WorldWideScience

Sample records for surgery economic analysis

  1. Simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery: economic analysis; Helsinki Simultaneous Bilateral Cataract Surgery Study Report 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivo, Tiina; Sarikkola, Anna-Ulrika; Uusitalo, Risto J; Hellstedt, Timo; Ess, Sirje-Linda; Kivelä, Tero

    2011-06-01

    To present an economic-analysis comparison of simultaneous and sequential bilateral cataract surgery. Helsinki University Eye Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Economic analysis. Effects were estimated from data in a study in which patients were randomized to have bilateral cataract surgery on the same day (study group) or sequentially (control group). The main clinical outcomes were corrected distance visual acuity, refraction, complications, Visual Function Index-7 (VF-7) scores, and patient-rated satisfaction with vision. Health-care costs of surgeries and preoperative and postoperative visits were estimated, including the cost of staff, equipment, material, floor space, overhead, and complications. The data were obtained from staff measurements, questionnaires, internal hospital records, and accountancy. Non-health-care costs of travel, home care, and time were estimated based on questionnaires from a random subset of patients. The main economic outcome measures were cost per VF-7 score unit change and cost per patient in simultaneous versus sequential surgery. The study comprised 520 patients (241 patients included non-health-care and time cost analyses). Surgical outcomes and patient satisfaction were similar in both groups. Simultaneous cataract surgery saved 449 Euros (€) per patient in health-care costs and €739 when travel and paid home-care costs were included. The savings added up to €849 per patient when the cost of lost working time was included. Compared with sequential bilateral cataract surgery, simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery provided comparable clinical outcomes with substantial savings in health-care and non-health-care-related costs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of increased consumer demand on fees for aesthetic surgery: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, L M; Shaw, W W

    1999-12-01

    Economic theory dictates that changes in consumer demand have predictable effects on prices. Demographics represents an important component of demand for aesthetic surgery. Between the years of 1997 and 2010, the U.S. population is projected to increase by 12 percent. The population increase will be skewed such that those groups undergoing the most aesthetic surgery will see the largest increase. Accounting for the age-specific frequencies of aesthetic surgery and the population increase yields an estimate that the overall market for aesthetic surgery will increase by 19 percent. Barring unforeseen changes in general economic conditions or consumer tastes, demand should increase by an analogous amount. An economic demonstration shows the effects of increasing demand for aesthetic surgery on its fees. Between the years of 1992 and 1997, there was an increase in demand for breast augmentation as fears of associated autoimmune disorders subsided. Similarly, there was increased male acceptance of aesthetic surgery. The number of breast augmentations and procedures to treat male pattern baldness, plastic surgeons, and fees for the procedures were tracked. During the study period, the supply of surgeons and consumer demand increased for both of these procedures. Volume of breast augmentation increased by 275 percent, whereas real fees remained stable. Volume of treatment for male pattern baldness increased by 107 percent, and the fees increased by 29 percent. Ordinarily, an increase in supply leads to a decrease in prices. This did not occur during the study period. Economic analysis demonstrates that the increased supply of surgeons performing breast augmentation was offset by increased consumer demand for the procedure. For this reason, fees were not lowered. Similarly, increased demand for treatment of male pattern baldness more than offset the increased supply of surgeons performing it. The result was higher fees. Emphasis should be placed on using these economic

  3. Epilepsy Care in Ontario: An Economic Analysis of Increasing Access to Epilepsy Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, James M.; Snead, O. Carter; Chandra, Kiran; Blackhouse, Gord; Goeree, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Background In August 2011 a proposed epilepsy care model was presented to the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) by an Expert Panel on a Provincial Strategy for Epilepsy Care in Ontario. The Expert Panel recommended leveraging existing infrastructure in the province to provide enhanced capacity for epilepsy care. The point of entry for epilepsy care and the diagnostic evaluation for surgery candidacy and the epilepsy surgery would occur at regional and district epilepsy centres in London, Hamilton, Toronto, and Ottawa and at new centres recommended for northern and eastern Ontario. This economic analysis report was requested by OHTAC to provide information about the estimated budgetary impact on the Ontario health care system of increasing access to epilepsy surgery and to examine the cost-effectiveness of epilepsy surgery in both children and adults. Methods A prevalence-based “top-down” health care system budgetary impact model from the perspective of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care was developed to estimate the potential costs associated with expanding health care services to increase access to epilepsy care in general and epilepsy surgery in particular. A 5-year period (i.e., 2012–2016) was used to project annual costs associated with incremental epilepsy care services. Ontario Health Survey estimates of epilepsy prevalence, published epilepsy incidence data, and Canadian Census results for Ontario were used to approximate the number of individuals with epilepsy in the province. Applying these population estimates to data obtained from a recent field evaluation study that examined patterns of care and costs associated with epilepsy surgery in children, a health care system budget impact was calculated and the total costs and incremental costs associated with increasing access to surgery was estimated. In order to examine the cost-effectiveness of epilepsy surgery in children, a decision analysis compared epilepsy surgery to

  4. The economics of pancreas surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Charles M

    2013-06-01

    Pancreas surgery is a paradigm for high-acuity surgical specialization. Given the current intrigue over containing health care expenditures, pancreas surgery provides an ideal model to investigate the cost of care. This article explores the economics of this field from literature accrued over the last 2 decades. The cost of performing a pancreatic resection is established and then embellished with a discussion of the effects of clinical care paths. Then the influence of complications on costs is explored. Next, cost is investigated as an emerging outcome metric regarding variations in pancreatic surgical care. Finally, the societal-level fiscal impact is considered.

  5. Liposome bupivacaine for improvement in economic outcomes and opioid burden in GI surgery: IMPROVE Study pooled analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen SM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephen M Cohen,1 Jon D Vogel,2 Jorge E Marcet,3 Keith A Candiotti4 1Atlanta Colon and Rectal Surgery, PA, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2General Surgery Clinic, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA; 3Department of Surgery, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 4Department of Anesthesiology, University of Miami Leonard Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: Postsurgical pain management remains a significant challenge. Liposome bupivacaine, as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen, has been shown to significantly reduce postsurgical opioid consumption, hospital length of stay (LOS, and hospitalization costs in gastrointestinal (GI surgery, compared with intravenous (IV opioid-based patient-controlled analgesia (PCA. Pooled results from open-label studies comparing a liposome bupivacaine-based multimodal analgesic regimen with IV opioid PCA were analyzed. Patients (n=191 who underwent planned surgery and received study drug (IV opioid PCA, n=105; multimodal analgesia, n=86 were included. Liposome bupivacaine-based multimodal analgesia compared with IV opioid PCA significantly reduced mean (standard deviation [SD] postsurgical opioid consumption (38 [55] mg versus [vs] 96 [85] mg; P<0.0001, postsurgical LOS (median 2.9 vs 4.3 days; P<0.0001, and mean hospitalization costs (US$8,271 vs US$10,726; P=0.0109. The multimodal analgesia group reported significantly fewer patients with opioid-related adverse events (AEs than the IV opioid PCA group (P=0.0027; there were no significant between-group differences in patient satisfaction scores at 30 days. A liposome bupivacaine-based multimodal analgesic regimen was associated with significantly less opioid consumption, opioid-related AEs, and better health economic outcomes compared with an IV opioid PCA-based regimen in patients undergoing GI surgery. Study registration: This pooled analysis is based on data from Phase IV clinical trials registered on the US National

  6. Economics of pelvic organ prolapse surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Cecilia; Maher, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    than total vaginal mesh for vaginal vault prolapse (grade B). Data from a meta-analysis of anterior vaginal compartment prolapse operations demonstrated that commercial mesh kits for anterior repair are less cost-effective than non-kit mesh and anterior colporrhaphy (grade B). There is a paucity of good economic data relating to pelvic organ prolapse surgery. Transvaginal mesh surgeries have not been proven to be cost-effective. It is recommended that all randomised controlled trials relating to prolapse surgery include a formal cost analysis.

  7. An Economic Analysis of MAC Versus WALANT: A Trigger Finger Release Surgery Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codding, Jason L; Bhat, Suneel B; Ilyas, Asif M

    2017-07-01

    There has been recent interest in wide awake hand surgery, also referred to as "wide awake local anesthesia with no tourniquet" (WALANT) surgery. Using a model of single trigger finger release (TFR) surgery, a hypothesis was made that WALANT would result in decreased hospital time and cost than patients receiving sedation with monitored anesthetic care (MAC). Consecutive cases of single TFR surgery with MAC were compared with WALANT. All surgeries were performed in the same manner, at the same facility, and by the same surgeon. Total operating room (OR) time, surgical time, recovery time, and anesthesia costs were analyzed. There were 78 patients: 31 MAC and 47 WALANT. The MAC group averaged 27.2 minutes of OR time; the WALANT group averaged 25.2 minutes. The MAC group surgical time was 10.2 minutes versus WALANT of 10.4 minutes. Post-operatively, the MAC group averaged 72.3 minutes in the recovery room compared with WALANT group of 30.2 minutes. Each case performed under MAC had a minimum of excess charges from anesthesia of approximately $105. Patients undergoing single TFR surgery under WALANT trended toward less time in the OR, had similar surgical times, and spent significantly less time in the recovery room, compared with MAC, thereby resulting in less indirect costs. Each MAC case also had minimum direct excess anesthesia charges of $105, which knowingly underestimates overall charges as it excludes material and fixed costs associated with the delivery of anesthesia. Avoiding sedation for high-volume procedures such as TFR may result in significant systemic savings to payers, and in the future with bundling and episode-based payments can become increasingly important to patients, facilities, and surgeons.

  8. Economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  9. Impact of the Economic Downturn on Elective Lumbar Spine Surgery in the United States: A National Trend Analysis, 2003 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David N; Brodell, David; Li, Yue; Rubery, Paul T; Mesfin, Addisu

    2017-05-01

    Retrospective database analysis. The impact of the 2008-2009 economic downtown on elective lumbar spine surgery is unknown. Our objective was to investigate the effect of the economic downturn on the overall trends of elective lumbar spine surgery in the United States. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used in conjunction with US Census and macroeconomic data to determine historical trends. The economic downturn was defined as 2008 to 2009. Codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), were used in order to identify appropriate procedures. Confidence intervals were determined using subgroup analysis techniques. From 2003 to 2012, there was a 19.8% and 26.1% decrease in the number of lumbar discectomies and laminectomies, respectively. Over the same time period, there was a 56.4% increase in the number of lumbar spinal fusions. The trend of elective lumbar spine surgeries per 100 000 persons in the US population remained consistent from 2008 to 2009. The number of procedures decreased by 4.5% from 2010 to 2011, 7.6% from 2011 to 2012, and 3.1% from 2012 to 2013. The R(2) value between the number of surgeries and the S&P 500 Index was statistically significant (P ≤ .05). The economic downturn did not affect elective lumbar fusions, which increased in total from 2003 to 2013. The relationship between the S&P 500 Index and surgical trends suggests that during recessions, individuals may utilize other means, such as insurance, to cover procedural costs and reduce out-of-pocket expenditures, accounting for no impact of the economic downturn on surgical trends. These findings can assist multiple stakeholders in better understanding the interconnectedness of macroeconomics, policy, and elective lumbar spine surgery trends.

  10. Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underhill, Gary K.; Carlson, Ronald A.; Clendinning, William A.; Erdos, Jozsef; Gault, John; Hall, James W.; Jones, Robert L.; Michael, Herbert K.; Powell, Paul H.; Riemann, Carl F.; Rios-Castellon, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Burchard P.; Wilson, John S.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present an economic evaluation of electric power production from geopressured geothermal resources in Texas. An effort has been made to obtain the most realistic data concerning the investment and production costs of a geothermal power generation system, sited on a model geopressured geothermal resource.

  11. The use of sugammadex for bariatric surgery: analysis of recovery time from neuromuscular blockade and possible economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Robertis, Edoardo; Zito Marinosci, Geremia; Romano, Giovanni Marco; Piazza, Ornella; Iannuzzi, Michele; Cirillo, Fabrizio; De Simone, Stefania; Servillo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Neuromuscular block (NMB) monitoring and use of reversal agents accelerate the recovery time and improve the workflow in the operating room. We aimed to compare recovery times after sugammadex or neostigmine administration, and estimate the time spent in operating theater and the possible economic impact of a faster recovery, in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. We conducted a retrospective study that analyzed data from records of morbidly obese patients (body mass index >40 kg/m(2)) undergoing elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery in which sugammadex or neostigmine were used to reverse NMB. Patients were divided in two groups: group 1 (sugammadex group [SUG]) received rocuronium and sugammadex for reversal and group 2 (neostigmine group [NEO]) received either rocuronium or cisatracurium and neostigmine. Data are presented as mean (standard deviation). Compared with NEO, SUG group showed shorter times to achieve train-of-four ratio of 0.9 (PSugammadex cost accounted for 2.58% of the total cost per surgery, while neostigmine cost accounted for 0.06%. Total time saved in SUG group was 19.4 hours, which could be used to perform 12 extra laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomies. Reversal from NMB was significantly faster with sugammadex than with neostigmine. Although sugammadex was substantially more expensive, duration of operating theater occupancy was reduced with potentially workflow increase or personnel reduced cost.

  12. The use of sugammadex for bariatric surgery: analysis of recovery time from neuromuscular blockade and possible economic impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Robertis E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo De Robertis,1 Geremia Zito Marinosci,1 Giovanni Marco Romano,1 Ornella Piazza,2 Michele Iannuzzi,1 Fabrizio Cirillo,1 Stefania De Simone,3 Giuseppe Servillo,1 1Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, University Federico II, Naples, 2Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Salerno, 3Institute for Research on Innovation and Services for Development, National Research Council, Naples, Italy Background: Neuromuscular block (NMB monitoring and use of reversal agents accelerate the recovery time and improve the workflow in the operating room. We aimed to compare recovery times after sugammadex or neostigmine administration, and estimate the time spent in operating theater and the possible economic impact of a faster recovery, in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study that analyzed data from records of morbidly obese patients (body mass index >40 kg/m2 undergoing elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery in which sugammadex or neostigmine were used to reverse NMB. Patients were divided in two groups: group 1 (sugammadex group [SUG] received rocuronium and sugammadex for reversal and group 2 (neostigmine group [NEO] received either rocuronium or cisatracurium and neostigmine. Data are presented as mean (standard deviation. Results: Compared with NEO, SUG group showed shorter times to achieve train-of-four ratio of 0.9 (P<0.05 and an Aldrete score of 10 (P<0.05, a higher cost (€146.7 vs €3.6 [P<0.05], plus a remarkable less duration of operating theater occupancy (P<0.05. Sugammadex cost accounted for 2.58% of the total cost per surgery, while neostigmine cost accounted for 0.06%. Total time saved in SUG group was 19.4 hours, which could be used to perform 12 extra laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomies. Conclusion: Reversal from NMB was significantly faster with sugammadex than with neostigmine. Although sugammadex was substantially

  13. The use of sugammadex for bariatric surgery: analysis of recovery time from neuromuscular blockade and possible economic impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Robertis, Edoardo; Zito Marinosci, Geremia; Romano, Giovanni Marco; Piazza, Ornella; Iannuzzi, Michele; Cirillo, Fabrizio; De Simone, Stefania; Servillo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuromuscular block (NMB) monitoring and use of reversal agents accelerate the recovery time and improve the workflow in the operating room. We aimed to compare recovery times after sugammadex or neostigmine administration, and estimate the time spent in operating theater and the possible economic impact of a faster recovery, in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods We conducted a retrospective study that analyzed data from records of morbidly obese patients (body mass index >40 kg/m2) undergoing elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery in which sugammadex or neostigmine were used to reverse NMB. Patients were divided in two groups: group 1 (sugammadex group [SUG]) received rocuronium and sugammadex for reversal and group 2 (neostigmine group [NEO]) received either rocuronium or cisatracurium and neostigmine. Data are presented as mean (standard deviation). Results Compared with NEO, SUG group showed shorter times to achieve train-of-four ratio of 0.9 (PAldrete score of 10 (P<0.05), a higher cost (€146.7 vs €3.6 [P<0.05]), plus a remarkable less duration of operating theater occupancy (P<0.05). Sugammadex cost accounted for 2.58% of the total cost per surgery, while neostigmine cost accounted for 0.06%. Total time saved in SUG group was 19.4 hours, which could be used to perform 12 extra laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomies. Conclusion Reversal from NMB was significantly faster with sugammadex than with neostigmine. Although sugammadex was substantially more expensive, duration of operating theater occupancy was reduced with potentially workflow increase or personnel reduced cost. PMID:27418846

  14. Economic considerations for bariatric surgery and morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezza, Eldo E; Wacthell, Mitchell; Ewing, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is also an economic tragedy. This analysis evaluates the economic effects and the potential to improve the well-being of both individual and societal wealth. Econometric techniques should carefully assess the degree to which obesity affects declines in business output, employment, income, and tax revenues at the regional and national levels. Microeconomics assesses lost productivity and associated wages and profit. Macroeconomics assesses trends associated with employment, inflation, interest rates, money supply, and output. To decrease the adverse economic consequences of the obesity epidemic, policy makers must emphasize bariatric surgery as a cost-effective option for qualified patients. Early intervention, education, and tax rebates for obese individuals who undergo bariatric surgery and for medical centers and doctors would likely have positive economic effects on the whole economy in a few years.

  15. Economic considerations for bariatric surgery and morbid obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezza, Eldo E; Wacthell, Mitchell; Ewing, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is also an economic tragedy. This analysis evaluates the economic effects and the potential to improve the well-being of both individual and societal wealth. Econometric techniques should carefully assess the degree to which obesity affects declines in business output, employment, income, and tax revenues at the regional and national levels. Microeconomics assesses lost productivity and associated wages and profit. Macroeconomics assesses trends associated with employment, inflation, interest rates, money supply, and output. To decrease the adverse economic consequences of the obesity epidemic, policy makers must emphasize bariatric surgery as a cost-effective option for qualified patients. Early intervention, education, and tax rebates for obese individuals who undergo bariatric surgery and for medical centers and doctors would likely have positive economic effects on the whole economy in a few years. PMID:21935309

  16. Models of Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Ioana; Tiberiu Socaciu

    2013-01-01

    The article presents specific aspects of management and models for economic analysis. Thus, we present the main types of economic analysis: statistical analysis, dynamic analysis, static analysis, mathematical analysis, psychological analysis. Also we present the main object of the analysis: the technological activity analysis of a company, the analysis of the production costs, the economic activity analysis of a company, the analysis of equipment, the analysis of labor productivity, the anal...

  17. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  18. Economic considerations for bariatric surgery and morbid obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldo E Frezza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Eldo E Frezza, Mitchell Wacthell1, Bradley Ewing21Center for Metabolic Disease and Texas Tech University, Department of Pathology, 2Rawls Business School, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USAAbstract: The obesity epidemic is also an economic tragedy. This analysis evaluates the economic effects and the potential to improve the well-being of both individual and societal wealth. Econometric techniques should carefully assess the degree to which obesity affects declines in business output, employment, income, and tax revenues at the regional and national levels. Microeconomics assesses lost productivity and associated wages and profit. Macroeconomics assesses trends associated with employment, inflation, interest rates, money supply, and output. To decrease the adverse economic consequences of the obesity epidemic, policy makers must emphasize bariatric surgery as a cost-effective option for qualified patients. Early intervention, education, and tax rebates for obese individuals who undergo bariatric surgery and for medical centers and doctors would likely have positive economic effects on the whole economy in a few years.Keywords: bariatric surgery, morbid obesity, economics

  19. Economic Analysis of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Louis Kaplow; Steven Shavell

    2005-01-01

    This entry for the forthcoming The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (Second Edition) surveys the economic analysis of five primary fields of law: property law; liability for accidents; contract law; litigation; and public enforcement and criminal law. It also briefly considers some criticisms of the economic analysis of law.

  20. Advanced Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marc W.; Laing, William

    2013-01-01

    An Economic Analysis (EA) is a systematic approach to the problem of choosing the best method of allocating scarce resources to achieve a given objective. An EA helps guide decisions on the "worth" of pursuing an action that departs from status quo ... an EA is the crux of decision-support.

  1. Economic Analysis of Ransomware

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Castro, Julio; Cartwright, Edward; Stepanova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    We present in this work an economic analysis of ransomware, with relevant data from Cryptolocker, CryptoWall, TeslaCrypt and other major strands. We include a detailed study of the impact that different price discrimination strategies can have on the success of a ransomware family, examining uniform pricing, optimal price discrimination and bargaining strategies and analysing their advantages and limitations. In addition, we present results of a preliminary survey that can helps in estimating...

  2. IDEAL trial: economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona de Portu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the IDEAL (“High-dose atorvastatin vs usual-dose simvastatin for secondary prevention after myocardial infarction” study was carried out to compare intensive lowering of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol using the highest recommended dose of atorvastatin 80 mg with simvastatin 20 mg. Aim: our aim was to investigate the economic consequence of high dose of atorvastatin vs usual-dose of simvastatin in reducing major coronary events in patients with a history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods: the analysis is based on clinical outcome data from the IDEAL study. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis, comparing high dose of atorvastatin (80 mg/die versus usual-dose of simvastatin (20 mg/die in the perspective of the Italian National Health Service. We identified and quantified medical costs: drug costs according to the Italian National Therapeutic Formulary and hospitalizations were quantified based on the Italian National Health Service tariffs (2008. Effects were measured in terms of morbidity reduction (frequency of hospitalizations. We considered an observation period of 4.8 years. The costs borne after the first 12 months were discounted using an annual rate of 3%. We conducted one and multi-way sensitivity analyses on unit cost and effectiveness. Results: the cost of atorvastatin therapy over the 4.8 years period amounted to approximately 2.4 millions euro per 1,000 patients. The total cost of atorvastatin high dose was about 3.9 millions euro, the incremental cost per patient free from event is 31.176,03 euro. Discussion: this evaluation found that atorvastatin therapy is cost-effective. Results were sensitive to either clinical or economic variables.

  3. Real analysis with economic applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ok, Efe A

    2011-01-01

    There are many mathematics textbooks on real analysis, but they focus on topics not readily helpful for studying economic theory or they are inaccessible to most graduate students of economics. Real Analysis with Economic Applications aims to fill this gap by providing an ideal textbook and reference on real analysis tailored specifically to the concerns of such students. The emphasis throughout is on topics directly relevant to economic theory. In addition to addressing the usual topics of real analysis, this book discusses the elements of order theory, convex analysis, optimizatio

  4. SURGERY AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY JOURNALS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Schanaider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze critically the effectiveness and value of bibliometric indicators in journals of Surgery or Cardiovacular Surgery in the context of the postgraduate programs of CAPES Medicine III. Methods: A sampling with 16 academic programs and one professional master of Medicine III, encompassing the General and Digestive System Surgery, Cardiovascular Surgery and Multidisciplinary courses with such contents, was evaluated. Thomson Reuters/ISI (JCR, Elsevier/Scopus (SJR, and also Scielo databases were used. Results: Only in seven programs, the teachers had an average of Qualis A1 articles greater than the others strata. Eleven journals in the surgical area are in stratum A1 (5% and it reaches 25% in Cardiovascular Surgery. Among the six journals with the largest number of publications Qualis A1 in area Medicine III, five are from non-specific areas. The Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira represented 58% of the publications in the stratum A2. There are some obstacles in the Qualis classification with little uniformity among the Medicine areas I, II and III. Conclusions: A permanent committee should be set to update the Qualis, composed by the three medical areas. It should be considered using other index databases and the unification of the Qualis criteria for journals in medicine. Rating criteria of multi and transdisciplinary journals need to be reviewed. It is essential an institutional financial support for national journals chosen by peers aiming to provide a full computerization process and a professional reviewer of the English language, in order to increase the impact factor.

  5. SURGERY AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY JOURNALS ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanaider, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    To analyze critically the effectiveness and value of bibliometric indicators in journals of Surgery or Cardiovacular Surgery in the context of the postgraduate programs of CAPES Medicine III. A sampling with 16 academic programs and one professional master of Medicine III, encompassing the General and Digestive System Surgery, Cardiovascular Surgery and Multidisciplinary courses with such contents, was evaluated. Thomson Reuters/ISI (JCR), Elsevier/Scopus (SJR), and also Scielo databases were used. Only in seven programs, the teachers had an average of Qualis A1 articles greater than the others strata. Eleven journals in the surgical area are in stratum A1 (5%) and it reaches 25% in Cardiovascular Surgery. Among the six journals with the largest number of publications Qualis A1 in area Medicine III, five are from non-specific areas. The Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira represented 58% of the publications in the stratum A2. There are some obstacles in the Qualis classification with little uniformity among the Medicine areas I, II and III. A permanent committee should be set to update the Qualis, composed by the three medical areas. It should be considered using other index databases and the unification of the Qualis criteria for journals in medicine. Rating criteria of multi and transdisciplinary journals need to be reviewed. It is essential an institutional financial support for national journals chosen by peers aiming to provide a full computerization process and a professional reviewer of the English language, in order to increase the impact factor. Analisar criticamente a eficácia e valor de indicadores bibliométricos dos periódicos da Cirurgia e Cirurgia Cardiovascular no contexto dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da área Medicina III da CAPES. Foi avaliada uma amostragem com 16 programas acadêmicos e um mestrado profissional da área de Medicina III, compreendendo a Cirurgia Geral e do Aparelho Digestivo, a Cirurgia Cardiovascular e Cursos Multidisciplinares

  6. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Oh, K. B

    2006-12-15

    It has been well recognized that securing economic viabilities along with technologies are very important elements in the successful implementation of nuclear R and D projects. The objective of the Project is to help nuclear energy to be utilized in an efficient way by analyzing major issues related with nuclear economics. The study covers following subjects: the role of nuclear in the future electric supply system, economic analysis of nuclear R and D project, contribution to the regional economy from nuclear power. In addition, the study introduces the international cooperation in the methodological area of efficient use of nuclear energy by surveying the international activities related with nuclear economics.

  7. Techno-Economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvesen, F.; Sandgren, J. [KanEnergi AS, Rud (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The present energy situation in the target area is summarized: 20 million inhabitants without electricity in north- west Russia, 50 % of the people in the Baltic`s without electricity, very high technical skills, biggest problems is the finance. The energy situation, the advantages of the renewables, the restrictions, and examples for possible technical solutions are reviewed on the basis of short analysis and experience with the Baltics and Russia

  8. Economic analysis: A basic primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doig G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical knowledge is advancing at an incredible rate. This rapid increase in the fundamental understanding of disease states has led to some important breakthroughs in care over the past ten years and will undoubtedly lead to untold more. At the same time that we are being presented with more options for diagnosis and treatment, governments around the world are fighting to reduce deficit spending and inflation. As a direct result of this combination of reduced spending and increased options for care, medical professionals are being asked to provide more effective care more efficiently. The randomized control trial may be the best way to determine the effectiveness of different options, however, only a full economic analysis can help decide which option is more efficient. This paper is intended to provide the reader with a basic understanding of the methods used to perform a full economic analysis.

  9. Economic impact of training and career decisions on urological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Joshua P; Kirby, E Will; Nielsen, Matthew E; Smith, Angela B; Woods, Michael E; Wallen, Eric M; Pruthi, Raj S

    2014-03-01

    Medical students and residents make career decisions at a relatively young age that have significant implications for their future income. While most of them attempt to estimate the impact of these decisions, there has been little effort to use economic principles to illustrate the impact of certain variables. The economic concept of net present value was paired with available Medical Group Management Association and Association of American Medical Colleges income data to calculate the value of career earnings based on variations in the choice of specialty, an academic vs a private practice career path and fellowship choices for urology and other medical fields. Across all specialties academic careers were associated with lower career earnings than private practice. However, among surgical specialties the lowest difference in value between these 2 paths was for urologists at only $334,898. Fellowship analysis showed that training in pediatric urology was costly in forgone attending salary and it also showed a lower future income than nonfellowship trained counterparts. An additional year of residency training (6 vs 5 years) caused a $201,500 decrease in the value of career earnings. Choice of specialty has a dramatic impact on future earnings, as does the decision to pursue a fellowship or choose private vs academic practice. Additional years of training and forgone wages have a tremendous impact on monetary outcomes. There is also no guarantee that fellowship training will translate into a more financially valuable career. The differential in income between private practice and academics was lowest for urologists. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bariatric surgery: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Services includes fee code "S120 gastric bypass or partition, for morbid obesity" as an insured service. The term gastric bypass is a general term that encompasses a variety of surgical methods, all of which involve reconfiguring the digestive system. The term gastric bypass does not include AGB. The number of gastric bypass procedures funded and done in Ontario, and funded as actual out-of-country approvals,() is shown below. Number of Gastric Bypass Procedures by Fiscal Year: Ontario and Actual Out-of-Country (OOC) ApprovalsData from Provider Services, MOHLTCCourtesy of Provider Services, Ministry of Health and Long Term Care The Medical Advisory Secretariat reviewed the literature to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery to treat morbid obesity. It used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases. The interventions of interest were bariatric surgery and, for the controls, either optimal conventional management or another type of bariatric procedure. The outcomes of interest were improvement in comorbid conditions (e.g., diabetes, hypertension); short- and long-term weight loss; quality of life; adverse effects; and economic analysis data. The databases yielded 15 international health technology assessments or systematic reviews on bariatric surgery. Subsequently, the Medical Advisory Secretariat searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from April 2004 to December 2004, after the search cut-off date of April, 2004, for the most recent systematic reviews on bariatric surgery. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. One of those 10 was the Swedish Obese Subjects study, which started as a registry and intervention study, and then published findings on people who had been enrolled for at least 2 years or at least 10 years. In addition to the literature review of economic analysis data, the Medical Advisory Secretariat also did an Ontario

  11. Economic modeling and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, J W

    1998-09-01

    The field of pharmacoeconomics (PE) faces serious concerns of research credibility and bias. The failure of researchers to reproduce similar results in similar settings, the inappropriate use of clinical data in economic models, the lack of transparency, and the inability of readers to make meaningful comparisons across published studies have greatly contributed to skepticism about the validity, reliability, and relevance of these studies to healthcare decision-makers. Using a case study in the field of lipid PE, two suggestions are presented for generally applicable reporting standards that will improve the credibility of PE. Health economists and researchers should be expected to provide either the software used to create their PE model or a multivariate sensitivity analysis of their PE model. Software distribution would allow other users to validate the assumptions and calculations of a particular model and apply it to their own circumstances. Multivariate sensitivity analysis can also be used to present results in a consistent and meaningful way that will facilitate comparisons across the PE literature. Using these methods, broader acceptance and application of PE results by policy-makers would become possible. To reduce the uncertainty about what is being accomplished with PE studies, it is recommended that these guidelines become requirements of both scientific journals and healthcare plan decision-makers. The standardization of economic modeling in this manner will increase the acceptability of pharmacoeconomics as a practical, real-world science.

  12. Economic Periodicity Analysis of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhaode; Yao Lili; Sun Jinfang; Yu Wei

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyses the periodical characteristics of the economic development of Shandong Province by using the mini-mum variation analysis model. The analysis shows that the eco-nomic development process of Shandong Province has short, medium and long cycles respectively for 6, 12, 19 years, and the fluctuation of the economic development becomes gentler with time passing by. The fluctuation of macro-control policy, invest-ment and consumption are the main reasons of the economic fluc-tuation.

  13. Pricing of common cosmetic surgery procedures: local economic factors trump supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Clare; Mattison, Gennaya; Workman, Adrienne; Gupta, Subhas

    2015-02-01

    The pricing of cosmetic surgery procedures has long been thought to coincide with laws of basic economics, including the model of supply and demand. However, the highly variable prices of these procedures indicate that additional economic contributors are probable. The authors sought to reassess the fit of cosmetic surgery costs to the model of supply and demand and to determine the driving forces behind the pricing of cosmetic surgery procedures. Ten plastic surgery practices were randomly selected from each of 15 US cities of various population sizes. Average prices of breast augmentation, mastopexy, abdominoplasty, blepharoplasty, and rhytidectomy in each city were compared with economic and demographic statistics. The average price of cosmetic surgery procedures correlated substantially with population size (r = 0.767), cost-of-living index (r = 0.784), cost to own real estate (r = 0.714), and cost to rent real estate (r = 0.695) across the 15 US cities. Cosmetic surgery pricing also was found to correlate (albeit weakly) with household income (r = 0.436) and per capita income (r = 0.576). Virtually no correlations existed between pricing and the density of plastic surgeons (r = 0.185) or the average age of residents (r = 0.076). Results of this study demonstrate a correlation between costs of cosmetic surgery procedures and local economic factors. Cosmetic surgery pricing cannot be completely explained by the supply-and-demand model because no association was found between procedure cost and the density of plastic surgeons. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. [Minimally invasive surgery and the economics of it. Can minimally invasive surgery be cost efficient from a business point of view?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, J P; Stufler, M; Buhr, H J

    2007-06-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is now accepted as equally valid as the use of a standard access in some areas of surgery. It is not possible to decide whether this access is economically worthwhile and if so for whom without a full economic cost-benefit analysis, which must take account of the hospital's own characteristics in addition to the cost involved for surgery, staff, infrastructure and administration. In summary, the main economic advantage of MIS lies in the patient-related early postoperative results, while the main disadvantage is that the operative material costs are higher. At present, the payment made for each procedure performed under the DRG system includes 14-17% of the total cost for materials, regardless of the access route and of the technical sophistication of the operation. The actual material costs are greater by a factor of 2-50 for MIS than for a conventional procedure. The task of the hospital is thus to lower the costs for material and infrastructure; that of industry is to offer less expensive alternatives; and that of our politicians, to implement better remuneration of the material costs.

  15. Analysis of the vitreoretinal surgery learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Avià, J; Romero-Aroca, P

    2017-06-01

    To describe intra- and post-operative complications, as well as the evolution of the surgical technique in first 4years of work of a novice retina surgeon, and evaluate minimal learning time required to reduce its complications, deciding which pathologies should still be referred to higher level hospitals, until further experience may be achieved. A study was conducted on patients that had undergone vitreoretinal surgery by a novice surgeon in Tarragona between 23rd October 2007 and 31st December 2011. The primary diagnosis, surgeon learning time, surgical technique, intra-operative and post-operative complications were recorded. A total of 247 surgeries were studied. The percentage of use of 20G and 23G calibres during the time, marks a change towards trans-conjunctival surgery from the ninth trimester (98 surgeries). Surgical complications decreased towards twelfth trimester (130 surgeries) with an increase in the previous months. The shift towards 23G technique around 100 surgeries is interpreted as greater comfort and safety by the surgeon. Increased surgical complications during the following months until its decline around 130 surgeries can be interpreted as an 'overconfidence'. It is arguable that the learning curve is slower than what the surgeon believes. An individual analysis of the complications and surgical outcomes is recommended to ascertain the status of the learning curve. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Economic Analysis on Wastewater Reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yushan WAN; Na LI

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The shortage of water resources social development. Wastewater reuse is an has become a major limiting factor for effective solution to solve water short- ages, which not only has economic benefits, but also has significant social and en- vironmental benefits. The economic evaluation is an important component in the study of wastewater reuse feasibility and the basis for the program optimization and economic feasibility determination.

  17. Economic analysis of production bottlenecks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Stephen R.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of bottlenecks has become a central topic in the planning and control of production systems. In this paper, we critically analyze bottlenecks from an economic perspective. Using a queueing network model, we demonstrate that bottlenecks are inevitable when there are differences in job arrival rates, processing rates, or costs of productive resources. These differences naturally lead to the creation of bottlenecks both for facilities design and demand planning problems. To evaluate bottlenecks from an economic perspective, we develop the notion of an “economic bottleneck,” which defines resources as bottlenecks based on economic, rather than physical, characteristics.

  18. Economics of image guidance and navigation in spine surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfi Al-Khouja

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: There is currently an insufficient amount of studies reporting on the economics of spinal navigation to accurately conclude on its cost-effectiveness in clinical practice. Although a few of these studies showed less costs associated with intraoperative imaging, none were able to establish a statistically significant difference. Preliminary findings drawn from this study indicate a possible cost-effectiveness advantage with IGS, but more comprehensive data on costs need to be reported in order to validate its utilization.

  19. Photovoltaic systems: an economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.; Fato, I. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica e Impianti Termotecnici)

    Costs and benefits of a photovoltaic plant intended for residential utilization and connected to the supply mains are evaluated. Three types of panels (mono, polycrystalline and amorphous silicon) are considered in determining the optimum economical size. Criteria for estimating the economically convenient peak watt cost compared with the mains supply cost are suggested.

  20. Rational economic strategy and entropic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, J.C.; Howard, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    The neglect of entropic changes of energy and matter in the economic process leads to incorrect formulation of economic theory, as was first pointed out by the economist, Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen. Entropic analysis, that is, the reckoning of entropic changes in real-world processes, appears to be a useful guide toward a realistic understanding of the economic process. The example chosen here is the choice between natural gas and coal as fossil fuel. An outline of the necessary analysis is discussed, together with the requirements of rational economic strategy.

  1. Ethics, economics and the regulation and adoption of new medical devices: case studies in pelvic floor surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sue; Weijer, Charles; Gafni, Amiram; Ducey, Ariel; Thompson, Carmen; Lafreniere, Rene

    2010-08-26

    Concern has been growing in the academic literature and popular media about the licensing, introduction and adoption of surgical devices before full effectiveness and safety evidence is available to inform clinical practice. Our research will seek empirical survey evidence about the roles, responsibilities, and information and policy needs of the key stakeholders in the introduction into clinical practice of new surgical devices for pelvic floor surgery, in terms of the underlying ethical principals involved in the economic decision-making process, using the example of pelvic floor procedures. Our study involves three linked case studies using, as examples, selected pelvic floor surgery devices representing Health Canada device safety risk classes: low, medium and high risk. Data collection will focus on stakeholder roles and responsibilities, information and policy needs, and perceptions of those of other key stakeholders, in seeking and using evidence about new surgical devices when licensing and adopting them into practice. For each class of device, interviews will be used to seek the opinions of stakeholders. The following stakeholders and ethical and economic principles provide the theoretical framework for the study: Stakeholders--federal regulatory body, device manufacturers, clinicians, patients, health care institutions, provincial health departments, and professional societies. Clinical settings in two centres (in different provinces) will be included. Ethics--beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, justice. Economics--scarcity of resources, choices, opportunity costs.For each class of device, responses will be analysed to compare and contrast between stakeholders. Applied ethics and economic theory, analysis and critical interpretation will be used to further illuminate the case study material. The significance of our research in this new area of ethics will lie in providing recommendations for regulatory bodies, device manufacturers, clinicians, health

  2. Analysis of Economic Factors Affecting Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Linyin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation concentrates on analysis of economic factors affecting Chinese stock market through examining relationship between stock market index and economic factors. Six economic variables are examined: industrial production, money supply 1, money supply 2, exchange rate, long-term government bond yield and real estate total value. Stock market comprises fixed interest stocks and equities shares. In this dissertation, stock market is restricted to equity market. The stock price in thi...

  3. Economic analysis of same-sex marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, Christopher J

    2004-01-01

    This article applies the neoclassical microeconomic analysis of marriage as developed by Nobel laureate economist Gary Becker to same-sex marriage. The objective is to demonstrate that the economic analysis of marriage supports allowing same-sex marriage, and that same-sex marriages would strengthen the incentive to marry, increase the efficiency of marriage markets, provide for more children to be raised in two-parent optimum environments, and benefit states economically overall. The article concludes with an overview of the economic impact of same-sex marriages on states based on the analysis, data and fiscal information currently available from researchers and economists in the field.

  4. Revisiting Samuelson's Foundations of Economic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Backhouse (Roger)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPaul Samuelson's Foundations of Economic Analysis played a major role in defining how economic theory was undertaken for many years after the Second World War. This paper fills out Samuelson's account of the book's origins and corrects some details, making clear his debt to E. B. Wilson

  5. Economic behavior: analysis and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Alekseevna Migranova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient social policy should be based on the understanding of strategies which Russian families use for adaptation to a difficult economic situation in the country. This understanding is promoted by regular research into people’s consumer behaviour and by sociological surveys of savings strategies. Scientists are studying the investment behaviour of population. Consumer behaviour, savings behaviour and investment behaviour are the elements of economic behaviour of population. The integrated research into these components gives the greatest effect for enhancing the efficiency of social policy. The “Taganrog” Project is one of such integrated studies. This project has been implemented within forty years; its main purpose is to study various aspects of life of households in this southern city that used to be an industrial city

  6. Economic Analysis of Agricultural Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce a modification of a standardfour input production process where energy is used in an inefficient way due topartly unnecessary waste of energy. The changes in production efficiencyinvestigated using stochastic frontier methods, show declining technicalefficiency in livestock production and especially low marginal contribution oflabor inputs. The number of workers, size of farm, and distance from nearestcity are related to efficiency in agricultural production. It is well known thatresults from an environmental policy in response to global climate change arequite sensitive to the assumption on the rate of energy efficiency improvements.However, technical progress is traditionally considered as a non-economicvariable in economic policy models. It is exogenous in most policy evaluationsas well as in the theory of environmental economics.

  7. Pet overpopulation: An economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Coate, Stephen; Knight, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of pet overpopulation. It develops a tractable dynamic model whose positive predictions square well with key features of the current U.S. market for pets. The model is used to understand, from a welfare economic perspective, the sense in which there is \\overpopulation" of pets and the underlying causes of the problem. The paper also employs the model to consider what policies might be implemented to deal with the problem. A calibrated example is developed to i...

  8. Cardiac Surgery: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Polymeropoulos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Several studies have investigated the administration of vitamin C (vitC for the prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF after cardiac surgery. However, their findings were inconsistent. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of vitC as prophylaxis for the prevention of postoperative AF in cardiac surgery. Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Library, and clinical trial registries, was performed. 9 studies, published from August 2001 to May 2015, were included, with a total of 1,037 patients. Patients were randomized to receive vitC, or placebo. Results: Cardiac surgery patients who received vitC as prophylaxis, had a significantly lower incidence of postoperative AF (random effects OR=0.478, 95% CI 0.340 – 0.673, P < 10-4. No significant heterogeneity was detected across the analyzed studies (I2=21.7%, and no publication bias or other small study-related bias was found. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that VitC is effective as prophylaxis for the prevention of postoperative AF. The administration of vitC may be considered in all patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  9. Economic Analysis in Plain English: A Course in Economic Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunin, Lori; Lindauer, David L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an experimental course designed as a journalism workshop where economics students became reporters writing articles on economic events, issues, and prominent economists and their ideas. The requirement to explain economics to lay readers accurately and clearly, developed the students' own economic literacy. (Author/JDH)

  10. Fractional State Space Analysis of Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines modern economic growth according to the multidimensional scaling (MDS method and state space portrait (SSP analysis. Electing GDP per capita as the main indicator for economic growth and prosperity, the long-run perspective from 1870 to 2010 identifies the main similarities among 34 world partners’ modern economic growth and exemplifies the historical waving mechanics of the largest world economy, the USA. MDS reveals two main clusters among the European countries and their old offshore territories, and SSP identifies the Great Depression as a mild challenge to the American global performance, when compared to the Second World War and the 2008 crisis.

  11. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S

    2000-12-01

    This study identified the role of nuclear energy in the following three major aspects. First of all, this study carried out cost effectiveness of nuclear as a CDM technology, which is one of means of GHG emission reduction in UNFCCC. Secondly, environmental externalities caused by air pollutants emitted by power options were estimated. The 'observed market behaviour' method and 'responses to hypothetical market' method were used to estimate objectively the environmental external costs by electric source, respectively. Finally, the role of nuclear power in securing electricity supply in a liberalized electricity market was analyzed. This study made efforts to investigate whether nuclear power generation with high investment cost could be favored in a liberalized market by using 'option value' analysis of investments.

  12. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S

    2000-12-01

    This study identified the role of nuclear energy in the following three major aspects. First of all, this study carried out cost effectiveness of nuclear as a CDM technology, which is one of means of GHG emission reduction in UNFCCC. Secondly, environmental externalities caused by air pollutants emitted by power options were estimated. The 'observed market behaviour' method and 'responses to hypothetical market' method were used to estimate objectively the environmental external costs by electric source, respectively. Finally, the role of nuclear power in securing electricity supply in a liberalized electricity market was analyzed. This study made efforts to investigate whether nuclear power generation with high investment cost could be favored in a liberalized market by using 'option value' analysis of investments.

  13. Analysis Economics of Realizing Mass Customization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiuhe; XIA Yan; FANG Shufen

    2006-01-01

    This paper breaks through the old study pattern, emphasizing the important of economic analysis and put forward the analytic method. The paper compares mass customization to just-in-time, analyses the two facets which include production and distribution. The production facet is influence of the indirect cost, scale economy, experiences economy and dynamic alliance. The reduction of indirect cost is the innovation, which has special angle comparatively traditional economic analysis. There is gaming between satisfying customer special demand and deciding price. Mass customization emphasizes that customer must achieve to loyalty not only content without increasing extra service charge-faith in company and product. The paper sets forth the economics of scale economy and dynamic alliance to embody the extensive economy. In addition it is another innovation that this paper analyses the defects of mass customization to evaluate the economic risk. Through comparing the traditional production mode, demonstrating the implement feasibility in company. That is mass customization has less economic risk whether or not. So the analysis proposes the evidences of the way of enterprise production.

  14. Ethics, economics and the regulation and adoption of new medical devices: case studies in pelvic floor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Sue

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concern has been growing in the academic literature and popular media about the licensing, introduction and adoption of surgical devices before full effectiveness and safety evidence is available to inform clinical practice. Our research will seek empirical survey evidence about the roles, responsibilities, and information and policy needs of the key stakeholders in the introduction into clinical practice of new surgical devices for pelvic floor surgery, in terms of the underlying ethical principals involved in the economic decision-making process, using the example of pelvic floor procedures. Methods/Design Our study involves three linked case studies using, as examples, selected pelvic floor surgery devices representing Health Canada device safety risk classes: low, medium and high risk. Data collection will focus on stakeholder roles and responsibilities, information and policy needs, and perceptions of those of other key stakeholders, in seeking and using evidence about new surgical devices when licensing and adopting them into practice. For each class of device, interviews will be used to seek the opinions of stakeholders. The following stakeholders and ethical and economic principles provide the theoretical framework for the study: Stakeholders - federal regulatory body, device manufacturers, clinicians, patients, health care institutions, provincial health departments, and professional societies. Clinical settings in two centres (in different provinces will be included. Ethics - beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, justice. Economics - scarcity of resources, choices, opportunity costs. For each class of device, responses will be analysed to compare and contrast between stakeholders. Applied ethics and economic theory, analysis and critical interpretation will be used to further illuminate the case study material. Discussion The significance of our research in this new area of ethics will lie in providing

  15. 17 CFR 200.23a - Office of Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Office also assists the Commission's enforcement effort by applying economic analysis and statistical... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Office of Economic Analysis... Organization § 200.23a Office of Economic Analysis. The Office of Economic Analysis is responsible...

  16. [Evaluation of new minimally invasive techniques in gastrointestinal surgery and contemplation on health economics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xishan

    2017-07-25

    With the widespread introduction of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in late 1987 by laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the practice and expectation of general surgery were changed forever. As the development of scientific technology, new techniques of MIS have sprung up all around the world. 3D laparoscopy surgery, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, da Vinci surgical system and other new technologies also need time to be verified, and this is the only way all new things should get though. They are very unique in their own right, and all have advantages and disadvantages. None of them is the best, but all of them can be the most suitable technology for a single patient, so we should keep an open mind instead of judging too much. At the same time we should be cautious, but do not exaggerate the advantages and obscure the drawbacks. Identifying the indications and the contraindications is the only way we can benefit the patients. In the pursuit of MIS ideas, as a surgeon, we should rely on advanced medical concepts, technology and equipment, under the premise of being beneficial to the patients, innovating in the norms, practicing in the innovation, seeking the truth in the practice, and moving on forever. In this chapter, author illustrates the history of MIS, evaluates some new gastrointestinal MIS techniques from various angles and makes some discussions on health economics, on purpose to offer some new understandings of new gastrointestinal MIS techniques, eventually benefiting the patients.

  17. Economic impact assessment in pest risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.A.A.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Werf, van der W.

    2010-01-01

    According to international treaties, phytosanitary measures against introduction and spread of invasive plant pests must be justified by a science-based pest risk analysis (PRA). Part of the PRA consists of an assessment of potential economic consequences. This paper evaluates the main available tec

  18. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric (weight loss) surgery for obesity: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, J; Jones, J; Colquitt, J L; Gospodarevskaya, E; Loveman, E; Baxter, L; Clegg, A J

    2009-09-01

    opinion were resolved at each stage. Studies were synthesised through a narrative review with full tabulation of the results of all included studies. In the economic model the analysis was developed for three patient populations, those with BMI > or = 40; BMI > or = 30 and or = 30 and costs and comorbidity. A total of 5386 references were identified of which 26 were included in the clinical effectiveness review: three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and three cohort studies compared surgery with non-surgical interventions and 20 RCTs compared different surgical procedures. Bariatric surgery was a more effective intervention for weight loss than non-surgical options. In one large cohort study weight loss was still apparent 10 years after surgery, whereas patients receiving conventional treatment had gained weight. Some measures of QoL improved after surgery, but not others. After surgery statistically fewer people had metabolic syndrome and there was higher remission of Type 2 diabetes than in non-surgical groups. In one large cohort study the incidence of three out of six comorbidities assessed 10 years after surgery was significantly reduced compared with conventional therapy. Gastric bypass (GBP) was more effective for weight loss than vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) and adjustable gastric banding (AGB). Laparoscopic isolated sleeve gastrectomy (LISG) was more effective than AGB in one study. GBP and banded GBP led to similar weight loss and results for GBP versus LISG and VBG versus AGB were equivocal. All comparisons of open versus laparoscopic surgeries found similar weight losses in each group. Comorbidities after surgery improved in all groups, but with no significant differences between different surgical interventions. Adverse event reporting varied; mortality ranged from none to 10%. Adverse events from conventional therapy included intolerance to medication, acute cholecystitis and gastrointestinal problems. Major adverse events following surgery, some

  19. Special training in maxillofacial surgery for medical students--economic burden or investment in the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Florian; Rommel, Niklas; Rohleder, Nils; Koerdt, Steffen; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Mitchell, David A; Kesting, Marco

    2015-12-01

    We measured the motivation and interest of medical students in oral and maxillofacial surgery at a German university. After a detailed cost-benefit analysis of a course that used an ex-vivo animal model and active participation in the operating theatre, we measured changes in the students' interest in taking up a surgical specialty in the future. We found that practical experience could lower the expenses of the course by almost 70%. Twenty per cent of students chose oral and maxillofacial surgery as an elective in their final year. These students could be residents one day.

  20. An economic analysis of communal goat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Sebei

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis. Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scalecommunal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of NorthWest Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In south Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different

  1. Analysis of NHSLA claims in orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irfan H; Jamil, Wiqqas; Lynn, Sam Mathew; Khan, Osman H; Markland, Kate; Giddins, Grey

    2012-05-01

    National Health Service (NHS) statistics in the United Kingdom demonstrate an increase in clinical negligence claims over the past 30 years. Reasons for this include elements of a cultural shift in attitudes toward the medical profession and the growth of the legal services industry. This issue affects medical and surgical health providers worldwide.The authors analyzed 2117 NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) orthopedic surgery claims between 1995 and 2001 with respect to these clinical areas: emergency department, outpatient care, surgery (elective or trauma operations), and inpatient care. The authors focused on the costs of settling and defending claims, costs attributable to clinical areas, common causes of claims, and claims relating to elective or trauma surgery. Numbers of claims and legal costs increased most notably in surgery (elective and trauma) and in the emergency department. However, claims are being defended more robustly. The annual cost for a successful defense has remained relatively stable, showing a slight decline. The common causes of claims are postoperative complication; wrong, delayed, or failure of diagnosis; inadequate consent; and wrong-site surgery. Certain surgical specialties (eg, spine and lower-limb surgery) have the most claims made during elective surgery, whereas upper-limb surgery has the most claims made during trauma surgery.The authors recommend that individual trusts liaise with orthopedic surgeons to devise strategies to address areas highlighted in our study. Despite differences in health care systems worldwide, the underlying issues are common. With improved understanding, physicians can deliver the service they promise their patients.

  2. Economic analysis of sustainable management of candeia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Candeia wood (Eremanthus erythropappus is widely used for production of essential oil and its active ingredient,alpha-bisabolol, is consumed by both the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. This study aimed to determine the productivity andoperating costs associated with exploration, transportation and commercialization of candeia timber obtained from sustainablemanagement systems and used for oil production; to determine the gross income or revenue obtained from the sale of candeia timber;to analyze the economic feasibility of sustainable management of candeia. For the economic analysis, Net Present Value, Net PresentValue over an infinite planning horizon, and Average Cost of Production methods were used. Results indicated that the mostsignificant costs associated with candeia forest management involve transportation and exploration. Together they account for 64%of the total management cost. Candeia forest management for oil production is economically feasible, even in situations where theinterest rate is high or timber price drops to levels well below currently effective prices. As far as candeia forest management isconcerned, shorter harvest cycles allow higher profitability. However, even in situations where the harvest cycle is relatively long (30years, the activity is still economically feasible.

  3. Rectal cancer surgery: volume-outcome analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Emmeline

    2010-12-01

    There is strong evidence supporting the importance of the volume-outcome relationship with respect to lung and pancreatic cancers. This relationship for rectal cancer surgery however remains unclear. We review the currently available literature to assess the evidence base for volume outcome in relation to rectal cancer surgery.

  4. BERCENI VILLAGE - A SOCIAL-ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina IORGA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural modernization aims at maintaining rural societies through occupational diversification that will improvequality of life and avoid rural exodus. It aims to acquire some features of the modern world such as those related totechnical, increased productivity, infrastructure, whereby rural community enriches its identity, acquiring newmeanings.This study is a close social-economical analysis of the countryside households of Berceni village. Berceniis in the southern county of Ilfov near Bucharest. It is based on the statistical data provided by National Institute ofStatistics. The data have been processed into the following indicators:age structure and gender, births and deaths,feminization, migration .Considering that human resources is the main factor in developing and moderinization ofrural space, this study is aimed to investigate as well, the posibility of diversifying inhabitants’ occupationsaccording to pshicologycal, social and economical resources.

  5. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  6. THE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF WATER IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz TUTAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the global problems since we met the phenomenon of globalization, the water has also taken its place. Economic analysis of water have become a topic of examination by many economist in recent years. Water is one of the important needs of human life. Water has an important place in respect of its role in maintaining a healty way of life. However, our country’s water resources are getting polluted day by day and the amount of water need the per capita is inceasing fast year by year due to population growth. Water quality can not be observed in Turkey and the necessarydata bank is unable to be formed. Protection of water resources and the evaluation of if in accordance with beneficial use can be only done with an integrated management mechanism. The purpose of this study is to make economic analysis of water located in natural resources. In this context the analysis of water supply and demand, the place of water in the economy, water resources and use of them in Turkey, in the World and EU, finally SWOT analysis of Turkey in terms of water resources were performed.

  7. Economic Impact of the Use of an Absorbable Adhesion Barrier in Preventing Adhesions Following Open Gynecologic Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sanjoy; Carlton, Rashad; Weisberg, Martin; Clark, Ryan; Migliaccio-Walle, Kristen; Chapa, Hector

    2015-01-01

    We used an economic model to assess the impact of using the GYNECARE INTERCEED absorbable adhesion barrier for reducing the incidence of postoperative adhesions in open surgical gynecologic procedures. Caesarean section surgery, hysterectomy, myomectomy, ovarian surgery, tubal surgery, and endometriosis surgery were modeled with and without the use of GYNECARE INTERCEED absorbable adhesion barrier. Incremental GYNECARE INTERCEED absorbable adhesion barrier material costs, medical costs arising from complications, and adhesion-related readmissions were considered. GYNECARE INTERCEED absorbable adhesion barrier use was assumed in 75% of all procedures. The economic impact was reported during a 3-year period from a United States hospital perspective. Assuming 100 gynecologic surgeries of each type and an average of one GYNECARE INTERCEED absorbable adhesion barrier sheet per surgery, a net savings of $540,823 with GYNECARE INTERCEED absorbable adhesion barrier during 3 years is estimated. In addition, GYNECARE INTERCEED absorbable adhesion barrier use resulted in 62 fewer cases of patients developing adhesions. Although the use of GYNECARE INTERCEED absorbable adhesion barrier added $137,250 in material costs, this was completely offset by the reduction in length of stay ($178,766 savings), fewer adhesion-related readmissions ($458,220 savings), and operating room cost ($41,078 savings). Adoption of the GYNECARE INTERCEED absorbable adhesion barrier for appropriate gynecologic surgeries would likely result in significant savings for hospitals, driven primarily by clinical patient benefits in terms of decreased length of stay and adhesion-related readmissions.

  8. Economic analysis of recycling contaminated concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, A.; Ayers, K.W.; Boren, J.K.; Parker, F.L. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination and Decommissioning activities in the DOE complex generate large volumes of radioactively contaminated and uncontaminated concrete. Currently, this concrete is usually decontaminated, the contaminated waste is disposed of in a LLW facility and the decontaminated concrete is placed in C&D landfills. A number of alternatives to this practice are available including recycling of the concrete. Cost estimates for six alternatives were developed using a spreadsheet model. The results of this analysis show that recycling alternatives are at least as economical as current practice.

  9. [Strategy and critical analysis of bariatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, J J; Barea, M; Maroquin, L; Isabo, O; Desmarets, A

    2007-09-01

    Bariatric surgery has considerably developed during the last 20 years in Belgium. The increase of prevalence of the morbid obesity and the development of multiple surgical procedures widened the spectrum of treatment. If a rigorous selection and a multidisciplinary approach of the patients are inescapable, the various decision-making algorithms plunge the practitioner into a certain confusion. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the advantages and the inconveniences of the different surgical treatments in light of the evolution of the principles and the objective results of the literature. Among the techniques proven and validated in the long run, one can mention the Silastic Ring Vertical Gastroplasty according to Mac Lean by minilaparotomy, the laparoscopic adjustable ring and the more recent gastric by pass. The evaluation of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and of duodenal switch is on course. The bilio-pancreatic by-pass according to Scopinaro remains strongly controversed. A meta-analysis of the literature confirms the success of the gastric bypass. Regarding to the long term follow-up, the adjustable gastric banding deceives. The sleeve gastrectomy should be analyzed in the long term. The preliminary results of a epidemiologic and financial study within a private hospital of Brussels reveals that the cost effective ratio is in favor the Silastic Ring Vertical Gastroplasty and the laparoscopic adjustable banding, as well in terms of public health support than the charge for the private insurance and the patient. The projection beyond 5 years reverses the tendency to plead in favor of the gastric by-pass. First with the hit-parade of comfort, food diversification, tolerance, gastro-esophageal reflux, and undoubtedly of the rate of recurrence, it supplants the others techniques for sweet eaters. The volume eaters can profit from a sleeve gastrectomy which undoubtedly supplants the Silastic Ring Vertical Gastroplasty responsible for late annular stenoses and

  10. The art of decision-making in surgery. To what extent does economics influence choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannelli, Alberto; Battaglia, Luigi; Poiasina, Elia; Belli, Filiberto; Bonfanti, Giuliano; Gallino, Gianfrancesco; Vitellaro, Marco; De Dosso, Sara; Leo, Ermanno

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally most surgeons have paid little attention to the costs of healthcare treatments. With the increase in the number of efficacious surgical alternatives, a distinct scarcity of available resources has emerged. Since the Eighties, the impact of surgical expenditure has been increasing everywhere. The causes are: medical progress, increased life expectancy, escalating costs and decreasing revenues. The surgeon has been increasingly forced to weigh up theories, doctrines and techniques of economics and management. This created new problems of choice. In any event, the surgeon's decision-making could lead to negative consequences if the primary concern is with the financial constraints and he is prompted simply to act rather than to achieve his therapeutic goal. In conclusion, although the impact of economic considerations is inevitable in the choice of surgery, the terms and methods involved in the process are rather ambiguous. In other words, surgeons face with the dilemma of the patient to whom the economist denies treatment. To be aware of this issue is the first step, but there is still much more to do in order to define the terms of action.

  11. Better economics: supporting adaptation with stakeholder analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; Zou, Ye; Boughlala, Mohamed

    2011-11-15

    Across the developing world, decision makers understand the need to adapt to climate change — particularly in agriculture, which supports a large proportion of low-income groups who are especially vulnerable to impacts such as increasing water scarcity or more erratic weather. But policymakers are often less clear about what adaptation action to take. Cost-benefit analyses can provide information on the financial feasibility and economic efficiency of a given policy. But such methods fail to capture the non-monetary benefits of adaptation, which can be even more important than the monetary ones. Ongoing work in Morocco shows how combining cost-benefit analysis with a more participatory stakeholder analysis can support effective decision making by identifying cross-sector benefits, highlighting areas of mutual interest among different stakeholders and more effectively assessing impacts on adaptive capacity.

  12. Law and Technology Theory: Bringing in Some Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosow, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The author argues economic analysis needs to be explicitly included in an overall theory of law and technology. Differing approaches to the economics of information are considered, and the copyright policy environment of the 1990s is taken as an example of how the lack of substantive economic analysis resulted in poor policy-making.

  13. Empirical analysis between industrial structure and economic growth of china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚西龙; 尤津; 郝鹏飞

    2008-01-01

    In recent years,the relationship between the industrial structure and economic growth is more and more concerned by scholars. According to the theory of industrial structure and economic development, this article use regression analysis method that estimates the three major industries’ contribute to Chinese economic growth and use cluster analysis methods, then discuss how to optimize the indus-trial structure.

  14. Five-year economic evaluation of non-melanoma skin cancer surgery at the Costa del Sol Hospital (2006-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Bernier, M; González-Carrascosa, M; Padilla-España, L; Rivas-Ruiz, F; Jiménez-Puente, A; de Troya-Martín, M

    2014-03-01

    The cost associated with treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer is expected to rise considerably over the coming decades. This important public health problem is therefore expected to have an enormous economic impact for the various public health services. To estimate the cost of the surgical-care process of non-melanoma skin cancer at the Costa del Sol Hospital and seek areas to improve its efficiency, using the activity-based costing (ABC) method and the tools designed for decision analysis. To compare the costs for hospitalized patients obtained using the ABC method with the data published by the Spanish Ministry of Health, using the diagnosis-related groups (DRG) classification system. Retrospective analysis of the cost of non-melanoma skin cancer surgery at the Costa del Sol Hospital. The total estimated cost from 2006 to 2010 was 3 398 540€. Most of the episodes (47.3%) corresponded to minor outpatient surgery. The costs of the episodes varied greatly according to the type of admission: 423€ (minor outpatient surgery), 1267€ (major outpatient surgery), and 1832€ (inpatient surgery). The average cost of an inpatient episode varied significantly depending on the calculation system used (ABC: 2328€ vs. DRG: 5674€). The ABC cost analysis system favours standardization of the care process for these tumours and the detection of areas to improve efficiency. This would enable more reliable economic studies than those obtained using traditional methods, such as the DRG. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. A Multidisciplinary-economic Framework of Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Human motivation offers energy, and circumstances offer possibilities. Only in combination does human motivation and circumstance yield action. Over time, desires and opportunities to satisfy them closely interact with one another. Orthodox economics analyzes economic motivation in interaction with

  16. Cost Analysis in Shoulder Arthroplasty Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Teusink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost in shoulder surgery has taken on a new focus with passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. As part of this law, there is a provision for Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs and the bundled payment initiative. In this model, one entity would receive a single payment for an episode of care and distribute funds to all other parties involved. Given its reproducible nature, shoulder arthroplasty is ideally situated to become a model for an episode of care. Currently, there is little research into cost in shoulder arthroplasty surgery. The current analyses do not provide surgeons with a method for determining the cost and outcomes of their interventions, which is necessary to the success of bundled payment. Surgeons are ideally positioned to become leaders in ACOs, but in order for them to do so a methodology must be developed where accurate costs and outcomes can be determined for the episode of care.

  17. Economic analysis of motor transport service efficiency on lease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Klymenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a dynamic economic environment of motor companies operation the development of organizational and methodological positions of economic analysis is required. It is economic analysis that allows us not only to determine the state of economic phenomenon, motor transport services in particular, but also to establish its cause and effect. The article suggests the methodology of economic analysis of motor transport services that includes three methodological components: 1 evaluation of the vehicle use effectiveness; 2 evaluation of transport services effectiveness; 3 evaluation of the vehicle leasing agreement effectiveness. The introduction of this technique in the studied companies revealed potential for raising efficiency.

  18. Economic impact of clinical variability in preoperative testing for major outpatient surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Borrelli, Christian Carlo; Agustí, Salomé; Pla, Rosa; Díaz-Redondo, Alicia; Zaballos, Matilde

    2016-05-01

    With the purpose of decreasing the existing variability in the criteria of preoperative evaluation and facilitating the clinical decision-making process, our hospital has a protocol of preoperative tests to use with ASA I and ASA II patients. The aim of the study was to calculate the economic impact caused by clinicians' non-adherence to the protocol for the anaesthesiological evaluation of ASA 1 and ASA II patients. A retrospective study of costs with a random sample of 353 patients that were seen in the consultation for Anesthesiology over a period of one year. Aspects related to the costs, patient's profiles and specialties were analysed, according to the degree of fulfillment of the protocol. The lack of adherence to the the protocol was 70%. 130 chest X-rays and 218 ECG were performed without indication. This generated an excess costs of 34 € per patient. Taking into account the expenses of both tests and the attended population undergoing ambulatory surgery during the one-year period, an excess spending for the hospital of between 69.164 € and 83.312 € was estimated. Clinical variability should be reduced and the creation of synergies between the different departments should be enhanced in order to adjust the request for unnecessary complementary tests to decrease health care and to improve the quality of patient care. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost-utility analysis comparing laparoscopic vs open aortobifemoral bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krog AH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anne Helene Krog,1,2 Mehdi Sahba,3 Erik M Pettersen,4 Torbjørn Wisløff,5,6 Jon O Sundhagen,2 Syed SH Kazmi2 1Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, 2Department of Vascular Surgery, Division of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, 3Department of Vascular Surgery, Østfold Central Hospital, Kalnes, 4Department of Vascular Surgery, Sørlandet Hospital HF, Kristiansand, 5Department of Health Management and Health Economics, University of Oslo, 6Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway Objectives: Laparoscopic aortobifemoral bypass has become an established treatment option for symptomatic aortoiliac obstructive disease at dedicated centers. Minimally invasive surgical techniques like laparoscopic surgery have often been shown to reduce expenses and increase patients’ health-related quality of life. The main objective of our study was to measure quality-adjusted life years (QALYs and costs after totally laparoscopic and open aortobifemoral bypass. Patients and methods: This was a within trial analysis in a larger ongoing randomized controlled prospective multicenter trial, Norwegian Laparoscopic Aortic Surgery Trial. Fifty consecutive patients suffering from symptomatic aortoiliac occlusive disease suitable for aortobifemoral bypass surgery were randomized to either totally laparoscopic (n=25 or open surgical procedure (n=25. One patient dropped out of the study before surgery. We measured health-related quality of life using the EuroQol (EQ-5D-5L questionnaire at 4 different time points, before surgery and for 6 months during follow-up. We calculated the QALYs gained by using the area under the curve for both groups. Costs were calculated based on prices for surgical equipment, vascular prosthesis and hospital stay. Results: We found a significantly higher increase in QALYs after laparoscopic vs open aortobifemoral bypass surgery, with a difference of 0.07 QALYs, (p=0

  20. Outcome analysis of shunt surgery in hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ashraf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the clinical outcome of shunt surgeries in children suffering from hydrocephalus. Methods: A prospective study of 50 children with hydrocephalus who underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt insertion over a period of two years. These patients were then followed up for shunt related complications, shunt revisions and outcome. Results : Twenty six of the 50 patients (52% suffered from complications. The most common complications were shunt blockage (n=7 and shunt infection (n=6. These complications necessitated repeated shunt revisions. Conclusions: Infective complications of hydrocephalus are more likely to leave behind an adverse neurological outcome in the form of delayed milestones and mental retardation.

  1. 75 FR 8922 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of.... Requests for foreign language interpretation or other auxiliary aids should be directed to Jeffrey Newman... recommendations from the perspectives of the economics profession, business, and government. This will be the...

  2. 77 FR 21081 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of.... Requests for foreign language interpretation or other auxiliary aids should be directed to Gianna Marrone... recommendations from the perspectives of the economics profession, business, and government. This will be the...

  3. 76 FR 9743 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of.... Requests for foreign language interpretation or other auxiliary aids should be directed to Gianna Marrone... recommendations from the perspectives of the economics profession, business, and government. This will be the...

  4. 76 FR 59111 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of.... Requests for foreign language interpretation or other auxiliary aids should be directed to Gianna Marrone... recommendations from the perspectives of the economics profession, business, and government. This will be the...

  5. 77 FR 60965 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of.... Requests for foreign language interpretation or other auxiliary aids should be directed to Gianna Marrone... recommendations from the perspectives of the economics profession, business, and government. This will be the...

  6. 78 FR 10599 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of.... Requests for foreign language interpretation or other auxiliary aids should be directed to Gianna Marrone... recommendations from the perspectives of the economics profession, business, ] and government. This will be the...

  7. Advancing School-Based Interventions through Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Tina M.; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis…

  8. Advancing School-Based Interventions through Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Tina M.; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Eninger, Lilianne

    2014-01-01

    Commentators interested in school-based prevention programs point to the importance of economic issues for the future of prevention efforts. Many of the processes and aims of prevention science are dependent upon prevention resources. Although economic analysis is an essential tool for assessing resource use, the attention given economic analysis…

  9. PROVE-IT trial: economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona de Portu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the PROVE-IT (“Intensive versus moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes” was a comparison of pravastatin 40 mg/die versus atorvastatin 80 mg/die in patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Aim: our aim was to investigate the economic consequence of high dose of atorvastatin vs usual-dose of pravastatin in Italian patients with a history of acute coronary syndrome. Methods: the analysis is conducted on the basis of clinical outcomes of the PROVE-IT study. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis, comparing high dose of atorvastatin (80 mg/die versus usual-dose of pravastatin (40 mg/die in the perspective of the Italian National Health Service. We identified and quantified medical costs: drug costs according to the Italian National Therapeutic Formulary and hospitalizations were quantified based on the Italian National Health Service tariffs (2008. Effects were measured in terms of morbidity reduction (number of deaths and frequency of hospitalizations. We considered an observation period of 24 months. The costs borne after the first 12 months were discounted using an annual rate of 3%. We conducted one and multi-way sensitivity analyses on unit cost and effectiveness. Results: the cost of pravastatin or atorvastatin therapy over the 2 years period amounted to approximately 664.684 millions euro and 909.006 euro per 1,000 patients respectively. Atorvastatin was more efficacious compared to pravastatin and the overall cost of care per 1,000 patients over 24 months of follow-up was estimated at 2.58 millions euro in the pravastatin and 2.57 millions euro in the atorvastatin group, resulting into a cost saving of about 11.000 euro. Discussion: this study demonstrates that high dose atorvastatin treatment leads to a reduction of direct costs for the National Health System. Atorvastatin therapy is dominant since it is both less costly and more effective than pravastatin. Results were sensitive to

  10. Productivity of prolific sheep : Economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Inounu

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of major gene in the Indonesian sheep breeds has been revealed in three different genotypes which are further implied that different levels of feeding and management are necessary to realize the potential benefits for each genotype . The variability in the ewe production as a result of the differences in genotype and management levels were then evaluated by economic analysis . The result shows that improvement in management practices resulted in an increase of production ofindividual breeding ewe (BS. However, since these increases in performance required additional cost for higher input value, as it was indicated in the total production cost, attention must be given toward the decision as to which genotype to raise at what level of feeding management . This study has shown promising results to facilitate the decision makers in that direction, for example, ewes with FecJFFecJ` genotype gained the highest gross margin when they were treated with high level of feeding management. The next best alternative was followed by FecJ FFecJ F genotype. Furthermore, in the situation where low level of feeding management being practiced, ewes carrying the FecJF gene did not show their superiority since they gained lower gross margin compared with the non-carrier ewes.

  11. Enhanced recovery after surgery protocol in oesophageal cancer surgery: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Piotr; Wysocki, Michał; Budzyński, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Background Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol are well established in many surgical disciplines, leading to decrease in morbidity and length of hospital stay. These multi-modal protocols have been also introduced to oesophageal cancer surgery. This review aimed to evaluate current literature on ERAS in oesophageal cancer surgery and conduct a meta-analysis on primary and secondary outcomes. Methods MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies. We analyzed data up to May 2016. Eligible studies had to contain four described ERAS protocol elements. The primary outcome was overall morbidity. Secondary outcomes included length of hospital stay, specific complications, mortality and readmissions. Random effect meta-analyses were undertaken. Results Initial search yielded 1,064 articles. Thorough evaluation resulted in 13 eligible articles which were analyzed. A total of 2,042 patients were included in the analysis (1,058 ERAS group and 984 treated with traditional protocols). Analysis of overall morbidity as well as complication rate did not show any significant reduction. Non-surgical complications and pulmonary complications were significantly lower in the ERAS group, RR = 0.71 95% CI 0.62–0.80, p < 0.00001 and RR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.60–0.94, p = 0.01, respectively. Meta-analysis on length of stay presented significant reduction Mean difference = -3.55, 95% CI -4.41 to -2.69, p for effect<0.00001. Conclusions This systematic review with a meta-analysis on ERAS in oesophageal surgery indicates a reduction of non-surgical complications and no negative influence on overall morbidity. Moreover, a reduction in the length of hospital stay was presented. PMID:28350805

  12. Economic Effects of Anti-Depressant Usage on Elective Lumbar Fusion Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirali Sayadipour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested, although not proven, that presence of concomitant psychiatric disorders may increase the inpatient costs for patients undergoing elective surgery. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that elective lumbar fusion surgery is more costly in patients with under treatment for depression. Methods: This is a retrospective case-control study of 142 patients who underwent elective lumbar fusion. Of those 142 patients, 41 patients were chronically using an antidepressant medication that considered as a "study group", and 101 patients were not taking an antidepressant medication that considered as a "control group". Data was collected for this cohort regarding antidepressant usage patient demographics, length of stay (LOS, age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index scores and cost. Costs were compared between those with a concomitant antidepressant usage and those without antidepressant usage using multivariate analysis. Results: Patients using antidepressants and those with no history of antidepressant usage were similar in terms of gender, age and number of operative levels. The LOS demonstrated a non-significant trend towards longer stays in those using anti-depressants. Total charges, payments, variable costs and fixed costs were all higher in the antidepressant group but none of the differences reached statistical significance. Using Total Charges as the dependent variable, gender and having psychiatric comorbidities were retained independent variables. Use of an antidepressant was independently predictive of a 36% increase in Total Charges . Antidepressant usage as an independent variable also conferred a 22% increase in cost and predictive of a 19% increase in Fixed Cost . Male gender was predictive of a 30% increase in Total Charges . Conclusion: This study suggests use of antidepressant in patients who undergo elective spine fusion compared with control group is associated with increasing total cost and

  13. Examination of bariatric surgery Facebook support groups: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koball, Afton M; Jester, Dylan J; Domoff, Sarah E; Kallies, Kara J; Grothe, Karen B; Kothari, Shanu N

    2017-08-01

    Support following bariatric surgery is vital to ensure long-term postoperative success. Many individuals undergoing bariatric surgery are turning to online modalities, especially the popular social media platform Facebook, to access support groups and pages. Despite evidence suggesting that the majority of patients considering bariatric surgery are utilizing online groups, little is known about the actual content of these groups. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a content analysis of bariatric surgery support groups and pages on Facebook. Online via Facebook, independent academic medical center, United States. Data from bariatric surgery-related Facebook support groups and pages were extracted over a 1-month period in 2016. Salient content themes (e.g., progress posts, depression content, eating behaviors) were coded reliably (all κ> .70). More than 6,800 posts and replies were coded. Results indicated that seeking recommendations (11%), providing information or recommendations (53%), commenting on changes since surgery (19%), and lending support to other members (32%) were the most common types of posts. Content surrounding anxiety, eating behaviors, depression, body image, weight bias, and alcohol was found less frequently. Online bariatric surgery groups can be used to receive support, celebrate physical and emotional accomplishments, provide anecdotal accounts of the "bariatric lifestyle" for preoperative patients, and comment on challenges with mental health and experiences of weight bias. Providers should become acquainted with the content commonly found in online groups and exercise caution in recommending these platforms to information-seeking patients. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C;

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  15. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  16. Economic analysis of residential solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-23

    A typical residential solar water heater, and typical cost and performance information are described briefly. The monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. Economic evaluations of solar water heaters are presented in increasingly complex levels of detail. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described. Methods for calculating the Payback Period for any non-typical solar water heater are described. This calculated Payback Period is then shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the puchaser of the system would receive for a typical set of economic conditions. A method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system would provide. (MHR)

  17. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS WHICH AFFECTING THE ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Wijaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High economic growth and sustainable process are main conditions for sustainability of economic country development. They are also become measures of the success of the country's economy. Factors which tested in this study are economic and non-economic factors which impacting economic development. This study has a goal to explain the factors that influence on macroeconomic Indonesia. It used linear regression modeling approach. The analysis result showed that Tax Amnesty, Exchange Rate, Inflation, and interest rate, they jointly can bring effect which amounted to 77.6% on economic growth whereas the remaining 22.4% is the influenced by other variables which not observed in this study. Keywords: tax amnesty, exchange rates, inflation, SBI and economic growth

  18. EU Funded Projects: from Financial to Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Lorena RADU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Investment projects represent the basis of economic and social development of our country. The investment is a cost that will most influence the future, but it is necessary that this influence should be not only positive, but also should exceed the investment efforts. There could be different sources of financing the investment, but lately, European grants are more and more accessed by various economic agents or institutions. To obtain European financing, the project must fulfill certain conditions and must follow certain economic, social and environmental indicators. Also, for some financing lines, is required the economic analysis preparation, in order to demonstrate that the project benefits to society are important and cover the investments efforts. Thus, economic analysis studies the project influence on macro-economic or regional level, and evaluates its contribution to the welfare of the region or local community. The present paper aims to analyze the most important and available theoretical resources and to provide practical examples for carrying out the economic analysis. In conclusion, economic analysis is an useful tool for each project evaluation, but the biggest barriers to its development are the lack of valid data and the reduced Romanian experience. Under these conditions, input data can be incorrectly estimated, resulting illusory and subjective project data. For a proper projects selection based on indicators of economic assessment, it must be developed a national, complete and complex guide.

  19. ECONOMIC EFFICENCY ANALYSIS OF THE INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Briciu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The investments represent a factor of economic growth and development on long term, and for this reason, the economic efficiency analysis of the investment projects is an important element in funding the strategic options and decisions. In this article it is realized an overview of the theoretical framework regarding the investments, the relevance of cost - benefit analysis for investment projects, the economic efficiency of investments and ways to increase economic efficiency and it is realized a case study on the determination and analysis of economic efficiency of investment projects within the agriculture entities. The research leads to two major categories of tangible results, on the one hand it realized a qualitative theoretical synthesis on investments and their efficiency and on the other hand, it exemplifies the calculation, analysis and interpretation of the indicators used in the investment projects in entity by agriculture field.

  20. Orthognathic surgery for children. Analysis of 88 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precious, D S; McFadden, L R; Fitch, S J

    1985-12-01

    A retrospective analysis of 88 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent surgical correction of their dentofacial deformities is presented. There were twice as many female as male patients and the most common deformities were of the skeletal Class II type. The LeFort I osteotomy was the most frequently performed operation. The effect of controlled hypotensive anesthesia on the duration of both anesthesia and surgery, estimated blood loss and incidence of transfusion is discussed. Surgery for the correction of dentofacial deformities can be performed on children and adolescent patients with little morbidity and few complications.

  1. The role of health economics in the evaluation of surgery and operative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    Dr Matthew Taylor is the director of York Health Economics Consortium and leads the Consortium's health technology assessment program. The work of York Health Economics Consortium involves empirical research in health economics for both the private and public sectors. Dr Taylor is the scientific lead for the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Economic and Methodological Unit and a former member of NICE's Public Health Advisory Committee. He is also managing director (Europe) of Minerva, an international network of health economics consultancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A basic analysis of cogeneration economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collet, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The economics of small scale gas turbine based cogeneration systems are analyzed on the basis of avoided costs for an electric utility exploiting such systems. This concerns a theoretical study in which the cogeneration system as a means for electricity generation is assumed to supplant the building

  3. A basic analysis of cogeneration economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collet, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The economics of small scale gas turbine based cogeneration systems are analyzed on the basis of avoided costs for an electric utility exploiting such systems. This concerns a theoretical study in which the cogeneration system as a means for electricity generation is assumed to supplant the building

  4. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Economic Development Level of Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone Using Principal Component Cluster Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunxiang; ZHAO; Xinrong; YAN; Xu; GUO

    2014-01-01

    Based on 10 years of statistics concerning economic development in Xi’an as the main part of Guanzhong- Tianshui Economic Zone, this article builds the main indicator system to reflect economic development. Using two mathematical methods( principal component analysis and cluster analysis),we carry out comprehensive evaluation analysis of the main economic indicators,point out the distribution differences in the economic development level in this region,and make classification,in order to provide a scientific basis for the decision- making body to lay down the relevant economic development strategies in accordance with the economic development level and geographical location.

  5. Generic modelling framework for economic analysis of battery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2011-01-01

    for battery cycle life estimation, since the cycle life plays a central role in the economic analysis of BS. To illustrate the modelling framework, a case study using a Sodium Sulfur Battery (NAS) system with 5-minute regulating service is performed. The economic performances of two dispatch scenarios, a so...

  6. Resources and energy: an economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Two long core chapters on oil and on nonfuel minerals, along with an exposition of the econometrics of primary commodities, give the reader a basic insight into the economic techniques and their uses. There are also chapters on coal, gas, and uranium, which include an overview of the Soviet energy sector and the Australian coal industry. The book introduces oil refining, petrochemicals, futures markets, inventories, capital costs, tin, stock-flow models, and other topics not usually handled in most economics text and reference books. There is also a short survey of iron and steel. The book concludes with the note that attempts to check inflation by monetary means in the presence of the kind of consumer and corporate debt that exists today is begging for catastrophe. Monetarism, like champagne, is good for pleasure, but very bad for business. 210 references, 47 figures, 41 tables.

  7. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC SHOCKS AFFECTING EURO AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS-CORNELIU MARINAS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explain the causes of economic shocks that are manifested in the euro area countries and to examine the possibilities of their adjustment in the context of a common monetary policy. The member countries of the European Monetary Union can not use its own exchange rate or monetary policy to neutralize the economic shocks. Therefore, they must find new ways to adjust the shocks such increase labor market flexibility and promoting reforms in the areas with significant structural rigidities. Common monetary policy also generates asymmetric shocks, as long as Member States are in different phases of the business cycle. In this study I have demonstrated that the ECB's monetary policy has favored Germany and has disadvantaged the countries confronted in present with problems of debt financing.

  8. Comprehensive Evaluation of Economic Indicators in Guangxi Economic Zone Based on Parallel Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangdong; ZENG; Chunxiang; ZHAO

    2015-01-01

    When making comprehensive evaluation on economy of an area,it is always hard to choose evaluation indicator system and composite indicators reasonably. This article uses parallel analysis to choose the number of principal component and classify indicators by R clustering and load rotation matrix to assess the economy of various cities in the economic zone and analyze economic status of each city,to provide a scientific basis for the government functional department to make correct decisions.

  9. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    push factor” for potential refugees seeking to flee the country, creates pressures for the country to trade in arms or engage in illicit economic...play basketball and reportedly was a fan of the NBA and Michael Jordan. He returned to Pyongyang in his late teens. Goals and Means These...treatment of returned refugees in North Korea. The Six-Party Agreement (United States, China, Russia, Japan, South Korea, and the DPRK) of February

  10. Economic analysis of freeway town of Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Junquan; Zhang Haixiang

    2009-01-01

    Freeway town in Yunnan is driving to promote the economic development ties.The development along the highway in the town will become the central point of the performance the high-intensive economy in space and will increase new economic growth point along highway the vertical and horizontal development of the area around the gradient the proliJeration Point and Area.The highway town will develop to speed up the urbanization process and China should accelerate the development of the freeway town.Encouraging farmers will shift the highway town where some good conditions will build to.form a regional economic development and growth.This will be the promotion an inevitable choice of progress and rational way of China's rural economic" and social prosperity.In particular,freeway town will bring more added value of other social services of accommodation and catering industry of wholesale and retail of transportation and warehousing.Highway town and agriculture industrialization development will increase agriculture industry chain to improve agricultural products value and will enhance agricultural efficiency in Yunnan.The concentration of the non-agricultural industries of the speedway town will form pillar industries of highway town and will promote of tertiary industry development of hotels of insurance of finance of business of sports of culture of education of communications of transportation.Rural areas of Yunnan will adjust to optimize the industrial structure.It is estimated that a total 10 construction of the highway town of Yunnan will increase 0.8-1 billion )man revenue each year.

  11. Economic analysis of spider web airline networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The distinct network organization, management, service and operating characteristics of US Southwest Airlines are key elements of its success compared with other airlines. As a network organization type, the spider web airline network has received more attention. In this paper, we analyzed the relation between the spider web airline network and spider web, and the structure of spider web airline network, built the assignment model of the spider web airline network,and investigated the economics concerned.

  12. Ecological-Economic Analysis of Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    R.K. Turner; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Barendregt, A.; Maltby, E.

    1998-01-01

    Wetlands all over the world have been lost or are threatened in spite of various international agreements and national policies. This is caused by: (1) the public nature of many wetlands products and services; (2) user externalities imposed on other stakeholders; and (3) policy intervention failures that are due to a lack of consistency among government policies in different areas (economics, environment, nature protection, physical planning, etc.). All three causes are related to information...

  13. An economic analysis of the Maricopa decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, L G; Greenberg, W

    1987-01-01

    In Arizona v. Maricopa County Medical Society the United States Supreme Court ruled in a 4-3 decision that the Maricopa Foundation for Medical Care, a nonprofit Arizona corporation, had violated Section 1 of the Sherman Act by engaging in a maximum price-fixing scheme. The Supreme Court in this decision, however, failed to consider the economic impact of the Maricopa Foundation on the cost and quality of health care. The Court's adoption of a per se approach in Maricopa can have a negative impact upon the competition which the antitrust laws are attempting to promote. By focusing only on the narrow aspect of price fixing, the Court ignored (1) the potential of the Maricopa Foundation to contain costs, (2) the potential competitive effect that the foundation may have on third-party carriers and organizations in the marketplace, (3) the relationship of maximum price fixing to economic performance, and (4) the nature of competition in the health care marketplace. This article describes the background of Maricopa as well as the Supreme Court decision. It describes foundations for medical care with special emphasis on the Maricopa Foundation and analyzes Maricopa from an economic rather than the traditional legal perspective, emphasizing how the two perspectives might differ. Attention is paid to the concept of maximum price fixing in the health care marketplace. The concluding section evaluates the Supreme Court decision.

  14. Economic Analysis of World Bank Education Projects and Project Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawda, Ayesha Yaqub; Moock, Peter; Gittinger, J. Price; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that World Bank education projects have a higher likelihood of being successful if at the time of appraisal, they underwent good quality economic analysis. Analysis shows a strong relationship between the quality of cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis and the quality of project outcomes. Economic…

  15. Scrutinizing The Epistemology of Islamic Economics: A Historical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurizal Ismail

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The first International Conference on Islamic Economics was held in Makkah, in 1976. Economists, jurists and scholars met together to discuss issues of Muslim ummah. However, there was many books written related to Islamic economics in the history of Islamic civilization, especially in the period of Abbasid caliphate. The fact, development of knowledge in Islamic medieval had established the epistemology of Islamic economics itself. Moreover, the epistemology is a study of the theory of knowledge, the source of knowledge, the application of knowledge and limitation of knowledge. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the contribution of earlier Muslim thinkers to the source of Islamic economics and to identify the epistemology of Islamic economics as proposed by the Muslim thinkers in medieval period. As a result, this paper will propose the epistemology of Islamic economics by integrating Islamic heritage and modern economics that is not conflict with Islamic principles and values. To achieve its objectives; this study employs qualitative research by applying content and descriptive analysis. The finding of this study is that the earlier Muslim thinkers have contributed to the construction of epistemology in Islamic economics. Then, to construct the genuine of Islamic economics, tawhid must be put as a core of Islamic economic epistemology that directs the sources of knowledge which are rooted firstly from revealed and then rational knowledge by using appropriate methods.

  16. Financial development and economic growth. An empirical analysis for Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Adamopoulos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between financial development and economicgrowth for Ireland for the period 1965-2007 using a vector error correction model (VECM.Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reverselytaking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial marketdevelopment is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock marketdevelopment on economic growth. The objective of this study was to examine the long-runrelationship between these variables applying the Johansen cointegration analysis takinginto account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Granger causality testsindicated that economic growth causes credit market development, while there is a bilateralcausal relationship between stock market development and economic growth. Therefore, itcan be inferred that economic growth has a positive effect on stock market development andcredit market development taking into account the positive effect of industrial productiongrowth on economic growth for Ireland.

  17. Economic analysis of the structure, Integration and Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic analysis of the structure, Integration and Performance of Rice Markets in Dekina Local Government Area of Kogi ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The data for the study were collected with the aid of a questionnaire.

  18. Economic Analysis of Small Scale Egg Production in Gombe Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Economic Analysis of Small Scale Egg Production in Gombe Local Government Area, ... Data were collected from 36 famers using simple random sampling technique.

  19. Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption of Rice ... Farming experience, household size, farm size and extension contact ... gender, market availability, education, extension contact, labour availability and farm size.

  20. American Airlines Propeller STOL Transport Economic Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransone, B.

    1972-01-01

    A Monte Carlo risk analysis on the economics of STOL transports in air passenger traffic established the probability of making the expected internal rate of financial return, or better, in a hypothetical regular Washington/New York intercity operation.

  1. environmental/economic analysis and recycling of wastes from air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    Environmental and economic analysis was performed on the wastes from Air Liquid Nigeria. Ltd. The company's ... show no serious adverse impact on the ambient air quality. There was serious ... transportation purposes. On account of the.

  2. Analysis of an economic order quantity and reorder point inventory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of an economic order quantity and reorder point inventory control model for Siba ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... In addition, a cost estimate was done to compare both her current model and the recommended models.

  3. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    found a secret weapon that has been a hit with North Koreans: South Korean “ Choco Pies,” a snack consisting of two large round cookies covered with...chocolate with a filling of marshmallow in between much like an Oreo cookie. Choco Pies have been so popular in the lunches provided to Kaesong...North Korea,” Reuters, June 4, 2009. 26 “N.Koreans Love Choco Pie,” Chosen Ilbo, May 23, 2009, English Internet edition. . North Korea: Economic

  4. Economic openness and economic growth: A cointegration analysis for ASEAN-5 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimis Vogiatzoglou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers three channels of economic openness, namely FDI, imports, and exports, and examines their short-run and long-run effects on the economic growth in the five founding member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN over the period from 1980 to 2014. Besides the impact on the economic growth, the authors analyze all possible causal interrelationships to discern patterns and directions of causality among FDI, imports, exports, and GDP. The quantitative analysis, which is based on the vector error correction co-integration framework, is conducted separately for each country in order to assess their individual experiences and allow for a comparative view. Although the precise details differ across countries, the findings indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between economic openness and GDP in all ASEAN-5 economies. FDI, imports and exports have a significantly positive short-run and long-run impact on the economic growth. Our results also show that export-led growth is the most important economic growth factor in most countries, followed by FDI-led growth. Another crucial finding is the bi-directional causality between exports and FDI across the ASEAN-5 countries. This indicates the presence of direct and indirect effects on GDP and a self-reinforcing process of causality between those two variables, which strengthens their impact on the economic growth.

  5. Role of socio-economic factors in cataract surgery utilization in JIPMER Pondicherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : This study was conducted in JIPMER & Kurusukuppam, Pondicherry. Objectives : To identify the socioeconomic factors influencing the utilization of cataract surgery & to identify the persons motivating the patients to utilize these services. This was a case-control study; cases were patients (age group 50-70 years who were operated in JIPMER for senile cataract without complications and one control was selected for each case. Controls were also of the same age group residing at Kurusukuppam with complaints of dimness of vision and who had not undergone cataract surgery, selected by random sampling. Both the groups were interviewed using a pretested interview schedule. Results : Subjects who were literate and with high school education and more and with income more than Rs.1050 (class III utilized the cataract surgery services more. In majority of cases, motivation for getting operated comes from relatives. Peer groups who have undergone the surgery before, were the predominant sources of health information about the surgery. Higher income & higher education affect the utilization significantly. Relatives & Previously operated peers play an important role.

  6. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  7. The science of ecological economics: a content analysis of Ecological Economics, 1989-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzadis, Valerie A; Castello, Leandro; Choi, Jaewon; Greenfield, Eric; Kim, Sung-kyun; Munsell, John; Nordman, Erik; Franco, Carol; Olowabi, Flavien

    2010-01-01

    The Ecological Economics journal is a primary source for inquiry on ecological economics and sustainability. To explore the scholarly pursuit of ecological economics, we conducted a content analysis of 200 randomly sampled research, survey, and methodological articles published in Ecological Economics during the 15-year period of 1989-2004. Results of the analysis were used to investigate facets of transdisciplinarity within the journal. A robust qualitative approach was used to gather and examine data to identify themes representing substantive content found within the span of sampled journal papers. The extent to which each theme was represented was counted as well as additional data, such as author discipline, year published, etc. Four main categories were revealed: (1) foundations (self-reflexive themes stemming from direct discussions about ecological economics); (2) human systems, represented by the themes of values, social indicators of well-being, intergenerational distribution, and equity; (3) biophysical systems, including themes, such as carrying capacity and scarcity, energy, and resource use, relating directly to the biophysical aspects of systems; and (4) policy and management encompassing themes of development, growth, trade, accounting, and valuation, as well as institutional structures and management. The results provide empirical evidence for discussing the future direction of ecological economic efforts.

  8. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SABAU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze economic efficiency in broilers fattening . In this purpose , the study was carried out at Breading Prod Commercial Company, Giarmata, Timis County . The economic and financial results of two series of broilers fattening have been comparatively analyzed based on the following specific indicators variable costs ( one day chicken supply , medicines, disinfectants , veterinary services , straw bed, feeding, fuels, electricity , watering , labor force , fixed costs ( rent, interest, fixed assets depreciation , communication and other taxes , total production costs , cost per marketed broiler, cost per square meter , cost per kg live weight , gross margin , incomes ( incomes coming from marketed broilers and subsidies , profit, profit rate , profit per marketed broiler, profit per square meter, profit per kg live weight , costs to 1,000 incomes and incomes to 1,000 costs. This comparison proved that the higher the chickens series size , the higher costs and incomes . The both fatenning series have profitable but the series S2 registered lower financial performances .

  9. Basis of economic analysis of Czech firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Chmelíková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When looking for connections between particular business’s activities, theory of financial management uses pyramidal system of indicators. The effectiveness of this tool is based on the appropriate choice of the top indicator. Its decomposition enables to manage firm’s processes from the bottommost organizational levels to the main firm’s mission with respect to the connections between par­ti­cu­lar processes. The aim of this paper was to identify appropriate indicator, which corresponds with creation of firm’s value and design its decomposition. To measure creation of firm’s value it is nowadays very popular to use indicator Economic Value Added (EVA. Though from the theoretical point of view EVA is seen as a superior performance metric, the results of some empirical studies do not support this claim. That is why the information content of EVA was controlled in the concrete conditions of Czech Economy within this article. The results showed eligibility of using EVA in Czech firms and enabled to choose it as the top indicator in the pyramidal system. Ambition of further research is to design a complex of indicators offering a comprehensive economic view on the firm’s per­for­man­ce.

  10. Interdisciplinary Success Of Law And Economy: Economic Analysis Of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barković

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis of law defines as an application of economic theory and economic methods in studies of forming, structure, process and influence of the law and legal institution. Although many comment that it is the question of a new scientific discipline or contemporary intellectual movement, the economic analysis of law reaches even the classics of economic thought Adam Smith and David Hume but the real recognition of the analysis was the publishing of the famous article of Ronald Coase (1960 “Problem of Public Expense” . Here he discusses how the incentives for damage reduction and various negativities come from the allocation of property rights. The aim of this work is to present an economic analysis of law as an interdisciplinary success of two great fields – law and economy, i.e. to present the way on which economy helps to understand law in a new way. Realizing it, the economy uses mathematically precise theories (e.g. price theory, game theory etc. and empirically firm methods (statistics and econometrically to analyse the impact of prices, i.e. of sanctions on behaviour. The article shows basic economic analyses of law which especially cite the contract law and balance law.

  11. From partial to total economic analysis. Five applications to environmental and energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, T.

    2006-05-04

    The studies presented in this thesis address the consequences of market distortions of governmental policies - predominantly in the area of environmental and energy policy. The studies cover different economic aggregation levels: The first study aims at investigating firm-level effects. Thus, the results refer only to a small number of well-defined economic entities, e.g. electricity supply companies in Germany. Subsequently, issues - such as the evaluation of efficiency effects of the European Emissions Trading system - are addressed on a multi-sectoral and multi-regional level, but still only one market is considered. Thereupon, the scope of investigation is broadened by interactions of different markets - e.g. as in the case of the economic evaluation of renewable energy promotion strategies. Finally, a general equilibrium analysis of a European nuclear phase-out scenario covers all economic feed-backs on the national and international level. (orig.) 5.

  12. Economic analysis of basiliximab in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, P A; Balshaw, R; Krueger, H; Baladi, J F

    2001-06-15

    Basiliximab is a chimeric monoclonal directed against the alpha-chain of the interleukin-2 receptor. International studies have shown that it is highly effective in preventing acute rejection in patients receiving Neoral, and causes no measurable incremental toxicity, but its economic value remains unknown. This study employed an economic model to examine the potential economic benefit of basiliximab. Parameter estimates were derived from a randomized, prospective, double-blind study conducted in 21 renal transplant centers in seven countries in which 380 adult primary allograft recipients were randomized within center to receive basiliximab (20 mg i.v.) on days 0 and 4 or placebo in addition to dual immunosuppression with Neoral and steroids. Key clinical events included primary hospitalization, immunosuppressive drug use, patient and graft survival, graft rejection, treatment of rejection, dialysis, and repeat hospitalization. Health resources were valued via a comprehensive electronic cost dictionary, based upon a detailed economic evaluation of renal transplantation in Canada. Medication costs were calculated from hospital pharmacy acquisition costs; basiliximab was assessed a zero cost. The average estimated cost per patient for the first year after transplant was $55,393 (Canadian dollars) for placebo and $50,839 for basiliximab, rising to $141,690 and $130,592, respectively, after 5 years. A principal component of the cost in both groups was accrued during the initial transplant hospitalization ($14,663 for standard therapy and $14,099 for basiliximab). An additional $15,852 and $14,130 was attributable to continued care, graft loss, and dialysis in the two groups, whereas follow-up hospitalization consumed an additional $15,538 for placebo and $13,916 for basiliximab. The mean incremental cost of dialysis was $5,397 for placebo compared with $3,821 for basiliximab, whereas incremental costs of graft loss were $2,548 compared with $2,295 in the two treatment

  13. Are virtual planning and guided surgery for head and neck reconstruction economically viable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Daniel Fritz; Simon, Christian; Hoarau, Remy; Pasche, Philippe; Broome, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Virtual planning and guided surgery with or without prebent or milled plates are becoming more and more common for mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flaps (FFFs). Although this excellent surgical option is being used more widely, the question of the additional cost of planning and cutting-guide production has to be discussed. In capped payment systems such additional costs have to be offset by other savings if there are no special provisions for extra funding. Our study was designed to determine whether using virtual planning and guided surgery resulted in time saved during surgery and whether this time gain resulted in self-funding of such planning through the time saved. All consecutive cases of FFF surgery were evaluated during a 2-year period. Institutional data were used to determine the price of 1 minute of operative time. The time for fibula molding, plate adaptation, and insetting was recorded. During the defined period, we performed 20 mandibular reconstructions using FFFs, 9 with virtual planning and guided surgery and 11 freehand cases. One minute of operative time was calculated to cost US $47.50. Multiplying this number by the time saved, we found that the additional cost of virtual planning was reduced from US $5,098 to US $1,231.50 with a prebent plate and from US $6,980 to US $3,113.50 for a milled plate. Even in capped health care systems, virtual planning and guided surgery including prebent or milled plates are financially viable. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic and clinical evaluation of fondaparinux vs. enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis following general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias-Eisner, Robin; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Franklin, Meg; Lunacsek, Orsolya E; Happe, Laura E

    2009-05-01

    Patients undergoing general surgical procedures are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Compliance rates with established guidelines for VTE thromboprophylaxis in patients at moderate-to-high risk are notably low. Recent literature has demonstrated that fondaparinux is associated with lower costs and fewer VTEs than enoxaparin in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery (MOS), but data are limited in patients undergoing general surgery. This study was conducted to evaluate the cost implications and relative real-world effectiveness of fondaparinux vs. enoxaparin in general surgery patients. Data were obtained from inpatient billing records from over 500 hospitals using Premier's Perspective Comparative Database. Patients hospitalized for general surgery between July 1, 2003 and January 31, 2006 were eligible for inclusion. Eligible patients were included if they received fondaparinux or enoxaparin after their general surgery date. Patients were excluded if they received both anticoagulants on their first day of therapy, were surgery date, or did not have data 6 months prior and 1 month post hospitalization. Included patients were stratified into two cohorts based on their first anticoagulant, fondaparinux or enoxaparin. Patients were matched in each group on 1:1 case-control matching based on propensity scores. A total of 5364 patients were included (n = 2682 for each cohort) from 326 unique hospitals. Average total costs per patient for the fondaparinux group were significantly lower than the enoxaparin group ($15 156 vs. 17 741, p bleeding events between the cohorts were observed (p = 0.6047), and no significant differences in all-cause inpatient death were noted (p = 0.3673). Fondaparinux was associated with significantly lower costs and fewer VTEs compared to enoxaparin without an increase in bleed rates or all-cause inpatient mortality. The findings from this study are limited by the retrospective study design and should only be generalized

  15. On One Application of Fourier Analysis in Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimov, Abdumalik; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin

    In present paper, we discuss the spectral methods of measurement of the degree of speech and/or quality of sound by comparing the coefficient of performance indicators depending on energy distributions, ratio of energy of the fundamental tone and energy of overtones. Such a method is very efficient for string oscillation with different initial conditions and it is useful for justification of applications of Fourier analysis in plastic surgery in treatment of some medical diseases.

  16. SINGULAR SPECTRUM ANALYSIS: METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATION TO ECONOMICS DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein HASSANI; Anatoly ZHIGLJAVSKY

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology of singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and demonstrate that it is a powerful method of time series analysis and forecasting, particulary for economic time series. The authors consider the application of SSA to the analysis and forecasting of the Iranian national accounts data as provided by the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of lran.

  17. An economic analysis of migration in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M J; Ladman, J R

    1978-07-01

    This paper analyzes internal migration in Mexico over the 1960-70 period. A model of the determinants of migration is specified and estimated for aggregated interstate migration flows. Results show that distance serves as a significant deterrent to migration, that higher destination earning levels are attractive to migrants, and that regions with high unemployment rates experience lower rates of inmigration. An unanticipated finding is that regions with higher earning levels have greater rates of outmigration. The data are disaggregated to examine separate migration relationships for each state. The results are that distance is a lesser deterrent for those migrants with more accessible alternatives, that higher earning levels reduce the deterring effects of distance, and that regions with higher earning levels have lower associated elasticities of migration. It is concluded that economic factors have played a crucial role in internal migration and thus in the changing occupational and geographic structure of the Mexican labor force.

  18. Economic analysis of large solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaiss, Helmut; Nitsch, Joachim; Geyer, Michael

    1987-11-01

    The current status and future potential of solar-tower, parabolic-reflector/Stirling-engine, channel-collector, and photovoltaic solar power plants of capacity 10 MWe or more are discussed. Consideration is given to the geographic and technological limitations, initial investment and operating costs, presently operating facilities, market openings, and critical technological challenges controlling future expansion. Numerical data are presented in tables and graphs, and it is concluded that solar power production will soon become economically competitive. It is suggested that the channel collector, at present the most mature and cost-efficient technology, has the least potential for further improvement, and that parabolic/Stirling and photovoltaic systems are probably better suited to smaller applications than to large-scale commercial power production.

  19. Evaluation of medical and health economic effectiveness of bariatric surgery (obesity surgery versus conservative strategies in adult patients with morbid obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity with its associated medical, psychological, social, and economic complications is considered a chronic, multifactorial disorder. Given the magnitude of the challenge obesity, there is a clear need for preventive as well as therapeutic measures and strategies on an individual and a public health level. Objectives: The goal of this health technology assessment (HTA-report is to summarise the current literature on bariatric surgery, to evaluate their medical effectiveness/efficacy and cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal implications of these procedures in comparison to conventional therapies and compared to each other. Methods: Relevant publications are identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed on 13.11.2006 and an update conducted on 12.11.2007. In addition, a manual search of identified reference lists is conducted. The present report includes German and English literature published since 2001 and targeting adult subjects with morbid obesity (body mass index (BMI >=40 kg/m² or BMI >=35 kg/m² with severe comorbidities. The methodological quality of studies included is assessed according to pre-defined quality criteria by two independent scientists. Results: Among 5910 retrieved publications, 25 medical articles, as well as seven health economic studies meet the inclusion criteria. The medical studies show a superior weight loss following bariatric surgery compared to conventional therapy. Malabsorptive procedures lead to a more profound weight loss than purely restrictive procedures. Weight reduction in general is accompanied by a reduced frequency of comorbidities (mostly diabetes type 2. The evidence is not sufficient to quantify these effects for individual procedures or to assess long-term outcomes. However, recent studies show a profound survival benefit for surgically treated patients up to a period of eleven years. The economic studies illustrate that bariatric surgery is

  20. STOCK MARKET DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazakidis Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth for Greece for the period 1978-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether stock market development causes economic growth taking into account the negative effect of interest rate on stock market development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between the examined variables applying the Johansen co-integration analysis. To achieve this objective unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen co-integration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are co-integrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between stock market development and economic growth. A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induced an increase of stock market index 0.41% in Greece, while an increase of interest rate per 1% induced a relative decrease of stock market index per 1.42% in Greece. The estimated coefficient of error correction term was statistically significant and had a negative sign, which confirmed that there was not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. The results of Granger causality tests indicated that there is a unidirectional causality between stock market development and economic growth with direction from economic growth to stock market development and a unidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and interest rate with direction from economic growth to interest rate. Therefore, it can be inferred that economic growth has a direct positive effect on stock market development while interest rate has a negative effect on stock market development and economic growth respectively.

  1. A meta-analysis of economic diplomacy and its effect on international economic flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.V. Moons (Selwyn); P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis meta-analysis deals with 29 empirical studies on the trade and investment impact of economic diplomacy (embassies, consulates and other diplomatic facilities, investment and export promotion offices, trade and state visits). The meta-regression results suggest that the significance

  2. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF LOGGING CONTRACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abilio Donizetti de Morais Filho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the financial conditions of forestry contractors, concerning life quality aspects, condition of work and equipments, operational costs, and economic credit to invest in new technologies. Five companies had been analyzed, with an annual income between US$ 400,000.00 and US$ 1,720,000.00, with an average of US$ 950,000.00. The number of employees varied between 33 and 181, and the companies were classified in terms of size as: one small, two average, and two big. The main difficulties to invest in new machines were high financial taxes, more than 12% an year, and a lack of long term contracts to guarantee the payment capability. It was observed that the contractors did not consider the capital remuneration and a correct depreciation of machines, resulting in an average machine life higher than 10 years. The final conclusions were that the costs were above the paid values for the services, when computed the depreciation and capital remuneration, with negative results in the financial analyzes of three companies. Finally, the mechanization process increased the workers life quality, however, the annual income was around US$ 2,112.00 per worker, approximately 39% lower than the average Brazilian population.

  3. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF MICROALGAE BASED BIOGAS COGENERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Akkaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, economic analysis of the cogeneration system using the biogas produced in the anaerobic reactor feed by microalgae has been performed. This system consists of the following main parts; pool open channel for growing microalgae, pre-concentration section, high-rate anaerobic reactor for producing biogas and cogeneration section that biogas is converted into electricity and heat energy. An economic model to investigate the viability of such a system has been given. The present worth of the net profit, the annual equivalent, rate of return, pay-back time are considered as an economic evaluation criteria. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been performed in order to show the effects of technical and economic parameters on the system economy.

  5. Socio-economic analysis in the transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This compendium is intended to be a tool for students in conducting socio-economic appraisals in the transport sector following the recommendations made by the Danish Manual for Socio-economic Appraisal (DMT, 2003). The appraisal process is in this compendium outlined as a step-by-step process...... which is adaptable to all types of infrastructure related problems, and which can be used for decision support on both the administrative as well as the political level. In the administrative decision process the socio-economic analysis provides a foundation for a systematic examination of which project...

  6. Generic modelling framework for economic analysis of battery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2011-01-01

    Deregulated electricity markets provide opportunities for Battery Systems (BS) to participate in energy arbitrage and ancillary services (regulation, operating reserves, contingency reserves, voltage regulation, power quality etc.). To evaluate the economic viability of BS with different business...... for battery cycle life estimation, since the cycle life plays a central role in the economic analysis of BS. To illustrate the modelling framework, a case study using a Sodium Sulfur Battery (NAS) system with 5-minute regulating service is performed. The economic performances of two dispatch scenarios, a so...

  7. Economic Analysis in Series-Distillation Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO and multi-stage flash (MSF cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. Therefore, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas the outgoing salt concentration was 1.5% and 7%, respectively. Distillation was performed at 439 K and 722 kPa for both brackish water feed and seawater feed. Water costs of the various conditions were calculated for brackish water and seawater feeds using optimum conditions considered as 25 and 20 stages, respectively. For brackish water at a temperature difference of 0.96 K, the energy requirement is 2.0 kWh/m3. At this condition, the estimated water cost is $0.39/m3 achieved with 10,000,000 gal/day distillate, 30-year bond, 5% interest rate, and $0.05/kWh electricity. For seawater at a temperature difference of 0.44 K, the energy requirement is 3.97 kWh/m3 and the estimated water cost is $0.61/m3. Greater efficiency of the vapor compression system is achieved by connecting multiple evaporators in series, rather than the traditional parallel arrangement. The efficiency results from the gradual increase of salinity in each stage of the series arrangement in comparison to parallel. Calculations using various temperature differences between boiling brine and condensing steam show the series arrangement has the greatest improvement at lower temperature differences. Keywords: desalination, dropwise condensation, mechanical-vapor compression

  8. Analysis of economic impacts of the Hangzhou-Ningbo expressway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘南

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the effects of the Hangzhou-Ningbo Expressway (in Zhejiang Province of the People' s Republic of China) on the region' s economic development. An econometric model shows the estimated contributions attributable to the expressway have increased year by year. And statistical data indicate that the Hangzhou-Ningbo Expressway has promoted to some extent the region's economic devel-opment in various aspects.

  9. Analysis of economic impacts of the Hangzhou-Ningbo expressway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘南

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the effects of the Hangzhou-Ningbo Expressway (in Zhejiang Province of the People's Republic of China) on the region's economic development. An econometric model shows the estimated contributions attributable to the expressway have increased year by year. And statistical data indicate that the Hangzhou-Ningbo Expressway has promoted to some extent the region's economic development in various aspects.

  10. Financial liberalization and economic growth : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bumann, Silke; Hermes, Niels; Lensink, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a systematic analysis of the empirical literature on the relationship between financial liberalization and economic growth by conducting a meta-analysis, based on 441 t-statistics reported in 60 empirical studies. We focus on explaining the heterogeneity of results in our sample

  11. Compendium of Operations Research and Economic Analysis Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    applications. 86-23. Economic Analysis Railway Operacions at the Defense Construction Supply Center (DCSC) (June 1986) The objective of this analysis was...from four DSCs and their totals. First, with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), correlation matrices were developed to determine

  12. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SUGAR BEAT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Kanisek

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Croatian quota of 180.000 tones of sugar beet per year is approved for export to EU countries. For that amount of sugar it is necessary to produce about 30.000 ha of sugar beet. Sugar beet production requires deep and fertile soils, and crop rotation requirement is at least five year. Therefore, Slavonia and Baranya don’̉t have enough areas under sugar beet. An additional problem is so called “sugar reform” applied by EU aiming to decrease price of sugar produced from sugar beet root and its equalization to sugar cane price. Consequences of this movement will be decreasing of sugar beet domestic redemption price. In that way, sugar beet production will be increased only within producers with relative good soils, suitable mechanization and knowledge. The research shows the results of production sugar beet on family farm of Vukovar – Srijem County on 21 ha. Technical and technological process includes 35 working operations spending 26.9 hours/ha of mechanization and 65.8 hours/ha of labor. Total costs amount to 15.947,05 kn/ha. Producers paid for seed 1.405,44 kn/ha or 9.4% and for 1.100 kg of fertilizers 2.217,50 kn/ha or 14.8% of total costs. Significant values are also costs for plant protection (9 l/ha being 15.2% of total cost. Mechanization fee is 5.070,96 kn/ha with share of 33.9% what indicates that this is the most important element in total costs, partly as a consequence of increased distance between arable land and farm. Total value of production is 20.759,59 kn/ha, with yields of the root (70.30 t/ha and government subsidies. Amount of 1.068,82 kg root is produced per hour of human labour; while 0.94 hour of human labour is necessary per tone of products. Economic coefficient is 1.36. Profit of 36.67 kn is achieved on 100 invested kunas in production process.

  13. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  14. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  15. Insurer’s activity as object of economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Poplavskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the substantiation of theoretical fundamentals of insurer’s analysis and peculiarities of its implementation. The attention has been focused on the important role of economic analysis in economic science which is confirmed by its active use in research and practical orientation. The author summarizes the classification and principles of insurer’s activity analysis, supplements it with specific principles for insurer’s environment, publicity and risk-orientation which enable increasingly to take into account the peculiarities of insurance relations. The paper pays attention to the specification of elements of analysis and its key directions including the analysis of insurer’s financing, the analysis of insurance operations and the analysis of investment activity which will allow the effective functioning of risk management system.

  16. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COWPEA PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abba M. Wakili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a stochastic frontier production function analysis to examine the productivity and technical efficiency of cowpea production in Adamawa State, Nigeria and also to identify the factors affecting the technical inefficiency using farm level survey data collected from 150 cowpea farmers selected using multi stage sampling technique. Findings from the analysis show that cowpea farmers operated on a very small scale and are profitable. The productivity analysis shows that agro chemicals, fertilizer, farm size and labor were all positively and significantly related to the technical efficiency. The return to scale (RTS of 0.9904 shows that cowpea production was in the rational stage of the production surface. The technical efficiency varies from 0.1094 to 0.9568 with a mean technical efficiency of 0.6649, indicating that farmers were operating below the efficiency frontier. Thus, in the short run, there is a scope to increase output by 34%. The inefficiency model revealed that education of the farmers; extension visits and access to credit are the main factors that affect technical efficiency of the farmers.

  17. Multispectral tissue analysis and classification towards enabling automated robotic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Brian; Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Krieger, Axel; Kang, Jin U.; Kim, Peter C. W.

    2014-02-01

    Accurate optical characterization of different tissue types is an important tool for potentially guiding surgeons and enabling automated robotic surgery. Multispectral imaging and analysis have been used in the literature to detect spectral variations in tissue reflectance that may be visible to the naked eye. Using this technique, hidden structures can be visualized and analyzed for effective tissue classification. Here, we investigated the feasibility of automated tissue classification using multispectral tissue analysis. Broadband reflectance spectra (200-1050 nm) were collected from nine different ex vivo porcine tissues types using an optical fiber-probe based spectrometer system. We created a mathematical model to train and distinguish different tissue types based upon analysis of the observed spectra using total principal component regression (TPCR). Compared to other reported methods, our technique is computationally inexpensive and suitable for real-time implementation. Each of the 92 spectra was cross-referenced against the nine tissue types. Preliminary results show a mean detection rate of 91.3%, with detection rates of 100% and 70.0% (inner and outer kidney), 100% and 100% (inner and outer liver), 100% (outer stomach), and 90.9%, 100%, 70.0%, 85.7% (four different inner stomach areas, respectively). We conclude that automated tissue differentiation using our multispectral tissue analysis method is feasible in multiple ex vivo tissue specimens. Although measurements were performed using ex vivo tissues, these results suggest that real-time, in vivo tissue identification during surgery may be possible.

  18. SWOT analysis in Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamati, Payman; ashraf Eghbali, Ali; Zarghampour, Manijeh

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim of identifying and evaluating the internal and external factors, affecting the Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences and propose some of related strategies to senior managers. We used a combined quantitative and qualitative methodology. Our study population consisted of personnel (18 individuals) at Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center. Data-collection tools were the group discussions and the questionnaires. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats) analysis. 18 individuals participated in sessions, consisting of 8 women (44.4%) and 10 men (55.6%). The final scores were 2.45 for internal factors (strength-weakness) and 2.17 for external factors (opportunities-threats). In this study, we proposed 36 strategies (10 weakness-threat strategies, 10 weakness-opportunity strategies, 7 strength-threat strategies, and 9 strength-opportunity strategies). The current status of Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center is threatened weak. We recommend the center to implement the proposed strategies.

  19. SWOT analysis in Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Salamati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the aim of identifying and evaluating the internal and external factors, affecting the Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences and propose some of related strategies to senior managers. We used a combined quantitative and qualitative methodology. Our study population consisted of personnel (18 individuals at Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center. Data-collection tools were the group discussions and the questionnaires. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats analysis. 18 individuals participated in sessions, consisting of 8 women (44.4% and 10 men (55.6%. The final scores were 2.45 for internal factors (strength-weakness and 2.17 for external factors (opportunities-threats. In this study, we proposed 36 strategies (10 weakness-threat strategies, 10 weakness-opportunity strategies, 7 strength-threat strategies, and 9 strength-opportunity strategies. The current status of Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center is threatened weak. We recommend the center to implement the proposed strategies.

  20. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Choi, Young Myung; Kim, Hwa Sup; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Kee Hwan; Kim, Seung Su; Chae, Kyu Nam

    1996-12-01

    The major contents in this study are as follows : (1) Efforts are made to examine the role of nuclear energy considering environmental regulation. An econometric model for energy demand and supply including carbon tax imposition is established. (2) Analysis for the learning effect of nuclear power plant operation is performed. The study is focused to measure the effect of technology homogeneity on the operation performance. (3) A preliminary capital cost of the KALIMER is estimated by using cost computer program, which is developed in this study. (author). 36 refs.,46 tabs., 15 figs.

  1. Is Day of Surgery Associated With Adverse Clinical and Economic Outcomes Following Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Matthew R; Perfetti, Dean C; Naziri, Qais; Maheshwari, Aditya V; Paulino, Carl B; Mont, Michael A

    2017-08-01

    As orthopedics transition to value-based purchasing, hospitals and providers are incentivized to identify inefficiencies of care delivery. In our experience, weekends are characterized by decreased staffing of ancillary services to coordinate patient discharges, which can lead to prolonged hospital stays for many of our primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) admissions. We identified 115,053 patients who underwent primary TKA on a weekday between 2009 and 2013 in New York State. We used mixed effects regression models to compare length of stay (LOS), 90-day readmission, and cost according to the day of TKA. Mean LOS was significantly higher for surgeries performed on Wednesday (P < .001), Thursday (P < .001), and Friday (P < .001). There was no significant difference in 90-day readmission risk according to day of surgery. Mean cost was significantly higher for surgeries performed on Wednesday (P < .001), Thursday (P < .001), and Friday (P < .001). When LOS was held constant across every day of the week, the mean cost of TKA decreased by $247 for Wednesday, $627 for Thursday, and $394 for Friday. Primary TKA performed later in the week is associated with an increased LOS and increased costs of admission, but a similar risk of 90-day readmission. Preferential scheduling of primary TKA cases early in the week, as well as the development of standardized clinical care pathways with appropriate weekend staffing of social work and rehabilitation services, could help to decrease the daily variation in LOS and increase the value of TKA episodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic Analysis of Edirne Village Development Cooperatives Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. H. Inan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the management activities of Edirne Village Development Cooperatives’ Union were evaluated and revenues and costs required for economic analysis were calculated and profit and loss income statement was estimated for the years 2002, 2003 and 2004. Data for Gross Margin Analysis were supplied from income and loss statement and thus Table comprising gross margins was formed covering all the activities of The Union.Gross Margin Analysis was made in order to determine economic performance of The Union by means of the data obtained from economic results of the operational activities in the years 2002, 2003 and 2004. The Union should develop its present activities so as to survive in the future. Therefore, suggestions were made for the expansion of the profitable activities and to improve nonprofitable activities in order to make them profitable.

  3. Analysis of the drilling sound in maxillo-facial surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Gosselin, Florian; Taha, Farid

    2009-01-01

    Auditory feedback can have a great potential in surgical simulators that aim at training skills associated to the correct interpretation of acoustic information. Here, we present a preliminary analysis of the sound that is produced by the drilling procedure in a maxillo-facial surgery when...... performed by expert surgeons. The motivation of this work is to find relevant acoustic parameters that allow for an efficient synthesis method of the drilling sound and to set the basis of the audio component in the simulator so that expert surgical drilling can effectively be conveyed to users...

  4. Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis on Regional Economic Disparity of Northeast Economic Region in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fei; Zhou Chenghu

    2009-01-01

    Popular regional inequality indexes such as variation coefficient and Gini coefficient can only reveal overall inequal-it),, and have limited ability in revealing spatial dependence or spatial agglomeration.Recently some methods of exploratory spatial data analysis such as spatial autocorrelation have provid-ed effective tools to analyze spatial agglomeration and cluster, which can reveal the pattern of regional inequality.This article attempts to use spatial autocorrelation at county level to get refined spatial pattern of regional disparity in Chinese northeast economic region over 2000-2006 (2001 absent).The result in-dicates that the basic trend of regional economy is an increasing concentration of growth among counties in northeast economic region, and there are two geographical clusters of poorer coun-ties including the counties in western Liaoning Province and adjacent counties in Inner Mongolia, poorer counties of Heihe, Qiqihar and Suihua in Heilongjiang Province.This article also reveals that we can use the methods of exploratory spatial data analysis as the supplementary analysis methods in regional eco-nomic analysis.

  5. Granger Causality, Exogeneity, Cointegration, and Economic Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Pettenuzzo; Halbert White

    2010-01-01

    Policy analysis has long been a main interest of Clive Granger's. Here, we present a framework for economic policy analysis that provides a novel integration of several fundamental concepts at the heart of Granger's contributions to time-series analysis. We work with a dynamic structural system analyzed by White and Lu (2010) with well-defined causal meaning; under suitable conditional exogeneity restrictions, Granger causality coincides with this structural notion. The system contains target...

  6. [Robot technology in the Italian Health-CARE system: cost-efficacy economic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulino, Gaetano; Antonucci, Michele; Palermo, Giuseppe; D'Agostino, Daniele; D'Addessi, Alessandro; Racioppi, Marco; Pinto, Francesco; Sacco, Emilio; Bassi, Pierfrancesco

    2012-01-01

    Robotic technology is used in multiple fields of surgery, especially radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the introduction of robotic technology in the Italian Public Heath-care context, from the perspective of the Health Technology Assessment (HTA). An economic analysis that compares the costs and effectiveness of the method was developed. Data were compared with those of the most important international literature, analyzing structural and organizational problems related to the method. A systematic review of literature on tertiary literature (Health Technology Assessment reports) and secondary (systematic reviews) published since 2002 was conducted. The review was also conducted on more recent primary literature regarding the clinical effectiveness and the economic analysis in the fields of surgery where Da Vinci robot is most promising. 18 studies were selected out of a total of 65 evaluated. The "Break-Even Point" (BEP) is the minimum number of cases needed to be treated in order to achieve a balance between costs and revenues, below which the system is losing money. It was calculated that the total fixed costs are € 378,000 and variable costs are € 3,810 per surgery. Considering that the current value of DRG (Diagnosis-Related Group) refunded by the public Health-care system is actually € 4,553, the BEP would be achieved performing 508 surgeries, so that the robotic technology does not generate neither profit nor loss. It is not possible to demonstrate the superiority of robotic surgery in terms of efficacy. The robotic surgery is safe and effective only if performed by surgical teams with relevant experience. Considering the reported case of an Italian University Hospital with public Health-care system refund, the BEP target of 508 radical prostatectomies could be achieved after a few years. The use of the robot in multiple fields on one hand shortens recovery time costs, but on the other hand

  7. The Analysis of International Migration towards Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdous Alam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study discusses the analysis of international migration towards economic growth in Bangladesh. International migration refers to the cross-border movement of people from a mother country to a location outside that mother country, with the purpose of taking up higher income employment, better living conditions, higher education get access to civic amenities and conducting a daily existence there for an extended period of time. The exports of labor, human capital, play a major role to minimize the poverty level in Bangladesh. In the last four decades, Bangladesh exports the huge number of labors abroad for economic growth through remittances. Remittances affect poverty eradication most directly by increasing the income of households which have a family member working abroad. Because income from remittances is usually larger than that which could have been earned by migrants they stayed at home. Approach: The aim of this study is to highlight the policy implications for the maximization of international migration and the analysis of economic growth in Bangladesh. The data for analysis is perceived from the secondary sources. The significant manipulations for acquired data are migration of employment and remittances for economic growth in Bangladesh. Results: Migration contributed for the development of macro and micro level in Bangladesh. Conclusion: There would be potential benefits to world's poor if more international attention were focused on integrating migration policy to within the larger global dialogue economic development and poverty reduction. Strong institutions and good policies will enhance the benefits of human capital migration for Bangladesh.

  8. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  9. Two- and tridimensional analysis of periapical repair after endodontic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanomaru-FIlho, Mário; Jorge, Érica G; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane M; Reis, José Mauricio S; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Gonçalves, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate repair after endodontic surgery using two- and tridimensional imaging methods. Periapical radiographs and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) were performed before the surgeries and after 48 h (baseline), 4 months, and 8 months. The area (square millimeters) of periapical lesions in CBCT and in radiographs was compared regarding the percentage of repair. In the CBCT, multiple areas were converted to volume. Repeated-measures analyses and paired t tests (α = 0.05) were used to compare the methods. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the periods of evaluation within the CBCT volumetric analysis. Bland-Altman plots were used to compare the methods, based on the 95 % limits of agreement for the difference of the means. Baseline showed a larger lesion volume (192.54 mm(3)) than 4-month (79.79 mm(3)) and 8-month (47.51 mm(3)) periods. No differences were found in the percentage of repair in the first 4 months and after 8 months. The volumetric analysis showed a higher percentage of repair when the first and last 4 months were compared. No differences were found in the percentage of repair by area in the CBCTs. Repair of 73 % was obtained after 8 months. Similar results were observed by the Bland-Altman agreement analyses. The percentage of repair varied after 8 months, when lower values were obtained by volumetric evaluation. Considering the outcome at follow-up periods over 4 months, tridimensional evaluation by CBCT is more capable of determining the absence of periapical bone repair than conventional two-dimensional radiographs. Therefore, the use of CBCT would be suggested only for more complex cases with slower evolution of repair or for the association of factors that make prognosis difficult after surgery.

  10. [Oral anticoagulation after major hip or knee replacement surgery: a process-driven managerial pharmacoeconomic analysis in German hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, T; Neumann, K; Klapper, U; Messer, I; Werner, A; Seidel, U; Röleke, D

    2008-05-01

    The thrombin inhibitor dabigatranetexilat is used for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism after total hip or knee replacement surgery (THR/TKR). Patients can take it orally in hospitals. In a managerial pharmacoeconomic analysis of six German acute-care hospitals and six German rehabilitation hospitals, the use of dabigatranetexilat was compared with the use of low-molecular-weight heparins. The analysis showed that the new drug led to an economic advantage for an acute-care hospital of 2.43 euro per patient per day. In a rehabilitation hospital, the use of dabigatranetexilat led to an economic advantage of 1.40 euro per patient per day. These results have direct implications for drug decisions in hospitals. To demonstrate that fact, the price difference between dabigatranetexilat and low-molecular-weight heparins was derived to lead exactly to their"economic neutrality" from the hospital's point of view.

  11. Risk factors for incidental durotomy during lumbar surgery: a retrospective study by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhixiang; Shao, Peng; Sun, Qizhao; Zhao, Dong

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to use a prospectively collected data to evaluate the rate of incidental durotomy (ID) during lumbar surgery and determine the associated risk factors by using univariate and multivariate analysis. We retrospectively reviewed 2184 patients who underwent lumbar surgery from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2011 at a single hospital. Patients with ID (n=97) were compared with the patients without ID (n=2019). The influences of several potential risk factors that might affect the occurrence of ID were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The overall incidence of ID was 4.62%. Univariate analysis demonstrated that older age, diabetes, lumbar central stenosis, posterior approach, revision surgery, prior lumber surgery and minimal invasive surgery are risk factors for ID during lumbar surgery. However, multivariate analysis identified older age, prior lumber surgery, revision surgery, and minimally invasive surgery as independent risk factors. Older age, prior lumber surgery, revision surgery, and minimal invasive surgery were independent risk factors for ID during lumbar surgery. These findings may guide clinicians making future surgical decisions regarding ID and aid in the patient counseling process to alleviate risks and complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of economic consequence methodology for process risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadakbar, Omid; Khan, Faisal; Imtiaz, Syed

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive methodology for economic consequence analysis with appropriate models for risk analysis of process systems is proposed. This methodology uses loss functions to relate process deviations in a given scenario to economic losses. It consists of four steps: definition of a scenario, identification of losses, quantification of losses, and integration of losses. In this methodology, the process deviations that contribute to a given accident scenario are identified and mapped to assess potential consequences. Losses are assessed with an appropriate loss function (revised Taguchi, modified inverted normal) for each type of loss. The total loss is quantified by integrating different loss functions. The proposed methodology has been examined on two industrial case studies. Implementation of this new economic consequence methodology in quantitative risk assessment will provide better understanding and quantification of risk. This will improve design, decision making, and risk management strategies.

  13. Economic analysis of needs the training of human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buha Vesna V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of lifelong learning is linked to the voluntary and motivated to seek knowledge from personal or organizational reasons. The fact that an individual learns driven by personal career goals, desire for self improvement and motivation refers to the importance of lifelong learning for the entire social inclusion, sustainability, and competitiveness and employment. The common denominator of all the problems of investment in education is an issue of increasing allocations to the social issues, the pace that in this area manifest needs. Relative resource constraints requires that the investment in professional development taking place in accordance with the expected contribution to the creation of new value, increase productivity and social development of society as a whole. Respecting this request, in general, should provide maximum socio-economic effects with minimal investment. Precise measurement is achieved by tools of economic analysis: cost & benefit, economic sensitivity analysis, risk assessment.

  14. Surgery is more cost-effective than splinting for carpal tunnel syndrome in the Netherlands: results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèr Herman J

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a common disorder, often treated with surgery or wrist splinting. The objective of this economic evaluation alongside a randomized trial was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of splinting and surgery for patients with CTS. Methods Patients at 13 neurological outpatient clinics with clinically and electrophysiologically confirmed idiopathic CTS were randomly allocated to splinting (n = 89 or surgery (n = 87. Clinical outcome measures included number of nights waking up due to symptoms, general improvement, severity of the main complaint, paraesthesia at night and during the day, and utility. The economic evaluation was performed from a societal perspective and involved all relevant costs. Results There were no differences in costs. The mean total costs per patient were in the surgery group EURO 2,126 compared to EURO 2,111 in the splint group. After 12 months, the success rate in the surgery group (92% was significantly higher than in the splint group (72%. The acceptability curve showed that at a relatively low ceiling ratio of EURO 2,500 per patient there is a 90% probability that surgery is cost-effective. Conclusion In the Netherlands, surgery is more cost-effective compared with splinting, and recommended as the preferred method of treatment for patients with CTS.

  15. How is an analysis of the enterprise economic environment done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Parodi Trece

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The proper interpretation of the evolution of the economy is a useful tool to improve corporate decision-making. The aim of this paper is to explain, with examples applied to the current economic reality, how an analysis of the economic environment is made and how it serves for the corporate strategic planning. To do this, after the explanation of the overall conceptual framework; gross domestic product, inflation and external deficit as indicators, key in the "language" used by analysts are defined. These are economic indicators, related, that depend on domestic policy and exogenous shocks, defined as events that are out of the hands of economic policy designers, but that influence the three variables, such as the international financial crisis. Following it, the formalization through macroeconomic identities is made, in order to finally explain "how is the economy" through them; and the relationship between the internal to the external economic environment. Bringing the economy to business should be a priority in an increasingly integrated context, characterized by the fact that the positive and the negative of what happens in the world economy is transmitted through various channels, to companies located in different countries. Hence, companies should broaden their vision, as the economic environment does not only include what happens within the country, but the future of the world economy.

  16. The Role of Temperature in Economic Exchange - An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Bojan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As a synthesis of economics and physics and an attempt to apply the methods and models of statistical physics to economics, econophysics is presently a new, growing and very dynamic branch of modern science. Therefore, the subject of this paper is to analyse the relationship and interdependence between thermodynamics and economics, and it aims to show similarities, analogies and correspondence between the main categories, methods and models of thermodynamics on one hand, and economics on the other. The paper analyses the relation between economics and thermodynamics, as well as the probability distribution in the kinetic theory of gases corresponding to money, income and wealth distribution, connects entropy with utility and the principle of operation of the thermal engine with economic exchange. The final part of the paper empirically analyzes temperature differences in the exchange between Serbia and the selected EU countries. There are differences in temperature between Serbia and the group of selected countries. Results of the empirical analysis shows that the exchange between countries is based on principles of thermodynamics and that developed countries generate more profits and benefits from exchange.

  17. Economic Analysis of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Export Marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Analysis of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Export Marketing Channels by Small-Scale Farmers in Tanzania: The Case of Meru District. ... Abstract. The study was carried out in two divisions of Meru District in Arusha region in Tanzania to ...

  18. Economic analysis of wildlife conservation in crop farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenum, van J.H.

    2002-01-01

    The general objective of this thesis was to present an economic analysis of wildlife conservation in Dutch crop farming. This general objective was broken down into 5 specific research objectives around which the research was organised: (1) selection and definition of appropriate indicators for wild

  19. Economic Analysis. Volume V. Course Segments 65-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling Inst., Washington, DC. Educational Technology Center.

    The fifth volume of the multimedia, individualized course in economic analysis produced for the United States Naval Academy covers segments 65-79 of the course. Included in the volume are discussions of monopoly markets, monopolistic competition, oligopoly markets, and the theory of factor demand and supply. Other segments of the course, the…

  20. Justifications and Excuses in the Economic Analysis of Tort Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In the economic analysis of tort law, scant attention is paid to justifications and excuses. An injurer invoking a justification argues that he did not act wrongfully. Excuses imply that the injurer acted wrongfully, but that his act cannot be imputed to him. If torts are descr

  1. Economic analysis of wildlife conservation in crop farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenum, van J.H.

    2002-01-01

    The general objective of this thesis was to present an economic analysis of wildlife conservation in Dutch crop farming. This general objective was broken down into 5 specific research objectives around which the research was organised: (1) selection and definition of appropriate indicators for

  2. Immediate versus Delayed Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monali S Malvankar-Mehta

    Full Text Available Immediately sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS, the cataract surgery that is performed in both eyes simultaneously, is gaining popularity worldwide compared to the traditional treatment paradigm: delayed sequential bilateral cataract surgery (DSBCS, the surgery that is performed in each eye on a different day as a completely separate operation. ISBCS provides advantages to patients and patients' families in the form of fewer hospital visits. Additionally, patients enjoy rapid rehabilitation, lack of anisometropia - potentially reducing accidents and falls, and avoid suboptimal visual function in daily life. The hospital may benefit due to lower cost.To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate ISBCS and DSBCS.Databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, CINAHL, Health Economic Evaluations Database (HEED, ISI Web of Science (Thomson-Reuters and the Cochrane Library were searched.Not applicable.Literature was systematically reviewed using EPPI-Reviewer 4 gateway. Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA v. 13.0. Standardized mean difference (SMD and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated and heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistics. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were computed based on heterogeneity. Meta-analysis was done by instrument used to calculate utility score.In total, 9,133 records were retrieved from multiple databases and an additional 128 records were identified through grey literature search. Eleven articles with 3,657 subjects were included for analysis. Our meta-analysis results indicated significant improvement in post-operative utility score using TTO, EQ5D, HUI3, VF-7, and VF-14 and a non-significant improvement using Catquest questionnaire for both surgeries. For ISBCS versus DSBCS, utility-specific fixed-effect model provided an overall SMD of the utility score using the TTO method as 0.12 (95% CI: -0.15, 0.40, EQ5D as 0.14 (95% CI: -0.14, 0.41, HUI3 as 0.12 (95% CI: -0.15, 0.40, VF

  3. Economic analysis of transmission line engineering based on industrial engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixuan

    2017-05-01

    The modern industrial engineering is applied to the technical analysis and cost analysis of power transmission and transformation engineering. It can effectively reduce the cost of investment. First, the power transmission project is economically analyzed. Based on the feasibility study of power transmission and transformation project investment, the proposal on the company system cost management is put forward through the economic analysis of the effect of the system. The cost management system is optimized. Then, through the cost analysis of power transmission and transformation project, the new situation caused by the cost of construction is found. It is of guiding significance to further improve the cost management of power transmission and transformation project. Finally, according to the present situation of current power transmission project cost management, concrete measures to reduce the cost of power transmission project are given from the two aspects of system optimization and technology optimization.

  4. Epidemiologic analysis: Prophylaxis and multidrug-resistance in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Téllez, H; Mondragón-Pinzón, E E; Ramírez-Marino, M; Espinoza-López, F R; Domínguez-Sosa, F; Rubio-Suarez, J F; Romero-Morelos, R D

    Surgical site infection is defined as an infection related to the surgical procedure in the area of manipulation occurring within the first 30 postoperative days. The diagnostic criteria include: purulent drainage, isolation of microorganisms, and signs of infection. To describe the epidemiologic characteristics and differences among the types of prophylactic regimens associated with hospital-acquired infections at the general surgery service of a tertiary care hospital. The electronic case records of patients that underwent general surgery at a tertiary care hospital within the time frame of January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014 were reviewed. A convenience sample of 728 patients was established and divided into the following groups: Group 1: n=728 for the epidemiologic study; Group 2: n=638 for the evaluation of antimicrobial prophylaxis; and Group 3: n=50 for the evaluation of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains in the intensive care unit. The statistical analysis was carried out with the SPSS 19 program, using the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi-square test. A total of 728 procedures were performed (65.9% were elective surgeries). Three hundred twelve of the patients were males and 416 were females. Only 3.98% of the patients complied with the recommended antimicrobial prophylaxis, and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains were found in the intensive care unit. A single prophylactic dose is effective, but adherence to this recommendation was not adequate. The prophylactic guidelines are not strictly adhered to in our environment. There was a significant association between the development of nosocomial infections from multidrug-resistant germs and admission to the intensive care unit. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  6. A pilot socio-economic analysis of QLIF dairy projects

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas, Dr. Phillipa; Lampkin, Dr Nicolas; Leifert, Prof. Carlo; Butler, Dr. Gillian; Klocke, Peter; Wagenaar, J.P.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    A pilot socio-economic impact assessment was carried out on three dairy projects within QLIF to identify the business, consumer and policy issues likely to influence the adoption of the innovations resulting from QLIF. A socio-economic analysis is pre-sented related to the key outcomes from the three projects which include: manage-ment systems to reduce mastitis and antibiotic use in organic dairy farms and how milk quality can be enhanced through high forage organic feeding systems. Due to...

  7. [Medical controlling as medical economical service center. Successful concept for orthopedics and trauma surgery centers?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auhuber, T C; Hoffmann, R

    2015-01-01

    The management of patients from administrative admission through the orthopedic-surgical treatment to completion of the billing is complex. Additional challenges originate from the necessity to treat patients in both outpatient and inpatient departments and in more than one medical sector. A superior coordination is essential for a successful cooperation of the various procedures of controlling. The model of a medical controlling department as a service center with effective competence in the management of service and cost, functions as a successful solution to the problem. Central elements of a successful medical economical case management are a well-defined assignment of tasks and definitions of intersections, the integration of health professionals and administrative employees, the utilization of software for process control and the implementation of inlier controlling.

  8. Economic Consequence Analysis of Disasters: The ECAT Software Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Adam; Prager, Fynn; Chen, Zhenhua; Chatterjee, Samrat; Wei, Dan; Heatwole, Nathaniel; Warren, Eric

    2017-04-15

    This study develops a methodology for rapidly obtaining approximate estimates of the economic consequences from numerous natural, man-made and technological threats. This software tool is intended for use by various decision makers and analysts to obtain estimates rapidly. It is programmed in Excel and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) to facilitate its use. This tool is called E-CAT (Economic Consequence Analysis Tool) and accounts for the cumulative direct and indirect impacts (including resilience and behavioral factors that significantly affect base estimates) on the U.S. economy. E-CAT is intended to be a major step toward advancing the current state of economic consequence analysis (ECA) and also contributing to and developing interest in further research into complex but rapid turnaround approaches. The essence of the methodology involves running numerous simulations in a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for each threat, yielding synthetic data for the estimation of a single regression equation based on the identification of key explanatory variables (threat characteristics and background conditions). This transforms the results of a complex model, which is beyond the reach of most users, into a "reduced form" model that is readily comprehensible. Functionality has been built into E-CAT so that its users can switch various consequence categories on and off in order to create customized profiles of economic consequences of numerous risk events. E-CAT incorporates uncertainty on both the input and output side in the course of the analysis.

  9. Bariatric surgery for people with diabetes and morbid obesity: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In June 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Diabetes Strategy Evidence Project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding strategies for successful management and treatment of diabetes. This project came about when the Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the Ministry's newly released Diabetes Strategy.After an initial review of the strategy and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified five key areas in which evidence was needed. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these five areas: insulin pumps, behavioural interventions, bariatric surgery, home telemonitoring, and community based care. For each area, an economic analysis was completed where appropriate and is described in a separate report.To review these titles within the Diabetes Strategy Evidence series, please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/masabout.html,DIABETES STRATEGY EVIDENCE PLATFORM: Summary of Evidence-Based AnalysesContinuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Pumps for Type 1 and Type 2 Adult Diabetics: An Evidence-Based AnalysisBehavioural Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based AnalysisBARIATRIC SURGERY FOR PEOPLE WITH DIABETES AND MORBID OBESITY: An Evidence-Based SummaryCommunity-Based Care for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based AnalysisHome Telemonitoring for Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based AnalysisApplication of the Ontario Diabetes Economic Model (ODEM) to Determine the Cost-effectiveness and Budget Impact of Selected Type 2 Diabetes Interventions in Ontario The purpose of this evidence-based analysis was to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery for the management of diabetes in morbidly obese people. This report summarized evidence specific to bariatric surgery and the

  10. ANALYSIS OF OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY, ORTHOPEDICS AND THORACIC SURGERY JOURNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Terezinha Anselmo Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To perform an extensive analysis of journals in Medicine III - CAPES, and specifically those in the areas of Otorhinolaryngology, Orthopedics and Traumatology and Chest Surgery. Method: An active search for the impact factors in the Journal Citation Reports, Scimago, their indexation in Scielo, Lilacs, Scopus and Google Scholar, and their stratification in WebQualis was done. Results: Forty-four journals with measured impact factors ranging from 3.006 to 0.128 were detected in the area of Otorhinolaryngology; however, only 26 of them (60% had a Qualis measured by CAPES; in the stratification, no journal was detected in A1, three were A2 and nine B1. Three journals were located for Chest Surgery, with only one of them having a measured Qualis (A2 with a mean of 3.61. Sixty-seven journals were detected for Orthopedics and Traumatology, with an impact factor ranging from 4.699 to 0.156; Qualis was measured in only 38 of them (60%; there were three journal stratified as A1, seven as A2 and 25 as B1. Conclusion: The search for journals of higher impact induces authors to not publish in journals related to their area and facing more difficulties than investigators from other areas.

  11. ANALYSIS OF OPTION FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP OF STUDENTS STUDYING ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, VECHIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is important, entrepreneur plays a major role at micro and maroeconomic level. Entrepreneur is the manager and employee at the same time, is leader and innovator, his company provides products and services that society needs. Europe needs more entrepreneurs and those who want to follow the path of entrepreneurship needs to face multiple challenges that can be overcome when the future entrepreneur benefit from a complex entrepreneurship education. This paper aims, through applied questionnaire, to identify whether future economists are determined to choose the path of entrepreneurship and start a business on their own. Also, we wanted to identify the obstacles that interviewees consider that you have to struggle to start their business. We applied a questionnaire to students, final year bachelor's degree, studying economics. They were chosen because during the three years study several economic disciplines: microeconomics, macroeconomics, management, accounting, finance, law, economic analysis, the national economy, European policy.

  12. Estimating the Cost of Neurosurgical Procedures in a Low-Income Setting: An Observational Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgadir, Jihad; Tran, Tu; Muhindo, Alex; Obiga, Doomwin; Mukasa, John; Ssenyonjo, Hussein; Muhumza, Michael; Kiryabwire, Joel; Haglund, Michael M; Sloan, Frank A

    2017-05-01

    There are no data on cost of neurosurgery in low-income and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost of neurosurgical procedures in a low-resource setting to better inform resource allocation and health sector planning. In this observational economic analysis, microcosting was used to estimate the direct and indirect costs of neurosurgical procedures at Mulago National Referral Hospital (Kampala, Uganda). During the study period, October 2014 to September 2015, 1440 charts were reviewed. Of these patients, 434 had surgery, whereas the other 1006 were treated nonsurgically. Thirteen types of procedures were performed at the hospital. The estimated mean cost of a neurosurgical procedure was $542.14 (standard deviation [SD], $253.62). The mean cost of different procedures ranged from $291 (SD, $101) for burr hole evacuations to $1,221 (SD, $473) for excision of brain tumors. For most surgeries, overhead costs represented the largest proportion of the total cost (29%-41%). This is the first study using primary data to determine the cost of neurosurgery in a low-resource setting. Operating theater capacity is likely the binding constraint on operative volume, and thus, investing in operating theaters should achieve a higher level of efficiency. Findings from this study could be used by stakeholders and policy makers for resource allocation and to perform economic analyses to establish the value of neurosurgery in achieving global health goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Emergy analysis of ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wang, Qing; Li, Xiu-Juan; Song, Yang; Li, Guang-Jun

    2008-03-01

    By the methods of emergy analysis, this paper studied the emergy flow in the ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province in 1990-2005, and the relationships between the environmental stress caused by resources' input, output and consumption and the sustainable development of the Province. The results showed that in Liaoning Province, the non-renewable resources occupied over 74% of the total consumed emergy, and the realistic population in 2005 was 3.26 times higher than the supportable population. In 1990-2005, the emergy yield ratio decreased from 65.40 to 10.13, emergy loading ratio increased from 2.72 to 7.18, and emergy sustainable index decreased from 24.03 to 1.41. The rapid economic growth in Liaoning Province was chiefly supported by the consumption of vast non-renewable resources, which caused the pressure of economic development on ecosystem getting more and more intense, the economic development increasingly depending on exogenous resources, and the sustainable development of Liaoning ecological-economic system having a continuing decrease. To realize the sustainable development in Liaoning Province, the principles of reduction, reutilization and recycling should be taken as the guidelines for promoting the reuse of wastes and the closed fine circulation of resources to minimize the discharge of wastes.

  14. Critical Analysis of Piezoelectric Surgery with Oscillating Saw in Bimaxillary Orthognathic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Zainab; Saleem, Hammad; Ahmed, Waseem

    2017-06-01

    To compare the piezosurgery with conventional saw for osteotomy in orthognathic bimaxillary surgery. Comparative study. The Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January 2012 to July 2015. Twenty-four patients, regardless of gender, were selected for bimaxillary surgery. Each underwent osteotomy with conventional saw and piezosurgery equipment. Intraoperative and postoperative parameters, like blood loss during operation, time required for surgery, postoperative swelling, nerve function, incision and surgical precisons, were evaluated. Out of total 96 osteotomies, 48 (50%) maxillary and 48 (50%) mandibular osteotomies were performed. Time required for piezosurgery was more (63 minutes) as compared to saw (p=0.003). Other parameters, like intraoperative blood loss (p=0.091), postoperative swelling (p=0.041), and nerve damage (p=0.009), were far less frequent with piezosurgery than frequent with saw procedures. Piezosurgery is a favourable alternative technique as compared to saw technique in bimaxillary orthognathic surgeries.

  15. Glutamine dipeptide for parenteral nutrition in abdominal surgery: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Min Zheng; Fei Li; Ming-Ming Zhang; Xiao-Ting Wu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the clinical and economical validity of glutamine dipeptide supplemented to parenteral nutrition(PN) in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.METHODS: A meta-analysis of all the relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed. The trials compared the standard PN and PN supplemented with glutamine dipeptide in abdominal surgery. RCTs were identified from the following electronic databases:the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI web of knowledge (SCI). The search was undertaken in April 2006. Literature references were checked by computer or hand at the same time. Clinical trials were extracted and evaluated by two reviewers independently. Statistical analysis was performed by RevMan4.2 software from Cochrane Collaboration. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.RESULTS: Nine RCTs involving 373 patients were included. The combined results showed that glutamine dipeptide has a positive effect in improving postoperative cumulative nitrogen balance (weighted mean difference (WMD = 8.35, 95% CI [2.98, 13.71], P = 0.002),decreasing postoperative infectious morbidity (OR = 0.24,95% CI [0.06, 0.93], P = 0.04), shortening the length of hospital stay (WMD= -3.55, 95% CI [-5.26, -1.84], P<0.00001). No serious adverse effects were found.CONCLUSION: Postoperative PN supplemented with glutamine dipeptide is effective and safe to decrease the infectious rate, reduce the length of hospital stay and improve nitrogen balance in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Further high quality trials in children and severe patients are required, and mortality and hospital cost should be considered in future RCTs with sufficient size and rigorous design.

  16. Economic analysis in medical education: definition of essential terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2014-10-01

    Medical education is expensive. There is a growing interest in the subject of cost and value in medical education. However, in the medical education literature, terms are sometimes used loosely - and so there is a need for basic grounding in the meaning of commonly used and important terms in medical education economics. The purpose of this article is to define some terms that are frequently used in economic analysis in medical education. In this article, terms are described, and the descriptions are followed by a worked example of how the terms might be used in practice. The following terms are described: opportunity cost, total cost of ownership, sensitivity analysis, viewpoint, activity-based costing, efficiency, technical efficiency, allocative efficiency, price and transaction costs.

  17. Decision aiding in plastic surgery: a multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Flávio Autran Monteiro Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present, through a real case, a practical way, based on Multicriteria Decision Aiding, to support decision making in Plastic Surgery. The case studied was a Caucasian woman of 36 years of age with mammarian hypertrophia with ptosis and abdominal lipodystrophy, making it necessary to select the most adequate techniques for the best aesthetic result. For this purpose, the multicriteria methods Even Swaps and PrOACT were used. Three plastic surgeons working in the city of Rio de Janeiro with equivalent professional experience were consulted as decision agents. In order to define the objectives to be achieved, the criteria relevant to the making of the decision and the alternatives which could be used were identified. Throughout this identification and in the later analysis the surgeons participated in the application of the methods, which contributed towards facilitating their acceptance of the multicriteria analysis in their decision making. It was confirmed, in this case study, that the use of Multicriteria Decision Aiding tends to make the medical decision more wide ranging and, above all, transparent. The plastic surgeons themselves validated the analysis, considering it fully consistent with their professional experience.

  18. The Analysis of International Migration towards Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdous Alam; Chamhuri Siwar; Basri Talib; Rabiul Islam

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study discusses the analysis of international migration towards economic growth in Bangladesh. International migration refers to the cross-border movement of people from a mother country to a location outside that mother country, with the purpose of taking up higher income employment, better living conditions, higher education get access to civic amenities and conducting a daily existence there for an extended period of time. The exports of labor, human capital, play a...

  19. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T.; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gend...

  20. Complications in lumbar spine surgery: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Proietti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical treatment of adult lumbar spinal disorders is associated with a substantial risk of intraoperative and perioperative complications. There is no clearly defined medical literature on complication in lumbar spine surgery. Purpose of the study is to retrospectively evaluate intraoperative and perioperative complications who underwent various lumbar surgical procedures and to study the possible predisposing role of advanced age in increasing this rate. Materials and Methods: From 2007 to 2011 the number and type of complications were recorded and both univariate, (considering the patients′ age and a multivariate statistical analysis was conducted in order to establish a possible predisposing role. 133 were lumbar disc hernia treated with microdiscetomy, 88 were lumbar stenosis, treated in 36 cases with only decompression, 52 with decompression and instrumentation with a maximum of 2 levels. 26 patients showed a lumbar fracture treated with percutaneous or open screw fixation. 12 showed a scoliotic or kyphotic deformity treated with decompression, fusion and osteotomies with a maximum of 7.3 levels of fusion (range 5-14. 70 were spondylolisthesis treated with 1 or more level of fusion. In 34 cases a fusion till S1 was performed. Results: Of the 338 patients who underwent surgery, 55 showed one or more complications. Type of surgical treatment ( P = 0.004, open surgical approach (open P = 0.001 and operative time ( P = 0.001 increased the relative risk (RR of complication occurrence of 2.3, 3.8 and 5.1 respectively. Major complications are more often seen in complex surgical treatment for severe deformities, in revision surgery and in anterior approaches with an occurrence of 58.3%. Age greater than 65 years, despite an increased RR of perioperative complications (1.5, does not represent a predisposing risk factor to complications ( P = 0.006. Conclusion: Surgical decision-making and exclusion of patients is not justified only

  1. [Robotics in general surgery: personal experience, critical analysis and prospectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracastoro, Gerolamo; Borzellino, Giuseppe; Castelli, Annalisa; Fiorini, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Today mini invasive surgery has the chance to be enhanced with sophisticated informative systems (Computer Assisted Surgery, CAS) like robotics, tele-mentoring and tele-presence. ZEUS and da Vinci, present in more than 120 Centres in the world, have been used in many fields of surgery and have been tested in some general surgical procedures. Since the end of 2003, we have performed 70 experimental procedures and 24 operations of general surgery with ZEUS robotic system, after having properly trained 3 surgeons and the operating room staff. Apart from the robot set-up, the mean operative time of the robotic operations was similar to the laparoscopic ones; no complications due to robotic technique occurred. The Authors report benefits and disadvantages related to robots' utilization, problems still to be solved and the possibility to make use of them with tele-surgery, training and virtual surgery.

  2. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  3. Economic Growth And Carbon Emission: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim BAKIRTAS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between carbon dioxide emission (CO2 and economic growth is one of the crucial topics in environmental economics. This study is aimed to investigatethat problem. In this study, depending on the theory of Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC, the impact of income in carbon dioxide emission has measured for 34 OECD and5 BRICS countries with using Dynamic Panel Data Analysis. In this regard OECD countries are classified by income groups due to the average per capita income rate ofOECD to solve the homogeneity problem among OECD countries. On the other hand EKC hypothesis analysed by short and long run income elasticity which will be using foran evident that a country reduces CO2 emissions with the income increase in this study. According to the findings of the study, % 36 of the country sample coherent with theEKC hypothesis. The main encouragement for testing this relationship between economic growth and CO2 emission is leading politicians to reconsider the environmental impactswhich are arising from income increase when they are taking a decision to maximizes the economic growth.Keywords: EKC; OECD; Dynamic Panel Data

  4. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMICS OF QUALITY IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sailaj

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern industries, much emphasis is given to quality as it is the most effective tool which can capture, retain and enlarge customer base. The customer satisfaction is the ultimate goal of business and no other strategy can achieve it other than attaining best quality. An improvement in quality enhances customer satisfaction, taper s manufacturing costs and of course in turn, increases productivity. But in business scenario, improving quality should be considered along with the expenses associated with it. The strategy should be to achieve high Quality in a most economic way. So identifying effective methods for the analysis of economics behind quality and reduction of costs associated with achieving quality is a serious potential management problem and should be looked in to and analyzed. Economics of Quality analysis which is also termed as cost of quality or quality cost analysis has emerged as a powerful management tool for assessing the present quality level of the organization and to identify the improvement opportunities and also supports in decision making. This paper presents a study on quality cost analysis of two manufacturing units and tries to analyze the interrelationships between quality cost categories using statistical methods. The secondary data collected from the financial records of two firms under manufacturing sector is used for this analysis. The Pearson product momentum correlation coefficient between different quality cost categories provides insight to the relationships between different quality cost elements and in turn helps management to set action priorities to be addressed to achieve good quality at lower cost. The regression analysis helps the management in estimation or prediction of the unknown value of one variable from the known value of the other variable.

  5. [Economic analysis of health promotion conducted in an enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-chun; Yang, Xue-ying; Kang, Wen-long; Wang, Wen-jing

    2013-12-01

    To take intervention measures for health promotion after investigation of occupational health needs among employees, to analyze the economic input and output of the intervention measures, and to analyze the feasibility of health promotion through cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-benefit analysis. A survey was conducted in an enterprise using a self-designed questionnaire to investigate the general information on enterprise, occupational history of each employee, awareness of occupational health knowledge, awareness of general health knowledge, awareness of hypertension, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, etc., lifestyle, and needs for health knowledge. Intervention measures were taken in the enterprise according to the investigation results, and then investigation and economic analysis of investment in health promotion, economic benefit, and absence of employees were performed using the questionnaire. After intervention, the awareness rate of the Code of Occupational Disease Prevention increased from 4.5% to 15.3%, the awareness rate of the definition of occupational diseases increased from 4.5% to 73.5%, and the awareness rate of the prevention and control measures for occupational diseases increased from 38.4% to 85.8%. Before intervention, 25.4%of all employees thought salt intake needed to be reduced, and this proportion increased to 92.5% after intervention. After the control strategy for health promotion, the benefit of health promotion that results from avoiding absence of employees and preventing occupational diseases was more than ten times the investment in health promotion, suggesting a significant benefit of health promotion conducted in the enterprise. The return on health promotion's investment for enterprise is worth. Health promotion really not just contribute to improve hygienic knowledge but increase the economic benefit.

  6. Profitability analysis of a femtosecond laser system for cataract surgery using a fuzzy logic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigueros, José Antonio; Piñero, David P; Ismail, Mahmoud M

    2016-01-01

    To define the financial and management conditions required to introduce a femtosecond laser system for cataract surgery in a clinic using a fuzzy logic approach. In the simulation performed in the current study, the costs associated to the acquisition and use of a commercially available femtosecond laser platform for cataract surgery (VICTUS, TECHNOLAS Perfect Vision GmbH, Bausch & Lomb, Munich, Germany) during a period of 5y were considered. A sensitivity analysis was performed considering such costs and the countable amortization of the system during this 5y period. Furthermore, a fuzzy logic analysis was used to obtain an estimation of the money income associated to each femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (G). According to the sensitivity analysis, the femtosecond laser system under evaluation can be profitable if 1400 cataract surgeries are performed per year and if each surgery can be invoiced more than $500. In contrast, the fuzzy logic analysis confirmed that the patient had to pay more per surgery, between $661.8 and $667.4 per surgery, without considering the cost of the intraocular lens (IOL). A profitability of femtosecond laser systems for cataract surgery can be obtained after a detailed financial analysis, especially in those centers with large volumes of patients. The cost of the surgery for patients should be adapted to the real flow of patients with the ability of paying a reasonable range of cost.

  7. Economic Analysis of Different Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Il Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An economic analysis has been performed to compare four nuclear fuel cycle options: a once-through cycle (OT, DUPIC recycling, thermal recycling using MOX fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR-MOX, and sodium fast reactor recycling employing pyroprocessing (Pyro-SFR. This comparison was made to suggest an economic competitive fuel cycle for the Republic of Korea. The fuel cycle cost (FCC has been calculated based on the equilibrium material flows integrated with the unit cost of the fuel cycle components. The levelized fuel cycle costs (LFCC have been derived in terms of mills/kWh for a fair comparison among the FCCs, and the results are as follows: OT 7.35 mills/kWh, DUPIC 9.06 mills/kWh, PUREX-MOX 8.94 mills/kWh, and Pyro-SFR 7.70 mills/kWh. Due to unavoidable uncertainties, a cost range has been applied to each unit cost, and an uncertainty study has been performed accordingly. A sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to obtain the break-even uranium price (215$/kgU for the Pyro-SFR against the OT, which demonstrates that the deployment of the Pyro-SFR may be economical in the foreseeable future. The influence of pyrotechniques on the LFCC has also been studied to determine at which level the potential advantages of Pyro-SFR can be realized.

  8. Human error in strabismus surgery: Quantification with a sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Schutte (Sander); J.R. Polling; F.C.T. van der Helm (Frans); H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Reoperations are frequently necessary in strabismus surgery. The goal of this study was to analyze human-error related factors that introduce variability in the results of strabismus surgery in a systematic fashion. Methods: We identified the primary factors that influence th

  9. Human error in strabismus surgery: quantification with a sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, S.; Polling, J.R.; Van der Helm, F.C.T.; Simonsz, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background- Reoperations are frequently necessary in strabismus surgery. The goal of this study was to analyze human-error related factors that introduce variability in the results of strabismus surgery in a systematic fashion. Methods- We identified the primary factors that influence the outcome of

  10. [Quality analysis and evaluation of surgery for herniated lumbar disk. I. Methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-López, P; Iglesias-Casarrubios, P; Alday-Anzolal, R; de la Cruz-Bértolo, J; Díez-Lobato, R

    2001-10-01

    A method for the analysis of the quality of the lumbar disc surgery was developed. The method assesses the important quality parameters such as scientific and technical quality (STQ), functional grades, quality of life, patients satisfaction and economic costs. The STQ related to the measurement of the care according to the available medical and technological knowledge was determined according to the performance of explicit criteria and standards in the clinic documentation (PEP method: Performance Evaluation Procedure). To measure the functional grade, a modification of Spanfort's criteria was used. To assess the quality of life a modification of 12-item Short Form health survey was applied. This form includes aspects like pain, social interaction, family characteristics, employment and psychological status. A questionnaire was used to measure satisfaction. The form was previously designed taking into account the patients and professionals criteria. In every stage care given, information issued, management and hosting, the patients and professionals opinions was considered and weighted. To calculate the cost three different systems were proposed i.e., Analytic economic management system (ABC-ABM), Weight related costs of DRGs (Diagnostic Related Groups) and Costs computed from price listing for consulting and hospitalization established by INSALUD.

  11. Economical analysis of combined fuel cell generators and absorption chillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Morsy El-Gohary

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a co-generation system based on combined heat and power for commercial units. For installation of a co-generation system, certain estimates for this site should be performed through making assessments of electrical loads, domestic water, and thermal demand. This includes domestic hot water, selection of the type of power generator, fuel cell, and the type of air conditioning system, and absorption chillers. As a matter of fact, the co-generation system has demonstrated good results for both major aspects, economic and environmental. From the environmental point of view, this can be considered as an ideal solution for problems concerned with the usage of Chlorofluoro carbons. On the other hand, from the economic point of view, the cost analysis has revealed that the proposed system saves 4% of total cost through using the co-generation system.

  12. Economic Analysis on Key Challenges for Sustainable Aquaculture Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw

    challenges that could obstruct its sustainable development, such as a lack of suitable feed, which includes fishmeal, fish oil and live feed, and negative environmental externalities. If the aquaculture industry is to reach its full potential, it must be both environmentally and economically sustainable...... environmental externalities. A sustainable supply of high-quality live feeds at reasonable prices is absolutely essential for aquaculture hatcheries because many commercially produced high-value marine fish larval species, such as flounder, grouper, halibut, tuna and turbot, require live feed for their early...... developmental stage. The key challenge in this regard is that the conventional used live feed items, Artemia and rotifers, are nutritionally deficient. Thus, the first main purpose of the thesis is carrying out an economic analysis of the feasibility of commercial production and the use of an alternative live...

  13. Techno-economic analysis of biofuel production considering logistic configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Hu, Guiping

    2016-04-01

    In the study, a techno-economic analysis method considering logistic configurations is proposed. The economic feasibility of a low temperature biomass gasification pathway and an integrated pathway with fast pyrolysis and bio-oil gasification are evaluated and compared with the proposed method in Iowa. The results show that both pathways are profitable, biomass gasification pathway could achieve an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 10.00% by building a single biorefinery and integrated bio-oil gasification pathway could achieve an IRR of 3.32% by applying decentralized supply chain structure. A Monte-Carlo simulation considering interactions among parameters is also proposed and conducted, which indicates that both pathways are at high risk currently.

  14. Analysis of remote working practice AND CALCULATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Ermakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to description of working from home practice at Allianz Insurance UK и Ernst & Young, UK & Ireland. It fulfilled the analysis of the best practices in the use of new forms of social and labor relations - remote work. The characteristics of using types of distance work, the policy of implementation and realization of such work in the company, the criteria for the transfer of employees to work remotely, the possibility of a flexible approach to workflow are given. The calculation of the economic efficiency of technology telecommuting at an aviation company of the Russian Federation is done. The method of calculating the cost-effectiveness based on several factors, such as costs for the organization and content of the workplace, change in labor productivity and others, was proposed by the authors. The calculation of economic efficiency by using the number of working hours, the impact on capital inputs and the impact on quit rates is considered.

  15. Economic Analysis on Key Challenges for Sustainable Aquaculture Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw

    developmental stage. The key challenge in this regard is that the conventional used live feed items, Artemia and rotifers, are nutritionally deficient. Thus, the first main purpose of the thesis is carrying out an economic analysis of the feasibility of commercial production and the use of an alternative live...... challenges that could obstruct its sustainable development, such as a lack of suitable feed, which includes fishmeal, fish oil and live feed, and negative environmental externalities. If the aquaculture industry is to reach its full potential, it must be both environmentally and economically sustainable....... To this end, key challenges should be thoroughly examined to identify sustainable and efficient solutions. Thus, the thesis focuses on two important bottlenecks in the growth of the aquaculture sector—namely, lack of nutritionally suitable live feed items for marine finfish production and negative...

  16. Economic Growth and Budget Constraints: EU Countries Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimčík Petr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the impacts of different taxes and expenditures on economic growth. The research is focused on 20 selected European Union Member States. These countries are equally divided into four groups based on their average tax burden as presented in the World Tax Index. A comparison of fiscal attributes among these groups is important for the analysis. Annual government finance data from the years 1995 to 2012 are used for an empirical study. The indicators observed are real GDP change, the composition and volume of total government expenditures, tax quotas of individual taxes and total budget balance. These indicators are used within an endogenous growth model together with capital stock and an approximation of human capital. A panel regression with fixed effects is used as an analytic tool. The main results are that an increase in social contributions, property, production and personal income tax quotas has an adverse effect on economic growth.

  17. Clinical laboratory as an economic model for business performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljanović, Vikica; Patajac, Hrvoje; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2011-08-15

    To perform SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of a clinical laboratory as an economic model that may be used to improve business performance of laboratories by removing weaknesses, minimizing threats, and using external opportunities and internal strengths. Impact of possible threats to and weaknesses of the Clinical Laboratory at Našice General County Hospital business performance and use of strengths and opportunities to improve operating profit were simulated using models created on the basis of SWOT analysis results. The operating profit as a measure of profitability of the clinical laboratory was defined as total revenue minus total expenses and presented using a profit and loss account. Changes in the input parameters in the profit and loss account for 2008 were determined using opportunities and potential threats, and economic sensitivity analysis was made by using changes in the key parameters. The profit and loss account and economic sensitivity analysis were tools for quantifying the impact of changes in the revenues and expenses on the business operations of clinical laboratory. Results of simulation models showed that operational profit of €470 723 in 2008 could be reduced to only €21 542 if all possible threats became a reality and current weaknesses remained the same. Also, operational gain could be increased to €535 804 if laboratory strengths and opportunities were utilized. If both the opportunities and threats became a reality, the operational profit would decrease by €384 465. The operational profit of the clinical laboratory could be significantly reduced if all threats became a reality and the current weaknesses remained the same. The operational profit could be increased by utilizing strengths and opportunities as much as possible. This type of modeling may be used to monitor business operations of any clinical laboratory and improve its financial situation by implementing changes in the next fiscal

  18. Clinical laboratory as an economic model for business performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljanović, Vikica; Patajac, Hrvoje; Petrovečki, Mladen

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of a clinical laboratory as an economic model that may be used to improve business performance of laboratories by removing weaknesses, minimizing threats, and using external opportunities and internal strengths. Methods Impact of possible threats to and weaknesses of the Clinical Laboratory at Našice General County Hospital business performance and use of strengths and opportunities to improve operating profit were simulated using models created on the basis of SWOT analysis results. The operating profit as a measure of profitability of the clinical laboratory was defined as total revenue minus total expenses and presented using a profit and loss account. Changes in the input parameters in the profit and loss account for 2008 were determined using opportunities and potential threats, and economic sensitivity analysis was made by using changes in the key parameters. The profit and loss account and economic sensitivity analysis were tools for quantifying the impact of changes in the revenues and expenses on the business operations of clinical laboratory. Results Results of simulation models showed that operational profit of €470 723 in 2008 could be reduced to only €21 542 if all possible threats became a reality and current weaknesses remained the same. Also, operational gain could be increased to €535 804 if laboratory strengths and opportunities were utilized. If both the opportunities and threats became a reality, the operational profit would decrease by €384 465. Conclusion The operational profit of the clinical laboratory could be significantly reduced if all threats became a reality and the current weaknesses remained the same. The operational profit could be increased by utilizing strengths and opportunities as much as possible. This type of modeling may be used to monitor business operations of any clinical laboratory and improve its financial situation by

  19. Economic analysis of the cost of Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazetas D.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cost of Intensive Care Units has the greatest impact on overall medical costs and the overall cost for the health of a country and an increasing number of studies from around the world presenting the quantification of these costs. Aim: Review of the Economic Analysis of the Cost of Intensive Care Units. Method: Search was made in the SCOPUS, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases using the key-words “Intensive Care Units (ICU”, “Cost”, “Cost Analysis”, “Health Care Costs”, “Health Resources”, “ICU resources”. The study was based on articles published in English from 2000 to 2011 investigating the Economic Analysis of the Cost of Intensive Care Units. Results: The cost of ICU is a significant percentage of gross domestic product in developed countries. Most cost analysis studies that relate to plans that include the study of staff costs, duration of stay in the ICU, the clinical situations of hospitalized patients, engineering support, medications and diagnostic tests costing scales and in relation to the diagnostic criteria. Conclusions: most studies conclude that the remuneration of staff, particularly nurses, in the ICU is the largest cost of ICU, while for the duration of stay in the ICU results are conflicting. The analysis on the cost-effectiveness of ICU can help to better apply these findings to the therapeutic context of ICU.

  20. Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan. Economic and regulatory analysis draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This economic and regulatory analysis meets the requirements of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, which calls for an evaluation of the potential economic impacts of the gasoline rationing contingency plan. In addition, this analysis is intended to satisfy the requirements of the President's Executive Order No. 12044 of March 23, 1978, regarding government regulations, and provides an inflationary impact statement for the proposed rationing plan. To perform the analysis of rationing program impacts on the total national economy, three separate projections were required. First, a projection is made of the ''normal'' U.S. economy for a future period--the last quarter of 1980 through the third quarter of 1981 in this analysis. Second, a projection is made of the impacts which a petroleum supply interruption would have on the U.S. economy during this future period, assuming that DOE's standby allocation and price control regulations were implemented for crude oil and products. Third, and most significant, an estimate is made of the incremental impacts of the gasoline rationing program on this already-perturbed future U.S. economy.

  1. Analysis of the 50 most cited papers in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri, Youssef; Fleming, Tara M; Greathouse, Travis; Tholpady, Sunil S

    2015-12-01

    The intent of this study is to discuss the most prominent literature in craniofacial surgery. To do so, using the ISI Web of Science, a ranking by average number of citations per year of the top 50 craniofacial surgery articles was compiled. All plastic surgery journals listed in the "Surgery" category in the ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports 2013 Science Edition were considered. Journal of publication, country of origin, collaborating institutions, topic of interest, and level of evidence were analyzed. The total number of citations ranged from 47 to 1017. Average number of citations per year ranged from 46.2 to 8.6. The oldest article in the top 50 was published in 1988 and the most recent in 2009. The majority of the articles came from Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery with 28 of the 50. The majority of the articles, originated from the United States (56%). Reconstruction of acquired defects was the most commonly examined topic at 46.2%; followed by articles discussing reconstruction of congenital defects (23.1%). The most common level of evidence was level 3. This extensive examination of the craniofacial literature highlights the important part that craniofacial surgery takes in the field of plastic surgery.

  2. Compressive cryotherapy versus cryotherapy alone in patients undergoing knee surgery: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mingzhi; Sun, Xiaohong; Tian, Xiliang; Zhang, Xianbin; Shi, Tieying; SUN, RAN; Dai, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study aims to conduct a meta-analysis to identify and compare the effectiveness of compressive cryotherapy and cryotherapy alone for patients undergoing knee surgery. Background Postoperative management is an important guarantee for the success of surgery. Cryotherapy and compression are two common nursing techniques after knee surgery, and are considered to be effective for postoperative clinical symptoms such as local pain and swelling. However, no previous meta-analyses have compa...

  3. Surgical Site Infections Following Pediatric Ambulatory Surgery: An Epidemiologic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinke, Michael L; Jan, Dominique; Nassim, Janelle; Choi, Jaeun; Choi, Steven J

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify surgical site infection (SSI) rates following pediatric ambulatory surgery, SSI outcomes and risk factors, and sensitivity and specificity of SSI administrative billing codes. DESIGN Retrospective chart review of pediatric ambulatory surgeries with International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for SSI, and a systematic random sampling of 5% of surgeries without SSI ICD-9 codes, all adjudicated for SSI on the basis of an ambulatory-adapted National Healthcare Safety Network definition. SETTING Urban pediatric tertiary care center April 1, 2009-March 31, 2014. METHODS SSI rates and sensitivity and specificity of ICD-9 codes were estimated using sampling design, and risk factors were analyzed in case-rest of cohort, and case-control, designs. RESULTS In 15,448 pediatric ambulatory surgeries, 34 patients had ICD-9 codes for SSI and 25 met the adapted National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. One additional SSI was identified with systematic random sampling. The SSI rate following pediatric ambulatory surgery was 2.9 per 1,000 surgeries (95% CI, 1.2-6.9). Otolaryngology surgeries demonstrated significantly lower SSI rates compared with endocrine (P=.001), integumentary (P=.001), male genital (Psurgeries. Almost half of patients with an SSI were admitted, 88% received antibiotics, and 15% returned to the operating room. No risk factors were associated with SSI. The sensitivity of ICD-9 codes for SSI following ambulatory surgery was 55.31% (95% CI, 12.69%-91.33%) and specificity was 99.94% (99.89%-99.97%). CONCLUSIONS SSI following pediatric ambulatory surgery occurs at an appreciable rate and conveys morbidity on children. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:931-938.

  4. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peanut is not listed as one of the major crops in the Bulgarian agricultural sector, but its economic and fi nancial viability is promising, but unknown. We use enterprise budgets, capital budgeting techniques, risk analysis and logistic regression models to examine the fi nancial and economic structure of peanut farms and to evaluate the factors infl uencing short and long-term profi tability. The results show that peanut production is a profi table venture for most peanut farmers in Bulgaria. Long-run analyses show that peanut production may be economically feasible and producers engaged in production for a period of seven years, and at a discount rate of 13%, may generate internal rates of return (IRR that vary from -20.57% to 67.39%. About 70% of the farms studied had IRRs greater than the discount rate. Sensitivity analyses show that profi tability of peanut production was infl uenced by yield and variable costs. There were risks at the village level associated with peanut production.

  5. Examination of European Union economic cohesion: A cluster analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Mazurek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past years majority of EU members experienced the highest economic decline in their modern history, but impacts of the global financial crisis were not distributed homogeneously across the continent. The aim of the paper is to examine a cohesion of European Union (plus Norway and Iceland in terms of an economic development of its members from the 1st of January 2008 to the 31st of December 2012. For the study five economic indicators were selected: GDP growth, unemployment, inflation, labour productivity and government debt. Annual data from Eurostat databases were averaged over the whole period and then used as an input for a cluster analysis. It was found that EU countries were divided into six different clusters. The most populated cluster with 14 countries covered Central and West Europe and reflected relative homogeneity of this part of Europe. Countries of Southern Europe (Greece, Portugal and Spain shared their own cluster of the most affected countries by the recent crisis as well as the Baltics and the Balkans states in another cluster. On the other hand Slovakia and Poland, only two countries that escaped a recession, were classified in their own cluster of the most successful countries

  6. Techno-economic analysis of bioenergy systems; Bioenergiasysteemien teknistaloudellinen analyysi. IEA Bioenergy Agreement Techno-economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of the IEA Bioenergy Technoeconomic Analysis Activity are: To promote development of thermochemical biomass conversion methods by carrying out selected site specific feasibility studies in participating countries. Both agricultural and woody biomasses will be converted either into electricity or boiler fuels. To compare advanced technologies to commercial alternatives based on techno-economic basis to establish future development needs. To facilitate information exchange between participants on relevant basic process issues. Five countries (Finland, Canada, USA, Norway, Austria) are participating to the Activity. Initially two feasibility studies are planned for each country. Each study has three common elements: site specific, technical, and economic data. The site specific cases are described below in short. Products in the cases are electricity, heat and fuel oil. Total of two cases per country are planned

  7. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biofuels Production Based on Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, R. M.; Platon, A.; Satrio, J. A.; Brown, R. C.; Hsu, D. D.

    2010-11-01

    This study compares capital and production costs of two biomass-to-liquid production plants based on gasification. The first biorefinery scenario is an oxygen-fed, low-temperature (870?C), non-slagging, fluidized bed gasifier. The second scenario is an oxygen-fed, high-temperature (1,300?C), slagging, entrained flow gasifier. Both are followed by catalytic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and hydroprocessing to naphtha-range (gasoline blend stock) and distillate-range (diesel blend stock) liquid fractions. Process modeling software (Aspen Plus) is utilized to organize the mass and energy streams and cost estimation software is used to generate equipment costs. Economic analysis is performed to estimate the capital investment and operating costs. Results show that the total capital investment required for nth plant scenarios is $610 million and $500 million for high-temperature and low-temperature scenarios, respectively. Product value (PV) for the high-temperature and low-temperature scenarios is estimated to be $4.30 and $4.80 per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE), respectively, based on a feedstock cost of $75 per dry short ton. Sensitivity analysis is also performed on process and economic parameters. This analysis shows that total capital investment and feedstock cost are among the most influential parameters affecting the PV.

  8. Wind Energy in Poland - economic analysis of wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnatowska Renata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power generation is the most dynamically developing branch of renewable energy sector in Poland. The high price of coal and its negative environmental impact result in ever growing support for the renewable energy in the energy sector. Wind power industry produces clean energy, but costs of investments are very high. Process of creating a wind farm is very long and complicated. It requires the knowledge of many disciplines such as law, economics, energetic. The aim of this paper was study the state and the development of the wind power sector, especially wind farm in Poland. The economic analysis on investment in wind farm in Poland according to a new act on renewable energy sources was presented. The subject of this analysis was to estimate profitability of wind farm project 40 MW capacity. The analysis includes the comparison of various support systems - the system of green certificates and the new - auction model on the profitability of investment in wind farm. This aims to show how important is appropriate government support for producers of green energy words.

  9. Utility Analysis on Supply of Rural Public Policies in North Bay Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changzhen; LI; Dafeng; YE

    2013-01-01

    From analysis on internal and external motive forces of development in North Bay Economic Zone, it indicates that public policies, as basic methods of government intervening against social and economic activities, are fundamental public goods produced by government. Effective supply of public policies brings rural economic growth, environmental protection and sustainable development, which greatly stimulates rural consumption, expands domestic demand and spurs economic growth, showing significant "multiplier effect". In this situation, this paper studies conditions for rural economic development and social transformation of the North Bay Economic Zone. Results show that social and economic development of rural areas of the North Bay Economic Zone needs scientific, reasonable and effective "public policies".

  10. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part II: Economic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; Pascale, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    of a Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine (Part I). Moreover a Steam Turbine Plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences...... an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist...

  11. An Economic Analysis of Identity and Career Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth; Kleinjans, Kristin J.; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2007-01-01

    Standard economic models which focus on pecuniary payoffs cannot explain why there are highly able individuals who choose careers with low pecuniary re- turns. Therefore, financial incentives are unlikely to be effective in influencing career choices of these individuals. Based on Akerlof...... and Kranton (2000), we con- sider a model of career choice and identity where individuals derive non-pecuniary identity payoffs. Using factor analysis on a range of attitude questions, we find two factors related to identity (career orientation and social orientation), which are important for educational...

  12. [Analysis of risk factors for bleeding after thyroid surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaoping; Li, Zhengjiang; Liu, Jie; An, Changming; Yin, Yulin; Tang, Pingzhang; Xu, Zhengang

    2016-01-01

    To identify risk factors for bleeding after thyroid surgery, and discuss the potential relevance between the bleeding timing and sources. A total of 2568 cases that underwent thyroid operation from June 2012 to June 2013 were collected and analysed retrospectively the risk factors for postoperative bleeding by Cox and the potential relevance between the bleeding timing and sources. Among 2568 patients, 40 patients occurred postoperative bleeding Indentified risk factors were extent resection (P=0.0435) and surgeon (P=0.0071). Thyroid bed and strap muscles/sternocleidomastoid were the most common sources of bleeding after surgery within 6 hours; while thyroid bed was the most common source of bleeding after surgery between 6 and 8 h; wound errhysis was the most common source during 8-24 h after the operation; thyroid bed and strap muscles/sternocleidomastoid were the most common sources within 24 h after thgroid surgery. Bleeding after thyroid surgery is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication, and the extent of resection and the surgeon are risk factors. Thyroid bed and strap muscles/sternocleidomastoid are the most common sources of bleeding after surgery within 24 hours.

  13. Prognostic factors in apical surgery with root-end filling: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Peñarrocha, Miguel; Jensen, Storgård

    2010-01-01

    Apical surgery has seen continuous development with regard to equipment and surgical technique. However, there is still a shortage of evidence-based information regarding healing determinants. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review clinical articles on apical surgery with root-end fill...

  14. Quality of Life and Aesthetic Plastic Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Carolina; Tenório, Juliana L.C.; Saltz, Renato; Ely, Pedro B.; Ferrão, Ygor A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome in plastic surgery. However, authors use different scales to address this subject, making it difficult to compare the outcomes. To address this discrepancy, the aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and a random effect meta-analysis. Methods: The search was made in two electronic databases (LILACS and PUBMED) using Mesh and non-Mesh terms related to aesthetic plastic surgery and QoL. We performed qualitative and quantitative analyses of the gathered data. We calculated a random effect meta-analysis with Der Simonian and Laird as variance estimator to compare pre- and postoperative QoL standardized mean difference. To check if there is difference between aesthetic surgeries, we compared reduction mammoplasty to other aesthetic surgeries. Results: Of 1,715 identified, 20 studies were included in the qualitative analysis and 16 went through quantitative analysis. The random effect of all aesthetic surgeries shows that QoL improved after surgery. Reduction mammoplasty has improved QoL more than other procedures in social functioning and physical functioning domains. Conclusions: Aesthetic plastic surgery increases QoL. Reduction mammoplasty seems to have better improvement compared with other aesthetic surgeries.

  15. Smoking cessation: an economic analysis and review of varenicline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele A Faulkner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Michele A FaulknerCreighton University School of Pharmacy and Health Professions, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: Despite efforts to decrease tobacco use, smoking continues to be a leading cause of preventable morbidity and premature death. The associated economic burden is substantial, both in the form of direct costs (healthcare expenditures and indirect costs (lost productivity, regardless of whether the burden is assessed from the standpoint of an employer, a health plan, or society as a whole. Cessation programs are considered among the most cost-effective in healthcare, and are often used as a benchmark for other medical interventions. This analysis specifically considers the cost-effectiveness of varenicline, a novel α4β2 partial agonist used for smoking cessation, in comparison to other approved therapies. Clinical trial data have demonstrated that varenicline has the ability to decrease cravings and withdrawal symptoms, and lessen positive reinforcement associated with smoking. Varenicline’s novel mechanism has translated into superior efficacy in comparison to other available therapies. For this reason, despite an initial cost that typically exceeds that of other medications, varenicline is a cost-effective option for smoking cessation.Keywords: cost-effectiveness, economic analysis, smoking cessation, varenicline 

  16. The Global Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance: Insights from Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Zeckhauser

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR limits the therapeutic options for treatment of infections, and increases the social benefit from disease prevention. Like an environmental resource, antimicrobials require stewardship. The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent is a global public good. We argue for greater use of economic analysis as an input to policy discussion about AR, including for understanding the incentives underlying health behaviors that spawn AR, and to supplement other methods of tracing the evolution of AR internationally. We also discuss integrating antimicrobial stewardship into global health governance.The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR limits the therapeutic options for treatment of infections, and increases the social benefit from disease prevention. Like an environmental resource, antimicrobials require stewardship. The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent is a global public good. We argue for greater use of economic analysis as an input to policy discussion about AR, including for understanding the incentives underlying health behaviors that spawn AR, and to supplement other methods of tracing the evolution of AR internationally. We also discuss integrating antimicrobial stewardship into global health governance.

  17. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SELECTED ADSORPTION BEDS USED FOR WATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Skoczko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper an economic analysis of the sorption deposits used for water purification was performed. Such masses of carbon as Organosorb 10 deposit, Norit ROW 0.8 Supra deposit, Hydroantracyt N deposit and K110 deposit were selected. The economic substantiation for the selection of specific deposits was based on the purchase cost of filter deposits, the environmental fee for water intake, the cost of equipment to aerate water, the cost of chemicals for deposits regeneration, the cost of the dosing pump reagents for regeneration generated during the process of adsorption using each of the deposits selected to the analysis. K110 deposit turned out to be the cheapest in the exploitation and Norit ROW 0.8 Supra was most expensive. The operating costs of the adsorption deposits depend mainly on the purchase of the adsorbent and the speed of adsorption. Moreover, environmental fee for water intake constitutes a significant share in the costs of exploitation of carbon deposits , which is greater than the deposit costs.

  18. Sinus retrospective analysis of surgeries in a hospital school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho, Thiago Bittencourt Ottoni de

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The ENT is a medical specialty that covers 4.4% of all doctors in São Paulo, with a variety of surgical procedures distributed between pharynx, nose, ear and larynx. Knowing the profile of a reference service in otolaryngology allows for a better organization, scaling the volume of care and surgeries, providing better training to the student and resident physician. Objective: To describe the profile of sinonasal surgery and patients to them in the department of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery at a teaching hospital. Method: We conducted a cohort study of cross-sectional retrospective study with review of 872 charts of patients undergoing surgery Sinus between January 2006 and December 2008. Used questionnaires, seeking sex, age, surgical diagnosis and surgery. Results: Of 872 patients studied, 45.4% were female and 54.6% male, ranging in an age group 40-80 years (mean 29.8 years. The main surgical diagnoses were: nasal septum deviation (n=457, nasal deformity after trauma (n=287, enlarged turbinates (n=153, rhinosinusal polyposis (n=73, chronic sinusitis (n=32. Among the most frequently performed surgical procedures include: septoplasty (n=388, rhinoplasty (n=215, FESS (n=131, intra-turbinal cauterization (n=114, reconstructive rhinoplasty (n=73, turbinectomy (n=43, turbinoplasty (n=55. It is emphasized that patients may have received more than one surgical diagnosis and realized more than one surgery, depending on the alert. Conclusion: We present the volume and diversity of Sinus surgeries performed in our department, contributing to the scarce scientific literature on this type of case.

  19. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis of algae biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Sanjay; Chou, Siaw Kiang; Cao, Shenyan; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Algae biodiesel is a promising but expensive alternative fuel to petro-diesel. To overcome cost barriers, detailed cost analyses are needed. A decade-old cost analysis by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicated that the costs of algae biodiesel were in the range of $0.53-0.85/L (2012 USD values). However, the cost of land and transesterification were just roughly estimated. In this study, an updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis was conducted with optimized processes and improved cost estimations. Latest process improvement, quotes from vendors, government databases, and other relevant data sources were used to calculate the updated algal biodiesel costs, and the final costs of biodiesel are in the range of $0.42-0.97/L. Additional improvements on cost-effective biodiesel production around the globe to cultivate algae was also recommended. Overall, the calculated costs seem promising, suggesting that a single step biodiesel production process is close to commercial reality.

  20. Antieigenvalue analysis for continuum mechanics, economics, and number theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafson Karl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available My recent book Antieigenvalue Analysis, World-Scientific, 2012, presented the theory of antieigenvalues from its inception in 1966 up to 2010, and its applications within those forty-five years to Numerical Analysis, Wavelets, Statistics, Quantum Mechanics, Finance, and Optimization. Here I am able to offer three further areas of application: Continuum Mechanics, Economics, and Number Theory. In particular, the critical angle of repose in a continuum model of granular materials is shown to be exactly my matrix maximum turning angle of the stress tensor of the material. The important Sharpe ratio of the Capital Asset Pricing Model is now seen in terms of my antieigenvalue theory. Euclid’s Formula for Pythagorean triples becomes a special case of my operator trigonometry.

  1. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic Efficiency Analysis for Information Technology in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan F. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA as part of a comprehensive Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA of IT Projects, thus providing management with a decision making tool which highlights existing and future problems and reduces the risk of failure. Approach: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA based on Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA was performed on selected IT projects from ministries and key institutions in the government of Jordan using a well established approach employed by the Federal Government of Germany (KBSt approach. The approach was then modified and refined to suit the needs of developing countries so that it captured all the relevant elements of cost and benefits both quantitatively and qualitatively and includes a set of guidelines for data collection strategy. Results: When IT projects were evaluated using CBA, most cases yielded negative Net Present Value (NPV, even though, some cases showed some reduction in operation cost starting from the third year of project life. However, when the CBA was applied as a part of a comprehensive EEA by introducing qualitative aspects and urgency criteria, proper justification for new projects became feasible. Conclusion: The modified EEA represented a systematic approach which was well suited for the government of Jordan as a developing country. This approach was capable of dealing with the justification issue, evaluation of existing systems and the urgency of replacing legacy systems. This study explored many of the challenges and inherited problems existing in the public sectors of developing

  3. Toward Sustainable Economic Growth: A Spatial Panel Data Analysis of Regional Income Convergence in US BEA Economic Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Up Lim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A question fundamental to sustainable economic growth is whether a poor region tends to grow faster than a rich one, such that the poor region catches up with the rich region in terms of the level of per capita income. In this article, we apply the spatial panel data approach to the analysis of regional income convergence across 177 economic areas in the contiguous US states over the period from 1969 to 2009. Using data on per capita incomes in the functionally defined economic areas, we find that the absolute value of the estimated coefficient of the initial per capita income decreases in the spatial and time-period fixed effects spatial lag model and increases in the spatial and time-period fixed effects spatial error model. This result implies that the growth rate in a specific economic area will be not only directly affected by an exogenous shock introduced into that economic area but also be impacted more by both the indirect effects of the first-order neighboring economic areas and the induced effects of the higher-order neighboring economic areas. This gives helpful hints on the issue of spatial interaction and regional policy coordination to start a virtuous circle of sustainable economic growth.

  4. ANALYSIS OF OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY, ORTHOPEDICS AND THORACIC SURGERY JOURNALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Wilma Terezinha Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    To perform an extensive analysis of journals in Medicine III - CAPES, and specifically those in the areas of Otorhinolaryngology, Orthopedics and Traumatology and Chest Surgery. An active search for the impact factors in the Journal Citation Reports, Scimago, their indexation in Scielo, Lilacs, Scopus and Google Scholar, and their stratification in WebQualis was done. Forty-four journals with measured impact factors ranging from 3.006 to 0.128 were detected in the area of Otorhinolaryngology; however, only 26 of them (60%) had a Qualis measured by CAPES; in the stratification, no journal was detected in A1, three were A2 and nine B1. Three journals were located for Chest Surgery, with only one of them having a measured Qualis (A2) with a mean of 3.61. Sixty-seven journals were detected for Orthopedics and Traumatology, with an impact factor ranging from 4.699 to 0.156; Qualis was measured in only 38 of them (60%); there were three journal stratified as A1, seven as A2 and 25 as B1. The search for journals of higher impact induces authors to not publish in journals related to their area and facing more difficulties than investigators from other areas. Realizar análise ampla dos periódicos da Medicina III - CAPES e, especificamente, os pertencentes à Otorrinolaringologia, Ortopedia e Traumatologia, e Cirurgia Torácica. Busca ativa do fator de impacto dos periódicos das áreas citadas no Journal Citation Report e Scimago, sua indexação no Scielo, Lilacs, Scopus, Google Scholar e sua estratificação no WebQualis. Para a Otorrinolaringologia foram encontrados 44 periódicos, cujo fator de impacto variou de 3.006 a 0.128; entretanto, apenas 26 deles (60%) tinham Qualis medido pela CAPES; nas estratificações encontrou-se nenhuma revista em A1, três em A2 e nove em B1. Para a Cirurgia Torácica foram localizados três periódicos, sendo que apenas um tinha Qualis medido (A2) com média de 3.61. Os resultados da busca para a Ortopedia e Traumatologia permitiu

  5. Modeling and analysis of multistate access to elective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, B; Brown, P; Zelt, D

    2001-06-01

    In this paper, we attempt to determine whether delays in scheduling operation affect waiting time in a queue for elective surgery. We analyze the waiting-list management system in a Canadian hospital. We estimate the impact of scheduling delays by modeling access to treatment as a multistate process. We found that patients with any delay in scheduling surgery had longer waiting times than patients without delays. For certain sources of delays, the admission rate was 50-60% lower compared with the rate for admissions without a delay independent of urgency of surgical intervention. Our findings support a concern that waiting time for elective surgery is not simply determined by how many patients are on the waiting list, or by how urgently they need treatment, but also by the waiting list management practice.

  6. [Risk Factor Analysis of Pneumonia after Cardiovascular Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Yoshiyuki; Abe, Shuichi; Nakamura, Ken; Uchida, Tetsuro; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki; Morikane, Keita

    2016-08-01

    Pneumonia is a major and life-threatening complication after cardiovascular surgery. The objective of our study was to describe epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and risk factors of pneumonia after cardiovascular surgery. From January 2007 to December 2011, 511 consecutive patients (age 67.3±11.9;336 men, 175 women) were enrolled in this study. Pneumonia was diagnosed according to Centers of Disease Control and Prevention surveillance criteria for healthcare associated infection. Data collection included preoperative, intraoperative, and post-operative variables. The overall incidence of pneumonia was 72 cases(14.0%). The mortality in pneumonia group was significantly higher than that in non-pneumonia group (16.6% vs 4.3%, Odds ratio 4.4 ppneumonia after cardiovascular surgery.

  7. Economic Performance Analysis of National Research and Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. S.; Yun, S. W.; Kim, S. E. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    There are a lot of differences between these two evaluation programs in terms of their main objectives, assessment items, and evaluation methods by item. When considering the recent evaluation trend of being more concerned with the objective and scientifically well-founded base of judgment than the qualitative results data, there seems to be much supplement and improvement points in both evaluation programs. Firstly, the MSIP's evaluation program which is known as 'The performance analysis of national R and D program in Korea is applying the principle of ex-post evaluation for the overall performances of R and D activities focusing on the scientific and technological outputs, economic effects, and social performances such as the training of science and engineering personnel. Its report has been done and published by the collaboration of MSIP and KISTEP(Korea Institute of Science and Technology Evaluation and Planning). There seems to be a trend that the economic contributions to the national economy and the industries by national R and D projects have been underestimated due to the difficulties of not presenting properly the reliable quantitative effects even though they have contributed not only to the real economy and economic growth but to the industrial productions and public benefits. The key reasons to this phenomenon might be the deficiency of perception for evaluation tools and methodologies development and the original difficulty of evaluation for R and D performances. Especially the evaluation results for national R and D projects could impact on the investment decision on the long-term national R and D program, with being based on the investment efficiency or the necessity and urgency which might be represented by evaluation results.

  8. Comparative analysis of late functional outcome following preoperative radiation therapy or chemoradiotherapy and surgery or surgery alone in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contin, Pietro; Kulu, Yakup; Bruckner, Thomas; Sturm, Martin; Welsch, Thilo; Müller-Stich, Beat P; Huber, Johannes; Büchler, Markus W; Ulrich, Alexis

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluates the anorectal and genitourinary function of patients treated by preoperative short-term radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery and surgery alone for rectal cancer. For this study, a total of 613 patients, who were identified from a prospective rectal cancer database, underwent anterior resection of the rectum between October 2001 and December 2007. Standardized questionnaires were used to determine fecal incontinence, urinary, and sexual function. Relevant clinical variables were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Independent predictors of functional outcome were identified by a binary logistic regression analysis. The data of 263 (43 %) patients were available for analysis. On multivariate analysis, neoadjuvant RT (P < 0.01) and low anterior resection (LAR) (P = 0.049) were associated with fecal incontinence. In univariate analysis, fecal incontinence was linked to preoperative neoadjuvant treatment (RT and/or CRT vs. LAR) (P < 0.01). The hazard ratio for developing fecal incontinence was 3.3 (1.6-6.8) for patients who received RT. One hundred twenty-five patients (51.2 %) experienced urinary incontinence following surgery, the majority of whom were female (P < 0.01). On univariate analysis, male sexual function was associated with age (P < 0.01), ASA class (P = 0.01) and LAR (P = 0.01). Multimodal therapy of low rectal cancer increases the incidence of fecal incontinence and negatively affects sexual function. The potential benefits of RT or CRT need to be balanced against the risk of increased bowel dysfunction when determining the appropriate treatment for individual patients with rectal cancer.

  9. Epilepsy surgery failure in children: a quantitative and qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englot, Dario J.; Han, Seunggu J.; Rolston, John D.; Ivan, Michael E.; Kuperman, Rachel A.; Chang, Edward F.; Gupta, Nalin; Sullivan, Joseph E.; Auguste, Kurtis I.

    2015-01-01

    Object Resection is a safe and effective treatment option for children with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy, but some patients continue experience seizures after surgery. While most studies of pediatric epilepsy surgery focus on predictors of postoperative seizure outcome, these factors are often not modifiable, and the reasons for surgical failure may remain unclear. Methods The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of children and adolescents who received focal resective surgery for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses of factors associated with persistent postoperative seizures were conducted. Results Records were reviewed from 110 patients, ranging in age from 6 months to 19 years at the time of surgery, who underwent a total of 115 resections. At a mean 3.1-year follow-up, 76% of patients were free of disabling seizures (Engel Class I outcome). Seizure freedom was predicted by temporal lobe surgery compared with extra-temporal resection, tumor or mesial temporal sclerosis compared with cortical dysplasia or other pathologies, and by a lower preoperative seizure frequency. Factors associated with persistent seizures (Engel Class II–IV outcome) included residual epileptogenic tissue adjacent to the resection cavity (40%), an additional epileptogenic zone distant from the resection cavity (32%), and the presence of a hemispheric epilepsy syndrome (28%). Conclusions While seizure outcomes in pediatric epilepsy surgery may be improved by the use of high-resolution neuroimaging and invasive electrographic studies, a more aggressive resection should be considered in certain patients, including hemispherectomy if a hemispheric epilepsy syndrome is suspected. Family counseling regarding treatment expectations is critical, and reoperation may be warranted in select cases. PMID:25127098

  10. Employing SWOT Analysis in Coursework on the Geographies of Regional Economic Development and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Sonnichsen, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The use of SWOT analysis is a means through which geography students can investigate key concepts in economic geography and essential topics in regional economic development. This article discusses the results of a course project where economic geography students employed SWOT analysis to explore medium-sized metropolitan areas across the southern…

  11. Employing SWOT Analysis in Coursework on the Geographies of Regional Economic Development and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Sonnichsen, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The use of SWOT analysis is a means through which geography students can investigate key concepts in economic geography and essential topics in regional economic development. This article discusses the results of a course project where economic geography students employed SWOT analysis to explore medium-sized metropolitan areas across the southern…

  12. Environmental and economic analysis of management systems for biodegradable waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonesson, U. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7033, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Bjoerklund, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology/Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Carlsson, M. [Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7013, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Dalemo, M. [Swedish Institute of Agricultural Engineering, P.O. Box 7033, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    The management system for solid and liquid organic waste affects the environment and surrounding technical systems in several ways. In order to decrease the environmental impact and resource use, biological waste treatment and alternative solutions for sewage treatment are often advocated. These alternatives include increased agricultural use of waste residuals. To analyse whether such proposed systems indicate improvements for the environment and its sustainability, systems analysis is a useful method. The changes in environmental impact and resource use is not only a result of changes in waste treatment methods, but also largely a result of changes in surrounding systems (energy and agriculture) caused by changes in waste management practices. In order to perform a systems analysis, a substance-flow simulation model, the organic waste research model (ORWARE), has been used. The results are evaluated by using methodology from life cycle assessment (LCA). An economic analysis was also performed on three of the studied scenarios. The management system for solid organic waste and sewage in the municipality of Uppsala, Sweden, was studied. Three scenarios for different treatments of solid waste were analysed: incineration with heat recovery, composting, and anaerobic digestion. These three scenarios included conventional sewage treatment. A fourth scenario reviewed was anaerobic digestion of solid waste, using urine-separating toilets and separate handling of the urine fraction. The results are only valid for the case study and under the assumptions made. In this case study anaerobic digestion result in the lowest environmental impact of all the solid waste management systems, but is costly. Economically, incineration with heat recovery is the cheapest way to treat solid waste. Composting gives environmental advantages compared to incineration methods, without significantly increased costs. Urine separation, which may be implemented together with any solid waste

  13. Robotic Surgery in Uro-Oncology: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Daniel; Thanigasalam, Ruban; Leslie, Scott; Maneck, Bharvi; Young, Jane M; Solomon, Michael

    2017-03-20

    Robotic surgery represents a new horizon in minimally-invasive urological surgery. This systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis examines the effectiveness of robotic surgery compared with laparoscopic or open surgery for major uro-oncological procedures. 25 articles reported findings from 8 trials of prostatectomy (4 trials) and cystectomy (4 trials) including 1033 participants. Robotic surgery is comparable to laparoscopic or open surgery for oncological outcomes, overall complications, and provides somewhat better functional outcome, when compared to laparoscopic and open surgery.

  14. Comparative Analysis on Two Accounting Systems of Rural Economic Originations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to normalize the financial account of two kinds of economic organizations,the comparative analysis is conducted on the Accounting System of Village Collective Economic Organization and Accounting System of Farmers’ Cooperatives(Trial) issued by the Ministry of Finance.The comparison points out that application and accounting principles of the two kinds of accounting systems are different.The differences and similarities of the five accounting elements are analyzed including property,liabilities,rights of owners,costs and profits and losses,as well as the reasons of the differences and similarities.Results show that both of the two accounting systems reflect the principles of simplification and clarification.The village collective accounting system works in rural village committee,which acts the administrative duties,the features of concerted benefits of it is showed.While the accounting system of farmers’ cooperatives is based on the village collective accounting system and combines the norms of accounting system of enterprises,so the system represents the demands of collaboration and profit-making.

  15. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors.

  16. Psychology of Economics in the Analysis of Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jonas Alves Correia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychology of Economics addresses issues far beyond market research. Thus, studies in this area also observe variables such as work, unemployment, decisions about purchases and savings, investments, financing, responses to advertising, among others. The present research was carried out with the objective of analyzing, through the fundamentals of consumer behavior, its relation to the propensity for compulsive or superfluous consumption. This quantitative study relates, using as means of phenomena and variables a description of the consumers behavior through the statistical tool Propensity Score Matching of Stata software. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data, which was applied online from April to August in 2016. Data analysis was performed by the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression with controlled dummy variables (dependent variable, whether or not it belongs to the consumer group Compulsive by the set of explanatory (independent variables. The results showed that the average monthly spending of compulsive consumers increases, and the higher the income of individuals, the greater the spending on unnecessary or superfluous consumption. Considering the gender variable, male individuals have higher levels of unnecessary spending and are prone to superfluous consumption. Thus, consumption is composed of influences for purchase and that the consumer determines consumption, according to economic position (income factor and cultural factors (customs, needs, impulsivities within the society.

  17. ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF FLU VACCINE PREVENTION FOR CHILDREN AND TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Yu. Belousov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinicalaeconomical analysis includes all possible treatament expenditures and possible profit from vaccinating chiladren and teenagers versus flue. It shoes that mass vaccination of children and teenagers will lead to lower disease incidence and mortality during epidemical rising of the disease and proavide significant economical effect both because of direct medaical expenses and because of collateral expenses. Collateral expenses are the main source of loss for the state of Russia from child and teenager flue and sars. Vaccination brings sick leaves and lost time payments down by 57%, expenses for treataing flue and sars together with their complications by 52%. In the Russian society total child and teenager vaccination appears as more profitable, for insurance companies as well. in this case insurance companies will be able to benefit from indirect medaical profit and, most probably, won't be needing state subsidizing for conducting total vaccination against flue of all citizens aged under 14. Antiaflue vaccination is feasible both in terms of clinical results and economic feasibility.Key words: pharmaeconomics, flue, sars, children, teenagers, vaccine prevention.

  18. Economic viability analysis of carbon credits from sawmill residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilha, Jesse Luis; Canto, Sergio Aruana Elarrat; Duarte, Andre Augusto Azevedo Montenegro; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia (ITEC)]. E-mails: jessepadilha@hotmail.com; aruana@ufpa.br; amonte@ufpa.br; mfmn@ufpa.br

    2008-07-01

    Discussions on climate change began in Rio de Janeiro in the 1992 Conference on Poverty and the Environment, and since that time this problem has gained significant importance. A great advance in these discussions was made at the Kyoto Conference when Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) were devised to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, such as Carbon Credits for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. Brazil has an exceptionally fine position with respect to the Kyoto treaty since it is a naturally large biomass producer providing an option for gaining Carbon credits by substituting petroleum for biomass as a fuel for industries, such as the lumber industry. This study examines the economic viability of using bio-fuels in sawmills as a way to obtain CDM. Two approach are used here. First, the credits are obtained substituting diesel fuel for biomass and the second is without diesel fuel substitution. For these analyses, economic simulations were made with, Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Payback. Furthermore, sensibility analysis for alternative scenario were performed. (author)

  19. Notes on economic time series analysis system theoretic perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Masanao

    1983-01-01

    In seminars and graduate level courses I have had several opportunities to discuss modeling and analysis of time series with economists and economic graduate students during the past several years. These experiences made me aware of a gap between what economic graduate students are taught about vector-valued time series and what is available in recent system literature. Wishing to fill or narrow the gap that I suspect is more widely spread than my personal experiences indicate, I have written these notes to augment and reor­ ganize materials I have given in these courses and seminars. I have endeavored to present, in as much a self-contained way as practicable, a body of results and techniques in system theory that I judge to be relevant and useful to economists interested in using time series in their research. I have essentially acted as an intermediary and interpreter of system theoretic results and perspectives in time series by filtering out non-essential details, and presenting coherent accounts of wha...

  20. Strategic laparoscopic surgery for improved cosmesis in general and bariatric surgery: analysis of initial 127 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ninh T; Smith, Brian R; Reavis, Kevin M; Nguyen, Xuan-Mai T; Nguyen, Brian; Stamos, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    Strategic laparoscopic surgery for improved cosmesis (SLIC) is a less invasive surgical approach than conventional laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of SLIC for general and bariatric surgical operations. Additionally, we compared the outcomes of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with those performed by the SLIC technique. In an academic medical center, from April 2008 to December 2010, 127 patients underwent SLIC procedures: 38 SLIC cholecystectomy, 56 SLIC gastric banding, 26 SLIC sleeve gastrectomy, 1 SLIC gastrojejunostomy, and 6 SLIC appendectomy. SLIC sleeve gastrectomy was initially performed through a single 4.0-cm supraumbilical incision with extraction of the gastric specimen through the same incision. The technique evolved to laparoscopic incisions that were all placed within the umbilicus and suprapubic region. There were no 30-day or in-hospital mortalities or 30-day re-admissions or re-operations. For SLIC cholecystectomy, gastric banding, appendectomy, and gastrojejunostomy, conversion to conventional laparoscopy occurred in 5.3%, 5.4%, 0%, and 0%, respectively; there were no major or minor postoperative complications. For SLIC sleeve gastrectomy, there were no significant differences in mean operative time and length of hospital stay compared with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; 1 (3.8%) of 26 SLIC patients required conversion to five-port laparoscopy. There were no major complications. Minor complications occurred in 7.7% in the SLIC sleeve group versus 8.3% in the laparoscopic sleeve group. SLIC in general and bariatric operations is technically feasible, safe, and associated with a low rate of conversion to conventional laparoscopy. Compared with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, SLIC sleeve gastrectomy can be performed without a prolonged operative time with comparable perioperative outcomes.

  1. Solvency, Indebtedness, Rates of Return and Investment Impact on Economic and Technical Analysis Indicators (Case Study)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Chiran; Elena Gîndu; A.F. Jităreanu; C.R. Vîntu; Adriana Măgureanu

    2015-01-01

    .... The authors have based the research on the technical-economic and financial analysis of investments, which sets economic efficiency and investments viability and assumes forecast of revenue, expenses...

  2. [Comparison of open versus laparoscopic surgeries for adrenal tumor: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mao-Hu; Zhu, Xiao-Ying; Miao, Rui; He, Lei; Jia, Ning

    2016-11-20

    To systematically review the effectiveness and safety of open and laparoscopic surgeries for treatment of adrenal tumors. The online databases including CNKI, PUBMED, SinoMed, EBSCO, Springerlink, WanFang Data, and VIP were searched for clinical trials published from 1999 to 2016. A meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 software. A total of 2340 patients in 25 trials were included. The results of meta-analysis showed that laparoscopic surgery was better than open surgery in terms of intestinal function recovery time (OR=-0.96, 95%CI [-1.22, -0.70] P<0.000 01), hospitalization time (OR=-3.48, 95%CI [-4.13, -2.78], P<0.000 01), complications (OR=0.22, 95%CI [0.14, 0.35], P<0.0001), and volume of blood loss (OR=-104.77, 95%CI [-138.95, -70.60], P<0.000 01). There was no significant difference in the surgery cost between open and laparoscopic surgeries. Laparoscopic surgery is superior to open surgery for treatment of adrenal tumors for shorter intestinal function recovery time, surgery duration, and hospitalization time and less complications and blood loss.

  3. Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Richard; Alatise, Olusegun Isaac; Anderson, Benjamin O; Audisio, Riccardo; Autier, Philippe; Aggarwal, Ajay; Balch, Charles; Brennan, Murray F; Dare, Anna; D'Cruz, Anil; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Fleming, Kenneth; Gueye, Serigne Magueye; Hagander, Lars; Herrera, Cristian A; Holmer, Hampus; Ilbawi, André M; Jarnheimer, Anton; Ji, Jia-Fu; Kingham, T Peter; Liberman, Jonathan; Leather, Andrew J M; Meara, John G; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Murthy, Shilpa S; Omar, Sherif; Parham, Groesbeck P; Pramesh, C S; Riviello, Robert; Rodin, Danielle; Santini, Luiz; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Shrime, Mark; Thomas, Robert; Tsunoda, Audrey T; van de Velde, Cornelis; Veronesi, Umberto; Vijaykumar, Dehannathparambil Kottarathil; Watters, David; Wang, Shan; Wu, Yi-Long; Zeiton, Moez; Purushotham, Arnie

    2015-09-01

    Surgery is essential for global cancer care in all resource settings. Of the 15.2 million new cases of cancer in 2015, over 80% of cases will need surgery, some several times. By 2030, we estimate that annually 45 million surgical procedures will be needed worldwide. Yet, less than 25% of patients with cancer worldwide actually get safe, affordable, or timely surgery. This Commission on global cancer surgery, building on Global Surgery 2030, has examined the state of global cancer surgery through an analysis of the burden of surgical disease and breadth of cancer surgery, economics and financing, factors for strengthening surgical systems for cancer with multiple-country studies, the research agenda, and the political factors that frame policy making in this area. We found wide equity and economic gaps in global cancer surgery. Many patients throughout the world do not have access to cancer surgery, and the failure to train more cancer surgeons and strengthen systems could result in as much as US $6.2 trillion in lost cumulative gross domestic product by 2030. Many of the key adjunct treatment modalities for cancer surgery--e.g., pathology and imaging--are also inadequate. Our analysis identified substantial issues, but also highlights solutions and innovations. Issues of access, a paucity of investment in public surgical systems, low investment in research, and training and education gaps are remarkably widespread. Solutions include better regulated public systems, international partnerships, super-centralisation of surgical services, novel surgical clinical trials, and new approaches to improve quality and scale up cancer surgical systems through education and training. Our key messages are directed at many global stakeholders, but the central message is that to deliver safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery to all, surgery must be at the heart of global and national cancer control planning.

  4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Andreea STROE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  6. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Sahin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  7. The October 1973 NASA mission model analysis and economic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of the 1973 NASA Mission Model Analysis. The purpose was to obtain an economic assessment of using the Shuttle to accommodate the payloads and requirements as identified by the NASA Program Offices and the DoD. The 1973 Payload Model represents a baseline candidate set of future payloads which can be used as a reference base for planning purposes. The cost of implementing these payload programs utilizing the capabilities of the shuttle system is analyzed and compared with the cost of conducting the same payload effort using expendable launch vehicles. There is a net benefit of 14.1 billion dollars as a result of using the shuttle during the 12-year period as compared to using an expendable launch vehicle fleet.

  8. LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC TERMS IN CULTURAL CONTEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurenkova, Y.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of a comparative analysis of five economic terms ("business", "competition", "salary", "boss", "profit" in the context of the culture of Russia and the United States. The research shows that some words were borrowed in both languages from different sources (for example, "salary", some of them were borrowed from one source (for example, "business", and some were received from own original words (for example, "profit", "boss". Comparison of cultural contexts and dictionary entries shows that the terms analyzed in this paper primarily help to understand how the two countries (Russia and the US can be culturally different. The study also illustrates how these terms have developed their own additional meanings, characteristic of their cultural and social development. Consequently, certain concepts can be transformed through the prism of a cultural vision of the world of different peoples.

  9. An approach for economic analysis of intermodal transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Bahri; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  10. An Economic Analysis of Identity and Career Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth; Kleinjans, Kristin J.; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2007-01-01

    Standard economic models which focus on pecuniary payoffs cannot explain why there are highly able individuals who choose careers with low pecuniary re- turns. Therefore, financial incentives are unlikely to be effective in influencing career choices of these individuals. Based on Akerlof...... and Kranton (2000), we con- sider a model of career choice and identity where individuals derive non-pecuniary identity payoffs. Using factor analysis on a range of attitude questions, we find two factors related to identity (career orientation and social orientation), which are important for educational...... choices. The implication is that policymakers and institutions of higher education need to focus on identity related issues rather than just improved financial incentives if they aim at attracting the high ability youth to occupations with excess demand for labor....

  11. The Alberta population-based prospective evaluation of the quality of life outcomes and economic impact of bariatric surgery (APPLES study: background, design and rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCargar Linda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extreme obesity affects nearly 8% of Canadians, and is debilitating, costly and ultimately lethal. Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment available; is associated with reductions in morbidity/mortality, improvements in quality of life; and appears cost-effective. However, current demand for surgery in Canada outstrips capacity by at least 1000-fold, causing exponential increases in already protracted, multi-year wait-times. The objectives and hypotheses of this study were as follows: 1. To serially assess the clinical, economic and humanistic outcomes in patients wait-listed for bariatric care over a 2-year period. We hypothesize deterioration in these outcomes over time; 2. To determine the clinical effectiveness and changes in quality of life associated with modern bariatric procedures compared with medically treated and wait-listed controls over 2 years. We hypothesize that surgery will markedly reduce weight, decrease the need for unplanned medical care, and increase quality of life; 3. To conduct a 3-year (1 year retrospective and 2 year prospective economic assessment of bariatric surgery compared to medical and wait-listed controls from the societal, public payor, and health-care payor perspectives. We hypothesize that lower indirect, out of pocket and productivity costs will offset increased direct health-care costs resulting in lower total costs for bariatric surgery. Methods/design Population-based prospective cohort study of 500 consecutive, consenting adults, including 150 surgically treated patients, 200 medically treated patients and 150 wait-listed patients. Subjects will be enrolled from the Edmonton Weight Wise Regional Obesity Program (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, with prospective bi-annual follow-up for 2 years. Mixed methods data collection, linking primary data to provincial administrative databases will be employed. Major outcomes include generic, obesity-specific and preference

  12. An Analysis of the College's Economic Impact, 1996-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Fred

    This economic impact study examines the ways in which Pellissippi State Technical Community College (Tennessee) is a major contributor to the economic base of Knox and Blount Counties. The report is based on a standard model of economic impact modified for community colleges, and it uses conservative income and employment modifiers to determine…

  13. An Analysis of Contributions and Contributors in Economic Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, James W., Jr.; Durden, Garey C.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of 25 years of the content and contributors in economic education research. Finds that economic education has become a legitimate subfield within economics and has grown from mostly descriptive research to sophisticated mathematical and econometric models. (CFR)

  14. Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Foreign Exchange Reserves to Economic Growth in Emerging Economics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed the effect of the accumulation of foreign exchange reserves to economic growth in emerging countries. In order to empirical estimates of the impact of foreign exchange reserves to economic growth in emerging countries, were collected annual data on real GDP per capita, share of investment in GDP and population from the database of the International Monetary Fund (IMF WEO) in October 2013, while data from the level of foreign exchange reserves statistics collected fro...

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory Economic Analysis Capability Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Information Systems and Modeling Group; Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Information Systems and Modeling Group; Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Information Systems and Modeling Group; Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Information Systems and Modeling Group

    2016-04-19

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed two types of models to compute the economic impact of infrastructure disruptions. FastEcon is a fast running model that estimates first-­order economic impacts of large scale events such as hurricanes and floods and can be used to identify the amount of economic activity that occurs in a specific area. LANL’s Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model estimates more comprehensive static and dynamic economic impacts of a broader array of events and captures the interactions between sectors and industries when estimating economic impacts.

  16. Analysis of related factors affecting prognosis of shunt surgery in patients with secondary normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng; DU Hang-gen; YIN Li-chun; HE Min; ZHANG Guo-jun; TIAN Yong; HAO Bi-lie

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The management of secondary normal pressure hydrocephalus (sNPH) is controversial.Many factors may affect the surgery effect.The purpose of this study was to identify the possible factors influencing prognosis and provide theoretical basis for clinical treatment of sNPH.Methods:A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the results of 31 patients with sNPH who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery from January 2007 to December 2011.We processed the potential influencing factors by univariate analysis and the result further by multivariate logistic regression analysis.Results:Factors including age,disease duration and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score before surgery significantly influenced the prognosis of sNPH (P<0.05).Further logistic regression analysis showed that all the three factors are independent influencing factors.Conclusion:Age,disease duration and GCS score before surgery have positive predictive value in estimating favorable response to surgical treatment for sNPH.

  17. Financial incentives for lumbar surgery: a critical analysis of physician reimbursement for decompression and fusion procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Peter G; Lim, Moe R; Sasso, Rick C; Skelton, Alta; Brown, Zoe B; Greg Anderson, David; Albert, Todd J; Hilibrand, Alan S; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective case-control study/economic analysis. To determine the treatment times required for isolated lumbar decompressions and for combined decompression and instrumented fusion procedures to compare the relative reimbursements for each type of operation as a function of time expenditure by the surgeon. Under current Medicare fee schedules, the payment for a fusion procedure is higher than of an isolated decompression. It has been recently suggested in the lay press that the greater reimbursement for a lumbar arthrodesis may inappropriately influence the manner in which surgeons elect to treat lumbar degenerative conditions, resulting in what they believe to be a substantial number of unnecessary spinal fusions. A consecutive series of 50 single-level decompression cases performed by single surgeon were retrospectively analyzed and compared with an equivalent cohort of subjects who underwent single-level decompression and instrumented posterolateral fusion with autogenous iliac crest bone grafting. The operative reports, office charts, and billing records were reviewed to determine the total clinical time invested by the surgeon and the Medicare reimbursement for each surgery. Relative to the corresponding values of the decompression group, combined decompression and fusion procedures were associated with a longer mean surgical time (134.6 min vs. 47.3 min, Pundue financial incentive to recommend a combined decompression and instrumented fusion procedure over an isolated decompression to patients with symptomatic lumbar degeneration, especially when considering the greater time, effort, and risk characteristic of this more complex operation.

  18. Indication for cataract surgery. Do we have evidence of who will benefit from surgery? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte; Flesner, Per; Tendal, Britta; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2016-02-01

    The need for cataract surgery is expected to rise dramatically in the future due to the increasing proportion of elderly citizens and increasing demands for optimum visual function. The aim of this study was to provide an evidence-based recommendation for the indication of cataract surgery based on which group of patients are most likely to benefit from surgery. A systematic literature search was performed in the MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and COCHRANE LIBRARY databases. Studies evaluating the outcome after cataract surgery according to preoperative visual acuity and visual complaints were included in a meta-analysis. We identified eight observational studies comparing outcome after cataract surgery in patients with poor (20/40) preoperative visual acuity. We could not find any studies that compared outcome after cataract surgery in patients with few or many preoperative visual complaints. A meta-analysis showed that the outcome of cataract surgery, evaluated as objective and subjective visual improvement, was independent on preoperative visual acuity. There is a lack of scientific evidence to guide the clinician in deciding which patients are most likely to benefit from surgery. To overcome this shortage of evidence, many systems have been developed internationally to prioritize patients on waiting lists for cataract surgery, but the Swedish NIKE (Nationell Indikationsmodell för Katarakt Ekstraktion) is the only system where an association to the preoperative scoring of a patient has been related to outcome of cataract surgery. We advise that clinicians are inspired by the NIKE system when they decide which patients to operate to ensure that surgery is only offered to patients who are expected to benefit from cataract surgery.

  19. Effects of conventional versus laparoscopic surgery in treatment of congenital bile duct dilatation: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Houbin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo compare the clinical effects of conventional versus laparoscopic surgery in adults with congenital bile duct dilatation. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 37 patients with congenital bile duct dilation who were treated in our hospital from February 2011 to February 2013. All the 37 cases underwent bile duct cyst resection and common hepatic duct-jejunal Roux-en-Y anastomosis; 20 of them (study group underwent laparoscopic surgery, while the other 17 cases (control group underwent open surgery. The mean operative time, mean intraoperative blood loss, mean length of hospital stay after surgery, mean time to first flatus after surgery, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Comparison of continuous data between the two groups was made by t test, while comparison of categorical data was made by chi-square test. ResultsCompared with the control group, the study group had a significantly longer operative time (P<0.05 but significantly less mean intraoperative blood loss, mean length of hospital stay after surgery, and mean time to first flatus after surgery (P<0.05. The incidence of postoperative complications showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05. ConclusionCompared with conventional surgery, laparoscopic bile duct cyst resection and common hepatic duct-jejunal Roux-en-Y anastomosis is less invasive and safer and leads to faster recovery in adults with congenital bile duct dilation, and it is worthy of clinical application.

  20. Clinical analysis of suprachoroidal hemorrhage complicated by intraocular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Hong Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore clinical characteristics of supracho-roidal hemorrhage(SCHcomplicated by intraocular surgery and to observe visual prognosis. METHODS:A total of 13 eyes(13 caseswith SCH related to intraocular surgery from June 2005 to June 2015 were included and respectively studied. The age of our cases ranged from 22 to 76. Of all, 4 eyes(31%were concomitant with hypertension, 6 eyes(46%with high myopia and 6 eyes(46%with oculi hypertonia, respectively. Intraoperative expulsive SCH occurred in 8 eyes, while postoperative delayed SCH in 5 eyes. The most SCH(7 eyeshappened during the surgery of removing silicone oil, 4 eyes with SCH were related to extracapsular cataract extraction(ECCE, 1 SCH eye was complicated by ECCE combined with trabeculectomy and 1 SCH eye by lensectomy and vitrectomy. As for treatment, 5 eyes took medication alone, 4 eyes were performed drainage sclerotomy and gas tamponade, while the other 4 eyes were accomplished vitrectomy with adjunctive perfluoro-carbon liquids and silicone oil tamponade. RESULTS:At the 10-month of follow-up, all eyes with SCH were resolved. Except 1 eye with no light perception owing to abandoning treatment, the sights of the other 12 eyes were between light perception and 0.4. CONCLUSION:SCH complicated by intraocular surgery was rare but with devastating outcome. Aged patients, hypertension, high myopia and oculi hypertonia may be risk factors. In addition, surgical methods in the early years were likely correlated to the occurrence of SCH. Certain sight of the patients with SCH may be maintained after positive treatment.

  1. Economics of lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2009-11-01

    Interest in alternatives to fossil fuels has risen significantly during the current decade. Although a variety of different alternative technologies have experienced rapid growth, biofuels have emerged as the main alternative transportation fuel. Energy policies in several countries envision blending biofuels with fossil fuels as the main mechanism to increase energy independence and energy security. Climate change policies in several regions are also riding on the same hope for reducing emissions from transportation. The main advantage of biofuels is that they are technically mature, cheaper to produce and more convenient to use relative to other alternative fuels. However, the impact of current biofuels on the environment and on economic welfare, is controversial. In my dissertation I focus on three topics relevant to future energy and climate policies. The first is the economics of lifecycle analysis and its application to the assessment of environmental impact of biofuel policies. The potential of biofuel for reducing greenhouse gas emissions was brought to the fore by research that relied on the methodology called lifecycle analysis (LCA). Subsequent research however showed that the traditional LCA fails to account for market-mediated effects that will arise when biofuel technologies are scaled up. These effects can increase or decrease emissions at each stage of the lifecycle. I discuss how the LCA will differ depending on the scale, a single firm versus a region and why LCA of the future should be distinguished from LCA of the past. I describe some approaches for extending the LCA methodology so that it can be applied under these different situations. The second topic is the economic impact of biofuels. Biofuels reduce the demand for oil and increase the demand for agricultural goods. To high income countries which tend to be both large importers of oil and large exporters of agricultural goods, this implies two major benefits. One of the one hand it reduces

  2. Performance analysis of exam gloves used for aseptic rodent surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoine, Dana M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Freed, Carrie

    2015-05-01

    Aseptic technique includes the use of sterile surgical gloves for survival surgeries in rodents to minimize the incidence of infections. Exam gloves are much less expensive than are surgical gloves and may represent a cost-effective, readily available option for use in rodent surgery. This study examined the effectiveness of surface disinfection of exam gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (HP-PA) in reducing bacterial contamination. Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham 'exertion' activity. According to these criteria, 94% of HP-PA-disinfected gloves passed, compared with 47% of alcohol-disinfected gloves. In addition, the effect of autoclaving on the integrity of exam gloves was examined, given that autoclaving is another readily available option for aseptic preparation. Performance criteria for glove integrity after autoclaving consisted of: the ability to don the gloves followed by successful simulation of wound closure and completion of stretch tests without tearing or observable defects. Using this criteria, 98% of autoclaved nitrile exam gloves and 76% of autoclaved latex exam gloves met performance expectations compared with the performance of standard surgical gloves (88% nitrile, 100% latex). The results of this study support the use of HP-PA-disinfected latex and nitrile exam gloves or autoclaved nitrile exam gloves as viable cost-effective alternatives to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries.

  3. inVestIgating the pSychologIcal and ecONomic impAct of cataRact surgerY in Vietnam: The VISIONARY observational study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Huynh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment caused by cataracts not only affects an individual's quality of life but can also have a profound impact on other important psychological factors and on the economic circumstances of individuals and their households. Cataract surgery is an effective intervention to restore vision and is also associated with other positive consequences including improvements in quality of life, economic and psychological outcomes. While there has been an increase in the number and quality of cataract surgeries performed in Vietnam, the programs currently in place are still unable to meet the existing demand and need for surgery. Data on both the cost-effectiveness of cataract surgery and the economic and psychological impact of untreated cataract in this setting is lacking. Methods/Design This study, investigating the psychological and economic impact of cataract surgery in Vietnam (VISIONARY, will recruit and interview a sample of adults (18 years or over who are referred for cataract surgery by one of the following sites and their outreach programs: Hue Eye Hospital; Thai Binh Eye Hospital; Binh Dinh Department of Health Eye Hospital and the Vinh Long Department of Health Social Disease Centre. All participants (those who have cataract surgery and those who do not have surgery will be followed up at six and 12 months. Discussion This study is designed to examine the impact of low vision on household economic circumstances and psychological outcomes as well as to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cataract surgery in Vietnam. It will help to inform international and national non-government organisations working in the country and local policy-makers on priorities for further investment in eye-health services in this setting and their relevance to broader economic development goals.

  4. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology.

  5. ECONOMIC AND ENERGETICAL ANALYSIS OF IMPROVED WASTE UTILIZATION PLASMA TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei VAMBOL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Energy and economic evaluation of the improved plasma waste utilization technological process, as well as an expediency substantiation of the use of improved plasma technology by comparing its energy consumption with other thermal methods of utilization. Methodology. Analysis of existing modern and advanced methods of waste management and its impact on environmental safety. Considering of energy and monetary costs to implement two different waste management technologies. Results. Studies have shown regular gasification ensure greater heating value due to differences, a significant amount of nitrogen than for plasma gasification. From the point of view of minimizing energy and monetary costs and environmental safety more promising is to offer advanced technology for plasma waste. To carry out the energy assessment of the appropriateness of the considered technologies-comparative calculation was carried out at the standard conditions. This is because in the processing of waste produced useful products, such as liquefied methane, synthetic gas (94% methane and a fuel gas for heating, suitable for sale that provides cost-effectiveness of this technology. Originality. Shown and evaluated ecological and economic efficiency of proposed improved plasma waste utilization technology compared with other thermal techniques. Practical value. Considered and grounded of energy and monetary costs to implement two different waste management technologies, namely ordinary gasification and using plasma generators. Proposed plasma waste utilization technology allows to obtain useful products, such as liquefied methane, synthetic gas and a fuel gas for heating, which are suitable for sale. Plant for improved plasma waste utilization technological process allows to compensate the daily and seasonal electricity and heat consumption fluctuations by allowing the storage of obtained fuel products.

  6. Economic Analysis of Vaccination Strategies for PRRS Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C L Linhares

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv is a swine-specific pathogen that causes significant increases in production costs. When a breeding herd becomes infected, in an attempt to hasten control and elimination of PRRSv, some veterinarians have adopted a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introductions into the herd for several weeks (herd closure and exposing the whole herd to a replicating PRRSv to boost herd immunity. Either modified-live virus (MLV vaccine or live field-virus inoculation (FVI is used. This study consisted of partial budget analyses to compare MLV to FVI as the exposure method of load-close-expose program to control and eliminate PRRSv from infected breeding herds, and secondly to estimate benefit / cost of vaccinating sow herds preventatively. Under the assumptions used in this study, MLV held economic advantage over FVI. However, sensitivity analysis revealed that decreasing margin over variable costs below $ 47.32, or increasing PRRSv-attributed cost above $18.89 or achieving time-to-stability before 25 weeks resulted in advantage of FVI over MLV. Preventive vaccination of sow herds was beneficial when the frequency of PRRSv infection was at least every 2.1 years. The economics of preventative vaccination was minimally affected by cost attributed to field-type PRRSv infection on growing pigs or by the breeding herd productivity level. The models developed and described in this paper provide valuable tools to assist veterinarians in their efforts to control PRRSv.

  7. Advanced High Temperature Reactor Systems and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a large-output [3400 MW(t)] fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The AHTR's large thermal output enables direct comparison of its performance and requirements with other high output reactor concepts. As high-temperature plants, FHRs can support either high-efficiency electricity generation or industrial process heat production. The AHTR analysis presented in this report is limited to the electricity generation mission. FHRs, in principle, have the potential to be low-cost electricity producers while maintaining full passive safety. However, no FHR has been built, and no FHR design has reached the stage of maturity where realistic economic analysis can be performed. The system design effort described in this report represents early steps along the design path toward being able to predict the cost and performance characteristics of the AHTR as well as toward being able to identify the technology developments necessary to build an FHR power plant. While FHRs represent a distinct reactor class, they inherit desirable attributes from other thermal power plants whose characteristics can be studied to provide general guidance on plant configuration, anticipated performance, and costs. Molten salt reactors provide experience on the materials, procedures, and components necessary to use liquid fluoride salts. Liquid metal reactors provide design experience on using low-pressure liquid coolants, passive decay heat removal, and hot refueling. High temperature gas-cooled reactors provide experience with coated particle fuel and graphite components. Light water reactors (LWRs) show the potentials of transparent, high-heat capacity coolants with low chemical reactivity. Modern coal-fired power plants provide design experience

  8. Economic Analysis Case Studies of Battery Energy Storage with SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Interest in energy storage has continued to increase as states like California have introduced mandates and subsidies to spur adoption. This energy storage includes customer sited behind-the-meter storage coupled with photovoltaics (PV). This paper presents case study results from California and Tennessee, which were performed to assess the economic benefit of customer-installed systems. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued.

  9. Micro-economic impact of congenital heart surgery: results of a prospective study from a limited-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Raj

    Full Text Available The microeconomic impact of surgery for congenital heart disease is unexplored, particularly in resource limited environments. We sought to understand the direct and indirect costs related to congenital heart surgery and its impact on Indian households from a family perspective.Baseline and first follow-up data of 644 consecutive children admitted for surgery for congenital heart disease (March 2013 - July 2014 in a tertiary referral hospital in Central Kerala, South India was collected prospectivelyfrom parents through questionnaires using a semi-structured interview schedule.The median age was 8.2 months (IQR: 3.0- 36.0 months. Most families belonged to upper middle (43.0% and lower middle (35.7% socioeconomic class. Only 3.9% of families had some form of health insurance. The median expense for the admission and surgery was INR 201898 (IQR: 163287-266139 [I$ 11989 (IQR: 9696-15804], which was 0.93 (IQR: 0.52-1.49 times the annual family income of affected patients. Median loss of man-days was 35 (IQR: 24-50 and job-days was 15 (IQR: 11-24. Surgical risk category and hospital stay duration significantly predicted higher costs. One in two families reported overwhelming to high financial stress during admission period for surgery. Approximately half of the families borrowed money during the follow up period after surgery.Surgery for congenital heart disease results in significant financial burden for majority of families studied. Efforts should be directed at further reductions in treatment costs without compromising the quality of care together with generating financial support for affected families.

  10. Micro-economic impact of congenital heart surgery: results of a prospective study from a limited-resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Manu; Paul, Mary; Sudhakar, Abish; Varghese, Anu Alphonse; Haridas, Aareesh Chittulliparamb; Kabali, Conrad; Kumar, Raman Krishna

    2015-01-01

    The microeconomic impact of surgery for congenital heart disease is unexplored, particularly in resource limited environments. We sought to understand the direct and indirect costs related to congenital heart surgery and its impact on Indian households from a family perspective. Baseline and first follow-up data of 644 consecutive children admitted for surgery for congenital heart disease (March 2013 - July 2014) in a tertiary referral hospital in Central Kerala, South India was collected prospectivelyfrom parents through questionnaires using a semi-structured interview schedule. The median age was 8.2 months (IQR: 3.0- 36.0 months). Most families belonged to upper middle (43.0%) and lower middle (35.7%) socioeconomic class. Only 3.9% of families had some form of health insurance. The median expense for the admission and surgery was INR 201898 (IQR: 163287-266139) [I$ 11989 (IQR: 9696-15804)], which was 0.93 (IQR: 0.52-1.49) times the annual family income of affected patients. Median loss of man-days was 35 (IQR: 24-50) and job-days was 15 (IQR: 11-24). Surgical risk category and hospital stay duration significantly predicted higher costs. One in two families reported overwhelming to high financial stress during admission period for surgery. Approximately half of the families borrowed money during the follow up period after surgery. Surgery for congenital heart disease results in significant financial burden for majority of families studied. Efforts should be directed at further reductions in treatment costs without compromising the quality of care together with generating financial support for affected families.

  11. Dynamic changes in morphometric analysis in patients following Class III bimaxillary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downarowicz, Patrycja; Matthews-Brzozowska, Teresa; Kawala, Beata; Drohomyretska, Myroslava

    2012-01-01

    Prognathism of the mandible is a skeletal Class III abnormality, caused either by excessive forward growth of the mandible or maxillary underdevelopment. The aim of the study was to assess dynamic changes in morphometric analysis on subjects presenting with Class III malocclusions before orthodontic treatment, before bimaxillary surgery and after surgery. The sample consisted of 30 non-growing patients, at the age of 18 to 30, treated with mandibular set-back sagittal split osteotomy and maxillary Le Fort I advancement. Cephalometric analysis by Segner and Hasund was performed. Lateral cephalograms were taken at the beginning of orthodontic treatment (T0), immediately before surgery (T1) and at least 3-6 months after surgery (T2). The results showed that there was normalization of the cephalometric variables after surgery. In the sagittal plane the following skeletal changes were observed: preoperative anterior mandibular growth confirmed by SNB increased angle was significantly reduced after surgery; preoperative decreased SNA angle largely increased after surgery. Statistically significant GntgoAr mandible angle decreased after surgery in relation to the beginning state. Also, the H angle was increased as a result of orthodontic-surgical treatment which influenced positively on face esthetics. The results of our study indicate that there was a significant improvement in the correlation between soft and hard tissue change in the facial profiles of the Class III bimaxillary surgery patients, which was improved by the H angle. The face's photographs and cephalometric analysis indicate, after the operation there is a decrease of total face length, but the lower part still remains longer than a middle part of the face.

  12. Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Renal Function in Obese Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Zou, Jianan; Ye, Zhibin; Di, Jianzhong; Han, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hongwei; Liu, Weijie; Ren, Qinggui; Zhang, Pin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor of development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data on the benefits of bariatric surgery in obese patients with impaired kidney function have been conflicting. To explore whether there is improvement in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria or albuminuria after bariatric surgery. We comprehensively searched the databases of MEDLINE, Embase, web of science and Cochrane for randomized, controlled trials and observational studies that examined bariatric surgery in obese subjects with impaired kidney function. Outcomes included the pre- and post-bariatric surgery GFR, proteinuria and albuminuria. In obese patients with hyperfiltration, we draw conclusions from studies using measured GFR (inulin or iothalamate clearance) unadjusted for BSA only. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. 32 observational studies met our inclusion criteria, and 30 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No matter in dichotomous data or in dichotomous data, there were statistically significant reduction in hyperfiltration, albuminuria and proteinuria after bariatric surgery. The main limitation of this meta-analysis is the lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Another limitation is the lack of long-term follow-up. Bariatric surgery could prevent further decline in renal function by reducing proteinuria, albuminuria and improving glomerular hyperfiltration in obese patients with impaired renal function. However, whether bariatric surgery reverses CKD or delays ESRD progression is still in question, large, randomized prospective studies with a longer follow-up are needed.

  13. Efficacy of non-penetrating trabecular surgery for open angle glaucoma:a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金伟; 马晓晔; 魏锐

    2004-01-01

    Background Non-penetrating trabecular surgery is a new filtrating surgery without opening in ternal trabecular structures. This study was to estimate the overall efficacy of non-penetrating trabecular surgery for open angle glaucoma.Methods The published articles selected for this study were obtained by a computerised Medline and China Biological Medicine Disk search of the literature and a manual search of the bibliographies of relevant articles. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed systematically, and the reported data were aggregated using the statistical techniques of meta-analysis.Results A total of 37 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled complete success rates of non-penetrating trabecular surgery with different techniques were: deep sclerectomy single, 69.7% (95% CI: 58.5%-81.0%); deep sclerectomy with collagen implant, 59.4% (95% CI: 47.0%-71.8%); deep sclerectomy with reticulated hyaluronic acid implant, 71.1% (95% CI: 56.8%-85.3%); and viscocanalostomy, 72.0% (95% CI: 57.6%-86.4%). The overall weighted complete success rate of non-penetrating trabecular surgery was 67.8% (95% CI: 61.4%-74.3%).Conclusions Non-penetrating trabecular surgery is the best available therapy method for medically uncontrolled open angle glaucoma with a complete success rate of over 60%. But the different techniques cannot belie the complete success rate of non-penetrating trabecular surgery.

  14. Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Renal Function in Obese Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhibin; Di, Jianzhong; Han, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hongwei; Liu, Weijie; Ren, Qinggui; Zhang, Pin

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is an independent risk factor of development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data on the benefits of bariatric surgery in obese patients with impaired kidney function have been conflicting. Objective To explore whether there is improvement in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria or albuminuria after bariatric surgery. Methods We comprehensively searched the databases of MEDLINE, Embase, web of science and Cochrane for randomized, controlled trials and observational studies that examined bariatric surgery in obese subjects with impaired kidney function. Outcomes included the pre- and post-bariatric surgery GFR, proteinuria and albuminuria. In obese patients with hyperfiltration, we draw conclusions from studies using measured GFR (inulin or iothalamate clearance) unadjusted for BSA only. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results 32 observational studies met our inclusion criteria, and 30 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No matter in dichotomous data or in dichotomous data, there were statistically significant reduction in hyperfiltration, albuminuria and proteinuria after bariatric surgery. Limitations The main limitation of this meta-analysis is the lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Another limitation is the lack of long-term follow-up. Conclusions Bariatric surgery could prevent further decline in renal function by reducing proteinuria, albuminuria and improving glomerular hyperfiltration in obese patients with impaired renal function. However, whether bariatric surgery reverses CKD or delays ESRD progression is still in question, large, randomized prospective studies with a longer follow-up are needed. PMID:27701452

  15. An Analysis of the Correlation between the Economic Barometer and the Postal Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    There are many economic factors that can influence the postal market. In this paper, by adopting the method of quantitative analysis, the author analyse exhaustively the economic factors that influence the postal market and the internal relations between the economic factors and the postal market.

  16. The Economic Contributions of Canada's Colleges and Institutes: An Analysis of Investment Effectiveness and Economic Growth. Volume 1: Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, M. Henry; Christophersen, Kjell A.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis of the economic impacts generated by Canada's Colleges and Institutes is based on a sample of 61 colleges in 9 provinces, representing roughly two-fifths of the some 150 Colleges and Institutes in the country. The findings from the sample were used to generate results by inference for all colleges in Canada. Two major analyses are…

  17. The Economic Contributions of Canada's Colleges and Institutes: An Analysis of Investment Effectiveness and Economic Growth. Volume 1: Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, M. Henry; Christophersen, Kjell A.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis of the economic impacts generated by Canada's Colleges and Institutes is based on a sample of 61 colleges in 9 provinces, representing roughly two-fifths of the some 150 Colleges and Institutes in the country. The findings from the sample were used to generate results by inference for all colleges in Canada. Two major analyses are…

  18. Risk Factors for Medical Complication after Cervical Spine Surgery: a multivariate analysis of 582 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael J.; Konodi, Mark A.; Cizik, Amy M.; Weinreich, Mark A.; Bransford, Richard J.; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Multivariate analysis of prospectively collected registry data Objective Using multivariate analysis, to determine significant risk factors for medical complication after cervical spine surgery. Summary of Background Data Several studies have examined the occurrence of medical complication after spine surgery. However many of these studies have been done utilizing large national databases. While these allow for analysis of thousands of patients, potentially influential co-variates are not accounted for in these retrospective studies. Furthermore, the accuracy of these retrospective data collection in these databases has been called into question. Methods The Spine End Results Registry (2003–2004) is a collection prospectively collected data on all patients who underwent spine surgery at our two institutions. Extensive demographic and medical information were prospectively recorded as described previously by Mirza et al. Complications were defined in detail a priori and were prospectively recorded for at least 2 years after surgery. We analyzed risk factors for medical complication after lumbar spine surgery using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results We analayzed data from 582 patients who met out inclusion criteria. The cumulative incidences of complication after cervical spine surgery per organ system are as follows: cardiac – 8.4%, pulmonary – 13%, gastrointestinal – 3.9%, neurological – 7.4%, hematological – 10.8% and urologic complications – 9.2%. The occurrence of cardiac or respiratory complication after cervical spine surgery was significantly associated with death within 2 years (RR 4.32, 6.43 respectively). Relative risk values with 95% confidence intervals and p values are listed individually in Tables 2 and 3. Conclusion Risk factors identified in this study can be beneficial to clinicians and patients alike when considering surgical treatment of the cervical spine. Future analyses and models that predict the

  19. BEYOND BRICS – AN EMERGING MARKETS ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian-Andrei LABES

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rise of the BRICS – Jim O’Neill’s acronym that stands for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa defining the flagship nations of emerging economies – it’s not the only economic success story of the emerging markets. In fact the five top emerging markets economies just started a trend, set a course for others to follow. The Next Eleven, as Goldman Sachs named the group of economies which have the highest potential of becoming world’s most important economies of the 21st century, are well aware of their advantages and downsides in the new global economic environment. The EU as a global player needs to cope with this rise of new poles of economic strength in order to maintain its economic powerhouse. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the rise of the Next Eleven from the EU perspective in terms of trade openness, macroeconomic stability and economic growth. The paper is divided into sections: Introduction, Literature review, Current trends in the world’s economy, Globalization Era: New poles of economic growth, Risks and opportunities for EU economic growth in the context of the new rising emerging markets, Current global economic-financial crisis implications on EU and The Next Eleven a final section with some Concluding remarks. The findings provided by this working paper are that European Union is facing major changes in the world’s economic environment and European economies are forced to adapt fast in both contexts of current global economic crisis and the rising importance of emerging markets. Moreover, the Next Eleven are a proof of the rapid changes in the global economy that affect not only the major Western economies but also the major economies of the newly developed nations, such as the BRICS. This phenomenon is part of the bigger picture – the globalization process of global economic stage.

  20. The Effectiveness of Fiscal Policy in Combating Economic Crisis. An Analysis Based on the Economic Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Corneliu MARINAŞ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify, in the economic literature, the main factors which constrain the transmission of the fiscal shocks to the real economy. The interest in finding the most efficient fiscal stimuli in recovery the economies passing through crisis period has got increased as soon as the expansionary monetary policy promoted by most of the central banks has not generated an increase of the confidence in the private economic agents and, as a consequence, an increase of consumption and of the private investments. Even though it represents the Keynesian solution for recovery the economies which have been affected by the crisis, the fiscal expansion promoted during the recession periods does not generate the same expected positive effects any more (increase of consumption, significant decrease of unemployment, increase of revenues in economy, as they are conditioned by the reaction of the private economic agents to the fiscal stimuli. For example, the decision to decrease taxation may not automatically generate the significant increase of consumption (a condition for spreading the multiplier effect in economy, under the terms of pessimism or of the difficulty to access loans. As a result, the fiscal multipliers tend to be rather proper, and their value decreases more during the deep economic recession periods.

  1. The Music Industry as a Vehicle for Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Issues arising in the music industry in response to the availability of digital music files provide an opportunity for exposing undergraduate students to economic analyses rarely covered in the undergraduate economics curriculum. Three of these analyses are covered here: the optimal copyright term, the effect of piracy or illegal file sharing, and…

  2. The Music Industry as a Vehicle for Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Issues arising in the music industry in response to the availability of digital music files provide an opportunity for exposing undergraduate students to economic analyses rarely covered in the undergraduate economics curriculum. Three of these analyses are covered here: the optimal copyright term, the effect of piracy or illegal file sharing, and…

  3. [Methodological aspects of a political-economic analysis of population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisina, N V; Ruzavina, E I

    1988-01-01

    The authors examine the role of political and economic factors in the study of population issues, with a focus on the relationship between demographic factors and the standard of living of a society. Attention is paid to the division of the population into the economically active and the inactive.

  4. Dietary balanced protein in broiler chickens. 2. An economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.

    2005-01-01

    1. An economic model was developed that calculates economic optimal dietary balanced protein (DBP) contents for broiler chickens, based on performance input and prices of meat and feed. 2. Input on broiler responses to DBP content (growth rate, feed conversion, carcase yield and breast meat yield) w

  5. 1/31 BETWEEN ECONOMIC AND LEGAL ANALYSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    of contract - the buyer of a slave who is less than a philosopher or who is unwilling to ... 'value' within an economic context, different economic formulas or ratios are used to ...... For instance, the criticism on Darwin's evolution theory why man is ...

  6. Economic Analysis of Traffic Flow with an Evolution Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯苏苇

    2005-01-01

    Based on two main hypotheses of traffic economical equilibrium and the relationship between traffic density and the demand, an evolution equation of traffic cost was proposed to describe the change of cost under decreasing toll. Economical explanation of the model and a numerical case were given to demonstrate the constraint between the marginal traffic demand and the flow velocity.

  7. Biobank Finances: A Socio-Economic Analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Sally; Oliver, Rob; Corfield, Julie; Georghiou, Luke; Yuille, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This socio-economic study is based on the widely held view that there is an inadequate supply of human biological samples that is hampering biomedical research development and innovation (RDI). The potential value of samples and the associated data are thus not being realized. We aimed to examine whether the financing of biobanks contributes to this problem and then to propose a national solution. We combined three methods: a qualitative case study; literature analysis; and informal consultations with experts. The case study enabled an examination of the complex institutional arrangements for biobanks, with a particular focus on cost models. For the purposes of comparison, a typology for biobanks was developed using the three methods. We found that it is not possible to apply a standard cost model across the diversity of biobanks, and there is a deficit in coordination and sustainability and an excess of complexity. We propose that coordination across this diversity requires dedicated resources for a national biobanking distributed research infrastructure. A coordination center would establish and improve standards and support a national portal for access. This should be financed centrally by public funds, possibly supplemented by industrial funding. We propose that: a) sample acquisition continues to be costed into projects and project proposals to ensure biobanking is driven by research needs; b) core biobanking activities and facilities be supported by central public funds distributed directly to host public institutions; and c) marginal costs for access be paid for by the user.

  8. Economic analysis of open space box model utilization in spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Atif F.; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    It is a known fact that the amount of data about space that is stored is getting larger on an everyday basis. However, the utilization of Big Data and related tools to perform ETL (Extract, Transform and Load) applications will soon be pervasive in the space sciences. We have entered in a crucial time where using Big Data can be the difference (for terrestrial applications) between organizations underperforming and outperforming their peers. The same is true for NASA and other space agencies, as well as for individual missions and the highly-competitive process of mission data analysis and publication. In most industries, conventional opponents and new candidates alike will influence data-driven approaches to revolutionize and capture the value of Big Data archives. The Open Space Box Model is poised to take the proverbial "giant leap", as it provides autonomic data processing and communications for spacecraft. We can find economic value generated from such use of data processing in our earthly organizations in every sector, such as healthcare, retail. We also can easily find retailers, performing research on Big Data, by utilizing sensors driven embedded data in products within their stores and warehouses to determine how these products are actually used in the real world.

  9. Investigation of Sorption and Diffusion Mechanisms, and Preliminary Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nair, Sankar [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of molecular sieve zeolite membranes to separate and concentrate tritiated water (HTO) from dilute HTO-bearing aqueous streams. Several monovalent and divalent cation exchanged silico alumino phosphate (SAPO-34) molecular sieve zeolite membranes were synthesized on disk supports and characterized with gas and vapor permeation measurements. The pervaporation process performance was evaluated for the separation and concentration of tritiated water. Experiments were performed using tritiated water feed solution containing tritium at the high end of the range (1 mCi/mL) anticipated in a nuclear fuel processing system that includes both acid and water streams recycling. The tritium concentration was about 0.1 ppm. The permeate was recovered under vacuum. The HTO/H2O selectivity and separation factor calculated from the measured tritium concentrations ranged from 0.99 to 1.23, and 0.83-0.98, respectively. Although the membrane performance for HTO separation was lower than expected, several encouraging observations including molecular sieving and high vapor permeance are reported. Additionally, several new approaches are proposed, such as tuning the sorption and diffusion properties offered by small pore LTA zeolite materials, and cation exchanged aluminosilicates with high metal loading. It is hypothesized that substantially improved preferential transport of tritium (HTO) resulting in a more concentrated permeate can be achieved. Preliminary economic analysis for the membrane-based process to concentrate tritiated water is also discussed.

  10. Environmental and Economic Analysis of Thermal Active Building System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fabiano Reis Lessa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is regarding one promising technological solution – which is so called Thermal Active Building Systems (TABS –for one of the most critical problems both in environmental and economic aspects, which is the raising energy consumption. Buildings are the principal application target of the solution once that population spends most part of their time inside them. Therefore, more energy is required to supply an increasingly demand in lighting, air conditioning, heating, electronic devices and so on. In this context, TABS emerge like a possible solution. To ensure the system efficiency or, in other words, prove its viability, it will be applied an environmental management tool (SWOT Analysis weighting all the pros and comparing with its drawbacks, based on previous experiences in implantation of such system, available in literature. A basic theoretical background, which is extremely important to a better comprehension of the system, covering both engineering and environmental management areas, is presented on this paper. Results shown that TABS are efficient mechanisms in the reduction of power consumption, committed with sustainable development, and which worth the investments in a Life Cycle Cost evaluation

  11. Network Non-neutrality Debate: An Economic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Altman, Eitan; Xu, Yuedong

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the economic utilities and the quality of service (QoS) in a two-sided non-neutral market where Internet service providers (ISPs) charge content providers (CPs) for the content delivery. We propose new models on a two-sided market which involves a CP, an ISP, end users and advertisers. The CP may have either the subscription revenue model (charging end users) or the advertisement revenue model (charging advertisers). We formulate the interactions between the ISP and the CP as a noncooperative game problem for the former and an optimization problem for the latter. Our analysis shows that the revenue model of the CP plays a significant role in a non-neutral Internet. With the subscription model, both the ISP and the CP receive better (or worse) utilities as well as QoS in the presence of side payment at the same time. However, with the advertisement model, the side payment impedes the CP from investing on its contents.

  12. Energy and economic analysis of biogas heated livestock buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axaopoulos, P.; Panagakis, P. [Agricultural University of Athens (Greece). Laboratory of Farm Structures

    2003-03-01

    The possibility to cover the annual space-heating requirements of a typical swine nursery by the methane produced using a solar-assisted anaerobic digester of innovative design, is studied for two Greek areas. Simulation is used to predict the hourly temperature and relative humidity inside the early-weaned piglet unit, along with the heating energy requirements to keep indoor conditions within pigs' production space. The methane produced by the solar- assisted anaerobic digester is also calculated using a detailed simulation algorithm. The results showed that the methane produced from the solar-assisted anaerobic digester completely ensures not only full coverage of the annual space-heating requirements of the described piglet unit for both Greek areas, but also large methane surplus which could be used in various other ways. A simple sensitivity analysis concerning the economics of the solar-assisted anaerobic digester indicated that its profitability strongly depends on to what extent the produced methane is used. (author)

  13. High tech or high risk? An analysis of media reports about robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficko, Zita; Koo, Kevin; Hyams, Elias S

    2016-10-24

    Robotic surgery continues to increase in popularity and prevalence. The adoption of robotic technology has generated controversy and frequent media coverage. We evaluate recent reports of surgical robotics in the lay press to characterize its objectivity. LexisNexis and Factiva consumer news databases were queried for articles pertaining to robotic surgery published during 2010-2015 in the three highest circulation national (US) newspapers as well as New England regional newspapers. Two independent reviewers performed content analysis and assessed headline bias with strong reliability (mean κ = 0.96). 82 articles met inclusion criteria. Urological and gynecologic procedures were the most cited (54 and 57%, respectively). Commonly discussed aspects of robotic surgery included increased cost (45 articles, 55%), increased complications (38 articles, 43%), and easier recovery (32 articles, 39%). A minority of headlines (45%) had a neutral or unbiased tone. National newspapers were significantly more likely to report robotic surgery unfavorably by discussing disadvantages of the technology, only quoting surgeons with negative opinions, or citing scientific studies discrediting the robot (all p robotic surgery, while only 7 (26%) cited findings favoring robotic approaches. News reports about robotic surgery in the popular press contain a high proportion of negative bias. Non-neutral headlines and emphasis on research unfavorable to robotics were common. Clinicians should be aware of these reporting biases, which may affect patients' perceptions of robotic surgery.

  14. Bariatric surgery for obese children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J A; White, B; Viner, R M; Simmons, R K

    2013-08-01

    The number of obese young people continues to rise, with a corresponding increase in extreme obesity and paediatric-adolescent bariatric surgery. We aimed to (i) systematically review the literature on bariatric surgery in children and adolescents; (ii) meta-analyse change in body mass index (BMI) 1-year post-surgery and (iii) report complications, co-morbidity resolution and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A systematic literature search (1955-2013) was performed to examine adjustable gastric band, sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or biliopancreatic diversions operations among obese children and adolescents. Change in BMI a year after surgery was meta-analysed using a random effects model. In total, 637 patients from 23 studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were significant decreases in BMI at 1 year (average weighted mean BMI difference: -13.5 kg m(-2) ; 95% confidence interval [CI] -14.1 to -11.9). Complications were inconsistently reported. There was some evidence of co-morbidity resolution and improvements in HRQol post-surgery. Bariatric surgery leads to significant short-term weight loss in obese children and adolescents. However, the risks of complications are not well defined in the literature. Long-term, prospectively designed studies, with clear reporting of complications and co-morbidity resolution, alongside measures of HRQol, are needed to firmly establish the harms and benefits of bariatric surgery in children and adolescents.

  15. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  16. Economic Pressure, Parent Personality and Child Development: An Interactionist Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas K.; Conger, Katherine J.; Neppl, Tricia K.

    2010-01-01

    The current economic downturn in the U.S. and around the world has refocused attention on the processes through which families and children are affected by economic hardship. This study examines the response to economic pressure of a cohort of youth first studied 20 years ago as adolescents and now grown to adulthood. A total of 271 of the original G2 adolescents (M age = 25.6 years) participated in the study with their young child (G3, M age = 2.31 years at the first time of assessment) and the child’s other parent in 81% of the cases. Data analyses were guided by the interactionist model which proposed that positive G2 personality attributes during adolescence would predict lower economic pressure during adulthood and would diminish the negative family processes related to economic pressure expected to disrupt competent G3 development. The findings were consistent with this social selection aspect of the interactionist model. The model also predicted that economic pressure and other aspects of the related family stress process would affect G3 development net of earlier G2 personality. This social causation aspect of the interactionist model also received support. The findings suggest that the relationship between economic conditions and child development reflect a dynamic process of selection and causation that plays out over time and generations. PMID:21209795

  17. Economic analysis of the health impacts of housing improvement studies: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Elisabeth; Macdonald, Catriona; Thomson, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Background Economic evaluation of public policies has been advocated but rarely performed. Studies from a systematic review of the health impacts of housing improvement included data on costs and some economic analysis. Examination of these data provides an opportunity to explore the difficulties and the potential for economic evaluation of housing. Methods Data were extracted from all studies included in the systematic review of housing improvement which had reported costs and economic analysis (n=29/45). The reported data were assessed for their suitability to economic evaluation. Where an economic analysis was reported the analysis was described according to pre-set definitions of various types of economic analysis used in the field of health economics. Results 25 studies reported cost data on the intervention and/or benefits to the recipients. Of these, 11 studies reported data which was considered amenable to economic evaluation. A further four studies reported conducting an economic evaluation. Three of these studies presented a hybrid ‘balance sheet’ approach and indicated a net economic benefit associated with the intervention. One cost-effectiveness evaluation was identified but the data were unclearly reported; the cost-effectiveness plane suggested that the intervention was more costly and less effective than the status quo. Conclusions Future studies planning an economic evaluation need to (i) make best use of available data and (ii) ensure that all relevant data are collected. To facilitate this, economic evaluations should be planned alongside the intervention with input from health economists from the outset of the study. When undertaken appropriately, economic evaluation provides the potential to make significant contributions to housing policy. PMID:23929616

  18. Economic risk analysis and critical comparison of optimal biorefinery concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.; Gernaey, Krist

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, eight optimal biorefinery concepts for biofuels and biochemicals production are critically analyzed and compared in terms of their techno-economic performance and associated economic risks against historical market fluctuations. The investigated biorefinery concepts consider......, whereas the thermochemical conversion platform is favored for a relatively larger production capacity; and (iv) the microalgae-based biorefinery concept performed worse in terms of economics compared to the others, which is largely due to the cost of algae production and harvesting. In general, we...

  19. OTC Derivatives and Global Economic Activity: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Bodnar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available That the global market for derivatives has expanded beyond recognition is well known. What is not know is how this market interacts with economic activity. We provide the first empirical characterization of interdependencies between OECD economic activity and the global OTC derivatives market. To this end, we apply a vector-error correction model to OTC derivatives disaggregated across instruments and counterparties. The results indicate that with one exception, the heterogeneity of OTC contracts is too pronounced to be reliably summarized by our measures of economic activity. The one exception is interest-rate derivatives held by Other Financial Institutions.

  20. Economic Analysis of the Radio Spectrum for Regulatory Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza

    the user value as long as there is no market for trade in frequency licenses. The economic value of the radio spectrum has been calculated for six different service applications (fixed links, Maritime and aeronautic applications, broadcasting services, mobile services, private mobile radio network services...... and military services). For each application the economic value is calculated for both use of the application and production of equipments related to each application. The paper draws on an extensive study of the economic value of the Danish radio spectrum prepared for the Danish Telecom Agency (Danish Telecom...

  1. Endodontic surgery failure: SEM analysis of root-end filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschieri, Silvio; Bettach, Raphael; Lolato, Alessandra; Moneghini, Laura; Fabbro, Massimo Del

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the quality of root-end filling in cases of periapical lesions persisting after endodontic surgery. Ten patients requiring extraction of an endodontically treated tooth were included. The root-ends of extracted teeth were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Defects at the interface between the root-end filling and cavity margin were classified as ideal, imperfect (some marginal disruption) or inadequate (continuous marginal disruption involving >30% of the interface). Four cases were scored as imperfect, and six were scored as inadequate. A defective apical seal could favour continuous leakage of surviving bacteria and their by-products from the infected root canal system to periapical tissues, thereby sustaining inflammation.

  2. Empirical Analysis on the Determinants of Economic Growth in Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Status of economic development in Shaanxi Province is analyzed, showing that Shaanxi Province has achieved the fast and stable economic growth; and total GDP and fixed assets investment have shown a sustainable growth. According to the time series statistics of Shaanxi Province in the years 1978-2008, Cobb-Douglas Function is used to carry out the empirical analysis on the contribution of fixed assets investment and labor input to economic growth of Shaanxi Province, China. Result shows that capital and labor input are the major driving forces for the economic growth of Shaanxi Province. In other words, economic growth mode of Shaanxi Province is still extensive. Economic growth of Shaanxi Province is increasingly dependent on capital investment and technological progress. Contribution rates of capital and labor to economic growth are 66.9% and 33.1%, respectively. Therefore, investment is a source of economic growth in Shaanxi Province through the reform and opening up in the last three decades.

  3. 78 FR 59648 - Bureau of Economic Analysis Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    .... Requests for foreign language interpretation or other auxiliary aids should be directed to Gianna Marrone... recommendations from the perspectives of the economics profession, business, and government. This will be the...

  4. Economic Analysis of the Radio Spectrum for Regulatory Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza

    will be necessary to ensure efficient and harmonised patterns of usage across countries. In this respect an assessment of the economic value of various applications is an important input. This paper measures the economic value in terms of contribution to GDP. We use this approach, as it is very difficult to assess...... not a purely technical matter. Economic considerations must be taken into account as well. A free market approach may be suitable for assigning frequency bands between operators within the same application, but is less suitable for allocation between various applications. Here regulatory intervention...... the user value as long as there is no market for trade in frequency licenses. The economic value of the radio spectrum has been calculated for six different service applications (fixed links, Maritime and aeronautic applications, broadcasting services, mobile services, private mobile radio network services...

  5. Groundwater management for agriculture and nature: an economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Key words: desiccation of nature, economics of water management, groundwater extraction, groundwater level management, ecohydrology, agriculture, policy instruments.

    As a result of declining groundwater levels, nature in the Netherlands is suffering

  6. Groundwater Management for Agriculture and Nature : an Economic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.

    2001-01-01

    Key words: desiccation of nature, economics of water management, groundwater extraction, groundwater level management, ecohydrology, agriculture, policy instruments.As a result of declining groundwater levels, nature in the Netherlands is suffering from desiccation. Since measures taken to raise gro

  7. An Analysis of Inequality of Economic Opportunity in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montchai Pinitjitsamut

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the socioeconomic and family backgrounds that affect individual economic opportunity in term of labor income on and above average income in different regions of Thailand. The results present that both age and marital status have positive impact to individual’s economic opportunity. Because it related to the necessity in personal family life. People works in Bangkok not necessary to get economic opportunity greater than others. Most inequality indicators show the inequality situation in Thailand still not as high as expectation. However, ordinary person usually get only less than 50% (0.4855 opportunity to get earning equal or more the average. Also, the society should concern the inequality of economic opportunity in optimal level which make equality parameter not greater than 0.5. This will create the mechanism to minimize the level of inequality, as a whole.

  8. Economic Analysis and Countermeasures of Migrant Workers’ Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Generation and development of migrant workers’ problems are analyzed from the perspective of economics. There are economic factors causing migrant workers’ problems: imbalance in the industrial structure brings farmers living pressure; urban modern civilization is attractive to farmers; urban economic development needs a large number of agricultural laborers engaged in manual labor. Moreover, relevant countermeasures are proposed. The dual economic structure is to be broken to gradually eliminate the barrier between urban and rural areas; an unified and standard labor market is to be established to narrow the gap between urban and rural areas; overall considerations should be taken and the reform of matching system should be quickened; the construction of urbanization is to be duly promoted to improve the level of modernization in the countryside.

  9. A health-economic analysis of porcine islet xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Jessica; Nyman, John A; Flanagan, Brian; Schrover, Rudolf; Schuurman, Henk-Jan

    2010-01-01

    Islet cell transplantation is a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes. To overcome the shortage of deceased human pancreas donors, porcine islet cell xenotransplantation is being developed as an alternative to allotransplantation. The objective of this study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of porcine islet transplantation in comparison with standard insulin therapy. The patient population for this study was young adults, ages 20 to 40, for whom standard medical care is inadequate in controlling blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia unawareness). Since trial data were lacking, estimates used extrapolations from data found in the literature and ongoing trials in clinical allotransplantation. Cost estimates were based on the data available in the USA. Markov modeling and Monte Carlo simulations using software specifically developed for health-economic evaluations were used. Outcomes data for ongoing clinical islet allotransplantation from the University of Minnesota were used, along with probabilities of complications from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were the effectiveness measure. The upper limit of being cost-effective is $100,000 per QALY. Cost data from the literature were used and adjusted to 2007 US dollars using the medical care portion of the Consumer Price Index. In both Markov modeling and Monte Carlo simulations, porcine islet xenotransplantation was both more effective and less costly over the course of the 20-yr model. For standard insulin therapy, cumulative cost per patient was $661,000, while cumulative effectiveness was 9.4 QALYs, for a cost of $71,100 per QALY. Transplantation had a cumulative cost of $659 000 per patient, a cumulative effectiveness of 10.9 QALYs, and a cost per QALY of $60,700. Islet transplantation became cost-effective at 4 yr after transplantation, and was more cost-effective than standard insulin treatment at 14 yr. These findings are related to relative high

  10. Technical and economic analysis of using biomass energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piaskowska-Silarska Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the article were presented the technical possibilities of obtaining solid biomass, biogas, landfill gas, a biogas from wastewater treatment plants, bioethanol and biodiesel. Then processes was described, allowing use of energy from biomass. As first was discussed the incineration which includes drying and degassing of the wood materials, wood gas burning at 1200°C, post-combustion gas and heat transfer in the heat exchanger. Then had been described gasification, or thermochemical conversion process, occurring at high temperature. It is two-stage process. In the first chamber at deficiency of air and at relatively low temperatures (450–800°C, the fuel is being degasified, resulting in creating combustible gas and a mineral residue (charcoal. In the second stage, secondary combustion chamber and at a temperature of about 1000–1200°C and in the presence of excess of oxygen resultant gas is burned. A further process is pyrolysis. It consists of the steps of drying fuel to a moisture level below 10%, milling the biomass into very small particles, the pyrolysis reaction, separation of solid products, cooling and collecting bio-oil. Then discusses co-generation, which is combined production of heat and electricity. In this situation where the biomass contains too much water it can be used for energy purposes through biochemical processes. The alcoholic fermentation results in decomposition of carbohydrates taking place under anaerobic conditions, and the product is bioethanol. Another biochemical process used for the production of liquid biofuels is esterification of vegetable oils. Methane fermentation in turn causes a decomposition of macromolecular organic substances with limited oxygen available. As a result, we obtain alcohols, lower organic acids, methane, carbon dioxide and water. There was analysis of economic increasing of solid biomass energy, biogas and liquid biofuels in the following article.

  11. Techno-economic analysis of expander-based configurations for natural gas liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagy, Matteo; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2017-01-01

    W/K and 275 kW/K. A trade-off between the power consumption and heat transfer area is found, which justifies a further economic analysis. A simplified economic analysis is set based on a discounted cash flow model. The unitary profit ranges between 0.3 and 0.85 DKK per kg of produced LNG. The most profitable...

  12. 78 FR 66929 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis AGENCY: Policy and Planning Division, Export-Import Bank of... public of its intent to conduct a detailed economic impact analysis regarding a loan guarantee to support the export of U.S.-manufactured Boeing 787 wide-body passenger aircraft to an airline in China. Export...

  13. Optimal timing for early surgery in infective endocarditis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fuxiang; Song, Bing; Liu, Ruisheng; Yang, Liu; Tang, Hanbo; Li, Yuanming

    2016-03-01

    To systematically review early surgery and the optimal timing of surgery in patients with infective endocarditis (IE), a search for foreign and domestic articles on cohort studies about the association between early surgery and infective endocarditis published from inception to January 2015 was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature (CBM), Wanfang and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. The studies were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the data were extracted and the quality of the method of the included studies was assessed. Then, the meta-analysis was performed using the Stata 12.0 software. Sixteen cohort studies, including 8141 participants were finally included. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that, compared with non-early surgery, early surgery in IE lowers the incidence of in-hospital mortality [odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.42, 0.77); P = 0.000, I(2) = 73.1%] and long-term mortality [OR = 0.57, 95% CI (0.43, 0.77); P = 0.001, I(2) = 67.4%]. Further, performing operation within 2 weeks had a more favourable effect on long-term mortality [OR = 0.63, 95% CI (0.41, 0.97); P = 0.192, I(2) = 39.4%] than non-early surgery. In different kinds of IE, we found that early surgery for native valve endocarditis (NVE) had a lower in-hospital [OR = 0.46, 95% CI (0.31, 0.69); P = 0.001, I(2) = 73.0%] and long-term [OR = 0.57, 95% CI (0.40, 0.81); P = 0.001, I(2) = 68.9%] mortality than the non-early surgery group. However, for prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), in-hospital mortality did not differ significantly [OR = 0.83, 95% CI (0.65, 1.06); P = 0.413, I(2) = 0.0%] between early and non-early surgery. We concluded that early surgery was associated with lower in-hospital and long-term mortality compared with non-early surgical treatment for IE, especially in NVE. However, the optimal timing of surgery remains unclear. Additional larger prospective clinical

  14. Cost-effectiveness of Bariatric Surgery: Increasing the Economic Viability of the Most Effective Treatment for Type II Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeremy A; Ewing, Joseph A; Hale, Allyson L; Blackhurst, Dawn W; Bour, Eric S; Scott, John D

    2015-08-01

    There has been considerable debate on the cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery within larger population groups. Despite the recognition that morbid obesity and its comorbidities are best treated surgically, insurance coverage is not universally available. One of the more costly comorbidities of obesity is Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We propose a model that demonstrates the cost-effectiveness of increasing the number of bariatric surgical operations performed on patients with T2DM in the United States. We applied published population cost estimates (2012) for medical care of T2DM to a retrospective cohort of morbidly obese patients in South Carolina. We compared differences in 10-year medical costs between those having bariatric surgery and controls. Resolution of T2DM in the bariatric cohort was assumed to be 40 per cent. Considering only the direct medical costs of T2DM, the 10-year aggregate cost savings compared with a control group is $2.7 million/1000 patients; the total (direct and indirect) cost savings is $5.4 million/1000 patients. When considering resolution of T2DM alone, increasing the number of bariatric operations for a given population leads to a substantial cost savings over a 10-year period. This study adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting that bariatric surgery is a cost-effective means of caring for the obese patient.

  15. Crisis and economic recovery in the states of the northern border. Analysis of economic cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseo Díaz González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the prospect of economic recovery and the comovement of regional and national economy with a focus on business cycles theory in 1997–2010. We estimate the trend and cycle of composition of growth in each entity with the Hodrick–Prescott filter and an autoregressive model, using employment data. The evidence shows that Nuevo Leon has the capacity to return to its trend growth, but Baja California and Chihuahua has less possibility. Finally, short–term dynamics of these economies shows that the degree of synchronization with the national economy seems to play for the recovery of growth.

  16. [Analysis of several containment measures of pharmaceutical expenditure in an Ambulatory Surgery Centre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, J L; León, A; Porras, I

    2013-11-01

    In the context of the current crisis, sustainability of National Health Service must be considered a priority issue. To compare several cost saving measures in drug expenditure due to outpatient drug treatment after surgery in an Ambulatory Surgical Centre. Pharmaco-economic analysis of cost minimization of ambulatory pharmaceutical services during the year 2011. A total of 3,346 patients were operated on and discharged on the same day, were included. Treatments were collected from the discharge report of each patient. We compared changes in real outpatient drug spending after separately applying each of the following measures: 1) increasing the co-payment; 2) improving the quality of prescribing; 3) dispensing by units of drugs through pharmacies, and 4) dispensing through the hospital pharmacy service. The real outpatient pharmaceutical expenditure was 29,454.21€. Increasing the co-payment mean a transfer of 2,091.82€ from the funding institutions to users. Improving the quality of prescriptions, dispensing through units of drugs in the pharmacy, and dispensing through the hospital pharmacy service led to a pharmaceutical expenditure of 24,215.14€, 21,766.24€ and 7,827.71€, respectively. Only considering co-payment to contain pharmaceutical expenditure arising from prescribing in an Ambulatory Surgical Centre is the least effective measure. The most effective measure, for this purpose, is the supply of drugs through the hospital pharmacy service. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. WOUND INFECTION AFTER SCOLIOSIS SURGERY: AN ANALYSIS OF 15 CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李书纲; 仉建国; 李军伟; 林进; 田野; 翁习生; 邱贵兴

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To discuss the causes and treatments of wound infections after scoliosis surgery. Methods. Nine hundred and twenty-four cases of scoliosis were reviewed, and the clinical data of 15 cases of postoperative infection were analysed retrospectively. Results. All 15 cases underwent spinal posterior fusion with autologous bone graft using instrumentations. Seven were diagnosed as early infection, and 8 were delayed infection. Radical debridement was performed in all 15 cases. The duration of antibiotics administration was 10 to 34 days with continuous closed irrigation for 2~ 4 weeks and primary closure for the wounds. All patients were followed up for an average of 3.5 years (2 to 7.5 years) with good outcomes and no recurrence. Conclusion. Wound infection following surgical correction of scoliosis primarily results from intraoperative seeding, although host-related and operation-related factors may contribute to its development. Once the infections are diagnosed, good results can be achieved by prompt surgical debridement, irrigation and reasonably administered antibiotics. Removal of hardware may be necessary in deep infections.

  18. Acoustic analysis of vowel sounds before and after orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jaemyung; Kim, Gunjong; Kim, Young Ho; Hong, Jongrak

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the articular structures and vowel sounds of patients with mandibular prognathism before and after bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO). Eight patients who underwent BSSRO to correct mandibular prognathism were selected for inclusion in this study. All patients were asked to read short words (vowels), and these sounds were recorded. Every utterance was repeated twice in four different sessions before the operation and at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after the operation. The data were analysed using Praat (ver. 5.1.31), and the formant frequencies (F1, F2) of the eight vowels were extracted. PlotFormant (ver. 1.0) was used to draw formant diagrams. The F1 and F2 of front-low vowels were reduced after BSSRO, and the articulating positions of the patients shifted in a posterior-superior direction after the procedure. Additionally, the area of vowel articulation was dramatically reduced after BSSRO but increased slowly over time. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of operation-related complications of totally laparoscopic aortoiliac surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Lixing; Gu Yongquan; Guo Lianrui; Li Xuefeng; Wu Yingfeng; Cui Shijun; Tong Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Background Totally laparoscopic aortoiliac surgery has been newly developed in China.It is known as the most complex laparoscopic technique to learn because of its high-risk procedures.Analysis of the operation-related complications of this surgery is supposed to be helpful for the early success of this technique.Methods Twelve male patients (56-70 years old) with aortoiliac occlusive disease underwent totally laparoscopic aortoiliac bypass surgery (TLABS) in our institute.Clinical data and operation-related complications were retrospectively analyzed.Results Of the 12 patients,TLABS succeeded in nine and conversion to open surgery occurred in three.One of the converted patients finally died of pulmonary infection.Operation-related complications included bleeding from arterial injury,perforation from colonic injury,graft embolism,residual aortic stenosis,and hydronephrosis.Bleeding in two patients and colonic perforation in one patient resulted in three conversions to open surgery.Intraoperative graft embolectomy and postoperative aortic stenting were performed to resolve the thrombus/embolus-referring complications.Left hydronephrosis,which was thought to result from intraoperative injury and treated with ureteric intubation drainage,recovered 6 months after TLABS.Conclusions Good understanding and avoidance of operation-related complications are important to guarantee the technical success of TLABS.Immediate conversion to open surgery is necessary for saving the patient's life in case of lifethreatening complications.

  20. The 100 most cited manuscripts in emergency abdominal surgery: A bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, Thomas; Bullock, Nicholas; Abdelrahman, Tarig; Powell, Arfon G M T; Witherspoon, Jolene; Lewis, Wyn G

    2017-01-01

    The number of citations a scientific article receives provides a good indication of its impact within any given field. This bibliometric analysis aimed to identify the 100 most cited articles in Emergency Abdominal Surgery (EAS), to highlight key areas of interest and identify those that have most significantly shaped contemporary clinical practice in this newly evolving surgical specialty. This is of increasing relevance as concerns grow regarding the variable and suboptimal outcomes in Emergency General Surgery. The Thomson Reuters Web of Science database was used to search using the terms [Emergency AND Abdom* AND Surg*] to identify all English language, full manuscripts. Results were ranked according to citation number. The top 100 articles were further analysed by subject, author, journal, year of publication, institution, and country of origin. The median (range) citation number of the top 100 out of 7433 eligible papers was 131 (1569-97). The most cited paper (by Goldman et al., Massachusetts General Hospital, New England Journal of Medicine; 1569 citations) focused on cardiac risk stratification in non-cardiac surgery. The Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care published the most papers and received most citations (n = 19; 2954 citations. The majority of papers were published by centres in the USA (n = 52; 9422 citations), followed by the UK (n = 13; 1816 citations). The most common topics of publication concerned abdominal aneurysm management (n = 26) and emergency gastrointestinal surgery (n = 26). Vascular surgery, risk assessment and gastrointestinal surgery were the areas of focus for 59% of the contemporary most cited emergency abdominal surgery manuscripts. By providing the most influential references this work serves as a guide to what makes a citable emergency surgery paper. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term socio-economic impact of vestibular schwannoma for patients under observation and after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tos, Tina; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Stangerup, Sven-Eric

    2003-01-01

    This study describes and compares the long-term socio-economic impact for patients diagnosed with a vestibular schwannoma and either operated on or observed. A consecutive sample of patients diagnosed with vestibular schwannoma in Denmark and either operated on (748 patients) or observed...

  2. Long-term socio-economic impact of vestibular schwannoma for patients under observation and after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tos, Tina; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Stangerup, Sven-Eric;

    2003-01-01

    This study describes and compares the long-term socio-economic impact for patients diagnosed with a vestibular schwannoma and either operated on or observed. A consecutive sample of patients diagnosed with vestibular schwannoma in Denmark and either operated on (748 patients) or observed by the w...

  3. Inflation and Economic Growth in China: An Empirical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jen- Te Hwang; Ming-Jia Wu

    2011-01-01

    Using official provincial data for gross provincial product, consumer price index and other explanatory variables from 1986 to 2006, the present paper investigates the nonlinear effects of inflation on economic growth in China. The main finding of the study is that the inflation threshold effect is highly significant and robust in China. Above the 2.50percent threshold, every 1-percentage point increase in the inflation rate impedes economic growth by O. 61percent; below this threshold, every 1-percentage point increase in the inflation rate stimulates growth by 0.53 percent. This indicates that high inflation harms economic growth, whereas moderate inflation benefits growth. We suggest that China should maintain a moderate inflation rate for long-run growth.

  4. Analysis on Public Signs from the Perspective of Language Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Yue

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, public signs have been the focus of many researchers and scholars. They probe into this kind of meaningful and special language from different perspectives by adopting theories from a large scale of areas. However, the researches were mostly limited in several hot fields, like linguistics, translation, culture or travelling. Nevertheless, in the year of 1965, Jacob Marschak(1965), an economic professor in the University of Los Angeles presented a theory, which turned the researchers' eyes to a brand new region, which is language economics. In the following paper, the author will combine the theory of cost and benefit with public signs. Two types of public signs will be particularly analysed using the theory of cost and benefit that belongs to language economics.

  5. The Analysis of Economic Growth Cycle in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the data of practical GDP time sequences from 1978 to 2009 provided by Henan Statistical Yearbook of every year,Hodrick-Prescott filter model is established,and it is disintegrated into tendency component(potential yield)and fluctuation component(yield gap).The critical division loci of filter model are 4 wave crest years(1980,1988,1996 and 2007),and 3 trough years(1984,1992 and 2002).Thus since the opening up and reform,the economic growth fluctuation of Henan can be divided into 3 complete cycles and 2 incomplete cycles.Based on the economic situation and background within and without province,we preliminarily conclude the stage-characteristics of all growth cycles and the probable reasons of fluctuation.On the whole,the economic growth cycle of Henan takes on astringency to some extent,and sustainability and stability are reinforced,showing the characteristics of growth-type cycle increasingly.

  6. Cluster Analysis of the Agricultural Economic Development in the Districts and Counties of Qingyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongya; MA

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of economic growth,agricultural development,the development of township enterprises and farmers’ income,we select 11 indicators to build the evaluation indicator system for the agricultural economic development in the districts and counties of Qingyang City. Using data processing and SPSS13. 0 statistical software,we carry out the cluster analysis of the level of economic development in the districts and counties,and divide the level of agricultural economic development of these districts and counties into three economic gradients in descending order:(i) The first gradient: Xifeng;(ii) The second gradient: Qingchi and Huachi;(iii) The third gradient: Huanxian,Heshui,Zhengning,Ningxian and Zhenyuan. The study results systematically reflect the level of agricultural economic development in the districts and counties,and point out the status of the districts and counties in Qingyang’s agricultural economic development. Finally we put forth the corresponding recommendations.

  7. Globalization: political and economic and sociological analysis of cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Babicheva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the presented article the authors examine the political and economic and cultural situation in the world in the context of globalization. Special priority is accorded to the coverage of political and economic situation in the world. Because, the twentieth century has demonstrated the power of supranational military- political blocs, the possibility of coalitions of control groups, continental and regional associations, international organizations. At the end of the twentieth century, the contours of «world government» have outlined (world of the Board: some international organizations started performing important political integration functions. The value of the global division of labor has increased in the economic sphere, the role of transnational corporations has increased, which have become powerful forces in the world economy. Having lost the national roots, such corporations operate globally, using local resources and subsidies. The authors noted that the trend of globalization had its influence on the culture as well .Media unites peoples and continents , informing millions of people about the events in different parts of the world , attracting them to various cultural experiences , traditions and customs of exotic tribes and nationalities .Today, there is no doubt, that the desire to solve global problems that affect interests of the peoples of all continents leads to the formation of the world humanistic consciousness. It is proved that during a long period of time the phenomenon of globalization was considered in socio-political theories mainly from the point of economic centrism. As It is the economic sphere, in which the globalization centrism was mostly discovered. The basic classical concepts developed within the economic centrism: theory of imperialism, dependency theory, world system theory. It was marked that the presented economic-centric pictures of globalization cannot explain the cultural-historical diversity of the

  8. Bayesian analysis of the dynamic structure in China's economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyo, Koki; Noda, Hideo

    2008-11-01

    To analyze the dynamic structure in China's economic growth during the period 1952-1998, we introduce a model of the aggregate production function for the Chinese economy that considers total factor productivity (TFP) and output elasticities as time-varying parameters. Specifically, this paper is concerned with the relationship between the rate of economic growth in China and the trend in TFP. Here, we consider the time-varying parameters as random variables and introduce smoothness priors to construct a set of Bayesian linear models for parameter estimation. The results of the estimation are in agreement with the movements in China's social economy, thus illustrating the validity of the proposed methods.

  9. Analysis of world economic variables using multidimensional scaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A Tenreiro Machado

    Full Text Available Waves of globalization reflect the historical technical progress and modern economic growth. The dynamics of this process are here approached using the multidimensional scaling (MDS methodology to analyze the evolution of GDP per capita, international trade openness, life expectancy, and education tertiary enrollment in 14 countries. MDS provides the appropriate theoretical concepts and the exact mathematical tools to describe the joint evolution of these indicators of economic growth, globalization, welfare and human development of the world economy from 1977 up to 2012. The polarization dance of countries enlightens the convergence paths, potential warfare and present-day rivalries in the global geopolitical scene.

  10. Structural analysis of complex ecological economic optimal control problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, T.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis demonstrates the importance and effectiveness of methods of bifurcation theory applied to studying non-convex optimal control problems. It opens up a new methodological approach to investigation of parameterized economic models. While standard analytical methods are not efficient and

  11. Economic Freedom and Life Satisfaction : A Cross Country Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Compen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper estimates the relationship between various sub-indicators of economic freedom and life satisfaction for 122 countries. The estimation results show that life satisfaction is positively related to the quality of the legal system and protection of property rights. For poor

  12. Electricity consumption and economic growth: A cross-country analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon, E-mail: shyoo@hoseo.ed [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo-Suk, E-mail: leejoosuk@hoseo.ed [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Electricity has been the foundation of economic growth, and constitutes one of the vital infra-structural inputs in socio-economic development. The world faces a surge in demand for electricity that is driven by such powerful forces as population growth, extensive urbanization, industrialization, and the rise in the standard of living. This paper attempts to ascertain whether there is a systematic relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth. To this end, we use a large set of data that spans 88 countries during the period, 1975-2004. A statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship between per-capita consumption of electricity and per-capita income is detected. Nevertheless, by using a purchasing power parity that is much higher than the per-capita income of all the countries in the world, the level of per-capita income is estimated at the peak point of per-capita electricity consumption to be $61,379 in 2000 constant international dollars. Moreover, we segment the sample into Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and non-OECD countries, and separately analyze the developed and developing countries. The separate estimation shows that even though the peak income is higher than the average per-capita income, a statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship is found in OECD and developed countries but not in non-OECD and developing countries.

  13. Electricity consumption and economic growth. A cross-country analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Joo-Suk [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    Electricity has been the foundation of economic growth, and constitutes one of the vital infra-structural inputs in socio-economic development. The world faces a surge in demand for electricity that is driven by such powerful forces as population growth, extensive urbanization, industrialization, and the rise in the standard of living. This paper attempts to ascertain whether there is a systematic relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth. To this end, we use a large set of data that spans 88 countries during the period, 1975-2004. A statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship between per-capita consumption of electricity and per-capita income is detected. Nevertheless, by using a purchasing power parity that is much higher than the per-capita income of all the countries in the world, the level of per-capita income is estimated at the peak point of per-capita electricity consumption to be $61,379 in 2000 constant international dollars. Moreover, we segment the sample into Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and non-OECD countries, and separately analyze the developed and developing countries. The separate estimation shows that even though the peak income is higher than the average per-capita income, a statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship is found in OECD and developed countries but not in non-OECD and developing countries. (author)

  14. Economic Freedom and Life Satisfaction : A Cross Country Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Compen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper estimates the relationship between various sub-indicators of economic freedom and life satisfaction for 122 countries. The estimation results show that life satisfaction is positively related to the quality of the legal system and protection of property rights. For poor countrie

  15. Economic Analysis of Navy Ownership versus Leasing of Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    firm, which usually handles vehicle leasing as a side-line with vehicle sales. This source may be favored for considerations of personal recognition...H 36 -1—••- V. ECONOMIC ANALISIS OP THE ALTERNATIVES This thesis has, to this point, provided a discussion of the relative merits of ownership

  16. Regulation of pharmacists: a comparative law and economics analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipsen, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the regulation of pharmacists from an economic perspective, focusing on licensing, price and fee regulation, advertising restrictions and rules on exercise of the profession, and restrictions on business structure. A comparative overview is presented of the most common forms of

  17. An Analysis of the College's Economic Impact, 1997-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Fred H.

    This is the 15th annual study of the 5-year (1997-2002) economic impact of Pellissippi State Technical Community College, Tennessee, on the Knox and Blount County area. The study measures the direct impact of the college on the community in terms of business volume, employment, and individual income. The study does not include data pertaining to…

  18. Economic analysis of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall shortage and variability constrain crop production of smallholder farmers in Ethiopia and climate change may even aggravate this problem. An attractive method to mitigate this is water harvesting. This thesis examines the economic aspects of water harvesting by exploring optimal water use a

  19. Job Attitudes among Different Occupational Status Groups. An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Simcha; Sadan, Simcha

    1984-01-01

    An economic model is applied to employee attitudinal variables to compare the contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic factors to job satisfaction for skilled workers and managers in an electronics manufacturing organization. Intrinsic rewards are found to increase in importance as employment level increases, suggesting different frames of…

  20. An analysis of tourism contribution to economic growth in SADC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact of tourism on economic growth in the SADC region is the major ..... Unemployment is one of the social ills of most, if not all SADC counties, and any potential ..... by government on T&T services directly linked to visitors, such as cultural (eg museums) .... local production through backward and forward linkages. Rather ...

  1. Impacts of Import Liberalization Policy on Economic Growth in Vietnam: A Channel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    DINH Thi Hoang Yen

    2009-01-01

    Vietnam, a transitional economy that started its historic economic reform in 1986, has been pursuing both the market-oriented and state-controlled developments for more than twenty years. This study focuses on the country's liberalization on internal and international trade polices, an important path of economic reform, by measuring an index for import liberalization policy and then employing "channel analysis" to quantify impacts of import liberalization on the country's economic growth. The...

  2. A Response Analysis of Economic Growth to Environmental Risk: A Case Study of Qingdao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yunpeng; Ji, Jianyue; Yu, Xiaoli

    The economic growth is one kind of risk sources for environmental pollution. Taking Qingdao as sample, using principal component analysis, Granger causality test and impulse response function, this paper aims to find the relationship between economic growth and environmental pollution. The result shows that the economic growth is Granger cause of environmental risk which are influenced by time lags. The influence is progressive, gradual, and long-standing.

  3. Development of the Structure of Economic System: the System-Synergetic Analysis of Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Olena O.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the structure of economic system using the system-synergistic analysis of its subsystems. Evolution in using the system approach for analyzing economic systems in the modern world has been considered. Signs of the system approach as well as characteristics of economic systems have been allocated. Both development and evolution of economic systems has been defined in the current paradigmatic context. In accordance with the synergetic paradigm of research, system transformation of society has been substantiated, influence of bifurcation mechanisms on the course of transformational processes in the development of economic systems has been proven. Prospects for further research in this area are to define the fundamental scientific bases of research on economic mechanism through the prism of the civilizational approach, developing a contemporary base of researches on fluctuations of economic systems in the modern world, proper forecasting of bifurcation status of the national economic system. Further use of the system-synergetic analysis is advisable to account the characteristics of the development crisis of society and economic systems, which are the main objects of influence in the management of global economic processes in general and the main object of studying in the course of their cognition, using the civilizational approach of researching.

  4. Exergo-Economic Analysis of an Experimental Aircraft Turboprop Engine Under Low Torque Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilgan, Ramazan; Turan, Onder; Aydin, Hakan

    Exergo-economic analysis is an unique combination of exergy analysis and cost analysis conducted at the component level. In exergo-economic analysis, cost of each exergy stream is determined. Inlet and outlet exergy streams of the each component are associated to a monetary cost. This is essential to detect cost-ineffective processes and identify technical options which could improve the cost effectiveness of the overall energy system. In this study, exergo-economic analysis is applied to an aircraft turboprop engine. Analysis is based on experimental values at low torque condition (240 N m). Main components of investigated turboprop engine are the compressor, the combustor, the gas generator turbine, the free power turbine and the exhaust. Cost balance equations have been formed for all components individually and exergo-economic parameters including cost rates and unit exergy costs have been calculated for each component.

  5. Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

    2010-01-06

    The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically

  6. Quality of Life and Aesthetic Plastic Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Rodrigo; Blaya, Carolina; Tenório, Juliana L C; Saltz, Renato; Ely, Pedro B; Ferrão, Ygor A

    2016-09-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome in plastic surgery. However, authors use different scales to address this subject, making it difficult to compare the outcomes. To address this discrepancy, the aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and a random effect meta-analysis.

  7. Analysis of related factors affecting prognosis of shunt surgery in patients with secondary normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Cheng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: The management of se-condary normal pressure hydrocephalus (sNPH is controversial. Many factors may affect the surgery effect. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible fac-tors influencing prognosis and provide theoretical basis for clinical treatment of sNPH. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the results of 31 patients with sNPH who under-went ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery from January 2007 to December 2011. We processed the potential influencing factors by univariate analysis and the result further by mul-tivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Factors including age, disease duration and Glasgow coma scale (GCS score before surgery significantly influenced the prognosis of sNPH (P<0.05. Further logistic regression analysis showed that all the three factors are independent influencing factors. Conclusion: Age, disease duration and GCS score before surgery have positive predictive value in estimating favorable response to surgical treatment for sNPH. Key words: Hydrocephalus, normal pressure; Ventriculoperitoneal shunt; Regression analysis

  8. Feasibility of MR metabolomics for immediate analysis of resection margins during breast cancer surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone F Bathen

    Full Text Available In this study, the feasibility of high resolution magic angle spinning (HR MAS magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS of small tissue biopsies to distinguish between tumor and non-involved adjacent tissue was investigated. With the current methods, delineation of the tumor borders during breast cancer surgery is a challenging task for the surgeon, and a significant number of re-surgeries occur. We analyzed 328 tissue samples from 228 breast cancer patients using HR MAS MRS. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA was applied to discriminate between tumor and non-involved adjacent tissue. Using proper double cross validation, high sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 93%, respectively was achieved. Analysis of the loading profiles from both principal component analysis (PCA and PLS-DA showed the choline-containing metabolites as main biomarkers for tumor content, with phosphocholine being especially high in tumor tissue. Other indicative metabolites include glycine, taurine and glucose. We conclude that metabolic profiling by HR MAS MRS may be a potential method for on-line analysis of resection margins during breast cancer surgery to reduce the number of re-surgeries and risk of local recurrence.

  9. Application of Integration of Spatial Statistical Analysis with GIS to Regional Economic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei; DU Daosheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes a few spatial statistical analysis methods for to measuring spatial autocorrelation and spatial association, discusses the criteria for the identification of spatial association by the use of global Moran Coefficient, Local Moran and Local Geary. Furthermore, a user-friendly statistical module, combining spatial statistical analysis methods with GIS visual techniques, is developed in Arcview using Avenue. An example is also given to show the usefulness of this module in identifying and quantifying the underlying spatial association patterns between economic units.

  10. Orthopaedic Surgery Under National Health Reform: An Analysis of Power, Process, Adaptation, and Leadership: AOA Critical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Charles D; Adair, Daniel; Bozic, Kevin J; Manning, Blaine T; Saleh, Jamal K; Saleh, Khaled J

    2014-07-02

    Morrison argued that demography, economy, and technology drive the evolution of industries from a formative first-generation state ("First Curve") to a radically different way of doing things ("Second Curve") that is marked by new skills, strategies, and partners. The current health-reform movement in the United States reflects these three key evolutionary trends: surging medical needs of an aging population, dramatic expansion of Medicare spending, and care delivery systems optimized through powerful information technology. Successful transition from a formative first-generation state (First Curve) to a radically different way of doing things (Second Curve) will require new skills, strategies, and partners. In a new world that is value-driven, community-centric (versus hospital-centric), and prevention-focused, orthopaedic surgeons and health-care administrators must form new alliances to reduce the cost of care and improve durable outcomes for musculoskeletal problems. The greatest barrier to success in the Second Curve stems not from lack of empirical support for integrated models of care, but rather from resistance by those who would execute them. Porter's five forces of competitive strategy and the behavioral analysis of change provide insights into the predictable forms of resistance that undermine clinical and economic success in the new environment of care. This paper analyzes the components that will differentiate orthopaedic care provision for the Second Curve. It also provides recommendations for future-focused orthopaedic surgery and health-care administrative leaders to consider as they design newly adaptive, mutually reinforcing, and economically viable musculoskeletal care processes that drive the level of orthopaedic care that our nation deserves-at a cost that it can afford. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  11. [The recent news in endoscopic surgery: a review of the literature and meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, K É

    2012-01-01

    During a few recent years, endonasal surgery has become the principal tool for the operative treatment of many pathologies affecting the base of the skull. The present work was designed to estimate the possibilities of using endoscopic endonasal surgery to treat sinus and skull base lesions and illustrate the recent progress in the development of endoscopic equipment and instrumentation. The meta-analysis of the results of on-going research on the application of the endonasal endoscopic technology is described with the special emphasis on the plastic treatment of liquor fistulas, removal of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas, treatment of pathological changes in the clivial region and odontoid cervicomedullary junction.

  12. Surgery or conservative treatment for rotator cuff tear: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryösä, Anssi; Laimi, Katri; Äärimaa, Ville; Lehtimäki, Kaisa; Kukkonen, Juha; Saltychev, Mikhail

    2017-07-01

    Comparative evidence on treating rotator cuff tear is inconclusive. The objective of this review was to evaluate the evidence on effectiveness of tendon repair in reducing pain and improving function of the shoulder when compared with conservative treatment of symptomatic rotator cuff tear. Search on CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and Pedro databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing surgery and conservative treatment of rotator cuff tear. Study selection and extraction based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic reviews of Interventions. Random effects meta-analysis. Three identified RCTs involved 252 participants (123 cases and 129 controls). The risk of bias was considered low for all three RCTs. For Constant score, statistically insignificant effect size was 5.6 (95% CI -0.41 to 11.62) points in 1-year follow up favouring surgery and below the level of minimal clinically important difference. The respective difference in pain reduction was -0.93 (95% CI -1.65 to -0.21) cm on a 0-10 pain visual analogue scale favouring surgery. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.012) in 1-year follow up but below the level of minimal clinically important difference. There is limited evidence that surgery is not more effective in treating rotator cuff tear than conservative treatment alone. Thus, a conservative approach is advocated as the initial treatment modality. Implications for Rehabilitation There is limited evidence that surgery is not more effective in treating rotator cuff tear than conservative treatment alone. There was no clinically significant difference between surgery and active physiotherapy in 1-year follow-up in improving Constant score or reducing pain caused by rotator cuff tear. As physiotherapy is less proneness to complications and less expensive than surgery, a conservative approach is advocated as the initial treatment modality to rotator cuff tears.

  13. Spatial Analysis of Macro Economic in Central Java (PDRB Analysis in Year 1993-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Kiswanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the spatial analysis macroeconomics condition in central Java from 1993-2001 base on PDRB analysis. Central Java stands in the last position in the economic in Central Java based on PDRB variable and economic growth is in the lowest category in the comparation with another provinces in Java. This is reason why Central Java is categorized as "LL" (Low low. One of the prime sectors in Central Java is small medium scale enterprises which is dominated 30% of national market, but since the economic crisis stroke in 1997 the manufacture sector, especially industry and processing had collapse. In 1996-1997, the level of manufacture growth increased to 14.4% but then decreased until minus 19.3%. This condition caused by bankruptcy to many of the industries. The poverty profile in Central Java from 1999-2003 is average 23.3% from the total population every years. Central Java stepping to number 2 in level of poverty absolute number 1. In poverty relativity level, Central Java became number 1 in Java from 2002-2003 with the level of poverty reached above the national average. This fact shows the unsuccessfully effort in reducing the poverty level.

  14. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 2 - epidemiology, wildlife and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research ings in the fields of (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of foot-and- economics. Although the three sections, epidemiology, wildlife and economics are presented as separate entities, the fields are ...

  15. A state-level analysis of the economic impacts of medical tourism in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, J.; Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.; Peerlings, J.H.M.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, a country that ranks among the world's most recognised medical tourism destinations, medical tourism is identified as a potential economic growth engine for both medical and non-medical sectors. A state-level analysis of economic impacts is important, given differences between states in

  16. A state-level analysis of the economic impacts of medical tourism in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, J.; Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.; Peerlings, J.H.M.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, a country that ranks among the world's most recognised medical tourism destinations, medical tourism is identified as a potential economic growth engine for both medical and non-medical sectors. A state-level analysis of economic impacts is important, given differences between states in

  17. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALLHOLDERS: A STUDY OF THE PUBLIC MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAYKELL LEITE DA COSTA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work seeks to analyze economically the public market of Santa Rosa/RS, focusing the marketing channels used and the quality of products. Based on this work, one shows that the pluriactivity is a factor that contributes to greater income. However, the greater the complexity of economic activities, the more effective must be management mechanisms, because the productive factors and market relations become more complex. As a result, the ability to administer efficiently family properties is crucial for the sustainable development of Brazilian agribusiness, contributing to the improvement of the quality of life, for fixing the man in the field and to a cost-effective and environmentally sustainable development.

  18. Exergetic and economic analysis of an industrial distillation column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. B. Araújo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, applications of exergy and economic concepts to compression, heat exchange, and separation processes were used for calculation of the irreversibility rate, thermodynamic efficiency, and internal rate of return (IRR of the profitability. A case study based on a real process, the purification of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE in a high-purity distillation column, is presented. This column has the highest steam flow rate in any vinyl chloride monomer (VCM plant. A configuration using a vapor compression heat pump is proposed for improvement of the energy efficiency without having to make important process modifications. Existing and proposed configurations were implemented using the Aspen Plus™ commercial simulator; the results of the existing configuration were validated with data extracted from the plant. The objective of this work was to compare the existing configuration with the proposed one, using a thermodynamic and an economic approach.

  19. Energy consumption and economic growth. A causality analysis for Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsani, Stela Z. [The University of Reading, Department of Economics, Henley Business School, PO Box 218, Reading, RG6 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements. (author)

  20. Energy consumption and economic growth: A causality analysis for Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsani, Stela Z., E-mail: s.cani@reading.ac.u [University of Reading, Department of Economics, Henley Business School, PO Box 218, Reading, RG6 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements.

  1. Principled Analysis of Economic Development and adoption by the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Duarte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a study about the effectiveness of the constitutional principles related to the economic development, which proved to be the principles that justify the State’s decision to act through regulatory agencies, balancing the public interest and the private sector. It is a revisitation of the reform of the State’s apparatus, with a new prin- cipiologic and hermeneutic approach in accordance to the complex factual, ethical and axiological situations of the contemporary society that saw its’ social rights shaken by the economic instability scenario that has affected the whole world in recent years. It will be developed a reflection on the interaction of these principles with each other, and conclu- sively, how is the effectiveness managed by the State.

  2. Techno-economic analysis of decentralized biomass processing depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S; Tumuluru, Jaya S; Jacobson, Jacob J; Cafferty, Kara G; Hansen, Jason K; Kenney, Kevin; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Bals, Bryan

    2015-10-01

    Decentralized biomass processing facilities, known as biomass depots, may be necessary to achieve feedstock cost, quantity, and quality required to grow the future U.S. bioeconomy. In this paper, we assess three distinct depot configurations for technical difference and economic performance. The depot designs were chosen to compare and contrast a suite of capabilities that a depot could perform ranging from conventional pelleting to sophisticated pretreatment technologies. Our economic analyses indicate that depot processing costs are likely to range from ∼US$30 to US$63 per dry metric tonne (Mg), depending upon the specific technology implemented and the energy consumption for processing equipment such as grinders and dryers. We conclude that the benefits of integrating depots into the overall biomass feedstock supply chain will outweigh depot processing costs and that incorporation of this technology should be aggressively pursued.

  3. The Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubleny, Daniel; Switzer, Noah J; Gill, Richdeep S; Dykstra, Mark; Shi, Xinzhe; Sagle, Margaret A; de Gara, Christopher; Birch, Daniel W; Karmali, Shahzeer

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has been proven to be a successful management strategy for morbid obesity, but limited studies exist on its effect on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A comprehensive search of electronic databases was completed. Meta-analysis was performed on PCOS, hirsutism, and menstrual irregularity outcomes following bariatric surgery. Thirteen primary studies involving a total of 2130 female patients were identified. The incidence of PCOS preoperatively was 45.6 %, which significantly decreased to 6.8 % (P < 0.001) and 7.1 % (P < 0.0002) at 12-month follow-up and study endpoint, respectively. The incidences of preoperative menstrual irregularity and hirsutism both significantly decreased at 12-month and at study end follow-up. Bariatric surgery effectively attenuates PCOS and its clinical symptomatology including hirsutism and menstrual irregularity in severely obese women.

  4. Emergy-Based Regional Socio-Economic Metabolism Analysis: An Application of Data Envelopment Analysis and Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilong Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated analysis on socio-economic metabolism could provide a basis for understanding and optimizing regional sustainability. The paper conducted socio-economic metabolism analysis by means of the emergy accounting method coupled with data envelopment analysis and decomposition analysis techniques to assess the sustainability of Qingyang city and its eight sub-region system, as well as to identify the major driving factors of performance change during 2000–2007, to serve as the basis for future policy scenarios. The results indicate that Qingyang greatly depended on non-renewable emergy flows and feedback (purchased emergy flows, except the two sub-regions, named Huanxian and Huachi, which highly depended on renewable emergy flow. Zhenyuan, Huanxian and Qingcheng were identified as being relatively emergy efficient, and the other five sub-regions have potential to reduce natural resource inputs and waste output to achieve the goal of efficiency. The results of decomposition analysis show that the economic growth, as well as the increased emergy yield ratio and population not accompanied by a sufficient increase of resource utilization efficiency are the main drivers of the unsustainable economic model in Qingyang and call for polices to promote the efficiency of resource utilization and to optimize natural resource use.

  5. Analysis of insurance fraud in connection with the economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Justová, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with insurance fraud in connection with the economic crisis. The first chapter describes the moral hazard, adverse selection and information asymmetry. Focus on the topic global financial crisis. Further, the concepts fraud and insurance fraud are explained. The main focus of this work is that the financial crisis has led to an increase in insurance fraud and what aspects lead to this fact. The last chapter deals with the procedures of insurance companies, which seek to insur...

  6. Techno-economic analysis of a biomass depot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Jacob Jordan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Roni, Mohammad Sadekuzzaman [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kenney, Kevin Louis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heath, Brendi May [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hansen, Jason K [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) promotes the production of an array of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the technical, economic, and environmental performance of different feedstock supply systems and their impacts on the downstream conversion processes.

  7. STABILITY ANALYSIS OF TWO-SECTORS STOCHASTIC ECONOMIC GROWTH MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaobo ZHOU; Shigeng HU

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, we investigate the stability of a two-sector economic growth model under stochastic case. A two-dimensional stochastic differential system is deduced by Ito's formula, by using Lyapunov function methods, whether the growth rates of physical capital and human capital are exponentially stable or unstable depends on the values for parameters. Finally, we also illustrate the results with two examples.

  8. An Economic Analysis of Compensation for Rural Land Expropriation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To study which method is more effective in complete compensation and zero compensation for rural land expropriation,we use economic models to analyze whether the government is benevolent and which compensation method can achieve the social optimal level.The results show that both complete compensation and zero compensation will lead to over-investment of land owners,and consequently result in loss of social welfare.

  9. An Economic Analysis of food Policy in the Ivory Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Felix, Yao Prao

    1984-01-01

    Ivory Coast covers an area of 124,000 square miles with reasonable rainfall for food crops production. But besides what has been called the economic "miracle," the country relies on increasing food imports (rice, wheat, meat, and milk products). At the same time, the country's earnings from the major export commodities are shrinking. So the primary objective was to identify the main causes and circumstances that have resulted in reductions in food production. The major hypothesis was that the...

  10. The Curse of Knowledge in Economic Settings: An Experimental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin; Loewenstein, George; Weber, Martin

    1989-01-01

    In economic analyses of asymmetric information, better-informed agents are assumed capable of reproducing the judgments of less-informed agents. We discuss a systematic violation of this assumption that we call the "curse of knowledge." Better-informed agents are unable to ignore private information even when it is in their interest to do so; more information is not always better. Comparing judgments made in individual-level and market experiments, we find that market forces reduce the curse ...

  11. Socio-economic Value Analysis in Geospatial and Earth Observation: A methodology review (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, A. M.; Bernknopf, R.; Smart, A.

    2013-12-01

    Many industries have long since realised that applying macro-economic analysis methodologies to assess the socio-economic value of a programme is a critical step to convincing decision makers to authorise investment. The geospatial and earth observation industry has however been slow to embrace economic analysis. There are however a growing number of studies, published in the last few years, that have applied economic principles to this domain. They have adopted a variety of different approaches, including: - Computable General Equilibrium Modelling (CGE) - Revealed preference, stated preference (Willingness to Pay surveys) - Partial Analysis - Simulations - Cost-benefit analysis (with and without risk analysis) This paper will critically review these approaches and assess their applicability to different situations and to meet multiple objectives.

  12. Intraoperative forces and moments analysis on patient head clamp during awake brain surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Danilo; De Momi, Elena; Conti, Lorenzo; Votta, Emiliano; Riva, Marco; Fava, Enrica; Bello, Lorenzo; Ferrigno, Giancarlo

    2013-03-01

    In brain surgery procedures, such as deep brain stimulation, drug-resistant epilepsy and tumour surgery, the patient is intentionally awakened to map functional neural bases via electrophysiological assessment. This assessment can involve patient's body movements; thus, increasing the mechanical load on the head-restraint systems used for keeping the skull still during the surgery. The loads exchanged between the head and the restraining device can potentially result into skin and bone damage. The aim of this work is to assess such loads for laying down the requirements of a surgical robotics system for dynamic head movements compensation by fast moving arms and by an active restraint able to damp such actions. A Mayfield(®) head clamp was tracked and instrumented with strain gages (SGs). SG locations were chosen according to finite element analyses. During an actual brain surgery, displacements and strains were measured and clustered according to events that generated them. Loads were inferred from strain data. The greatest force components were exerted vertically (median 5.5 N, maximum 151.87 N) with frequencies up to 1.5 Hz. Maximum measured displacement and velocity were 9 mm and 60 mm/s, with frequencies up to 2.8 Hz. The analysis of loads and displacements allowed to identify the surgery steps causing maximal loads on the head-restraint device.

  13. How often should we perform arterial blood gas analysis during thoracoscopic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, Michael T; Schneider, Uwe; Heinzelmann, Michel; Zaugg, Michael; Lucchinetti, Eliana; Zollinger, Andreas; Hofer, Christoph K

    2007-12-01

    To continuously measure arterial blood gases (ABGs), to calculate the percentage of anticipated changes over time, and to develop recommendations for sampling frequencies of arterial blood gases in patients undergoing thoracoscopic surgery. Prospective, observational clinical trial. University hospital. 43 consecutive elective patients undergoing thoracoscopic surgery with one-lung ventilation. A Paratrend 7 probe for continuous arterial partial pressure of oxygen and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide measurement was introduced through a radial artery cannula in the awake patient before surgery. Data were collected throughout the procedure until patients left the operating room. Afterward, time courses of arterial blood gas values were transformed into frequency space by fast Fourier transform analysis, and the expected deviations in arterial blood gases were calculated over time. Forty-three consecutive patients undergoing thoracoscopic surgery were included, and arterial blood gas values were measured during a total of 141.5 h. Critical arterial partial pressure of oxygen values arterial partial pressure of oxygen and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide time courses in all patients. It takes only 5, 10, or 20 minutes for the arterial partial pressure of oxygen to change 10%, 20%, or 40%, respectively (95% confidence). Current standards to monitor arterial blood gases are not sufficient to detect and prevent hypoxemic events during thoracoscopic surgery with one-lung ventilation. Intermittent arterial blood gas analyses must be performed more frequently, up to every 10 minutes, to detect changes of 20% in arterial partial pressure of oxygen.

  14. Presence of Serum Ferritin before and after Bariatric Surgery: Analysis in Dentate and Edentulous Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foratori, Gerson Aparecido; Andrade, Francisco Juliherme Pires de; Mosquim, Victor; Sales Peres, Matheus de Carvalho; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Sales Peres, Silvia Helena de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Society has changed its own lifestyle, specially its eating habits and physical activities, leading to excessive weight and a sedentary behavior, which has contributed to obesity increase. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment to obesity, allowing weight loss and its maintenance. However, it has been related high levels of iron deficiency after surgery. A person's nutritional status might be affected by total or partial tooth loss. The aim of this longitudinal prospective cohort study was to evaluate the levels of serum ferritin before and after bariatric surgery and to identify if there is a relation with tooth loss. The sample was composed of 50 patients selected and assisted at Amaral Carvalho Hospital, located in Jaú city, Brazil. The use and necessity of prosthesis, dental absence or presence, and serum ferritin dosage were evaluated. Student's t test, Univariate analysis, Chi-square and Odds Ratio were adopted (pserum ferritin levels between dentate and edentulous patients prior to surgery (p = 0.436). After surgery, the serum ferritin levels were higher in edentulous patients (prosthesis users) when compared to the pre-surgical levels, and the post-surgical levels presented significant difference regarding the dentate patients (p = 0.024). It can be concluded that rehabilitated patients in postoperative period showed better levels of serum ferritin after surgical intervention.

  15. Presence of Serum Ferritin before and after Bariatric Surgery: Analysis in Dentate and Edentulous Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquim, Victor; Sales Peres, Matheus de Carvalho; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; Chaim, Elinton Adami

    2016-01-01

    Society has changed its own lifestyle, specially its eating habits and physical activities, leading to excessive weight and a sedentary behavior, which has contributed to obesity increase. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment to obesity, allowing weight loss and its maintenance. However, it has been related high levels of iron deficiency after surgery. A person’s nutritional status might be affected by total or partial tooth loss. The aim of this longitudinal prospective cohort study was to evaluate the levels of serum ferritin before and after bariatric surgery and to identify if there is a relation with tooth loss. The sample was composed of 50 patients selected and assisted at Amaral Carvalho Hospital, located in Jaú city, Brazil. The use and necessity of prosthesis, dental absence or presence, and serum ferritin dosage were evaluated. Student’s t test, Univariate analysis, Chi-square and Odds Ratio were adopted (p<0.05). There was no significant difference regarding the serum ferritin levels between dentate and edentulous patients prior to surgery (p = 0.436). After surgery, the serum ferritin levels were higher in edentulous patients (prosthesis users) when compared to the pre-surgical levels, and the post-surgical levels presented significant difference regarding the dentate patients (p = 0.024). It can be concluded that rehabilitated patients in postoperative period showed better levels of serum ferritin after surgical intervention. PMID:27695053

  16. Globalization, economic freedom, and wage inequality: A panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yay Gülsün

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of globalization and liberalization on wage inequality using the KOF globalization index, the Economic Freedom Index (EFI of the Fraser Institute and the Theil industrial pay inequality statistic compiled by the University of Texas Inequality Project (UTIP. Both static and dynamic fixedeffects models are estimated using a 5-year panel data set consisting of about 90 developed and developing countries for the 1970-2005 period. Estimation results from the dynamic panel data specification suggest that wage inequality has a significant and slowly changing component. The overall KOF and EFI indexes are found to be statistically insignificant in the full sample, but the results show that economic freedom is associated with more wage inequality, especially in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD countries. The estimation results from country groups indicate that more deregulation is associated with more earnings inequality in OECD countries. The results from the models with subcomponents of the EFI imply that access to sound money has a negative effect on wage inequality. A more stable price system in an economy implies a more equal wage distribution in emerging markets (EM, non-OECD countries, and European Union (EU.

  17. Why economic analysis of health system improvement interventions matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ivor Broughton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is little evidence to direct health systems toward providing efficient interventions to address medical errors, defined as an unintended act of omission or commission or one not executed as intended that may or may not cause harm to the patient but does not achieve its intended outcome. We believe that lack of guidance on what is the most efficient way to reduce adverse events and improve the quality of health care limits the scale-up of health system improvement interventions. Challenges to economic evaluation of these interventions include defining and implementing improvement interventions in different settings with high fidelity, capturing all of the positive and negative effects of the intervention, using process measures of effectiveness rather than health outcomes, and determining the full cost of the intervention and all economic consequences its effects. However, health system improvement interventions should be treated similarly to individual medical interventions and undergo rigorous economic evaluation to provide actionable evidence to guide policy-makers in decisions of resources allocation for improvement activities among other competing demands for health care resources.

  18. Why Economic Analysis of Health System Improvement Interventions Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Edward Ivor; Marquez, Lani

    2016-01-01

    There is little evidence to direct health systems toward providing efficient interventions to address medical errors, defined as an unintended act of omission or commission or one not executed as intended that may or may not cause harm to the patient but does not achieve its intended outcome. We believe that lack of guidance on what is the most efficient way to reduce medical errors and improve the quality of health-care limits the scale-up of health system improvement interventions. Challenges to economic evaluation of these interventions include defining and implementing improvement interventions in different settings with high fidelity, capturing all of the positive and negative effects of the intervention, using process measures of effectiveness rather than health outcomes, and determining the full cost of the intervention and all economic consequences of its effects. However, health system improvement interventions should be treated similarly to individual medical interventions and undergo rigorous economic evaluation to provide actionable evidence to guide policy-makers in decisions of resource allocation for improvement activities among other competing demands for health-care resources.

  19. Integrated environmental policy: A review of economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeth, Hans; Häckl, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    Holistic environmental policies, which emerged from a mere combination of technical activities in waste management some 40 years ago, constitute the most advanced level of environmental policies. These approaches to environmental policy, among them the policies in integrated waste management, attempt to guide economic agents to an environment-friendly behaviour. Nevertheless, current holistic policies in waste management, including policies on one-way drinks containers and waste electrical and electronic equipment, and implementations of extended producer responsibility with further applications to waste electrical and electronic equipment, reveal more or less severe deficiencies - despite some positive examples. This article relates these policy failures, which are not necessarily the result of an insufficient compliance with the regulations, to missing constitutive elements of what is going to be called an 'integrated environmental policy'. This article therefore investigates - mostly from a practical point of view - constitutive elements, which are necessary for a holistic policy to serve as a well-functioning allocation mechanism. As these constitutive elements result from a careful 'integration' of the environmental commodities into the economic allocation problems, we refer to these policies as 'integrated environmental policies'. The article also discusses and illustrates the main steps of designing such a policy - for waste electrical and electronic equipment and a (possible) ban of Glyphosat in agriculture. As these policies are dependent on economic and political stability with environmental awareness sufficiently developed, the article addresses mostly waste management policies in highly industrialised countries.

  20. INTERVENTIONISM: AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF PRICELESS RESOURCE ALLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Alexandru APAVALOAEI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is going to build upon the Misesian theory of interventionism by presenting it in the light of property economics. We will argue that all forms of government interfere with the workings of the market can be counterfactually analysed by contrasting them with the voluntary order of laissez-faire capitalism. Interventionism is presented as a partial order, situated on the continuum between laissez-faire capitalism and socialism. The article argues that the limits of interventionism can be understood as a direct consequence of its functioning under the aegis of fiat property. Because the state can unilaterally decide the extent to which an individual is entitled to his private property (involuntary co-ownership, interventionism replaces the rational entrepreneurial order of the free market, which is constrained by the price structure and is directed by economic calculation, with the arbitrary value judgments of a single entity. This more general re-statement of the Misesian theory of interventionism from the point of view of property economics has the benefit of covering all possible policy measures while deducing the implications from an a priori perspective. From a methodological standpoint, this approach provides a more realist account of the implications of government involvement in the workings of the market as it does not require any unrealistic assumptions like: perfect information, equilibrium and dead weight loss comparison, or postulate a certain type of behaviour - benevolence, narrow self-interest or ideological error.

  1. The Impact of Financial Development on Economic Growth in Nigeria: An ARDL Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Iheanacho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the relationship between financial intermediary development and economic growth in Nigeria over the period 1981–2011 using the auto-regressive distributed lag (ARDL approach to co-integration analysis. The results show that the relationship between financial development and economic growth in Nigeria is not significantly different from what has been observed generally in oil-dependent economies. The relationship between financial intermediary development and economic growth in Nigeria is found to be insignificantly negative in the long-run and significantly negative in the short-run. The results highlight the dominant role of the oil sector in economic activities in Nigeria.

  2. Structural Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Raa, T.

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to make the nature of input-output analysis in economics clearly accessible and, contrary to the opinion of many commentators, shows that this type of analysis can be compatible with the doctrines of neoclassical economics.

  3. Can the surgical checklist reduce the risk of wrong site surgery in orthopaedics? - can the checklist help? Supporting evidence from analysis of a national patient incident reporting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleary Kevin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical procedures are now very common, with estimates ranging from 4% of the general population having an operation per annum in economically-developing countries; this rising to 8% in economically-developed countries. Whilst these surgical procedures typically result in considerable improvements to health outcomes, it is increasingly appreciated that surgery is a high risk industry. Tools developed in the aviation industry are beginning to be used to minimise the risk of errors in surgery. One such tool is the World Health Organization's (WHO surgery checklist. The National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA manages the largest database of patient safety incidents (PSIs in the world, already having received over three million reports of episodes of care that could or did result in iatrogenic harm. The aim of this study was to estimate how many incidents of wrong site surgery in orthopaedics that have been reported to the NPSA could have been prevented by the WHO surgical checklist. Methods The National Reporting and Learning Service (NRLS database was searched between 1st January 2008- 31st December 2008 to identify all incidents classified as wrong site surgery in orthopaedics. These incidents were broken down into the different types of wrong site surgery. A Likert-scale from 1-5 was used to assess the preventability of these cases if the checklist was used. Results 133/316 (42% incidents satisfied the inclusion criteria. A large proportion of cases, 183/316 were misclassified. Furthermore, there were fewer cases of actual harm [9% (12/133] versus 'near-misses' [121/133 (91%]. Subsequent analysis revealed a smaller proportion of 'near-misses' being prevented by the checklist than the proportion of incidents that resulted in actual harm; 18/121 [14.9% (95% CI 8.5 - 21.2%] versus 10/12 [83.3% (95%CI 62.2 - 104.4%] respectively. Summatively, the checklist could have been prevented 28/133 [21.1% (95%CI 14.1 - 28.0%] patient safety

  4. Kaplan-Meier analysis on seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery: do gender and race influence it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burneo, Jorge G; Villanueva, Vicente; Knowlton, Robert C; Faught, R Edward; Kuzniecky, Ruben I

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate seizure outcome following epilepsy surgery for patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and evaluate is gender and race/ethnicity influence it. Data were obtained from the discharge database of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Epilepsy Center, between 1985 and 2001. The sample consisted of all patients with a primary diagnosis of medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy. Seizure recurrence was tabulated at 7 days, 2 months, 6 months, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years following surgery. Logistic regression analysis was used to model the presence of seizure recurrence after anterior temporal lobectomy for all patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis was done to obtain estimates and 95% CIs of seizure freedom from baseline. Baseline variables--age at surgery, age at seizure onset, sex, side of resection, immediate postoperative seizures, and pathology results--were assessed as potential predictors of each outcome by comparing the survival curves within each variable with a log rank test. Three hundred sixty-eight patients underwent surgical treatment for TLE, mean age of 30.2 years. Thirty-five patients were African American, 43% were men. Immediate postoperative seizures were seen in 23 patients, while seizure recurrence occurred in 27.3% patients within a year after surgery, and in 33.6% within 6 years. Logistic regression results showed no differences between African Americans and whites, between males and females. The occurrence of immediate postoperative seizures was a strong predictor of late seizure recurrence only at 1 year after surgery. The occurrence of seizures in the immediate postoperative period is a strong predictor of later seizure recurrence. Sex and race/ethnicity do not appear to be predictors of long-term outcome following surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy.

  5. Incidental durotomy during spinal surgery: a multivariate analysis for risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jerry Y; Aichmair, Alexander; Kueper, Janina; Lam, Cyrena; Nguyen, Joseph T; Cammisa, Frank P; Lebl, Darren R

    2014-10-15

    Multivariate analysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors for incidental durotomy (ID) in modern spine surgery techniques. ID, a relatively common complication of spine surgery, has been associated with postoperative complications such as durocutaneous fistulas, pseudomeningoceles, and arachnoiditis. Revision surgery may be necessary if the dural tear is not recognized and repaired during the initial procedure. ID was prospectively documented in patients who underwent spine surgery at a single institution during a 2-year period (n=4822). Patients with ID (n=182) from lumbar or thoracolumbar cases were matched 1:1 to a control cohort without ID. Demographic, diagnostic, and surgical procedure data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Multivariate analysis identified revision spine surgery (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.84-8.06, P<0.01), laminectomy (aOR: 3.82, 95% CI: 2.02-7.22, P<0.01), and older age (aOR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.04, P<0.01) as independent risk factors for ID. Fusion (aOR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.35-0.99, P=0.04), foraminectomy, (aOR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.25-0.69, P<0.01), and lateral approach (aOR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.14-0.61, P<0.01) were independent protective factors. Prior spine surgery, laminectomy, and older age were significant independent risk factors for ID. The recently developed lateral approach to interbody fusion was identified as a significant protective factor for ID, along with fusion and foraminectomy. These findings may help guide future surgical decisions regarding ID and aid in the patient informed-consent process. 3.

  6. Joint Environmental and Economical Analysis of Wastewater Treatment Plants Control Strategies: A Benchmark Scenario Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montse Meneses

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a joint environmental and economic analysis of different Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP control strategies is carried out. The assessment is based on the application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA as a method to evaluate the environmental impact and the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 1 (BSM1. The BSM1 is taken as the benchmark scenario used to implement the control strategies. The Effluent Quality Index (EQI and the Overall Cost Index (OCI are two indicators provided by BSM1 and used to evaluate the plant’s performance from the effluent quality and the economic points of view, respectively. This work conducts a combined analysis and assessment of ten different control strategies defined to operate a wastewater treatment plant. This analysis includes the usual economic and performance indexes provided by BSM1 joined with the LCA analysis that determines the environmental impact linked to each one of the considered control strategies. It is shown how to get an overall evaluation of the environmental effects by using a normalized graphical representation that can be easily used to compare control strategies from the environmental impact point of view. The use of only the BSM1 indexes provides an assessment that leads to a clustering of control strategies according to the cost/quality tradeoff they show. Therefore, regarding the cost/quality tradeoff, all strategies in the same group are almost equal and do not provide an indication on how to proceed in order to select the appropriate one. It is therefore shown how the fact of adding a new, complementary, evaluation (LCA based allows either to reinforce a decision that could be taken solely on the basis of the EQI/OCI tradeoff or to select one control strategy among the others.

  7. An economic analysis of marital fertility: some notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canlas, D B

    1981-01-01

    As an aspect of household behavior, the decision of whether to have a child or not appears to be an appropriate economic problem: children have consumption and production values, and childbearing and rearing involves resources of time and goods. With markets for birth control techniques present, it has been argued that the decision to have children or not could be regarded as a choice problem. Some of the problems with the economics of fertility behavior based on the household production function resemble the problem that has been raised concerning efforts to mathematize economics. A few critical notes are made in this paper on the theory of the demand for children based on the household production function. On an analytical level, a major criticism of this model pertains to its adherence to the belief that the economic values of children are reducible to a single utility element. Its descriptive and normative worth are diminished by its silence on aspects of uncertainty and imperfect information. The assumptions of the household production function model are examined, focusing on the extent that the mathematical treatment is useful in describing the empirical reality it purports to explain. The examination covers the use of a real valued utility function, the substitution possibilities, and the representation of household activities by the household production function. The household production function model of fertility behavior assumes that the household maximizes a real valued utility function. Adoption of this assumption rests on accepting the idea that wants or economic values attached to children can be reduced to a single utility element. A review of the literature on the worth of children shows a recognition of the multiplicity of wants attached to children. Rather than adopting the assumption that wants are reducible to a single utility element, it would be more suitable to accept the irreducibility and a hierarchical ordering of wants. A more useful

  8. Uncertainty in life cycle economical analysis of cassava-based ethanol fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ru-bo; DAI Du; CHEN Xiao-jun; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    Biomass ethanol fuel is not only renewable but also environmental-friendly. Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region is developing the cassava-based ethanol fuel. Economical performance of the project is the key issue.The traditional life cycle economical analysis is just a static calculation process. Uncertainty is the character of cassava yield, cost of cassava plant, cassava price, tax rate and gasoline price, and the economical performance of the project is determined by these aspects. This study proposes an economical model of cassava-based ethanol fuel. The method of Monte Carol is used to simulate the economical performance. This method conquers the shortage of the traditional way. The results show that cassava-based ethanol fuel can get survived when the tax is exempted. Finally, the study also evaluates the potential of the economical performance.

  9. Economic analysis of nutrition interventions for chronic disease prevention: methods, research, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, John B; Coates, Paul M; Russell, Robert M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Schuttinga, James A; Bowman, Barbara A; Peterson, Sarah A

    2011-09-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about the economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or healthcare policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and US regulatory, policy, and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development.

  10. Clinical safety and outcomes of laparoscopic surgery versus open surgery for palliative resection of primary tumors in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min-Wei; Gu, Xiao-Dong; Xiang, Jian-Bin; Chen, Zong-You

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to compare the clinical safety and outcomes of laparoscopic versus open surgery for primary tumors in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer. Pertinent studies were selected from the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases; references from published articles; and reviews. Both prospective and retrospective studies were included for the meta-analysis. Clinical outcomes included safety, complications, mortality, and survival. Six trials involving 1802 patients were included. The operative time was longer for laparoscopic than for open surgery (mean difference (MD) = 44.20, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 17.31-71.09, Z = 3.22, P = 0.001). Laparoscopic surgery was also associated with fewer postoperative complications (odds ratio 0.53, 95 % CI 0.37-0.78, Z = 3.29, P = 0.001) and less operative blood loss (MD = -65.40, 95 % CI -102.37 to -28.42, Z = 3.47, P = 0.0005). Median survival ranged from 11.4 to 30.1 months. The total hospital stay was 1.68 days shorter for laparoscopic than for open surgery (95 % CI -1.83 to -1.53, Z = 21.64, P < 0.00001). Laparoscopic surgery for palliative resection of stage IV colorectal cancer is associated with better perioperative outcomes than open surgery.

  11. Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

    2010-01-06

    The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically

  12. Economic Analysis of Pandemic Influenza Vaccination Strategies in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vernon J.; Tok, Mei Yin; Chow, Vincent T.; Phua, Kai Hong; Ooi, Eng Eong; Tambyah, Paul A.; Chen, Mark I.

    2009-01-01

    Background All influenza pandemic plans advocate pandemic vaccination. However, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different vaccination strategies. This paper compares the economic outcomes of vaccination compared with treatment with antiviral agents alone, in Singapore. Methodology We analyzed the economic outcomes of pandemic vaccination (immediate vaccination and vaccine stockpiling) compared with treatment-only in Singapore using a decision-based model to perform cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. We also explored the annual insurance premium (willingness to pay) depending on the perceived risk of the next pandemic occurring. Principal Findings The treatment-only strategy resulted in 690 deaths, 13,950 hospitalization days, and economic cost of USD$497 million. For immediate vaccination, at vaccine effectiveness of >55%, vaccination was cost-beneficial over treatment-only. Vaccine stockpiling is not cost-effective in most scenarios even with 100% vaccine effectiveness. The annual insurance premium was highest with immediate vaccination, and was lower with increased duration to the next pandemic. The premium was also higher with higher vaccine effectiveness, attack rates, and case-fatality rates. Stockpiling with case-fatality rates of 0.4–0.6% would be cost-beneficial if vaccine effectiveness was >80%; while at case-fatality of >5% stockpiling would be cost-beneficial even if vaccine effectiveness was 20%. High-risk sub-groups warrant higher premiums than low-risk sub-groups. Conclusions The actual pandemic vaccine effectiveness and lead time is unknown. Vaccine strategy should be based on perception of severity. Immediate vaccination is most cost-effective, but requires vaccines to be available when required. Vaccine stockpiling as insurance against worst-case scenarios is also cost-effective. Research and development is therefore critical to develop and stockpile cheap, readily available effective vaccines. PMID:19771173

  13. Sugar palm ethanol. Analysis of economic feasibility and sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Staaij, J.; Van den Bos, A.; Hamelinck, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Martini, E.; Roshetko, J.; Walden, D. [Winrock, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-08-15

    This study evaluates whether sugar palm is a suitable crop for biofuels and how production of ethanol from sugar palm in a large-scale setting is sustainable and economically feasible. Key questions are: Are the assumed high yields realistic in practice for sustained periods in largescale plantations?; Can sugar palm indeed compete economically with other crops for biofuels?; What are the effects of large-scale cultivation and processing of sugar palm for the natural environment and the local community? To answer these questions, Ecofys and Winrock have assessed the feasibility of largescale sugar palm cultivation for the production of ethanol using empirical data from existing sugar palm plantings. We analysed two production models to investigate the range of outcomes when varying important parameters: (1) a conservative system, whereby sugar palms are mixed with other crops and (2) an intensive system to explore the theoretical maximum yield when solely focusing on sugar palm. As background, Chapter 2 first describes the process of sugar palm cultivation, the 'tapping' and conversion into ethanol. Chapter 3 describes the data collection by Winrock. It presents an overview of the collected field data and explains the main empirical findings. Chapter 4 elaborates the two production systems and presents the results of the economic analyses (summarized in cash flow diagrams showing the timing of costs and benefits). Chapter 5 analyses the possible sustainability risks and benefits of sugar palm ethanol and investigates the integration possibilities of sugar palm in agro-forestry systems with other crops. Finally, Chapter 6 concludes by evaluating the potential of sugar palm as a source of biofuel and providing recommendations.

  14. Economic analysis of pandemic influenza vaccination strategies in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon J Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All influenza pandemic plans advocate pandemic vaccination. However, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different vaccination strategies. This paper compares the economic outcomes of vaccination compared with treatment with antiviral agents alone, in Singapore. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed the economic outcomes of pandemic vaccination (immediate vaccination and vaccine stockpiling compared with treatment-only in Singapore using a decision-based model to perform cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. We also explored the annual insurance premium (willingness to pay depending on the perceived risk of the next pandemic occurring. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The treatment-only strategy resulted in 690 deaths, 13,950 hospitalization days, and economic cost of USD$497 million. For immediate vaccination, at vaccine effectiveness of >55%, vaccination was cost-beneficial over treatment-only. Vaccine stockpiling is not cost-effective in most scenarios even with 100% vaccine effectiveness. The annual insurance premium was highest with immediate vaccination, and was lower with increased duration to the next pandemic. The premium was also higher with higher vaccine effectiveness, attack rates, and case-fatality rates. Stockpiling with case-fatality rates of 0.4-0.6% would be cost-beneficial if vaccine effectiveness was >80%; while at case-fatality of >5% stockpiling would be cost-beneficial even if vaccine effectiveness was 20%. High-risk sub-groups warrant higher premiums than low-risk sub-groups. CONCLUSIONS: The actual pandemic vaccine effectiveness and lead time is unknown. Vaccine strategy should be based on perception of severity. Immediate vaccination is most cost-effective, but requires vaccines to be available when required. Vaccine stockpiling as insurance against worst-case scenarios is also cost-effective. Research and development is therefore critical to develop and stockpile cheap, readily available effective vaccines.

  15. Status Report on Modeling and Analysis of Small Modular Reactor Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL; Hale, Richard Edward [ORNL; Moses, Rebecca J [ORNL

    2013-04-01

    This report describes the work performed to generate the model for SMR economic analysis. The model is based on the G4-ECONS calculation tool developed for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF).

  16. INSIST-ED: Italian Society of Andrology registry on penile prosthesis surgery. First data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Pescatori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Italian Society of Andrology, i.e. “Società Italiana di Andrologia” (S.I.A., launched on December 2014 a prospective, multicenter, monitored and internal review board approved Registry for penile implants, the “INSIST-ED” (Italian Nationwide Systematic Inventarisation of Surgical Treatment for ED Registry. Purpose of this first report is to present a baseline data analysis of the characteristics of penile implant surgery in Italy. Material and methods: The INSIST-ED Registry is open to all surgeons implanting penile prostheses (all brands, all models in Italy, providing anonymous patient, device, surgical procedure, outcome, follow-up data, for both first and revision surgeries. A Registry project Board overviews all the steps of the project, and a Registry Monitor interacts with the Registry implanting surgeons. Results: As by April 8, 2016, 31 implanting surgeons actively joined the Registry, entering 367 surgical procedures in its database, that comprise: 310 first implants, 43 prosthesis substitutions, 14 device explants without substitution. Implanted devices account for: 288 three-component devices (81,3%, 20 two-component devices (5,4%, 45 non-hydraulic devices (12,3%. Leading primary ED etiologies in first implant surgeries resulted: former radical pelvic surgery in 111 cases (35,8%, Peyronie’s disease in 66 cases (21,3%, diabetes in 39 cases (12,6%. Two intraoperative complications have been recorded. Main reasons for 57 revision surgeries were: device failure (52,6%, erosion (19,3%, infection (12,3%, patient dissatisfaction (10,5%. Surgical settings for patients undergoing a first penile implant were: public hospitals in 251 cases (81%, private environments in 59 cases (19%. Conclusions: The INSIST-ED Registry represents the first European experience of penile prosthesis Registry. This baseline data analysis shows that: three-pieces inflatable prosthesis is the most implanted device, leading etiology of

  17. An Economic Analysis of Corn-based Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Won W.; Taylor, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    A global multi-commodity simulation model was developed to estimate the impact of changes in ethanol production on the U.S. corn industry. Increased ethanol production under the Energy Acts of 2005 and 2007 resulted in a significant increase in the price of corn. However, for corn-based ethanol production, the break-even price of corn is approximately $4.52 per bushel with a federal subsidy of $0.51 per gallon of pure ethanol and $2.50 gasoline. With a corn price of $4.52, the economically de...

  18. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC MODELS OF POTATO PRODUCTION IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miomir JOVANOVIC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The northern region of Montenegro represents a very important resource for agricultural production. However, the depopulation of the analysed area, pronounced in-kind character of production without significant participation of market producers, lack of market research, stronger vertical and horizontal connection between primary production and processing sectors have significant impacts causing the low level of competitiveness of agricultural production. Potato production in the analysed area has recorded positive trends in last ten years. This paper presents economic models of agriculture households on the analysed area from the potatoes production point of view.

  19. Engineering-economic analysis of mobile home thermal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchins, P.F. Jr.; Hirst, E.

    1978-10-01

    Various levels of investment in energy-efficient designs are studied for new mobile homes. The purpose is to define relationships between annual energy use for space heating and cooling and additional initial investment in the structure shell for a range of climates in the United States. Climate, fuel price, and other economic factors are used to determine which energy-conserving designs are cost-effective. Maximum life-cycle savings configurations for a typical 14' x 68' mobile home are developed for nine different locations in the U.S.

  20. Economic analysis of wind-powered crop drying. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

    1980-03-01

    Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in crop drying. Drying of corn, soybeans, rice, peanuts, tobacco, and dehydrated alfalfa were addressed.

  1. Analysis on the Environmental Factors of Sustainable Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Haoyang

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.China's environmental problems 1) Serious water pollution.Water is most indispensable to people's life.Contaminated water will seriously affect people's normal life and cause environmental degradation, putting people in the danger of catching various diseases.Therefore, everyone should save water and make full use of it.However, in China, water pollution is getting worse.China has abundant water resources but there are still some regions frequently suffering from draught and lack of water.Especially in recent years, following the rapid economic growth, the increasingly serious problem of water pollution is presenting hazards for people's life, which needs the attention of the central government.

  2. Comparison of Robotic Surgery with Laparoscopy and Laparotomy for Treatment of Endometrial Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Longke Ran; Jing Jin; Yan Xu; Youquan Bu; Fangzhou Song

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the relative merits among robotic surgery, laparoscopy, and laparotomy for patients with endometrial cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. Methods The MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Studies clearly documenting a comparison between robotic surgery and laparoscopy or between robotic surgery and laparotomy for endometrial cancer were selected. The outcome measures included operating time (OT), number of complications, len...

  3. Modern utilization of penile prosthesis surgery: a national claim registry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, R L; Camper, S B; Burnett, A L

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the modern utilization of penile prosthesis surgery based on data derived from national claim databases and contrast to an analysis of patients similarly treated at an academic center during a contemporaneous period. A retrospective claim analysis utilizing a national database (MarketScan, Thomson Reuters) was performed for Commercial insurer and Medicare databases between January 2000 and March 2011. A retrospective analysis of contemporaneous penile prosthesis implantation at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) was done. Population demographics, comorbidities, previous (ED) therapies and time from ED diagnosis to surgery were assessed. Median ages for patients undergoing penile prosthesis implantation were 58, 70 and 63 years for the Commercial, Medicare and JHH cohorts, respectively. For the claim databases (Commercial, Medicare, respectively), hypertension (72%, 78%), dyslipidemia (71%, 56%) and diabetes mellitus (45%, 40%) were predominant comorbidities, whereas for the JHH database prostate cancer (51%) and its management by prostatectomy (45%) or radiation (12%) were predominant. Previous use of PDE5 inhibitors was similar across databases (60, 58 and 69% for Commercial, Medicare and JHH cohorts, respectively), although previous use of non-oral ED therapies was greater in the JHH database. Median time to surgery from initial ED diagnosis was 2, 2 and 4 years for the Commercial, Medicare and JHH patients, respectively. Demographic variables and ED risk factors associated with penile prosthesis surgery at a national population-based level over a contemporary period were defined. Some differences in utilization trends of penile prosthesis surgery exist at a single institutional level.

  4. The economics of project analysis: Optimal investment criteria and methods of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Insight is provided toward the development of an optimal program for investment analysis of project proposals offering commercial potential and its components. This involves a critique of economic investment criteria viewed in relation to requirements of engineering economy analysis. An outline for a systems approach to project analysis is given Application of the Leontief input-output methodology to analysis of projects involving multiple processes and products is investigated. Effective application of elements of neoclassical economic theory to investment analysis of project components is demonstrated. Patterns of both static and dynamic activity levels are incorporated.

  5. Youth hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia surgery operation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Hua Wang; Da-Shuang Lu; Jie Cui; Bo-Lin Qiao; Jing-Chun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Discuss surgical treatment of youth hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia.Methods:Retrospective analysis from January 2012 to April 2015 were adopted to bone flap craniotomy decompression for removal of hematoma and drainage drilling two kinds of surgical treatment of 46 cases of young patients with hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia.Results:Surgical operation, 28 patients postoperative review head CT, no further hemorrhage cases, residual hematoma volume 2-6 mL. Drilling drainage in the treatment of 18 patients, 1 case was bleeding again given surgical operation to remove the hematoma and the rest of the 17 cases without bleeding again, after 3 d, 17 cases of patients of postoperative hematoma drainage thoroughly. After 6 months, 46 cases of patients with postoperative review, GOS score light disability 9 cases, moderate disability 33 cases, 4 cases were severely disabled, curative effect is satisfied.Conclusions:Two kinds of operative methods each have advantages and disadvantages, young patients with hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia should according to patients' disease progression after speed, on admission patient's state of consciousness and head CT measured on admission hematoma volume, respectively.

  6. INFORMATION ECONOMICS, INSTRUMENT OF ANALYSIS IN NEW MICROECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zenovia GRIGORE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the New Microeconomics the walrasian postulate of perfect information is replaced by two theorems concerning production of information: 1. the acquisition and dissemination of information raise production costs; 2.  the specialisation in information activity is efficient; there are specialists in the production or use of information.  Information economics or the economics of information studies decisions in transaction where one party has more or better information than the other. Incomplete and asymmetric information could generate two types of risks: adverse selection, which can be reduced with signaling games and screening games, and moral hazard, studied in the frame of agency theory, by the principal agent model. The principal agent model treats the difficulties that arise when a principal hires an agent to pursue the interests of the former. There are some mechanisms that align the interests of the agent in solidarity with those of the principal, such as commissions, promotions, profit sharing, efficiency wages, deferred compensation, fear of firing and so on.

  7. [Comparison Analysis of Economic and Engineering Control of Industrial VOCs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-fei; Liu, Chang-xin; Cheng, Jie; Hao, Zheng-ping; Wang, Zheng

    2015-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollutant has become China's major air pollutant in key urban areas like sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. It is mainly produced from industry sectors, and engineering control is one of the most important reduction measures. During the 12th Five-Year Plan, China decides to invest 40 billion RMB to build pollution control projects in key industry sectors with annual emission reduction of 605 000 t x a(-1). It shows that China attaches a great importance to emission reduction by engineering projects and highlights the awareness of engineering reduction technologies. In this paper, a macroeconomic model, namely computable general equilibrium model, (CGE model) was employed to simulate engineering control and economic control (imposing environmental tax). We aim to compare the pros and cons of the two reduction policies. Considering the economic loss of the whole country, the environmental tax has more impacts on the economy system than engineering reduction measures. We suggest that the central government provides 7 500 RMB x t(-1) as subsidy for enterprises in industry sectors to encourage engineering reduction.

  8. Subfield profitability analysis reveals an economic case for cropland diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, E.; McNunn, G. S.; Schulte, L. A.; Bonner, I. J.; Muth, D. J.; Babcock, B. A.; Sharma, B.; Heaton, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Public agencies and private enterprises increasingly desire to achieve ecosystem service outcomes in agricultural systems, but are limited by perceived conflicts between economic and ecosystem service goals and a lack of tools enabling effective operational management. Here we use Iowa—an agriculturally homogeneous state representative of the Maize Belt—to demonstrate an economic rationale for cropland diversification at the subfield scale. We used a novel computational framework that integrates disparate but publicly available data to map ˜3.3 million unique potential management polygons (9.3 Mha) and reveal subfield opportunities to increase overall field profitability. We analyzed subfield profitability for maize/soybean fields during 2010-2013—four of the most profitable years in recent history—and projected results for 2015. While cropland operating at a loss of US 250 ha-1 or more was negligible between 2010 and 2013 at 18 000-190 000 ha (profitable areas, incorporating conservation management that breaks even (e.g., planting low-input perennials), into low-yielding portions of fields could increase overall cropland profitability by 80%. This approach is applicable to the broader region and differs substantially from the status quo of ‘top-down’ land management for conservation by harnessing private interest to align profitability with the production of ecosystem services.

  9. Price System for Water Supply and its Economic Impact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of the actual economic circumstances and water price level, the CGE model to simulate the price policy for multiple water sources is modified and expanded. A water price reform plan is proposed to meet water-saving requirements and water resources allocation. The affected scale and scope for implementing the water price policy is evaluated on a quantitative basis. Research results indicate that a reasonable water price system in Tianjin in 2020 should be set up as follows: the comprehensive tap water price stands at 4$/m3, the tap water price for industrial, administrative and business service sectors is 2.4$/m3, and the tap water price for special industry and domestic use are 8.8$/m3 and 1.4$/m3 respectively. The adjusted water price will bring about tangible results to water resources allocation optimization and water conservation. Although most sectors are negatively affected to varying degrees after raising the water price, particularly the lodging and catering sectors, a 100% water price rising will produce only little impact on price index, and sectoral output and employment will not cause economic fluctuations or social instability. Water price adjustments, as long as it is reasonable, will be more positive than negative on the whole. Research outcomes will provide a scientific decision-making basis for formulating the local water price policy.

  10. Systemic Risk Analysis on Reconstructed Economic and Financial Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Giulio; Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego; Gabrielli, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We address a fundamental problem that is systematically encountered when modeling real-world complex systems of societal relevance: the limitedness of the information available. In the case of economic and financial networks, privacy issues severely limit the information that can be accessed and, as a consequence, the possibility of correctly estimating the resilience of these systems to events such as financial shocks, crises and cascade failures. Here we present an innovative method to reconstruct the structure of such partially-accessible systems, based on the knowledge of intrinsic node-specific properties and of the number of connections of only a limited subset of nodes. This information is used to calibrate an inference procedure based on fundamental concepts derived from statistical physics, which allows to generate ensembles of directed weighted networks intended to represent the real system—so that the real network properties can be estimated as their average values within the ensemble. We test the method both on synthetic and empirical networks, focusing on the properties that are commonly used to measure systemic risk. Indeed, the method shows a remarkable robustness with respect to the limitedness of the information available, thus representing a valuable tool for gaining insights on privacy-protected economic and financial systems.

  11. Techno-economic analysis of lignocellulosic ethanol: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Dauriat, Arnaud

    2010-07-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol is expected to be commercialised during the next decade as renewable energy for transport. Competiveness with first generation bioethanol and with gasoline is commonly considered in techno-economic analyses for commercial stage. Several existing reviews conclude about the high spread of current and projected production costs of lignocellulosic ethanol due to the significant differences in assumptions concerning the following factors: composition and cost of feedstock, process design, conversion efficiency, valorisation of co-products, and energy conservation. Focusing on the studies in the United States of America and in Europe, the present review investigates the different natures of the techno-economic evaluations during the development process of the supply chain i.e., standard costing with respect to Value Engineering, and Target Costing based on the projected market price. The paper highlights the significant contribution of feedstock to the lignocellulosic ethanol production cost and the need to consider competition between different uses for resources. It is recommended the use of a value-based approach that considers sustainability characteristics and potential competition for resources complementarily to Target Costing and Value Engineering.

  12. Timing of surgery for sciatica: subgroup analysis alongside a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peul, Wilco C; Arts, Mark P; Brand, Ronald; Koes, Bart W

    2009-04-01

    Surgery speeds up recovery for sciatica. Prolonged conservative care with surgery for those patients with persistent sciatica however, yields similar results at 1 year. To investigate whether baseline variables modify the difference in recovery rates between these treatment strategies, baseline data of 283 patients enrolled in a randomized trial, comparing early surgery with prolonged conservative care, were used to analyse effect modification of the allotted treatment strategy. For predictors shown to modify the effect of the treatment strategy, repeated measurement analyses with the Roland Disability Questionnaire and visual analogue scale pain as continuous outcomes were performed for every level of that predictor. Presumed predictive variables did not have any interaction with treatment, while "sciatica provoked by sitting" showed to be a significant effect modifier (P = 0.07). In a Cox model we estimated a hazard ratio (HR, surgery versus conservative) of 2.2 (95% CI 1.7-3.0) in favour of surgery when sciatica was provoked by sitting, while the HR was 1.3 (95% CI 0.8-2.2) when this sign was absent. The interaction effect is marginally significant (interactions are usually tested at the 10% level) but the patterns generated by the repeated measurement analyses of all primary outcomes are completely consistent with the inferred pattern from the survival analysis. Classical signs did not show any contribution as decision support tools in deciding when to operate for sciatica, whereas treatment effects of early surgery are emphasized when sciatica is provoked by sitting and negligible when this symptom is absent.

  13. The Use of Computer Simulation Methods to Reach Data for Economic Analysis of Automated Logistic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neradilová, Hana; Fedorko, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    Automated logistic systems are becoming more widely used within enterprise logistics processes. Their main advantage is that they allow increasing the efficiency and reliability of logistics processes. In terms of evaluating their effectiveness, it is necessary to take into account the economic aspect of the entire process. However, many users ignore and underestimate this area,which is not correct. One of the reasons why the economic aspect is overlooked is the fact that obtaining information for such an analysis is not easy. The aim of this paper is to present the possibilities of computer simulation methods for obtaining data for full-scale economic analysis implementation.

  14. Is economics becoming the Mecca of Biology?: A citation analysis of the relationship between natural and social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcintas, Altug

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues that articles in economics, especially in the fields of evolutionary and institutional economics, are as much cited in biology as in economics. The citation analysis conducted in the essay suggests that economics is now becoming the Mecca of biology.

  15. Economic solvency in the context of violence against women: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Heidi; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this concept analysis is to define economic solvency in the context of violence against women. Poverty, or lack of resources, is often discussed as a risk factor for intimate partner violence. The concept of economic solvency, which may be a protective factor for women, is less often discussed and not well defined. Databases searched for the analysis included EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed and Gender Watch. The Rodgers evolutionary method was used to perform the concept analysis. A total of 134 articles were retrieved, using the specified search terms 'economic solvency and women', 'economic self-reliance and women' and 'economic self-sufficiency and women'. Articles were included if they were peer reviewed, contained the keywords with sufficient context to determine the author's intended meaning, and focused on women only or contrasted men to women. Thirty-five articles were used in the concept analysis. The definition of economic solvency drawn from the concept analysis is: a long-term state that occurs when there is societal structure that supports gender equity and external resources are available and can be used by a woman who has necessary human capital, sustainable employment and independence. Just as poverty and violence are cyclical, so are economic solvency and empowerment of women. To decrease women's risk of intimate partner violence around the world and further improve the status of women, we recommend continued research on economic solvency, including the individual, family, community and societal resources required to obtain economic solvency and the human capital characteristics needed for sustainability. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Remote Digital Preoperative Assessments for Cleft Lip and Palate May Improve Clinical and Economic Impact in Global Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher; Campbell, Jacob; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; McCormack, Susan; Silverman, Richard; Lalikos, Janice; Babigian, Alan; Castiglione, Charles

    2017-09-01

    Reconstructive surgical care can play a vital role in the resource-poor settings of low- and middle-income countries. Telemedicine platforms can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of surgical care. The purpose of this study is to determine whether remote digital video evaluations are reliable in the context of a short-term plastic surgical intervention. The setting for this study was a district hospital located in Latacunga, Ecuador. Participants were 27 consecutive patients who presented for operative repair of cleft lip and palate. We calculated kappa coefficients for reliability between in-person and remote digital video assessments for the classification of cleft lip and palate between two separate craniofacial surgeons. We hypothesized that the technology would be a reliable method of preoperative assessment for cleft disease. Of the 27 (81.4%) participants, 22 received operative treatment for their cleft disorder. Mean age was 11.1 ± 8.3 years. Patients presented with a spectrum of disorders, including cleft lip (24 of 27, 88.9%), cleft palate (19 of 27, 70.4%), and alveolar cleft (19 of 27, 70.4%). We found a 95.7% agreement between observers for cleft lip with substantial reliability (κ = .78, P cleft palate, with a moderate interrater reliability (κ = .55, P = .01). We found only a 47.8% agreement between observers for alveolar cleft with a nonsignificant, weak kappa agreement (κ = .06, P = .74). Remote digital assessments are a reliable way to preoperatively diagnose cleft lip and palate in the context of short-term plastic surgical interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Future work will evaluate the potential for real-time, telemedicine assessments to reduce cost and improve clinical effectiveness in global plastic surgery.

  17. Integrated Approach To The Analysis Of The Quality Of Socio-Economic Regional Development Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Michailovich Kachalov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prospects of the methods of the analysis and improvement of quality of governance the socio-economic systems application, based conceptual provisions of the system theory of economics, multilevel stratification of the economic space and the operational economical risk management theory are considered. For mesoeconomics, the types of system resources of the economy are defined. Also, it is analyses the influence on the quality of governance socio-economic region development the disparity of different types of system economical resources. Potential possibilities of the improvement of quality of governance due to thinner stratification of economical space and improvement the interaction parameters of the main actors of regional economic space are revealed. Leaning on the operational theory of risk management, ways of justification of administrative, strategic decisions by identification of the relevant economic risk factors and on the basis of received information development the program of anti-risk measures are offered. The methodical solutions promoting successful introduction of considered tools in practice of regional government are proposed.

  18. CO{sub 2} emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China: A panel data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.S.; Zhou, D.Q. [College of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Research Centre for Soft Energy Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Zhou, P., E-mail: cemzp@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Research Centre for Soft Energy Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Q.W. [Research Centre for Soft Energy Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); School of Business, Soochow University, 50 Donghuan Road, Suzhou 215021 (China)

    2011-09-15

    This paper examines the causal relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and real economic output using panel cointegration and panel vector error correction modeling techniques based on the panel data for 28 provinces in China over the period 1995-2007. Our empirical results show that CO{sub 2} emissions, energy consumption and economic growth have appeared to be cointegrated. Moreover, there exists bidirectional causality between CO{sub 2} emissions and energy consumption, and also between energy consumption and economic growth. It has also been found that energy consumption and economic growth are the long-run causes for CO{sub 2} emissions and CO{sub 2} emissions and economic growth are the long-run causes for energy consumption. The results indicate that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will not decrease in a long period of time and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions may handicap China's economic growth to some degree. Some policy implications of the empirical results have finally been proposed. - Highlights: > We conduct a panel data analysis of the energy-CO{sub 2}-economy nexus in China. > CO{sub 2} emissions, energy use and economic growth appear to be cointegrated. > There exists bidirectional causality between energy consumption and economic growth. > Energy consumption and economic growth are the long-run causes for CO{sub 2} emissions.

  19. Ecosystems, ecological restoration, and economics: does habitat or resource equivalency analysis mean other economic valuation methods are not needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W Douglass; Wlodarz, Marta

    2013-09-01

    Coastal and other area resources such as tidal wetlands, seagrasses, coral reefs, wetlands, and other ecosystems are often harmed by environmental damage that might be inflicted by human actions, or could occur from natural hazards such as hurricanes. Society may wish to restore resources to offset the harm, or receive compensation if this is not possible, but faces difficult choices among potential compensation projects. The optimal amount of restoration efforts can be determined by non-market valuation methods, service-to-service, or resource-to-resource approaches such as habitat equivalency analysis (HEA). HEA scales injured resources and lost services on a one-to-one trade-off basis. Here, we present the main differences between the HEA approach and other non-market valuation approaches. Particular focus is on the role of the social discount rate, which appears in the HEA equation and underlies calculations of the present value of future damages. We argue that while HEA involves elements of economic analysis, the assumption of a one-to-one trade-off between lost and restored services sometimes does not hold, and then other non-market economic valuation approaches may help in restoration scaling or in damage determination.

  20. Interrelations between Energy Security Economics and Social Cohesion: Analysis of a Lithuanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainius Genys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing attention to sustainable development in academic discourse fosters discussions on how energy security affects society. In most cases the discussions consider the political and economic consequences, which affect or may affect the society. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania. To achieve this aim the interrelations between energy security, energy economics and social cohesion are discussed. The theoretical framework of social cohesion (introduced by J. Jenson and P. Bernard is presented and applied in empirical analysis. The operationalization of empirical variables is based on economic, political and socio-cultural - activity areas, which are analyzed to verify the dichotomies between public attitudes and the actual behavior of society. These dichotomies help to distinguish six analytical dimensions, on the basis of which we created 17 empirical indicators, which analysis allows for describing the impact of Lithuanian energy security economics on social cohesion in quantitative data. The statistical analyses showed that the impact of attitudinal dimensions of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania has an almost neutral effect: 3.05 (1-very negative; 3-neutral, 5-very positive. Whereas, the impact of behavioural dimensions of energy security economics on social cohesion has a negative effect: 2.47. The aggregated average of the overall impact of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania has a negative effect: 2.76.

  1. Increasing the value of time reduces the lost economic opportunity of caring for surgeries of longer-than-average times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouleish, Amr E; Prough, Donald S; Whitten, Charles W; Conlay, Lydia A

    2004-06-01

    Anesthesiology groups that provide care for surgical procedures of longer-than-average duration are economically disadvantaged by both increased staffing costs and reduced revenue. Under the current billing system, anesthesia time is valued the same regardless of the total case duration. In this study, we evaluated the effect on four academic anesthesiology departments of two hypothetical scenarios by changing the anesthesia care billing system to make more valuable either 1) all time units or 2) just second-hour and subsequent time units. From the four departments, case-specific data (anesthesia Current Procedural Terminology code and minutes of care) were collected for all anesthesia cases billed for 1 yr. Basic units were determined from the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) relative value guide. The average time for each case was defined as the average anesthesia time for that specific Current Procedural Terminology code, as published by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). The actual total ASA units per hour (tASA/h) was determined by adding all the basic units and time units and dividing by hours of anesthesia care (minutes of anesthesia care divided by 60). We then calculated a hypothetical CMS tASA/h for each group by substituting the CMS average time for each anesthesia procedure time for the actual time reported by each group and using 15-min time units. For each group, the Actual (Act) tASA/h and CMS tASA/h were calculated for both options-changing the interval for all time units or only for second and subsequent hours. Intervals were 15, 12, 10, 7, 6, or 5 min. When changing all time units, Act tASA/h and CMS tASA/h were never equal for all groups. The two productivity measures became approximately equal if only time units after the first hour were changed to 6- to 7-min intervals. When changes were applied only to the Act tASA/h (with CMS tASA/h remaining at 15-min intervals), at the 12-min interval either option resulted in a

  2. Intraoperative goal directed hemodynamic therapy in noncardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ripollés

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The goal directed hemodynamic therapy is an approach focused on the use of cardiac output and related parameters as end-points for fluids and drugs to optimize tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery. Primary aim: To determine the effects of intraoperative goal directed hemodynamic therapy on postoperative complications rates. Methods: A meta-analysis was carried out of the effects of goal directed hemodynamic therapy in adult noncardiac surgery on postoperative complications and mortality using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methodology. A systematic search was performed in Medline PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library (last update, October 2014. Inclusion criteria were randomized clinical trials in which intraoperative goal directed hemodynamic therapy was compared to conventional fluid management in noncardiac surgery. Exclusion criteria were trauma and pediatric surgery studies and that using pulmonary artery catheter. End-points were postoperative complications (primary and mortality (secondary. Those studies that fulfilled the entry criteria were examined in full and subjected to quantifiable analysis, predefined subgroup analysis (stratified by type of monitor, therapy, and hemodynamic goal, and predefined sensitivity analysis. Results: 51 RCTs were initially identified, 24 fulfilling the inclusion criteria. 5 randomized clinical trials were added by manual search, resulting in 29 randomized clinical trials in the final analysis, including 2654 patients. A significant reduction in complications for goal directed hemodynamic therapy was observed (RR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.62-0.79, p < 0.001. No significant decrease in mortality was achieved (RR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.45-1.28, p = 0.30. Quality sensitive analyses confirmed the main overall results. Conclusions: Intraoperative goal directed hemodynamic therapy with minimally invasive monitoring decreases postoperative complications in noncardiac

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of arthroscopic surgery compared with non-operative management for osteoarthritis of the knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jacquelyn D; Birmingham, Trevor B; Giffin, J Robert; Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Feagan, Brian G; Litchfield, Robert; Willits, Kevin; Fowler, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of arthroscopic surgery in addition to non-operative treatments compared with non-operative treatments alone in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design, setting and participants We conducted an economic evaluation alongside a single-centre, randomised trial among patients with symptomatic, radiographic knee OA (KL grade ≥2). Interventions Patients received arthroscopic debridement and partial resection of degenerative knee tissues in addition to optimised non-operative therapy, or optimised non-operative therapy only. Main outcome measures Direct and indirect costs were collected prospectively over the 2-year study period. The effectiveness outcomes were the Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Cost-effectiveness was estimated using the net benefit regression framework considering a range of willingness-to-pay values from the Canadian public payer and societal perspectives. We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and conducted sensitivity analyses using the extremes of the 95% CIs surrounding mean differences in effect between groups. Results 168 patients were included. Patients allocated to arthroscopy received partial resection and debridement of degenerative meniscal tears (81%) and/or articular cartilage (97%). There were no significant differences between groups in use of non-operative treatments. The incremental net benefit was negative for all willingness-to-pay values. Uncertainty estimates suggest that even if willing to pay $400 000 to achieve a clinically important improvement in WOMAC score, or ≥$50 000 for an additional QALY, there is therapies only. Our sensitivity analysis suggests that even when assuming the largest treatment effect, the addition of arthroscopic surgery is not economically attractive compared with non-operative treatments only. Conclusions Arthroscopic debridement of degenerative articular cartilage and

  4. Gender trends in authorship in oral and maxillofacial surgery literature: A 30-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenke, Emeka; Seemann, Rudolf; Vairaktaris, Elefterios; Schaller, Hans-Günter; Rohde, Maximilian; Stelzle, Florian; Knipfer, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of the gender distribution of first and senior authorships in important oral and maxillofacial journals over the 30-year period from 1980 to 2010. Articles published in three representative oral and maxillofacial surgery journals were selected. The years 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 were chosen as representative points in time for article selection. Original research, case reports, technical notes, and reviews were included in the analysis. Case reports and technical notes were pooled in one group. For each article, the gender of the first author as well as that of the senior author was determined, based on the inspection of their first name. The type of article was determined and the country of origin of the article was documented. A total 1412 articles were subjected to the data analysis. A significant increase in female authorship in oral and maxillofacial surgery could be identified over the chosen 30-year period. However, the number of publications by male authors was still significantly higher at all points of time, exceeding those of female authors by at least 3.8 fold in 2010. As there is a trend towards feminization of medicine and dentistry, the results of the present study may serve as the basis for further analysis of the current situation, and the identification of necessary actions to accelerate the closure of the gender gap in publishing in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  5. Entropy analysis in foreign exchange markets and economic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jin-Gi; Yim, Kyubin; Kim, Seunghwan; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in 11 foreign exchange markets by using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity algorithm and several entropy values such as the Shannon entropy, the approximate entropy, and the sample entropy. With daily data in 11 foreign exchange markets from Jan. 2000 to Sep. 2011, we observe that mature markets have higher LZ complexities and entropy values than emerging markets. Furthermore, with sliding time windows, we also investigate the temporal evolutions of those entropies from Jan. 1994 to Sep. 2011, and we find that, after an economic crisis, the approximate entropy and the sample entropy of mature markets such as Japan, Europe and the United Kingdom suddenly become lower.

  6. [Population development and economic growth. A simulation analysis for Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Straubhaar, T

    1996-01-01

    "A simulation exercise of a general equilibrium model for Switzerland makes clear that the macroeconomic impacts of aging populations are not very strong. There is no need for urgent policy actions to avoid severe negative economic consequences....However, the aging of population affects negatively the net income of the active labor force. An increasing share of their gross salaries goes to the retirement system to finance the pension payments of a growing number of pensioners. Attempts to moderate the elderly dependency ratio would lower this burden for the active labor force. Options are an increase of the female participation rate, an increase of the labor participation rate of the elderly--[which] also means a higher retirement age--and an increasing flow of immigrants. But socioeconomic problems might probably generate practical limits on the extent to which immigration can be increased." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  7. Systemic risk analysis in reconstructed economic and financial networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of fundamental properties for economic and financial systems, such as systemic risk, is systematically hindered by privacy issues$-$that put severe limitations on the available information. Here we introduce a novel method to reconstruct partially-accessible networked systems of this kind. The method is based on the knowledge of the fitnesses, $i.e.$, intrinsic node-specific properties, and of the number of connections of only a limited subset of nodes. Such information is used to calibrate a directed configuration model which can generate ensembles of networks intended to represent the real system, so that the real network properties can be estimated within the generated ensemble in terms of mean values of the observables. Here we focus on estimating those properties that are commonly used to measure the network resilience to shock and crashes. Tests on both artificial and empirical networks shows that the method is remarkably robust with respect to the limitedness of the information available...

  8. Impact of climate on energy sector in economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, H.E.; LeDuc, S.K.

    1981-12-01

    Assessments of economic conditions by region or sector attempt to include relevant climatic variability through residual adjustment techniques. There is no direct consideration of climatic fluctuations. Three recent severe winters combined with the increasing price of energy have intensified the need to quantify the interaction of climate with the energy sector of the economy. This paper presents examples of the uses of climatic data by utilities, public service commissions and the NOAA Center for Environmental Assessment Services to determine econoclimatic energy relationships at the local, state, regional and national levels. A technique based on the linear relationships between heating degree days and natural gas consumption for space heating is used to quantify the interaction of climate and prices on gas consumption. This provides regional estimates of the response of gas consumption to degree days and price.

  9. Migration and Remittances Nexus: Economic Implications and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of our paper was to apply our research methodology on the specific case of the Ukrainian migration and remittances in the Czech Republic. In contrast to previous studies, we provide a more detailed insight into the specifications of remittance behaviour and test assumptions in the Ukraine-Czech Republic country models. A range of testing is defined by the hypotheses capturing determinants of probability to send money transfers, their volume, spending behaviour and probability of having skilled position. Our results demonstrate that reverse economic effects of remittances on the source country might be simply combination of regular and occasional form with different weight. Therefore, we conclude that the development of migration policy should not neglect microeconomic effects that have potential to solve aggregate level problems.

  10. [Comparison of robotic surgery with laparoscopy for surgical staging of endometrial cancer: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X M; Wang, J

    2017-03-25

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of robotic surgery in surgical staging of endometrial cancer. Methods: Searched English and Chinese databases, including Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Internet, data base of Wanfang, China Science and Technology Journal (CSTJ) , and relevant journals and magazines by hand from Jan. 2000 to Oct. 2016. (1) In accordance with the inclusion criteria, two independent investigators screened databases and extracted the relevant data respectively, then evaluated the quality of including studies in Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) . (2) Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.3 software. Heterogeneity inspection was done for each study and different effect model included the random effect model and fixed effect model was chose according to the results: of the inspection. At last, the related parameters of the robotic surgery and laparoscopic surgery was analysed. Results (1) Thirteen articles were ultimately included. All of them were written in English and included a total of 1 554 patients, included 739 cases of robotic surgery and 815 cases of laparoscopic surgery. Thirteen articles were all cohort study, four of them were prospective cohort study, while others were retrospective cohort study. After quality assessment, all studies had more than 5 stars and illustrated the higher quality. (2) Meta-analysis results showed: compared with laparoscopic surgery in surgical staging of endometrial cancer, robotic surgery had less estimated blood loss [standard deviation (SD)=-72.31 ml, 95%CI:-107.29 to-37.33, Psurgery (RR=0.41, 95%CI: 0.26 to 0.65, P=0.000), less intraoperative complications (RR=0.43, 95%CI: 0.24 to 0.76, P=0.004) in surgical staging of endometrial cancer. There was no statistically significant difference in aspects of operative time (SD=10.26 minutes, 95% CI:-13.62 to 34.13, P=0.400), postoperative complications (RR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.67 to 1.12, P=0.280), the total

  11. An economic analysis on optical Ethernet in the access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hwi; Nam, Dohyun; Yoo, Gunil; Kim, WoonHa

    2004-04-01

    Nowadays, Broadband service subscribers have increased exponentially and have almost saturated in Korea. Several types of solutions for broadband service applied to the field. Among several types of broadband services, most of subscribers provided xDSL service like ADSL or VDSL. Usually, they who live in an apartment provided Internet service by Ntopia network as FTTC structure that is a dormant network in economical view at KT. Under competitive telecom environment for new services like video, we faced with needing to expand or rebuild portions of our access networks, are looking for ways to provide any service that competitors might offer presently or in the near future. In order to look for new business model like FTTH service, we consider deploying optical access network. In spite of numerous benefits of PON until now, we cannot believe that PON is the best solution in Korea. Because we already deployed optical access network of ring type feeder cable and have densely population of subscribers that mainly distributed inside 6km from central office. So we try to utilize an existing Ntopia network for FTTH service under optical access environment. Despite of such situations, we try to deploy PON solution in the field as FTTC or FTTH architecture. Therefore we analyze PON structure in comparison with AON structure in order to look for optimized structure in Korea. At first, we describe the existing optical access networks and network architecture briefly. Secondly we investigate the cost of building optical access networks by modeling cost functions on AON and PON structure which based on Ethernet protocol, and analyze two different network architectures according to different deployment scenarios: Urban, small town, rural. Finally we suggest the economic and best solution with PON structure to optimize to optical access environment of KT.

  12. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Incidence of Altered Sensation of Mandibular Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Shu; Wu, Shih-Yun; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Altered sensation (including paresthesia, dysesthesia and hypoesthesia) after mandibular implant surgery may indicate transient or permanent injury of the inferior alveolar nerve and the mental branch, and considerably lower patients’ satisfaction about the therapy. Previous studies have shown a great degree of variability on the incidence of altered sensation. We here reported the incidence of altered sensation after mandibular implant surgery based on a meta-analysis of 26 articles published between 1990.1.1 and 2016.1.1. Study quality and risk of bias was assessed and the studies with a lower score were excluded in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis was performed using the logistic-normal random-effect model. The meta-analyses revealed that the short-term (10 days after implant placement) and long-term (1 year after implant placement) incidence was 13% (95% CI, 6%-25%) and 3% (95% CI, 1%-7%), respectively. (2) For the patients who initially reported altered sensation, 80% (95% CI, 52%-94%) of them would return to normal sensation within 6 months after surgery, and 91% (95% CI, 78%-96%) of them would return to normal sensation one year after surgery. We concluded that dentist-patient communication about the risk of altered sensation is critical to treatment planning, since the short-term incidence of altered sensation is substantial (13%). When a patient reports altered sensation, regular assessment for 6 months would help tracing the changes of symptoms. In terms of long-term follow-up (1 year after surgery), the incidence is much lower (3%) and most patients (91%) would return to normal sensation. PMID:27100832

  13. The assessment of neural injury following open heart surgery by physiological tremor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Adám; Hejjel, László; Ajtay, Zénó; Kellényi, Lóránd; Solymos, Andor; Bártfai, Imre; Kovács, Norbert; Lenkey, Zsófia; Cziráki, Attila; Szabados, Sándor

    2013-02-21

    The appearance of post-operative cognitive dysfunction as a result of open heart surgery has been proven by several studies. Focal and/or sporadic neuron damage emerging in the central nervous system may not only appear as cognitive dysfunction, but might strongly influence features of physiological tremor. We investigated 110 patients (age: 34-73 years; 76 male, 34 female; 51 coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 25 valve replacement, 25 combined open heart surgery, 9 off-pump CABG) before surgery and after open-heart surgery on the 3(rd) to 5(th) post-operative day. The assessment of the physiological tremor analysis was performed with our newly developed equipment based on the Analog Devices ADXL 320 JPC integrated accelerometer chip. Recordings were stored on a PC and spectral analysis was performed by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). We compared power integrals in the 1-4 Hz, 4-8 Hz and 8-12 Hz frequency ranges and these were statistically assessed by the Wilcoxon rank correlation test. We found significant changes in the power spectrum of physiological tremor. The spectrum in the 8-12 Hz range (neuronal oscillation) decreased and a shift was recognised to the lower spectrum (p < 0.01). The magnitude of the shift was not significantly higher for females than for males (p < 0.157). We found no significant difference between the shift and the cross-clamp or perfusion time (p < 0.6450). The assessment of physiological tremor by means of our novel, feasible method may provide a deeper insight into the mechanism of central nervous system damage associated with open heart surgery.

  14. Enhanced recovery after surgery for hip and knee arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shibai; Qian, Wenwei; Jiang, Chao; Ye, Canhua; Chen, Xi

    2017-07-27

    To collect data of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical controlled trials (CCTs) for evaluating the effects of enhanced recovery after surgery on postoperative recovery of patients who received total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Relevant, published studies were identified using the following key words: arthroplasty, joint replacement, enhanced recovery after surgery, fast track surgery, multi-mode analgesia, diet management, or steroid hormones. The following databases were used to identify the literature consisting of RCTs or CCTs with a date of search of 31 December 2016: PubMed, Cochrane, Web of knowledge, Ovid SpringerLink and EMBASE. All relevant data were collected from studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The outcome variables were postoperative length of stay (LOS), 30-day readmission rate, and total incidence of complications. RevMan5.2. software was adopted for the meta-analysis. A total of 10 published studies (9936 cases) met the inclusion criteria. The cumulative data included 4205 cases receiving enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS), and 5731 cases receiving traditional recovery after surgery (non-ERAS). The meta-analysis showed that LOS was significantly lower in the ERAS group than in the control group (non-ERAS group) (p<0.01), and there were fewer incidences of complications in the ERAS group than in the control group (p=0.03). However, no significant difference was found in the 30-day readmission rate (p=0.18). ERAS significantly reduces LOS and incidence of complications in patients who have had THA or TKA. However, ERAS does not appear to significantly impact 30-day readmission rates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. ANALYSIS OF SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS AFTER ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Mariana de Queiroz Leite; Costa, Ana Maria Magalhães; Mendes, Pedro Henrique Barros; Gomes, Saint Clair

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To describe the rate of surgical site infections in children undergoing orthopedic surgery in centers of excellence and analyze the patients’ profiles. Methods: Medical records of pediatric patients undergoing orthopedic surgery in the Jamil Haddad National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics from January 2012 to December 2013 were analyzed and monitored for one year. Patients diagnosed with surgical site infection were matched with patients without infection by age, date of admission, field of orthopedic surgery and type of surgical procedure. Patient, surgical and follow-up variables were examined. Descriptive, bivariate and correspondence analyses were performed to evaluate the patients’ profiles. Results: 347 surgeries and 10 surgical site infections (2.88%) were identified. There was association of infections with age - odds ratio (OR) 11.5 (confidence interval - 95%CI 1.41-94.9) -, implant - OR 7.3 (95%CI 1.46-36.3) -, preoperative period - OR 9.8 (95%CI 1.83-53.0), and length of hospitalization - OR 20.6 (95%CI 3.7-114.2). The correspondence analysis correlated the infection and preoperative period, weight, weight Z-score, age, implant, type of surgical procedure, and length of hospitalization. Average time to diagnosis of infection occurred 26.5±111.46 days after surgery. Conclusions: The rate of surgical site infection was 2.88%, while higher in children over 24 months of age who underwent surgical implant procedures and had longer preoperative periods and lengths of hospitalization. This study identified variables for the epidemiological surveillance of these events in children. Available databases and appropriate analysis methods are essential to monitor and improve the quality of care offered to the pediatric population.

  16. Sterile and economic instrumentation in laparoscopic surgery. Experiences with 6,000 surgical laparoscopies, 1990-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, T W; Pahlke, H; Kraas, E

    1998-10-01

    Because so many common surgical problems can now be addressed by the laparoscopic approach, the issue of sterile processing has to be reconsidered. Selected laparoscopic instrumentation was analyzed regarding wear and tear and decontamination after sterile processing following 6,000 surgical laparoscopies carried out between 1990 and 1996 at the Academic Hospital Moabit, Berlin. Fewer than 7.9 (parts of) instruments failed per 100 laparoscopies. Most of the repairs involved scissors. The main problems were blunting, burnt or disconnected electromechanical components, defective insulation, and damaged or lost parts of dismantable instruments. Residues of human blood proteins were detected on a few instruments. The effect of intraluminal rinsing was documented by measuring the iron content (as an indicator for blood contamination). A comparison of costs showed that it was >10 times cheaper to use instrumentation with reusable components. The sterile processing of economic reusable instrumentation for laparoscopies needs staff well trained in sterile supply. Instrument design should allow easy dismantling and rinsing of internal parts. Insulating compounds present a problem for decontamination. Disinfection with aldehydes before cleaning the lumina of instruments must be avoided because protein coagulation will occur. A tube-in-tube concept for tubular instruments offering compatibility should be favored.

  17. T.I.Tech./K.E.S. Conference on Nonlinear and Convex Analysis in Economic Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Wataru

    1995-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume are contributions to T.I.Tech./K.E.S. Conference on Nonlinear and Convex Analysis in Economic Theory, which was held at Keio University, July 2-4, 1993. The conference was organized by Tokyo Institute of Technology (T. I. Tech.) and the Keio Economic Society (K. E. S.) , and supported by Nihon Keizai Shimbun Inc .. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimiza­ tions and equilibrations of their solutions. Nonlinear-convex analysis has been supplying economists with indispensable mathematical machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians working in this discipline of analysis have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic the­ ories. Although our special emphasis was laid upon "nonlinearity" and "con­ vexity" in relation with economic theories, we also incorporated stochastic aspects of financial economics in our project taking account of the remark­ able rapid growth of this dis...

  18. Enhanced recovery after surgery programs in patients undergoing hepatectomy: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Tian-Gen; Yang, Han-Teng; Zhang, Hao; Meng, Hai-Peng; Li, Bo

    2015-08-14

    To evaluate the impact of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs in comparison with traditional care on liver surgery outcomes. The PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the ERAS program with traditional care in patients undergoing liver surgery. Studies selected for the meta-analysis met all of the following inclusion criteria: (1) evaluation of ERAS in comparison to traditional care in adult patients undergoing elective open or laparoscopic liver surgery; (2) outcome measures including complications, recovery of bowel function, and hospital length of stay; and (3) RCTs. The following exclusion criteria were applied: (1) the study was not an RCT; (2) the study did not compare ERAS with traditional care; (3) the study reported on emergency, non-elective or transplantation surgery; and (4) the study consisted of unpublished studies with only the abstract presented at a national or international meeting. The primary outcomes were complications. Secondary outcomes were length of hospital stay and time to first flatus. Five RCTs containing 723 patients were included in the meta-analysis. In 10/723 cases, patients presented with benign diseases, while the remaining 713 cases had liver cancer. Of the five studies, three were published in English and two were published in Chinese. Three hundred and fifty-four patients were in the ERAS group, while 369 patients were in the traditional care group. Compared with traditional care, ERAS programs were associated with significantly decreased overall complications (RR = 0.66; 95%CI: 0.49-0.88; P = 0.005), grade I complications (RR = 0.51; 95%CI: 0.33-0.79; P = 0.003), and hospital length of stay [WMD = -2.77 d, 95%CI: -3.87-(-1.66); P flatus [WMD = -19.69 h, 95%CI: -34.63-(-4.74); P < 0.0001]. There was no statistically significant difference in grade II-V complications between the two groups. ERAS is a safe and

  19. Individual patient data subgroup meta-analysis of surgery for Spontaneous Supratentorial Intracerebral Haemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Barbara A; Broderick, Joseph P; Auer, Ludwig M; Batjer, Hunt; Chen, Xian-Cheng; Juvela, Seppo; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Pantazis, George C; Teernstra, Onno PM; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Zuccarello, Mario; Mendelow, A David

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose By 2010 there had been 14 published trials of surgery for intracerebral haemorrhage reported in systematic reviews or to the authors, but the role and timing of operative intervention remains controversial and the practice continues to be haphazard. This study attempted to obtain individual patient data from each of the 13 studies published since 1985 in order to better define groups of patients that might benefit from surgery. Methods Authors of identified published papers were approached by mail, email and at conferences and invited to take part in the study. Data were obtained from 8 studies (2186 cases). Individual patient data included patient's age, GCS at presentation, volume and site of haematoma, presence of IVH, method of evacuation, time to randomisation and outcome. Results Meta-analysis indicated that there was improved outcome with surgery if it was undertaken within 8 hours of ictus (p = 0.003), or the volume of the haematoma was 20-50ml. (p = 0.004), or the GCS was between 9 and 12 (p = 0.0009), or the patient was aged between 50 and 69 (p = 0.01). In addition there was some evidence that more superficial haematomas with no IVH might also benefit (p = 0.09). Conclusions There is evidence that surgery is of benefit if undertaken early before the patient deteriorates. This work identifies areas for further research. Ongoing studies in subgroups of patients, such as STICH II, will confirm whether these interpretations can be replicated. PMID:22511006

  20. The evidence base for oral and maxillofacial surgery: 10-year analysis of two journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Amandip

    2012-01-01

    All articles published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS) and the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (IJOMS) between January 1999 and December 2009 were classified by study design and evaluated to find the evidence base in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS). Those in related specialties, and the impact factor of related dental journals were also compared. From a total of 3294 articles (1715 (52%) BJOMS; and 1579 (48%) IJOMS) most of the studies were observational or descriptive (36% BJOMS; and 31% IJOMS). Review articles constituted 5% in the British Journal and 6% in the International Journal. Analytical (non-controlled) studies made up 6% and 7% of the studies in the British Journal and the International Journal, respectively. There were 28 randomised controlled trials (RCT) (2%) in the British Journal and 40 (3%) in the International Journal. One meta-analysis was recorded in the International Journal, and one closed loop audit was recorded in the British Journal. Forty percent of the papers in both journals were non-clinical, scientific, or animal studies. The number of RCTs published in OMFS is low and is comparable with the related specialties of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) (1%) and plastic surgery (4%). Greater effort is required to carry out quality research if we are to provide the best possible evidence to patients for our interventions.

  1. Uncertainty analysis and global sensitivity analysis of techno-economic assessments for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhang-Chun; Zhenzhou, Lu; Zhiwen, Liu; Ningcong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    There are various uncertain parameters in the techno-economic assessments (TEAs) of biodiesel production, including capital cost, interest rate, feedstock price, maintenance rate, biodiesel conversion efficiency, glycerol price and operating cost. However, fewer studies focus on the influence of these parameters on TEAs. This paper investigated the effects of these parameters on the life cycle cost (LCC) and the unit cost (UC) in the TEAs of biodiesel production. The results show that LCC and UC exhibit variations when involving uncertain parameters. Based on the uncertainty analysis, three global sensitivity analysis (GSA) methods are utilized to quantify the contribution of an individual uncertain parameter to LCC and UC. The GSA results reveal that the feedstock price and the interest rate produce considerable effects on the TEAs. These results can provide a useful guide for entrepreneurs when they plan plants.

  2. Analysis of the drilling sound component from expert performance in a maxillo-facial surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Gosselin, Florian; Taha, Farid

    2009-01-01

    Auditory displays can have a great potential in surgical simulators that aim at training skills associated to the correct interpretation of auditory information. Here, we present preliminary results in the analysis of the sound produced by the drilling procedure in a maxillo-facial surgery when...... performed by expert surgeons. The motivation of this work is to find relevant acoustic parameters that allow for an efficient synthesis method of auditory displays so that they can effectively convey information on expert surgical drilling....

  3. Predictive Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Remission Following Bariatric Surgery: a Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guo-Feng; Yan, Yong-Xin; Xu, Ning; Yin, Dong; Hui, Yuan; Zhang, Ji-Ping; Han, Guan-Jun; MA, Ning; Wu, Yan; Xu, Jing-Zi; YANG, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Background Although a few studies have been reported on predictive factors of postoperative diabetes remission, the conclusions remain inconsistent. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the preoperative clinical factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remission after bariatric surgery. Methods The Cochrane Library, PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL databases were searched. All human studies published in English between 1 January 1992 and 1 September 2013 reporting on the parameters of int...

  4. Analysis of Improvement on Human Resource Management within Chinese Enterprises in Economic Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Xie

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analysis of improvement on human resource management within Chinese enterprises in economic globalization. China’s entry into WTO has accelerated the economic globalization pace of Chinese enterprises and Chinese economy is further integrated with the global economy in a global scope. Human resource is what economic globalization of Chinese enterprises relies on, the first resource for China to participate in the international competition and is also the key to make effective use of other resources. Nevertheless, under the background of economic globalization, human resource management in Chinese enterprises is still faced up with quite a lot of challenges and problems. In order to establish a human resource management concept of globalization and set up a human resource management mechanism to respond to the economic globalization, this study makes a discussion and proposes management method and improvement measures for reference.

  5. Does Certification as Bariatric Surgery Center and Volume Influence the Outcome in RYGB-Data Analysis of German Bariatric Surgery Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Christine; Köckerling, F; Lange, V; Wolff, S; Knoll, C; Bruns, C; Manger, Th

    2017-02-01

    To examine the association between the certification as bariatric surgery center and volume and patient outcome, data collected in the German Bariatric Surgery Registry were evaluated. All data were registered prospectively in cooperation with the Institute of Quality Assurance in Surgery at Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg. Data collection began in 2005 for all bariatric procedures in an online database. Participation in the quality assurance study is required for all certified bariatric surgery centers in Germany. Descriptive evaluation and matched pairs analysis were performed. Patients were matched via propensity score taking into account BMI, age, and incidence of comorbidities. During the period from 2005 to 2013, 3083 male and 10,639 female patients were operated on with the RYGB primary approach. In Centers of Competence (77.2 %) and non-accredited hospitals (76.3 %), the proportion of female patients was significantly lower than in Centers of Reference/Excellence (78.7 %; p = 0.002). The mean age in Centers of Reference/Excellence (41.2 years) was significantly lower than in Centers of Competence (43.2 years; p bariatric surgery centers with higher volume. The study supports the concept of certification. There are different factors which can and cannot be preoperatively modified and influence the perioperative outcome.

  6. The usability of passenger delay models in socio-economic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Mikkel

    The following paper discusses how a passenger delay model can be used in socio-economic calculations. At present passenger delays are often omitted in the modeling phase and therefore not included in the analysis. By using a passenger delay model passenger delays can be included in a cost......-benefit analysis. Including passenger delays in the cost-benefit analysis will increase the level of details and thereby improve the accuracy of socio-economic analysis. In this paper the third generation passenger delay model is used. This model is the newest and most detailed passenger delay model created so far....... The main problem when including passenger delays is to determine the value of time for passenger delays and how to include the delays in a socio-economic analysis. This is due to the fact that passenger delays are not defined unambiguously. In general, delays can occur on different parts of a journey...

  7. MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF MAIN ECONOMIC INDICATORS IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis the measure between GDP dependent variable in the sector of hotels and restaurants and the following independent variables: overnight stays in the establishments of touristic reception, arrivals in the establishments of touristic reception and investments in hotels and restaurants sector in the period of analysis 1995-2007. With the multiple regression analysis I found that investments and tourist arrivals are significant predictors for the GDP dependent variable. Based on these results, I identified those components of the marketing mix, which in my opinion require investment, which could contribute to the positive development of tourist arrivals in the establishments of touristic reception.

  8. MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF MAIN ECONOMIC INDICATORS IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis the measure between GDP dependent variable in the sector of hotels and restaurants and the following independent variables: overnight stays in the establishments of touristic reception, arrivals in the establishments of touristic reception and investments in hotels and restaurants sector in the period of analysis 1995-2007. With the multiple regression analysis I found that investments and tourist arrivals are significant predictors for the GDP dependent variable. Based on these results, I identified those components of the marketing mix, which in my opinion require investment, which could contribute to the positive development of tourist arrivals in the establishments of touristic reception.

  9. EFFECT OF FDI INFLOW ON ECONOMIC GROWTH OF INDIA: A TIME SERIES ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Kumar Singh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI has boomed in post-reform India. Moreover, the composition and type of FDI has changed considerably since India has opened up to world markets depending on various determinants which exist in the environment. This has fuelled high expectations that FDI may serve as a catalyst to higher economic growth. The literature on foreign direct investment (FDI and economic growth generally points to a positive FDI-growth relationship. However, very few studies offer direct tests of causality between the two variables. In theory, economic growth may induce FDI inflow, and FDI may also stimulate economic growth. This paper adds to the literature by analyzing the existence and nature of these causal relationships. This study deals with the trend analysis of Gross Domestic Product (GDP and FDI from 1990-91 to 2010-11 and forecast the growth trend of both variable. It also analyzes the correlation between GDP and FDI. This study also tries to find out the impact of first and second generation FDI reform on GDP of India through regression method. By using time series data and coefficient of correlation analysis, we found that Foreign Direct Investment (FDI is positively affecting the economic growth. The empirical analysis using the time series data from 1990-91 to 2010-11 shows that FDI plays unambiguous role in contributing to economic growth. While the regression analysis reveals that there is no impact of first and second generation reform on GDP of India.

  10. Economic Analysis of Cattle Marketing in Gombe, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Mohammed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2010 to assess the profitability or otherwise of cattle marketing in Gombe, Gombe state, Nigeria. Data were collected using structured interview-schedule from 40 randomly selected cattle traders and were analyzed using budgeting technique. Results showed that the net income of small, medium and large size cattle was N6, 438.69, N11, 056.25 and N16, 474.64 per cattle respectively. Similarly, the respective values of gross return per each Naira invested were 1.18, 1.16 and 1.14 respectively while those of gross ratio were found to be 0.845, 0.846 and 0.876. On the other hand, average net income accrued to each trader per trading cycle were N19, 036.09, N 27, 215.39 and N 56, 837.50 for small, medium and large size categories of cattle, respectively. Thus, cattle marketing in the area were profitable and therefore recommended as an economic venture.

  11. The net cost of biofuels in Thailand. An economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, David R.; Kamens, Richard [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Center for Energy Technology and Environment, Ministry of Education (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    Biofuels are expected to represent a growing portion of liquid fuel consumption in Thailand due to environmental and social considerations in conjunction with policy goals supporting their domestic production and consumption. This paper reviews the economic costs associated with biofuel policy implementation in Thailand in the short term target year of 2011. Internal (production) and external (environmental, social, etc.) costs and benefits are evaluated, and, where possible, monetized. Domestic production of biofuel is calculated to be 9.5 billion THB (317 million USD) more expensive than importing the equivalent amount of petroleum. The environmental benefits from GHG savings as well as losses due to increased ground level ozone formation and government expenditure to support the biofuel industry yield a total 'net cost' of 8.6 billion THB or 121 THB (4.04 USD) per capita for the year 2011. This result is contextualized with the (non-monetized) consideration that although biofuels are somewhat more expensive in the short term, their domestic production allows virtually all of the money to stay within the Thai economy as opposed to being sent abroad. This fact, coupled with significant uncertainty in future petroleum prices, could strongly influence the direction of Thai policy with respect to biofuels. (author)

  12. Economic Analysis of an Organosolv Process for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Kautto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper, conceptual process design, simulation, and mass and energy balances were presented for an organosolv process with a hardwood feed of 2350 metric tons (MT per day and ethanol, lignin, furfural, and acetic acid production rates of 459, 310, 6.6, and 30.3 MT/day, respectively. In this paper, the investment and operating costs of the process and the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP to make the process economically feasible were estimated. The total capital investment of the plant was approximately 720 million USD. Lignin price was found to affect the MESP considerably. With a base case lignin price of 450 USD/MT, the MESP was approximately 3.1 USD per gallon (gal. Higher lignin price of 1000 USD/MT was required to equal the MESP with the December 2013 ethanol market price (2.0 USD/gal. In addition to lignin price, the MESP was found to be strongly affected by feedstock, enzyme, and investment costs. Variations in feedstock and investment costs affected the MESP by approximately 0.2 and 0.5 USD/gal, respectively. Changing the enzyme dosage and price from base case estimate of 5270 USD/MT and 0.02 g/g cellulose to more conservative 3700 USD/MT and 0.06 g/g cellulose, respectively, increased the MESP by 0.59 USD/gal.

  13. Economic Indicators of the Expenditures of Enterprise and the Costs of Production in Accounting, Statistics and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vasyl Deriy; Stepan Popina

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to topical issues of economic nature, selection, development and use of economic indicators of expenditures of the enterprise and the cost of production in accounting, statistics and analysis. Given the author's interpretation of the term 'economic indicators', which are numerical values of natural, labor or cost meters, which appropriately characterizes the economic objects, facts, events, phenomena. It is proposed to form the following groups of economic indicators of...

  14. Market and economic analysis of residential photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabors, R. D.

    1982-06-01

    The overall structure of a project to evaluate the U.S. residential photovoltaic market or markets is reviewed and experience obtained before cuts in federal funding for the project were reduced is summarized. Topics covered include residential worth analysis, (including retrofit applications); evaluation of presently available regional, econometric models which could be used to project housing stocks; and the analysis of retrofit potential for residential photovoltaic power systems given available roof area.

  15. STEPS IN MAKING TECHNICAL ANALYSIS ECONOMIC ACTIVITY IN FARM

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora IVASCU

    2012-01-01

    Business analysis of agricultural units, research, information system based on the results obtained in their work, factors which have determined ways to improve them. It has an important role in ensuring the scientific management of farms, are an essential instrument in the exercise of leadership attributes on all hierarchical levels. In the analysis of business units in agriculture must take into consideration the peculiarities of agricultural production. These are reflected in the structure...

  16. [Aesthetic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Johannes C

    2006-01-01

    The WHO describes health as physical, mental and social well being. Ever since the establishment of plastic surgery aesthetic surgery has been an integral part of this medical specialty. It aims at reconstructing subjective well-being by employing plastic surgical procedures as described in the educational code and regulations for specialists of plastic surgery. This code confirms that plastic surgery comprises cosmetic procedures for the entire body that have to be applied in respect of psychological exploration and selection criteria. A wide variety of opinions resulting from very different motivations shows how difficult it is to differentiate aesthetic surgery as a therapeutic procedure from beauty surgery as a primarily economic service. Jurisdiction, guidelines for professional conduct and ethical codes have tried to solve this question. Regardless of the intention and ability of the health insurances, it has currently been established that the moral and legal evaluation of advertisements for medical procedures depends on their purpose: advertising with the intent of luring patients into cosmetic procedures that do not aim to reconstruct a subjective physical disorder does not comply with a medical indication. If, however, the initiative originates with the patient requesting the amelioration of a subjective disorder of his body, a medical indication can be assumed.

  17. Retro-Techno-Economic Analysis: Using (Bio)Process Systems Engineering Tools to Attain Process Target Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlan, Felipe F.; Costa, Caliane B B; Secchi, Argimiro R.

    2016-01-01

    Economic analysis, allied to process systems engineering tools, can provide useful insights about process techno-economic feasibility. More interestingly, rather than being used to evaluate specific process conditions, this techno-economic analysis can be turned upside down to achieve target valu...

  18. Spatial Analysis of the Evolvement of Urban and Rural Economic Disparity in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The per capita disposable income of urban households and the per capita net income of rural households in Yunnan Province are selected as the variable indices.Data are from the Yunnan Statistical Yearbook and the Yunnan Statistical Yearbook.Theil index and RHL value are used to carry out quantitative research on the occurrence,development and change of urban and rural economic disparity in Yunnan Province,China.Regression analysis on the evolvement trend of urban and rural economic disparity and spatial analysis on the convergence and divergence of urban and rural disparity caused by economic growth in Yunnan Province are carried out.Result shows that cities in Yunnan Province show a downward convergence;while rural areas show a downward divergence in the years 1978-2007,causing the economic disparity between urban and rural areas.Therefore,urban and rural disparity increases in Yunnan Province and the development of rural areas lags far behind the development of urban areas.Urban and rural economic disparity in Yunnan Province shows an inverted "U" shape of Kuznets Curve.In order to promote the coordinated development of urban and rural economy,suggestions are put forward,such as adopting the unbalanced development strategy,accelerating the overall economic development,promoting the development of small and medium-sized cities,enhancing the integration of urban and rural economics,appropriately supporting rural areas under poverty,and fully exerting the comparative advantage.

  19. Variables predictive of voiding disfunction following aponeurotic sling surgery: multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio H.M. de Almeida

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Aponeurotic sling surgeries can evolve with obstruction or voiding dysfunction in 5 to 20% of patients. There are few studies on factors that could possibly predispose to voiding difficulties or urinary retention. The objective of this work is to identify these potential clinical or urodynamic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records from 130 patients who underwent aponeurotic sling surgeries were reviewed. All patients underwent a throughout urodynamic study during pre-operative investigation. The variables studied were age above 65 years, previous pelvic surgeries, concomitant surgeries, post-voiding residue higher than 100 mL, vesical obstruction (according to Blaivas-Groutz nomogram and urinary flow under 12 mL/s. Post-voiding residue was assessed on the seventh post-operative day through vesical catheterization. Recovering of spontaneous voiding after 7 post-operative days or with a residue higher than 100 mL, was regarded as voiding dysfunction. Univariate analysis was performed with qui-square test and Fisher's exact test, and multivariate analysis was performed by logistic regression with alpha = 5%. RESULTS: Age in the studied group ranged from 41 to 83 years (mean 56.7 years, with 69 (53% patients having urethral hypermobility and 61 (47% having intrinsic urethral lesion. Normal voiding occurred in 97 (75.6 % women with 7 post-operative days. The only significant variable in the univariate (p = 0.014 and multivariate (p = 0.017 analysis was post-voiding residue higher than 100 mL. CONCLUSION: Pre-operative presence of a post-voiding residual urine higher than 100 mL was the only variable predictive of voiding dysfunction.

  20. Cost of bariatric surgery and factors associated with increased cost: an analysis of national inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorgami, Zhamak; Aminian, Ali; Shoar, Saeed; Andalib, Amin; Saber, Alan A; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Sclabas, Guido M

    2017-08-01

    In the current healthcare environment, bariatric surgery centers need to be cost-effective while maintaining quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate national cost of bariatric surgery to identify the factors associated with a higher cost. A retrospective analysis of 2012-2013 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project - Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS). We included all patients with a diagnosis of morbid obesity (ICD9 278.01) and a Diagnosis Related Group code related to procedures for obesity, who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), or adjustable gastric banding (AGB) as their primary procedure. We converted "hospital charges" to "cost," using hospital specific cost-to-charge ratio. Inflation was adjusted using the annual consumer price index. Increased cost was defined as the top 20th percentile of the expenditure and its associated factors were analyzed using the logistic regression multivariate analysis. A total of 45,219 patients (20,966 RYGBs, 22,380 SGs, and 1,873 AGBs) were included. The median (interquartile range) calculated costs for RYGB, SG, and AGB were $12,543 ($9,970-$15,857), $10,531 ($8,248-$13,527), and $9,219 ($7,545-$12,106), respectively (P<.001). Robotic-assisted procedures had the highest impact on the cost (odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 3.2-4). Hospital cost of RYGB and SG increased linearly with the length of hospital stay and almost doubled after 7 days. Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that certain co-morbidities and concurrent procedures were associated with an increased cost. Factors contributing to the cost variation of bariatric procedures include co-morbidities, robotic platform, complexity of surgery, and hospital length of stay. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  2. Consideration of economic risks in a comparative analysis of nuclear technologies with different maturity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Andrianov

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of risk indicators requires calculation of characteristics for probabilistic distributions of economic performance indicators and systemic use of statistical approaches based on Monte Carlo methods. Demonstration analysis results for the risk indicator evaluation have been discussed as applied to different economic performance indicators based on the example of a comparative analysis for two hypothetical light water reactor technologies to be considered in the selection of the most attractive option. Use of economic risk indicators for the comparative evaluation of reactor technologies appears to be helpful to decision makers not familiar with the technical characteristics and performance measures of reactor technologies but informed about the economic risk concepts. Such methodology may be employed efficiently to interpret the ranking results in a multi-criteria comparative evaluation of less and more mature reactor technologies.

  3. What is the value of graduate education? An economic analysis of Army Medical Department Graduate Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, Lee W; Broom, Kevin D; Bonica, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Current and forward-looking resource constraints within the federal health system and general health market are generating questions of fiscal or economic viability of a number of programs including graduate education. This article establishes a framework for assessing economic value among graduate health-related programs within the Army Medical Department. The findings of this analysis indicated that the programs evaluated in the study generate positive economic value based on a market-based valuation of extrinsic benefits compared to extrinsic costs for conducting graduate education within each of the programs. Suggestions for future research and policy application are also discussed.

  4. Housing market and economic growth relation: time series analysis over Turkey (2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Kargı

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, certain selected factors about growth data and housing market within last decade are examined. Housing is a human’s physiological need and economic development can be carried out by means of extending the possibility of satisfying this high valuable need or there can be shown a linkage between economic growth and processes at market. For this reason when we handle 2000-2012 period, the indicators about economic growth and housing acquisition are being searched to explain this main hypothesis. From the obtained quarter data about concerning period, correlation relations, augmented Dickey-Fuller Unit Root Test, Granger Causality analysis and multiple regression models are researched.

  5. TESTING OF ONLINE ESP COURSE FOR STUDENTS OF ECONOMIC SCHOOLS. FIRST FINDINGS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V. Vasilchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a detailed analysis of the Russian course-books for students of Economic Schools. The authoress exposes the discrepancies along with proposing the solutions. In the second part, the article possesses a brief description as well as highlights the advantages of the new online ESP course on Economics, Banking and Insurance for colleges. In conclusion, the authoress contemplates over the first findings the course appraisal suggests. 

  6. Black Populations and Economic Growth: An Extreme Bounds Analysis of Mississippi County-Level Data

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Andrew; Higgins, Matthew; Levy, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    We use Mississippi county-level data on (per capita) income and the percentages of populations that are Black (henceforth "Black") to examine the relationship between race and economic growth. The analysis is also conditioned on 40 other economic and socio-demographic variables. Given a negative and statistically significant partial correlation between income growth and Black, we ask if it is robust to exhaustive combinations of other conditioning variables (taken 3 at a time). The evidence ...

  7. A Study on Differences of China’s Regional Economic Development Level Based on Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation index system of regional economic development is established in this paper and STATA11.0 is used in the cluster analysis on samplings of 31 provincial regions. Results indicate that the economy of most regions is still in a backward stage except a few developed regions and the economic polarization of China is quite serious. This study provides a reference for the coordinated and rapid development of China’s economy.

  8. Capital Formation and Inflation on Economic Growth in India: A Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Srinivasakumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Capital Formation is a prerequisite for economic growth of a country. This study aims at studying the relationship of Capital formation, Inflation (WPI on economic development in India. The data for analysis on the above variables have been extracted for a period from 1950-51 to 2011-12 from the RBI data warehouse were analyzed using Unit Root, Co integration and Causality tests.

  9. Trends Analysis of Public Expenditure on Infrastructure and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Greg Ekpung EDAME

    2014-01-01

    This study critically analyze the trends analysis of public expenditure on infrastructure and economic growth in Nigeria, from 1970 to 2010. The objective of the study is to examine the trend in public expenditure on infrastructure in Nigeria between 1970 to 2010; to compare the trend in public expenditure between the various regimes in Nigeria between 1970 to 2010; to evaluate the relationship between expenditure on infrastructure and long-run economic growth; access the factors that influen...

  10. Analysis on Tourism Economic Spatial Relation of Liaoning Central City Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guodong; SUN; Liang; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Through the calculation and analysis of the tourism economic spatial relation,it found that Liaoning central urban agglomeration tourism economic spatial relation has many problems,such as the central city is insufficient,and the low degree of spatial relations. Therefore,this article puts forward the countermeasures,which can provide theoretical and practical reference for Liaoning central urban agglomeration tourism industry layout.

  11. Analysis of the effectiveness of industrial R and D. [costs and impact on economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W. H.; Kleiman, H. S.; Moore, J. L.; Triplett, M. B.

    1976-01-01

    The criteria used by private industry in evaluating and selecting proposed research and development projects for implementation, and also in determining which R and D facilities are to be acquired were investigated. Conceptual and practical issues inherent in any quantitative analysis of the contribution of R and D to economic growth were identified in order to assist NASA in developing approaches for analzying the economic implication of its own R and D efforts.

  12. ECONOMIC AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PROBLEMS OF THE COAL INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Apukhtin

    2014-01-01

    Russian coal sector is an essential part ofthe Russian economy and energy, closely correlated with other activities. Article presents the results of the multidimensional classification of economic activities in the industrial sector based on the characteristics of profitability, condition of fixed assets and the capital-labor. Which allowed us to determine key factors of thecoal sector development. Economical andstatistical analysis of the Russian coalindustry problems and possible solutionshas ...

  13. ECONOMIC AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PROBLEMS OF THE COAL INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Apukhtin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian coal sector is an essential part ofthe Russian economy and energy, closely correlated with other activities. Article presents the results of the multidimensional classification of economic activities in the industrial sector based on the characteristics of profitability, condition of fixed assets and the capital-labor. Which allowed us to determine key factors of thecoal sector development. Economical andstatistical analysis of the Russian coalindustry problems and possible solutionshas been conducted.

  14. Health impact and economic analysis of NGO-supported neurosurgery in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Jared D; Greene, Kevin R; Flores, Ivan; Capobianco, Fernando; Salas, Gueider; Uriona, Maria Ines; Weaver, John P; Moser, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Bolivia, one of the poorest countries in the world, ranks 108th on the 2013 Human Development Index. With approximately 1 neurosurgeon per 200,000 people, access to neurosurgery in Bolivia is a growing health concern. Furthermore, neurosurgery in nonindustrialized countries has been considered both cost-prohibitive and lacking in outcomes evaluation. A non-governmental organization (NGO) supports spinal procedures in Bolivia (Solidarity Bridge), and the authors sought to determine its impact and cost-effectiveness. In a retrospective review of prospectively collected data, 19 patients were identified prior to spinal instrumentation and followed over 12 months. For inclusion, patients required interviewing prior to surgery and during at least 2 follow-up visits. All causes of spinal pathology were included. Sixteen patients met inclusion criteria and were therefore part of the analysis. Outcomes measured included assessment of activities of daily living, pain, ambulation, return to work/school, and satisfaction. Cost-effectiveness was determined by cost-utility analysis. Utilities were derived using the Health Utilities Index. Complications were incorporated into an expected value decision tree. Median (± SD) preoperative satisfaction was 2.0 ± 0.3 (on a scale of 0-10), while 6-month postoperative satisfaction was 7 ± 1.4 (p Bolivia appears to be cost-effective, especially when compared with the conventional $50,000/QALY benchmark and the WHO endorsed country-specific threshold of $16,026/QALY. However, with a gross domestic product per capita in Bolivia equaling $4800 per year and 30.3% of the population living on less than $2 per day, this cost continues to appear unrealistic. Additionally, the study has several significant limitations, namely its limited sample size, follow-up period, the assumption that patients not receiving surgical intervention would not make any clinical improvement, the reliance on the NGO for patient selection and sustainable practices

  15. Construction safety and waste management an economic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents an analysis of construction safety problems and on-site safety measures from an economist’s point of view. The book includes examples from both emerging countries, e.g. China and India, and developed countries, e.g. Australia and Hong Kong. Moreover, the author covers an analysis on construction safety knowledge sharing by means of updatable mobile technology such as apps in Androids and iOS platform mobile devices. The target audience comprises primarily researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  16. A Meta-Analysis of Renal Function After Adult Cardiac Surgery With Pulsatile Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Myung Ji; Lim, Choon Hak; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Yong Hwi; Choi, Hyuk; Son, Ho Sung; Lim, Hae Ja; Sun, Kyung

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether pulsatile perfusion during cardiac surgery has a lesser effect on renal dysfunction than nonpulsatile perfusion after cardiac surgery in randomized controlled trials. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were used to identify available articles published before April 25, 2014. Meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effects of pulsatile perfusion on postoperative renal functions, as determined by creatinine clearance (CrCl), serum creatinine (Cr), urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and the incidences of acute renal insufficiency (ARI) and acute renal failure (ARF). Nine studies involving 674 patients that received pulsatile perfusion and 698 patients that received nonpulsatile perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were considered in the meta-analysis. Stratified analysis was performed according to effective pulsatility or unclear pulsatility of the pulsatile perfusion method in the presence of heterogeneity. NGAL levels were not significantly different between the pulsatile and nonpulsatile groups. However, patients in the pulsatile group had a significantly higher CrCl and lower Cr levels when the analysis was restricted to studies on effective pulsatile flow (P < 0.00001, respectively). The incidence of ARI was significantly lower in the pulsatile group (P < 0.00001), but incidences of ARF were similar. In conclusion, the meta-analysis suggests that the use of pulsatile flow during CPB results in better postoperative renal function.

  17. Economics definitions, methods, models, and analysis procedures for Homeland Security applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Loose, Verne William; Vargas, Vanessa N.; Smith, Braeton J.; Warren, Drake E.; Downes, Paula Sue; Eidson, Eric D.; Mackey, Greg Edward

    2010-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the types of economic methodologies and models used by Sandia economists in their consequence analysis work for the National Infrastructure Simulation & Analysis Center and other DHS programs. It describes the three primary resolutions at which analysis is conducted (microeconomic, mesoeconomic, and macroeconomic), the tools used at these three levels (from data analysis to internally developed and publicly available tools), and how they are used individually and in concert with each other and other infrastructure tools.

  18. An Economical Method for Static Headspace Enrichment for Arson Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Bjorn

    2010-01-01

    Static headspace analysis of accelerants from suspected arsons is accomplished by placing an arson sample in a sealed container with a carbon strip suspended above the sample. The sample is heated, cooled to room temperature, and then the organic components are extracted from the carbon strip with carbon disulfide followed by gas chromatography…

  19. Biostatistical analysis of treatment results of bacterial liver abscesses using minimally invasive techniques and open surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кipshidze A.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Today bacterial abscesses remain one of the most difficult complications in surgical hepatology, both traditional and minimally invasive methods of their treatment are used. Bio-statistical analysis is used due to the fact that strong evidences are required for the effectiveness of one or another method of surgical intervention. The estimation of statistical significance of differences between the control and the main group of patients with liver abscesses is given in this paper. Depending on the treatment method patients were divided into two groups: 1 - minimally invasive surgery (89 cases; 2 – laporatomy surgery (74 patients. Data compa¬ri¬son was performed by means of Stjudent's criterion. The effectiveness of method of abscesses drainage using inter¬ventional sonography, outer nazobiliar drainage with reorganization of ductal liver system and abscess cavity with the help of modern antiseptics was considered. The percentage of cured patients was also estimated.

  20. Comparison of robotic surgery with laparoscopy and laparotomy for treatment of endometrial cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longke Ran

    Full Text Available To compare the relative merits among robotic surgery, laparoscopy, and laparotomy for patients with endometrial cancer by conducting a meta-analysis.The MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Studies clearly documenting a comparison between robotic surgery and laparoscopy or between robotic surgery and laparotomy for endometrial cancer were selected. The outcome measures included operating time (OT, number of complications, length of hospital stay (LOHS, estimated blood loss (EBL, number of transfusions, total lymph nodes harvested (TLNH, and number of conversions. Pooled odds ratios and weighted mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using either a fixed-effects or random-effects model.Twenty-two studies were included in the meta-analysis. These studies involved a total of 4420 patients, 3403 of whom underwent both robotic surgery and laparoscopy and 1017 of whom underwent both robotic surgery and laparotomy. The EBL (p = 0.01 and number of conversions (p = 0.0008 were significantly lower and the number of complications (p<0.0001 was significantly higher in robotic surgery than in laparoscopy. The OT, LOHS, number of transfusions, and TLNH showed no significant differences between robotic surgery and laparoscopy. The number of complications (p<0.00001, LOHS (p<0.00001, EBL (p<0.00001, and number of transfusions (p = 0.03 were significantly lower and the OT (p<0.00001 was significantly longer in robotic surgery than in laparotomy. The TLNH showed no significant difference between robotic surgery and laparotomy.Robotic surgery is generally safer and more reliable than laparoscopy and laparotomy for patients with endometrial cancer. Robotic surgery is associated with significantly lower EBL than both laparoscopy and laparotomy; fewer conversions but more complications than laparoscopy; and shorter LOHS, fewer complications, and fewer transfusions but a longer OT