has not been yet realized. As data accumulates, it has become clear that clinical studies emulating those from the laboratory and designed around a relatively narrow definition of preemptive analgesia have been largely unsupportive of its use. Nevertheless, preemptive analgesic interventions that recognize the intensity, duration, and somatotopic extent of major surgery can help reduce perioperative pain and its longer-term sequelae. surgeons spend a lot of time treating the pain of lower abdominal surgery. Methods: A total number of 48 consecutive patients who were going to undergo elective lower abdominal surgery. Were randomly assigned in two groups of 24 each. In one group the patients received an injection of 0.5 % bupivacaine in the planned skin for incision just before lower abdominal surgery, and in the other group, they received an equal amount of 0.5% bupivacaine after the surgery had been done. Pain was objectified by a numerical visual pain score, in the 24 hours following the lower abdominal surgery. Results: There were no differences in postoperative pain scores on the visual analog scale (VAS: In groups 1and 2, VAS at hour 4 were 6.37±1.13 versus 6.29±1.19; At hour 8 were 5.54 ± 1.17 versus 5.37±1.09; and at hour 12 were 4.5 ± 1.31 versus 4.45 ± 1

  4. A hand-held imaging probe for radio-guided surgery: physical performance and preliminary clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitre, S.; Menard, L.; Charon, Y.; Solal, M.; Garbay, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Improvements in the specificity of radiopharmaceutical compounds have been paralleled by an upsurge of interest in developing small detectors to assist surgeons in localizing tumour tissue during surgery. This study reports the main technical features and physical characteristics of a new hand-held gamma camera dedicated to accurate and real-time intra-operative imaging. First clinical experience is also reported. The POCI (Per-operative Compact Imager) camera consists of a head module composed of a high-resolution interchangeable lead collimator and a CsI(Na) crystal plate optically coupled to an intensified position-sensitive diode. The current prototype has a 40-mm diameter field of view, an outer diameter of 9.5 cm, a length of 9 cm and a weight of 1.2 kg. Overall detector imaging characteristics were evaluated by technetium-99m phantom measurements. Three patients with breast cancer previously scheduled to undergo sentinel lymph node detection were selected for the preliminary clinical experience. Preoperative images of the lymphatic basin obtained using the POCI camera were compared with conventional transcutaneous explorations using a non-imaging gamma probe. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) spatial resolution was investigated in both air and scattering medium; when the phantom was placed in contact with the collimator, the POCI camera exhibited a 3.2 mm FWHM. The corresponding sensitivity was 290 cps/MBq. The preliminary clinical results showed that POCI was able to predict the number and location of all SLNs. In one case, two deep radioactive nodes missed by the gamma probe were detected on the intra-operative images. This very initial experience demonstrates that the physical performance of the POCI camera is adequate for radio-guided surgery. These results are sufficiently encouraging to prompt further evaluation studies designed to determine the specific and optimal clinical role of intra-operative imaging devices

  5. Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Surgeon Diagnostic Accuracy in Facial Plastic and Oculoplastic Surgery Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Andrew W; Ishii, Lisa; Joseph, Shannon S; Smith, Jane I; Su, Peiyi; Bater, Kristin; Byrne, Patrick; Boahene, Kofi; Papel, Ira; Kontis, Theda; Douglas, Raymond; Nelson, Christine C; Ishii, Masaru

    2017-07-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relative contraindication for facial plastic surgery, but formal screening is not common in practice. The prevalence of BDD in patients seeking facial plastic surgery is not well documented. To establish the prevalence of BDD across facial plastic and oculoplastic surgery practice settings, and estimate the ability of surgeons to screen for BDD. This multicenter prospective study recruited a cohort of 597 patients who presented to academic and private facial plastic and oculoplastic surgery practices from March 2015 to February 2016. All patients were screened for BDD using the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ). After each clinical encounter, surgeons independently evaluated the likelihood that a participating patient had BDD. Validated instruments were used to assess satisfaction with facial appearance including the FACE-Q, Blepharoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (BOE), Facelift Outcomes Evaluation (FOE), Rhinoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (ROE), and Skin Rejuvenation Outcomes Evaluation (SROE). Across participating practices (9 surgeons, 3 sites), a total of 597 patients were screened for BDD: 342 patients from site 1 (mean [SD] age, 44.2 [16.5] years); 158 patients, site 2 (mean [SD] age, 46.0 [16.2] years), site 3, 97 patients (mean [SD] age, 56.3 [15.5] years). Overall, 58 patients [9.7%] screened positive for BDD by the BDDQ instrument, while only 16 of 402 patients [4.0%] were clinically suspected of BDD by surgeons. A higher percentage of patients presenting for cosmetic surgery (37 of 283 patients [13.1%]) compared with those presenting for reconstructive surgery (21 of 314 patients [6.7%]) screened positive on the BDDQ (odds ratio, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.20-3.68; P = .01). Surgeons were only able to correctly identify 2 of 43 patients (4.7%) who screened positive for BDD on the BDDQ, and the positive likelihood ratio was only 1.19 (95% CI, 0.28-5.07). Patients screening positive for BDD by the BDDQ had lower

  6. Advancing Medication Reconciliation in an Outpatient Internal Medicine Clinic through a Pharmacist-Led Educational Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Westberg, Pharm.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To develop and deliver an effective pharmacist-led educational initiative to clinic staff to advance medication reconciliation in the electronic medical record of an outpatient internal medicine clinic.Methods: An educational initiative designed to improve the ability of nursing staff in medication reconciliation was launched in the outpatient internal medicine clinic of a regional healthcare system. The education was provided by the pharmacist to clinic nursing staff, including registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and certified medical assistants. The impact of this training was measured through pre-initiation and post-implementation surveys, competency assessments and an audit. Results: The educational initiative was successfully designed and delivered to clinic nursing staff. Assessment of the initiative found that all nursing staff completing competency assessments successfully passed. Pre-initiation- and post-implementation- survey responses on the self-assessed ability to gather and document accurate medication lists did not show significant changes. Informal observations in the clinic indicated that this initiative changed the culture of the clinic, creating increased awareness of the importance of accurate medications and increased emphasis on medication reconciliation.Conclusions: The expertise of pharmacists can be utilized to educate nursing staff on the skills and abilities necessary to gather and document accurate medication lists. This study did not find measurable changes in the accuracy of medication lists in this clinic. Future research is needed to determine the best methods to train health professionals in medication reconciliation to ensure accurate medication lists in the outpatient setting.

  7. Initial Clinical Experience Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, David J.; Kessel, David O.; Nicholson, Anthony A.; Patel, Jai V.; McPherson, Simon J.; Shaw, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose. The Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) is a self-expanding nitinol wire mesh vascular embolization device derived from the Amplatz septal occluder. We assessed the results of vascular embolization obtained using the AVP. Methods. A retrospective review was carried out of 23 consecutive cases of vascular embolization using the AVP in a variety of different clinical settings. The AVP was chosen to have a diameter approximately 30-50% greater than the target vessel. The device was delivered via an appropriately sized guide catheter and was released when satisfactorily positioned. Additional embolic agents were used in some cases. Results. All target vessels were successfully occluded with no device malpositioning or malfunction. In 14 (61%) patients the AVP was the sole embolic material. In the remaining patients additional agents were used, particularly in preoperative embolization of highly vascular renal tumors. The AVP does not cause instantaneous thrombosis and in high-flow situations thrombosis typically takes up to 15 min. Conclusion. The AVP is a safe, effective embolization device that provides a useful adjunct to the therapeutic armamentarium. It is particularly suited to the treatment of short high-flow vessels where coil migration and catheter dislodgment might occur. In the majority of cases no additional embolic agents are necessary but it may take up to 15 min for complete thrombosis to occur

  8. Clinical observation on fibrin glue technique in pterygium surgery performed with limbal autograft transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the efficiency and safety of fibrin glue to suture technique in pterygium surgery performed with limbal autograft.METHODS: A prospective randomized clinical trial was carried out in 60 eyes of 48 patients operated for primary nasal pterygium. Autologous limbal graft taken from the superotemporal limbus was used to cover the sclera after pterygium excision under local anesthesia with 2% lidocaine. In 22 cases(30 eyes, the transplant was attached to the sclera with a fibrin tissue adhesive(group 1and in 26 cases(30 eyeswith 10-0 Virgin silk sutures(group 2. Patients were followed up at least for 3 months. Time of operation, matching degree of graft and visual analogue scale(VASscore were mainly observed and recorded. RESULTS: Patient symptoms were significantly less and biomicroscopic findings were better in group 1. Pterygium recurrence was seen in 1 case of group 1, and 1 case of group 2. Average surgery time was shorter(PCONCLUSION: Using fibrin glue for graft fixation in pterygium surgery causes significantly less postoperative pain and shortens surgery time significantly.

  9. [Management Competence in Leading Positions in Clinical Surgery - What Does a Surgeon Need to Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, W; Meyer, F

    2016-12-01

    Background: Surgeons, more than other specialists, are required to combine high medical expertise with management competence. This is due to changing environments, new demands with respect to quality, the ongoing discussion on increased performance in the context of questionable target agreements, an increasing tendency of university hospitals and other departments and clinics to recruit leading personnel in medicine with management competence, but also to the understanding of one's own role and surgeons' distinguished public reputation. Aim: This narrative review describes the changing environments for surgeons in leading positions in hospitals and provides an overview on the practical use of management skills in surgery. In addition, it advises on how to acquire management competence and presents an educational concept appropriate for surgeons in leading positions. Key points: 1. The management of new challenges in the healthcare system - also in clinical surgery - requires management skills, which are indispensable for a surgeon in a leading position. 2. Management skills in surgery comprise aspects such as communication ability, social competence, cooperation and leadership skills, knowledge on business administration aspects and legal certainty. 3. The necessary knowledge can be acquired in courses leading to a certificate (e.g. "MHM® Medical Hospital Manager") or by earning a "Master of Business Administration" (MBA). Conclusion: Management competence is essential in leading positions in clinical surgery today. The use of these skills is challenging in daily practice. Successfully applied, management competence not only guarantees comprehensive patient care and leadership of employees, but also provides satisfaction in leading positions of a surgical department. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Out of the shadows and 6000 reasons to celebrate: An update from FIGO's fistula surgery training initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinger, Gillian; Trautvetter, Lilli; Browning, Andrew; Rane, Ajay

    2018-06-01

    Obstetric fistula is a devastating childbirth injury caused by unrelieved obstructed labor. Obstetric fistula leads to chronic incontinence and, in most cases, significant physical and emotional suffering. The condition continues to blight the lives of 1-2 million women in low-resource settings, with 50 000-100 000 new cases each year adding to the backlog. A trained, skilled fistula surgeon is essential to repair an obstetric fistula; however, owing to a global shortage of these surgeons, few women are able to receive life-restoring treatment. In 2011, to address the treatment gap, FIGO and partners released the Global Competency-Based Fistula Surgery Training Manual, the first standardized curriculum to train fistula surgeons. To increase the number of fistula surgeons, the FIGO Fistula Surgery Training Initiative was launched in 2012, and FIGO Fellows started to enter the program to train as fistula surgeons. Following a funding boost in 2014, the initiative has grown considerably. With 52 fellows involved and a new Expert Advisory Group in place, the program is achieving major milestones, with a record-breaking number of fistula repairs performed by FIGO Fellows in 2017, bringing the total number of repairs since the start of the project to more than 6000. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  11. Initial Clinical Evaluation of the Modular Prosthetic Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana N. Perry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Modular Prosthetic Limb (MPL was examined for its feasibility and usability as an advanced, dexterous upper extremity prosthesis with surface electromyography (sEMG control in with two individuals with below-elbow amputations. Compared to currently marketed prostheses, the MPL has a greater number of sequential and simultaneous degrees of motion, as well as wrist modularity, haptic feedback, and individual digit control. The MPL was successfully fit to a 33-year-old with a trans-radial amputation (TR01 and a 30-year-old with a wrist disarticulation amputation (TR02. To preserve anatomical limb length, we adjusted the powered degrees of freedom of wrist motion between users. Motor training began with practicing sEMG and pattern recognition control within the virtual integration environment (VIE. Prosthetic training sessions then allowed participants to complete a variety of activities of daily living with the MPL. Training and Motion Control Accuracy scores quantified their ability to consistently train and execute unique muscle-to-motion contraction patterns. Each user also completed one prosthetic functional metric—the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP for TR01 and the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JHFT for TR02. Haptic feedback capabilities were integrated for TR01. TR01 achieved 95% accuracy at 84% of his VIE sessions. He demonstrated improved scores over a year of prosthetic training sessions, ultimately achieving simultaneous control of 13 of the 17 (76% attempted motions. His performance on the SHAP improved from baseline to final assessment with an increase in number of tasks achieved. TR01 also used vibrotactile sensors to successfully discriminate between hard and soft objects being grasped by the MPL hand. TR02 demonstrated 95% accuracy at 79% of his VIE sessions. He demonstrated improved scores over months of prosthetic training sessions, however there was a significant drop in scores initially following a mid

  12. Risk stratification for the development of respiratory adverse events following vascular surgery using the Society of Vascular Surgery's Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Elizabeth A; Fish, Larry; Chaer, Rabih A; Makaroun, Michel S; Baril, Donald T

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative respiratory adverse events (RAEs) are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in general surgery, however, little is known about these complications in the vascular surgery population, a frail subset with multiple comorbidities. The objective of this study was to describe the contemporary incidence of RAEs in vascular surgery patients, the risk factors for this complication, and the overall impact of RAEs on patient outcomes. The Vascular Quality Initiative was queried (2003-2014) for patients who underwent endovascular abdominal aortic repair, open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, thoracic endovascular aortic repair, suprainguinal bypass, or infrainguinal bypass. A mixed-effects logistic regression model determined the independent risk factors for RAEs. Using a random 85% of the cohort, a risk prediction score for RAEs was created, and the score was validated using the remaining 15% of the cohort, comparing the predicted to the actual incidence of RAE and determining the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The independent risk of in-hospital mortality and discharge to a nursing facility associated with RAEs was determined using a mixed-effects logistic regression to control for baseline patient characteristics, operative variables, and other postoperative adverse events. The cohort consisted of 52,562 patients, with a 5.4% incidence of RAEs. The highest rates of RAEs were seen in current smokers (6.1%), recent acute myocardial infarction (10.1%), symptomatic congestive heart failure (9.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring oxygen therapy (11.0%), urgent and emergent procedures (6.4% and 25.9%, respectively), open abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs (17.6%), in situ suprainguinal bypasses (9.68%), and thoracic endovascular aortic repairs (9.6%). The variables included in the risk prediction score were age, body mass index, smoking status, congestive heart failure severity, chronic obstructive pulmonary

  13. Clinical Outcome in Relation to Timing of Surgery in Chronic Pancreatitis : A Nomogram to Predict Pain Relief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Usama Ahmed; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; van Eijck, Casper H.; Gooszen, Hein G.; van Dam, Ronald M.; Busch, Olivier R.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Mauritz, Femke A.; Jens, Sjoerd; Mast, Jay; van Goor, Harry; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of timing of surgery on the long-term clinical outcome of surgery in chronic pancreatitis (CP). Design: Cohort study with long-term follow-up. Setting: Five specialized academic centers. Patients: Patients with CP treated surgically for pain. Interventions:

  14. Clinical outcome in relation to timing of surgery in chronic pancreatitis: a nomogram to predict pain relief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed Ali, U.; Nieuwenhuijs, V.B.; Eijck, C.H. van; Gooszen, H.G.; Dam, R.M. van; Busch, O.R.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Mauritz, F.A.; Jens, S.; Mast, J.; Goor, H. van; Boermeester, M.A.; Baal, M.C. van; Brunschot, S. van; Bouwense, S.A.W.; Schepers, N.J.; Issa, Y.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Romkens, T.E.H.; Drenth, J.P.; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of timing of surgery on the long-term clinical outcome of surgery in chronic pancreatitis (CP). DESIGN: Cohort study with long-term follow-up. SETTING: Five specialized academic centers. PATIENTS: Patients with CP treated surgically for pain. INTERVENTIONS:

  15. Clinical Outcome in Relation to Timing of Surgery in Chronic Pancreatitis A Nomogram to Predict Pain Relief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed Ali, Usama; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; van Eijck, Casper H.; Gooszen, Hein G.; van Dam, Ronald M.; Busch, Olivier R.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Mauritz, Femke A.; Jens, Sjoerd; Mast, Jay; van Goor, Harry; Boermeester, Marja A.; Gouma, D. J.; van Gulik, T. M.; van Hooft, J. E.; Fockens, P.; Voermans, R. P.; van der Schelling, G. P.; Rijk, M. C. M.; Rosman, C.; Tan, A.; de Hingh, I. H. J. T.; Schoon, E.; van Eijck, C. H.; Bruno, M. J.; van Duijvendijk, P.; Erkelens, G. W.; Vecht, J.; Meijssen, M. A. C.; Bosscha, K.; Römkens, T. E. H.; van Munster, I.; Schaapherder, A. F.; Veenendaal, R. A.; Straathof, J. W.; Hadithi, H.; van der Harst, E.; Consten, E. C. J.; Brink, M. A.; HOUDIJK, A. P. J.; Manusama, E.; Pierie, J. P. E. N.; Gerritsen, J. J. G. M.; Kolkman, J.; Deiong, C. H. C.; Masclee, A.; de Ridder, R. J. J.; Issa, Y.; van Santvoort, H. C.; Besselink, M. G. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of timing of surgery on the long-term clinical outcome of surgery in chronic pancreatitis (CP). Design: Cohort study with long-term follow-up. Setting: Five specialized academic centers. Patients: Patients with CP treated surgically for pain. Interventions:

  16. Clinical outcome in relation to timing of surgery in chronic pancreatitis: A nomogram to predict pain relief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Ahmed Ali (Usama); V.B. Nieuwenhuijs (Vincent); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); H.G. Gooszen (Hein); R. van Dam (Ronald); O.R.C. Busch (Olivier); M.G.W. Dijkgraaf (Marcel); F.A. Mauritz (Femke); S. Jens (Sjoerd); J. Mast (Jay); H. van Goor (Harry); M.A. Boermeester (Marja)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To evaluate the effect of timing of surgery on the long-term clinical outcome of surgery in chronic pancreatitis (CP). Design: Cohort study with long-term follow-up. Setting: Five specialized academic centers. Patients: Patients with CP treated surgically for pain.

  17. Clinical uses of radiosterilized freeze-dried human bone: its application in buccomaxillary surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsohn, B.; Taramasso, F.; Godoy, J.; Wodowoz, O.; Saldias, M.; Silva, W.; Machin, D.; Sanchez, G.; Alvarez, I.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this paper is to evaluate the uses of different human bone tissue allografts in bucomaxillary surgery between 2005 and 2007. Presentation of our experience using single freeze dried bone allografts and associated to bovine collagen membranes (commercial registered). Twenty patients were treated with cortical struts, cancellous chips, morsellized and morsellized demineralized bone. All the grafts were processed at the INDT multi tissue bank from cardiac arrest and brain death cadaveric donors. All the tissues were radiosterilized by Gamma radiation. Bone allografts were used: 1) to optimize bone support increasing maxillar or mandible bone before implant surgery. 2) in dehiscences and fissures during the implant surgery. 3) to stimulate bone regeneration in alveolar cavity, post-apicectomies, and cystectomies as well as for bone defects. The patients were periodically evaluated using standardized protocols. All the cases were successful showing clinic and radiologically osseointegration after 6 and 12 months. Results were evaluated considering surgical technique and patients bucomaxillary rehabilitation. Clinical uses of bone allografts confirm in our experience, as scientific literature outcomes shows, are useful in patients that refuses autografts ablation. (Author)

  18. Clinical Evidence for Spinal Cord Stimulation for Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS): Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapural, Leonardo; Peterson, Erika; Provenzano, David A; Staats, Peter

    2017-07-15

    A systematic review. A systematic literature review of the clinical data from prospective studies was undertaken to assess the efficacy of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in the treatment of failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) in adults. For patients with unrelenting back pain due to mechanical instability of the spine, degenerative disc disease, spinal injury, or deformity, spinal surgery is a well-accepted treatment option; however, even after surgical intervention, many patients continue to experience chronic back pain that can be notoriously difficult to treat. Clinical evidence suggests that for patients with FBSS, repeated surgery will not likely offer relief. Additionally, evidence suggests long-term use of opioid pain medications is not effective in this population, likely presents additional complications, and requires strict management. A systematic literature review was performed using several bibliographic databases, prospective studies in adults using SCS for FBSS were included. SCS has been shown to be a safe and efficacious treatment for this patient population. Recent technological developments in SCS offer even greater pain relief to patients' refractory to other treatment options, allowing patients to regain functionality and improve their quality of life with significant reductions in pain. N/A.

  19. Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Palsy After Cervical Spine Surgery: A Multicenter AOSpine Clinical Research Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bydon, Mohamad; De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Cho, Samuel K; Baird, Evan O; Mroz, Thomas E; Fehlings, Michael; Arnold, Paul M; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Multicenter retrospective study. To investigate the risk of symptomatic recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (RLNP) following cervical spine surgery, to examine risk factors for its development, and to report its treatment and outcomes. A multicenter study from 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network was performed. Each center screened for rare complications following cervical spine surgery, including RLNP. Patients were included if they underwent cervical spine surgery (levels from C2 to C7) between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011. Data were analyzed with regard to complication treatment and outcome. Cases were compared to a control group from the AOSpine CSM and CSM-I studies. Three centers reported 19 cases of RLNP from a cohort of 1345 patients. The reported incidence of RLNP ranged from 0.6% to 2.9% between these 3 centers. Fifteen patients (79%) in the RLNP group were approached from the left side. Ten patients (52.6%) required treatment for RLNP-6 required medical therapy (steroids), 1 interventional treatment (injection laryngoplasty), and 3 conservative therapy (speech therapy). When examining outcomes, 73.7% (14/19) of cases resolved completely, 15.8% (3/19) resolved with residual effects, and in 10.5% (2/19) of cases this could not be determined. In this multicenter study examining rare complications following cervical spine surgery, the risk of RLNP after cervical spine surgery ranged from 0.6% to 2.9% between centers. Though rare, it was found that 16% of patients may experience partial resolution with residual effects, and 74% resolve completely.

  20. The Clinical Impact of Cardiology Consultation Prior to Major Vascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Frank M; Park, Yeo June; Grey, Scott F; Boniakowski, Anna E; Mansour, M Ashraf; Jain, Krishna M; Nypaver, Timothy; Grossman, Michael; Gurm, Hitinder; Henke, Peter K

    2018-01-01

    To understand statewide variation in preoperative cardiology consultation prior to major vascular surgery and to determine whether consultation was associated with differences in perioperative myocardial infarction (poMI). Medical consultation prior to major vascular surgery is obtained to reduce perioperative risk. Despite perceived benefit of preoperative consultation, evidence is lacking specifically for major vascular surgery on the effect of preoperative cardiac consultation. Patient and clinical data were obtained from a statewide vascular surgery registry between January 2012 and December 2014. Patients were risk stratified by revised cardiac risk index category and compared poMI between patients who did or did not receive a preoperative cardiology consultation. We then used logistic regression analysis to compare the rate of poMI across hospitals grouped into quartiles by rate of preoperative cardiology consultation. Our study population comprised 5191 patients undergoing open peripheral arterial bypass (n = 3037), open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (n = 332), or endovascular aneurysm repair (n = 1822) at 29 hospitals. At the patient level, after risk-stratification by revised cardiac risk index category, there was no association between cardiac consultation and poMI. At the hospital level, preoperative cardiac consultation varied substantially between hospitals (6.9%-87.5%, P 66%) had a reduction in poMI (OR, 0.52; confidence interval: 0.28-0.98; P cardiology consultation for vascular surgery varies greatly between institutions, and does not appear to impact poMI at the patient level. However, reduction of poMI was noted at the hospitals with the highest rate of preoperative cardiology consultation as well as a variety of medical services, suggesting that other hospital culture effects play a role.

  1. Antibiotics in periodontal surgeries: A prospective randomised cross over clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Oswal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: (1 To evaluate the need of antibiotics in periodontal surgeries in reducing postsurgical infections and explore if antibiotics have any key role in reducing or eliminating inflammatory complications. (2 To establish the incidence of postoperative infections in relation to type of surgery and determine those factors, which may affect infection rates. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized double-blind cross over clinical study was carried out for a period of 1-year with predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the patients included in the study for any periodontal surgery were randomly divided into three categories: Group A (prophylactic, Group B (therapeutic, and Group C (no antibiotics. Patients were followed up for 1-week after surgery on the day of suture removal and were evaluated for pain, swelling, fever, infection, delayed wound healing and any other significant findings. Appropriate statistical analysis was carried out to evaluate the objectives and P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: No infection was reported in any of 90 sites. Patients reported less pain and postoperative discomfort when prophylactic antibiotics were given. However, there were no statistical significant differences between the three groups. Summary and Conclusion: There was no postoperative infection reported in all the 90 sites operated in this study. The prevalence of postoperative infections following periodontal surgery is <1% and this low risk does not justify the routine use of systemic antimicrobials just to prevent infections. Use of prophylactic antibiotics may have role in prevention of inflammatory complication, but again not infection.

  2. Clinical experience of quantex coordinate software for CT guided stereotactic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabashi, Toshitake; Ichikawa, Hideo; Yasuda, Eisuke; Tsuruta, Hatsuo; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Kimura, Tokuji; Kanamori, Isao

    1991-01-01

    Recently, Quantex Coordinate Software was newly developed for CT-guided stereotactic surgery. We have the opportunity of using this software in 6 cases with intracerebral hematoma for evacuation and 2 cases with brain tumor for needle biopsy by using CT-guided stereotactic surgery. The followings are the features with a little clinical experience. One of the biggest features is that this software can simulate the best expected route of the puncture needle from burr hole to target point before inserting. Also compared with CT 9000 series Software, it has many new functions for more advanced hardware as well as advance standard software. Two cases of intracerebral hematoma for evacuation and 1 case of a brain tumor for a biopsy were carried out using this software mainly as a simulation. In all cases, this software proved to be very useful. (author)

  3. Clinical usefulness of human-mouse chimeric Fab monoclonal antibody A7 for radioimmunoguided surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhito

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the clinical usefulness of radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS) using the human-mouse chimeric Fab monoclonal antibody A7 (chA7Fab) for colorectal cancer patients. Whole murine monoclonal antibody A7 (whole A7) and chA7Fab were labelled with 125 I and 131 I, and their biodistributions were investigated experimentally and clinically. Radioactivities of the antibodies in the tissues were measured by a portable gamma detecting probe (GDP) purchased from Neoprobe Corp.. Of the four labelled antibodies used in a mouse model, 125 I-chA7Fab revealed the highest tumor/surrounding tissue ratio and all values were greater than 2.0. All tumor/surrounding tissue ratios of 131 I-chA7Fab were greater than 1.5, but the values were lower than those of 125 I-chA7Fab. Due to the limited clinical use of 125 I in Japan, 131 I was used as a radio-tracer for chA7Fab in the clinical trial. RIGS using 131 I-chA7Fab was performed on ten colorectal cancer patients. Tumor localization was intraoperatively determined in four of ten patients using the GDP. Liver metastasis and lymph node metastasis were identified in two patients and one patient, respectively. The GDP revealed tumor/surrounding tissue ratios of 1.5 or greater in eight of the ten resected tumors. Although radioimmunoguided surgery using chA7Fab is a promising tool to intraoperatively determine the tumor localization of colorectal cancer, 125 I and not 131 I should be used as a tracer for radioimmunoguided surgery to increase the accuracy of chA7Fab. (author)

  4. An evidence-based clinical guideline for the use of antithrombotic therapies in spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Christopher M; Watters, William C; Heggeness, Michael H; Resnick, Daniel K; Shaffer, William O; Baisden, Jamie; Ben-Galim, Peleg; Easa, John E; Fernand, Robert; Lamer, Tim; Matz, Paul G; Mendel, Richard C; Patel, Rajeev K; Reitman, Charles A; Toton, John F

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the North American Spine Society (NASS) Evidence-Based Clinical Guideline on antithrombotic therapies in spine surgery was to provide evidence-based recommendations to address key clinical questions surrounding the use of antithrombotic therapies in spine surgery. The guideline is intended to address these questions based on the highest quality clinical literature available on this subject as of February 2008. The goal of the guideline recommendations was to assist in delivering optimum, efficacious treatment with the goal of preventing thromboembolic events. To provide an evidence-based, educational tool to assist spine surgeons in minimizing the risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Systematic review and evidence-based clinical guideline. This report is from the Antithrombotic Therapies Work Group of the NASS Evidence-Based Guideline Development Committee. The work group was composed of multidisciplinary spine care specialists, all of whom were trained in the principles of evidence-based analysis. Each member of the group was involved in formatting a series of clinical questions to be addressed by the group. The final questions agreed on by the group are the subject of this report. A literature search addressing each question and using a specific search protocol was performed on English language references found in MEDLINE, EMBASE (Drugs and Pharmacology), and four additional, evidence-based databases. The relevant literature was then independently rated by at least three reviewers using the NASS-adopted standardized levels of evidence. An evidentiary table was created for each of the questions. Final grades of recommendation for the answers to each clinical question were arrived at via Web casts among members of the work group using standardized grades of recommendation. When Level I to IV evidence was insufficient to support a recommendation to answer a specific clinical question, expert consensus was arrived at by

  5. Current Evidence for Clinical Efficacy of Platelet Rich Plasma in Aesthetic Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frautschi, Russell S; Hashem, Ahmed M; Halasa, Brianna; Cakmakoglu, Cagri; Zins, James E

    2017-03-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) has attracted attention in a number of surgical fields due to a wide variety of potential clinical benefits. Yet PRP has not gained wide popularity in aesthetic surgery as a result of uncertainty surrounding objective clinical evidence. We aim to describe the current applications, define preparation and activation, explore effectiveness, and propose a classification system to facilitate comparisons across studies. A comprehensive review of the literature regarding the use of platelet rich plasma in aesthetic surgery was performed. Data gathered included: PRP application, study type, subject number, centrifugation, anticoagulation, activation, PRP composition, and outcomes. Thirty-eight reports were identified. Applications included injection into aging skin (29%), scalp alopecia (26%), lipofilling (21%), fractional laser (13%), and facial surgery (11%). The majority of studies (53%) were case series without controls. Leucocytes were sparsely defined (32%). The concentration of injected and/or baseline platelets was rarely clarified (18%). The mechanism of activation was described in 27 studies (71%), while anticoagulation was uncommonly elucidated (47%). While most studies (95%) claim effectiveness, objective measures were only utilized in 17 studies (47%). Current studies produce context-dependent results with a lack of consistent reporting of PRP preparation, composition, and activation in aesthetic applications, making meaningful meta-analysis unrealistic. Thus the method of PRP preparation warrants increased attention. We recommend a set of descriptors, FIT PAAW (described below), to produce scientifically grounded conclusions, facilitating a clearer understanding of the situations in which PRP is effective. 4 © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Comparison of clinical parameters and environmental noise levels between regular surgery and piezosurgery for extraction of impacted third molars

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hao-Hueng; Lee, Ming-Shu; Hsu, You-Chyun; Tsai, Shang-Jye; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Impacted third molars can be extracted by regular surgery or piezosurgery. The aim of this study was to compare clinical parameters and device-produced noise levels between regular surgery and piezosurgery for the extraction of impacted third molars. Methods: Twenty patients (18 women and 2 men, 17–29 years of age) with bilateral symmetrical impacted mandibular or maxillary third molars of the same level were included in this randomized crossover clinical trial. The 40 impacted third molar...

  7. Preoperative neutrophil response as a predictive marker of clinical outcome following open heart surgery and the impact of leukocyte filtration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Soo, Alan W

    2010-11-01

    Open heart surgery is associated with a massive systemic inflammatory response. Neutrophils, are the main mediator of this response. We hypothesised that the degree of neutrophil activation and inflammatory response to open heart surgery varies individually and correlates with clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to determine if individual clinical outcome can be predicted preoperatively through assessment of in-vitro stimulated neutrophil responses. Following that, the effects of neutrophil depletion through leukocyte filters are examined.

  8. [Feedback on the evaluation of clinical pharmacy activities developed in surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarfaut, A; Clauzel-Montserrat, M; Vigouroux, D; Kehrli, P; Gaudias, J; Kempf, J-F; Levêque, D; Nivoix, Y; Gourieux, B

    2015-03-01

    Our current development strategy integrates clinical pharmacy activities prioritized in surgical services. Patients in these services are typically risk patients: transfers, multiple prescribers, frequent medication change, pharmacotherapeutic risk classes. Three clinical pharmacy activities (admission reconciliation, pharmaceutical analysis, participation doctors round) have been developed in orthopaedic surgery and neurosurgery. Pharmacists prospectively recorded data describing their activities: number of reconciliations and analyzed requirements and time required to achieve them. Data on pharmaceutical interventions were recorded on the basis ActIP®. The clinical significance of interventions was retrospectively rated by a team of two pharmacists and two physicians on the scale adapted Hatoum et al. Four thousand five hundred pharmaceutical analysis and 248 reconciliations were conducted. One hundred and fifty-six pharmaceutical interventions were issued. The average acceptance rate was 80%. A total of 5.8% of pharmaceutical interventions have been listed with a very significant clinical importance and 48.1% with at least significant clinical importance. The activities and documentation required pharmaceutical average daily time (senior pharmacist, resident and external pharmacist) about 6 hours. Other studies, including comparative and medico-economic, must be conducted to support these results. Nevertheless, the indicators obtained attend a better readability of the clinical importance of the activities performed by clinical pharmacists and this particularly in surgical services, both by prescribers and authorities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Rivaroxaban for venous thromboembolism prevention after major orthopedic surgery: translating trial data into routine clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyer-Westendorf J

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jan Beyer-Westendorf,1 Patrick Mouret,2 Alexander GG Turpie3 1Thrombosis Research and Angiology, Dresden University Clinic, Dresden, Germany; 2Orthopedic Clinic, Klinikum Frankfurt Höchst GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany; 3Department of Medicine, General Division, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: An established standard of care for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after major orthopedic surgery has been subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin. The non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban has demonstrated superior efficacy and similar safety to all tested regimens of enoxaparin in large Phase III clinical studies of venous thromboembolism prevention after elective hip and knee arthroplasty. Despite regulatory approval of rivaroxaban for this indication, concerns remain among physicians regarding its optimal and effective use in routine clinical practice. Real-life studies, such as XAMOS and ORTHO-TEP, are providing physicians with more information on the routine use of rivaroxaban for venous thromboembolism prevention after orthopedic surgery, helping to establish its safety and effectiveness in everyday clinical care. Among the most important issues are the risk of bleeding complications, wound healing, timing of first dose, impact of type of anesthesia on thromboprophylaxis effectiveness, patient comorbidities and comedication use, periprocedural management, associated costs, and clinical outcomes in trauma-related fractures. Many of these issues are difficult to study in randomized, double-blind, Phase III trials, and can be assessed more readily using real-life data. In particular, real-life or noninterventional studies lack many of the strict inclusion and exclusion criteria associated with Phase III trials and involve unselected patients who often present with significant comorbidities or comedication use. Keywords: anticoagulants, arthroplasty, orthopedics, rivaroxaban, thrombosis

  10. Clinical efficacy of dexmedetomidine in the diminution of fentanyl dosage in pediatric cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingying; Ye, Hongwu; Xia, Yin; Li, Yuanhai; Yuan, Xianren; Wang, Xing

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to explore the clinical efficacy of dexmedetomidine (DEX) in the diminution of fentanyl dosage in pediatric cardiac surgery based on some clinical and biochemical parameters. Fifty pediatric patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists II), 1-6 years old, were randomly allocated into two groups: group F (control group), in which patients received normal saline and high dosage of fentanyl (30 μg/kg), and group D, in which patients were given DEX and low dosage of fentanyl (15 μg/kg). Some hemodynamic and clinical parameters of the two groups were recorded. Furthermore, stress hormone (serum cortisol, norepinephrine, blood glucose) levels and cytokine (interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha) levels in the two groups were compared with each other. Stress hormone levels, cytokine levels, hemodynamic parameters and the consumption of sevoflurane did not differ between the two groups. Meanwhile, the extubation time was significantly shorter in Group D than F (Pfentanyl supplemented with DEX almost had the same anesthesia effects and inflammation extent compared with high dose of fentanyl, which suggested that infusion DEX might decrease fentanyl consumption in pediatric cardiac surgery.

  11. Diagnosis of clonorchiasis during and after biliary tract surgery: a clinical analysis of 15 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QI Wenlei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical features of clonorchiasis diagnosed during biliary surgery, and to provide more comprehensive and effective information for the surgical treatment of clonorchiasis. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 15 patients who were diagnosed with clonorchiasis during and after biliary tract surgery in our department from January 2013 to January 2016, and their clinical features were summarized. ResultsAll the 15 patients were male, among whom 5 once ate uncooked freshwater fish and shrimps. Of all patients, 8 underwent laparoscopic bile duct exploration and 7 underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP. Adult Clonorchis sinensis was found in intraoperative or postoperative drainage. All the patients achieved clearance of Clonorchis sinensis after regular anthelmintic treatment. ConclusionIf bile duct exploration finds grey-black or bright-red melon seed-like floccules, clonorchiasis should be highly suspected. Intraoperative T-tube drainage is recommended, and if suspected Clonorchis sinensis is found after laparoscopic bile duct exploration and T-tube drainage or after ERCP and nasobiliary drainage, microbiological examination should be performed next. As for the patients with a definite diagnosis of clonorchiasis, they should not eat uncooked freshwater fish or shrimps and should be given regular anthelmintic treatment.

  12. From Diagnosis to Treatment: Clinical Applications of Nanotechnology in Thoracic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digesu, Christopher S.; Hofferberth, Sophie C.; Grinstaff, Mark W.; Colson, Yolonda L.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Nanotechnology is an emerging field of medicine with significant potential to become a powerful adjunct to cancer therapy, and in particular, thoracic surgery. Using the unique properties of several different nanometer-sized platforms, therapy can be delivered to tumors in a more targeted fashion, with less of the systemic toxicity associated with traditional chemotherapeutics. In addition to the packaged delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs, nanoparticles show potential to aid in the diagnosis, pre-operative characterization, and intraoperative localization of thoracic tumors and their lymphatics. With increasing interest in their clinical application, there is a rapid expansion of in vitro and in vivo studies being conducted that provide a better understanding of potential toxicities and hopes of broader clinical translation. Focused research into nanotechnology’s ability to deliver both diagnostics and therapeutics has led to the development of a field known as nanotheranostics which promises to improve the treatment of thoracic malignancies through enhanced tumor targeting, controlled drug delivery, and therapeutic monitoring. This article reviews the various types of nanoplatforms, their unique properties, and the potential for clinical application in thoracic surgery. PMID:27112260

  13. Mohs micrographic surgery for the treatment of hidradenocarcinoma: the Mayo Clinic experience from 1993 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkachjov, Stanislav N; Hocker, Thomas L; Hochwalt, Phillip C; Camilleri, Michael J; Arpey, Christopher J; Brewer, Jerry D; Otley, Clark C; Roenigk, Randall K; Baum, Christian L

    2015-02-01

    Hidradenocarcinoma (HAC) is a rare malignant adnexal neoplasm with reported metastatic potential and undefined optimal treatment. To review clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with HAC treated with Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). The authors performed a retrospective chart review of patients with HAC treated by MMS at Mayo Clinic from 1993 to 2013, recording patient demographics, tumor characteristics, MMS stages to clearance, follow-up, recurrence, metastasis, and mortality. Ten patients underwent MMS for HAC more than 20 years. The average age was 62.8 years, with 6 females and 4 males. Occipital scalp was the most common location (40%), followed by extremities (30%) and face (20%). In 5 of 7 cases (71%), "cyst" was the working clinical diagnosis. The average preoperative lesion area was 3.18 cm, with an average of 1.5 MMS stages required for clearance. Mean postoperative follow-up was 7 years (range, 5-205 months). No tumors treated with MMS recurred, metastasized, or led to disease-related mortality. Mohs micrographic surgery seems to be a useful treatment modality for HAC. This is the largest reported series of HAC treated with MMS with long-term follow-up.

  14. Effects of guidelines on adeno-tonsillar surgery on the clinical behaviour of otorhinolaryngologists in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motta Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several guidelines on adeno-tonsillar disease have been proposed in recent years and some discrepancies in relation both to clinical manifestations and indications for surgical treatment have emerged. The aim of the study was to verify what influence (adeno-tonsillectomy guidelines have had on the clinical behaviour of ENT specialists in Italy. Our study is a retrospective and multi-centre case series with chart review. Methods The survey involved 14,770 children, aged between the ages of 2 and 11, who had undergone adeno-tonsillar surgery between 2002 and 2008 in fourteen Italian tertiary and secondary referral centres. Anova test was used for the statistical analysis, assuming p Results The frequency of adeno-tonsillar surgeries did not change significantly (p>0.05 during the study period and following the Italian policy document publication. Overall, adeno-tonsillectomy was the most frequent intervention (64.1%, followed by adenoidectomy (31.1% and tonsillectomy (4.8%. The indications for surgery did not change significantly for each of the operations (p>0.05, with the exception of adeno-tonsillectomy in case of feverish episodes due to acute recurrent tonsillitis ≥ 5 without nasal obstruction (decreased p= 0.010 , even when the feverish episodes due to acute recurrent tonsillitis were Conclusions The recommendations first developed in Italy in a 2003 policy document and then resumed in guidelines in 2008, were not implemented by ENT units involved in the survey. The study highlights the fact that the indications for adeno-tonsillar operations are based on the overall clinical presentation (comorbidity rather than on a single symptom. Guidelines are necessary to give coherent recommendations based on both the findings obtained through randomized controlled trials and the data collected from observational studies.

  15. Assessing transgastric Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery prior to clinical implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Anders Meller

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to investigate whether transgastric Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) could be implemented safely in clinical practice. The experimental studies proved ultrasonography guided access through the stomach to be feasible and safe without iatrogenic complications......-abdominal abscess formation as a result of contamination from the access route was still present. To reduce this contamination, mouthwash with chlorhexidine was effective in a human randomised study. The same study also found significant higher bacterial load in the stomach of patients using proton pump inhibitor...

  16. Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technology in Craniofacial Plastic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Namkug

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to m...

  17. Clinical outcome of combined conjunctival autograft transplantation and amniotic membrane transplantation in pterygium surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Tejsu; Jiang, Jing; Hu, Kai

    2018-01-01

    AIM To compare long-term outcome of primary and recurrent pterygium surgery with three different techniques: combined conjunctival autograft and overlay amniotic membrane transplantation (CAT with AMT), conjunctival autograft transplantation (CAT) alone and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) alone. METHODS In this retrospective study, 142 eyes of 142 pterygium patients (104 primary, 38 recurrent) who underwent CAT (group A), AMT (group B) or CAT with AMT (group C) respectively following surgical excision were reviewed and compared based on the recurrences and post-operative complications. RESULTS The number of recurrence post-surgery were 17 (9 from primary, 8 from recurrent; the same description below), 18 (10, 8) and 2 (1, 1) in groups A, B, and C respectively; dry eyes were 22 (16, 6), 27 (18, 9) and 7 (3, 4); conjunctival inflammations were 30 (17, 13), 27 (16, 11) and 11 (6, 5). Patients in group C (either primary or recurrent or both) mainly showed significantly better results than those in group A or B (P<0.05) regarding above-mentioned clinical effects. CONCLUSION Combined CAT and overly AMT have significantly lower rates of recurrence and postoperative complications for primary and recurrent pterygium surgery than CAT or AMT alone. PMID:29600172

  18. Clinical outcome of combined conjunctival autograft transplantation and amniotic membrane transplantation in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejsu Malla

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare long-term outcome of primary and recurrent pterygium surgery with three different techniques: combined conjunctival autograft and overlay amniotic membrane transplantation (CAT with AMT, conjunctival autograft transplantation (CAT alone and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT alone. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 142 eyes of 142 pterygium patients (104 primary, 38 recurrent who underwent CAT (group A, AMT (group B or CAT with AMT (group C respectively following surgical excision were reviewed and compared based on the recurrences and post-operative complications. RESULTS: The number of recurrence post-surgery were 17 (9 from primary, 8 from recurrent; the same description below, 18 (10, 8 and 2 (1, 1 in groups A, B, and C respectively; dry eyes were 22 (16, 6, 27 (18, 9 and 7 (3, 4; conjunctival inflammations were 30 (17, 13, 27 (16, 11 and 11 (6, 5. Patients in group C (either primary or recurrent or both mainly showed significantly better results than those in group A or B (P<0.05 regarding above-mentioned clinical effects. CONCLUSION: Combined CAT and overly AMT have significantly lower rates of recurrence and postoperative complications for primary and recurrent pterygium surgery than CAT or AMT alone.

  19. A clinical audit of provider-initiated HIV counselling and testing in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy reduces transmission of HIV and prolongs life. Expansion of HIV testing is therefore pivotal in overcoming the HIV pandemic. Provider-initiated counselling and testing (PICT) at first clinical contact is one way of increasing the number of individuals tested. Our impression is ...

  20. Giant cell tumor of the bone: aggressive case initially treated with denosumab and intralesional surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Borstel, Donald; Strle, Nicholas A. [Oklahoma State University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tulsa, OK (United States); Taguibao, Roberto A. [University of California, Irvine, UCI Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Orange, CA (United States); Burns, Joseph E. [University of California, Irvine, UCI Medical Center, Department of Radiological Sciences, Orange, CA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTB) is a locally aggressive benign tumor, which has historically been treated with wide surgical excision. We report a case of a 29-year-old male with histology-proven GCTB of the distal ulna. The initial imaging study was a contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the left wrist, which was from an outside facility performed before presenting to our institution. On the initial MRI, the lesion had homogenous T2-hyperintense and T1-hypointense signal with expansive remodeling of the osseous contour. A radiographic study performed upon presentation to our institution 1 month later showed progression of the lesion with atypical imaging characteristics. After confirming the diagnosis, denosumab therapy was implemented allowing for reconstitution of bone and intralesional treatment. The patient was treated with five doses of denosumab over the duration of 7 weeks. Therapeutic changes of the GCTB were evaluated by radiography and a post-treatment MRI. This MRI was interpreted as suspicious for worsening disease due to the imaging appearance of intralesional signal heterogeneity, increased perilesional fluid-like signal, and circumferential cortical irregularity. However, on subsequent intralesional curettage and bone autografting 6 weeks later, no giant cells were seen on the specimen. Thus, the appearance on the MRI, rather than representing a manifestation of lesion aggressiveness or a non-responding tumor, conversely represented the imaging appearance of a positive response to denosumab therapy. On follow-up evaluation, 5 months after intralesional treatment, the patient had recurrent disease and is now scheduled for wide-excision with joint prosthesis. (orig.)

  1. The Quality Initiative in Rectal Cancer (QIRC trial: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial in surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabane Lehana

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two unfortunate outcomes for patients treated surgically for rectal cancer are placement of a permanent colostomy and local tumor recurrence. Total mesorectal excision is a new technique for rectal cancer surgery that can lead to improved patient outcomes. We describe a cluster randomized controlled trial that is testing if the above patient outcomes can be improved through a knowledge translation strategy called the Quality Initiative in Rectal Cancer (QIRC strategy. The strategy is designed to optimize the use of total mesorectal excision techniques. Methods and Design Hospitals were randomized to the QIRC strategy (experimental group versus normal practice environment (control group. Participating hospitals, and the respective surgeon group operating in them, are from Ontario, Canada and have an annual procedure volume for major rectal cancer resections of 15 or greater. Patients were eligible if they underwent major rectal surgery for a diagnosis of primary rectal cancer. The surgeon-directed QIRC interventions included a workshop, use of opinion leaders, operative demonstrations, a post-operative questionnaire, and, audit and feedback. For an operative demonstration participating surgeons invited a study team surgeon to assist them with a case of rectal cancer surgery. The intent was to demonstrate total mesorectal excision techniques. Control arm surgeons received no intervention. Sample size calculations were two-sided, considered the clustering of data at the hospital level, and were driven by requirements for the outcome local recurrence. To detect an improvement in local recurrence from 20% to 8% with confidence we required 16 hospitals and 672 patients – 8 hospitals and 336 patients in each arm. Outcomes data are collected via chart review for at least 30 months after surgery. Analyses will use an intention-to-treat principle and will consider the clustering of data. Data collection will be complete by the end of

  2. Clinical Predictors of Diabetes Insipidus After Transcranial Surgery for Pituitary Adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songquan; Li, Deling; Ni, Ming; Jia, Wang; Zhang, Qing; He, Jue; Jia, Guijun

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a well-known complication of transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma surgery. However, the risk factors for DI after transcranial surgery have not been clarified. In this study, the clinical parameters for predicting DI after transcranial surgery were investigated. The perioperative records of 90 patients who underwent transcranial (TC) surgery at the authors' institution between November 2011 and March 2013 were chosen from 1657 patients with pituitary adenoma and retrospectively analyzed. The degree of deformation of the third ventricle and hypothalamus were assessed by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Immediate postoperative DI was found in 30 patients (33.3%). Persistent DI was noted in 11 patients (12.6%). Compared with patients in the nonpostoperative DI group, those with postoperative DI had a higher degree of deformation of the third ventricle and hypothalamus (P < 0.001). In a binary logistic regression analysis, the degree of deformation of the third ventricle and hypothalamus (odds ratio [OR], 3.079; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.600-5.925; P = 0.001) had a significant positive correlation with immediate postoperative DI, as well as postoperative hemorrhage (OR, 6.235, 95% CI, 1.457-26.689; P = 0.014). Postoperative hemorrhage (OR, 4.363; 95% CI, 1.021-18.647; P = 0.047) showed a positive correlation with permanent DI, as well as the degree of deformation of the third ventricle and hypothalamus (OR, 2.336; 95% CI, 1.005-5.427; P = 0.049). The degree of deformation of the third ventricle and hypothalamus assessed by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging may help to predict postoperative DI. Postoperative hemorrhage might increase the incidence of postoperative DI, whether it is immediate postoperative DI or permanent DI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical characteristics of acromegalic patients with empty sella and their outcomes following transsphenoidal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Yasuo; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Tachibana, Osamu; Oishi, Masahiro; Fukui, Issei; Iizuka, Hideaki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2017-08-01

    To analyze the clinical characteristics of acromegalic patients with empty sella (ES, herniation of the subarachnoid space within the sella turcica) and the impact of ES on transsphenoidal surgery in such patients. Seventy-eight patients, newly diagnosed with acromegaly who underwent transsphenoidal surgery were included. ES was defined as the pituitary gland and adenoma occupying less than 50% of the sella turcica on midsagittal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Twelve patients (15.4%), predominantly female (10 women, p = .047), had ES in preoperative MR imaging. ES patients had smaller mean tumor diameter (6.3 mm) than non-ES patients (11.2 mm, p = .001). In preoperative MR imaging, occult adenoma was found in three (25%) ES and three (4.5%) non-ES patients (p = .044). Intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage was more frequent in the ES patients than in the non-ES patients (58.3 vs. 25.8%, p = .024). This led to an increased rate of sellar floor reconstruction using abdominal fat and/or postoperative lumber drainage in the ES patients (ES: 41.7 vs. non-ES: 16.7%, p = .063). Endocrinological remission after surgery was more frequent in the non-ES patients (72.7%) than in the ES patients (58.3%) (p = .248). Co-existence of acromegaly with ES is not rare, and is associated with occult adenoma, intra/postoperative CSF leakage, and a worse endocrinological outcome after transsphenoidal surgery; although, the underlying mechanism remains unclear.

  4. Clinical feasibility of pre-operative neurodevelopmental assessment of infants undergoing open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Miranda; Rabbidge, Bridgette; Ziviani, Jenny; Sakzewski, Leanne

    2017-08-01

    Assessing the neurodevelopmental status of infants with congenital heart disease before surgery provides a means of identifying those at heightened risk of developmental delay. This study aimed to investigate factors impacting clinical feasibility of pre-operative neurodevelopmental assessment of infants undergoing early open heart surgery. Infants who underwent open heart surgery prior to 4 months of age participated in this cross-sectional study. The Test of Infant Motor Performance and Prechtl's Assessment of General Movements were undertaken on infants pre-operatively. When assessments could not be undertaken, reasons were ascribed to either infant or environmental circumstances. Demographic data and Aristotle scores were compared between groups of infants who did or did not undergo assessment. Binary logistic regression was used to explore associations. A total of 60 infants participated in the study. Median gestational age was 38.78 weeks (interquartile range: 36.93-39.72). Of these infants, 37 (62%) were unable to undergo pre-operative assessment. Twenty-four (40%) could not complete assessment due to infant-related factors and 13 (22%) due to environmental-related factors. For every point increase in the Aristotle Patient-Adjusted Complexity score, the infants likelihood of being unable to undergo assessment increased by 35% (odds ratio: 0.35; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.77, P = 0.03). Over half of the infants undergoing open heart surgery were unable to complete pre-operative neurodevelopmental assessment. The primary reason for this was infant-related medical instability. Findings suggest further research is warranted to investigate whether the Aristotle Patient-Adjusted Complexity score might serve as an indicator to inform developmental surveillance with this medically fragile cohort. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Clinical Outcomes after Uncomplicated Cataract Surgery with Implantation of the Tecnis Toric Intraocular Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Lubiński

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the clinical outcomes after uncomplicated cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric toric intraocular lens (IOL during a 6-month follow-up. Methods. Prospective study including 27 consecutive eyes of 18 patients (mean age: 66.1±11.4 years with a visually significant cataract and corneal astigmatism ≥ 0.75 D and undergoing uncomplicated cataract surgery with implantation of the Tecnis ZCT toric IOL (Abbott Medical Optics. Visual, refractive, and keratometric outcomes as well as IOL rotation were evaluated during a 6-month follow-up. At the end of the follow-up, patient satisfaction and perception of optical/visual disturbances were also evaluated using a subjective questionnaire. Results. At 6 months after surgery, mean LogMAR uncorrected (UDVA and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA were 0.19±0.12 and 0.14±0.10, respectively. Postoperative UDVA of 20/40 or better was achieved in 92.6% of eyes. Mean refractive cylinder decreased significantly from −3.73±1.96 to −1.42±0.88 D (p<0.001, while keratometric cylinder did not change significantly (p=0.44. Mean absolute IOL rotation was 1.1±2.4°, with values of more than 5° in only 2 eyes (6.9%. Mean patient satisfaction score was 9.70±0.46, using a scale from 0 (not at all satisfied to 10 (very satisfied. No postoperative optical/visual disturbances were reported. Conclusion. Cataract surgery with implantation of the Tecnis toric IOL is an effective method of refractive correction in eyes with corneal astigmatism due to the good IOL positional stability, providing high levels of patient’s satisfaction.

  6. Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: Clinical Experience and Impact on Ventilation Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crulli, Benjamin; Khebir, Mariam; Toledano, Baruch; Vobecky, Suzanne; Poirier, Nancy; Emeriaud, Guillaume

    2018-02-01

    After pediatric cardiac surgery, ventilation with high airway pressures can be detrimental to right ventricular function and pulmonary blood flow. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) improves patient-ventilator interactions, helping maintain spontaneous ventilation. This study reports our experience with the use of NAVA in children after a cardiac surgery. We hypothesize that using NAVA in this population is feasible and allows for lower ventilation pressures. We retrospectively studied all children ventilated with NAVA (invasively or noninvasively) after undergoing cardiac surgery between January 2013 and May 2015 in our pediatric intensive care unit. The number and duration of NAVA episodes were described. For the first period of invasive NAVA in each subject, detailed clinical and ventilator data in the 4 h before and after the start of NAVA were extracted. 33 postoperative courses were included in 28 subjects with a median age of 3 [interquartile range (IQR) 1-12] months. NAVA was used invasively in 27 courses for a total duration of 87 (IQR 15-334) h per course. Peak inspiratory pressures and mean airway pressures decreased significantly after the start of NAVA (mean differences of 5.8 cm H 2 O (95% CI 4.1-7.5) and 2.0 cm H 2 O (95% CI 1.2-2.8), respectively, P < .001 for both). There was no significant difference in vital signs or blood gas values. NAVA was used noninvasively in 14 subjects, over 79 (IQR 25-137) h. NAVA could be used in pediatric subjects after cardiac surgery. The significant decrease in airway pressures observed after transition to NAVA could have a beneficial impact in this specific population, which should be investigated in future interventional studies. Copyright © 2018 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  7. Late Lung Metastasis of a Primary Eccrine Sweat Gland Carcinoma 10 Years after Initial Surgical Treatment: The First Clinical Documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Falkenstern-Ge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare malignancy with a high metastatic potential seen more commonly in elderly patients. The scalp is the most common site of occurrence and it usually spreads to regional lymph nodes. Liver, lungs, and bones are the most common sites of distant metastasis. Late lung metastasis of sweat gland adenocarcinoma after a time span of 5 years is extremely rare. Aim. We report a patient with late lung metastasis of a primary sweat gland carcinoma 10 years after initial surgical resection. Conclusion. Sweat gland carcinomas are rare cancers with a poor prognosis. Surgery in the form of wide local excision and lymph node dissection is the mainstay of treatment. Late pulmonary metastases with a latency of 10 years have never been reported in the literature. This is the first clinical documentation of late lung metastasis from sweat gland carcinoma with a latency period of 10 years.

  8. Comparison of the clinical and quality-of-life outcomes after the inside-out TVT-O procedure with or without concomitant transvaginal gynaecological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M K; Kim, C H; Kang, W D; Kim, J W; Kim, S M; Kim, Y H

    2012-04-01

    The study was undertaken to compare the clinical and quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes of the inside-out transobturator vaginal tape (TVT-O)-only procedures and TVT-O procedures with concomitant transvaginal gynaecological surgery for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). A review of charts from January 2006 to March 2010 identified 305 patients with urodynamic stress incontinence for whom we performed the TVT-O. Of the initial 305 patients, 272 (89.2%) were re-examined for complications 1 month, 4 months, 1 year and 2-4 years postoperatively (122 TVT-O only; 150 TVT-O + other transvaginal gynaecological surgery). They were also evaluated with the Urogenital Distress Inventory Questionnaire (UDI-6) and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) 1-4 years after the procedure. The median follow-up was 37.3 months. The success rate was 89.3% in the TVT-O-only group vs 93.3% in the TVT-O with concomitant gynaecological surgery group (p =0.729). The QoL score was quite good for 91.8% of the TVT-O-only patients and for 96.7% of the TVT-O with concomitant gynaecologic surgery patients (p =0.405). In conclusion, gynaecological operations performed concomitantly with the TVT-O procedure do not affect the clinical and QoL outcomes of the TVT-O procedure.

  9. Advancing Medication Reconciliation in an Outpatient Internal Medicine Clinic through a Pharmacist-Led Educational Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Westberg

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To develop and deliver an effective pharmacist-led educational initiative to clinic staff to advance medication reconciliation in the electronic medical record of an outpatient internal medicine clinic. Methods: An educational initiative designed to improve the ability of nursing staff in medication reconciliation was launched in the outpatient internal medicine clinic of a regional healthcare system. The education was provided by the pharmacist to clinic nursing staff, including registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and certified medical assistants. The impact of this training was measured through pre-initiation and post-implementation surveys, competency assessments and an audit. Results: The educational initiative was successfully designed and delivered to clinic nursing staff. Assessment of the initiative found that all nursing staff completing competency assessments successfully passed. Pre-initiation- and post-implementation- survey responses on the self-assessed ability to gather and document accurate medication lists did not show significant changes. Informal observations in the clinic indicated that this initiative changed the culture of the clinic, creating increased awareness of the importance of accurate medications and increased emphasis on medication reconciliation. Conclusions: The expertise of pharmacists can be utilized to educate nursing staff on the skills and abilities necessary to gather and document accurate medication lists. This study did not find measurable changes in the accuracy of medication lists in this clinic. Future research is needed to determine the best methods to train health professionals in medication reconciliation to ensure accurate medication lists in the outpatient setting. Type: Original Research

  10. Mass Medication Clinic (MMC) Patient Medical Assistant (PMA) System Training Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-2-0045 TITLE: Mass Medication Clinic (MMC) Patient ...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Mass Medication Clinic (MMC) Patient Medical Assistant (PMA) System Training Initiative 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-2...sections will describe the events, results, and accomplishments of this study. With validation through this project the Patient Medical Assistant

  11. Collection of process data after cardiac surgery: initial implementation with a Java-based intranet applet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, M B; Khan, J H; Magee, K M; McElhinney, D B; Hubner, C

    2000-06-01

    Using a Java-based intranet program (applet), we collected postoperative process data after coronary artery bypass grafting. A Java-based applet was developed and deployed on a hospital intranet. Briefly, the nurse entered patient process data using a point and click interface. The applet generated a nursing note, and process data were saved in a Microsoft Access database. In 10 patients, this method was validated by comparison with a retrospective chart review. In 45 consecutive patients, weekly control charts were generated from the data. When aberrations from the pathway occurred, feedback was initiated to restore the goals of the critical pathway. The intranet process data collection method was verified by a manual chart review with 98% sensitivity. The control charts for time to extubation, intensive care unit stay, and hospital stay showed a deviation from critical pathway goals after the first 20 patients. Feedback modulation was associated with a return to critical pathway goals. Java-based applets are inexpensive and can collect accurate postoperative process data, identify critical pathway deviations, and allow timely feedback of process data.

  12. Relationship between magnetic resonance imaging and clinical results of decompression surgery for cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    MR imaging was investigated before and after surgery in 60 cases of cervical myelopathy. A preoperative high-signal-intensity area in the spinal cord was thought to be an important indicator of poor prognosis, because the recovery ratio of the preoperative high-signal group was 32±24%, while that of the normal-signal group was 86±15%. But, a high-signal-intensity area had no significant correlation with the morbidity period, preoperative clinical severity and degree of cord compression. There was a significant correlation between postoperative MR imaging and the neurological prognosis. And, atrophy and high-signal-intensity area in the spinal cord were frequently seen in cases of poor neurological postoperative recovery, corresponding to the morbidity period, preoperative clinical severity and degree of cord compression. MR imaging can serve as a useful tool to assess cervical myelopathy and to forecast the postoperative prognosis. (author)

  13. Clinical significance of 201Tl reverse redistribution in patients with aorto-coronary bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Tashiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Kozuka, Takahira

    1987-01-01

    Detection of myocardial ischemia by the stress thallium scan has traditionally been performed using transient defect analysis on exercise, followed by redistribution studies. Worsening of the 201 Tl myocardial image from exercise to redistribution is referred to as reverse redistribution. In this study, we found reverse redistribution in 10 (21%) of 48 angina pectoris patients who had undergone aortocoronary bypass surgery. The clinical significance of this phenomenon in these patients was investigated in relation to angiographic and surgical findings. Reverse redistribution was found to occur in regions which were supplied by bypass grafts. These areas showed increased coronary blood flow and rapid thallium washout. Our results indicate that a perfusion defect in the bypass region of the redistribution image might be caused by relatively rapid washout in the bypass graft region compared to the adjacent normal myocardium. These results should be considered in the clinical interpretation of stress thallium scans. (orig.)

  14. Clinical implementation of intraoperative cone-beam CT in head and neck surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, M. J.; Chan, H.; Nithiananthan, S.; Qiu, J.; Barker, E.; Bachar, G.; Dixon, B. J.; Irish, J. C.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2011-03-01

    A prototype mobile C-arm for cone-beam CT (CBCT) has been translated to a prospective clinical trial in head and neck surgery. The flat-panel CBCT C-arm was developed in collaboration with Siemens Healthcare, and demonstrates both sub-mm spatial resolution and soft-tissue visibility at low radiation dose (e.g., software based on the open-source Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK). The CBCT C-arm has been successfully deployed in 15 head and neck cases and streamlined into the surgical environment using human factors engineering methods and expert feedback from surgeons, nurses, and anesthetists. Intraoperative imaging is implemented in a manner that maintains operating field sterility, reduces image artifacts (e.g., carbon fiber OR table) and minimizes radiation exposure. Image reviews conducted with surgical staff indicate bony detail and soft-tissue visualization sufficient for intraoperative guidance, with additional artifact management (e.g., metal, scatter) promising further improvements. Clinical trial deployment suggests a role for intraoperative CBCT in guiding complex head and neck surgical tasks, including planning mandible and maxilla resection margins, guiding subcranial and endonasal approaches to skull base tumours, and verifying maxillofacial reconstruction alignment. Ongoing translational research into complimentary image-guidance subsystems include novel methods for real-time tool tracking, fusion of endoscopic video and CBCT, and deformable registration of preoperative volumes and planning contours with intraoperative CBCT.

  15. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Clinical effectiveness of continuous passive motion (CPM) following femoroacetabular impingement surgery in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosalkar, Harish; Bomar, James D

    2012-08-01

    This study hypothesizes that the use of continuous passive motion (CPM) following open femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) surgery in the adolescent population improves clinical outcomes in terms of the modified Harris hip score (mHHS). Twenty-nine symptomatic adolescent FAI patients were postoperatively divided into one of three groups; no CPM, two days of inpatient CPM, and two weeks of CPM. mHHS was used preoperatively and postoperatively at six weeks, three months, six months, and nine months in all cases. Kruskal-Wallis (KW) analysis was performed to determine statistical differences in mHHS. mHHS was then re-evaluated using the Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant differences in hip scores between the three groups preoperatively (p = 0.158). There were statistically significant differences (p CPM had the best outcome scores. The results of this study suggest that postoperative CPM use following open hip preservation surgery for symptomatic FAI in adolescents improves clinical outcomes. These benefits seem to be related to the duration of CPM. Retrospective comparative study, Level III. Patients treated one way compared with patients treated another way at the same institution.

  16. Comparison of neoadjuvant chemotherapy versus upfront surgery with or without chemotherapy for patients with clinical stage III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, S; Tsubosa, Y; Sato, H; Takebayashi, K; Kawamorita, K; Mori, K; Niihara, M; Tsushima, T; Yokota, T; Onozawa, Y; Yasui, H; Takeuchi, H; Kitagawa, Y

    2017-02-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and chemoradiotherapy have been shown to extend postoperative survival, and preoperative therapy followed by esophagectomy has become the standard treatment worldwide for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The Japan Clinical Oncology Group 9907 study showed that NAC significantly extended survival in advanced ESCC, but the survival benefit for patients with clinical stage III disease remains to be elucidated. We compared the survival rates of NAC and upfront surgery in patients with clinical stage III ESCC. Consecutive patients histologically diagnosed as clinical stage III (excluding cT4) ESCC were eligible for this retrospective study. Between September 2002 and April 2007, upfront transthoracic esophagectomy was performed initially and, for patients with positive lymph node (LN) metastasis in a resected specimen, adjuvant chemotherapy using cisplatin and 5-fluororouracil every 3 weeks for two cycles was administered (Upfront surgery group). Since May 2007, a NAC regimen used as adjuvant chemotherapy followed by transthoracic esophagectomy has been administered as the standard treatment in our institution (NAC group). Patient characteristics, clinicopathological factors, treatment outcomes, post-treatment recurrence, and overall survival (OS) were compared between the NAC and upfront surgery groups. Fifty-one and 55 patients were included in the NAC and upfront surgery groups, respectively. The R0 resection rate was significantly lower in the NAC group than in the upfront surgery group (upfront surgery, 98%; NAC, 76%; P = 0.003). In the upfront surgery group, of 49 patients who underwent R0 resection and pathologically positive for LN metastasis, 22 (45%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. In the NAC group, 49 (96%) of 51 patients completed two cycles of NAC. In survival analysis, no significant difference in OS was observed between the NAC and upfront surgery groups (NAC: 5-year OS, 43.8%; upfront surgery: 5

  17. Initial clinical experience with a novel biodegradable ring in patients with functional tricuspid insufficiency: Kalangos Biodegradable Tricuspid Ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burma, O; Ustunsoy, H; Davutoglu, V; Celkan, M A; Kazaz, H; Pektok, E

    2007-08-01

    Tricuspid annuloplasty procedures have been widely performed in clinics for many years. The Kalangos Biodegradable Tricuspid Ring (Kalangos Biodegradable Tricuspid Ring, Bioring SA, Lonay, Switzerland) is a novel prosthesis for the treatment of tricuspid insufficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and echocardiographic results of this novel prosthesis for functional tricuspid insufficiency. Between October 2005 and May 2006, 15 patients with the diagnosis of moderate or severe functional tricuspid insufficiency were treated by implantation of a Kalangos Biodegradable Tricuspid Ring. All patients were evaluated clinically and by echocardiography preoperatively, and control tests were performed at the end of the 1st and 6th month following surgery. Moderate and severe insufficiency was documented in 11 and 4 patients, respectively, in the preoperative tests. 1 and 6 months after surgery, 4 patients had trace and 1 patient had mild tricuspid insufficiency, while 10 patients had none. At the 1st and 6th month follow-up, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, right atrial dimension and right ventricular diastolic diameter were found to be significantly lower than the preoperative values ( P tricuspid valve area had decreased significantly at the end of the 1st month; however, no significant difference was found between the 1st and 6th month tests ( P > 0.05). Three-quarters of the annuloplasty ring had degraded at 6 months. No complications related to the prosthesis or the procedure occurred within this period. Kalangos Biodegradable Ring is a promising prosthesis in patients with functional tricuspid insufficiency, with encouraging initial results.

  18. Improving resident engagement in quality improvement and patient safety initiatives at the bedside: the Advocate for Clinical Education (ACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Anneliese M; Best, Jennifer A; McIntyre, Lisa K; Ehrmantraut, Ross; Calver, Patty; Goss, J Richard

    2013-01-01

    Quality improvement (QI) and patient safety (PS) are essential competencies in residency training; however, the most effective means to engage physicians remains unclear. The authors surveyed all medicine and surgery physicians at their institution to describe QI/PS practices and concurrently implemented the Advocate for Clinical Education (ACE) program to determine if a physician-centered program in the context of educational structures and at the point of care improved performance. The ACE rounded with medicine and surgery teams and provided individual and team-level education and feedback targeting 4 domains: professionalism, infection control, interpreter use, and pain assessment. In a pilot, the ACE observed 2862 physician-patient interactions and 178 physicians. Self-reported compliance often was greater than the behaviors observed. Following ACE implementation, observed professionalism behaviors trended toward improvement; infection control also improved. Physicians were highly satisfied with the program. The ACE initiative is one coaching/feedback model for engaging residents in QI/PS that may warrant further study.

  19. A physician-led initiative to improve clinical documentation results in improved health care documentation, case mix index, and increased contribution margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Francesco A; Judelson, Dejah R; Durgin, Jonathan M; Doucet, Danielle R; Simons, Jessica P; Durocher, Dawn M; Flahive, Julie M; Schanzer, Andres

    2018-05-04

    Clinical documentation is the key determinant of inpatient acuity of illness and payer reimbursement. Every inpatient hospitalization is placed into a diagnosis related group with a relative value based on documented procedures, conditions, comorbidities and complications. The Case Mix Index (CMI) is an average of these diagnosis related groups and directly impacts physician profiling, medical center profiling, reimbursement, and quality reporting. We hypothesize that a focused, physician-led initiative to improve clinical documentation of vascular surgery inpatients results in increased CMI and contribution margin. A physician-led coding initiative to educate physicians on the documentation of comorbidities and conditions was initiated with concurrent chart review sessions with coding specialists for 3 months, and then as needed, after the creation of a vascular surgery documentation guide. Clinical documentation and billing for all carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and open infrainguinal procedures (OIPs) performed between January 2013 and July 2016 were stratified into precoding and postcoding initiative groups. Age, duration of stay, direct costs, actual reimbursements, contribution margin (CM), CMI, rate of complication or comorbidity, major complication or comorbidity, severity of illness, and risk of mortality assigned to each discharge were abstracted. Data were compared over time by standardizing Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) values for each diagnosis related group and using a CMS base rate reimbursement. Among 458 CEA admissions, postcoding initiative CEA patients (n = 253) had a significantly higher CMI (1.36 vs 1.25; P = .03), CM ($7859 vs $6650; P = .048), and CMS base rate reimbursement ($8955 vs $8258; P = .03) than precoding initiative CEA patients (n = 205). The proportion of admissions with a documented major complication or comorbidity and complication or comorbidity was significantly higher after the coding initiative (43% vs

  20. Difference in clinical outcome between total shoulder arthroplasty and reverse shoulder arthroplasty used in hemiarthroplasty revision surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, B.P.; Alta, T.D.; Sewnath, M.E.; Willems, W.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The increase of shoulder replacements will lead to a higher revision rate of shoulder arthroplasties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical results of revision surgery performed in our hospital, distinguish the differences in clinical outcome according to revision

  1. The in-house education of clinical clerks in surgery and the role of housestaff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Sam; Poenaru, Dan

    2002-11-01

    While on surgical rotations, clinical clerks spend more time on the ward and in the emergency department than in any other location. Consequently, their in-house experience is of great importance to their education-yet the teaching processes in these settings have never been fully explored. Unlike the structured pre-clerkship years, the exact breakdown of a clerk's hospital-based education is difficult to elucidate. To effectively evaluate a clerkship curriculum, it is essential to know what clerks are being taught outside of seminars, how that teaching occurs, and by whom. This study proposes a methodology by which a surgical clerkship curriculum can be evaluated. For the purpose of the study, surgery clerks carried written and audio logs of their informal teaching encounters during one on-call period (30 hours). These included who taught them, where, by what methods, for how long, and what prompted the teaching. A survey of similar variables was administered to all clerks who rotated through general surgery over 4 months and to all general surgery residents. Four clerks returned completed logs (100% response rate), and 17 clerks (85% response) and 15 residents (100% response) were surveyed. Audiotaped and written logs were similar, demonstrating good recall. Students recorded an average of 11 teaching encounters (range 3 to 20) per 30 hour period, lasting a total of 73 minutes (range 17 to 178) and each 6.7 +/- 14 minutes long. Both logs and surveys identified most teaching as unsolicited, done mostly by junior and chief residents, focused chiefly on diagnosis and using a Socratic style. Most teaching occurred in the operating room, yet its occurrence was unpredictable; in surveys the emergency room and clinic settings were perceived as more important. Staff surgeons contributed 27% of the logged encounters yet were perceived in surveys as the least contributors. Residents' and clerks' perceptions of teaching were similar except for residents overvaluing the

  2. Clinical outcomes of Laparoscopically Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy at patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riza Odabasi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical outcomes of Laparoscopically Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy (LAVH at patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery.\tDesign: A clinical observational, prospective, non randomised trial comparing outcomes of 13 patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery with outcomes of 19 patients who had not surgery.\tSetting: Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.\tPatients: Thirty-two subjects [average age 51,1±6,9 (37-66] who had indication of total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral\tsalpingooferectomy due to benign pathologies.\tInterventions: According to ACOG, LAVH was performed by using the Garry technique at the trocar insertions, the Reich technique\tat the laparoscopic phase and the Heaney technique at the vaginal phase by the same operator. After adhesiolysis and diagnostic procedures, ureters were dissected medially. By coagulating, bilateral round and infundibulopelvic ligaments were cut after the\tmobilisation of bladder. The operation was completed by the same operation team by vaginal approach consequently. At all operations, 80 W unipolar or 150 W bipolar diathermic dissection and 25-35 W unipolar diathermic cutting were performed.\tMain outcome measures: Age, parity, menopausal status, preoperative indications, type of previous abdominopelvic surgey and incision, intraoperative indications, adhesion scores, rate of unintended laparotomy, operative time, uterus weight, loss of blood,\tcomplications, postoperative pain scores and analgesic requirements, time necessary for returning to normal intestinal function, length of hospitalisation and rate of readmission to hospital.\tRESULTS: When compared with the patients who had not previous abdominopelvic surgery, all adhesion scores, uterus weight, operative time and the number of total postoperative complications were found significantly high at patients who had previous\tsurgery. Loss of blood, the rate

  3. The Effectiveness of Nurse-Led Preoperative Assessment Clinics for Patients Receiving Elective Orthopaedic Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau-Man Conny, Chan; Wan-Yim, Ip

    2016-12-01

    Nurse-led preoperative assessment clinics (POAC) have been introduced in different specialty areas to assess and prepare patients preoperatively in order to avoid last-minute surgery cancellations. Not all patients are referred to POACs before surgery, and the benefits of nurse-led POACs are not well documented in Hong Kong. The purpose of this systemic review was to identify the best available research evidence to inform current clinical practice, guide health care decision making and promote better care. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) approach for conducting systematic review of quantitative research was used. Data bases searched included all published and unpublished studies in Chinese and English. All studies with adult patients who required elective orthopaedic surgery e.g. total knee replacement, total hip replacement, reduction of fracture or reconstruction surgery etc. in a hospital or day surgery center and attended a nurse-led POAC before surgery were included. Ten studies were critically appraised. Results showed that nurse-led POACs can reduce surgery cancellation rates. These studies suggested a reduction in the rate of postoperative mortality and length of hospital stay. In addition, the level of satisfaction towards services provided was significantly high. Although POACs are being increasingly implemented worldwide, the development of clinical guidelines, pathways and protocols was advocated. The best available evidence asserted that nurses in the POAC could serve as effective coordinators, assessors and educators. The nurse-led practice optimized patients' condition before surgery and hence minimized elective surgery cancellations. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Interval to Definitive Breast Surgery on Clinical Presentation and Survival in Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujovic, Olga; Yu, Edward; Cherian, Anil; Perera, Francisco; Dar, A. Rashid; Stitt, Larry; Hammond, A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of clinical presentation and interval to breast surgery on local recurrence and survival in early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The data from 397 patients with Stage T1-T2N0 breast carcinoma treated with conservative surgery and breast radiotherapy between 1985 and 1992 were reviewed at the London Regional Cancer Program. The clinical presentation consisted of a mammogram finding or a palpable lump. The intervals from clinical presentation to definitive breast surgery used for analysis were 0-4, >4-12, and >12 weeks. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of the time to local recurrence, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival were determined for the three groups. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of clinical presentation and interval to definitive surgery on survival. Results: The median follow-up was 11.2 years. No statistically significant difference was found in local recurrence as a function of the interval to definitive surgery (p = .424). A significant difference was noted in disease-free survival (p = .040) and cause-specific survival (p = .006) with an interval of >12 weeks to definitive breast surgery. However, the interval to definitive surgery was dependent on the presentation for cause-specific survival, with a substantial effect for patients with a mammographic presentation and a negligible effect for patients with a lump presentation (interaction p = .041). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that an interval of >12 weeks to breast surgery might be associated with decreased survival for patients with a mammographic presentation, but it appeared to have no effect on survival for patients presenting with a palpable breast lump.

  5. Pricing strategy for aesthetic surgery: economic analysis of a resident clinic's change in fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, L M; Shaw, W W

    1999-02-01

    The laws of microeconomics explain how prices affect consumer purchasing decisions and thus overall revenues and profits. These principles can easily be applied to the behavior aesthetic plastic surgery patients. The UCLA Division of Plastic Surgery resident aesthetics clinic recently offered a radical price change for its services. The effects of this change on demand for services and revenue were tracked. Economic analysis was applied to see if this price change resulted in the maximization of total revenues, or if additional price changes could further optimize them. Economic analysis of pricing involves several steps. The first step is to assess demand. The number of procedures performed by a given practice at different price levels can be plotted to create a demand curve. From this curve, price sensitivities of consumers can be calculated (price elasticity of demand). This information can then be used to determine the pricing level that creates demand for the exact number of procedures that yield optimal revenues. In economic parlance, revenues are maximized by pricing services such that elasticity is equal to 1 (the point of unit elasticity). At the UCLA resident clinic, average total fees per procedure were reduced by 40 percent. This resulted in a 250-percent increase in procedures performed for representative 4-month periods before and after the price change. Net revenues increased by 52 percent. Economic analysis showed that the price elasticity of demand before the price change was 6.2. After the price change it was 1. We conclude that the magnitude of the price change resulted in a fee schedule that yielded the highest possible revenues from the resident clinic. These results show that changes in price do affect total revenue and that the nature of these effects can be understood, predicted, and maximized using the tools of microeconomics.

  6. ["Practical clinical competence" - a joint programme to improve training in surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruesseler, M; Schill, A; Stibane, T; Damanakis, A; Schleicher, I; Menzler, S; Braunbeck, A; Walcher, F

    2013-12-01

    Practical clinical competence is, as a result of the complexity of the required skills and the immediate consequences of their insufficient mastery, fundamentally important for undergraduate medical education. However, in the daily clinical routine, undergraduate training competes with patient care and experimental research, mostly to the disadvantage of the training of clinical skills and competencies. All students have to spend long periods in compulsory surgical training courses during their undergraduate studies. Thus, surgical undergraduate training is predestined to exemplarily develop, analyse and implement a training concept comprising defined learning objectives, elaborated teaching materials, analysed teaching methods, as well as objective and reliable assessment methods. The aim of this project is to improve and strengthen undergraduate training in practical clinical skills and competencies. The project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research with almost two million Euro as a joint research project of the medical faculties of the universities of Frankfurt/Main, Gießen and Marburg, in collaboration with the German Society of Surgery, the German Society of Medical Education and the German Medical Students' Association. Nine packages in three pillars are combined in order to improve undergraduate medical training on a methodical, didactic and curricular level in a nation-wide network. Each partner of this network provides a systematic contribution to the project based on individual experience and competence. Based on the learning objectives, which were defined by the working group "Education" of the German Society of Surgery, teaching contents will be analysed with respect to their quality and will be available for both teachers and students as mobile learning tool (first pillar). The existing surgical curricula at the cooperating medical faculties will be analysed and teaching methods as well as assessment methods for clinical

  7. Randomized Controlled Trial of Antiseptic Hand Hygiene Methods in an Outpatient Surgery Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therattil, Paul J; Yueh, Janet H; Kordahi, Anthony M; Cherla, Deepa V; Lee, Edward S; Granick, Mark S

    2015-12-01

    Outpatient wound care plays an integral part in any plastic surgery practice. However, compliance with hand hygiene measures has shown to be low, due to skin irritation and lack of time. The objective of this trial was to determine whether single-use, long-acting antiseptics can be as effective as standard multiple-use hand hygiene methods in an outpatient surgical setting. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was performed in the authors' outpatient plastic surgery clinic at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ to compare the efficacy of an ethyl alcohol-based sanitizer (Avagard D Instant Hand Aniseptic, 3M Health Care, St. Paul, MN), a benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer (Soft & Shield, Bioderm Technologies, Inc, Trenton, NJ, distributed by NAPP Technologies, Hackensack, NJ ), and soap and- water handwashing. Subjects included clinic personnel, who were followed throughout the course of a 3-hour clinic session with hourly hand bacterial counts taken. During the course of the trial, 95 subjects completed the clinic session utilizing 1 of the hand hygiene methods (36 ethyl alcohol-based sanitizer, 38 benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer, and 21 soap-and-water handwashing). There was no difference between hand bacterial counts using the different methods at 4 hourly time points (P greater than 0.05). Hand bacterial counts increased significantly over the 3-hour clinic session with the ethyl alcohol-based sanitizer (9.24 to 21.90 CFU, P less than 0.05), benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer (6.69 to 21.59 CFU, P less than 0.05), and soap-and-water handwashing (8.43 to 22.75 CFU, P less than 0.05). There does not appear to be any difference in efficacy between single-use, long-acting sanitizer, and standard multiple-use hand hygiene methods. Hand bacterial counts increased significantly over the course of the 3-hour clinic session regardless of the hand hygiene measure used. Hand condition of subjects was improved with the ethyl alcohol

  8. Comparing the effect of preoperative administration of methylprednisolone and its administration before and during surgery on the clinical outcome in pediatric open heart surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Ghasem; Abbasi Tashnizi, Mohammad; Moeinipour, Ali Asghar; Ganjifard, Mahmoud; Esfahanizadeh, Jamil; Sepehri Shamloo, Alireza; Purafzali Firuzabadi, Seyed Javad; Zirak, Nahid

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac surgery under Cardiopulmonary bypass causes a systemic inflammatory response with a multifactorial etiology including direct tissue damage, ischemia and stimulation of immune system induced by cardiopulmonary bypass. This study was designed due to the high prevalence and complications of this stimulated immune system in mortality, morbidity, length of ICU stay, and mechanical ventilation. This study was aimed to compare preoperative and intraoperative methylprednisolone (MP) to intraoperative MP alone with respect to postbypass inflammation and clinical outcome. Sixty pediatric patients (age 0.05). No significant difference in amount of inotropic medications used for hemodynamic supports, duration of mechanical ventilation, peak and average temperature and length of ICU stay was observed. Among the laboratory tests (WBC, BUN, creatinine, CRP) only WBC counts raised more in group 2 when compared to group 1(P < 0.05). There was no difference in clinical outcome after cardiac surgery when we administered an additional dose of methylprednisolone compared to a single dose of methylprednisolone.

  9. Clinical Evaluation of Measuring the ACT during Elective Cardiac Surgery with Two Different Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Florian; Razzaq, Nabeel; John, Martin; Fassl, Jens; Maurer, Markus; Ewing, Sean; Hofmeyr, Ross

    2018-03-01

    Unfractionated heparin is the mainstay of anticoagulation during cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) due to its low cost, quick onset, and ease of reversal. Since over 30 years, the activated clotting time (ACT) has been used to assess the level of heparin activity both before and after CPB. We compared two different methods of measuring the ACT: i-STAT, which uses amperometric detection of thrombin cleavage, and Hemochron Jr, which is based on detecting viscoelastic changes in blood. We included 402 patients from three institutions (Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, UK; Groote Schuur, Cape Town, South Africa; University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland) undergoing elective cardiac surgery on CPB in our study. We analyzed duplicate samples on both devices at all standard measuring points during the procedure. The correlation coefficient between two Hemochron and two i-STAT devices was .9165 and .9857, respectively. The within-subject coefficient of variation (WSCV) ranged from 8.2 to 13.6% for the Hemochron and from 4.1 to 9.1% for the i-STAT. We found that the number of occasions where one of the duplicate readings was >1,000 seconds while the other was below or close to the clinically significant threshold of 400 seconds were higher for the Hemochron. We found the i-STAT to systematically return higher measurements. We conclude that the i-STAT provides a more reliable test for heparin activity and assesses safe anticoagulation during cardiac surgery on pump. The fact the that the i-STAT reads higher than the Hemochron leads to the recommendation to validate the methods against each other before changing devices.

  10. Current controversies in reconstructive surgery of the anterior urethra: a clinical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Barbagli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We performed an overview of the surgical techniques suggested for the treatment of anterior urethral strictures using MEDLINE. In applying the MEDLINE search, we used the "MeSH" (Medical Subject Heading and "free text" protocols. The MeSH search was conducted by combining the following terms: "urethral stricture", "flap", "graft", "oral mucosa", "urethroplasty", "urethrotomy" and "failed hypospadias". Multiple "free text" searches were performed individually applying the following terms through all fields of the records: "reconstructive urethral surgery", "end-to-end anastomosis", "one-stage", "two stage". Descriptive statistics of the articles were provided. Meta-analyses were not employed. Seventy-eight articles were determined to be germane in this review. Six main topics were identified as controversial in anterior urethra surgery: the use of oral mucosa vs penile skin; the use of free grafts vs pedicled flaps in penile urethroplasty; the use of grafts vs anastomotic repair in bulbar urethral strictures; the use of dorsal vs ventral placement of the graft in bulbar urethroplasty; the use of definitive perineal urethrostomy vs one-stage repair in complex urethral strictures; the surgical options for patients with failed hypospadias repair. Different points of view are documented and presented in the literature by various authors from different countries. The aim of this clinical overview is to survey the main controversial issues in surgical reconstruction of the anterior urethra focusing on the use of flap or graft, substitute material, type of surgery and challenging situations, such as failed hypospadias or complex urethral stricture repair.

  11. Postoperative pneumonia after surgery for lung cancer. Clinical analysis of 23 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Toru; Takeuchi, Yukiyasu; Funakoshi, Yasunobu; Ohse, Naoko; Kusumoto, Hidenori; Maeda, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative pneumonia is sometimes a life-threatening complication of surgery for lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed patients who developed postoperative pneumonia after surgery for lung cancer in order to assess the clinical, microbiological, and therapeutic features of this complication. Between 2001 and 2009, 836 patients underwent pulmonary resection for lung cancer in our hospital. Postoperative pneumonia developed in 23 patients (2.8%). Diagnoses of pneumonia were performed on postoperative day 6.8±3.4 (mean± standard deviation (SD)). Plain chest radiography revealed abnormal shadows on the operative side in 20 patients; 2 patients had bilateral pneumonia and 1 underwent pneumonectomy. Computed tomography was performed in 17 patients, and, among them, 13 patients (76.5%) had infiltrative shadows in the caudal or dorsal portion of the operative side of the lung. Nine patients (39.1%) were intubated in order to perform mechanical ventilation, and 4 of them died. Sputum cultures were performed in 12 patients, and pathogenic microorganisms were isolated in 4 (33.3%). The culturing of endotracheal specimens was carried out in 12 patients; among them, normal flora of the oral cavity was isolated in 4 patients (33.3%), no microorganisms were identified in 1 patient (8.3%), and pathogenic microorganisms were isolated in 7 patients (58.3%). The patients whose specimens tested positive for pathogenic microorganisms tended to develop severe pneumonia. We conclude that the insufficient drainage of respiratory tract secretions and silent aspiration after lung surgery are associated with the development of postoperative pneumonia. Further, obtaining and analyzing lower respiratory tract secretions is an important step in the management of postoperative pneumonia. (author)

  12. A randomized clinical trial of continuous aspiration of subglottic secretions in cardiac surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollef, M H; Skubas, N J; Sundt, T M

    1999-11-01

    To determine whether the application of continuous aspiration of subglottic secretions (CASS) is associated with a decreased incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Prospective clinical trial. Cardiothoracic ICU (CTICU) of Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, a university-affiliated teaching hospital. Three hundred forty-three patients undergoing cardiac surgery and requiring mechanical ventilation in the CTICU. Patients were assigned to receive either CASS, using a specially designed endotracheal tube (Hi-Lo Evac; Mallinckrodt Inc; Athlone, Ireland), or routine postoperative medical care without CASS. One hundred sixty patients were assigned to receive CASS, and 183 were assigned to receive routine postoperative medical care without CASS. The two groups were similar at the time of randomization with regard to demographic characteristics, surgical procedures performed, and severity of illness. Risk factors for the development of VAP were also similar during the study period for both treatment groups. VAP was seen in 8 patients (5.0%) receiving CASS and in 15 patients (8. 2%) receiving routine postoperative medical care without CASS (relative risk, 0.61%; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 1.40; p = 0. 238). Episodes of VAP occurred statistically later among patients receiving CASS ([mean +/- SD] 5.6 +/- 2.3 days) than among patients who did not receive CASS (2.9 +/- 1.2 days); (p = 0.006). No statistically significant differences for hospital mortality, overall duration of mechanical ventilation, lengths of stay in the hospital or CTICU, or acquired organ system derangements were found between the two treatment groups. No complications related to CASS were observed in the intervention group. Our findings suggest that CASS can be safely administered to patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The occurrence of VAP can be significantly delayed among patients undergoing cardiac surgery using this simple-to-apply technique.

  13. Neuraxial anesthesia for orthopedic surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Taking the outcome of mortality into consideration, there is controversy about the beneficial effects of neuraxial anesthesia for orthopedic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of neuraxial anesthesia versus general anesthesia for orthopedic surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review at Universidade Federal de Alagoas. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 10, 2012, PubMed (1966 to November 2012, Lilacs (1982 to November 2012, SciELO, EMBASE (1974 to November 2012 and reference lists of the studies included. Only randomized controlled trials were included. RESULTS: Out of 5,032 titles and abstracts, 17 studies were included. There were no statistically significant differences in mortality (risk difference, RD: -0.01; 95% confidence interval, CI: -0.04 to 0.01; n = 1903, stroke (RD: 0.02; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.08; n = 259, myocardial infarction (RD: -0.01; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.02; n = 291, length of hospitalization (mean difference, -0.05; 95% CI: -0.69 to 0.58; n = 870, postoperative cognitive dysfunction (RD: 0.00; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.05; n = 479 or pneumonia (odds ratio, 0.61; 95% CI: 0.25 to 1.49; n = 167. CONCLUSION: So far, the evidence available from the studies included is insufficient to prove that neuraxial anesthesia is more effective and safer than general anesthesia for orthopedic surgery. However, this systematic review does not rule out clinically important differences with regard to mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, length of hospitalization, postoperative cognitive dysfunction or pneumonia.

  14. Sexual dysfunction following surgery for rectal cancer - a clinical and neurophysiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperduti Isabella

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual dysfunction following surgery for rectal cancer may be frequent and often severe. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the occurrence of this complication from both a clinical point of view and by means of neurophysiological tests. Methods We studied a group of 57 patients submitted to rectal resection for adenocarcinoma. All the patients underwent neurological, psychological and the following neurophysiological tests: sacral reflex (SR, pudendal somatosensory evoked potentials (PEPs, motor evoked potential (MEPs and sympathetic skin responses (SSRs. The results were compared with a control group of 67 rectal cancer patients studied before surgery. Only 10 of these patients could be studied both pre- and postoperatively. 10 patients submitted to high dose preoperative chemoradiation were studied to evaluate the effect of this treatment on sexual function. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the two-tailed Student's t test for paired observations and k concordance test. Results 59.6% of patients operated reported sexual dysfunction, while this symptom occurred in 16.4% in the control group. Moreover, a significantly higher rate of alterations of the neurophysiological tests and longer mean latencies of the SR, PEPs, MEPs and SSRs were observed in the patients who had undergone resection. In the 10 patients studied both pre and post-surgery impotence occurred in 6 of them and the mean latencies of SSRs were longer after operation. In the 10 patients studied pre and post chemoradiation impotence occurred in 1 patient only, showing the mild effect of these treatments on sexual function. Conclusion Patients operated showed severe sexual dysfunctions. The neurophysiological test may be a useful tool to investigate this complication. The neurological damage could be monitored to decide the rehabilitation strategy.

  15. Clinical outcomes in patients treated with radiotherapy after surgery for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kyung Mi; Park, Won; Huh, Seung Jae; Bae, Duk Soo; Kim, Byoung Gie; Lee, Jeong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical outcomes from cervical cancer and stratify patients into risk groups for prognostic factors for early-stage disease. We retrospectively reviewed patients with stage IB or IIA cervical cancer treated with adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) following primary surgery at Samsung Medical Center from 2001 to 2011. Adjuvant RT was added for patients with intermediate-risk factors, and adjuvant CCRT was performed on high-risk patients after surgery. We reviewed 247 patients—149 in the high-risk group and 98 in intermediate-risk group. The median follow-up was 62 months. Loco-regional failure (LRF) alone occurred in 7 patients (2.8%), distant metastasis alone in 37 patients (15.0%) and LRF with DM in 4 patients (1.6%). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for both groups were 79.7% and 87.6%, respectively. In the high-risk group, the 5-year DFS and OS probabilities were 72.5% and 81.9%, respectively. Histologic type, pathologic tumor size, and the number of pelvic lymph node (PLN) metastasis were significant prognostic factors for DFS and OS. We suggest a scoring system (0–3) using these prognostic factors to predict poor prognosis in high-risk patients. Using this system, patients with higher scores have higher recurrence and lower survival rates. In the high-risk cervical-cancer group who received primary surgery and adjuvant CCRT, non-squamous type, large tumor size and the number of PLN metastasis were significant prognostic factors, and the number of these factors was associated with survival rates.

  16. Long-term Mechanical Circulatory Support System reliability recommendation by the National Clinical Trial Initiative subcommittee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James

    2009-01-01

    The Long-Term Mechanical Circulatory Support (MCS) System Reliability Recommendation was published in the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs (ASAIO) Journal and the Annals of Thoracic Surgery in 1998. At that time, it was stated that the document would be periodically reviewed to assess its timeliness and appropriateness within 5 years. Given the wealth of clinical experience in MCS systems, a new recommendation has been drafted by consensus of a group of representatives from the medical community, academia, industry, and government. The new recommendation describes a reliability test methodology and provides detailed reliability recommendations. In addition, the new recommendation provides additional information and clinical data in appendices that are intended to assist the reliability test engineer in the development of a reliability test that is expected to give improved predictions of clinical reliability compared with past test methods. The appendices are available for download at the ASAIO journal web site at www.asaiojournal.com.

  17. Higher clinical performance during a surgical clerkship is independently associated with matriculation of medical students into general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Shaun C; Deal, Rebecca A; Rinewalt, Daniel E; Francescatti, Amanda B; Luu, Minh B; Millikan, Keith W; Anderson, Mary C; Myers, Jonathan A

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the predictive impact of individual academic measures for the matriculation of senior medical students into a general surgery residency. Academic records were evaluated for third-year medical students (n = 781) at a single institution between 2004 and 2011. Cohorts were defined by student matriculation into either a general surgery residency program (n = 58) or a non-general surgery residency program (n = 723). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate independently significant academic measures. Clinical evaluation raw scores were predictive of general surgery matriculation (P = .014). In addition, multivariate modeling showed lower United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 scores to be independently associated with matriculation into general surgery (P = .007). Superior clinical aptitude is independently associated with general surgical matriculation. This is in contrast to the negative correlation United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 scores have on general surgery matriculation. Recognizing this, surgical clerkship directors can offer opportunities for continued surgical education to students showing high clinical aptitude, increasing their likelihood of surgical matriculation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The clinical implications of variants of vena cava inferior and aorta on retroperitoneal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Mukhtarulina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study variants of retroperitoneal vascular structure and its clinical implications on retroperitoneal surgery in patients with cervical cancer IA–IIB stage.Materials and methods. 101 patients who underwent paraaortic and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy were included in this study. 10 patients of the first group with anomalies of inferior vena cava, renal arteries and veins, common iliac vein and ovarian vessels were compared with 91 patients of the second group without anomalies.Results. Variants of major retroperitoneal vascular structure were present in 10 (9.9 % patients. Supernumerary renal arteries and veins observed in 5 (4.9 % patients; retroaortic left renal vein type I and II – in 3 (3.0 % patients. Double vena cava inferior detected in 1 (1.0 % patient. Patients with variants of retroperitoneal vascular structures hadn’t vessel injury. There was no difference in intraoperative hemorrhage, transfusion red blood cell, rate of intraoperative hemoglobin and removed paraaortic lymph nodes between the groups. Risk factors for intraoperative bleeding in patients with cervical cancer, depending on the presence or absence of anomalies of retroperitoneal vessels had no significant difference.Conclusion. Despite the fact that the variants of retroperitoneal vascular structures are rare (9.9 %, the success of retroperitoneal surgery is associated with the knowledge of vascular variations which decrease serious, life-threatening complications.

  19. Hypnosis in the Perioperative Management of Breast Cancer Surgery: Clinical Benefits and Potential Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Fabienne; Pospiech, Audrey; Momeni, Mona; Watremez, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize data published on the use of perioperative hypnosis in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery (BCS). Indeed, the majority of BCS patients experience stress, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and pain. Correct management of the perioperative period and surgical removal of the primary tumor are clearly essential but can affect patients on different levels and hence have a negative impact on oncological outcomes. This review examines the effect of clinical hypnosis performed during the perioperative period. Thanks to its specific properties and techniques allowing it to be used as complementary treatment preoperatively, hypnosis has an impact most notably on distress and postoperative pain. During surgery, hypnosis may be applied to limit immunosuppression, while, in the postoperative period, it can reduce pain, anxiety, and fatigue and improve wound healing. Moreover, hypnosis is inexpensive, an important consideration given current financial concerns in healthcare. Of course, large randomized prospective studies are now needed to confirm the observed advantages of hypnosis in the field of oncology. PMID:27635132

  20. Clinical analysis of modified trabeculectomy in glaucoma surgery with high elevated intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cang-Xia Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To make a retrospective analysis of the clinical data of modified trabeculectomy in treating glaucoma surgery with high elevated intraocular pressure retrospectively and evaluate the effect of modified trabeculectomy.METHODS:One hundred acute angle-closure glaucoma patients(100 eyeswith persistent high intraocular pressure were divided into treatment group(45 eyesand control group(55 eyes. Patients in treatment group was treated with by trabeculectomy, while those in control group received modified trabeculectomy. The modified measures include stellate ganglion block preoperative, topical anesthesia and local anesthesia with 20g/L lidocaine cotton-piece, to make scleral flap with sclerotome, to release aqueous humor outflow slowly after paracentesis of anterior chamber, and using mydriatic and cycloplegic during and after surgery.RESULTS: The incidence of operation complicationin control group was lower than that in treatment group. The differences were statistically significant(Pt=9.1535, Pt=39.8010, Pt=11.3219, PCONCLUSION: The modified trabeculectomy applied in the treatment of glaucoma with persistent high intraocular pressure can not only save the visual function of connection part to a certain extent, but also reduce the incidence of serious complications. It can obtain better intraocular pressure, shorten the average hospitalization days, decrease the expenses and increase patients satisfaction.

  1. Clinical significance of radiation therapy in breast recurrence and prognosis in breast-conserving surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Reiki; Nagao, Kazuharu; Miyayama, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    Significant risk factors for recurrence of breast cancer after breast-conserving therapy, which has become a standard treatment for breast cancer, are positive surgical margins and the failure to perform radiation therapy. In this study, we evaluated the clinical significance of radiation therapy after primary surgery or breast recurrence. In 344 cases of breast-conserving surgery, disease recurred in 43 cases (12.5%), which were classified as follows: 17 cases of breast recurrence, 13 cases of breast and distant metastasis, and 13 cases of distant metastasis. Sixty-two patients (16.7%) received radiation therapy. A positive surgical margin and younger age were significant risk factors for breast recurrence in patients not receiving postoperative radiation therapy but not in patients receiving radiation therapy. Radiation therapy may be beneficial for younger patients with positive surgical margins. Furthermore, radiation therapy after recurrence was effective in the cases not treated with postoperative radiation but not in cases with inflammatory recurrence. Patients with breast recurrence alone had significantly higher survival rates than did patients with distant metastases regardless of breast recurrence. These findings suggest that the adaptation criteria of radiation therapy for local control must be clarified. (author)

  2. Clinical significance of radiation therapy in breast recurrence and prognosis in breast-conserving surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Reiki; Nagao, Kazuharu; Miyayama, Haruhiko [Kumamoto City Hospital (Japan)] [and others

    1999-03-01

    Significant risk factors for recurrence of breast cancer after breast-conserving therapy, which has become a standard treatment for breast cancer, are positive surgical margins and the failure to perform radiation therapy. In this study, we evaluated the clinical significance of radiation therapy after primary surgery or breast recurrence. In 344 cases of breast-conserving surgery, disease recurred in 43 cases (12.5%), which were classified as follows: 17 cases of breast recurrence, 13 cases of breast and distant metastasis, and 13 cases of distant metastasis. Sixty-two patients (16.7%) received radiation therapy. A positive surgical margin and younger age were significant risk factors for breast recurrence in patients not receiving postoperative radiation therapy but not in patients receiving radiation therapy. Radiation therapy may be beneficial for younger patients with positive surgical margins. Furthermore, radiation therapy after recurrence was effective in the cases not treated with postoperative radiation but not in cases with inflammatory recurrence. Patients with breast recurrence alone had significantly higher survival rates than did patients with distant metastases regardless of breast recurrence. These findings suggest that the adaptation criteria of radiation therapy for local control must be clarified. (author)

  3. [Comparison of two antimicrobial prophylaxis regimens in biliary tract surgery: a randomized controlled clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, H; Sifuentes Osornio, J; Prado, E; Takahashi, T; López Graniel, C M; Anaya, E; Canto, J

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy in prophylaxis during biliary tract and gallbladder surgery with amoxicillin/clavulanate and to compare it with the combination of cephalothin and clindamycin. A randomized nonblinded clinical trial with a blind independent observer. Tertiary-care center. Forty-two patients were included. All had undergone biliary tract and/or gallbladder surgery. They were divided in two groups: 22 in group A (cephalothin and clindamycin), and 20 in group B (amoxicillin/clavulanate). Patients from group A were intravenously treated with three doses of cephalothin (2 g at anesthetic induction and two additional doses of 1 g at six-hour intervals), and three of clindamycin (600 mg every six hours). Patients from group B received three doses of amoxicillin/clavulanate (1000/200 mg IV, one during the induction of the anesthesia followed by two more at six-hour intervals). In group A six wound infections were recorded, one of them with secondary bacteremia. In group B we did not record any infection (Fisher p clindamycin.

  4. Development of preoperative planning software for transforaminal endoscopic surgery and the guidance for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojun; Cheng, Jun; Gu, Xin; Sun, Yi; Politis, Constantinus

    2016-04-01

    Preoperative planning is of great importance for transforaminal endoscopic techniques applied in percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy. In this study, a modular preoperative planning software for transforaminal endoscopic surgery was developed and demonstrated. The path searching method is based on collision detection, and the oriented bounding box was constructed for the anatomical models. Then, image reformatting algorithms were developed for multiplanar reconstruction which provides detailed anatomical information surrounding the virtual planned path. Finally, multithread technique was implemented to realize the steady-state condition of the software. A preoperative planning software for transforaminal endoscopic surgery (TE-Guider) was developed; seven cases of patients with symptomatic lumbar disc herniations were planned preoperatively using TE-Guider. The distances to the midlines and the direction of the optimal paths were exported, and each result was in line with the empirical value. TE-Guider provides an efficient and cost-effective way to search the ideal path and entry point for the puncture. However, more clinical cases will be conducted to demonstrate its feasibility and reliability.

  5. Insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function after carbohydrate oral loading in hip replacement surgery: a double-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljunggren, Stefan; Hahn, Robert G; Nyström, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Surgery initiates a series of physiological stress processes in the body, inducing transient insulin resistance. Preoperative carbohydrate treatment can reduce the latter phenomenon. We investigated the effects of carbohydrate loading on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function after elective hip replacement. Twenty-three nondiabetic patients (mean age of 68 years) who underwent elective hip replacement surgery participated in this double-blind controlled study. The patients were randomised to a nutrition group, which ingested a carbohydrate-rich fluid (50 kcal/100 ml) (Preop(®)), or a control group (tap water flavoured with lemon) 800 ml + 400 ml before the surgery. The insulin response (beta-cell function) and the insulin sensitivity were measured with an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic glucose clamp, respectively, one day before and two days after the surgery. Insulin sensitivity decreased by 51% (median; 25-75th percentiles 35-61) after ingesting Preop(®) and by 39% (21-51) after ingesting in the control group (n.s.). The postoperative IVGTT in the nutrition group was followed by a significantly larger area under the curve (AUC) for plasma insulin (+54% versus the preoperative IVGTT) compared to the control group (+7%). This difference was already apparent during the first phase (0-10 min) of insulin secretion (+20 and -21%, respectively; P water prior to the surgery demonstrated a significant but similar decrease in insulin sensitivity. The carbohydrates increased the beta-cell function as a compensatory response to the disposition index, resulting in a smaller reduction in surgery-induced insulin resistance compared to the tap water. The study was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01774084). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-Term Changes in Refractive Error and Clinical Evaluation in Partially Accommodative Esotropia after Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yeop Oh

    Full Text Available We investigate the changes in refractive error and clinical evaluation in partially accommodative esotropia(PAET after surgery. A total of 68 patients PAET who received at least 2 years of follow-up after surgery were enrolled in this study. We performed a retrospective study in patients who underwent unilateral or bilateral medial rectus recession for a non-accommodative component of PAET between January 2005 and March 2013. Patients were divided into groups according to the presence of dominancy (dominant, non-dominant, alternative eye, and presence of amblyopia (amblyopic, fellow, normal eye. Changes and changing pattern in SE refractive error were analyzed in all patients and compared between groups. Patients were divided into two groups, those weaned off of hyperopic glasses and those who continued using them, then factors that significantly influenced the continued use of glasses were analyzed. The changes and changing pattern in SE refractive error according to time after operation and presence of amblyopia or dominancy. The mean length of follow-up was 4.89±1.74 years after surgery and the mean change in SE refractive error rate per year was -0.284±0.411 diopters (D. The pattern of changes in the mean SE refractive error for those with dominant, non-dominant, and alternative eyes was not significantly different (p = 0.292. The pattern of changes in the mean SE refractive error for those with amblyopic, fellow, and normal eyes was significantly different (p = 0.0002. Patients were successfully weaned off of hyperopic glasses at an average age of 9.41±2.74 years. The average SE refractive error in the group weaned off of hyperopic glasses was significantly lower than that in the group maintained on hyperopic glasses (p = 0.0002. The change of SE refractive error in amblyopic eyes decreased less than that in fellow or normal eyes, which may be correlated with the presence of amblyopia. Patients with a smaller esodeviated angle without

  7. Application of objective clinical human reliability analysis (OCHRA) in assessment of technical performance in laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J D; Miskovic, D; Allison, A S; Conti, J A; Ockrim, J; Cooper, E J; Hanna, G B; Francis, N K

    2016-06-01

    Laparoscopic rectal resection is technically challenging, with outcomes dependent upon technical performance. No robust objective assessment tool exists for laparoscopic rectal resection surgery. This study aimed to investigate the application of the objective clinical human reliability analysis (OCHRA) technique for assessing technical performance of laparoscopic rectal surgery and explore the validity and reliability of this technique. Laparoscopic rectal cancer resection operations were described in the format of a hierarchical task analysis. Potential technical errors were defined. The OCHRA technique was used to identify technical errors enacted in videos of twenty consecutive laparoscopic rectal cancer resection operations from a single site. The procedural task, spatial location, and circumstances of all identified errors were logged. Clinical validity was assessed through correlation with clinical outcomes; reliability was assessed by test-retest. A total of 335 execution errors identified, with a median 15 per operation. More errors were observed during pelvic tasks compared with abdominal tasks (p technical performance of laparoscopic rectal surgery.

  8. Predictors, Prognosis, and Management of New Clinically Important Atrial Fibrillation After Noncardiac Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Cook, Deborah; Xu, Shou Chun; Sigamani, Alben; Berwanger, Otavio; Sivakumaran, Soori; Yang, Homer; Xavier, Denis; Martinez, Luz Ximena; Ibarra, Pedro; Rao-Melacini, Purnima; Pogue, Janice; Zarnke, Kelly; Paniagua, Pilar; Ostrander, Jack; Yusuf, Salim; Devereaux, P J

    2017-07-01

    Despite the frequency of new clinically important atrial fibrillation (AF) after noncardiac surgery and its increased association with the risk of stroke at 30 days, there are limited data informing their prediction, association with outcomes, and management. We used the data from the PeriOperative ISchemic Evaluation trial to determine, in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, the association of new clinically important AF with 30-day outcomes, and to assess management of these patients. We also aimed to derive a clinical prediction rule for new clinically important AF in this population. We defined new clinically important AF as new AF that resulted in symptoms or required treatment. We recorded an electrocardiogram 6 to 12 hours postoperatively and on the 1st, 2nd, and 30th days after surgery. A total of 211 (2.5% [8351 patients]; 95% confidence interval, 2.2%-2.9%) patients developed new clinically important AF within 30 days of randomization (8140 did not develop new AF). AF was independently associated with an increased length of hospital stay by 6.0 days (95% confidence interval, 3.5-8.5 days) and vascular complications (eg, stroke or congestive heart failure). The usage of an oral anticoagulant at the time of hospital discharge among patients with new AF and a CHADS2 score of 0, 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 was 6.9%, 10.2%, 23.0%, 9.4%, and 33.3%, respectively. Two independent predictors of patients developing new clinically important AF were identified (ie, age and surgery). The prediction rule included the following factors and assigned weights: age ≥85 years (4 points), age 75 to 84 years (3 points), age 65 to 74 years (2 points), intrathoracic surgery (3 points), major vascular surgery (2 points), and intra-abdominal surgery (1 point). The incidence of new AF based on scores of 0 to 1, 2, 3 to 4, and 5 to 6 was 0.5%, 1.0%, 3.1%, and 5.3%, respectively. Age and surgery are independent predictors of new clinically important AF in the perioperative setting. A

  9. Acute Appendicitis as the Initial Clinical Presentation of Primary HIV-1 Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimann, Mariane H; Leth, Steffen; Krarup, Astrid R

    2018-01-01

    We report a case of an adolescent who presented at our emergency department with acute abdominal pain. While the initial diagnosis was acute appendicitis, a secondary and coincidental diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection was made. Concurrent and subsequent clinical and molecular biology findings ...... form the basis of our argument that primary HIV-1 infection was the cause of acute appendicitis in this individual.......We report a case of an adolescent who presented at our emergency department with acute abdominal pain. While the initial diagnosis was acute appendicitis, a secondary and coincidental diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection was made. Concurrent and subsequent clinical and molecular biology findings...

  10. Indocyanine green enhanced surgery; principle, clinical applications and future research directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Alius

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade a new emergent technology has become very popular in all fields of surgery using Indocyanine green and near infrared fluorescent optical systems. This revolutionary approach overlaps conventional and near infrared images to produce highly informative intraoperative images on the anatomy and physiology of various tissues. Near infrared fluorescence is employed for perioperative angiography in vascular mapping, assessment of anastomoses, location of sentinel lymph nodes and delineation of biliary tree anatomy, highlighting tumours and metastatic deposits, improving surgical techniques and for many other uses. A lot of researchers have reported better surgical outcomes and technique innovations facilitated by this novel technology which although in its early stages, it lights up great interest worldwide. This article reviews the principle of the method, the properties of the fluorescent dye, the main clinical applications and discusses future research directions.

  11. Clinical audit in gynecological cancer surgery: development of a risk scoring system to predict adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Bouman, Chantal; De Jong, Suzanne; Sanday, Karen; Nicklin, Jim; Land, Russell; Obermair, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Advanced gynecological surgery undertaken in a specialized gynecologic oncology unit may be associated with significant perioperative morbidity. Validated risk prediction models are available for general surgical specialties but currently not for gynecological cancer surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for adverse events (AEs) of patients treated for suspected or proven gynecological cancer and to develop a clinical risk score (RS) to predict such AEs. AEs were prospectively recorded and matched with demographical, clinical and histopathological data on 369 patients who had an abdominal or laparoscopic procedure for proven or suspected gynecological cancer at a tertiary gynecological cancer center. Stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to determine the best predictors of AEs. For the risk score (RS), the coefficients from the model were scaled using a factor of 2 and rounded to the nearest integer to derive the risk points. Sum of all the risk points form the RS. Ninety-five patients (25.8%) had at least one AE. Twenty-nine (7.9%) and 77 (20.9%) patients experienced intra- and postoperative AEs respectively with 11 patients (3.0%) experiencing both. The independent predictors for any AE were complexity of the surgical procedure, elevated SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, > or /=35 U/L), higher ASA scores and overweight. The risk score can vary from 0 to 14. The risk for developing any AE is described by the formula 100 / (1 + e((3.697 - (RS /2)))). RS allows for quantification of the risk for AEs. Risk factors are generally not modifiable with the possible exception of obesity.

  12. Use of Fentanyl in Adolescents with Clinically Severe Obesity Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughns, Janelle D; Ziesenitz, Victoria C; Williams, Elaine F; Mushtaq, Alvina; Bachmann, Ricarda; Skopp, Gisela; Weiss, Johanna; Mikus, Gerd; van den Anker, Johannes N

    2017-06-01

    The number of obese pediatric patients requiring anesthesia is rapidly increasing. Although fentanyl is a commonly used narcotic during surgery, there are no pharmacokinetic (PK) data available for optimal dosing of fentanyl in adolescents with clinically severe obesity. An institutional review board-approved exploratory pilot study was conducted in six adolescents aged 14-19 years undergoing bariatric surgery. Mean total body weight (TBW) and mean BMI were 137.4 ± 14.3 kg and 49.6 ± 6.4 kg/m 2 (99.5th BMI percentile), respectively. Fentanyl was administered intravenously for intraoperative analgesia based on ideal body weight per standard of care. PK blood samples were drawn over a 24-h post-dose period. Fentanyl PK parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis. Mean fentanyl AUC 0-∞ was 1.5 ± 0.5 h·ng/mL. Systemic clearance of fentanyl was 1522 ± 310 mL/min and 11.2 ± 2.6 mL/min·kg TBW. Volume of distribution was 635 ± 282 L and 4.7 ± 2.1 L/kg TBW. While absolute clearance was increased, absolute volume of distribution was comparable to previously established adult values. These results suggest that fentanyl clearance is enhanced in adolescents with clinically severe obesity while volume of distribution is comparable to previously published studies. NCT01955993 (clinicaltrials.gov).

  13. FIRST METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT OSTEOARTHRITIS: PERCUTANEOUS SURGERY, CHOICE OF A SURGICAL PROCEDURE, CLINICAL AND RADIOGRAPHIC CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Berezhnoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hallux rigidus is observed in approximately 2.5% of the adult population. Until now neither a unified classification of hallux rigidus appears to exist nor any clear principles to choose the surgical method. The variety of clinical and radiological signs explains the difficulties in establishing a comprehensive classification system and in selection of the criteria for surgical procedure. There are few published reports about hallux rigidus percutaneous surgical treatment. Existing papers are dedicated to a limited number of percutaneous techniques.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous techniques for surgical treatment of the first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis; to specify factors determining the choice of procedure; to develop a grading system of the hallux rigidus severity which will help in selection of surgery. Materials and methods. Based on 156 surgeries (107 patients the author demonstrated the possibilities of percutaneous techniques in the surgical treatment of hallux rigidus of different stages as well as provided a brief description of used surgical techniques.Results. The mean age of patients was 48.8 years (ranged from 18 to 73. The mean follow-up was 7 months (ranged from 3 to 54. At the specified time the treatment outcomes of 103 patients (150 feet were analyzed. Mean hospital stay was 0.78 days (ranged from 0 to 1. No infectious or wound-healing problems were observed. Overall, the patients were completely satisfied with the outcomes of 89 surgical treatment, qualified satisfaction was reported with patients in respect of outcomes of 57 surgeries. Four unsatisfactory outcomes were observed. The role of the relatively long first metatarsal in the development of hallux rigidus was confirmed. Conclusion. Percutaneous techniques provide successful treatment for all stages of hallux rigidus. The choice of a specific surgical technique may be challenging and requires

  14. Timing, severity of deficits, and clinical improvement after surgery for spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaee, Michael M; Clark, Aaron J; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Winkler, Ethan A; Lawton, Michael T

    2018-04-20

    OBJECTIVE Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are rare vascular abnormalities caused by arteriovenous shunting. They often form at the dural root sleeve between a radicular feeding artery and draining medullary vein causing venous congestion and edema, decreased perfusion, and ischemia of the spinal cord. Treatment consists of either surgical ligation of the draining vein or selective embolization via an endovascular approach. There is a paucity of data on which modality provides more durable and effective outcomes. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database by the senior author to assess clinical outcomes in patients undergoing surgical treatment of spinal dAVFs. Preoperative and postoperative motor and Aminoff-Logue Scale (ALS) scores were collected. RESULTS A total of 41 patients with 44 spinal dAVFs were identified, with a mean patient age of 64 years. The mean symptom duration was 14 months, with weakness (82%), urinary symptoms (47%), and sensory symptoms (29%) at presentation. The fistula locations were as follows: 30 thoracic, 9 lumbar, 3 sacral, and 2 cervical. Five patients had normal motor and ALS scores at presentation. Among the remaining 36 patients with motor deficits or abnormal gait and micturition at presentation, 78% experienced an improvement while the remaining 22% continued to be stable. There was a trend toward improved outcomes in patients with shorter symptom duration; mean symptom duration among patients with clinical improvement was 13 months compared with 22 months among those without improvement. Additionally, rates of improvement were higher for lower thoracic and lumbosacral dAVFs (85% and 83%) compared with those in the upper thoracic spine (57%). No patient developed recurrent fistulas or worsening neurological deficits. CONCLUSIONS Surgery is associated with excellent outcomes in the treatment of spinal dAVFs. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical, with a trend toward

  15. [Hernia surgery in urology: part 1: inguinal, femoral and umbilical hernias - fundamentals of clinical diagnostics and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, T; Schwalenberg, T; Dietrich, A; Müller, J; Stolzenburg, J-U

    2013-05-01

    Hernias are a common occurrence with correspondingly huge clinical and economic impacts on the healthcare system. The most common forms of hernia which need to be diagnosed and treated in routine urological work are inguinal and umbilical hernias. With the objective of reconstructing and stabilizing the inguinal canal there are the possibilities of open and minimally invasive surgery and both methods can be performed with suture or mesh repair. Indications for surgery of umbilical hernias are infrequent although this is possible with little effort under local anesthesia. This article presents an overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, diagnostics and therapy of inguinal, femoral and umbilical hernias.

  16. Clinical and Histopathologic Ocular Findings in Disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera Infection after Cardiothoracic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Sandrine A; Mihic-Probst, Daniela; Curcio, Christine A; Barthelmes, Daniel; Thielken, Andrea; Keller, Peter M; Hasse, Barbara; Böni, Christian

    2017-02-01

    To investigate and characterize clinical and histopathologic ocular findings in patients with disseminated infection with Mycobacterium chimaera, a slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM), subsequent to cardiothoracic surgery. Observational case series. Five white patients (10 eyes). Analysis of clinical ocular findings, including visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and fluorescein angiography/indocyanine green (ICG) angiography findings, of patients with a disseminated M. chimaera infection. Biomicroscopic and multimodal imaging findings were compared with the histopathology of 1 patient. Clinical and histopathologic ocular findings of M. chimaera. The mean age of the 5 male patients, diagnosed with endocarditis or aortic graft infection, was 57.8 years. Clinical ocular findings included anterior and intermediate uveitis, optic disc swelling, and white-yellowish choroidal lesions. Multifocal choroidal lesions were observed bilaterally in all patients and were hyperfluorescent on fluorescein angiography, hypofluorescent on ICG angiography, and correlated with choroidal lesions on SD OCT. The extent of choroidal lesions varied from few in 2 patients to widespread miliary lesions in 3 patients leading to localized choroidal thickening with elevation of the overlying retinal layers. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography through regressing lesions revealed altered outer retinal layers and choroidal hypertransmission. The ocular findings were correlated with the course of the systemic disease. Patients with few choroidal lesions had a favorable outcome, whereas all patients with widespread chorioretinitis died of systemic complications of M. chimaera infection despite long-term targeted antimicrobial therapy. Ocular tissue was obtained from 1 patient at autopsy. Necropsy of 2 eyes of 1 patient revealed prominent granulomatous lymphohistiocytic choroiditis with

  17. A novel robotic system for single-port urologic surgery: first clinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaouk, Jihad H; Haber, Georges-Pascal; Autorino, Riccardo; Crouzet, Sebastien; Ouzzane, Adil; Flamand, Vincent; Villers, Arnauld

    2014-12-01

    The idea of performing a laparoscopic procedure through a single abdominal incision was conceived with the aim of expediting postoperative recovery. To determine the clinical feasibility and safety of single-port urologic procedures by using a novel robotic surgical system. This was a prospective institutional review board-approved, Innovation, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long-term Study (IDEAL) phase 1 study. After enrollment, patients underwent a major urologic robotic single-port procedure over a 3-wk period in July 2010. The patients were followed for 3 yr postoperatively. Different types of urologic surgeries were performed using the da Vinci SP Surgical System. This system is intended to provide the same core clinical capabilities as the existing multiport da Vinci system, except that three articulating endoscopic instruments and an articulating endoscopic camera are inserted into the patient through a single robotic port. The main outcomes were the technical feasibility of the procedures (as measured by the rate of conversions) and the safety of the procedures (as measured by the incidence of perioperative complications). Secondary end points consisted of evaluating other key surgical perioperative outcomes as well as midterm functional and oncologic outcomes. A total of 19 patients were enrolled in the study. Eleven of them underwent radical prostatectomy; eight subjects underwent nephrectomy procedures (partial nephrectomy, four; radical nephrectomy, two; and simple nephrectomy, two). There were no conversions to alternative surgical approaches. Overall, two major (Clavien grade 3b) postoperative complications were observed in the radical prostatectomy group and none in the nephrectomy group. At 1-yr follow-up, one radical prostatectomy patient experienced biochemical recurrence, which was successfully treated with salvage radiation therapy. The median warm ischemia time for three of the partial nephrectomies was 38 min. At 3-yr follow-up all

  18. Investigational Clinical Trial of a Prototype Optoelectronic Computer-Aided Navigation Device for Dental Implant Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokstad, Asbjørn; Winnett, Brenton; Fava, Joseph; Powell, David; Somogyi-Ganss, Eszter

    New digital technologies enable real-time computer-aided (CA) three-dimensional (3D) guidance during dental implant surgery. The aim of this investigational clinical trial was to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of a prototype optoelectronic CA-navigation device in comparison with the conventional approach for planning and effecting dental implant surgery. Study participants with up to four missing teeth were recruited from the pool of patients referred to the University of Toronto Graduate Prosthodontics clinic. The first 10 participants were allocated to either a conventional or a prototype device study arm in a randomized trial. The next 10 participants received implants using the prototype device. All study participants were restored with fixed dental prostheses after 3 (mandible) or 6 (maxilla) months healing, and monitored over 12 months. The primary outcome was the incidence of any surgical, biologic, or prosthetic adverse events or device-related complications. Secondary outcomes were the incidence of positioning of implants not considered suitable for straightforward prosthetic restoration (yes/no); the perception of the ease of use of the prototype device by the two oral surgeons, recorded by use of a Likert-type questionnaire; and the clinical performance of the implant and superstructure after 1 year in function. Positioning of the implants was appraised on periapical radiographs and clinical photographs by four independent blinded examiners. Peri-implant bone loss was measured on periapical radiographs by a blinded examiner. No adverse events occurred related to placing any implants. Four device-related complications led to a switch from using the prototype device to the conventional method. All implants placed by use of the prototype device were in a position considered suitable for straightforward prosthetic restoration (n = 21). The qualitative evaluation by the surgeons was generally positive, although ergonomic challenges were identified

  19. Cutaneous and Labyrinthine Tolerance of Bioactive Glass S53P4 in Mastoid and Epitympanic Obliteration Surgery: Prospective Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bernardeschi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the cutaneous and the inner ear tolerance of bioactive glass S53P4 when used in the mastoid and epitympanic obliteration for chronic otitis surgery. Material and Methods. Forty-one cases have been included in this prospective study. Cutaneous tolerance was clinically evaluated 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery with a physical examination of the retroauricular and external auditory canal (EAC skin and the presence of otalgia; the inner ear tolerance was assessed by bone-conduction hearing threshold 1 day after surgery and by the presence of vertigo or imbalance. Results. All surgeries but 1 were uneventful: all patients maintained the preoperative bone-conduction hearing threshold except for one case in which the round window membrane was opened during the dissection of the cholesteatoma in the hypotympanum and this led to a dead ear. No dizziness or vertigo was reported. Three months after surgery, healing was achieved in all cases with a healthy painless skin. No cases of revision surgery for removal of the granules occurred in this study. Conclusion. The bioactive glass S53P4 is a well-tolerated biomaterial for primary or revision chronic otitis surgery, as shown by the local skin reaction which lasted less than 3 months and by the absence of labyrinthine complications.

  20. Clinical outcomes in endometrial cancer care when the standard of care shifts from open surgery to robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Zhun Wei; Yong, Eu Leong; Low, Jeffrey Jen Hui; Ng, Joseph Soon Yau

    2012-06-01

    In Singapore, the standard of care for endometrial cancer staging remains laparotomy. Since the introduction of gynecologic robotic surgery, there have been more data comparing robotic surgery to laparoscopy in the management of endometrial cancer. This study reviewed clinical outcomes in endometrial cancer in a program that moved from laparotomy to robotic surgery. A retrospective review was performed on 124 consecutive endometrial cancer patients. Preoperative data and postoperative outcomes of 34 patients undergoing robotic surgical staging were compared with 90 patients who underwent open endometrial cancer staging during the same period and in the year before the introduction of robotics. There were no significant differences in the mean age, body mass index, rates of diabetes, hypertension, previous surgery, parity, medical conditions, size of specimens, histologic type, or stage of cancer between the robotic and the open surgery groups. The first 20 robotic-assisted cases had a mean (SD) operative time of 196 (60) minutes, and the next 14 cases had a mean time of 124 (64) minutes comparable to that for open surgery. The mean number of lymph nodes retrieved during robot-assisted staging was smaller than open laparotomy in the first 20 cases but not significantly different for the subsequent 14 cases. Robot-assisted surgery was associated with lower intraoperative blood loss (110 [24] vs 250 [83] mL, P robot-assisted endometrial cancer staging after a relatively small number of cases.

  1. Sagittal Alignment As a Predictor of Clinical Adjacent Segment Pathology requiring Surgery after Anterior Cervical Arthrodesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon Soo; Kelly, Michael P.; Lee, Dong-Ho; Min, Woo-Kie; Rahman, Ra’Kerry K.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT Postoperative malalignment of the cervical spine may alter cervical spine mechanics, and put patients at risk for clinical adjacent segment pathology requiring surgery. PURPOSE To investigate whether a relationship exists between cervical spine sagittal alignment and clinical adjacent segment pathology requiring surgery (CASP-S) following anterior cervical fusion (ACF). STUDY DESIGN Retrospective matched study. PATIENT SAMPLE One hundred twenty two patients undergoing ACF from 1996 to 2008 were identified, with a minimum of 2 year follow-up. OUTCOME MEASURES Radiographs were reviewed to measure the sagittal alignment using C2 and C7 sagittal plumb lines, distance from the fusion mass plumb line to the C2 and C7 plumb lines, the alignment of the fusion mass, caudally adjacent disc angle, the sagittal slope angle of the superior endplate of the vertebra caudally adjacent to the fusion mass, T1 sagittal angle, overall cervical sagittal alignment, and curve patterns by Katsuura classification. METHODS One hundred twenty two patients undergoing ACF from 1996 to 2008 were identified, with a minimum of 1 year follow-up. Patients were divided into groups according to the development of CASP requiring surgery (Control / CASP-S) and by number/location of levels fused. Radiographs were reviewed to measure the sagittal alignment using C2 and C7 sagittal plumb lines, distance from the fusion mass plumb line to the C2 and C7 plumb lines, the alignment of the fusion mass, caudally adjacent disc angle, the sagittal slope angle of the superior endplate of the vertebra caudally adjacent to the fusion mass, T1 sagittal angle, overall cervical sagittal alignment, and curve patterns by Katsuura classification. Appropriate statistical tests were performed to calculate relationships between the variables and the development of CASP-S. No funds were received in support of this work. No benefits in any form have been or will be received from a commercial party related

  2. Impact of sagittal spinopelvic alignment on clinical outcomes after decompression surgery for lumbar spinal canal stenosis without coronal imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikata, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Kota; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Iwanami, Akio; Hosogane, Naobumi; Ishii, Ken; Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Morio

    2015-10-01

    The object of this study was to investigate correlations between sagittal spinopelvic alignment and improvements in clinical and quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes after lumbar decompression surgery for lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LCS) without coronal imbalance. The authors retrospectively reviewed data from consecutive patients treated for LCS with decompression surgery in the period from 2009 through 2011. They examined correlations between preoperative or postoperative sagittal vertical axis (SVA) and radiological parameters, clinical outcomes, and health-related (HR)QOL scores in patients divided according to SVA. Clinical outcomes were assessed according to Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Health-related QOL was evaluated using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and the JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ). One hundred nine patients were eligible for inclusion in the study. Compared to patients with normal sagittal alignment prior to surgery (Group A: SVA imbalance (Group B: SVA ≥ 50 mm) had significantly smaller lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis angles and larger pelvic tilt. In Group B, there was a significant decrease in postoperative SVA compared with the preoperative SVA (76.3 ± 29.7 mm vs. 54.3 ± 39.8 mm, p = 0.004). The patients in Group B with severe preoperative sagittal imbalance (SVA > 80 mm) had residual sagittal imbalance after surgery (82.8 ± 41.6 mm). There were no significant differences in clinical and HRQOL outcomes between Groups A and B. Compared to patients with normal postoperative SVA (Group C: SVA imbalance. Decompression surgery improved the SVA value in patients with preoperative sagittal imbalance; however, the patients with severe preoperative sagittal imbalance (SVA > 80 mm) had residual imbalance after decompression surgery. Both clinical and HRQOL outcomes were negatively affected by postoperative residual sagittal imbalance.

  3. Timing of HAART initiation and clinical outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconverters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsson, Michele; Fusco, Jennifer S.; Cole, Stephen R.; Thomas, James C.; Porter, Kholoud; Kaufman, Jay S.; Davidian, Marie; White, Alice D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Eron, Joseph J.; del Amo, Julia; Meyer, Laurence; Bucher, Heiner C.; Chene, Geneviève; Pillay, Deenan; Prins, Maria; Rosinska, Magda; Sabin, Caroline; Touloumi, Giota; Lodi, Sara; Coughlin, Kate; Walker, Sarah; Babiker, Abdel; de Luca, Andrea; Fisher, Martin; Muga, Roberto; Kaldor, John; Kelleher, Tony; Ramacciotti, Tim; Gelgor, Linda; Cooper, David; Smith, Don; Gill, John; Jørgensen, Louise Bruun; Nielsen, Claus; Pedersen, Court; Lutsar, Irja; Dabis, Francois; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Masquelier, Bernard; Costagliola, Dominique; Guiguet, Marguerite; Vanhems, Philippe; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Ghosn, Jade; Boufassa, Faroudy; Hamouda, Osamah; Geskus, Ronald; van der Helm, Jannie; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the clinical benefit of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation vs deferral in a given month in patients with CD4 cell counts less than 800/μL. In this observational cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconverters from CASCADE (Concerted Action on

  4. Development and evaluation of a training module for the clinical introduction of the da Vinci robotic system in visceral and vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, A; Yetimoglu, C L; Nickkholgh, A; Kashfi, A; Kienle, P; Konstantinides, L; Ahmadi, M R; Fonouni, H; Schemmer, P; Friess, H; Gebhard, M M; Büchler, M W; Schmidt, J; Gutt, C N

    2006-09-01

    With the increasing use of the surgical robotic system in the clinical arena, appropriate training programs and assessment systems need to be established for mastery of this new technology. The authors aimed to design and evaluate a clinic-like training program for the clinical introduction of the da Vinci robotic system in visceral and vascular surgery. Four trainees with different surgical levels of experience participated in this study using the da Vinci telemanipulator. Each participant started with an initial evaluation stage composed of standardized visceral and vascular operations (cholecystectomy, gastrotomy, anastomosis of the small intestine, and anastomosis of the aorta) in a porcine model. Then the participants went on to the training stage with the rat model, performing standardized visceral and vascular operations (gastrotomy, anastomosis of the large and small intestines, and anastomosis of the aorta) four times in four rats. The final evaluation stage was again identical to the initial stage. The operative times, the number of complications, and the performance quality of the participants were compared between the two evaluation stages to assess the impact of the training stage on the results. The operative times in the final evaluation stage were considerably shorter than in the initial evaluation stage and, except for cholecystectomies, all the differences reached statistical significance. Also, significantly fewer complications and improved quality for each operation in the final evaluation stage were documented, as compared with their counterparts in the initial evaluation stage. These improvements were recorded at each level of experience. The presented experimental small and large animal model is a standardized and reproducible training method for robotic surgery that allows evaluation of the surgical performance while shortening and optimizing the learning-curve.

  5. Retrospective analysis of patients clinical manifestations before and after pheochromocytoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazovjech, I; Davidova, H; Breza, J

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of presurgical clinical picture and blood pressures of 34 patients with histologically verified pheochromocytoma. Assessment of clinical state, blood pressure and prognosis in the course of patients control hospitalizations from 2001 to 2002. The study was designed as a synoptic one, based on a retrospective analysis of 34 patients records with histologically verified pheochromocytoma (26 women and 8 men). Our assessments of clinical symptomatology, maximum paroxysmal hypertension values, average blood pressure values in patients with persistent arterial hypertension, arterial hypertension grade and circadian index were based on patients records. Patients epinephrectomies were followed during their control hospitalizations to assess their clinical state. Their blood pressures were evaluated by means of their circadian monitoring. From the 34 patients, 21 were diagnosed with solitary pheochromocytomas. The circadian index persistence analysis prior to the surgery was associated with circadian blood pressure monitoring in 21 patients. It was lost in 57% of patients. During their control hospitalization as many as 82% of patients preserved their circadian blood pressure variability with a more than 10% decrease in the night time, 5 patients did not preserve their circadian blood pressure variability. Seven from the original 34 patients died: Three of them died from their primary disease, one 63-year old man died from shock following tumour extirpation. The death of other 3 patients was not associated with their primary disease. Long-lasting survival of patients with pheochromocytoma after surgical treatment--except for those with malignant disease--was demonstrated. Although our assessment of the resulting treatment effects was positive, a long-term follow-up is inevitable because of a difficult pathologic-anatomical verification of the malignant nature of the disease as well as of the risk of tumour relapse assessment. (Tab. 1, Fig. 5, Ref 36.)

  6. Treatment patterns and clinical characteristics prior to initiating depot typical antipsychotics for nonadherent schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery William

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonadherence with antipsychotic medication is an important clinical and economic problem in the treatment of schizophrenia. This study identified treatment patterns and clinical characteristics that immediately precede the initiation of depot typical antipsychotics in the usual treatment of schizophrenia patients with a recent history of nonadherence with oral antipsychotic regimens. Methods Data were drawn from a large, multisite, 3-year prospective noninterventional observational study of persons treated for schizophrenia in the United States, which was conducted between 7/1997 and 9/2003. The analytical sample included patients who, in the 6 months prior to enrollment, were considered nonadherent with oral antipsychotics and were not treated with depot antipsychotics (N = 314. Patients who were subsequently initiated on typical depots during the 3-year follow-up were compared with patients who continued therapy with only oral antipsychotic agents. Group comparisons were made on patient baseline characteristics and precedent variables that were assessed 1 to 6 months prior to depot initiation. Patient assessments were made at predetermined intervals throughout the 3-year study using standard psychiatric measures, a patient-reported questionnaire, and medical record information. Results A small proportion of patients (12.4% who were recently nonadherent with oral antipsychotics were subsequently initiated on depot therapy during the 3-year study. Compared to patients treated with only oral antipsychotics, those subsequently initiated on a depot were significantly more likely to be hospitalized at depot initiation or the previous 30 days, to have recent involvement with the criminal justice system (arrests, recent illicit drug use, recent switching or augmentation of oral antipsychotics, and recent treatment with oral typical antipsychotics. Conclusion Despite prior nonadherence with oral antipsychotic medication, only a

  7. Economic impact of clinical variability in preoperative testing for major outpatient surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Borrelli, Christian Carlo; Agustí, Salomé; Pla, Rosa; Díaz-Redondo, Alicia; Zaballos, Matilde

    2016-05-01

    With the purpose of decreasing the existing variability in the criteria of preoperative evaluation and facilitating the clinical decision-making process, our hospital has a protocol of preoperative tests to use with ASA I and ASA II patients. The aim of the study was to calculate the economic impact caused by clinicians' non-adherence to the protocol for the anaesthesiological evaluation of ASA 1 and ASA II patients. A retrospective study of costs with a random sample of 353 patients that were seen in the consultation for Anesthesiology over a period of one year. Aspects related to the costs, patient's profiles and specialties were analysed, according to the degree of fulfillment of the protocol. The lack of adherence to the the protocol was 70%. 130 chest X-rays and 218 ECG were performed without indication. This generated an excess costs of 34 € per patient. Taking into account the expenses of both tests and the attended population undergoing ambulatory surgery during the one-year period, an excess spending for the hospital of between 69.164 € and 83.312 € was estimated. Clinical variability should be reduced and the creation of synergies between the different departments should be enhanced in order to adjust the request for unnecessary complementary tests to decrease health care and to improve the quality of patient care. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Photography in Dermatologic Surgery: Selection of an Appropriate Camera Type for a Particular Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian R; Poon, Emily; Alam, Murad

    2017-08-01

    Photographs are an essential tool for the documentation and sharing of findings in dermatologic surgery, and various camera types are available. To evaluate the currently available camera types in view of the special functional needs of procedural dermatologists. Mobile phone, point and shoot, digital single-lens reflex (DSLR), digital medium format, and 3-dimensional cameras were compared in terms of their usefulness for dermatologic surgeons. For each camera type, the image quality, as well as the other practical benefits and limitations, were evaluated with reference to a set of ideal camera characteristics. Based on these assessments, recommendations were made regarding the specific clinical circumstances in which each camera type would likely be most useful. Mobile photography may be adequate when ease of use, availability, and accessibility are prioritized. Point and shoot cameras and DSLR cameras provide sufficient resolution for a range of clinical circumstances, while providing the added benefit of portability. Digital medium format cameras offer the highest image quality, with accurate color rendition and greater color depth. Three-dimensional imaging may be optimal for the definition of skin contour. The selection of an optimal camera depends on the context in which it will be used.

  9. Clinical outcomes of double staining and additional ILM peeling during ERM surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ha Na; Lee, Joo Eun; Kim, Hyun Woong; Yun, Il Han

    2013-08-01

    To assess the clinical outcomes in idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) patients after vitrectomy and ERM removal with or without additional indocyanine green (ICG)-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. The medical records of 43 patients with an idiopathic ERM that underwent vitrectomy and ERM removal between July 2007 and April 2010 were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups: triamcinolone-assisted simple ERM peeling only (group A, n = 23) and triamcinolone-assisted ERM peeling followed by ICG staining and peeling of the remaining internal ILM (group B, n = 20). No difference was found between the two groups in terms of visual acuity, macular thickness, P1 amplitude or implicit time on multifocal-electroretinogram (mfERG) at six and 12 months postoperatively. In group B, ICG staining after ERM peeling demonstrated that the ILM had been removed together with the ERM in 12 eyes (60%), and all 12 eyes showed punctate retinal hemorrhages during ERM peeling. There was no recurrence of an ERM in either group. Additional procedures involving ICG staining and ILM peeling during ERM surgery do not appear to have an additive effect on the clinical outcomes in terms of visual acuity, retinal function based on mfERG, or recurrence rate.

  10. [Clinical analysis of 12 cases of orthognathic surgery with digital computer-assisted technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin-ying; Hu, Min; Liu, Chang-kui; Liu, Hua-wei; Liu, San-xia; Tao, Ye

    2014-06-01

    This study was to investigate the effect of the digital computer-assisted technique in orthognathic surgery. Twelve patients from January 2008 to December 2011 with jaw malformation were treated in our department. With the help of CT and three-dimensional reconstruction technique, 12 patients underwent surgical treatment and the results were evaluated after surgery. Digital computer-assisted technique could clearly show the status of the jaw deformity and assist virtual surgery. After surgery all patients were satisfied with the results. Digital orthognathic surgery can improve the predictability of the surgical procedure, and to facilitate patients' communication, shorten operative time, and reduce patients' pain.

  11. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy at rural primary health care clinics in KwaZulu Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Ganesen-Moothusamy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa bears the greatest burden of HIV infection globally with the most infected people living in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN. Decentralised medical care for HIV positive patients and antiretroviral therapy (ART delivery to primary health care facilities were proposed nationally to achieve adequate ART coverage for patients in need of treatment. This study described the HIV positive patients who accessed medical care and were initiated on ART at two existing government Primary Health Care (PHC clinics with no added donor support, in Ilembe, KZN. This was an observational descriptive study of ART initiation from 01 April 2008 to 30 April 2009. Data were collected from clinical records kept on site. HIV Testing and the pre-ART programmes which consisted of medical care prior to ART initiation are briefly described. Socio-economic, demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who were initiated on ART were sampled and described. A minority (2.95% of the study population tested for HIV of which 36.0%tested positive. Majority (60.0% of patients who joined the pre-ART programme care did not return. The ART sample consisted of 375 patients of whom 65.0%were women, 85.9%were unmarried, 61.6%were unemployed and 50.4%had a secondary level of education. Tuberculosis (TB prevalence and incidence at ART initiation were 22.1%and 14.7%respectively. The prevalence of Syphilis and Hepatitis B co-infections were 13.1%and 8.6 %respectively. Two thirds of female patients (66.4% received a Pap smear result of which the majority (62.3% were abnormal. Uptake for HIV testing followed by relevant CD4 testing was poor. High TB, Hepatitis B and Syphilis co-infection was noted amongst patients initiated on ART. Cervical cancer screening must be intensified. Although ART initiation with no added external resources was successful, record keeping was suboptimal.

  12. Evaluation of the clinical photographs in the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: from readers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianfu; Chen, Sulin; Xiong, Xuepeng

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate clinical photographs published in the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (JOMS) and understand the current status of oral and maxillofacial surgery. A total of 1,317 photographs from the JOMS Volume 69 were assessed. These photographs were scored from 1 to 10 for the following parameters: sharpness; depth of field; exposure; composition; color or grayscale; background; position; distortion; label consistency; and white balance. Then, the distributions of scores were analyzed. Each score was compared with the average score. The effects of different subjects; emergency or nonemergency situations; and intraoperative, preoperative, or postoperative conditions on the quality of photographs were analyzed by conducting a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. The total score of each photograph showed a left-skewed distribution, varying from 3 to 10, with an average score of 6.82. Four parameters, including sharpness, depth of field, exposure, and white balance, scored less than the average score. Photographs with an intraoral subject yielded the lowest score, with a significant difference (P photographs taken during a nonemergency situation was significantly higher than that during an emergency situation (6.84 vs 6.03; P Photographs of an intraoperative condition yielded a score significantly lower than those of pre- and postoperative conditions (6.53 vs 7.11 and 6.75, respectively; P photographs (148 of 325) displayed uncovered eyes and 57.1% of specimens (40 of 70) did not appear with a plotting scale. Sharpness, depth of field, exposure, and white balance should be considered to a greater extent than the other parameters when oral and maxillofacial photographs are taken, particularly for intraoral conditions, emergency situations, and intraoperative conditions. Enhanced parameters and protection of a patient's identity may significantly improve the average level of photographic quality. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by

  13. Application of platelet-rich plasma in plastic surgery: clinical and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelli, Valerio; Gentile, Pietro; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Grimaldi, Monica; Casciani, Carlo Umberto; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Orlandi, Augusto

    2009-12-01

    The clinical use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for a wide variety of application has been reportedly employed most prevalently in problematic wounds, maxillofacial and hemi-facial atrophy, Romberg Syndrome, and diabetic foot ulcers. To our knowledge, PRP has never been described in the enhancement of fat grafting during tissue-engineering application in vivo. The authors describe the preparation of PRP and its use in a series of 43 patients who underwent plastic, reconstructive, and maxillofacial surgery for chronic lower extremity ulcers (n = 18) and multiple facial applications (n = 25). PRP mixed with fat grafting was used in 76% patients affected by multiple facial diseases and in 88.9% patients affected by lower extremity ulcers. PRP injection alone was used in the remaining patients. The authors observed that after a 7.1-week and 9.7-week (average) course of twice-daily wound treatment with PRP suspended on a collagen base, 61.1% and 88.9% of chronic lower extremity ulcers underwent to 100% reepithelization compared with 40% and 60% of controls (n = 10) treated with hyaluronic acid and collagen medication. In patients treated with reconstructing three-dimensional projection of face by fat grafting and PRP, we observed a 70% maintenance of contour restoring and three-dimensional volume after 1 year compared to only 31% of controls (n = 10) treated with fat grafting alone. In vitro, PRP induced a significant increase in the number of adipose-tissue-derived stem cells compared to control cultures. These results documented that PRP accelerates chronic skin ulcer reepithelization and improves maintenance and function of fat graft in patients who underwent plastic reconstructive surgery, possibly by stimulating adipose-tissue-derived stem cell proliferation.

  14. Anthropometric and clinical profiles of post-bariatric patients submitted to procedures in plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Simone Corrêa; Macedo, Jefferson Lessa Soares DE; Casulari, Luiz Augusto; Canedo, Lucas Ribeiro; Marques, João Vitor Almeida

    2018-01-01

    to evaluate the profile of patients submitted to post-bariatric plastic surgery at the North Wing Regional Hospital, Brasília, DF. we conducted a prospective, descriptive and analytical study of patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastroplasty, and subsequently to plastic surgery, from January 2011 to December 2016. We assessed body mass index before gastroplasty and after surgery plastic surgery, postoperative complications and comorbidities. we studied 139 patients (130 women and nine men), with a mean age of 41 years, who underwent 233 operations. The mean BMI at the time of plastic surgery was 27.44kg/m2. The mean weight loss was 47.02kg and the mean maximum BMI was 45.17kg/m2. The mean time between bariatric surgery and plastic surgery was 42 months. The most important co-morbidities before plastic surgery were arterial hypertension (11.5%), arthropathy (5.4%), diabetes mellitus (5%) and metabolic syndrome (4.3%) (pprofile of post-bariatric patients who underwent plastic surgery was similar to that reported in the literature, except for the low rate of associated surgeries and postoperative complications. Plastic surgery in post-bariatric patients has led to an improvement in the quality of life in most of these patients.

  15. Clinical and theoretical results of intraocular lens power calculation for cataract surgery after photorefractive keratectomy for myopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odenthal, M.T.; Eggink, C.A.; Melles, G.R.J.; Pameyer, J.H.; Geerards, A.J.; Beekhuis, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the refractive results of cataract surgery after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for patients with myopia, and to find a more accurate method to predict intraocular lens (IOL) power in these cases. DESIGN: Nonrandomized, retrospective clinical study. PATIENTS AND METHODS:

  16. Clinical effects of sinus surgery and adjuvant therapy in cystic fibrosis patients - can chronic lung infections be postponed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanaes, K; Johansen, H K; Skov, M

    2013-01-01

    The paranasal sinuses can be a bacterial reservoir for pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) METHODOLOGY: In this prospective, non-randomised, uncontrolled, intervention cohort study, the clinical effect of sinus surgery followed by two weeks` intravenous antibiotics, 6 month...

  17. Minimal Clinically Important Differences for American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Score in Hallux Valgus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiok Yang; Chen, Jerry Yongqiang; Zainul-Abidin, Suraya; Ying, Hao; Koo, Kevin; Rikhraj, Inderjeet Singh

    2017-05-01

    The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score is one of the most common and adapted outcome scales in hallux valgus surgery. However, AOFAS is predominantly physician based and not patient based. Although it may be straightforward to derive statistical significance, it may not equate to the true subjective benefit of the patient's experience. There is a paucity of literature defining MCID for AOFAS in hallux valgus surgery although it could have a great impact on the accuracy of analyzing surgical outcomes. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to define the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) for the AOFAS score in these patients, and the secondary aim was to correlate patients' demographics to the MCID. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study. A total of 446 patients were reviewed preoperatively and followed up for 2 years. An anchor question was asked 2 years postoperation: "How would you rate the overall results of your treatment for your foot and ankle condition?" (excellent, very good, good, fair, poor, terrible). The MCID was derived using 4 methods, 3 from an anchor-based approach and 1 from a distribution-based approach. Anchor-based approaches were (1) mean difference in 2-year AOFAS scores of patients who answered "good" versus "fair" based on the anchor question; (2) mean change of AOFAS score preoperatively and at 2-year follow-up in patients who answered good; (3) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves method, where the area under the curve (AUC) represented the likelihood that the scoring system would accurately discriminate these 2 groups of patients. The distribution-based approach used to calculate MCID was the effect size method. There were 405 (90.8%) females and 41 (9.2%) males. Mean age was 51.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 13) years, mean preoperative BMI was 24.2 (SD = 4.1). Mean preoperative AOFAS score was 55.6 (SD = 16.8), with significant improvement to 85.7 (SD = 14.4) in 2 years ( P value

  18. Vulvar and vaginal graft versus host disease: A healthcare clinic initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Van Dam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In patients receiving bone marrow transplantation (BMT, their mucosa becomes altered and sclerotic changes in the female external genital organs occur. Although a few studies have specifically addressed vulvar and vaginal graft versus host disease (VVGvHD and its repercussions on the sexual health and quality of life of patients, VVGvHD can be overlooked by health practitioners. The objective of the study is to describe the initiation of a health care clinic specializing in VVGvHD in a general tertiary hospital. Methods: A VVGvHD clinic was founded as a part of BMT daycare in a joint initiative of the nursing staff and the medical director of the department and a gynecologist specializing in vulva and vaginal disease. Patients were assessed for vulvovaginal symptoms, such as dryness, burning, itching, pain to touch, pain during intercourse, and dysuria. These patients might be subsequently referred to the VVGvHD clinic according to their needs assessed by daycare nurses. Treatment guidelines were developed by the specialist gynecologist. Results: A total of 81 women aged 2–66 years (median age = 38 years visited the clinic from 2009 to 2015. Of these women, 70 received an allogeneic transplant and 11 underwent autologous transplantation before consultation in our clinic. VVGvHD was detected in 54% of the patients. Conclusions: The VVGvHD clinic was developed to fulfill the specific needs of female patients who underwent BMT. The pioneer clinic was founded as a joint effort of the multidisciplinary team. Evidence supporting the optimum treatment for this condition is insufficient. This was the main reason for performing this study to explore the clinic that was newly based in Israel. VVGvHD may be a fluctuating condition with frequent deterioration and improvement. Therefore, regular clinical examinations are necessary.

  19. Feasibility of four-arm robotic lobectomy as solo surgery in patients with clinical stage I lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Yong; Suh, Jee Won; Narm, Kyoung Sik; Lee, Chang Young; Lee, Jin Gu; Paik, Hyo Chae; Chung, Kyoung Young; Kim, Dae Joon

    2017-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the feasibility of four-arm robotic lobectomy (FARL) as a solo surgical technique in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Early outcome and long-term survival of FARL were compared with those of video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy (VATL). Prospective enrollment of patients with clinical stage I NSCLC undergoing FARL or VATL (20 patients in each group) was planned. Interim analysis for early postoperative outcome was performed after the initial 10 cases in each group. The study was terminated early because of safety issues in the FARL group after enrollment of 12 FARL and 17 VATL patients from 2011 to 2012. There were no differences in clinical characteristics between groups. Lobectomy time and total operation time were significantly longer in the FARL group (P=0.003). There were three life-threatening events in the FARL group (2 bleedings, 1 bronchus tear) that necessitated thoracotomy conversion in 1 patient. There were no differences in other operative outcomes including pain score, complications, or length of hospital stay. Pathologic stage and number of dissected lymph nodes (LNs) were also comparable. During a follow-up of 48.9±9.5 months, recurrence was identified in 2 (16.7%) patients in FARL group and 3 (23.5%) in VATL group. Five-year overall survival (100% vs . 87.5%, P=0.386) and disease-free survival (82.5% vs . 75.6%, P=0.589) were comparable. FARL as solo surgery could not be recommended because of safety issues. It required a longer operation time and had no benefits over VATL in terms of early postoperative outcome or long-term survival.

  20. Improvements in clinical and functional vision and perceived visual disability after first and second eye cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, D.; Patla, A.; Bullimore, M.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the improvements in clinical and functional vision and perceived visual disability after first and second eye cataract surgery.
METHODS—Clinical vision (monocular and binocular high and low contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and disability glare), functional vision (face identity and expression recognition, reading speed, word acuity, and mobility orientation), and perceived visual disability (Activities of Daily Vision Scale) were measured in 25 subjects before a...

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a postoperative clinical care pathway in head and neck surgery with microvascular reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Dautremont, Jonathan F; Rudmik, Luke R; Yeung, Justin; Asante, Tiffany; Nakoneshny, Steve C; Hoy, Monica; Lui, Amanda; Chandarana, Shamir P; Matthews, Thomas W; Schrag, Christiaan; Dort, Joseph C

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a postoperative clinical care pathway for patients undergoing major head and neck oncologic surgery with microvascular reconstruction. Methods This is a comparative trial of a prospective treatment group managed on a postoperative clinical care pathway and a historical group managed prior to pathway implementation. Effectiveness outcomes evaluated were total hospital days, return to OR, readmission to ICU and rate...

  2. Sick leave and disability pension before and after initiation of antirheumatic therapies in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neovius, M; Simard, J F; Klareskog, L; Askling, J

    2011-08-01

    To investigate sick leave and disability pension in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in relation to the initiation of biological and non-biological antirheumatic therapies in clinical practice. Patients aged 19-60 years initiating non-biological mono (n=2796) or combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy (n=973), or biological agents (n=4787) were identified in the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register between 1999 and 2007. Sick leave and disability pension data (1995-2010) were retrieved from national registers. During the year before the start of mono DMARD, combination DMARD and biological treatment, 10%, 12% and 43% of patients received disability pension benefits, respectively. The corresponding combined annual sick leave and disability pension days were 78 (54+25), 132 (105+27) and 190 (79+111). Irrespective of treatment type, initiators were characterised by a history of increasing sick leave and disability pension. Treatment start was associated with a break in this trajectory: sick leave decreased while disability pension increased, resulting in a net stabilisation of total days. Higher levels of days on sick leave and disability pension at treatment start were observed in patients initiating biologics in 1999 (236 days/year) compared with 2007 (150 days/year; ppension increased rapidly before the initiation of antirheumatic therapy, which was associated with a halt but not a reversal of this development. Work ability is a metric of importance for clinical practice, signalling large remaining needs in the RA population, and the need for intervention earlier in the disease process.

  3. Vacuum-assisted wound closure in vascular surgery - clinical and cost benefits in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Končar Igor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Surgical and chronic wounds in vascular patients might contribute to limb loss and death. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC - Kinetic Concepts, Inc. (KCI, has been increasingly used in Western Europe and the USA clinical practice for 15 years. Advantages of this method are faster wound healing, wound approximation, lower wound related treatment costs and improved quality of life during treatment. Evidence related to the usage of VAC therapy in vascular patients and cost effectiveness of VAC therapy in a developing country are lacking. The aim of this study was to explore results of VAC therapy in vascular surgery comparing to conventional methods and to test cost effects in a developing country like Serbia. Methods. All patients with wound infection or dehiscence operated at the tertiary vascular university clinic in the period from January 2011 - January 2012, were treated with VAC therapy. The primary endpoint was wound closure, while secondary endpoints were hospital stay, the number of weekly dressings, costs of wound care, working time of medical personnel. The patients were divided into groups according to the wound type and location: wound with exposed synthetic vascular implant (25%, laparotomy (13%, foot amputation (29%, major limb amputation (21%, fasciotomy (13%. The results of primary and secondary endpoint were compared with the results of conventional treatment during the previous year. Results. There was one death (1/42, 2.38% and one limb loss (1/12, 2.38% in the VAC group, and 8 deaths (8/38, 21.05% and 5 (5/38, 13.15% limb losses in the patients treated with conventional therapy. In the VAC group there was one groin bleeding (1/12, 2.38%, one groin reinfection (1/12, 2.38% and one resistance to therapy with a consequent limb loss. Costs of hospital stay (p < 0.001 and nursing time (p < 0.001 were reduced with VAC therapy in the group with exposed graft. Conclusion. VAC therapy is the effective method for care of

  4. Clinical Factors Associated with Dose of Loop Diuretics After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: Post Hoc Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiberger, Roberta; Favia, Isabella; Romagnoli, Stefano; Cogo, Paola; Ricci, Zaccaria

    2016-06-01

    A post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing the clinical effects of furosemide and ethacrynic acid was conducted. Infants undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were included in order to explore which clinical factors are associated with diuretic dose in infants with congenital heart disease. Overall, 67 patients with median (interquartile range) age of 48 (13-139) days were enrolled. Median diuretic dose was 0.34 (0.25-0.4) mg/kg/h at the end of postoperative day (POD) 0 and it significantly decreased (p = 0.04) over the following PODs; during this period, the ratio between urine output and diuretic dose increased significantly (p = 0.04). Age (r -0.26, p = 0.02), weight (r -0.28, p = 0.01), cross-clamp time (r 0.27, p = 0.03), administration of ethacrynic acid (OR 0.01, p = 0.03), and, at the end of POD0, creatinine levels (r 0.3, p = 0.009), renal near-infrared spectroscopy saturation (-0.44, p = 0.008), whole-blood neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels (r 0.30, p = 0.01), pH (r -0.26, p = 0.02), urinary volume (r -0.2755, p = 0.03), and fluid balance (r 0.2577, p = 0.0266) showed a significant association with diuretic dose. At multivariable logistic regression cross-clamp time (OR 1.007, p = 0.04), use of ethacrynic acid (OR 0.2, p = 0.01) and blood pH at the end of POD0 (OR 0.0001, p = 0.03) was independently associated with diuretic dose. Early resistance to loop diuretics continuous infusion is evident in post-cardiac surgery infants: Higher doses are administered to patients with lower urinary output. Independently associated variables with diuretic dose in our population appeared to be cross-clamping time, the administration of ethacrynic acid, and blood pH.

  5. Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenal surgery for clinical and subclinical Cushing's syndrome in patients with bilateral adrenal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Aoife J; Seeliger, Barbara; Alesina, Pier F; Walz, Martin K

    2017-08-01

    The treatment of hypercortisolism for patients with bilateral adrenal disease (BAD) is controversial. Bilateral total adrenalectomy results in permanent hypocortisolaemia requiring lifelong steroid replacement. A more conservative surgical approach, with less than bilateral total adrenalectomy (leaving functional adrenal tissue either unilaterally or bilaterally), represents an alternative option; however, long-term outcome or recurrence data are limited. We report our experience with the surgical management of hypercortisolism caused by BAD. Between 2004 and 2016, 42 patients (12 male, 30 female; mean age 58 ± 10 years) with clinical or subclinical Cushing's syndrome (CS/sCS) caused by BAD underwent adrenal surgery via the posterior retroperitoneoscopic approach. Adrenal surgery was defined as "adrenalectomy" when total gland excision was performed or "resection" when a partial or subtotal adrenal resection was performed. Clinical, radiological and biochemical parameters were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively. Seventy adrenal operations performed in total included unilateral resection (n = 3), unilateral adrenalectomy (n = 15), bilateral resection (n = 9), adrenalectomy and contralateral resection (n = 14) and bilateral total adrenalectomy (n = 3). Median operating time was 47.5 min (30-150) with no difference between unilateral and bilateral (synchronous included) procedures (p = 0.15). Mortality was zero. Clavien-Dindo grade of postoperative complications was I (n = 5) and IV (n = 3). All but one patient with CS and 17/31 patients with sCS received postoperative steroid supplementation for a median duration of 20 (1.5-129) months. After median follow-up of 40 months (3-129), the remission rate was 92%; 11 patients required ongoing steroid supplementation. There were three biochemical recurrences (two underwent contralateral resection); two patients with new/progressive radiological nodularity are biochemically eucortisolaemic. A

  6. Pilot for the Australian Breast Device Registry (ABDR): a national opt-out clinical quality registry for breast device surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Ingrid; Best, Renee L; McNeil, John J; Mulvany, Catherine M; Moore, Colin C M; Elder, Elisabeth; Pase, Marie; Cooter, Rodney D; Evans, Sue M

    2017-12-28

    To establish a pilot clinical quality registry (CQR) to monitor the quality of care and device performance for breast device surgery in Australia. All patients having breast device surgery from contributing hospitals in Australia. A literature review was performed which identified quality indicators for breast device surgery. A pilot CQR was established in 2011 to capture prospective data on breast device surgery. An interim Steering Committee and Management Committee were established to provide clinical governance, and guide quality indicator selection. The registry's minimum dataset was formulated in consultation with stakeholder groups; potential quality indicators were assessed in terms of (1) importance and relevance, (2) usability, (3) feasibility to collect and (4) scientific validity. Data collection was by a two-sided paper-based form with manual data entry. Seven sites were recruited, including one public hospital, four private hospitals and two day surgeries. Patients were recruited and opt-out consent used. The pilot breast device registry provides high-quality population-based data. It provides a model for developing a national CQR for breast devices; its minimum dataset and quality indicators reflect the opinions of the broad range of stakeholders. It is easily scalable, and has formed the basis for other international surgical groups establishing similar registries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Combined robotic transanal total mesorectal excision (R-taTME) and single-site plus one-port (R-SSPO) technique for ultra-low rectal surgery-initial experience with a new operation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Ngu, James Chi-Yong; Tong, Yiu-Shun; Chen, Chia-Che

    2017-02-01

    Robot-assisted rectal surgery is gaining popularity, and robotic single-site surgery is also being explored clinically. We report our initial experience with robotic transanal total mesorectal excision (R-taTME) and radical proctectomy using the robotic single-site plus one-port (R-SSPO) technique for low rectal surgery. Between July 2015 and March 2016, 15 consecutive patients with ultra-low rectal lesions underwent R-taTME followed by radical proctectomy using the R-SSPO technique by a single surgeon. The clinical and pathological results were retrospectively analyzed. The median operative time was 473 (range, 335-569) min, and the estimated blood loss was 33 (range, 30-50) mL. The median number of lymph nodes harvested was 12 (range, 8-18). The median distal resection margin was 1.4 (range, 0.4-3.5) cm, and all patients had clear circumferential resection margins. We encountered a left ureteric transection intraoperatively in one patient, and another patient required reoperation for postoperative adhesive intestinal obstruction. There was no 30-day mortality. R-taTME followed by radical proctectomy using the R-SSPO technique for patients with low rectal lesions is technically feasible and safe without compromising oncologic outcomes. However, there were considerable limitations and a steep learning curve using current robotic technology.

  8. Clinical mentorship of nurse initiated antiretroviral therapy in Khayelitsha, South Africa: a quality of care assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Green

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To combat the AIDS epidemic and increase HIV treatment access, the South African government implemented a nurse-based, doctor-supported model of care that decentralizes administration of antiretroviral treatment (ART for HIV positive patients through nurse initiated and managed ART. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF implemented a mentorship programme to ensure successful task-shifting, subsequently assessing the quality of clinical care provided by nurses. METHODS: A before-after cross-sectional study was conducted on nurses completing the mentorship programme in Khayelitsha, South Africa, from February 2011-September 2012. Routine clinical data from 229 patient folders and 21 self-assessment questionnaires was collected to determine the number of patients initiated on ART by nurses; quality of ART management before-after mentorship; patient characteristics for doctor and nurse ART initiations; and nurse self-assessments after mentorship. RESULTS: Twenty one nurses were authorized by one nurse mentor with one part-time medical officer's support, resulting in nurses initiating 77% of ART eligible patients. Improvements in ART management were found for drawing required bloods (91% vs 99%, p = 0.03, assessing adherence (50% vs 78%, p<0.001 and WHO staging (63% vs 91%, p<0.001. Nurse ART initiation indicators were successfully completed at 95-100% for 11 of 16 indicators: clinical presentation; patient weight; baseline blood work (CD4, creatinine, haemoglobin; STI screening; WHO stage, correlating medical history; medications prescribed appropriately; ART start date; and documented return date. Doctors initiated more patients with TB/HIV co-infection and WHO Stage 3 and 4 disease than nurses. Nurse confidence improved for managing HIV-infected children and pregnant women, blood result interpretation and long-term side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a clinical mentorship programme in Khayelitsha led to nurse initiation of a

  9. Comparison of the analgesic efficacy of preoperative/postoperative oral dexketoprofen trometamol in third molar surgery: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Villalpando, Vicente; Chavarria-Bolaños, Daniel; Gordillo-Moscoso, Antonio; Masuoka-Ito, David; Martinez-Rider, Ricardo; Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of preoperative and postoperative dexketoprofen trometamol for pain control after third molar surgery. Sixty subjects indicated for impacted mandibular third molar surgery were randomly assigned to two groups: preoperative (group 1, n = 30) and postoperative (group 2, n = 30) administration. Group 1 received 25 mg of dexketoprofen trometamol 30 min before surgery and 1 placebo capsule (same color and size with active drug) immediately after surgery. Group 2 received the placebo capsule 30 min before surgery and 25 mg of dexketoprofen trometamol immediately after surgery. Pain intensity was assessed using a numeric rating scale (NRS) during the first 8 h. The time of the need for a second dose of dexketoprofen trometamol, after the first administration, was recorded. The data were analyzed using mixed-model repeated-measures (MMRM), Wilcoxon rank-sum, and Kaplan-Meier analysis. After the 8 h period, no statistically significant difference was observed in the intensity of pain (MMRM, p = 0.41); and no significant difference in the time for a second dose (p = 0.956). In conclusion, preoperative administration of dexketoprofen trometamol is a reasonable clinical approach that is as effective as conventional postoperative pharmacological treatment, with the advantage of allowing early analgesia before pain develops. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02380001). Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of clinical efficacy among remifentanil, nicardipine, and remifentanil plus nicardipine continuous infusion for hypotensive anesthesia during arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon Yub; Song, Seong Hun; Cho, Jae Ho; Cho, Hyung Rae

    2017-01-01

    Hypotensive anesthesia is crucial during arthroscopic shoulder surgery to reduce bleeding and allow for clear visibility. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of continuous infusion of remifentanil, nicardipine, and remifentanil plus nicardipine to control hypotensive anesthesia in arthroscopic shoulder surgery. For this study, we enrolled 45 consecutive patients who were scheduled to have arthroscopic rotator cuff repair surgery and randomly allocated them into remifentanil (group R, n = 15), nicardipine (group N, n = 15), and remifentanil plus nicardipine (group RN, n = 15) groups. During the surgeries, these drugs were administered with continuous infusion. We analyzed the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate during surgery, stay time in the recovery room, visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, use of antiemetics in the recovery room, and postoperative blood urea nitrogen and creatinine changes. The VAS score in the recovery room was higher for group R (mean 5.6, SD 1.4) than for groups N (mean 3.9, SD 0.9) and RN (mean 4.0, SD 1.1; p = 0.000). There were no statistical differences regarding other clinical variables among the three groups (all p > 0.05) except for MAP at 120 min of surgery between groups N and RN (N: 84.67 (SD 10.7) mmHg, RN: 65.4 (SD 9.2) mmHg, p = 0.027). The continuous infusion of remifentanil plus nicardipine appeared to be advantageous for maintaining hypotensive anesthesia until 120 min of arthroscopic shoulder surgery without rebound pain in a postanesthesia care unit.

  11. Autofluorescence lifetime imaging during transoral robotic surgery: a clinical validation study of tumor detection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, João. L.; Phipps, Jennifer E.; Unger, Jakob; Faller, Leta M.; Gorpas, Dimitris; Ma, Dinglong M.; Bec, Julien; Moore, Michael G.; Bewley, Arnaud F.; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Sorger, Jonathan M.; Farwell, Gregory D.; Marcu, Laura

    2017-02-01

    Autofluorescence lifetime spectroscopy is a promising non-invasive label-free tool for characterization of biological tissues and shows potential to report structural and biochemical alterations in tissue owing to pathological transformations. In particular, when combined with fiber-optic based instruments, autofluorescence lifetime measurements can enhance intraoperative diagnosis and provide guidance in surgical procedures. We investigate the potential of a fiber-optic based multi-spectral time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy instrument to characterize the autofluorescence fingerprint associated with histologic, morphologic and metabolic changes in tissue that can provide real-time contrast between healthy and tumor regions in vivo and guide clinicians during resection of diseased areas during transoral robotic surgery. To provide immediate feedback to the surgeons, we employ tracking of an aiming beam that co-registers our point measurements with the robot camera images and allows visualization of the surgical area augmented with autofluorescence lifetime data in the surgeon's console in real-time. For each patient, autofluorescence lifetime measurements were acquired from normal, diseased and surgically altered tissue, both in vivo (pre- and post-resection) and ex vivo. Initial results indicate tumor and normal regions can be distinguished based on changes in lifetime parameters measured in vivo, when the tumor is located superficially. In particular, results show that autofluorescence lifetime of tumor is shorter than that of normal tissue (p robot assisted cancer removal interventions.

  12. Value of venous color flow duplex scan as initial screening test for geriatric inpatients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreidy R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Raghid Kreidy1, Elias Stephan2, Pascale Salameh3, Mirna Waked4 1Department of Vascular Surgery, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Geriatrics, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiological Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, 4Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon Aim: The contribution of lower extremity venous duplex scan to the diagnostic strategy for pulmonary embolism has been demonstrated by many authors. However, the positive diagnostic value of this noninvasive test in clinically suspected pulmonary embolism is not very high (10%–18%. Since thromboembolic risks increase considerably in hospitalized patients with advanced age, this study aims to determine the importance of lower extremity venous color flow duplex scan in this particular subgroup of patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism. The effects of clinical presentation and risk factors on the results of duplex scan have been also studied. Methods: Between July 2007 and January 2010, 95 consecutive Lebanese geriatric ($60 years of age inpatients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism assessed in an academic tertiary-care center for complete lower extremity venous color flow duplex scan were retrospectively reviewed. Age varied between 60 and 96 years (mean, 79.9 years. Forty patients were males and 55 females. Absence of compressibility was the most important criteria for detecting acute venous thrombosis. Results: Out of 95 patients, 33 patients (34.7% were diagnosed with recent deep venous thrombosis of lower extremities (14 proximal and 19 distal using complete venous ultrasound. Nine of these 33 patients (27.2% had a history of venous thromboembolism and eleven (33.3% presented with edema of lower

  13. What is "grazing"? Reviewing its definition, frequency, clinical characteristics, and impact on bariatric surgery outcomes, and proposing a standardized definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Eva M; Mitchell, James E; Engel, Scott G; Machado, Paulo P P; Lancaster, Kathryn; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Grazing, characterized by a repetitive eating pattern, has received increased attention among bariatric surgery patients. However, different definitions and terminology have been used, preventing the accurate measurement of this phenomenon and comparison of data across studies. To review existing definitions and associated clinical features of grazing among different samples and to propose a standardized definition that will allow for consistency in future work. University and Clinical Research Institute. Of the 39 studies found, 9 provided an original definition and 12 provided data of its association with weight outcomes. Six were studies of nonbariatric surgery populations. Based on this literature review, the most common criteria used in previous studies to define grazing were included in a survey that was sent to 24 individuals who have published work in the field. These experts were asked to provide their opinion on what should constitute grazing. Grazing is a frequent behavior in the bariatric surgery population as well as in eating disordered and community samples. Its association with psychopathology is not clear, but its negative impact on weight outcomes after bariatric surgery generally has been supported. Survey data provided a consensus regarding the definition of grazing as an eating behavior characterized by the repetitive eating (more than twice) of small/modest amounts of food in an unplanned manner, with what we characterize as compulsive and noncompulsive subtypes. Given the clinical relevance of grazing among bariatric surgery patients, a unique definition is crucial to better study its associated features and impact on different populations. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical Pearls in Anaesthesia for Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoid Pituitary Macroadenoma Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Shagun B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic Endonasal Trans-sphenoid Surgery (EETS aided by avant-garde neuro-navigation techniques, ultrasonic aspirators and bone curettes has come of age. Endoscopic surgery supersedes conventional microscopic approach due to better visualization, avoidance of craniotomy, brain retraction and undue neurovascular manipulation with less morbidity, blood loss and improved safety. Anaesthetic techniques must be tailored to cater for such advances in surgery.

  15. Bariatric surgery: the challenges with candidate selection, individualizing treatment and clinical outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as a global health crisis. Bariatric surgery offers a treatment that can reduce weight, induce remission of obesity-related diseases, and improve the quality of life. In this article, we outline the different options in bariatric surgery and summarize the recommendations for selecting and assessing potential candidates before proceeding to surgery. We present current data on post-surgical outcomes and evaluate the psychosocial and economic effects of bariatric surgery. Finally, we evaluate the complication rates and present recommendations for post-operative care. PMID:23302153

  16. Diode laser soft-tissue surgery: advancements aimed at consistent cutting, improved clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, Georgios E

    2013-01-01

    Laser dentistry and soft-tissue surgery, in particular, have become widely adopted in recent years. Significant cost reductions for dental lasers and the increasing popularity of CADCAM, among other factors, have contributed to a substantial increase in the installed base of dental lasers, especially soft-tissue lasers. New development in soft-tissue surgery, based on the modern understanding of laser-tissue interactions and contact soft-tissue surgery mechanisms, will bring a higher quality and consistency level to laser soft-tissue surgery. Recently introduced diode-laser technology enables enhanced control of side effects that result from tissue overheating and may improve soft-tissue surgical outcomes.

  17. Effect of methylprednisolone on the oxidative burst activity, adhesion molecules and clinical outcome following open heart surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Christiansen, K; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1997-01-01

    on granulocytes and improve clinical outcome. Sixteen patients undergoing open heart surgery participated in the study. Eight were randomized to receive methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg intravenously) at the start of anaesthesia while eight patients served as a control group. The oxidative burst was measured flow...... not improve the weaning from the ventilator or reduce the stay in the intensive-care unit. In conclusion, treatment with steroids prevented hyperthermia following open heart surgery with CPB and reduced capillary leak during ECC. Methylprednisolone, however, did not reduce the oxidative burst activity...

  18. The use of stem cells in aesthetic dermatology and plastic surgery procedures. A compact review of experimental and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Maciej; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Pietkun, Katarzyna; Zegarski, Maciej; Pokrywczyńska, Marta; Habib, Samy L; Drewa, Tomasz; Zegarska, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to collect currently available data related to the use of stem cells in aesthetic dermatology and plastic surgery based on a systemic review of experimental and clinical applications. We found that the use of stem cells is very promising but the current state of art is still not effective. This situation is connected with not fully known mechanisms of cell interactions, possible risks and side effects. We think that there is a big need to create and conduct different studies which could resolve problems of stem cells use for implementation into aesthetic dermatology and plastic surgery.

  19. [Emotional stress as a clinical model to study the pathogenesis of the initial phase of the general adaptation syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikhovskaya, I A; Dvoenosov, V G; Zhdanov, R I; Koubatiev, A A; Mayskiy, I A; Markelova, M M; Meshkov, M V; Oparina, O N; Salakhov, I M; Yakovlev, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    General adaptation syndrome (GAS), the basis of the development of which is stress phenomenon, is an essential component of the pathogenesis of many diseases and syndromes. However, the patho genesis of GAS hitherto is considered exclusively from the endocrinological viewpoint. This relates primarily to the initial phase of the GAS, a clinical model for the study of which may be psycho-emotional stress (PES), which we studied using three groups of volunteers. The first one consists of 25 students who were waiting for unaccustomed physical activity (17 men) and play debut on the stage (8 women). The second group consists of 48 children (2-14 years) who expected for "planned" surgery. The third group of volunteers is made up of 80 students (41 women and 39 men) during the first exam. The concentration of cortisol, endotoxin (ET), the activity of antiendotoxin immunity (AEI) and the haemostatic system parameters were determined in the blood serum of volunteers in various combinations. We found laboratory evidence for PES at 92% of students of the first group, 58% of children of the second one and in 21% of students of the third group of volunteers (mostly women). The concentration of ET increased at 13 (52%) volunteers of the first group with a significant increase of average indicators in the whole group (from 0.84 ± 0.06 to 1.19 ± 0.04 EU/ml). At children of the second group, the average concentration of ET increased even more significantly (from 0.42 ± 0.02 to 1.63 ± 0.11 EU/ml), which was accompanied by the activation of the hemostasis system. A degree of the activation was directly dependent on the level of ET in the general circulation and on an activity of AEI. Examination stress in the third group of volunteers is accompanied by activation of plasma hemostasis (increased initial thrombosis rate and reduced the time it starts, lag-period) in 26% of female students and 15% of male students. We suggest that it is possible to use the PES as a clinical model

  20. Cauda equina syndrome as the initial presenting clinical feature of medulloblastoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Otaibi Faisal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Medulloblastoma is one of the most common pediatric brain malignancies. The usual presenting clinical features are related to posterior fossa syndrome or/and hydrocephalus. Cauda equina syndrome is a very rare presentation for this disease. Case presentation We describe the case of a three-year-old boy with cauda equina syndrome as the initial presenting clinical feature for medulloblastoma. He was initially diagnosed as having a spinal tumor by magnetic resonance imaging scan. Subsequently, a cranial magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a posterior fossa tumor with features of dissemination. He had substantial improvement after treatment. This case report is complemented by a literature review related to this unusual presentation. Conclusions Medulloblastoma primarily presenting with cauda equina syndrome is very rare. However, spinal drop metastasis should be considered in the pediatric age group to avoid suboptimal management.

  1. Rethinking clinical language mapping approaches: discordant receptive and expressive hemispheric language dominance in epilepsy surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Nicole M; Eliashiv, Dawn S; Isenberg, Anna L; Fillmore, Paul T; Kurelowech, Lacey; Quint, Patti J; Chung, Jeffrey M; Otis, Shirley M

    2011-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shed light on cortical language organization, with findings implicating the left and right temporal lobes in speech processing converging to a left-dominant pattern. Findings highlight the fact that the state of theoretical language knowledge is ahead of current clinical language mapping methods, motivating a rethinking of these approaches. The authors used magnetoencephalography and multiple tasks in seven candidates for resective epilepsy surgery to investigate language organization. The authors scanned 12 control subjects to investigate the time course of bilateral receptive speech processes. Laterality indices were calculated for left and right hemisphere late fields ∼150 to 400 milliseconds. The authors report that (1) in healthy adults, speech processes activated superior temporal regions bilaterally converging to a left-dominant pattern, (2) in four of six patients, this was reversed, with bilateral processing converging to a right-dominant pattern, and (3) in three of four of these patients, receptive and expressive language processes were laterally discordant. Results provide evidence that receptive and expressive language may have divergent hemispheric dominance. Right-sided receptive language dominance in epilepsy patients emphasizes the need to assess both receptive and expressive language. Findings indicate that it is critical to use multiple tasks tapping separable aspects of language function to provide sensitive and specific estimates of language localization in surgical patients.

  2. Perioperative brain damage after cardiovascular surgery; Clinical evaluation including CT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Michiyuki; Kuriyama, Yoshihiro; Sawada, Toru; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Omae, T. (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1989-08-01

    We examined 39 cases (1.6%) of post-operative brain damages out of 2,445 sequential cases of cardiovascular surgery in NCVC during past three years. In this study, we investigated clinical course and CT findings of each patient in details and analyzed the causes of the post operative brain damages. Of 39 cases, 23 (59%) were complicated with cerebral ischemia, 8 (21%) with subdural hematoma (SDH), 2 (5%) with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and 1 (2%) with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), respectively. 5 cases (13%) had unclassified brain damages. In 23 cases of cerebral ischemia there were 5 cases of hypotension-induced ischemia, 4 cases of hypoxic encephalopathy, 3 cases of ischemia induced by intra-operative maneuvers, 3 cases of embolism after operation and a single case of 'microembolism'. Seven cases could not be classified into any of these categories. Duration of ECC was 169.9 {plus minus} 48.5 min on the average in patients with such brain damages as SDH, ICH, SAH and cardiogenic embolism, which were thought not to be related with ECC. On the other hand, that of the patients hypotensive ischemia or 'microembolism' gave an average value of 254.5 {plus minus} 96.8 min. And these patients were thought to have occurred during ECC. There was a statistically significant difference between these two mean values. (J.P.N.).

  3. Patient Education for Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: Preliminary Experience Using 3D-Printed Clinical Imaging Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Ian M; Liepert, Taimi T; Doney, Evan L; Leevy, W Matthew; Liepert, Douglas R

    2017-04-07

    Within the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) medical space, a relatively small fraction of patients follow through with elective surgeries to fix ailments such as a deviated septum or occluded sinus passage. Patient understanding of their diagnosis and treatment plan is integral to compliance, which ultimately yields improved medical outcomes and better quality of life. Here we report the usage of advanced, polyjet 3D printing methods to develop a multimaterial replica of human nasal sinus anatomy, derived from clinical X-ray computed tomography (CT) data, to be used as an educational aid during physician consultation. The final patient education model was developed over several iterations to optimize material properties, anatomical accuracy and overall display. A two-arm, single-center, randomized, prospective study was then performed in which 50 ENT surgical candidates (and an associated control group, n = 50) were given an explanation of their anatomy, disease state, and treatment options using the education model as an aid. Statistically significant improvements in patient ratings of their physician's explanation of their treatment options ( p = 0.020), self-rated anatomical understanding ( p = 0.043), self-rated understanding of disease state ( p = 0.016), and effectiveness of the visualization ( p = 0.007) were noted from the population that viewed the 3D education model, indicating it is an effective tool which ENT surgeons may use to educate and interact with patients.

  4. Clinical study of the clusters of diffuse lamellar keratitis after laser corneal refractive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Hong Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the potential causes and management of the clusters of diffuse lamellar keratitis(DLKafter laser corneal refractive surgery. METHODS: The study enrolled 98 eyes(53 patientscomplicated with DLK after receiving laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK, FS-LASIK or small-incision lenticule extraction(SMILEin our center from February 10th,2016 to February 22th,2016. They were given clinical classification treatments according to corneal layer inflammatory extent and then followed up after 1, 3, 5, 7, 10d and 1mo. RESULTS: The clusters of DLK occurred 5 times in the study period. The incidence and degree of DLK significantly decreased after changed the sterilization, surgical equipments, temperature and humidity of the operating room. There were 80 eyes(82%had stage 1 DLK, 11 eyes(11%had stage 2, 4 eyes(4%had stage 3 and 3 eyes(3%had stage 4. The incidence of DLK after FS-LASIK was 40%(79 eyes in 42 patients, that after LASIK assistant by Hastome keratome was 45%(10 eyes in 5 patients, that after SMILE was 20%(9 eyes in 6 patients. After intensive treatment, as glucocorticoid treatment and flap lifting flushing, all cases recovered within 1mo. CONCLUSION: The outbreak of DLK may be associated with the disposable item, flushing liquor, temperature and humidity of the operating room. Early diagnosis, prevention and treatment are the key of decreasing the incidence of DLK.

  5. Assessment of presurgical psychological screening in patients undergoing spine surgery: use and clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Arthur K; Young, Benjamin K; Riley, Lee H; Skolasky, Richard L

    2014-04-01

    Prospective survey. To determine the prevalence of use of presurgical psychological screening (PPS) among spine surgeons in the United States, identify factors associated with PPS use, evaluate surgeons' opinions of PPS, and investigate how PPS is applied in clinical practice. The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends PPS for patients undergoing back surgery. The prevalence of PPS is unknown. Thus, it may be difficult to improve preoperative care for such patients with psychological conditions. An online survey invitation was emailed to 340 spine surgeons. Questions addressed surgeon characteristics (eg, number of years in practice), practice characteristics (eg, practice type), inclusion of integrated rehabilitation and psychological services, and use of PPS. The impact of psychological factors on rehabilitation and recovery was assessed using an 11-point Likert scale (0, no impact; 10, highest impact). We analyzed the 110 (32%) responses with a χ(2) test (significance, Ppsychological factors on pain relief, adherence to therapy, and return to work (mean impact rating, >7.0); however, impact on return for follow-up was only moderate (mean rating, 5.8). A minority of surgeons reported using PPS. Surgeons were less likely to use PPS if they had completed residency or begun practice within 14 years, had fewer than 200 cases annually, or were university affiliated. This study highlights the need to advocate for the use of North American Spine Society guidelines regarding the use of PPS.

  6. Marginal artery stump pressure in left colic artery-preserving rectal cancer surgery: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuchen; Wang, Daguang; He, Liang; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Shishun; Zhang, Luyao; Sun, Xuan; Suo, Jian

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this clinical trial is to evaluate the influence of high and low ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery with apical lymph node dissection on the anastomotic blood supply, lymph node retrieval rate, operative time and anastomotic leakage rate in rectal cancer surgery. A total of 57 Chinese patients were randomly distributed into group A and group B and underwent radical resection of rectal cancer. Patients in group A underwent high ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery, and patients in group B underwent apical lymph node resection around the root of the inferior mesenteric artery with preservation of the left colic artery. The marginal artery stump pressure was measured after colon and artery reconstruction. Systemic pressure, distal colon length, operative time and lymph node retrieval rate were measured and recorded. The results were analysed and related to patient characteristics and post-operative complications. The anastomotic blood supply negatively and linearly correlated with age and distal colon length and showed a positive linear correlation with systemic pressure. Patients who received low ligation with apical lymph node dissection had a better anastomotic blood supply than those who received high ligation. No differences were found in lymph node retrieval rate, operative time and anastomotic leakage rate. Anastomotic leakage was associated with a worse anastomotic blood supply. Low ligation with apical lymph node dissection in rectal cancer treatment provides better anastomotic blood supply but is not associated with differences in node retrieval rate or operation time. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  7. Sacroiliac Joint Fusion: One Year Clinical and Radiographic Results Following Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kube, Richard A; Muir, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Recalcitrant sacroiliac joint pain responds well to minimally-invasive surgical (MIS) techniques, although long-term radiographic and fusion data are limited. To evaluate the one-year clinical results from a cohort of patients with chronic sacroiliac (SI) joint pain unresponsive to conservative therapies who have undergone minimally invasive SI joint fusion. SI joint fusion was performed between May 2011 and January 2014. Outcomes included radiographic assessment of fusion status, leg and back pain severity via visual analog scale (VAS), disability via Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and complication rate. Outcomes were measured at baseline and at follow-up appointments 6 months and 12 months post-procedure. Twenty minimally invasive SI joint fusion procedures were performed on 18 patients (mean age: 47.2 (14.2), mean BMI: 29.4 (5.3), 56% female). At 12 months, the overall fusion rate was 88%. Back and leg pain improved from 81.7 to 44.1 points (p<0.001) and from 63.6 to 27.7 points (p=0.001), respectively. Disability scores improved from 61.0 to 40.5 (p=0.009). Despite a cohort containing patients with multiple comorbidities and work-related injuries, eight patients (50%) achieved the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in back pain at 12 months, with 9 (69%) patients realizing this improvement in leg pain and 8 (57%) realizing the MCID in ODI scores at 12 months. No major complications were reported. Minimally invasive SI joint surgery is a safe and effective procedure, with a high fusion rate, a satisfactory safety profile and significant improvements in pain severity and disability reported through 12 months post-procedure.

  8. Challenges in the transition to clinical training in dentistry: An ADEE special interest group initial report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, C M; Botelho, M G; Wesselink, P R; Vervoorn, J M

    2018-02-03

    Curricular integration in higher education has been widely supported in the educational literature. As a result, several health care and specifically dental curricula have evolved from compartmentalised disciplinary training to integrated modalities; however, in many courses, a pre-clinical-clinical watershed remains a barrier to integration in dental education. This article introduces a general description of the pre-clinical-clinical transition in dentistry according to the outcomes of the discussion held during the first working group session of the "Transition to Clinical Training" Special Interest Group during the 2016 annual meeting of the Association for Dental Education in Europe. An online questionnaire was made available before the meeting to survey the curricular characteristics of the participants' schools. During the meeting, a working session related to the pre-clinical-clinical transition occurred. Conclusions from the discussion are summarised in this article. Fourteen dental schools from 12 countries participated in the online survey. The included programmes had an average duration of 5.3 years (SD = 0.48), with high school or the local equivalent as the required entrance level for dentistry. The hybrid curriculum was the leading curriculum design (n = 9) followed by competence-based curricula (n = 3), with patient treatment as the core of clinical training in every included programme. The pre-clinical-clinical transition in dentistry is a recognisable matter in dental education that requires assessment and research to ease the management of a stage with relevant influence on educational outcomes. This article presents an initial framework for further research and educational intervention. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effectiveness of surgery and individualized high-dose hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy on survival in clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer. A propensity score matched analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Marcelo F.; Baardwijk, Angela van; Aerts, Hugo J.W.L.; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Novoa, Nuria M.; Varela, Gonzalo; Lambin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Surgery is considered the treatment of choice for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with poor pulmonary function or other comorbidities are treated with radiotherapy. The objective of this investigation is to compare the 3-year survival of two early-stage NSCLC populations treated in two different hospitals, either by surgical resection (lobectomy) or by individualized high-dose accelerated radiotherapy, after matching patients by propensity scoring analysis. Methods: A retrospective comparative study has been performed on two series of consecutive patients with cytohistological diagnosis of NSCLC, clinically staged IA by means of PET-scan (radiotherapy group) and pathologically staged IA (surgery group). Results: A total of 157 cases were initially selected for the analysis (110 operated and 47 treated by radiotherapy). Patients in the radiotherapy group were older, with higher comorbidity and lower FEV1% with 3-years probability of survival for operated patients higher than that found for patients treated by radiotherapy. After matching by propensity scoring (using age and FEV1%), differences disappear and 3-years probability of survival had no statistical differences. Conclusions: Although this is a non-randomized retrospective analysis, we have not found 3-years survival differences after matching cases between surgery and radiotherapy. Nevertheless, data presented here support the continuous investigation for non-surgical alternatives in this disease.

  10. Improving resident well-being and clinical learning environment through academic initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nathaniel; Appelbaum, Nital; Amendola, Michael; Dodson, Kelley; Kaplan, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Organizational effects on job satisfaction, burnout, work-life balance, and perceived support have not been studied in the context of the clinical learning environment. We evaluated the relationship between academic resources and resident well-being, the clinical learning environment, and in-service examination performance of surgical residents. Residents of general surgery and surgical specialty programs were recruited from March 2016 through June 2016 across the Southeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Northeast regions. Program directors were asked to allow distribution of a paper survey or to forward an electronic survey link onto residents. Five dichotomous questions were asked regarding access to academic resources. Validated measures were obtained assessing resident well-being and perceived clinical learning environment. Data were analyzed through t-tests and chi-squared test of independence. We received 276 respondents across 50 programs. Residents perceiving adequate support to succeed had less burnout (P = 0.008), better resilience (P = 0.009), better job satisfaction (P workplace climate (P < 0.001), better organizational support (P < 0.001), and were more likely to have high performance on the in-service examination (P = 0.001). Specific resources including educational stipends, review questions, in-service board prep, and support for poor performers correlated with improved well-being and perceived clinical learning environment. Provision of academic resources has implications beyond in-service examination performance, correlating with improved resident well-being and perceptions of the clinical learning environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hip Replacement Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outreach Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Hip Replacement Surgery Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB ... PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Hip Replacement Surgery Hip replacement surgery removes damaged or ...

  12. Clinical protocol levels are required in laboratory animal surgery when using medical devices: experiences with ureteral replacement surgery in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Paul K J D; Sloff, Marije; Janke, Heinz P; Kortmann, Barbara B M; de Gier, Robert P E; Geutjes, Paul J; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Feitz, Wout F J

    2017-10-01

    It is common to test medical devices in large animal studies that are or could also be used in humans. In this short report we describe the use of a ureteral J-stent for the evaluation of biodegradable tubular constructs for tissue reconstruction, and the regeneration of ureters in Saanen goats. Similarly to a previous study in pigs, the ureteral J-stent was blindly inserted until some resistance was met. During evaluation of the goats after three months, perforation of the renal cortex by the stent was observed in four out of seven animals. These results indicated that blind stent placement was not possible in goats. In four new goats, clinical protocols were followed using X-ray and iodinated contrast fluids to visualize the kidney and stent during stent placement. With this adaptation the stents were successfully placed in the kidneys of these four new goats with minimal additional effort. It is likely that other groups in other fields ran into similar problems that could have been avoided by following clinical protocols. Therefore, we would like to stress the importance of following clinical protocols when using medical devices in animals to prevent unnecessary suffering and to reduce the number of animals needed.

  13. Impact of Targeted Preoperative Optimization on Clinical Outcome in Emergency Abdominal Surgeries: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Ashish; Debbarma, Miltan; Narang, Neeraj; Saxena, Anudeep; Mahobia, Mamta; Tomar, Gaurav Singh

    2018-01-01

    Perforation peritonitis continues to be one of the most common surgical emergencies that need a surgical intervention most of the times. Anesthesiologists are invariably involved in managing such cases efficiently in perioperative period. The assessment and evaluation of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score at presentation and 24 h after goal-directed optimization, administration of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics, and definitive source control postoperatively. Outcome assessment in terms of duration of hospital stay and mortality in with or without optimization was also measured. It is a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled study in hospital setting. One hundred and one patients aged ≥18 years, of the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status I and II (E) with clinical diagnosis of perforation peritonitis posted for surgery were enrolled. Enrolled patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group A is optimized by goal-directed optimization protocol in the preoperative holding room by anesthesiology residents whereas in Group S, managed by surgery residents in the surgical wards without any fixed algorithm. The assessment of APACHE II score was done as a first step on admission and 24 h postoperatively. Duration of hospital stay and mortality in both the groups were also measured and compared. Categorical data are presented as frequency counts (percent) and compared using the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The statistical significance for categorical variables was determined by Chi-square analysis. For continuous variables, a two-sample t -test was applied. The mean APACHE II score on admission in case and control groups was comparable. Significant lowering of serial scores in case group was observed as compared to control group ( P = 0.02). There was a significant lowering of mean duration of hospital stay seen in case group (9.8 ± 1.7 days) as compared to control group ( P = 0

  14. Effect of methylprednisolone on the oxidative burst activity, adhesion molecules and clinical outcome following open heart surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Christiansen, K; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1997-01-01

    Following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), activated granulocytes may be involved with ischaemia/ reperfusion injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether steroids could reduce the oxidative burst activity of granulocytes, the expression of adhesion molecules...... on granulocytes and improve clinical outcome. Sixteen patients undergoing open heart surgery participated in the study. Eight were randomized to receive methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg intravenously) at the start of anaesthesia while eight patients served as a control group. The oxidative burst was measured flow...... not improve the weaning from the ventilator or reduce the stay in the intensive-care unit. In conclusion, treatment with steroids prevented hyperthermia following open heart surgery with CPB and reduced capillary leak during ECC. Methylprednisolone, however, did not reduce the oxidative burst activity...

  15. Clinical application of the Nd-YAG and Ho-YAG lasers in otolaryngology: head and neck surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukwa, Andrzej; Tulibacki, Marek P.; Dudziec, Katarzyna; Wojtowicz, Piotr

    1997-10-01

    The authors present their clinical experience regarding the possibilities of application of Nd:YAG and Ho:YAG lasers for the treatment of disorders in the area of the upper respiratory tract sinuses and ears. This technique makes it possible to perform a number of procedures in local anesthesia which considerably improves the economic effectiveness of the treatment. In case of the Nd:YAG laser they have also utilized the effect of deep coagulation of the soft tissues, whereas the Ho:YAG laser energy was applied for the surgery of bone tissue. The surgeries performed using laser beam enabled very good effect of treatment. They are competitive compared wit the methods used by traditional surgery.

  16. A Pilot Review of Gradual Versus Goal Re-initiation of Enteral Nutrition after Burn Surgery in the Hemodynamically Stable Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    nutrition after burn surgery in the hemodynamically stable patient 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Shields...specific recommendations on the rate of delivery at initiation [6]. Once a patient is considered hemodynamically stable (HDS), common practice is to...differences in these practices were largely due to new residents and/or nursing staff. GRVs were monitored every 4 h. When GRVs were greater than 500 mL with EN

  17. Effects of clinical pathways used in surgery for uterine fibroids: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xuping

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: CPWs could significantly improve the quality of care in patients undergoing uterine fibroids surgery, which were associated with a significant reduction in average length of stay and days of waiting for surgery, a decrease in inpatient expenditures and an improvement in patient satisfaction. Formulating evidence based CPWs and variation control in CPWs should be focused in the future.

  18. Oral Anticoagulant Use After Bariatric Surgery: A Literature Review and Clinical Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karlyn A; Lee, Craig R; Farrell, Timothy M; Moll, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    Bariatric surgery may alter the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or elimination (disposition) of orally administered drugs via changes to the gastrointestinal tract anatomy, body weight, and adipose tissue composition. As some patients who have undergone bariatric surgery will need therapeutic anticoagulation for various indications, appropriate knowledge is needed regarding anticoagulant drug disposition and resulting efficacy and safety in this population. We review general considerations about oral drug disposition in patients after bariatric surgery, as well as existing literature on oral anticoagulation after bariatric surgery. Overall, available evidence on therapeutic anticoagulation is very limited, and individual drug studies are necessary to learn how to safely and effectively use the direct oral anticoagulants. Given the sparsity of currently available data, it appears most prudent to use warfarin with international normalized ratio monitoring, and not direct oral anticoagulants, when full-dose anticoagulation is needed after bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Designing a Clinical Data Warehouse Architecture to Support Quality Improvement Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelico, John D; Wilcox, Adam B; Vawdrey, David K; Kuperman, Gilad J

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data warehouses, initially directed towards clinical research or financial analyses, are evolving to support quality improvement efforts, and must now address the quality improvement life cycle. In addition, data that are needed for quality improvement often do not reside in a single database, requiring easier methods to query data across multiple disparate sources. We created a virtual data warehouse at NewYork Presbyterian Hospital that allowed us to bring together data from several source systems throughout the organization. We also created a framework to match the maturity of a data request in the quality improvement life cycle to proper tools needed for each request. As projects progress in the Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control stages of quality improvement, there is a proper matching of resources the data needs at each step. We describe the analysis and design creating a robust model for applying clinical data warehousing to quality improvement.

  20. Electrophysiological evaluation of phrenic nerve injury during cardiac surgery – a prospective, controlled, clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ege Turan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to some reports, left hemidiaphragmatic paralysis due to phrenic nerve injury may occur following cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to document the effects on phrenic nerve injury of whole body hypothermia, use of ice-slush around the heart and mammary artery harvesting. Methods Electrophysiology of phrenic nerves was studied bilaterally in 78 subjects before and three weeks after cardiac or peripheral vascular surgery. In 49 patients, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG and heart valve replacement with moderate hypothermic (mean 28°C cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB were performed. In the other 29, CABG with beating heart was performed, or, in several cases, peripheral vascular surgery with normothermia. Results In all patients, measurements of bilateral phrenic nerve function were within normal limits before surgery. Three weeks after surgery, left phrenic nerve function was absent in five patients in the CPB and hypothermia group (3 in CABG and 2 in valve replacement. No phrenic nerve dysfunction was observed after surgery in the CABG with beating heart (no CPB or the peripheral vascular groups. Except in the five patients with left phrenic nerve paralysis, mean phrenic nerve conduction latency time (ms and amplitude (mV did not differ statistically before and after surgery in either group (p > 0.05. Conclusions Our results indicate that CPB with hypothermia and local ice-slush application around the heart play a role in phrenic nerve injury following cardiac surgery. Furthermore, phrenic nerve injury during cardiac surgery occurred in 10.2 % of our patients (CABG with CPB plus valve surgery.

  1. Clinical Outcome of Sacral Chordoma With Carbon Ion Radiotherapy Compared With Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Yoshihiro; Kamada, Tadashi; Imai, Reiko; Tsukushi, Satoshi; Yamada, Yoshihisa; Sugiura, Hideshi; Shido, Yoji; Wasa, Junji; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy, post-treatment function, toxicity, and complications of carbon ion radiotherapy (RT) for sacral chordoma compared with surgery. Methods and Materials: The records of 17 primary sacral chordoma patients treated since 1990 with surgery (n = 10) or carbon ion RT (n = 7) were retrospectively analyzed for disease-specific survival, local recurrence-free survival, complications, and functional outcome. The applied carbon ion dose ranged from 54.0 Gray equivalent (GyE) to 73.6 GyE (median 70.4). Results: The mean age at treatment was 55 years for the surgery group and 65 years for the carbon ion RT group. The median duration of follow-up was 76 months for the surgery group and 49 months for the carbon ion RT group. The local recurrence-free survival rate at 5 years was 62.5% for the surgery and 100% for the carbon ion RT group, and the disease-specific survival rate at 5 years was 85.7% and 53.3%, respectively. Urinary-anorectal function worsened in 6 patients (60%) in the surgery group, but it was unchanged in all the patients who had undergone carbon ion RT. Postoperative wound complications requiring reoperation occurred in 3 patients (30%) after surgery and in 1 patient (14%) after carbon ion RT. The functional outcome evaluated using the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society scoring system revealed 55% in the surgery group and 75% in the carbon ion RT group. Of the six factors in this scoring system, the carbon ion RT group had significantly greater scores in emotional acceptance than did the surgery group. Conclusion: Carbon ion RT results in a high local control rate and preservation of urinary-anorectal function compared with surgery.

  2. Sensory retraining: burden in daily life related to altered sensation after orthognathic surgery, a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C; Kim, S H; Tucker, M; Turvey, T A

    2010-08-01

    Assess the long-term effect of sensory retraining exercises, age, gender, type of surgery, and pre-surgical psychological distress on patients' perception of the interference related to altered sensation 2 years after orthognathic surgery. A total of 186 subjects with a developmental dentofacial disharmony were enrolled in a multicenter randomized clinical trial: one center was a community-based practice and the other a university-based center. Subjects were randomly allocated to two groups: standard of care mouth opening exercises after BSSO or a progressive series of sensory retraining facial exercises in addition to the opening exercises. At 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery, subjects scored unusual feelings on the face, numbness, and loss of lip sensitivity from 'no problem (1)' to 'serious problem (7)'. A marginal proportional odds model was fit for each of the ordinal outcomes. Up to 2 years after surgery, the opening exercise only group had a higher likelihood of reporting interference in daily activities related to numbness and loss of lip sensitivity than the sensory retraining exercise group. The difference between the two groups was relatively constant. Older subjects and those with elevated psychological distress before surgery reported higher burdens related to unusual facial feelings, numbness, and loss of lip sensitivity (p pre-surgical counseling regarding the impact on daily life of persistent altered sensation following a mandibular osteotomy.

  3. Initiating antiretroviral therapy for HIV at a patient's first clinic visit: a cost-effectiveness analysis of the rapid initiation of treatment randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lawrence C; Maskew, Mhairi; Brennan, Alana T; Mongwenyana, Constance; Nyoni, Cynthia; Malete, Given; Sanne, Ian; Fox, Matthew P; Rosen, Sydney

    2017-07-17

    Determine the cost and cost-effectiveness of single-visit (same-day) antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation compared to standard of care initiation. Cost-effectiveness analysis of individually randomized (1 : 1) pragmatic trial of single-visit initiation, which increased viral suppression at 10 months by 26% [relative risk (95% confidence interval) 1.26 (1.05-1.50)]. Primary health clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. HIV positive, adult, nonpregnant patients not yet on ART or known to be eligible who presented at the clinic 8 May 2013 to 29 August 2014. Same-day ART initiation using point-of-care laboratory instruments and accelerated clinic procedures to allow treatment-eligible patients to receive antiretroviral medications at the same visit as testing HIV positive or having an eligible CD4 cell count. Comparison was to standard of care ART initiation, which typically required three to five additional clinic visits. Average cost per patient enrolled and per patient achieving the primary outcome of initiated 90 days or less and suppressed 10 months or less, and production cost per patient achieving primary outcome (all costs per primary outcome patients). The average cost per patient enrolled, per patient achieving the primary outcome, and production cost were $319, $487, and $738 in the standard arm and $451, $505, and $707 in the rapid arm. Same-day treatment initiation was more effective than standard initiation, more expensive per patient enrolled, and less expensive to produce a patient achieving the primary outcome. Omitting point-of-care laboratory tests at initiation and focusing on high-volume clinics have the potential to reduce costs substantially and should be evaluated in routine settings.

  4. A clinical pilot study of a modular video-CT augmentation system for image-guided skull base surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen P.; Mirota, Daniel J.; Uneri, Ali; Otake, Yoshito; Hager, Gregory; Reh, Douglas D.; Ishii, Masaru; Gallia, Gary L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2012-02-01

    Augmentation of endoscopic video with preoperative or intraoperative image data [e.g., planning data and/or anatomical segmentations defined in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR)], can improve navigation, spatial orientation, confidence, and tissue resection in skull base surgery, especially with respect to critical neurovascular structures that may be difficult to visualize in the video scene. This paper presents the engineering and evaluation of a video augmentation system for endoscopic skull base surgery translated to use in a clinical study. Extension of previous research yielded a practical system with a modular design that can be applied to other endoscopic surgeries, including orthopedic, abdominal, and thoracic procedures. A clinical pilot study is underway to assess feasibility and benefit to surgical performance by overlaying CT or MR planning data in realtime, high-definition endoscopic video. Preoperative planning included segmentation of the carotid arteries, optic nerves, and surgical target volume (e.g., tumor). An automated camera calibration process was developed that demonstrates mean re-projection accuracy (0.7+/-0.3) pixels and mean target registration error of (2.3+/-1.5) mm. An IRB-approved clinical study involving fifteen patients undergoing skull base tumor surgery is underway in which each surgery includes the experimental video-CT system deployed in parallel to the standard-of-care (unaugmented) video display. Questionnaires distributed to one neurosurgeon and two otolaryngologists are used to assess primary outcome measures regarding the benefit to surgical confidence in localizing critical structures and targets by means of video overlay during surgical approach, resection, and reconstruction.

  5. [Evaluation of the clinical effect of the teeth with subgingivally involved defect conserved by crown lengthening surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Ding, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Li-Li; Huang, Zhong-Suo; Bian, Hua-Qin

    2005-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical effect of the teeth with subgingivally involved defect which were conserved by crown lengthening surgery. 62 teeth, with defect subgingivally from 1.5 mm to 4 mm, mobility degree(MD)lengthening surgery by combining flap surgery and osteoectomy, and restored 4 weeks after operation and followed-up for one year. The parameters of MD, sulcus bleeding index (SBI) and maximal defect probing depth (PD) at different times were measured respectively. 46 anterior teeth were divided into two groups based on PD of pre-operation. The groups were as follows: minor defect group (0.05), but a significant increase about MD occurred in the major defect group one year after restoration (Pstage after operation and PD of pre-operation in anterior teeth (r=0.489, 0.526, 0.531, Plengthening surgery may conserve these teeth with subgingivally involved defect, and has a good, long-time clinical effect. But MD showed an increasing trend after operation and significant cor.

  6. Clinical study on lorazepam for treating postoperative pain of wound after spinal meningioma surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-peng WANG

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To estimate the effect of lorazepam in relieving postoperative wound pain and anxiety after spinal meningioma surgery. Methods A total of 106 patients underwent spinal meningioma resection with endotracheal general anesthesia. They were randomly divided into lorazepam group (N = 53 and control group (N = 53. Patients in lorazepam group were given lorazepam 0.50 mg one night before surgery and 6 h after surgery, while control group were given compound vitamin B at the same time. Operation time, intraoperative bleeding and wound healing after surgery were recorded. McCormick grade and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS were used to evaluate the spinal function and anxiety. At 48 h after surgery, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was used to evaluate the degree of postoperative pain. Results All patients underwent tumor total resection, and spent the perioperative period safely. No complications such as infection happened. Neurological function were relieved to varying degrees and there was no worsening case. Compared with control group, SAS score in lorazepam group was significantly decreased at 48 h after surgery (P = 0.000. Compared with before surgery, SAS score in lorazepam group was significantly decreased at 48 h after surgery (P = 0.000. The VAS score at 48 h after surgery in lorazepam group was significantly lower than control group [(5.40 ± 1.24 score vs. (7.15 ± 1.12 score; t = 7.593, P = 0.000]. Conclusions Lorazepam as an antianxiety agent can effectively relieve postoperative pain after spinal meningioma resection. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.12.011

  7. [The clinical effect observation for surgery of nose and pharyngeal auxiliary oral appliance in severe OSAHS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Peilin; Xie, Yuping; Wei, Xiaoquan; Zhao, Lijun; Ma, Wei; Wang, Jinfeng; Ning, Jing; Xu, Chao; Yang, Qian; Kang, Hong

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effects of oral modified device combined with nasopharyngeal enlargement surgery and evaluate the oral modified device' s adjuvant therapy meaning in severe OSAHS patients after surgery treatment. 46 cases with severe OSAHS were diagnosed by PSG according to AHI and the lowest arterial oxygen saturation (LSaO2). We performed the nasal or pharyngeal cavity expansion surgery for them according to the pathological change part correspondingly. Then all subjects were divided into combined group (n=26) and surgery alone group (n=20) according to their personal willingness. We monitored the PSG for all subjects aftter 2 weeks and 3 months respectively, then we calculate the diversity between the two group or intragroup change on the basis of the AHI, LAT, LSaO2, mean arterial oxygen saturation (MSaO2) and sleep structures recorded by PSG. At the same time, we collected the subjective sensations by questionnaire. The AHI and LAT in combined group were significantly lower and LSaO2 was significantly higher than these in surgery alone group(P0. 05). The N 1% was more shorter and the N2% and N3% were more longer after nasal or pharyngeal operation compared with pre-operative states in both groups(P. 05). The data of PSG also showed that the shallow sleep proportion was more shorter and the slow wave sleep proportion was more longer in combined group compared with surgery alone group. The subjective sensations results also showed significantly alleviated in combined group, such as mental state, daytime sleepiness and physical strength. The efficiency ratio of treatment was 85. 0% and 92. 3% in surgery alone group and combined group respectively. Nasal and pharyngeal cavity enlargement surgery combined with oral modified device is a more effective treatment in patients with severe OSAHS, and it is meaningful for the long-term curative effect of surgery to prevent relapse and improve.

  8. Learning With Reflection: Practices in an Osteopathic Surgery Clinical Clerkship Through an Online Module.

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    Lewis, Kadriye O; Farber, Susan; Chen, Haiqin; Peska, Don N

    2015-11-01

    The value of reflective practices has gained momentum in osteopathic medical education. However, the use of reflective pedagogies has not been explored in the larger context of medical course delivery and design, to the authors' knowledge. To determine the types of reflection demonstrated by osteopathic medical students on an online discussion board and to explore differences in discussion engagement caused by the use of a reflective learning self-assessment tool. Using a mixed-method approach, reflection processes in an osteopathic surgery clinical clerkship online module were investigated in third-year osteopathic medical students. Discussion board messages were captured and coded. Both manual coding techniques and automated interrogation using NVivo9 (a computer program) for qualitative data were applied. Correlations of scores across 4 case-based discussion tasks and scores for self-reflection were computed as quantitative data. Twenty-eight students were included. Four main types of reflection (ie, content, contextual, dialogic, and personal) along with corresponding differentiated subthemes for each type of case-based discussion board group message were identified. Group collaboration revealed insights about the reflection process itself and also about the evidence of collective efforts, group engagements, and intragroup support among students. Student preparation revealed that students' metacognition was triggered when they judged their own contributions to group work. Challenges in completing readings and meeting deadlines were related to the students' long work hours. Reflective practices are essential to the practice of osteopathic medicine and medical education. Curricula can promote the development of reflective skills by integrating these deliberate practices in educational activities.

  9. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery in Patients With Clinically Resectable Lung Tumors

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    H. Sakai

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the feasibility of thoracoscopic resection, a pilot study was performed in patients with clinically resectable lung tumors. In 40 patients, Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS was performed because of suspicion of malignancy. There were 29 men and 11 women with a median age of 54.8 years (range 18 to 78. Preoperative indications were suspected lung cancer and tumor in 27 patients, assessment of tumor resectability in 7 patients, and probability of metastatic tumors in 6 patients. The final diagnoses in the 27 patients with suspected lung cancer were 12 primary lung cancers, 6 lung metastases, and 9 benign lesions. The success rates for VATS (no conversion to thoracotomy were 1 of 12 (8.3% for resectable stage I lung cancer, 8 of 12 (66.7% for metastatic tumors, and 9 of 9 (100% for benign tumors. With VATS, 6 of 7 patients (85.7%, possible stage III non-small cell lung cancer, an explorative thoracotomy with was avoided, significantly reducing morbidity. The reasons for conversion to thoracotomy were 1 oncological (N2 lymph node dissection and prevention of tumor spillage and 2 technical (inability to locate the nodule, central localization, no anatomical fissure, or poor lung function requiring full lung ventilation. The ultimate diagnoses were 19 lung cancers, 12 metastatic lung tumors, and 9 benign lung tumors. Our data show the limitations of VATS for malignant tumors in general use. These findings, together with the fact that experience in performing thoracoscopic procedures demonstrates a learning curve, may limit the use of thoracoscopic resection as a routine surgical procedure, especially when strict oncological rules are respected.

  10. The Relationship Between Preoperative and Primary Care Blood Pressure Among Veterans Presenting from Home for Surgery. Is There Evidence for Anesthesiologist-Initiated Blood Pressure Referral?

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    Schonberger, Robert B.; Burg, Matthew M.; Holt, Natalie; Lukens, Carrie L.; Dai, Feng; Brandt, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Background American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines describe the perioperative evaluation as “a unique opportunity to identify patients with hypertension,” however factors such as anticipatory stress or medication noncompliance may induce a bias toward higher blood pressure, leaving clinicians unsure about how to interpret preoperative hypertension. Information describing the relationship between preoperative intake blood pressure and primary care measurements could help anesthesiologists make primary care referrals for improved blood pressure control in an evidence-based fashion. We hypothesized that the preoperative examination provides a useful basis for initiating primary care blood pressure referral. Methods We analyzed retrospective data on 2807 patients who arrived from home for surgery and who were subsequently evaluated within 6 months after surgery in the primary care center of the same institution. After descriptive analysis, we conducted multiple linear regression analysis to identify day-of-surgery (DOS) factors associated with subsequent primary care blood pressure. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of different blood pressure referral thresholds using both a single-measurement and a two-stage screen incorporating recent preoperative and DOS measurements for identifying patients with subsequently elevated primary care blood pressure. Results DOS systolic blood pressure (SBP) was higher than subsequent primary care SBP by a mean bias of 5.5mmHg (95% limits of agreement +43.8 to −32.8). DOS diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was higher than subsequent primary care DBP by a mean bias of 1.5mmHg (95% limits of agreement +13.0 to −10.0). Linear regression of DOS factors explained 19% of the variability in primary care SBP and 29% of the variability in DBP. Accounting for the observed bias, a two-stage SBP referral screen requiring preoperative clinic SBP≥140mmHg and DOS

  11. Effects of dexmedetomidine on heart arrhythmia prevention in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Ghasem; Jahanbakhsh, Saeed; Tashnizi, Mohammad Abbasi; Fathi, Mehdi; Amini, Shahram; Zirak, Nahid; Sheybani, Shima

    2017-10-01

    Arrhythmia occurring during and after surgery is one of the major complications in open-heart surgery. Dexmedetomidine is an intravenous alpha-2 agonist and very specific short-acting drug to protect the various organs against ischemic injuries and blood reflow. However, the effect of dexmedetomidine for preventing intraoperative heart arrhythmias has not been recognized. This study aimed to determine the effect of dexmedetomidine on the incidence rate of heart arrhythmias and anesthetic required in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. This randomized clinical trial was conducted on patients who were candidates for off-pump coronary artery bypass referring to Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, Iran, from July 2016 through January 2017. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups of intervention (infusion of 0.5 mcg/kg/h dexmedetomidine together with induction followed by infusion of 0.5 mcg/kg/h by the end of the surgery) or control (saline infusion). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before induction, during surgery operation and ICU admission. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 18 using Chi Square and independent-samples t-test. A total of 76 patients with a mean age of 59.8 ± 8.2 years (in two groups of 38) were studied. The two groups had no statistically significant difference in terms of background variables. The MAP and HR values before induction, during surgery and ICU admission were significantly higher in the control group than in the intervention group (p=0.001). Out of the studied arrhythmias, the values of PAC (55.2% vs. 15.7%), PVC (81.5% vs. 21.0%), AF (26.3% vs. 7.8%), VTAC (21.0% vs. 2.6%) were significantly lower in dexmedetomidine group (p=0.001). It seems that dexmedetomidine administration during induction and surgery can cause significant reduction in most of the common arrhythmias in off-pump coronary bypass surgery. The use of dexmedetomidine maintains MAP and HR at significantly lower values, and changes

  12. EDCTP regional networks of excellence: initial merits for planned clinical trials in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miiro, George M; Oukem-Boyer, Odile Ouwe Missi; Sarr, Ousmane; Rahmani, Maerangis; Ntoumi, Francine; Dheda, Keertan; Pym, Alexander; Mboup, Souleymane; Kaleebu, Pontiano

    2013-03-22

    Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and combating hotspots with escalating but preventable communicable diseases remain major challenges in Africa. The European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) intervened to combat poverty-related diseases including malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, and to conduct multi-centre clinical trials and multi-disciplinary health research through an innovative model of regional Networks of Excellence (NoEs). We participated in a quasi-formative evaluation between October and December 2011 on the 4 regional-led research networks. These included the: Central Africa Network on Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and Malaria (CANTAM); East African Consortium for Clinical Research (EACCR); West African Network of Excellence for TB, AIDS and Malaria (WANETAM), and the Trials of Excellence for Southern Africa (TESA) launched between 2009 and 2010. We shared a participatory appraisal of field reports, progress reports and presentations from each network to jointly outline the initial experiences of the merits, outputs and lessons learnt. The self-regulating democratic networks, with 64 institutions in 21 African countries, have trained over 1, 000 African scientists, upgraded 36 sites for clinical trials, leveraged additional € 24 million and generated 38 peer-reviewed publications through networking and partnerships. The shared initial merits and lessons learnt portray in part the strengthened capacity of these networks for improved research coordination and conduct of planned multi-center clinical trials in Africa. Increased funding by African agencies, governments and international health partners will ensure sustainability of these networks for research capacity development and demonstrate their commitment to achieving the MDGs in Africa.

  13. [Predictive methods versus clinical titration for the initiation of lithium therapy. A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraerts, I; Sienaert, P

    2013-01-01

    When lithium is administered, the clinician needs to know when the lithium in the patient’s blood has reached a therapeutic level. At the initiation of treatment the level is usually achieved gradually through the application of the titration method. In order to increase the efficacy of this procedure several methods for dosing lithium and for predicting lithium levels have been developed. To conduct a systematic review of the publications relating to the various methods for dosing lithium or predicting lithium levels at the initiation of therapy. We searched Medline systematically for articles published in English, French or Dutch between 1966 and April 2012 which described or studied a method for dosing lithium or for predicting the lithium level reached following a specific dosage. We screened the reference lists of relevant articles in order to locate additional papers. We found 38 lithium prediction methods, in addition to the clinical titration method. These methods can be divided into two categories: the ‘a priori’ methods and the ‘test-dose’ methods, the latter requiring the administration of a test dose of lithium. The lithium prediction methods generally achieve a therapeutic blood level faster than the clinical titration method, but none of the methods achieves convincing results. On the basis of our review, we propose that the titration method should be used as the standard method in clinical practice.

  14. Clinical application of micro-implant anchorage in initial orthodontic retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahabuddin, Shaji; Mascarenhas, Rohan; Iqbal, Mahamad; Husain, Akhter

    2015-02-01

    Micro-implant is a device that is temporarily fixed to bone for the purpose of enhancing orthodontic anchorage either by supporting the teeth of the reactive unit or by obviating the need for the reactive unit altogether, and which is subsequently removed after use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficiency of micro-implants in reinforcing anchorage during the initial retraction of anterior teeth, check the rate of initial retraction for 8 weeks, and assess the stability of micro-implants during this period. Eighteen micro-implants were placed (10 in the maxilla and 8 in the mandible) and immediately loaded with 200-250 g of force using 9-mm closed coil Nitinol springs. The amount of space closure was measured every 2 weeks until the eighth week. Cephalometric measurements were made at the end of the study to evaluate anchor loss, if any. Micro-implant stability was also assessed. The rate of initial retraction in the maxilla at the end of 8 weeks was 1.65 mm/quadrant and 1.51 mm/quadrant in the mandible. The amount of retraction on the left side of the arches was 1.66 mm/quadrant and 1.49 mm/quadrant on the right side. The average initial retraction for both arches per month was 0.78 mm. An anchor loss of 0.1 mm (0.06%) was observed in the maxilla while no mandibular anchor loss was recorded. The rate of initial retraction observed in the maxilla was more than that achieved in the mandible. Initial retraction was also more on the left side of the arches. There was no anchor loss in the mandible. The micro-implant-reinforced anchorage was helpful in minimizing anchor loss and accepted heavy traction forces but did not bring about a faster rate of retraction.

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of Three Prophylactic Strategies to Prevent Clinical Macular Edema after Phacoemulsification Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorstein, Neal H; Liu, Liyan; Waxman, Michael D; Herrinton, Lisa J

    2015-12-01

    To study the relationship of chemoprophylaxis and other factors with the occurrence of acute, clinical, postoperative macular edema. Retrospective cohort study. The drug regimens consisted of postoperative topical prednisolone acetate (PA) alone or with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or intraoperative subconjunctival injection of 2 mg triamcinolone acetonide (TA) alone. Patients undergoing phacoemulsification at Kaiser Permanente, Diablo Service Area, Northern California, from 2007 through 2013. We identified incident macular edema diagnoses that had been recorded 5 to 120 days after phacoemulsification with visual acuity 20/40 or worse and evidence of macular thickening by optical coherence tomography. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from logistic regression analysis, conditioned on the surgeon and adjusted for year, patient age and race, diabetic retinopathy status, other ocular comorbidities, systemic comorbidities, and posterior capsular rupture status. Incident rates of acute, clinical, postoperative macular edema. We confirmed 118 cases among 16 070 cataract surgeries (incidence, 0.73%). Compared with PA alone, the OR for the relationship of macular edema with PA+NSAID was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.21-0.95) and that for TA injection was 1.21 (95% CI, 0.48-3.06). The frequency of intraocular pressure spikes of 30 mmHg or more between postoperative days 16 and 45 was 0.6% in the topical PA group, 0.3% in the topical PA+NSAID group (P = 0.13), and 0.8% for the TA group (P = 0.52). Black race was associated with a risk of macular edema (OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.41-5.79). Adding a prophylactic NSAID to PA treatment was associated with a reduced risk of macular edema with visual acuity of 20/40 or worse. The risk and safety of TA injection were similar to those of PA alone. Further research is needed on the prognostic significance of postoperative macular edema, the role of prophylaxis, the risk among black people, and the

  16. Clinical and pathological analysis of benign brain tumors resected after Gamma Knife surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ali; Wang, Jun-Mei; Li, Gui-Lin; Sun, Yi-Lin; Sun, Shi-Bin; Luo, Bin; Wang, Mei-Hua

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the clinical and pathological features of benign brain tumors that had been treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) followed by resection. In this retrospective chart review, the authors identified 61 patients with intracranial benign tumors who had undergone neurosurgical intervention after GKS. Of these 61 patients, 27 were male and 34 were female; mean age was 49.1 years (range 19-73 years). There were 24 meningiomas, 18 schwannomas, 14 pituitary adenomas, 3 hemangioblastomas, and 2 craniopharyngiomas. The interval between GKS and craniotomy was 2-168 months, with a median of 24 months; for 7 patients, the interval was 10 years or longer. For 21 patients, a craniotomy was performed before and after GKS; in 9 patients, pathological specimens were obtained before and after GKS. A total of 29 patients underwent GKS at the Beijing Tiantan Hospital. All specimens obtained by surgical intervention underwent histopathological examination. Most patients underwent craniotomy because of tumor recurrence and/or exacerbation of clinical signs and symptoms. Neuroimaging analyses indicated tumor growth in 42 patients, hydrocephalus in 10 patients with vestibular schwannoma, cystic formation with mass effect in 7 patients, and tumor hemorrhage in 13 patients, of whom 10 had pituitary adenoma. Pathological examination demonstrated that, regardless of the type of tumor, GKS mainly induced coagulative necrosis of tumor parenchyma and stroma with some apoptosis and, ultimately, scar formation. In addition, irradiation induced vasculature stenosis and occlusion and tumor degeneration as a result of reduced blood supply. GKS-induced vasculature reaction was rarely observed in patients with pituitary adenoma. Pathological analysis of tumor specimens obtained before and after GKS did not indicate increased tumor proliferation after GKS. Radiosurgery is effective for intracranial benign tumors of small size and deep location and for tumor recurrence

  17. Neuroprotective Anesthesia Regimen and Intensive Management for Pediatric Cardiac Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass: a Review and Initial Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrson Guilherme Klamt

    Full Text Available Abstract This article describes our proposal for routine anesthesia, intraoperative medical management, cerebral and physiological monitoring during pediatric cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass that intend to provide appropriate anesthesia (analgesia, hypnosis, neuroprotection, adequate cerebral and systemic oxygen supply, and preventing against drugs neurotoxicity. A concise retrospective data is presented.

  18. Bariatric surgery insurance requirements independently predict surgery dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Kaitlin M; Mehaffey, J Hunter; Safavian, Dana; Schirmer, Bruce; Malin, Steven K; Hallowell, Peter T; Kirby, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    Many insurance companies have considerable prebariatric surgery requirements despite a lack of evidence for improved clinical outcomes. The hypothesis of this study is that insurance-specific requirements will be associated with a decreased progression to surgery and increased delay in time to surgery. Retrospective data collection was performed for patients undergoing bariatric surgery evaluation from 2010-2015. Patients who underwent surgery (SGY; n = 827; mean body mass index [BMI] 49.1) were compared with those who did not (no-SGY; n = 648; mean BMI: 49.4). Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify specific co-morbidity and insurance specific predictors of surgical dropout and time to surgery. A total of 1475 patients using 12 major insurance payors were included. Univariate analysis found insurance requirements associated with surgical drop out included longer median diet duration (no-SGY = 6 mo; SGY = 3 mo; Psurgery dropout. Additionally, surgical patients had an average interval between initial visit and surgery of 5.8±4.6 months with significant weight gain (2.1 kg, Psurgery insurance requirements were associated with lack of patient progression to surgery in this study. In addition, delays in surgery were associated with preoperative weight gain. Although prospective and multicenter studies are needed, these findings have major policy implications suggesting insurance requirements may need to be reconsidered to improve medical care. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hospital Discharge Information After Elective Total hip or knee Joint Replacement Surgery: A clinical Audit of preferences among general practitioners

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    Andrew M Briggs

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe demand for elective joint replacement (EJR surgery for degenerative joint disease continues to rise in Australia, and relative to earlier practices, patients are discharged back to the care of their general practitioner (GP and other community-based providers after a shorter hospital stay and potentially greater post-operative acuity. In order to coordinate safe and effective post-operative care, GPs rely on accurate, timely and clinically-informative information from hospitals when their patients are discharged. The aim of this project was to undertake an audit with GPs regarding their preferences about the components of information provided in discharge summaries for patients undergoing EJR surgery for the hip or knee. GPs in a defined catchment area were invited to respond to an online audit instrument, developed by an interdisciplinary group of clinicians with knowledge of orthopaedic surgery practices. The 15-item instrument required respondents to rank the importance of components of discharge information developed by the clinician working group, using a three-point rating scale. Fifty-three GPs and nine GP registrars responded to the audit invitation (11.0% response rate. All discharge information options were ranked as ‘essential’ by a proportion of respondents, ranging from 14.8–88.5%. Essential information requested by the respondents included early post-operative actions required by the GP, medications prescribed, post-operative complications encountered and noting of any allergies. Non-essential information related to the prosthesis used. The provision of clinical guidelines was largely rated as ‘useful’ information (47.5–56.7%. GPs require a range of clinical information to safely and effectively care for their patients after discharge from hospital for EJR surgery. Implementation of changes to processes used to create discharge summaries will require engagement and collaboration between clinical staff

  20. Apical surgery vs apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment: A prospective cohort clinical study of teeth affected by persistent periapical lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Prati

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This prospective clinical study analyzed the 24-month outcome of conventional apical surgery retro-filled with calcium-silicate cement versus apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment by means of clinical and radiographic criteria. Materials and methods: This study included 83 teeth affected by persistent periapical lesions in 68 patients. Mean age was 52 years (median = 51 years; range 19–81 years. Twenty-eight cases were treated with apical surgery, 16 cases with apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment and 39 cases with orthograde retreatment in previously treated teeth established as control group. Periapical index score (PAI was used as radiographic criteria. Teeth were examined at 6 months, 1 and 2 years and classified as healed (without any symptoms and PAI ≤ 2, healing (without any symptoms and PAI = 3 or diseased (with symptoms or PAI ≥ 4 and not functional on the basis of radiographic and clinical criteria. At 24 months evaluation, healed and healing were considered as success and diseased and fracture as failure. Multilevel GLM model and an ordered logistic regression as statistical analysis was made with level of significance set at p < 0.05. Results: Total drop-out was 7% (n = 6. After 6–9 months, 6 teeth (3 from apical surgery, 2 from simultaneous treatment and 1 from orthograde retreatment were extracted for root fracture. Twenty-four-month success rate of apical surgery group was 78% (n = 17, apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment presented 81% (n = 10 and orthograde retreatment success was 80% (n = 24. There was no statistically difference between the groups at 24 months (p = 0.890. Conclusions: Both surgical techniques revealed a high percentage of healing, similar to that reported by previous studies. Apical surgery with simultaneous orthograde retreatment showed a faster healing after 12 months comparing to the control group. Riassunto: Scopo: In

  1. Randomized clinical study comparing piezosurgery and conventional rotatory surgery in mandibular cyst enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Sabrina; Guarnieri, Renzo

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare piezoelectric surgery to the conventional rotatory surgery in mandibular cyst enucleation, and to determine the 2 method's suitability and the postoperative outcomes. Eighty patients were included in the study. 35 male and 45 female, which showed cystic mandibular lesions, compared with the inferior alveolar nerve or the mental nerve. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. In the test group, cystectomy was performed using conventional rotatory instrumentation (rotatory-group), and in the other one piezoelectric surgery (piezo-group). The swelling was documented 24/48/72 h and 1 week post-surgery and the patients recorded their subjective postoperative pain daily for 7 days using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Patients treated with piezoelectric technique have presented a lower VAS, minor swelling and less recovery time compared to the rotatory-group. No lesions of the mandible nerve were detected with piezosurgery whereas surgery with rotary instruments resulted in 8% hypesthesia at least up to one week. The results of this study suggest that piezosurgery may be considered effective in cyst enucleation compared to traditional procedures with burs, since it grants the patients significantly less post-surgical pain and swelling. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A clinical assessment of laser surgery for recurrent tongue cancer following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Junnosuke; Fujita, Kunio; Komatsubara, Hideki; Umeda, Masahiro; Komori, Takahide

    2004-01-01

    Laser surgery can control intraoperative hemorrhaging and enable lesions to be accurately removed since, unlike an electrotome, it does not effect electrocontractility. It can also reduce postoperative pain and dysfunction. This study investigated the efficacy of laser surgery in recurrent tongue cancer following radiotherapy. Of the total of 105 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (T1, T2N0) who underwent radiotherapy at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, at some point between 1980 and 1998, 24 (22.9%) experienced local recurrence. Sixteen of these patients underwent surgical removal of the tumor. Of these 16 patients, 8 (4 early- and 4 late-stage recurrence) had partial glossectomy by laser surgery. Following laser surgery, 2 (1 early- and 1 late-stage recurrence) of the 8 patients died from neck metastasis and another 2 (early-stage recurrence) died from other diseases. The primary and neck tumors are both under control in 3 (late-stage recurrence) of the remaining 4 patients. Laser surgery for late-stage recurrent tongue cancer following radiotherapy appears to be a suitable treatment, although comprehensive glossectomy with/without radical neck dissection is necessary for early-stage recurrent cases after radiotherapy. (author)

  3. Clinical results for salvage surgery in head and neck carcinoma after chemoradiation or radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Katsuhiro; Makino, Yohjiroh; Nagaoka, Masato; Seino, Youichi; Hama, Takanori; Aoki, Kensuke; Uchida, Mitsuru; Kato, Takakuni

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the post-operative complications of surgical procedures in oral or pharyngeal carcinoma by analyzing and comparing between patients who underwent salvage surgery after chemoradiation and radiation. A retrospective review was performed of 18 patients who underwent salvage surgery and reconstruction after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT group), and another 41 patients who underwent salvage surgery and reconstruction after radiation therapy (RT group). No perioperative deaths or life threatening systemic complications occurred, and all flaps survived completely in both groups. Surgical site infection (SSI) occurred in five patients (12.2%) in the RT group and seven patients (38%) in the CCRT group. SSI other than donor site infection occurred in four patients (9%) in the RT group and four patients (22%) in the CCRT group. The rate of SSI excluding donor site infection did not differ significantly between patients who underwent salvage surgery after CCRT and RT. The rate of donor site infection was higher in the CCRT group than in the RT group (p=0.04). This study showed that salvage surgery after CCRT or RT can be performed safely, without significant morbidity or mortality. However, patients who received CCRT are at risk for major complications caused by minor troubles, and thus reconstruction after salvage surgery should be performed with sufficient care. (author)

  4. "Salvage microbiology": detection of bacteria directly from clinical specimens following initiation of antimicrobial treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Farrell

    Full Text Available PCR coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS is a diagnostic approach that has demonstrated the capacity to detect pathogenic organisms from culture negative clinical samples after antibiotic treatment has been initiated. [1] We describe the application of PCR/ESI-MS for detection of bacteria in original patient specimens that were obtained after administration of antibiotic treatment in an open investigation analysis.We prospectively identified cases of suspected bacterial infection in which cultures were not obtained until after the initiation of antimicrobial treatment. PCR/ESI-MS was performed on 76 clinical specimens that were submitted for conventional microbiology testing from 47 patients receiving antimicrobial treatment.In our series, 72% (55/76 of cultures obtained following initiation of antimicrobial treatment were non-diagnostic (45 negative cultures; and 10 respiratory specimens with normal flora (5, yeast (4, or coagulase-negative staphylococcus (1. PCR/ESR-MS detected organisms in 83% (39/47 of cases and 76% (58/76 of the specimens. Bacterial pathogens were detected by PCR/ESI-MS in 60% (27/45 of the specimens in which cultures were negative. Notably, in two cases of relapse of prosthetic knee infections in patients on chronic suppressive antibiotics, the previous organism was not recovered in tissue cultures taken during extraction of the infected knee prostheses, but was detected by PCR/ESI-MS.Molecular methods that rely on nucleic acid amplification may offer a unique advantage in the detection of pathogens collected after initiation of antimicrobial treatment and may provide an opportunity to target antimicrobial therapy and "salvage" both individual treatment regimens as well as, in select cases, institutional antimicrobial stewardship efforts.

  5. Diagnostic yield of preoperative computed tomography imaging and the importance of a clinical decision for lung cancer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shuichi; Koike, Teruaki; Yamato, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic yield of preoperative computed tomography (CT) imaging and the validity of surgical intervention based on the clinical decision to perform surgery for lung cancer or suspected lung cancer. We retrospectively evaluated 1755 patients who had undergone pulmonary resection for lung cancer or suspected lung cancer. CT scans were performed on all patients. Surgical intervention to diagnose and treat was based on a medical staff conference evaluation for the suspected lung cancer patients who were pathologically undiagnosed. We evaluated the relation between resected specimens and preoperative CT imaging in detail. A total of 1289 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer by preoperative pathology examination; another 466 were not pathologically diagnosed preoperatively. Among the 1289 patients preoperatively diagnosed with lung cancer, the diagnoses were confirmed postoperatively in 1282. Among the 466 patients preoperatively undiagnosed, 435 were definitively diagnosed with lung cancer, and there were 383 p-stage I disease patients. There were 38 noncancerous patients who underwent surgery with a diagnosis of confirmed or suspected lung cancer. Among the 1755 patients who underwent surgery, 1717 were pathologically confirmed with lung cancer, and the diagnostic yield of preoperative CT imaging was 97.8%. Among the 466 patients who were preoperatively undiagnosed, 435 were compatible with the predicted findings of lung cancer. Diagnostic yields of preoperative CT imaging based on clinical evaluation are sufficiently reliable. Diagnostic surgical intervention was acceptable when the clinical probability of malignancy was high and the malignancy was pathologically undiagnosed. (author)

  6. Alteration of Occlusal Plane in Orthognathic Surgery: Clinical Features to Help Treatment Planning on Class III Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Amaral Alves Marlière

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentofacial deformities (DFD presenting mainly as Class III malocclusions that require orthognathic surgery as a part of definitive treatment. Class III patients can have obvious signs such as increasing the chin projection and chin throat length, nasolabial folds, reverse overjet, and lack of upper lip support. However, Class III patients can present different facial patterns depending on the angulation of occlusal plane (OP, and only bite correction does not always lead to the improvement of the facial esthetic. We described two Class III patients with different clinical features and inclination of OP and had undergone different treatment planning based on 6 clinical features: (I facial type; (II upper incisor display at rest; (III dental and gingival display on smile; (IV soft tissue support; (V chin projection; and (VI lower lip projection. These patients were submitted to orthognathic surgery with different treatment plannings: a clockwise rotation and counterclockwise rotation of OP according to their facial features. The clinical features and OP inclination helped to define treatment planning by clockwise and counterclockwise rotations of the maxillomandibular complex, and two patients undergone to bimaxillary orthognathic surgery showed harmonic outcomes and stables after 2 years of follow-up.

  7. POST OPERATIVE RECOVERY RESTLESSNESS FOLLOWING ENT SURGERIES IN THE PEDIATRIC AGE GROUP - A CLINICAL STUDY OF 246 CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagula

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Post - operative restlessness is observed commonly among children following Ear Nose Throat surgeries. This post anesthetic problem is also termed as Emergence Agitation (EA which interferes with patient’s recovery, presenting a challenging task to the ane sthetist in terms of assessment and convincing the parents. Many factors play a role singly or in combination in producing EA. EA consist of restlessness, excessive crying and spells of breath holding, head banging and incoherent speech. In this prospectiv e clinical study the incidence of post - operative recovery restlessness EA in children aged between 3 to 12 years, enumeration of the causes, and prediction of EA in Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 246 Children undergoing elective surgeries of Ear Nose and throat are selected and their demographic data, socio - economic back ground and emotional attachment with parents were elicited. Parents of the children were interviewed prior to surgery using a questionnaire enquiring of their children’s personal ity, and emotional attachment and meekness. Their preoperative clinical data are documented. Their post - operative general condition, behavior, time taken for awakening, period of total recovery and treatment factors are recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: The incidence of EA was found in 23.6% of the children. EA lasted between 21 minutes to 52 minutes with a mean period of 28.4±9.5 minutes. 67% of the children required medication with sedatives, analgesics and anti - emetics. Post - operative stay in the Surgical ICU ranged between Hrs . 3.12±0.36mts to Hrs . 8.39±2.10mts in the children showing restlessness, compared to those not showing agitation. CONCLUSIONS: The factors associated with EA were, age, emotional attachment, meekness, adaptability, previous surgery, analgesics, sedatives, dose of pentothal sodium for induction, time taken for awakening and duration of surgery. Shorter was the time of awakening

  8. [Effects of surgery on muscles on clinical and radiographic findings in the hip joint region in cerebral palsy patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schejbalová, A; Havlas, V

    2008-10-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Isolated or combined surgical procedures on muscles around the hip joint are currently indicated by many authors. In cerebral palsy patients they are regarded as essential intervention. MATERIAL In the years 2005-2007, surgery in the hip joint region was essential for 150 children between 3 and 18 years of age. At the time of surgery, the patients' locomotion ranged from stage 1 to stage 7 of the Vojta system. METHODS The outcome was evaluated by clinical and radiographic examination at 2 and 6 months post-operatively and hip migration percentage and Wiberg's CE angle were measured. RESULTS The best clinical and radiographic outcomes were achieved in children younger than 6 years of age. On the other hand, isolated transfer of the distal rectus femoris muscle significantly affected pelvis anteflexion in adolescent patients. The most marked decrease in migration percentage was found after adductor tenotomy combined with surgery on the iliopsoas muscle (55.6 %) or when the two procedures were combined with distal rectus femoris transfer. DISCUSSION Combined surigical procedures, i.e., adductor tenotomy, surgery on the iliopsoas muscle or rectus femoris muscle and medial hamstrings, with fixation using an abduction modified Atlanta brace, are effective in patients with marked lateral hip migration who are younger that 6 years. Isolated adductor tenotomy and distal transfer of the rectus femoris muscle markedly improve standing position in walking patients. CONCLUSION An appropriate combination of surgical procedures on muscles in the hip region and on medial hamstrings can significantly improve the patient's locomotion and, if lateral migration is present, help to avoid surgery on bones.

  9. A European multi-language initiative to make the general population aware of independent clinical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosconi, Paola; Antes, Gerd; Barbareschi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    2. An animated film about clinical trials, dubbed in the 23 official languages of the European Community, and an interactive tutorial 3. An inventory of resources, available in 23 languages, searchable by topic, author, and media type 4. Two educational games for young people, developed in six......BACKGROUND: The ECRAN (European Communication on Research Awareness Needs) project was initiated in 2012, with support from the European Commission, to improve public knowledge about the importance of independent, multinational, clinical trials in Europe. METHODS: Participants in the ECRAN...... materials and tools, making them freely available under a Creative Commons licence. RESULTS: The principal communication materials developed were: 1. A website ( http://ecranproject.eu ) in six languages, including a Media centre section to help journalists to disseminate information about the ECRAN project...

  10. Avanafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: initial data and clinical key properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, George T; Uckert, Stefan; Assadi-Pour, Farhang; Kuczyk, Markus A; Albrecht, Knut

    2013-02-01

    Orally active, selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE 5, cyclic GMP PDE), such as sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil, are currently the first-choice treatment options for the clinical management of erectile dysfunction (ED) of various etiologies and severities. However, a significant number of patients remain dissatisfied with the available therapies due a lack of efficacy or discomfort arising from adverse events. Several new PDE5 inhibitors, among which are avanafil (TA-1790), lodenafil, mirodenafil, udenafil, SLX-2101, JNJ-10280205 and JNJ-10287069, have recently been approved and introduced into the market or are in the final stages of their clinical development. Avanafil (marketed in the US under the brand name STENDRA(™)) has been developed by VIVUS Inc. (Mountain View, CA, USA) and has recently received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the treatment of male ED. The drug has demonstrated improved selectivity for PDE5, is rapidly absorbed after oral administration with a fast onset of action and a plasma half-life that is comparable to sildenfil and vardenafil. In phase II and phase III clinical trials that included a large number of patients, avanafil has been shown to be effective and well tolerated. Owing to its favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile, avanafil is considered as a promising new option in the treatment of ED. The present article summarizes the initial data and clinical key properties of avanafil.

  11. Impact of the Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative on Clinical Pharmacy Specialist Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Judith; Ray, Shaunta'; Danelich, Ilya; Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth; Eckel, Stephen; Guharoy, Roy; Militello, Michael; O'Donnell, Paul; Sam, Teena; Crist, Stephanie M; Smidt, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the goals of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) and its recommendations for health-system pharmacy practice transformation to meet future patient care needs and elevate the role of pharmacists as patient care providers. PPMI envisions a future in which pharmacists have greater responsibility for medication-related outcomes and technicians assume greater responsibility for product-related activities. Although the PPMI recommendations have elevated the level of practice in many settings, they also potentially affect existing clinical pharmacists, in general, and clinical pharmacy specialists, in particular. Moreover, although more consistent patient care can be achieved with an expanded team of pharmacist providers, the role of clinical pharmacy specialists must not be diminished, especially in the care of complex patients and populations. Specialist practitioners with advanced training and credentials must be available to model and train pharmacists in generalist positions, residents, and students. Indeed, specialist practitioners are often the innovators and practice leaders. Negotiation between hospitals and pharmacy schools is needed to ensure a continuing role for academic clinical pharmacists and their contributions as educators and researchers. Lessons can be applied from disciplines such as nursing and medicine, which have developed new models of care involving effective collaboration between generalists and specialists. Several different pharmacy practice models have been described to meet the PPMI goals, based on available personnel and local goals. Studies measuring the impact of these new practice models are needed. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  12. Initial Virologic Response and HIV Drug Resistance Among HIV-Infected Individuals Initiating First-line Antiretroviral Therapy at 2 Clinics in Chennai and Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingankar, Nitin K.; Thorat, Smita R.; Deshpande, Alaka; Rajasekaran, S.; Chandrasekar, C.; Kumar, Suria; Srikantiah, Padmini; Chaturbhuj, Devidas N.; Datkar, Sharda R.; Deshmukh, Pravin S.; Kulkarni, Smita S.; Sane, Suvarna; Reddy, D. C. S.; Garg, Renu; Jordan, Michael R.; Kabra, Sandhya; Paranjape, Ramesh S.

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) in cohorts of patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) at clinics in Chennai and Mumbai, India, was assessed following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Twelve months after ART initiation, 75% and 64.6% of participants at the Chennai and Mumbai clinics, respectively, achieved viral load suppression of Mumbai due to high rates of loss to follow-up. Findings highlight the need for defaulter tracing and scale-up of routine viral load testing to identify patients failing first-line ART. PMID:22544202

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a postoperative clinical care pathway in head and neck surgery with microvascular reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautremont, Jonathan F; Rudmik, Luke R; Yeung, Justin; Asante, Tiffany; Nakoneshny, Steve C; Hoy, Monica; Lui, Amanda; Chandarana, Shamir P; Matthews, Thomas W; Schrag, Christiaan; Dort, Joseph C

    2013-12-19

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a postoperative clinical care pathway for patients undergoing major head and neck oncologic surgery with microvascular reconstruction. This is a comparative trial of a prospective treatment group managed on a postoperative clinical care pathway and a historical group managed prior to pathway implementation. Effectiveness outcomes evaluated were total hospital days, return to OR, readmission to ICU and rate of pulmonary complications. Costing perspective was from the government payer. 118 patients were included in the study. All outcomes demonstrated that the postoperative pathway group was both more effective and less costly, and is therefore a dominant clinical intervention. The overall mean pre- and post-pathway costs are $22,733 and $16,564 per patient, respectively. The incremental cost reduction associated with the postoperative pathway was $6,169 per patient. Implementing the postoperative clinical care pathway in patients undergoing head and neck oncologic surgery with reconstruction resulted in improved clinical outcomes and reduced costs.

  14. Are postoperative intravenous antibiotics necessary after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery? A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S K; Lo, J; Zwahlen, R A

    2011-12-01

    Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is often administered intravenously, despite an increased morbidity rate compared with oral application. This study investigates whether a postoperative oral antibiotic regimen is as effective as incorporation of intravenous antibiotics after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. 42 patients who underwent bimaxillary orthognathic surgery between December 2008 and May 2010 were randomly allocated to 2 placebo-controlled postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis groups. Group 1 received oral amoxicillin 500mg three times daily; group 2 received intravenous ampicillin 1g four times daily, during the first two postoperative days. Both groups subsequently took oral amoxicillin for three more days. Clinically, the infection rate was assessed in both study groups for a period of 6 weeks after the surgery. 9 patients (21.4%) developed infection. No adverse drug event was detected. No significant difference (p=0.45) was detected in the infection rate between group 1 (3/21) and group 2 (6/21). Age, type of surgical procedures, duration of the operative procedure, surgical procedure-related events, blood loss, and blood transfusion were all found not related to infection (p>0.05). Administration of more cost-effective oral antibiotic prophylaxis, which causes less comorbidity, can be considered to be safe in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery with segmentalizations. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of tranexamic acid irrigation on perioperative blood loss during orthognathic surgery: a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekharian, Hamidreza; Vahedi, Ruhollah; Karagah, Tuba; Tabrizi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative hemorrhage is an important concern during orthognathic surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) irrigation on perioperative hemorrhage during orthognathic surgery. In this double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial, 56 participants who underwent orthognathic surgery were divided into 2 groups. The patients in the first group received TXA irrigation with normal saline (1 mg/mL), and the patients in the second group had normal saline for irrigation during orthognathic surgery. Age, gender, operation duration, the amount of irrigation solution used, and preoperative hemoglobin, hematocrit, and weight were the variables that were studied. The use of TXA solution for irrigation was the predictive factor of the study. Each group consisted of 28 patients. Group 1 consisted of 15 male patients (53.6%) and 13 female patients (46.4%) and group 2 consisted of 14 male patients (50%) and 14 female patients (50%). There was no difference in the distributions of the variables between the 2 groups, except for the duration of the operation. The mean duration of the operation was 3.94 ± 0.61 hours in group 1 and 4.17 ± 0.98 hours in group 2, and the difference in this respect between the 2 groups was statistically significant (P .05). TXA is effective in reducing intraoperative blood loss in patients for whom substantial blood loss is anticipated. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A computer-supported management of photographic documentation in plastic surgery - System development and its clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Karol; Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Niedźwiedziński, Marian; Antoszewski, Bogusław

    2017-07-01

    Photographic documentation is very important for plastic, reconstructive, and especially aesthetic surgery procedures. It can be used to improve patient care as well as to carry out scientific research. The results of our previous studies confirmed a strong demand for Information Technology (IT) systems dedicated to plastic surgery. Unfortunately, most of the solutions of this type are not suited to the actual needs. For this reason we decided to develop a reliable system for photographic documentation storage. The Plastic Reconstructive Esthetic Surgery Photo System (PRESsPhoto) was developed and finally deployed in the Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Clinic of the Medical University in Łódź (Poland). Preliminary single-center performance tests proved that the PRESsPhoto system is easy to use and provides, inter alia, rapid data search and data entry as well as data security. In the future the PRESsPhoto system should be able to cooperate with Hospital Information Systems (HIS). The process of development and deployment of the PRESsPhoto system is an example of good cooperation between health care providers and the informatics, which resulted in a system that meets the expectations of plastic surgeons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical effects of conjunctival sac flushing using different concentration of povidoneiodine on corneal epithelium before cataract surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Lian Gu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine the most optimal concentration of the safe usage of povidone-iodine(PVP-Iin the flushing to disinfect the conjunctive sac before cataract surgeries, in order to provide a scientific basis for clinical eye surgery work.METHODS:Sixty-two patients with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in our hospital from October 2012 to October 2014 were randomly divided into 0.25g/L PVP-I group(Ⅰand 5g/L PVP-I group(Ⅱ. Sterilizing effect and the complications postoperative were analyzed.RESULTS:The sterilizing effects of the two groups after flushing conjunctiva sac using different concentrations of PVP-I were both remarkable, but the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant(P>0.05. No endophthalmitis occurred in the two groups. Observing the corneal condition after rinsing, no severe conjunctival hyperemia, corneal edema and other serious complications occurred. There was slightly punctate corneal epithelial shedding in groupⅡ, and the difference was statistically significant(PPCONCLUSION:Using 0.25g/L PVP-I in the conjunctiva sac rinsing before surgeries can inhibit the growth of bacteria in the conjunctival sac, reduce the impact on the corneal epithelium thereby reducing the incidence of postoperative complications and the positive rate of bacterial culture, increasing the comfort degree of patients, bringing a better area for the surgeries.

  18. Metabolite profiling identifies candidate markers reflecting the clinical adaptations associated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Mutch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB surgery is associated with weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, and a reduction in co-morbidities such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. To generate further insight into the numerous metabolic adaptations associated with RYGB surgery, we profiled serum metabolites before and after gastric bypass surgery and integrated metabolite changes with clinical data. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Serum metabolites were detected by gas and liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry before, and 3 and 6 months after RYGB in morbidly obese female subjects (n = 14; BMI = 46.2+/-1.7. Subjects showed decreases in weight-related parameters and improvements in insulin sensitivity post surgery. The abundance of 48% (83 of 172 of the measured metabolites changed significantly within the first 3 months post RYGB (p<0.05, including sphingosines, unsaturated fatty acids, and branched chain amino acids. Dividing subjects into obese (n = 9 and obese/diabetic (n = 5 groups identified 8 metabolites that differed consistently at all time points and whose serum levels changed following RYGB: asparagine, lysophosphatidylcholine (C18:2, nervonic (C24:1 acid, p-Cresol sulfate, lactate, lycopene, glucose, and mannose. Changes in the aforementioned metabolites were integrated with clinical data for body mass index (BMI and estimates for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Of these, nervonic acid was significantly and negatively correlated with HOMA-IR (p = 0.001, R = -0.55. CONCLUSIONS: Global metabolite profiling in morbidly obese subjects after RYGB has provided new information regarding the considerable metabolic alterations associated with this surgical procedure. Integrating clinical measurements with metabolomics data is capable of identifying markers that reflect the metabolic adaptations following RYGB.

  19. Understanding managerial behaviour during initial steps of a clinical information system adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Charo; Pozzebon, Marlei

    2011-06-17

    While the study of the information technology (IT) implementation process and its outcomes has received considerable attention, the examination of pre-adoption and pre-implementation stages of configurable IT uptake appear largely under-investigated. This paper explores managerial behaviour during the periods prior the effective implementation of a clinical information system (CIS) by two Canadian university multi-hospital centers. Adopting a structurationist theoretical stance and a case study research design, the processes by which CIS managers' patterns of discourse contribute to the configuration of the new technology in their respective organizational contexts were longitudinally examined over 33 months. Although managers seemed to be aware of the risks and organizational impact of the adoption of a new clinical information system, their decisions and actions over the periods examined appeared rather to be driven by financial constraints and power struggles between different groups involved in the process. Furthermore, they largely emphasized technological aspects of the implementation, with organizational dimensions being put aside. In view of these results, the notion of 'rhetorical ambivalence' is proposed. Results are further discussed in relation to the significance of initial decisions and actions for the subsequent implementation phases of the technology being configured. Theoretical and empirically grounded, the paper contributes to the underdeveloped body of literature on information system pre-implementation processes by revealing the crucial role played by managers during the initial phases of a CIS adoption.

  20. Clinical application of three-dimensional imaging with multislice CT for laparoscopic colorectal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Mitsuru; Okuda, Jyunji; Yoshikawa, Syushi

    2003-01-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery, while minimally invasive, is a complicated technique. Therefore, prior to this surgery, it is important to determine the anatomical information of colorectal cancer. Fifty-eight cases of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of colon cancer [caecal (n=4), ascending colon (n=6), transverse colon (n=7), descending colon (n=2), sigmoid colon (n=22), and rectal (n=17) cancer] were evaluated using multislice CT before laparoscopic surgery. CT examination was performed in an air-filled colorectum by colon fiberscopy. Contrast-enhanced images on multislice CT were obtained at arterial and venous phases. All images were reviewed on a workstation, and three-dimensional (3D) images of vessels, colorectum, cancer, and swollen lymph nodes were reconstructed by volume rendering and fused (integrated 3D imaging). We evaluated the usefulness of integrated 3D imaging with multislice CT for laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Integrated 3D imaging demonstrated clearly the distribution of arteries feeding the colorectal cancer and the anatomical location of colorectal cancer and arterial and venous systems. Moreover, measurement of the distance between the aortic bifurcation and the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery and that between the base of the inferior mesenteric artery and the origin of the left colic artery on integrated 3D imaging contributed to safe, prompt ligation of the vessels and excision of lymph nodes. Integrated 3D imaging with multislice CT was useful for simulation of laparoscopic colorectal surgery. (author)

  1. Quantitative Lymphoscintigraphy to Predict the Possibility of Lymphedema Development After Breast Cancer Surgery: Retrospective Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul; Lee, Ju Kang; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Heung Kyu; Park, Ki Deok

    2017-12-01

    To predict the probability of lymphedema development in breast cancer patients in the early post-operation stage, we investigated the ability of quantitative lymphoscintigraphic assessment. This retrospective study included 201 patients without lymphedema after unilateral breast cancer surgery. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed between 4 and 8 weeks after surgery to evaluate the lymphatic system in the early postoperative stage. Quantitative lymphoscintigraphy was performed using four methods: ratio of radiopharmaceutical clearance rate of the affected to normal hand; ratio of radioactivity of the affected to normal hand; ratio of radiopharmaceutical uptake rate of the affected to normal axilla (RUA); and ratio of radioactivity of the affected to normal axilla (RRA). During a 1-year follow-up, patients with a circumferential interlimb difference of 2 cm at any measurement location and a 200-mL interlimb volume difference were diagnosed with lymphedema. We investigated the difference in quantitative lymphoscintigraphic assessment between the non-lymphedema and lymphedema groups. Quantitative lymphoscintigraphic assessment revealed that the RUA and RRA were significantly lower in the lymphedema group than in the non-lymphedema group. After adjusting the model for all significant variables (body mass index, N-stage, T-stage, type of surgery, and type of lymph node surgery), RRA was associated with lymphedema (odds ratio=0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.46; p=0.001). In patients in the early postoperative stage after unilateral breast cancer surgery, quantitative lymphoscintigraphic assessment can be used to predict the probability of developing lymphedema.

  2. Clinical application of three-dimensional imaging with multislice CT for laparoscopic colorectal surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuki, Mitsuru; Okuda, Jyunji; Yoshikawa, Syushi [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)] (and others)

    2003-03-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery, while minimally invasive, is a complicated technique. Therefore, prior to this surgery, it is important to determine the anatomical information of colorectal cancer. Fifty-eight cases of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of colon cancer [caecal (n=4), ascending colon (n=6), transverse colon (n=7), descending colon (n=2), sigmoid colon (n=22), and rectal (n=17) cancer] were evaluated using multislice CT before laparoscopic surgery. CT examination was performed in an air-filled colorectum by colon fiberscopy. Contrast-enhanced images on multislice CT were obtained at arterial and venous phases. All images were reviewed on a workstation, and three-dimensional (3D) images of vessels, colorectum, cancer, and swollen lymph nodes were reconstructed by volume rendering and fused (integrated 3D imaging). We evaluated the usefulness of integrated 3D imaging with multislice CT for laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Integrated 3D imaging demonstrated clearly the distribution of arteries feeding the colorectal cancer and the anatomical location of colorectal cancer and arterial and venous systems. Moreover, measurement of the distance between the aortic bifurcation and the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery and that between the base of the inferior mesenteric artery and the origin of the left colic artery on integrated 3D imaging contributed to safe, prompt ligation of the vessels and excision of lymph nodes. Integrated 3D imaging with multislice CT was useful for simulation of laparoscopic colorectal surgery. (author)

  3. Clinical effects of blood transfusion during the immediate postoperative period in cardiac surgery patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Hatzitolias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood transfusion is common in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Aim: Our goal was to investigate the association between blood transfusions in the early postoperative period and complications during Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU stay. Methods: Retrospectively analysis in 874 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting, valve surgery or combined procedures. Patients were allocated to two groups according to the presence (Group A or absence (Group B of blood transfusion during extracorporeal circulation, surgery and CICU stay. Two hundred thirty four patients with preexisting hepatic or blood diseases, atrial fibrillation, emergent surgery or those received autologous blood transfusions were excluded prior to the study. Morbidity was defined as prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation, mechanical ventilation>7hours, reintubation, use of non-invasive ventilation, postoperative atrial fibrillation and length of hospital stay. Statistical analysis was carried out using Chi-square, Student’s t-test, Relative Risk (RR and logistic regression with statistical significance set at p7 hours (p 7 hours (p<0.01. Conclusions: Blood transfusions seem to associate with certain complications in cardiac surgery patients.

  4. Low-level laser therapy for treatment of neurosensory disorders after orthognathic surgery: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, M-A-V; Paranhos, L-R; Martins-Filho, P-R-S

    2017-11-01

    Low-level laser has been widely used in Dentistry and many studies have focused on its application in oral surgeries. This study was conducted with the aim of searching for scientific evidence concerning the effectiveness of laser to reduce pain or paresthesia related to orthognathic surgery. An electronic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, LILACS, SciELO, CENTRAL, Google Scholar, OpenGrey, and ClinicalTrials.gov, up to November 2016, with no restrictions on language or year of publication. Additionally, a hand search of the reference list of the selected studies was carried out. The PICOS strategy was used to define the eligibility criteria and only randomized clinical trials were selected. Out of 1,257 identified citations, three papers fulfilled the criteria and were included in the systematic review. The risk of bias was assessed according to the Cochrane Guidelines for Clinical Trials and results were exposed based on a descriptive analysis. One study showed that laser therapy was effective to reduce postoperative pain 24 hours (P=0.007) and 72 hours (P=0.007) after surgery. Other study revealed the positive effect of laser to improve neurosensory recovery 60 days after surgery, evaluated also by the two-point discrimination (P=0.005) and sensory (P=0.008) tests. The third study reported an improvement for general sensibility of 68.75% for laser group, compared with 21.43% for placebo (P=0.0095), six months after surgery. Individual studies suggested a positive effect of low-level laser therapy on reduction of postoperative pain and acceleration of improvement of paresthesia related to orthognathic surgery. However, due to the insufficient number and heterogeneity of studies, a meta-analysis evaluating the outcomes of interest was not performed, and a pragmatic recommendation about the use of laser therapy is not possible. This systematic review was conducted according to the statements of PRISMA and was registered at PROSPERO under the

  5. Effect of steroids on inflammatory markers and clinical parameters in congenital open heart surgery: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah, Muhammad M; Hamid, Mohammad; Hanif, Hashim M; Muzaffar, Marium; Siddiqui, Maria T; Adhi, Fatima; Ahmad, Khabir; Khan, Shahjahan; Hasan, Zahra

    2016-03-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with systemic inflammatory response. Steroids suppress this response, although the therapeutic evidence remains controversial. We hypothesised that intravenous steroids in children undergoing open-heart surgery would decrease inflammation leading to better early post-operative outcomes. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the trends in the levels of immunomodulators and their effects on clinical parameters. To assess the effects of intravenous steroids on early post-operative inflammatory markers and clinical parameters in children undergoing open-heart surgery. A randomised controlled trial involving 152 patients, from one month up to 18 years of age, who underwent open-heart surgery for congenital heart disease from April 2010-2012 was carried out. Patients were randomised and administered either three scheduled intravenous pulse doses of dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) or placebo. Blood samples were drawn at four time intervals and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines - Interleukin-6, 8, 10, 18, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha - were measured. Clinical parameters were also assessed. Blood cytokine levels were compared between the dexamethasone (n=65) and placebo (n=64) groups. Interleukin-6 levels were lower at 6 and 24 hours post-operatively (p<0.001), and Interleukin-10 levels were higher 6 hours post-operatively (p<0.001) in the steroid group. Interleukin-8, 18, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels did not differ between the groups at any time intervals. The clinical parameters were similar in both the groups. Dexamethasone caused quantitative suppression of Interleukin-6 and increased Interleukin-10 activation, contributing to reduced immunopathology, but it did not translate into clinical benefit in the short term.

  6. Comparison of the effects of magnesium sulphate and dexmedetomidine on surgical vision quality in endoscopic sinus surgery: randomized clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akcan Akkaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Even a small amount of bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery can corrupt the endoscopic field and complicate the procedure. Various techniques, including induced hypotension, can minimize bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the surgical vision quality, haemodynamic parameters, postoperative pain, and other effects of magnesium, a hypotensive agent, with that of dexmedetomidine, which was initially developed for short-term sedation in the intensive care unit but also is an alpha 2 agonist sedative. Method: 60 patients between the ages of 18 and 45 years were divided into either the magnesium group (Group M or the dexmedetomidine group (Group D. In Group M, magnesium sulphate was given at a pre-induction loading dose of 50 mg kg−1 over 10 min and maintained at 15 mg kg−1 h−1; in Group D, dexmedetomidine was given at 1 mcg kg−1 10 min before induction and maintained at 0.6 mcg kg−1 h−1. Intraoperatively, the haemodynamic and respiratory parameters and 6-point intraoperative surgical field evaluation scale were recorded. During the postoperative period, an 11-point numerical pain scale, the Ramsay sedation scale, the nausea/vomiting scale, the adverse effects profile, and itching parameters were noted. Results: Group D showed a significant decrease in intraoperative surgical field evaluation scale scale score and heart rate. The average operation time was 50 min, and Group M had a higher number of prolonged surgeries. No significant difference was found in the other parameters. Conclusions: Due to its reduction of bleeding and heart rate in endoscopic sinus surgery and its positive impacts on the duration of surgery, we consider dexmedetomidine to be a good alternative to magnesium.

  7. The polymerase chain reaction and its application to clinical plastic surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rea, S

    2012-02-03

    Molecular biology has become an essential component in many fields of modern medical research, including plastic surgery. Research into the molecular mechanisms underlying many disease processes offer increased understanding of the pathogenesis of disease and provide exciting therapeutic possibilities. Yet for many clinicians, the presentation of much research into molecular biological processes is couched in confusing terminology and based on scientific techniques, the basis of which are frequently difficult for the clinician to understand. The purpose of this review is to present an introduction to some of the molecular biological techniques currently in use, namely the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and explore its applications to different aspects of plastic surgery. This review explores the role PCR now plays in all aspects of modern plastic surgery practise, with particular emphasis on normal and abnormal wound healing, the diagnosis of craniofacial anomalies, the diagnosis and treatment of cancer including melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and burns.

  8. Using a clinical protocol for orthognathic surgery and assessing a 3-dimensional virtual approach: current therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Luis A; Ruiz, Jessica V; Quevedo, Cristobal A

    2011-03-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgeons who perform orthognathic surgery face major changes in their practices, and these challenges will increase in the near future, because the extraordinary advances in technology applied to our profession are not only amazing but are becoming the standard of care as they promote improved outcomes for our patients. Orthognathic surgery is one of the favorite areas of practicing within the scope of practice of an oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Our own practice in orthognathic surgery has completed over 1,000 surgeries of this type. Success is directly related to the consistency and capability of the surgical-orthodontic team to achieve predictable, stable results, and our hypothesis is that a successful result is directly related to the way we take our records and perform diagnosis and treatment planning following basic general principles. Now that we have the opportunity to plan and treat 3-dimensional (3D) problems with 3D technology, we should enter into this new era with appropriate standards to ensure better results, instead of simply enjoying these new tools, which will clearly show not only us but everyone what we do when we perform orthognathic surgery. Appropriate principles need to be taken into account when implementing this new technology. In other words, new technology is welcome, but we do not have to reinvent the wheel. The purpose of this article is to review the current protocol that we use for orthognathic surgery and compare it with published protocols that incorporate new 3D and virtual technology. This report also describes our approach to this new technology. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Randomized clinical trial of expressive writing on wound healing following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschwanez, Heidi; Robinson, Hayley; Beban, Grant; MacCormick, Andrew; Hill, Andrew; Windsor, John; Booth, Roger; Jüllig, Mia; Broadbent, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    Writing emotionally about upsetting life events (expressive writing) has been shown to speed healing of punch-biopsy wounds compared to writing objectively about daily activities. We aimed to investigate whether a presurgical expressive writing intervention could improve surgical wound healing. Seventy-six patients undergoing elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery were randomized either to write emotionally about traumatic life events (expressive writing) or to write objectively about how they spent their time (daily activities writing) for 20 min a day for 3 consecutive days beginning 2 weeks prior to surgery. A wound drain was inserted into a laparoscopic port site and wound fluid analyzed for proinflammatory cytokines collected over 24 hr postoperatively. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene tubes were inserted into separate laparoscopic port sites during surgery and removed after 14 days. Tubes were analyzed for hydroxyproline deposition (the primary outcome), a major component of collagen and marker of healing. Fifty-four patients completed the study. Patients who wrote about daily activities had significantly more hydroxyproline than did expressive writing patients, t(34) = -2.43, p = .020, 95% confidence interval [-4.61, -0.41], and higher tumor necrosis factor-alpha, t(29) = -2.42, p = .022, 95% confidence interval [-0.42, -0.04]. Perceived stress significantly reduced in both groups after surgery. Expressive writing prior to bariatric surgery was not effective at increasing hydroxyproline at the wound site 14 days after surgery. However, writing about daily activities did predict such an increase. Future research needs to replicate these findings and investigate generalizability to other surgical groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Analgesia with interfascial continuous wound infiltration after laparoscopic colon surgery: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telletxea, S; Gonzalez, J; Portugal, V; Alvarez, R; Aguirre, U; Anton, A; Arizaga, A

    2016-04-01

    For major laparoscopic surgery, as with open surgery, a multimodal analgesia plan can help to control postoperative pain. Placing a wound catheter intraoperatively following colon surgery could optimize the control of acute pain with less consumption of opioids and few adverse effects. We conducted a prospective, randomized, study of patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic colon surgery for cancer in Galdakao-Usansolo Hospital from January 2012 to January 2013. Patients were recruited and randomly allocated to wound catheter placement plus standard postoperative analgesia or standard postoperative analgesia alone. A physician from the acute pain management unit monitored all patients for pain at multiple points over the first 48 hours after surgery. The primary outcome variables were verbal numeric pain scale scores and amount of intravenous morphine used via patient controlled infusion. 92 patients were included in the study, 43 had a wound catheter implanted and 49 did not. Statistically significant differences in morphine consumption were observed between groups throughout the course of the treatment period. The mean total morphine consumption at the end of the study was 5.63±5.02mg among wound catheter patients and 21. 86±17.88mg among control patients (P=.0001). Wound catheter patients had lower pain scale scores than control patients throughout the observation period. No adverse effects associated with the wound catheter technique were observed. The wound catheter group showed lower hospital stays with statistically significant difference (P=.02). In patients undergoing laparoscopic colon surgery, continuous infusion of local anaesthetics through interfascial wound catheters during the first 48h aftersurgery reduced the level of perceived pain and also reduced parenteral morphine consumption with no associated adverse effects and lower hospital stays. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor

  11. Methotrexate Dosage Reduction Upon Adalimumab Initiation: Clinical and Ultrasonographic Outcomes from the Randomized Noninferiority MUSICA Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeley, Gurjit S; Evangelisto, Amy M; Nishio, Midori J; Goss, Sandra L; Liu, Shufang; Kalabic, Jasmina; Kupper, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    To examine the clinical and ultrasonographic (US) outcomes of reducing methotrexate (MTX) dosage upon initiating adalimumab (ADA) in MTX-inadequate responders with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MUSICA (NCT01185288) was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-arm study of 309 patients with RA receiving MTX ≥ 15 mg/week for ≥ 12 weeks before screening. Patients were randomized to high dosage (20 mg/week) or low dosage (7.5 mg/week) MTX; all patients received 40 mg open-label ADA every other week for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was Week 24 mean 28-joint Disease Activity Score based on C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) to test for noninferiority of low-dosage MTX using a 15% margin. US images were scored using a 10-joint semiquantitative system incorporating OMERACT definitions for pathology, assessing synovial hypertrophy, vascularity, and bony erosions. Rapid improvement in clinical indices was observed in both groups after addition of ADA. The difference in mean DAS28-CRP (0.37, 95% CI 0.07-0.66) comparing low-dosage (4.12, 95% CI 3.88-4.34) versus high-dosage MTX (3.75, 95% CI 3.52-3.97) was statistically significant and non-inferiority was not met. Statistically significant differences were not detected for most clinical, functional, and US outcomes. Pharmacokinetic and safety profiles were similar. In MUSICA, Week 24 mean DAS28-CRP, the primary endpoint, did not meet non-inferiority for the low-dosage MTX group. Although the differences between the 2 MTX dosage groups were small, our study findings did not support routine MTX reduction in MTX inadequate responders initiating ADA.

  12. Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT): Initial clinical experience in the first 80 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephanie E. (Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany)), E-mail: Stephanie.Combs@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Ellerbrock, Malte; Haberer, Thomas (Heidelberger Ionenstrahl Therapiezentrum (HIT), Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)) (and others)

    2010-10-15

    The Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) started clinical operation in November 2009. In this report we present the first 80 patients treated with proton and carbon ion radiotherapy and describe patient selection, treatment planning and daily treatment for different indications. Patients and methods. Between November 15, 2009 and April 15, 2010, 80 patients were treated at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) with carbon ion and proton radiotherapy. Main treated indications consisted of skull base chordoma (n = 9) and chondrosarcoma (n = 18), malignant salivary gland tumors (n=29), chordomas of the sacrum (n = 5), low grade glioma (n=3), primary and recurrent malignant astrocytoma and glioblastoma (n=7) and well as osteosarcoma (n = 3). Of these patients, four pediatric patients aged under 18 years were treated. Results. All patients were treated using the intensity-modulated rasterscanning technique. Seventy-six patients were treated with carbon ions (95%), and four patients were treated with protons. In all patients x-ray imaging was performed prior to each fraction. Treatment concepts were based on the initial experiences with carbon ion therapy at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) including carbon-only treatments and carbon-boost treatments with photon-IMRT. The average time per fraction in the treatment room per patient was 29 minutes; for irradiation only, the mean time including all patients was 16 minutes. Position verification was performed prior to every treatment fraction with orthogonal x-ray imaging. Conclusion. Particle therapy could be included successfully into the clinical routine at the Dept. of Radiation Oncology in Heidelberg. Numerous clinical trials will subsequently be initiated to precisely define the role of proton and carbon ion radiotherapy in radiation oncology.

  13. Analysis of clinical efficacy and complications of titanium mini plate internal fixation and reconstructive surgery for patients with orbital fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the clinical efficacy and complications of titanium mini plate internal fixation and reconstructive surgery for patients with orbital fracture. METHODS: Fifty-seven cases(60 eyeswith orbital fracture from March 2013 to April 2014 in our hospital were researched. According to the random number table method, the patients were divided into observation group(29 cases with 30 eyesand control group(28 cases with 30 eyes. The control group was treated with hydroxyapatite artificial bone plate for internal fixation, and the observation group with titanium mini plate internal fixation and reconstructive surgery. The diplopia grading, grading of ocular movement disorder before and at 1, 3mo after treatment and postoperative complications(prolapse, dislocation, infectionwere compared between the two groups. RESULTS: In both group, all the 60 eyes were healed without scar formation. The rate of diplopia grading as grade 0 1mo postoperatively of observation group and the control groups were 63% and 40%(PPPCONCLUSION: The clinical curative effect of titanium mini plate internal fixation and reconstructive surgery has a good effect for orbital fractures, which can improve the therapeutic effect and reduce the incidence of adverse reactions.

  14. Years Versus Days Between Successive Surgeries, After an Initial Outpatient Procedure, for the Median Patient Versus the Median Surgeon in the State of Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Jarvie, Craig; Epstein, Richard H

    2018-03-01

    Previously, we studied the relative importance of different institutional interventions that the largest hospital in Iowa could take to grow the anesthesia department's outpatient surgical care. Most (>50%) patients having elective surgery had not previously had surgery at the hospital. Patient perioperative experience was unimportant for influencing total anesthesia workload and numbers of patients. More important was the availability of surgical clinic appointments within several days. These results would be generalizable if the median time from surgery to a patient's next surgical procedure was large (eg, >2 years), among all hospitals in Iowa with outpatient surgery, and without regard to the hospital where the next procedure was performed. There were 37,172 surgical cases at hospital outpatient departments of any of the 117 hospitals in Iowa from July 1, 2013, to September 30, 2013. Data extracted about each case included its intraoperative work relative value units. The 37,172 cases were matched to all inpatient and outpatient records for the next 2 years statewide using patient linkage identifiers; from these were determined whether the patient had surgery again within 2 years. Furthermore, the cases' 1820 surgeons were matched to the surgeon's next outpatient or inpatient case, both including and excluding other cases performed on the date of the original case. By patient, the median time to their next surgical case, either outpatient or inpatient, exceeded 2 years, tested with weighting by intraoperative relative value units and repeated when unweighted (both P 2 years for patients versus 1 day for surgeons. Thus, although patients' experiences are an important attribute of quality of care, surgeons' experiences are orders of magnitude more important from the vantage point of marketing and growth of an anesthesia practice.

  15. Autologous blood transfusion in open heart surgeries under cardio-pulmonary bypass - Clinical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sartaj Hussain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous blood withdrawal before instituting cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB protects the platelets, preserve red cell mass and reduce allogeneic transfusion requirements. Ideal condition for autologous blood donation is elective cardiac surgery where there is a high probability of blood transfusion. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of preoperative autologous blood donation in cardiac surgeries. Out of 150 patients registered, 50 cases were excluded on the basis of hemoglobin content ( [J Med Allied Sci 2017; 7(1.000: 48-54

  16. Associations between timing of corticosteroid treatment initiation and clinical outcomes in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunkyung; Zhu, Yong; Romitti, Paul A; Fox, Deborah J; Sheehan, Daniel W; Valdez, Rodolfo; Matthews, Dennis; Barber, Brent J

    2017-08-01

    The long-term efficacy of corticosteroid treatment and timing of treatment initiation among Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients is not well-understood. We used data from a longitudinal, population-based DMD surveillance program to examine associations between timing of treatment initiation (early childhood [before or at age 5 years], late childhood [after age 5 years], and naïve [not treated]) and five clinical outcomes (age at loss of ambulation; ages at onset of cardiomyopathy, scoliosis, and first fracture; and pulmonary function). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using survival analysis. DMD patients who initiated corticosteroid treatment in early childhood had a higher risk of earlier onset cardiomyopathy compared to cases who initiated treatment in late childhood (HR = 2.0, 95% CI = [1.2, 3.4]) or treatment naïve patients (HR = 1.9, 95% CI = [1.1, 3.2]), and higher risk of suffering a fracture (HR = 2.3, 95% CI = [1.4, 3.7] and HR = 2.6, 95% CI = [1.6, 4.2], respectively). Patients with early childhood treatment had slightly decreased respiratory function compared with those with late childhood treatment. Ages at loss of ambulation or scoliosis diagnosis did not differ statistically among treatment groups. We caution that the results from our study are subject to several limitations, as they were based on data abstracted from medical records. Further investigations using improved reporting of disease onset and outcomes are warranted to obtain a more definitive assessment of the association between the timing of corticosteroid treatment and disease severity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effectiveness of manual therapy versus surgery in pain processing due to carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, C; Cleland, J; Palacios-Ceña, M; Fuensalida-Novo, S; Alonso-Blanco, C; Pareja, J A; Alburquerque-Sendín, F

    2017-08-01

    People with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) exhibit widespread pressure pain and thermal pain hypersensitivity as a manifestation of central sensitization. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of manual therapy versus surgery for improving pain and nociceptive gain processing in people with CTS. The trial was conducted at a local regional Hospital in Madrid, Spain from August 2014 to February 2015. In this randomized parallel-group, blinded, clinical trial, 100 women with CTS were randomly allocated to either manual therapy (n = 50), who received three sessions (once/week) of manual therapies including desensitization manoeuvres of the central nervous system, or surgical intervention (n = 50) group. Outcomes including pressure pain thresholds (PPT), thermal pain thresholds (HPT or CPT), and pain intensity which were assessed at baseline, and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the intervention by an assessor unaware of group assignment. Analysis was by intention to treat with mixed ANCOVAs adjusted for baseline scores. At 12 months, 95 women completed the follow-up. Patients receiving manual therapy exhibited higher increases in PPT over the carpal tunnel at 3, 6 and 9 months (all, p < 0.01) and higher decrease of pain intensity at 3 month follow-up (p < 0.001) than those receiving surgery. No significant differences were observed between groups for the remaining outcomes. Manual therapy and surgery have similar effects on decreasing widespread pressure pain sensitivity and pain intensity in women with CTS. Neither manual therapy nor surgery resulted in changes in thermal pain sensitivity. The current study found that manual therapy and surgery exhibited similar effects on decreasing widespread pressure pain sensitivity and pain intensity in women with carpal tunnel syndrome at medium- and long-term follow-ups investigating changes in nociceptive gain processing after treatment in carpal tunnel syndrome. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  18. Using clinical parameters to guide fluid therapy in high-risk thoracic surgery. A retrospective, observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars Stryhn; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov

    2015-01-01

    the use of central venous oxygen saturation and intended low urine output to guide therapy in the early postoperative period. Here we evaluate the consequences of our changes. METHODS: Retrospective, observational study of 30 consecutive patients undergoing EPP; 18 who had surgery before and 12 who had...... surgery after the changes. Data were collected from patient files and from institutional databases. Outcome measures included: Volumes of administered fluids, fluid balances, length of stays and postoperative complications. Dichotomous variables were compared with Fisher's exact test, whereas continuous...... increasing the incidence of postoperative complications. Mean length of stay in the intensive care unit (LOSI) was reduced from three to one day (p = 0.04) after the changes. CONCLUSION: The use of clinical parameters to balance fluid restriction and a sufficient circulation in patients undergoing EPP...

  19. Dental students’ perceptions of undergraduate clinical training in oral and maxillofacial surgery in an integrated curriculum in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Al-Dajani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim was to understand dental students’ experiences with oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS teaching, their confidence levels in performing routine dento-alveolar operations, and the relationship between the students’ confidence level and the number of teeth extracted during the clinical practice. Methods: The survey questionnaire was distributed to 32 students at Aljouf University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia during their fourth and fifth year in 2015. Respondents were asked to rate 19 items, which represent a student’s confidence in performing routine surgical interventions, using a four-point Likert scale (1=very little confidence, 4=very confident. A multivariate regression was computed between average confidence and the variables: weekly hours devoted to studying oral and maxillofacial surgery, college grade point average, and the total number of teeth extracted. Results: The response rate was 100%. Students revealed the highest level of confidence in giving local anesthesia (96.9%, understanding extraction indications (93.8%, and performing simple extractions (90.6%. Less confidence was shown with handling difficult extractions (50.0%, extracting molars with separation (50.0% or extracting third molars (56.3%. The average confidence in performing surgical procedures was 2.88 (SD=0.55, ranging from 1.79 to 3.89. A given student’s confidence increased with an increase in the total number of teeth extracted (P=0.003. Conclusion: It reveals a significant impact of undergraduate clinical training on students’ confidence in performing oral and maxillofacial surgery clinical procedures: The more clinical experience the students had, the more confidence they reported.

  20. The use of standardized patients in the plastic surgery residency curriculum: teaching core competencies with objective structured clinical examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Drew; Lee, Gordon

    2011-07-01

    As of 2006, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education had defined six "core competencies" of residency education: interpersonal communication skills, medical knowledge, patient care, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Objective structured clinical examinations using standardized patients are becoming effective educational tools, and the authors developed a novel use of the examinations in plastic surgery residency education that assesses all six competencies. Six plastic surgery residents, two each from postgraduate years 4, 5, and 6, participated in the plastic surgery-specific objective structured clinical examination that focused on melanoma. The examination included a 30-minute videotaped encounter with a standardized patient actor and a postencounter written exercise. The residents were scored on their performance in all six core competencies by the standardized patients and faculty experts on a three-point scale (1 = novice, 2 = moderately skilled, and 3 = proficient). Resident performance was averaged for each postgraduate year, stratified according to core competency, and scored from a total of 100 percent. Residents overall scored well in interpersonal communications skills (84 percent), patient care (83 percent), professionalism (86 percent), and practice-based learning (84 percent). Scores in medical knowledge showed a positive correlation with level of training (86 percent). All residents scored comparatively lower in systems-based practice (65 percent). The residents reported unanimously that the objective structured clinical examination was realistic and educational. The objective structured clinical examination provided comprehensive and meaningful feedback and identified areas of strengths and weakness for the residents and for the teaching program. The examination is an effective assessment tool for the core competencies and a valuable adjunct to residency training.

  1. Gamma Imaging-Guided Minimally Invasive Breast Biopsy: Initial Clinical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Rachel F; Mehta, Anita K; Rapelyea, Jocelyn A; Akin, Esma A; Bazoberry, Adriana M; Velasco, Christel D

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate our initial experience with gamma imaging-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in women with abnormal findings. A retrospective review of patients undergoing breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI), also known as molecular breast imaging (MBI), between April 2011 and October 2015 found 117 nonpalpable mammographically and sonographically occult lesions for which gamma imaging-guided biopsies were recommended. Biopsy was performed with a 9-gauge vacuum-assisted device with subsequent placement of a titanium biopsy site marker. Medical records and pathologic findings were evaluated. Of the 117 biopsies recommended, 104 were successful and 13 were canceled. Of the 104 performed biopsies, 32 (30.8%) had abnormal pathologic findings. Of those 32 biopsies, nine (28.1%) found invasive cancers, six (18.8%) found ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 17 (53.1%) found high-risk lesions. Of the 17 high-risk lesions, there were three (17.6%) lobular carcinomas in situ, five (29.4%) atypical ductal hyperplasias, two (11.8%) atypical lobular hyperplasias, one (5.9%) flat epithelial atypia, and six (35.3%) papillomas. Two cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia were upgraded to DCIS at surgery. The overall cancer detection rate for gamma imaging-guided biopsy was 16.3%. In this study, gamma imaging-guided biopsy had a positive predictive value of total successful biopsies of 16.3% for cancer and 30.8% for cancer and high-risk lesions. Gamma imaging-guided biopsy is a viable approach to sampling BSGI-MBI-detected lesions without sonographic or mammographic correlate. Our results compare favorably to those reported for MRI-guided biopsy.

  2. The Impact of Osseous Malalignment and Realignment Procedures in Knee Ligament Surgery: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Thomas; Paul, Jochen; Pape, Dietrich; Hirschmann, Michael T; Imhoff, Andreas B; Hinterwimmer, Stefan; Feucht, Matthias J

    2017-03-01

    Failure rates of knee ligament surgery may be high, and the impact of osseous alignment on surgical outcome remains controversial. Basic science studies have demonstrated that osseous malalignment can negatively affect ligament strain and that realignment procedures may improve knee joint stability. The purpose of this review was to summarize the clinical evidence concerning the impact of osseous malalignment and realignment procedures in knee ligament surgery. The hypotheses were that lower extremity malalignment would be an important contributor to knee ligament surgery failure and that realignment surgery would contribute to increased knee stability and improved outcome in select cases. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. According to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, a systematic electronic search of the PubMed database was performed in November 2015 to identify clinical studies investigating (A) the influence of osseous alignment on postoperative stability and/or failure rates after knee ligament surgery and (B) the impact of osseous realignment procedures in unstable knees with or without additional knee ligament surgery on postoperative knee function and stability. Methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence and the Coleman Methodological Score (CMS). Of the 1466 potentially relevant articles, 28 studies fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Average study quality was poor (CMS, 40). For part A, studies showed increased rerupture rate after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) replacement in patients with increased tibial slope. Concerning the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)/posterolateral corner (PLC)/lateral collateral ligament (LCL), varus malalignment was considered a significant risk factor for failure. For part B, studies showed decreased anterior tibial translation after slope-decreasing high tibial

  3. SINGLE-DOSE VERSUS 3-DAY PROPHYLAXIS WITH CIPROFLOXACIN IN TRANSURETHRAL SURGERY - A CLINICAL-TRIAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BIJL, W; JANKNEGT, RA

    1993-01-01

    in 235 patients who underwent transurethral surgery, perioperative oral ciprofloxacin prophylaxis was given as a single dose 500 mg versus a 3-day regimen. Out of 180 evaluable patients, 84 received a single dose and 96 received a 3-day course. In the single dose prophylaxis group there were 5

  4. A randomized-clinical trial examining a neoprene abdominal binder in gynecologic surgery patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szender, J.B.; Hall, K.L.; Kost, E.R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Purpose of Investigation Pain control and early ambulation are two important postoperative goals. Strategies that decrease morphine use while increasing ambulation have the potential to decrease postoperative complications. In this study the authors sought to determine the effect of an abdominopelvic binder on postoperative morphine use, pain, and ambulation in the first day after surgery. Materials and Methods The authors randomly assigned 75 patients undergoing abdominal gynecologic surgery to either binder or not after surgery. Demographic data and surgical characteristics were collected. Outcome variables included morphine use, pain score, time to ambulation, and number of ambulations. Results A group at high risk for decreased mobility was identified and the binder increased the number of ambulatory events by 300%, 260%, and 240% in patients with vertical incisions, age over 50 years, and complex surgeries, respectively. Morphine use and pain scores were not significantly different. Conclusion The binder increased ambulations in the subset of patients at the highest risk for postoperative complications: elderly, cancer patients, and vertical incisions. Routine use of the binder may benefit particularly high-risk gynecologic surgical patients. PMID:25864252

  5. Early complication detection after colorectal surgery (CONDOR): study protocol for a prospective clinical diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornmann, Verena; van Ramshorst, Bert; van Dieren, Susan; van Geloven, Nanette; Boermeester, Marja; Boerma, Djamila

    2016-01-01

    Anastomotic leakage is one of the most feared complications following colorectal surgery with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Multiple risk factors have been identified, but leakage still occurs. Early detection is crucial in order to reduce morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to

  6. Novel 'heavy' dyes for retinal membrane staining during macular surgery: multicenter clinical assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veckeneer, Marc; Mohr, Andreas; Alharthi, Essam; Azad, Rajvardhan; Bashshur, Ziad F.; Bertelli, Enrico; Bejjani, Riad A.; Bouassida, Brahim; Bourla, Dan; Crespo, Iñigo Corcóstegui; Fahed, Charbel; Fayyad, Faisal; Mura, Marco; Nawrocki, Jerzy; Rivett, Kelvin; Scharioth, Gabor B.; Shkvorchenko, Dmitry O.; Szurman, Peter; van Wijck, Hein; Wong, Ian Y.; Wong, David S. H.; Frank, Johannes; Oellerich, Silke; Bruinsma, Marieke; Melles, Gerrit R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of two novel heavy' dye solutions for staining the internal limiting membrane (ILM) and epiretinal membranes (ERMs), without the need for a prior fluid-air exchange, during macular surgery. Methods: In this prospective nonrandomized multicenter cohort study, the

  7. Do Modic changes have an impact on clinical outcome in lumbar spine surgery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Aske Foldbjerg; Bech-Azeddine, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    = 607), 1 fusion versus discectomy (n = 91), 3 fusion surgery (n = 454), and 4 total disc replacement (TDR, n = 500). A trend toward less improvement in low back pain or Oswestry Disability Index score was found in the discectomy studies, and a trend toward increased improvement was demonstrated...

  8. Chemoradiation Therapy for Potentially Resectable Gastric Cancer: Clinical Outcomes Among Patients Who Do Not Undergo Planned Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Michelle M.; Mansfield, Paul F.; Das, Prajnan; Janjan, Nora A.; Badgwell, Brian D.; Phan, Alexandria T.; Delclos, Marc E.; Maru, Dipen; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Crane, Christopher H.; Krishnan, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively analyzed treatment outcomes among resectable gastric cancer patients treated preoperatively with chemoradiation therapy (CRT) but rendered ineligible for planned surgery because of clinical deterioration or development of overt metastatic disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2004, 39 patients with potentially resectable gastric cancer received preoperative CRT but failed to undergo surgery. At baseline clinical staging, 33 (85%) patients had T3-T4 disease, and 27 (69%) patients had nodal involvement. Most patients received 45 Gy of radiotherapy with concurrent 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Twenty-one patients underwent induction chemotherapy before CRT. Actuarial times to local control (LC), distant control (DC), and overall survival (OS) were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The cause for surgical ineligibility was development of metastatic disease (28 patients, 72%; predominantly peritoneal, 18 patients), poor performance status (5 patients, 13%), patient/physician preference (4 patients, 10%), and treatment-related death (2 patients, 5%). With a median follow-up of 8 months (range, 1-95 months), actuarial 1-year LC, DC, and OS were 46%, 12%, and 36%, respectively. Median LC and OS were 11.0 and 10.1 months, respectively. Conclusions: Patients with potentially resectable gastric cancer treated with preoperative CRT are found to be ineligible for surgery principally because of peritoneal progression. Patients who are unable to undergo planned surgery have outcomes comparable to that of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with chemotherapy alone. CRT provides durable LC for the majority of the remaining life of these patients

  9. Robotics in reproductive surgery: strengths and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, M; Flyckt, R L; Falcone, T

    2011-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgical techniques are becoming increasingly common in gynecologic surgery. However, traditional laparoscopy can be challenging. A robotic surgical system gives several advantages over traditional laparoscopy and has been incorporated into reproductive gynecological surgeries. The objective of this article is to review recent publications on robotically-assisted laparoscopy for reproductive surgery. Recent clinical research supports robotic surgery as resulting in less post-operative pain, shorter hospital stays, faster return to normal activities, and decreased blood loss. Reproductive outcomes appear similar to alternative approaches. Drawbacks of robotic surgery include longer operating room times, the need for specialized training, and increased cost. Larger prospective studies comparing robotic approaches with laparoscopy and conventional open surgery have been initiated and information regarding long-term outcomes after robotic surgery will be important in determining the ultimate utility of these procedures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sub-xyphoid pleural drain as a determinant of functional capacity and clinical results after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizilini, Solange; Alves, Daniel F; Bolzan, Douglas W; Cancio, Andreia S A; Regenga, Marisa M; Moreira, Rita S L; Trimer, Renata; Gomes, Walter J

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to compare functional capacity, pulmonary shunt fraction and clinical outcomes between patients undergoing pleurotomy with a pleural drain inserted in the sub-xyphoid position and patients with a pleural drain placed in the intercostal position after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Patients were randomized into two groups according to the pleural drain site: Group II (n = 33 intercostal pleural drain); and Group SI (n = 35 sub-xyphoid pleural drain). Functional capacity was assessed by the distance covered on the 6-min walking test performed preoperatively and on postoperative day (POD) 5; in addition, pulmonary function test was determined preoperatively and on POD 1 and 5. Pulmonary shunt fraction was evaluated preoperatively and on POD 1, and clinical outcomes were recorded throughout the study. Group SI had better preservation of lung volumes and capacities in POD compared with Group II (P Pulmonary shunt fraction increased in both groups postoperatively; however, Group SI showed a smaller pulmonary shunt fraction (0.26 ± 0.04 vs 0.21 ± 0.04%; P = 0.0014). Functional capacity was significantly reduced in both groups on POD 5; however, Group SI showed better preservation of functional capacity (P = 0.0001). Group SI had better postoperative clinical results, with lower incidence of atelectasis and pleural effusion (P capacity and exercise tolerance with a smaller pulmonary shunt fraction and improved clinical outcomes compared with intercostal pleural drainage after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical evaluation on the coaxial microincision cataract surgery in hard nuclear cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Cheng Shi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess and compare the results of 2.2mm microincision coaxial cataract surgery(MCCSphacoemulsification with the conventional 3.0mm MCCS in hard nuclear cataracts. METHODS: Totally 132 eyes with hard cataract(Ⅳ level and abovewere randomized to two groups: 2.2mm MCCS(group 1:60 eyesand 3.0mm MCCS(group 2:72 eyes. All patients underwent standard phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation surgery by one experienced surgeon. The average ultrasound power(AVEwas recorded during the operation. The incidences of capsule rupture and postoperative corneal edema were compared.Visual acuity, surgically induced astigmatism(SIAand the descent rate of endothelial cell density were compared at intervals of 1 day, 1 month and 3 months after surgery. Statistic analysis was taken by Student's t test and Chi square test. RESULTS: There was no significant difference on the incidences of capsule rupture, postoperative corneal edema and AVE(P> 0.05between the two groups(3.3%, 10.0%, 65.09±20.15and(4.2%, 11.1%, 69.13±15.44. One day after the surgery, the 2.2mm MCCS group showed better uncorrected visual acuity as compared to the 3.0mm MCCS group(P < 0.05. There were no significant differences on best-corrected visual acuity on 1 month and 3 months after the surgery. There was no significant difference on the descent rate of endothelial cell density(16.54%±10.20%, 17.69%±10.65%3 months after the surgery. One day, 1 month and 3 months after the surgery, SIA was 0.77±0.31,0.66±0.29, 0.52±0.25D in the 2.2mm MCCS group, and 1.41±0.73,0.98±0.61D,0.82±0.35D in the 3.0mm MCCS group, respectively. The differences were statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The operative safety of the 2.2mm MCCS group were the same as 3.0mm MCCS group with the hard nuclear cataracts. The 2.2mm MCCS phacoemulsification could significantly reduce SIA and get better earlier visual rehabilitation.

  12. A preliminary randomized clinical trial comparing diode laser and scalpel periosteal incision during implant surgery: impact on postoperative morbidity and implant survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnaz, Aysan; Jamali, Raika; Mohammadi, Farnush; Khorsand, Afshin; Moslemi, Neda; Fekrazad, Reza

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary randomized clinical trial was to compare: (1) post-operative morbidity after application of laser or scalpel incision for flap advancement during implant surgery and bone grafting and (2) implant survival rate following flap advancement with laser or scalpel incision after 6 months of loading. Eighteen patients who were scheduled for dental implant placement and simultaneous bone grafting were randomly assigned to test or control groups. Diode laser (810 nm, 2 W, pulse interval 200 μs; pulse length 100 μs, 400-μm initiated fiber tip), or scalpel (control) was used to sever the periosteum to create a tension-free flap. Visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, rate of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) consumption, intensity of swelling, and ecchymosis were measured for the six postsurgical days. Six months after loading, implant survival was assessed. VAS pain score (during the first four postoperative days), rate of NSAID consumption (during the first three postoperative days), and intensity of swelling (during the first five postoperative days) were significantly lower in the test group compared to the control group (All P values laser for performing periosteal releasing incision reduced the incidence and severity of postoperative morbidity of the patients undergone implant surgery in conjunction with bone augmentation procedure. We did not find any detrimental effect of laser incision on the implant survival within 6 months of loading.

  13. Women's Health Initiative estrogen plus progestin clinical trial: a study that does not allow establishing relevant clinical risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedo, Sócrates; Cavada, Gabriel; Blümel, Juan E; Chedraui, Peter; Fica, Juan; Barriga, Patricio; Brantes, Sergio; Irribarra, Cristina; Vallejo, María; Campodónico, Ítalo

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to determine time differences (differences in restricted mean survival times [RMSTs]) in the onset of invasive breast cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, and hip fracture between the placebo group and the conjugated equine estrogens 0.625 mg plus medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5 mg group of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial based on survival curves of the original report and to provide adequate interpretation of the clinical effects of a given intervention. Distribution of survival function was obtained from cumulative hazard plots of the WHI report; Monte Carlo simulation was performed to obtain censored observations for each outcome, in which assumptions of the Cox model were evaluated once corresponding hazard ratios had been estimated. Using estimation methods such as numerical integration, pseudovalues, and flexible parametric modeling, we determined differences in RMSTs for each outcome. Obtained cumulative hazard plots, hazard ratios, and outcome rates from the simulated model did not show differences in relation to the original WHI report. The differences in RMST between placebo and conjugated equine estrogens 0.625 mg plus medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5 mg (in flexible parametric modeling) were 1.17 days (95% CI, -2.25 to 4.59) for invasive breast cancer, 7.50 days (95% CI, 2.90 to 12.11) for coronary heart disease, 2.75 days (95% CI, -0.84 to 6.34) for stroke, 4.23 days (95% CI, 1.82 to 6.64) for pulmonary embolism, -2.73 days (95% CI, -5.32 to -0.13) for colorectal cancer, and -2.77 days (95% CI, -5.44 to -0.1) for hip fracture. The differences in RMST for the outcomes of the WHI study are too small to establish clinical risks related to hormone therapy use.

  14. Initial experiences in embedding core competency education in entry-level surgery residents through a nonclinical rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahol, Kanav; Huston, Carrie; Hamann, Jessica; Ferrara, John J

    2011-03-01

    Health care continues to expand in scope and in complexity. In this changing environment, residents are challenged with understanding its intricacies and the impact it will have on their professional activities and careers. Embedding each of the competency elements in residents in a meaningful way remains a challenge for many surgery residency program directors. We established a nonclinical rotation to provide surgery postgraduate year-1 (PGY-1) residents with a structured, multifaceted, largely self-directed curriculum into which each of the 6 core competencies are woven. Posttesting strategies were established for most curricular experiences to ensure to the greatest possible extent that each resident will have achieved an acceptable level of understanding of each of the competency areas before being given credit for the rotation. By uniformly exceeding satisfactory scores on respective objective analyses, residents demonstrated an increased (at least short-term) understanding of each of the assessed competency areas. Our project sought to address a prior lack of opportunity for our residents to develop a sound foundation for our residents in systems-based practice. Our new rotation addresses systems-based practice in several different learning environments, including emergency medical service ride-along, sentinel event participation, and hospice visits. Several research projects have enhanced the overall learning program. Our experience shows that a rotation dedicated to competency training can provide an innovative and engaging means of teaching residents the value of each element.

  15. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Perioperative Nutritional, Metabolic, and Nonsurgical Support of the Bariatric Surgery Patient—2013 Update: Cosponsored by American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, The Obesity Society, and American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I.; Youdim, Adrienne; Jones, Daniel B.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Hurley, Daniel L.; McMahon, Molly; Heinberg, Leslie J.; Kushner, Robert; Adams, Ted D.; Shikora, Scott; Dixon, John B.; Brethauer, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    The development of these updated guidelines was commissioned by the AACE, TOS, and ASMBS Board of Directors and adheres to the AACE 2010 protocol for standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPG). Each recommendation was re-evaluated and updated based on the evidence and subjective factors per protocol. Examples of expanded topics in this update include: the roles of sleeve gastrectomy, bariatric surgery in patients with type-2 diabetes, bariatric surgery for patients with mild obesity, copper deficiency, informed consent, and behavioral issues. There are 74 recommendations (of which 56 are revised and 2 are new) in this 2013 update, compared with 164 original recommendations in 2008. There are 403 citations, of which 33 (8.2%) are EL 1, 131 (32.5%) are EL 2, 170 (42.2%) are EL 3, and 69 (17.1%) are EL 4. There is a relatively high proportion (40.4%) of strong (EL 1 and 2) studies, compared with only 16.5% in the 2008 AACE-TOS-ASMBS CPG. These updated guidelines reflect recent additions to the evidence base. Bariatric surgery remains a safe and effective intervention for select patients with obesity. A team approach to perioperative care is mandatory with special attention to nutritional and metabolic issues. PMID:23529939

  16. Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism as the Initial Clinical Presentation of Gastric Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Rezaeetalab

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is a clinically critical disease, misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis of which can lead to increased rate of mortality. For prevention of recurrence of PTE, recognition of its risk factors or underlying diseases is of great importance. PTE is common in patients with cancer and has high morbidity and mortality rates. Although cancer is a lethal condition, PTE accelerates death in these patients. In the current study, we reported the case of a 50-year-old male presenting with dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, and non-massive hemoptysis indicating pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulant therapy was initiated, but after 12 days of treatment, new deep vein thromboses in the left upper and right lower limbs were diagnosed. However, no specific risk factors or laboratory abnormalities were detected. History of weight loss during the recent months encouraged further investigation for ruling out malignancy, which led a diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. He did not have any complaints of gastrointestinal disorders.

  17. Managing the clinical setting for best nursing practice: a brief overview of contemporary initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Amanda; Winch, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Leadership strategies are important in facilitating the nursing profession to reach their optimum standards in the practice environment. To compare and contrast the central tenets of contemporary quality initiatives that are commensurate with enabling the environment so that best practice can occur. Democratic leadership, accessible and relevant education and professional development, the incorporation of evidence into practice and the ability of facilities to be responsive to change are core considerations for the successful maintenance of practice standards that are consistent with best nursing practice. While different concerns of management drive the adoption of contemporary approaches, there are many similarities in the how these approaches are translated into action in the clinical setting. Managers should focus on core principles of professional nursing that add value to practice rather than business processes.

  18. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 3: Continued innovation for clinical trial improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Michael W. [Dept. of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Veitch, Dallas P. [Dept. of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Aisen, Paul S. [Univ. of Southern California, San Diego, CA (United States); Beckett, Laurel A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Cairns, Nigel J. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Green, Robert C. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Harvey, Danielle [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Jack, Clifford R. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Jagust, William [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Morris, John C. [Univ. of Southern California, San Diego, CA (United States); Petersen, Ronald C. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Salazar, Jennifer [Univ. of Southern California, San Diego, CA (United States); Saykin, Andrew J. [Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Shaw, Leslie M. [Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Toga, Arthur W. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Trojanowski, John Q. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-12-05

    Overall, the goal of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is to validate biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials. ADNI-3, which began on August 1, 2016, is a 5-year renewal of the current ADNI-2 study. ADNI-3 will follow current and additional subjects with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and AD using innovative technologies such as tau imaging, magnetic resonance imaging sequences for connectivity analyses, and a highly automated immunoassay platform and mass spectroscopy approach for cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis. A Systems Biology/pathway approach will be used to identify genetic factors for subject selection/enrichment. Amyloid positron emission tomography scanning will be standardized using the Centiloid method. The Brain Health Registry will help recruit subjects and monitor subject cognition. Multimodal analyses will provide insight into AD pathophysiology and disease progression. Finally, ADNI-3 will aim to inform AD treatment trials and facilitate development of AD disease-modifying treatments.

  19. Perioperative smoking cessation in vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, M.; Heesemann, Sabine; Tonnesen, H.

    2015-01-01