Korzeniowska, Katarzyna; Cieślewicz, Artur; Szałek, Edyta; Jabłecka, Anna
The aim of this study was to compare the attitude of students of the Faculty of Pharmacy and Division of Dentistry (Poznan University of Medical Sciences) towards smoking. Information was collected using a self-completion questionnaire for students. 114 students of the 5th year of Faculty of Pharmacy and 60 students of 4th year of Division of Dentistry took part in the survey. Most of the students were non-smokers (77% in the Faculty of Pharmacy and 72% in the Division of Dentistry). The main reason for abandoning smoking in both groups was knowledge on the dangers of addiction obtained in medical studies.
Tegtmeier, Carl H
A telephone survey of New York State's most significant providers of Medicaid hospital ambulatory surgery dental treatment for special needs patients was conducted in June and July of 2011 to assess whether there had been changes in the availability of dental services following implementation of the Ambulatory Patient Groups (APG) Medicaid payment methodology and the April 2011 35% reduction in fee-for-service reimbursement to dentists who provide this dental care. With release of "Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General" in 2000, attention was focused on the link between oral health and general health, with the report highlighting the difficulties individuals with special needs experienced with respect to their oral health and accessing dental care. The New York State Department of Health in 2005 released its "Oral Health Plan for New York State." It had three stated objectives pertaining to those with special needs. None of these objectives has been met, and the response to this survey revealed waiting times for access to ambulatory surgery dental programs of up to two years and an overall probable 10% to 15% decrease in availability as a direct result of the APG payment methodology and reduction in fee-for-service reimbursements. New York is failing not only to meet the objectives of its own oral health plan, but also to adequately meet the dental health care needs of its most vulnerable citizens.
Lydia Masako Ferreira
Full Text Available Pizosurgery has therapeutic characteristics in osteotomies, such as extremely precise, selective and millimetric cuts and a clear operating field. Piezoelectricity uses ultrasonic frequencies, which cause the points specially designed for osteotomy to vibrate. The points of the instrument oscillate, allowing effective osteotomy with minimal or no injury to the adjacent soft tissues, membranes and nerve tissues. This article presents the various applications of piezoelectricity in oral implant surgery such as: removal of autogenous bone; bone window during elevation of the sinus membrane and removal of fractured implants. The cavitational effect caused by the vibration of the point and the spray of physiological solution, provided a field free of bleeding and easy to visualize. The study showed that the piezoelectric surgery is a new surgical procedurethat presents advantages for bone cutting in many situations in implant dentistry, with great advantages in comparison with conventional instrumentation. Operating time is longer when compared with that of conventional cutters.
The specialty of Dental Surgery has progressed from the "blood and acrylic" of the early seventies. Dentistry has undergone a quantum leap over the past twenty-five years, with improvements in both technique and technology, bringing us the sophisticated procedures used in today's practice.
Barzè, Franco; Palmieri, Beniamino; Scalise, Lorenzo; Rottigni, Valentina
Laser therapy has achieved an important rule in cosmetic dentistry especially in the treatment of several complications such as leukoplakia, oral lichen planus, glossitis, oral mucositis, labial herpes virus, stomatitis, frenulum and oral hemangioma. In our study we enrolled 40 patients affected by these diseases to treat them with a new infrared dental laser demonstrating that it is extremely safe and effective in pain and postoperative discomforts reduction.
Patel, V; Moore, S; Sproat, C
Removal of mandibular third molars is a common oral surgery procedure which is associated with a significant risk of injury to the inferior dental nerve (IDN). In an era of conservative dentistry the technique of coronectomy, which is conservative in terms of surgery and successful in minimising the incidence of IDN injury, has been met with some resistance and has been deemed non-ideal and controversial by many oral surgeons. This article outlines the benefits of coronectomy and highlights some examples from other dental specialities that have embraced conservative principles, despite their detractors.
Leong, Christine; Louizos, Christopher; Currie, Chelsea; Glassford, Lorraine; Davies, Neal M; Brothwell, Douglas; Renaud, Robert
The integration of web-based learning into the curriculum of healthcare education has significantly increased over the past decade. This article aims to describe the student perspectives of an online module to teach physical assessment skills for pharmacy, dentistry, and dental hygiene students. A total of 103 students completed the online module: 48 third-year pharmacy students, 29 first-year dentistry students, and 26 first-year dental hygiene students. Students were asked to rate a list of 10 statements on a 5-point Likert scale on the relevance, impact, and overall satisfaction of the online module. Eighty-four of the 103 students (81.6% response rate) completed the questionnaire. While most students responded positively to the online content, pharmacy students responded more favorably compared with students from Dentistry and Dental Hygiene. These findings provide useful information to identify areas in which the web-based module can be improved for teaching skills in physical assessment across multiple healthcare programs.
Helling, Dennis K.; Walker, John A.
A clinical pharmacy training program for undergraduate students developed at the University of Iowa provides conjoint training of pharmacy and dental students in the clinic areas and pharmacy at the College of Dentistry. (LBH)
Department of Homeland Security — Pharmacies in the United States and Territories A pharmacy is a facility whose primary function is to store, prepare and legally dispense prescription drugs under...
Rotaru, Alexandru; Rotaru, Horatiu
Founder of the Surgical Clinic in Cluj-Napoca and of Medical Education in Romanian, Rector of Dacia Superior University, Professor Iacob Iacobovici was one of the outstanding medical personalities in the first half of the twentieth century, in Romania. His scientific contributions have been recognized by the European great personalities of his time. A remarkable bright mind, with an overarching comprehension of things, Professor Iacob Iacobovici contributed, in an essential way, to the diversification of surgical education, stimulating the emergence of new specialties. This paper illustrates the contribution of Professor Iacob Iacobovici to the development of Education of Dentistry and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Romania as well as his support for the Romanian Society of Dentistry.
Rees, C E; Monrouxe, L V; Ternan, E; Endacott, R
Previous healthcare student abuse research typically employs quantitative surveys that fail to explore contributory factors for abuse and students' action in the face of abuse. Following a recent qualitative study of medical students' abuse narratives, the current study explores dental, nursing, pharmacy and physiotherapy students' abuse narratives to better understand healthcare workplace abuse. We conducted three individual and 11 group interviews with 69 healthcare students in three Universities to elicit professionalism dilemma narratives. Of 226 professionalism dilemmas elicited, 79 were coded as student abuse. Secondary-level thematic analysis of the abuse narratives addressed the following questions: What types of abuse experiences do healthcare students narrate? What factors do they cite as contributing to abuse and their responses to abuse? Healthcare students reported mostly covert abuse in their narratives. Although narrators described individual, relational, work and organisational factors contributing to abuse, they mostly cited factors relating to perpetrators. Most participants stated that they acted in the face of their abuse, and they mostly cited factors relating to themselves for acting. Students who did nothing in the face of abuse typically cited the perpetrator-recipient relationship as the main contributory factor. There are many similarities across the narratives of the five healthcare student groups, suggesting that complex interactional/organisational factors are all-important when considering how abuse is perpetuated within the healthcare workplace. Although some organisational factors may be difficult to change, we recommend that educational initiatives are a key starting point to tackle healthcare workplace abuse. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stübinger, Stefan; Sader, Robert; Filippi, Andreas
Ozone has been successfully used in medicine because of its microbiologic properties for more than 100 years. Its bactericide, virucide, and fungicide effects are based on its strong oxidation effect with the formation of free radicals as well as its direct destruction of almost all microorganisms. In addition, ozone has a therapeutic effect that facilitates wound healing and improves the supply of blood. For medical purposes, ozone may be applied as a gas or dissolved in water. Despite the advantages that the therapeutic use of ozone offers, reservations remain in terms of its application in the oral and maxillofacial area. Particularly, the gaseous application of ozone is critically evaluated because of its possible side effects on the respiratory system. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current applications of ozone in dentistry and oral surgery. Research was based on peer-reviewed sources found through a Medline/PubMed search and other textbooks, reviews, and journals.
Full Text Available Naim R Haliti,1 Fehim R Haliti,2 Ferit K Koçani,3 Ali A Gashi,4 Shefqet I Mrasori,3 Valon I Hyseni,5 Samir I Bytyqi,5 Lumnije L Krasniqi,2 Ardiana F Murtezani,5 Shaip L Krasniqi5 1Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina”, 2Department of Children Dentistry, University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo, 3Department of Oral Disease, University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo, 4Department of Oral Surgery, University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo, 5Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina”, Prishtina, Kosovo Background: Because Kosovo has no reliable information on antimicrobial and analgesic use in dental practice, the survey reported here evaluated the antibiotic and analgesic prescriptions in the Oral Surgery Department of the University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo (UDCCK.Methods: The data of 2,442 registered patients for a 1-year period were screened and analyzed concerning antibiotic and analgesic use as per standards of rational prescription.Results: Dentistry doctors prescribed antibiotics significantly more often than analgesics. Antibiotics were prescribed in 8.11% of all cases, while only 1.35% of total prescriptions were for analgesics. The total consumption of antibiotic drugs in the UDCCK was 4.53 Defined Daily Doses [DDD]/1,000 inhabitants/day, compared with only 0.216 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day for analgesics. From a total number of 117 patients, 32 patients received combinations of two antibiotics.Conclusion: Pharmacotherapy analysis showed that the prescription rates of antibiotics and analgesics in the UDCCK are not rational in terms of the qualitative aspects of treatment. For the qualitative improvement of prescription of these drug groups, we recommend the implementation of treatment guidelines following rational standards. Keywords: antibiotic, analgesics
Kuks Paul F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventable adverse drug events (pADEs are widely known to be a health care issue for hospitalized patients. Surgical patients are especially at risk, but prevention of pADEs in this population is not demonstrated before. Ward-based pharmacy interventions seem effective in reducing pADEs in medical patients. The cost-effectiveness of these preventive efforts still needs to be assessed in a comparative study of high methodological standard and also in the surgical population. For these aims the SUREPILL (Surgery & Pharmacy in Liaison study is initiated. Methods/Design A multi-centre controlled trial, with randomisation at ward-level and preceding baseline assessments is designed. Patients admitted to the surgical study wards for elective surgery with an expected length of stay of more than 48 hours will be included. Patients admitted to the intervention ward, will receive ward-based pharmacy care from the clinical pharmacy team, i.e. pharmacy practitioners and hospital pharmacists. This ward-based pharmacy intervention includes medication reconciliation in consultation with the patient at admission, daily medication review with face-to-face contact with the ward doctor, and patient counselling at discharge. Patients admitted in the control ward, will receive standard pharmaceutical care. The primary clinical outcome measure is the number of pADEs per 100 elective admissions. These pADEs will be measured by systematic patient record evaluation using a trigger tool. Patient records positive for a trigger will be evaluated on causality, severity and preventability by an independent expert panel. In addition, an economic evaluation will be performed from a societal perspective with the costs per preventable ADE as the primary economic outcome. Other outcomes of this study are: severity of pADEs, number of patients with pADEs per total number of admissions, direct (non-medical costs and indirect non-medical costs, extra costs per
Nocini, Pier Francesco; Verlato, Giuseppe; Frustaci, Andrea; de Gemmis, Antonio; Rigoni, Giovanni; De Santis, Daniele
Evidence-based Dentistry (EBD), like Evidence-based Medicine (EBM), was born in order to seek the "best available research evidence" in the field of dentistry both in research and clinical routine.BUT EVIDENCE IS NOT CLEARLY MEASURABLE IN ALL FIELDS OF HEALTHCARE: in particular, while drug effect is rather independent from clinician's characteristics, the effectiveness of surgical procedures is strictly related to surgeon's expertise, which is difficult to quantify. The research problems of dentistry have a lot in common with other surgical fields, where at the moment the best therapeutic recommendations and guidelines originates from an integration of evidence-based medicine and data from consensus conferences.To cope with these problems, new instruments have been developed, aimed at standardizing clinical procedures (CAD-CAM technology) and at integrating EBM achievements with the opinions of expert clinicians (GRADE System).ONE THING WE HAVE TO REMEMBER HOWEVER: it is necessary to use the instruments developed by evidence-based medicine but is impossible to produce sound knowledge without considering clinical expertise and quality of surgical procedures simultaneously. Only in this way we will obtain an evidence-based dentistry both in dental research and clinical practice, which is up to third millennium standards.
Guth, Michael A S
Several studies have addressed the optimal storage conditions for vascular grafts during bypass surgery. These studies have repeatedly shown that placing vascular graft conduits in isotonic saline solutions, and to a lesser extent in heparinized autologous blood, leads to a profound decline in endothelial cell viability. Endothelial damage to vein grafts can occur at multiple points during a coronary artery bypass graft surgery procedure: graft harvesting, handling, flushing, storage, anastomosis, and arterialization (e.g., damage caused by exposure to arterial blood pressure). This damage to endothelial cells causes the release of pro-inflammatory chemical signals that trigger thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and accelerated graft atherosclerosis, all of which ultimately contribute to graft failure. Cardiothoracic surgeons performing coronary artery bypass graft surgery and vascular surgeons performing peripheral artery bypass graft surgery have attempted to overcome the damage to the vascular grafts by using buffers to maintain the physiological pH of the storage solution. However, the endothelial layers in the grafts would benefit from having proper oxygenation and antioxidants added to the storage solution. Compounding pharmacies can perform a vital role in ensuring the patency of the vascular grafts by creating compounded flushing and storage solutions that have an optimal mix of nitric oxide substrates, antioxidants, and other nutrients for the endothelium. Maintaining structural and functional viability of the endothelia in grafts by using an appropriate vessel storage medium would lead to improved long-term graft patency.
Full Text Available Hospital information system is widely used to improve work efficiency of hospitals in China. However, it is lack of the function providing pharmaceutical information service for clinical pharmacists. A novel clinical pharmacy management system developed by our hospital was introduced to improve the work efficiency of clinical pharmacists in our hospital and to carry out large sample statistical analyzes by providing pharmacy information services and promoting rational drug use. Clinical pharmacy management system was developed according to the actual situation. Taking prescription review in the department of general surgery as the example, work efficiency of clinical pharmacists, quality and qualified rates of prescriptions before and after utilizing clinical pharmacy management system were compared. Statistics of 48,562 outpatient and 5776 inpatient prescriptions of the general surgical department were analyzed. Qualified rates of both the inpatient and outpatient prescriptions of the general surgery department increased, and the use of antibiotics decreased. This system apparently improved work efficiency, standardized the level and accuracy of drug use, which will improve the rational drug use and pharmacy information service in our hospital. Meanwhile, utilization of prophylactic antibiotics for the aseptic operations also reduced.
Kanji, Noureen; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L; Shaw, Jane R
To explore the relationship between veterinarian-client-patient interactions and client adherence to dental and surgery recommendations and to test the a priori hypotheses that appointment-specific client satisfaction and relationship-centered care are positively associated with client adherence. Cross-sectional study. A subsample of 19 companion-animal veterinarians and 83 clients from a larger observational study consisting of 20 randomly recruited veterinarians and a convenience sample of 350 clients from eastern Ontario. Videotaped veterinarian-client-patient interactions containing a dentistry recommendation, surgery recommendation, or both were selected for inclusion from the larger sample of interactions coded with the Roter interaction analysis system. Client adherence was measured by evaluating each patient's medical record approximately 6 months after the videotaped interaction. The clarity of the recommendation, appointment-specific client-satisfaction score, and relationship-centered care score were compared between adhering and nonadhering clients. Among the 83 veterinarian-client-patient interactions, 25 (30%) clients adhered to a dentistry recommendation, surgery recommendation, or both. The odds for adherence were 7 times as great for clients who received a clear recommendation, compared with clients who received an ambiguous recommendation from their veterinarian. Moreover, adhering clients were significantly more satisfied as measured after the interview. Interactions resulting in client adherence also had higher scores for relationship-centered care than did interactions leading to nonadherence. Veterinarian use of a relationship-centered care approach, characterized as a collaborative partnership between a veterinarian and a client with provision of clear recommendations and effective communication of the rationale for the recommendations, has positive implications for client adherence.
Haliti, Naim R; Haliti, Fehim R; Koçani, Ferit K; Gashi, Ali A; Mrasori, Shefqet I; Hyseni, Valon I; Bytyqi, Samir I; Krasniqi, Lumnije L; Murtezani, Ardiana F; Krasniqi, Shaip L
Because Kosovo has no reliable information on antimicrobial and analgesic use in dental practice, the survey reported here evaluated the antibiotic and analgesic prescriptions in the Oral Surgery Department of the University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo (UDCCK). The data of 2,442 registered patients for a 1-year period were screened and analyzed concerning antibiotic and analgesic use as per standards of rational prescription. Dentistry doctors prescribed antibiotics significantly more often than analgesics. Antibiotics were prescribed in 8.11% of all cases, while only 1.35% of total prescriptions were for analgesics. The total consumption of antibiotic drugs in the UDCCK was 4.53 Defined Daily Doses [DDD]/1,000 inhabitants/day, compared with only 0.216 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day for analgesics. From a total number of 117 patients, 32 patients received combinations of two antibiotics. Pharmacotherapy analysis showed that the prescription rates of antibiotics and analgesics in the UDCCK are not rational in terms of the qualitative aspects of treatment. For the qualitative improvement of prescription of these drug groups, we recommend the implementation of treatment guidelines following rational standards.
Full Text Available Today laser has a lot of usage in medicine and dentistry. In the field of dentistry, laser is used in soft tissue surgery, sterilization of canals (in root canal therapy and in restorative dentistry laser is used for cavity preparation, caries removal, sealing the grooves (in preventive dentistry, etching enamel and dentin, composite polymerization and removal of tooth sensitivity. The use of Co2 lasers and Nd: YAG for cavity preparation, due to creating high heat causes darkness and cracks around the region of laser radiation. Also due to high temperature of these lasers, pulp damage is inevitable. So today, by using the Excimer laser especially the argon floride type with a wavelength of 193 nm, the problem of heat stress have been solved, but the use of lasers in dentistry, especially for cavity preparation needs more researches and evaluations.
If you have stained, broken or uneven teeth, cosmetic dentistry can help. Cosmetic dentistry is different from orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth with braces or other devices. Cosmetic dental procedures include Bleaching to make teeth whiter ...
Gholami, Gholam Ali; Gholami, Hadi; Amid, Reza; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Mehdizadeh, Amir Reza; Youssefi, Navid
This article proposes a combined technique including bone grafting, connective tissue graft, and coronally advanced flap to create some space for simultaneous bone regrowth and root coverage. A 23 year-old female was referred to our private clinic with a severe class II Miller recession and lack of attached gingiva. The suggested treatment plan comprised of root coverage combined with xenograft bone particles. The grafted area healed well and full coverage was achieved at 12-month follow-up visit. Bone-added periodontal plastic surgery can be considered as a practical procedure for management of deep gingival recession without buccal bone plate.
Mm, Jingarwar; Nk, Bajwa; A, Pathak
Minimally invasive procedures are the new paradigm in health care. Everything from heart bypasses to gall bladder, surgeries are being performed with these dynamic new techniques. Dentistry is joining this exciting revolution as well. Minimally invasive dentistry adopts a philosophy that integrates prevention, remineralisation and minimal intervention for the placement and replacement of restorations. Minimally invasive dentistry reaches the treatment objective using the least invasive surgical approach, with the removal of the minimal amount of healthy tissues. This paper reviews in brief the concept of minimal intervention in dentistry.
Full Text Available Piezosurgery (piezoelectric bone surgery is a technique of bone surgery which is gaining popularity in the field of dentistry in the recent years. This device is being used in osteotomies, periodontology and implantology, and oral surgical procedures. Piezoelectric ultrasonic vibrations are utilized to perform precise and safe osteotomies. This article discusses the equipment, biological effects on bone, and advantages and disadvantages of this technology.
Wisniewska, Lidia M; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Segovia, Jesus D; Inchingolo, Francesco; Wang, Hom-Lay; Fernandes-Cruz, Manuel
In dentistry and oral and maxillofacial surgery, the development of implantable biomaterials and the understanding of their molecular, cellular and pharmaceutical aspects are currently major fields of research and education, with a considerable impact on the daily clinical practice and the evolution of therapeutic strategies. In the era of globalized economy of knowledge and science, this scientific domain needs the development of global cooperation and a paradigm evolution in the organizational culture of the dental sciences and related dental industry. Despite political pressure and theoretical efforts, the internationalization of higher education and research today in dentistry and biomaterials remains in general quite superficial and mostly dependent on the efforts of a few leaders of internationalization working through their personal networks, as it was assessed through the FAST scores (Fast Assessment Screening Test) calculated in various dental schools and groups worldwide through the ISAIAS program (Intercultural Sensitivity Academic Index &Advanced Standards). Cooperation in a multipolar multicultural community requires the development of strong intercultural competences, and this process remains limited in most institutions. These limits of international scientific cooperation can be observed through different markers, particularly the difficult and limited production of ISO standards (International Organization for Standardization) and the relatively low SCIENTI scores (Scientific Cooperation Internationalization Effort &Network Test &Index) of the specialized dental literature, particularly in comparison to the most significant medical literature. However, as an analytical tool to assess the scientific international cooperation effort between fields and periods, the SCIENTI screening system also highlighted a significant increase of the internationalization effort in the last years in the best dental biomaterials publications. Finally, an
Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A
3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.
Rezende, Taia M B; Lima, Stella M F; Petriz, Bernardo A; Silva, Osmar N; Freire, Mirna S; Franco, Octávio L
Despite all the dental information acquired over centuries and the importance of proteome research, the cross-link between these two areas only emerged around mid-nineties. Proteomic tools can help dentistry in the identification of risk factors, early diagnosis, prevention, and systematic control that will promote the evolution of treatment in all dentistry specialties. This review mainly focuses on the evolution of dentistry in different specialties based on proteomic research and how these tools can improve knowledge in dentistry. The subjects covered are an overview of proteomics in dentistry, specific information on different fields in dentistry (dental structure, restorative dentistry, endodontics, periodontics, oral pathology, oral surgery, and orthodontics) and future directions. There are many new proteomic technologies that have never been used in dentistry studies and some dentistry areas that have never been explored by proteomic tools. It is expected that a greater integration of these areas will help to understand what is still unknown in oral health and disease.
... to your desktop! more... What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Article Chapters What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Minimally ... techniques. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Minimally Invasive Dentistry Minimally Invasive Veneers Dramatically Change Smiles What Patients ...
Full Text Available Stefan Stübinger,1 Andres Stricker,2 Britt-Isabelle Berg3,4 1Hightech Research Center of Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery, University of Basel, Allschwil, Switzerland; 2Private Practice, Konstanz, Germany; 3Department of Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 4Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Piezosurgery, or the use of piezoelectric devices, is being applied increasingly in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The main advantages of this technique are precise and selective cuttings, the avoidance of thermal damage, and the preservation of soft-tissue structures. Through the application of piezoelectric surgery, implant-site preparation, bone grafting, sinus-floor elevation, edentulous ridge splitting or the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve are very technically feasible. This clinical overview gives a short summary of the current literature and outlines the advantages and disadvantages of piezoelectric bone surgery in implant dentistry. Overall, piezoelectric surgery is superior to other methods that utilize mechanical instruments. Handling of delicate or compromised hard- and soft-tissue conditions can be performed with less risk for the patient. With respect to current and future innovative surgical concepts, piezoelectric surgery offers a wide range of new possibilities to perform customized and minimally invasive osteotomies. Keywords: implantology, piezoelectric device, piezosurgery, maxillary sinus elevation, bone grafting, osteotomy, edentulous ridge splitting
Lasers and radiosurgery frequently used in human dentistry are rapidly entering veterinary dental use. The carbon dioxide, diode, and low-level therapy lasers have features including hemostasis control, access to difficult to reach areas, and decreased pain, that make them useful for oral surgery. Periodontal pocket surgery, gingivectomy, gingivoplasty, gingival hyperplasia, operculectomy, tongue surgery, oropharyngeal inflammation therapy, oral mass surgery, crown, and frenectomy laser surgeries are described, including images.
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to determine prevalence of oral diseases and oral surgical procedures at Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University in Sarajevo.Methods: The current study is retrospective analysis of oral surgical procedures performed from January 2011 to December 2012 at Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University in Sarajevo. The data were statistically analyzed by T-test of independent samples and using Chi-squared test. P value lower than 0,001 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: A total of 1299 patients were included in study. The age range is from 18 to 84 years, with mean age ± SD= 35±15 years. There were 42 different clinical diagnoses, and 13 diagnoses appeared in more than 1% of all patients. Impacted and semi-impacted teeth, periapical lesions and retained roots are the most frequent diagnoses and represent 68% of all diagnoses. Embedded and impacted teeth (35% and diseases of pulp and periapical tissues (31% are the most frequent diagnoses with respect of ICD-10. Impacted teeth is the most common diagnosis and removal of impacted third molars is the most common oral surgical procedure.Conclusion: Study points out variety of dentoalveolar patology and complexity of dental health care that often requires interdisciplinary approach in order to achieve optimal outcome for patient.
Assael, Leon A
Dentistry is not an allied health profession. It is not a paramedical profession. It is time that dentistry be recognized as the profession that offers patients some of the most complex surgery performed on the human body--namely, restorative dentistry and rehabilitation of the masticatory system. Dentistry is the only anatomically focused health care profession that is university-based and for which primary care responsibility is maintained by the profession. An inferiority complex about what it means to be a dentist has served only to confuse the public and bring us further from our goal of improving the health of all our patients. This inferiority complex is driven by the public and the medical profession, neither of which understands how dentistry fits into overall health care. It is essential that every academic health center have oral health education as an integrated part of health care education for dentists, physicians, nurses, allied dental personel, physical therapists, psychologists and all who receive university-based health care education. In this way, all the health professions and the public will see dentistry and oral health as essential to patients' overall health. The idea of emulating those who do not have the strength of basic-science education, practice complexity, surgical skills or community status by seizing a new title will not elevate the profession for the future. The public knows what a dentist is. It is our task to inform the public about the capabilities of dentists and the value of oral health and our profession. We can accomplish this best by assuring that our profession's name, "dentistry," is understood to represent one of the world's most accomplished surgical endeavors, one that is thoroughly integrated into the fabric of health care. Thus, good oral health will be thoroughly integrated into what it means to be healthy.
Vitale, M. C.
Since the early 80's, the use of laser has been introduced in the daily dental practice and the technological development has also provided over time to optimize its use. Various types of lasers with different wavelengths have been developed for use in a handy, easy and ergonomic manner. In daily paediatric dentistry, laser could be a very useful medical device which can completely replace the traditional high hand-piece and bur to realize a "micro-invasive" dentistry and a "clean" surgery, without bleeding and sutures. According to the international literature and in the light of recent researches, this work could give an overview on assisted laser therapy in paediatric dentistry, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of this new technology and pointing out the high compliance of the young patient.
Green, James; Weiss, Adam; Stern, Avichai
Advances in technology are changing the ways that patients experience dental treatment. Technology helps to decrease treatment time and makes the treatment more comfortable for the patient. One technological advance is the use of lasers in dentistry. Lasers are providing more efficient, more comfortable, and more predictable outcomes for patients. Lasers are used in all aspects of dentistry, including operative, periodontal, endodontic, orthodontic, and oral and maxillofacial surgery. Lasers are used for soft and hard tissue procedures in the treatment of pathologic conditions and for esthetic procedures. This article discusses how lasers work and their application in the various specialties within dentistry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Satuito, Mary; Tom, James
Nitrous oxide and the volatile inhalational anesthetics have defined anxiety and pain control in both dentistry and medicine for over a century. From curious experimentation to spectacular public demonstrations, the initial work of 2 dentists, Horace Wells and William T. G. Morton, persists to this day in modern surgery and anesthesia. This article reviews the history, similarities, differences, and clinical applications of the most popular inhalational agents used in contemporary dental surgical settings.
Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Tooth extraction is always considered as the final treatment option in dentistry."nConsidering the numerous advances in dentistry, nowadays the preservation of the permanent teeth until old"nage is common. However, in most economically poor countries or those without security service insurance,"nthe high rate of extraction, particularly among restorable teeth, is regrettable."nPurpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the reasons for tooth extraction among patients"nreferred to the faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2002."nMaterials and Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 patients. The"ninformation about patient's general knowledge, oral health status, tooth location and causes of extraction were"ncollected and recorded in a questionnaire. The data were submitted to statistical Chi-Square test."nResults: No statistically significant difference was found between two genders in their mentioned causes for"nextraction. The most prevalent reasons were as follows: Caries (50%, Periodontal diseases (16.6%. Absence"nof an acceptable occlusion, prosthetic problems, patient's request, etc... make up the remaining 33.4% of the"nreasons."nConclusion: According to this study, it is suggested to investigate extraction etiology at the society level and"nif similar results are obtained, necessary steps should be taken to prevent caries and periodontal problems as"nthe major mentioned causes for tooth extraction.
... common source for obtaining prescriptions is the local pharmacy. Usually the pharmacy is located in a drug or grocery store. ... some insurance companies have chosen is mail-order pharmacy. Once a pharmacy has been chosen it is ...
Full Text Available The success of restorative dentistry is determined on the basis of functional and esthetic results. To achieve esthetics, four basic determinants are required in sequence; viz., position, contour, texture and color. The knowledge of the concept of color is essential for achieving good esthetics. This review compiles the various aspects of color, its measurements and shade matching in dentistry.
Spear, Frank M; Kokich, Vincent G
Today's dentist does not just repair teeth to make them better for chewing. Increasingly, his or her work involves esthetics. With patients demanding more attractive teeth, dentists now must become more familiar with the formerly independent disciplines of orthodontics, periodontics, restorative dentistry, and maxillofacial surgery. This article provides a systematic method of evaluating dentofacial esthetics in a logical, interdisciplinary manner. In today's interdisciplinary dental world, treatment planning must begin with well-defined esthetic objectives. By beginning with esthetics, and taking into consideration the impact on function, structure, and biology, the clinician will be able to use the various disciplines in dentistry to deliver the highest level of dental care to each patient.
HIV/AIDS patients require surgery sometimes during their illness. ... risks to surgical equipes and analysing preventive strategies to HIV ... problems in patients presenting HIV, AIDS and ... Dentistry, Surgery of Awolowo University in Nigeria3.
Darby, I B; Ngo, L
This article will look at the role of minimum intervention dentistry in the management of periodontal disease. It will discuss the role of appropriate assessment, treatment and risk factors/indicators. In addition, the role of the patient and early intervention in the continuing care of dental implants will be discussed as well as the management of peri-implant disease.
Graskemper, Joseph P
Advertising in dentistry has steadily increased since the 1970s to become a leading choice of many dentists to promote their practices. The manner in which advertising progresses within the profession affects all dentists and how patients perceive dentistry as a profession. This paper presents ethical concepts that should be followed when dentists are pursuing practice promotion through advertising. It also raises questions that, hopefully, will increase attention and discussion on dental advertising. The paper concludes that ethical advertising is easily achieved by promoting patient education while not placing the dentist's self-interests ahead of the patient's. With this approach, dentistry may continue to be one of the most trusted professions.
In the past, the interaction between dentoalveolar surgery and restorative dentistry has been limited to the removal of teeth with pulp and/or periradicular disease or those that were unrestorable. However, with the increasing dental awareness of the population and the retention of teeth into later life, the interaction between dentoalveolar surgery and restorative dentistry is becoming a fundamental aspect of clinical practice. Indeed, endodontic and implant surgery are core activities that facilitate the retention of a functional dentition.
Full Text Available With the advancements in the field of dentistry, new treatment protocols are budding day by day to combat human ailments in a much natural better and simpler way. One such advancement is the application of ozone in dentistry. Ozone is a natural element protects us from ultraviolet rays. It has several properties including analgesics, immunostimulant and antimicrobial properties. In Dentistry its uses are abundance from gingival diseases, infection control, temporomandibular disorders, radiation and chemotherapy induced mucositis, lichen planus etc. Researchers believe that this therapy is in state of equilibrium with benefit and drawback. This review throws light on the history, properties, methods of administration, uses in the field of medicine and dentistry, toxicity, contraindications of ozone. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 45-54
Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Nikil; Gupta, Shilpi
Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided) or dynamic (navigated) systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias), in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry. PMID:25810585
Full Text Available Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided or dynamic (navigated systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias, in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry.
Riley, M A; Walmsley, A D; Harris, I R
Magnetic retention is a popular method of attaching removable prostheses to either retained roots or osseointegrated implants. This review chronicles the development of magnets in dentistry and summarizes future research in their use. The literature was researched by using the Science Citation Index and Compendex Web from 1981 to 2000. Articles published before 1981 were hand researched from citations in other publications. Articles that discussed the use of magnets in relation to prosthetic dentistry were selected.
Almarsdottir, Anna Birna; Granas, Anne Gerd
This commentary seeks to define the areas of social pharmacy and clinical pharmacy to uncover what they have in common and what still sets them apart. Common threats and challenges of the two areas are reviewed in order to understand the forces in play. Forces that still keep clinical and social...... and external key players in putting forth what is needed for the profession of pharmacy. At the end the question is posed, “What’s in a name?” and we argue that it is important to emphasize what unifies the families of clinical pharmacy and social pharmacy for the benefit of both fields, pharmacy in general...... pharmacy apart are university structures, research traditions, and the management of pharmacy services. There are key (but shrinking) differences between clinical and social pharmacy which entail the levels of study within pharmaceutical sciences, the location in which the research is carried out...
Sinclair, E; Stagnell, S; Shah, S
On 23 June 2016, eligible UK voters will be asked to decide whether to vote in the EU referendum. The EU impacts on our daily lives in more ways than many people realise. Dentistry is affected by EU legislation. Examples include the movement of dental professionals, the import of dental equipment and materials, as well as health and safety legislation. Many more EU dentists and DCPs come to the UK to work than vice versa. These numbers have increased markedly since 2004. The result of the vote may affect how dentistry operates in the UK in future years. In addition, a vote to stay would not necessarily prevent change. There are attempts underway to increase the ease by which professionals can work in other member states, especially on a temporary basis. This too is likely affect dentistry at some point. Workforce planners and policy makers should factor in the impact of the EU in future dental policy.
Adams, Timothy C; Pang, Peter K
This article focuses on lasers and aesthetic dentistry and their unique parallel in history from their early development to their present day usage and application. The demand for aesthetic dentistry has had a major impact not only on treatment planning but also on the choice of materials, techniques, and equipment. It is this demand that has married the use of lasers with aesthetic dentistry. A short literature review on the five basic laser types precedes the basic premise of smile design and its critical importance in attaining the desirable aesthetic end result. A short review on biologic width and biologic zone reinforces their importance when manipulating gingival tissue. Four case reports highlight the use of diode, erbium, and carbon dioxide lasers. The end results show the power of proper treatment planning and the use of a smile design guide when using these instruments and confirm a conservative, aesthetic treatment without compromising the health and function of the patients.
Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian
The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.
Full Text Available Thermoplastic resins have been used in dentistry for over 50 years. Since that time their applications have continued to grow, and the interest in nylon based materials have increased. With the development of new properties, there are certain to be additional new applications for thermoplastic resins in the future, to help patients with damaged or missing teeth. The dentists have to meet growing demands for prosthetic rehabilitation due to population aging and higher requirements on the quality of life. Herein in this article we will be discussing in detail properties of nylon based materials and their various implications in dentistry
Moullin, Joanna C; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Benrimoj, Shalom I
Multiple terms and definitions exist to describe specific aspects of pharmacy practice and service provision, yet none encompass the full range of professional services delivered by community pharmacy. The majority of current pharmacy service definitions and nomenclature refer to either the professional philosophy of pharmaceutical care or to specific professional pharmacy services; particularly pharmaceutical services provided by pharmacists with a focus on drug safety, effectiveness and health outcomes. The objective of this paper is therefore to define a professional pharmacy service within the context of the community pharmacy model of service provision. A professional pharmacy service is defined as "an action or set of actions undertaken in or organised by a pharmacy, delivered by a pharmacist or other health practitioner, who applies their specialised health knowledge personally or via an intermediary, with a patient/client, population or other health professional, to optimise the process of care, with the aim to improve health outcomes and the value of healthcare." Based on Donabedian's framework, the professional pharmacy service definition incorporates the concepts of organizational structure, process indicators and outcome measures. The definition will assist in many areas including recognition of the full range of services provided by community pharmacy and facilitating the identification of indicators of professional pharmacy service implementation and sustainable provision. A simple conceptual model for incorporating all services provided by community pharmacy is proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Negri, Bruno; Zuhr, Otto; Fickl, Stefan; Ciurana, Xavier Rodríguez; Navarro Martínez, José Manuel; Blanco, Víctor Méndez
Restoring failing anterior teeth with a dental implant is considered a complex treatment even with thorough biologic knowledge of the situation. The goal is to produce a result in which the labial soft tissues and the papillae remain stable over time. Treatment of the fresh extraction socket in the alveolar ridge presents a challenge in everyday clinical practice. Regardless of the subsequent treatment, maintenance of the ridge contour will frequently facilitate all further therapeutic steps. Socket seal surgery and socket preservation in combination with immediate, early, or delayed implant placement can be valuable procedures for single tooth replacement. However, their potential as ridge preservation techniques in these different situations still needs to be demonstrated. The use of these procedures is illustrated in three consecutive cases.
Cha, Seunghee; Park, Young-Seok
This review describes the contemporary aspects of plasma application in dentistry. Previous studies on plasma applications were classified into two categories, surface treatment and direct applications, and were reviewed, respectively according to the approach. The current review discussed modification of dental implant surface, enhancing of adhesive qualities, enhancing of polymerization, surface coating and plasma cleaning under the topics of surface treatment. Microbicidal activities, deco...
Donly, Kevin J
This article discusses contemporary pediatric restorative dentistry. Indications and contraindications for the choice of different restorative materials in different clinical situations, including the risk assessment of the patient, are presented. The specific use of glass ionomer cement or resin-modified glass ionomer cement, resin-based composite, and stainless steel crowns is discussed so that preparation design and restoration placement is understood.
Invisalign has been an integral part of dental practices for many years. Besides improving crowding and spacing in teeth, it is an excellent adjunct for many different aesthetic procedures. One such case is illustrated in this article, where the combination of Invisalign and minimally invasive dentistry allowed for a stellar outcome, and one very happy dental patient.
Sujatha, G; Kumar, G Senthil; Muruganandan, J; Prasad, T Srinivasa
Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has been used for thousands of years. The health benefits of aloe vera is well known and the dental uses of this plant is multiple. Interest is gathering among researchers regarding the use of this plant. Studies have proved the antiseptic, anti inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal properties of aloe vera and the use of this plant is proved beneficial. This plant is proved to be non allergic and very good in building up the immune system. Aloe vera is gaining popularity in dentistry as it is completely natural and there is no side effects being reported with its use. This paper gives an overview of the uses of this miracle plant and its uses in dentistry.
Lovelock, D.J. [Dental Hospital and School, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology
Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author).
During the last 20 years, there has been considerable growth in the number of dental practices owned by corporate bodies. At present, well over 800 practices are owned by such bodies and they employ over 3000 dentists. This paper describes the factors that have led to this growth and explores the advantages and disadvantages of 'corporate' dentistry for patients, dentists, and the dental team. It then considers how and why dental practice may change over the next 20 years and concludes that by 2032 the small one-dentist practice may well be in the past. It is likely that smaller practices will have to work in some form of association if they are to survive. Although their current model is unstable, corporates are likely to adapt to a changing environment. By 2032, in some cases, dentistry may well be taken out of its conventional setting, into supermarkets or a school environment.
Wasson, W; Schuman, N
Color vision is a critical component of restorative and esthetic dentistry, but dentists, as a group, do not have their color vision tested at any time during their careers. A study was undertaken to ascertain the color-vision status of practicing dental personnel at the University of Tennessee, College of Dentistry. One hundred fifty individuals, 75 men and 75 women, were screened. The results corroborated the existing medical data for the general population. It was found that 9.3% of the men and none of the women exhibited color-vision defect. Since most dentists are male, this study demonstrates an area of potential weakness for some practitioners. Once a color-vision problem is found, it is simple to remedy by employing a team approach to shade matching or mechanical means of matching shades (by the practitioner). No ethnic or racial distinctions were detected, although these have been reported in other studies.
Shetty, Neetha J.; Swati, P.; David, K.
The purpose of this paper is to review the phenomenon of nanotechnology as it might apply to dentistry as a new field called nanodentistry. Treatment possibilities might include the application of nanotechnology to local anesthesia, dentition renaturalization, the permanent cure for hypersensitivity, complete orthodontic realignment in a single visit, covalently bonded diamondized enamel, and continuous oral health maintenance using mechanical dentifrobots. Dental nanorobots could be construc...
Lamas Lara, César; Cirujano Dentista, Docente del Área de Operatoria Dental y Endodoncia de la Facultad de OdontoIogía de la UNMSM.; Paz Fernández, Juan José; Paredes Coz, Gerson; Cirujano Dentista, Especialista en Rehabilitación Oral, Docente del Área de Rehabilitación Oral de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Angulo de la Vega, Giselle; Cirujano Dentista, Estudios de Especialidad de Rehabilitación Oral de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Cardoso Hernández, Sully; Estudiante de internado de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.
Nowadays is fundamental the interrelationship of the diverse specialities of dentistry for the resolution of the treatments realized in the patients who come to the odontologic consultation, since the vision slanted of some area can deprive to offer a better possibility of treatment. Working with specialists in different areas carries to orientating adequately the treatments and to optimizing results. In the present article the integral rehabilitation of a patient is detailed by the participa...
Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Salih, Vehid M; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C
of this review is to inform practitioners with the most updated information on tissue engineering and its potential applications in dentistry. The authors used "PUBMED" to find relevant literature written in English and published from the beginning of tissue engineering until today. A combination of keywords was used as the search terms e.g., "tissue engineering", "approaches", "strategies" "dentistry", "dental stem cells", "dentino-pulp complex", "guided tissue regeneration", "whole tooth", "TMJ", "condyle", "salivary glands", and "oral mucosa". Abstracts and full text articles were used to identify causes of craniofacial tissue loss, different approaches for craniofacial reconstructions, how the tissue engineering emerges, different strategies of tissue engineering, biomaterials employed for this purpose, the major attempts to engineer different dental structures, finally challenges and future of tissue engineering in dentistry. Only those articles that dealt with the tissue engineering in dentistry were selected. There have been a recent surge in guided tissue engineering methods to manage periodontal diseases beyond the traditional approaches. However, the predictable reconstruction of the innate organisation and function of whole teeth as well as their periodontal structures remains challenging. Despite some limited progress and minor successes, there remain distinct and important challenges in the development of reproducible and clinically safe approaches for oral tissue repair and regeneration. Clearly, there is a convincing body of evidence which confirms the need for this type of treatment, and public health data worldwide indicates a more than adequate patient resource. The future of these therapies involving more biological approaches and the use of dental tissue stem cells is promising and advancing. Also there may be a significant interest of their application and wider potential to treat disorders beyond the craniofacial region. Considering the
Shivani Sharma; Cross, Sarah E.; Carlin Hsueh; Ruseen P. Wali; Stieg, Adam Z.; James K Gimzewski
About 80% of US adults have some form of dental disease. There are a variety of new dental products available, ranging from implants to oral hygiene products that rely on nanoscale properties. Here, the application of AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and optical interferometry to a range of dentistry issues, including characterization of dental enamel, oral bacteria, biofilms and the role of surface proteins in biochemical and nanomechanical properties of bacterial adhesins, is reviewed. We also...
Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition
One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice.
赵雪竹; 唐志辉; 许卫华; 邹立东; 吴敏节; 李良忠
Objective To establish a method of making emulational jaw models as assistant tools in implant dentistry education.Methods Emulational jaw models were fabricated by 3D printing technology.After traditional teaching methods,emulational jaw models were used to help students make diagnosis,design operation and simulate operation.Surgical templates then were also fabricated on the emulational jaw models,which would guide the implant insertion surgery more precisely and safely. Results All of the students thought that emulational jaw models could display the morphology of jaw bone more intuitively than CT.Generally,after two to five simulation exercises on the 3D models,young doctors could finally insert implants in a satisfactory position.Conclusion We can make emulational jaw models with 3D printing technology,which can help students achieve the leap from preclinical teaching to clinical practice more smoothly.Therefore,it has promising future in teaching.%目的：探索建立制作仿真颌骨模型的方法，为口腔种植的临床教学提供帮助。方法通过3D 打印技术打印仿真颌骨模型。在对学生进行传统模式教学之后，利用仿真颌骨模型进一步开展种植教学，让学生在该模型上进行诊断、手术设计及预手术练习，并制作手术导板。结果100％的学生认为对患者真实骨情况的展示，仿真颌骨模型比 CT 图像更直观。学生需要在仿真颌骨模型上进行2～5次预手术练习方能找到满意的种植位置。结论通过应用3D 打印技术，可以制作仿真颌骨模型，结合手术导板可帮助医学生完成从理论学习到实际操作的跨越，具有较好的教学前景。
Dunson, George L.; Christopherson, William J., Jr.
The School of Pharmacy, University of the Pacific, and the Pharmacy Service, Letterman Army Medical Center, initiated a 15-week clinical nuclear pharmacy clerkship in 1975. It includes basic nuclear medical science, technical competency, professional competency, and special interest emphasis. (LBH)
Full Text Available The uses of Lasers in dentistry have revolutionized several areas of treatment in the last three & a half decades of the 20th century. Initially it was used for ablating the hard tissues for acid etch treatment. Later Lasers were used for cutting, coagulation & cauterization of the soft tissues. It is also been used for the diagnosis of carious lesions& to test pulp vitality with Doppler. There are more than 40 uses for Laser. Initially Lasers were very expensive, but now they have become much cheaper. Portable models are available which have increased its versatility. Lasers will be the main weapon in the armamentarium of the dental surgeons.
Unthank, M; True, G
In the increasingly complex, competitive and stressful field of dentistry, effectively designed dental offices can offer significant benefits. Esthetic, functional and life-cycle cost issues to be considered when developing your interior design scheme include color, finishes, lighting, furnishings, art and accessories. An appropriately designed dental office serves as a valuable marketing tool for your practice, as well as a safe and enjoyable work environment. Qualified interior design professionals can help you make design decisions that can yield optimum results within your budget.
Full Text Available Introduction: Lasers are used in various disciplines in dentistry such as restorative dentistry, endodontics, periodontics, pedodontics, and oral and maxillofacial surgery. Despite many advantages of dental lasers, this method might have some adverse effects. The aim of this review article is to debate about the impacts of lasers on orodental tissues. Methods: An electronic search was accomplished using specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, and Scopus to find relevant studies by using keywords such as “laser”, “dentistry”, “adverse effect”, and “side effect”. Results: Several adverse effects of laser were identified such as impacts on dental pulp, effects on tooth surface, subcutaneous and submucosal effects, histopathological changes, and infection transmission due to laser smoke. During dental procedures, necrosis of the pulp, periodontal ligament and odontoblasts, cemental lysis, bone resorption, hypo/hyperpigmentation, burns, itching, and scarring might occur. In addition, laser can weaken the dentin by inducing surface cracks. Restorative procedures by laser might increase microleakage and decrease shear bond strength, as well as microhardness of tooth walls. Meanwhile, laser surgery might cause emphysema after abscess incision and drainage, frenectomy, flap elevation, and gingivoplasty. Conclusion: Practitioners should be very cautious in treatment planning and case selection during laser-based therapeutic procedures.
Full Text Available The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child′s behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice.
Bos-Huizer, J J A; Bolderman, F W
'Ergonomic movement in dentistry' is a recently developed ergonomic programme for dental healthcare professionals which is intended to prevent work-related complaints and assist in recovering from them. The programme is recommended by disability insurers in cases of specific physical complaints, limitations or disability, as a consequence of which a dental healthcare professional is unable to carry out his or her work. In a four-day training programme, in one's own workplace, skills are taught in the areas of work organization, work attitude and movement. These skills are directly applied in the treatment ofpatients and, if necessary, further improved. In this way, one advances step by step to an ergonomic way of working. Evaluations have shown that the programme is advantageous for the attitude toward work, the workplace and the work organization as well as the reduction of disability.
Radfar, Lida; Ahmadabadi, Roshanak E; Masood, Farah; Scofield, R Hal
In recent years, a new class of drugs has revolutionized the treatment of autoimmune, allergic, infectious and many more diseases. These drugs are classified into three groups, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins. Biological drugs have less side effects compared to conventional drugs, and may target special damaged cells, but not all the cells. There may be side effects such as infection, hypersensitivity, hematological disorders, cancer, hepatotoxicity and neurological disorders, but there is not enough evidence or long term studies of the mechanism of action and side effects of these drugs. Patients on biological therapy may need some special consideration in dentistry. This paper is a review regarding the classification, mechanism of action and side effects of these drugs, and dental consideration for patients on biological therapy. PMID:26372436
Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.
The technology in dentistry has been developed significantly lately, increasing the technological level of new materials, methods and equipment have been developed. Undoubtedly the CO2 laser has contributed to this evolution particular to the treatment of the infected dentin. CO2 laser can sterilize and promote increase 6 to 8 times of dentin resistance, through the transformation the hydroxyapatite in calcium-phosphato-hydroxyapatite. We can reassure our patients about the use of pulsed CO2 laser due to better preservation of dental structure and its benefits permitting advanced esthetic treatments. The CEREC system, registers a tri-dimensional image of the preparation through a scan system, and sends it to the computer and the operator will edit the restorations so the equipment will finish porcelain restoration. The authors used a new laser 650 nm for caries detection and the other low lever laser (670 nm and 730 nm) considered an auxiliary method to prevent and treat the hypersensitivity in dentin.
Sharma, Shivani; Cross, Sarah E; Hsueh, Carlin; Wali, Ruseen P; Stieg, Adam Z; Gimzewski, James K
About 80% of US adults have some form of dental disease. There are a variety of new dental products available, ranging from implants to oral hygiene products that rely on nanoscale properties. Here, the application of AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and optical interferometry to a range of dentistry issues, including characterization of dental enamel, oral bacteria, biofilms and the role of surface proteins in biochemical and nanomechanical properties of bacterial adhesins, is reviewed. We also include studies of new products blocking dentine tubules to alleviate hypersensitivity; antimicrobial effects of mouthwash and characterizing nanoparticle coated dental implants. An outlook on future "nanodentistry" developments such as saliva exosomes based diagnostics, designing biocompatible, antimicrobial dental implants and personalized dental healthcare is presented.
Full Text Available About 80% of US adults have some form of dental disease. There are a variety of new dental products available, ranging from implants to oral hygiene products that rely on nanoscale properties. Here, the application of AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy and optical interferometry to a range of dentistry issues, including characterization of dental enamel, oral bacteria, biofilms and the role of surface proteins in biochemical and nanomechanical properties of bacterial adhesins, is reviewed. We also include studies of new products blocking dentine tubules to alleviate hypersensitivity; antimicrobial effects of mouthwash and characterizing nanoparticle coated dental implants. An outlook on future “nanodentistry” developments such as saliva exosomes based diagnostics, designing biocompatible, antimicrobial dental implants and personalized dental healthcare is presented.
Shetty, Neetha J; Swati, P; David, K
The purpose of this paper is to review the phenomenon of nanotechnology as it might apply to dentistry as a new field called nanodentistry. Treatment possibilities might include the application of nanotechnology to local anesthesia, dentition renaturalization, the permanent cure for hypersensitivity, complete orthodontic realignment in a single visit, covalently bonded diamondized enamel, and continuous oral health maintenance using mechanical dentifrobots. Dental nanorobots could be constructed to destroy caries-causing bacteria or to repair tooth blemishes where decay has set in, by using a computer to direct these tiny workers in their tasks. Dental nanorobots might be programed to use specific motility mechanisms to crawl or swim through human tissue with navigational precision, to acquire energy, to sense and manipulate their surroundings, to achieve safe cytopenetration, and to use any of a multitude of techniques to monitor, interrupt, or alter nerve-impulse traffic in individual nerve cells in real time.
Noronha, Victor T; Paula, Amauri J; Durán, Gabriela; Galembeck, Andre; Cogo-Müller, Karina; Franz-Montan, Michelle; Durán, Nelson
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively studied for their antimicrobial properties, which provide an extensive applicability in dentistry. Because of this increasing interest in AgNPs, the objective of this paper was to review their use in nanocomposites; implant coatings; pre-formulation with antimicrobial activity against cariogenic pathogens, periodontal biofilm, fungal pathogens and endodontic bacteria; and other applications such as treatment of oral cancer and local anesthesia. Recent achievements in the study of the mechanism of action and the most important toxicological aspects are also presented. Systematic searches were carried out in Web of Science (ISI), Google, PubMed, SciFinder and EspaceNet databases with the keywords "silver nano* or AgNP*" and "dentist* or dental* or odontol*". A total of 155 peer-reviewed articles were reviewed. Most of them were published in the period of 2012-2017, demonstrating that this topic currently represents an important trend in dentistry research. In vitro studies reveal the excellent antimicrobial activity of AgNPs when associated with dental materials such as nanocomposites, acrylic resins, resin co-monomers, adhesives, intracanal medication, and implant coatings. Moreover, AgNPs were demonstrated to be interesting tools in the treatment of oral cancers due to their antitumor properties. The literature indicates that AgNPs are a promising system with important features such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity, and a potential carrier in sustained drug delivery. However, there are some aspects of the mechanisms of action of AgNPs, and some important toxicological aspects arising from the use of this system that must be completely elucidated. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît
Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels. PMID:23966717
Full Text Available Aesthetic dentistry is a branch of dentistry which aims primarily at improving patient’s physical appearance and, to a lesser extent, the functionality of teeth. This field raises particular ethical dilemmas and requires a careful evaluation of patient’s needs and wishes versus his/her clinical best interests. In this article, the authors discuss the main ethical challenges in the field of aesthetic dentistry in the light of the four “classical” principles of bioethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. The authors conclude that the principles of medical ethics should be at the very foundation of the field of aesthetic dentistry, for establishing a patient-physician relationship which could lead to optimum clinical outcomes, while respecting the wishes of the patient and promoting his/her best interests.
Chambers, David W
Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists
Taheri, Jamile B; Azimi, Somayyeh; Rafieian, Nasrin; Zanjani, Hosein Akhavan
Herbs have been used for centuries to prevent and control disease. Herbal extracts are effective because they interact with specific chemical receptors within the body and are in a pharmacodynamic sense, drugs themselves. By using herbal medicines, patients have averted the many side effects that generally come with traditional medicines, but this does not mean that side effects do not occur. Only knowledgeable practitioners can prescribe the right herb and its proper dosage. Herbal medicines had been considered in every culture, however, pharmaceutical companies overturned this type of thinking. Now, pharmaceuticals are called traditional and herbs are libeled as the 'alternative'. The biggest challenge and problem is lack of information about the effect of herbs in oral tissues, mechanism of effect, and side effects. Several popular conventional drugs on the market are derived from herbs. These include aspirin (from white willow bark), digitalis (from foxglove), and sudafed (modelled after a component in the plant ephedra). Herbal products can vary in their potency. Therefore, care must be taken in selecting herbs, even so, herbal medicines have dramatically fewer side effects and are safer to use than conventional medications. The herbs described in this article are Bloodroot, Caraway, Chamomile, Echinacea, Myrrh, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme, Aloe Vera, Propolis, and a summary of other herbs that are useful in dentistry. Herbs may be good alternatives to current treatments for oral health problems but it is clear that we need more research.
Walmsley, A. D.
Ultrasonic instruments have been used in dentistry since the 1950's. Initially they were used to cut teeth but very quickly they became established as an ultrasonic scaler which was used to remove deposits from the hard tissues of the tooth. This enabled the soft tissues around the tooth to return to health. The ultrasonic vibrations are generated in a thin metal probe and it is the working tip that is the active component of the instrument. Scanning laser vibrometry has shown that there is much variability in their movement which is related to the shape and cross sectional shape of the probe. The working instrument will also generate cavitation and microstreaming in the associated cooling water. This can be mapped out along the length of the instrument indicating which are the active areas. Ultrasonics has also found use for cleaning often inaccessible or different surfaces including root canal treatment and dental titanium implants. The use of ultrasonics to cut bone during different surgical techniques shows considerable promise. More research is indicated to determine how to maximize the efficiency of such instruments so that they are more clinically effective.
Haroldo José Mendes
Full Text Available The ozone is an allotropic form of oxygen whose unique properties offer a wide application to biological systems and clinical treatments. Although discovered in the year 1840, its clinical use is current, finding applicability in various specialties in the dentistry pratice. This article aims to review the clinical applications of ozone in various dental specialties. The compound provides a high purifying capacity, responsible for microbicides actions (bacteria, fungi and viruses, through oxidation mechanisms not yet elucidated, makes it an alternative against the diseases. In dentistry practice, the ozone can be employed in process of sterilization of instruments and purification system of irrigation to dental unit, serving as a good strategy in the control and prevention of cross-infection in the dental environment. However, the administration of ozone at low concentration by systemic way induces tissue proliferation and neovascularization, and thus inducing a healing, a characteristic that makes it attractive from the clinical, as it allows both the elimination of bacteria such as the repair of anatomical structures. It has limited use in treating endodontic infections and tooth decay. The ozone can be used in the treatment of various oral diseases, reducing the clinical course of disease, achieving superior results in comparison to conventional therapies. Despite the literature showing positive results with the use of ozone in cariology, surgery, periodontics and endodontics, there is need for further studies with standardized methodologies to reach a definitive conclusion about its applicability
Shen, Grace; Fois, Romano; Nissen, Lisa; Saini, Bandana
In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students' perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students' current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentions would be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce. The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students' career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. 'Interest in health and medicine' was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238). The majority of students were 'somewhat satisfied' with the choice of pharmacy (35.7%) as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as 'felt pharmacy is a good profession' (p=0.003) while negative associations included 'joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry' (p=0.001). Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was 'changing' while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as 'competitive' and 'research' respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital pharmacy. Complex factors including university experiences are involved in shaping
Minimally Invasive Dentistry is the application of "a systematic respect for the original tissue." This implies that the dental profession recognizes that an artifact is of less biological value than the original healthy tissue. Minimally invasive dentistry is a concept that can embrace all aspects of the profession. The common delineator is tissue preservation, preferably by preventing disease from occurring and intercepting its progress, but also removing and replacing with as little tissue loss as possible. It does not suggest that we make small fillings to restore incipient lesions or surgically remove impacted third molars without symptoms as routine procedures. The introduction of predictable adhesive technologies has led to a giant leap in interest in minimally invasive dentistry. The concept bridges the traditional gap between prevention and surgical procedures, which is just what dentistry needs today. The evidence-base for survival of restorations clearly indicates that restoring teeth is a temporary palliative measure that is doomed to fail if the disease that caused the condition is not addressed properly. Today, the means, motives and opportunities for minimally invasive dentistry are at hand, but incentives are definitely lacking. Patients and third parties seem to be convinced that the only things that count are replacements. Namely, they are prepared to pay for a filling but not for a procedure that can help avoid having one.
Herborg, Hanne; Sørensen, Ellen Westh; Frøkjaer, Bente
OBJECTIVE: To review the current status of Danish community pharmacy in both practice and research and discuss future trends. FINDINGS: Denmark has a social welfare system that provides health care, social services, and pensions to its population. Medical care and surgery are free. Prescription......-the-counter products, advice about medicine use, dose dispensing, generic substitutions, and administration of individual reimbursement registers. Except for very simple processes, compounding is centralized at 3 pharmacies. Many pharmacies offer measurement of blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol, and 60...
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Pemberton, M N
Patient safety has always been important and is a source of public concern. Recent high profile scandals and subsequent reports, such as the Francis report into the failings at Mid Staffordshire, have raised those concerns even higher. Mortality and significant morbidity associated with the practice of medicine has led to many strategies to help improve patient safety, however, with its lack of associated mortality and lower associated morbidity, dentistry has been slower at systematically considering how patient safety can be improved. Recently, several organisations, researchers and clinicians have discussed the need for a patient safety culture in dentistry. Strategies are available to help improve patient safety in healthcare and deserve further consideration in dentistry.
Anusavice, K J
Due in part to a lack of appropriate training and the incentive of adequate compensation, preventive dentistry in the United States has focused on prophylaxis and fluoride application. Dentistry must shift its attention to developing standardized protocols for "preservative dentistry"--diagnosing caries, assessing and monitoring caries risk, arresting active caries and remineralizing non-cavitated lesions. This article addresses shortcomings in preventive dentistry and proposes a plan for treatment standardization that can ensure optimum treatment and, ideally, lead to adequate compensation.
Full Text Available : In the past, any surgical procedures of infants and young children was completed under general anesthesia, after obtaining a medical clearance for hospital admission thus consuming lot of time which potentially introduce the child to a greater risk during general anesthesia. Traditionally methods of using scalpels or electro surgery may produce significant post-operative discomfort, requiring sutures –prolonged wound healing. Thus lasers provide simple, significant and safe in office alternative for children
Saravana, Kumar R; Vijayalakshmi, R
Nanotechnology is manipulating matter at nanometer level and the application of the same to medicine is called nanomedicine. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. In the long-term, medical nanorobots will allow instant pathogen diagnosis and extermination, individual cell surgery in vivo, and improvement of natural physiological function. Current research is focusing on fabrication of nanostructures, nanoactuators, and nanomotors, along with means to assemble them into larger systems, economically and in great numbers.
Full Text Available Nanotechnology is manipulating matter at nanometer level and the application of the same to medicine is called nanomedicine. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. In the long-term, medical nanorobots will allow instant pathogen diagnosis and extermination, individual cell surgery in vivo, and improvement of natural physiological function. Current research is focusing on fabrication of nanostructures, nanoactuators, and nanomotors, along with means to assemble them into larger systems, economically and in great numbers.
Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.
Moshman, Jack; And Others
A survey of U.S. dental schools to determine the status of geriatric dentistry in the curriculum is discussed. Evidence of growing commitment is shown by deans who plan to give geriatric dentistry increasing priority in the future and by the fact that all schools now teach geriatric dentistry in some way. (MLW)
Su, Y C
It is a digital age today. Exposed to all kinds of digital products in many fields. Certainly, implant dentistry is not exception. Digitalization could improve the outcomes and could decrease the complications of implant dentistry. This paper introduces the concepts, definitions, advantages, disadvantages, limitations and errors of digital implant dentistry.
Seltzer, S M
The presentation of proposed dental treatment has been hampered by the absence of visual communication technologies. New high tech dentistry-related tools permit efficient production of case presentations for cosmetic dentistry and restorative dentistry. This review describes how to create computer-based case presentations using Microsoft PowerPoint (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) and visual treatment proposals using Microsoft Word for Windows.
J Russell Teagarden
[...] pharmacy school graduates could have many more options with some adaptations made to their education and training, but, regrettably, these other options are not taken into account by those who...
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.
A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in New York State is presented. In addition to identifying licensing requirements/procedures for dentists and dental hygienists, general provisions of Title VIII of the Education Law are covered, along with state management, professional misconduct,…
Journal of Dental Education, 1990
The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curriculum design explain the scope of forensic dentistry and interrelationships with other fields, give an overview of the curriculum, and outline suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty and facility…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.
The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…
Full Text Available Dentistry has been a field dominated by a constant improvement of synthetic biomaterials. Tissue engineering of tooth is coming to change the panel of the dental materials such as restorative materials and implants. Certainly, it is the largest transition in history of dental materials science in terms of accepting this new and exciting technology. The objective of this article is to present various implications of tissue engineering in different fields of dentistry. To achieve this goal, a review of the literature was carried out by using Medline database to search topics including "dental stem cells", "teeth tissue engineering", "regenerative dentistry", "oral surgery", "periodontal regeneration" and "regenerative endodontics". These searches were limited to articles published after the year 2000. On the basis of our literature review, we have found that although there are significant challenges in oral tissues engineering, engineered tissues will find many applications in dentistry within the next few years.
Pick, L; Bauer, J
Epileptic seizures are the third most common medical incident in dental surgeries. Dentists should ask patients about a history of epilepsy and should know how to manage an epileptic seizure. Falls caused by seizures increase the risk of dental injuries, and fixed dental replacements (e.g., tooth implants) are recommended to reduce the risk of aspiration. Phenytoin induces gingival hyperplasia in 50% to 60% of patients, treatment options include a switch to alternative anticonvulsant drugs and improved dental hygiene. In addition to conventional dental care, the use of electric toothbrushes and the application of chlorhexidine and regular professional dental cleaning may prevent the development of gingival hyperplasia. Local anaesthetic agents without added adrenalin should be chosen (e.g., Mepivacain and Articain). There are case reports of reflex epileptic seizures caused by (prolonged) brushing of teeth.
Dominelli, Angela; Weck Marciniak, Macary; Jarvis, Janice
Differences in service preferences between patrons of supermarket and chain pharmacies were determined. Subjects fell into two groups: patrons of a supermarket chain's pharmacies and patrons of the same supermarket chain who patronized other community chain pharmacies for prescription drug purchases. Subjects were asked to prioritize services in terms of convenience and impact on pharmacy selection. Differences in service preferences emerged. Community pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate easy navigation through a pharmacy and 24 X 7 hours of operation as key services. Supermarket pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate one-stop shopping and adequate hours of operation as priorities. Both groups rated basic services such as maintenance of prescription and insurance information as priorities. Pharmacies should stress the delivery of basic services when trying to attract customers.
Brakebill, J I; Schoeneman, P F; Buchanan, B
The steps involved in justifying and implementing an operating room (OR) pharmacy satellite are described. A hospital administrator's viewpoint on the project is included. Objectives of the satellite were to reduce inventory costs, improve control of distribution, reduce loss of revenue and improve patient charging, improve IV compounding and labeling, and significantly improve narcotic control and accountability. The satellite provides comprehensive services 12 hours a day, five days a week. Effective after-hours procedures have been developed to provide efficient drug distribution when the pharmacy is closed. Achieved benefits of the satellite include decreased drug inventory, improved patient charging, accurate labeling, improved IV compounding, and improved pharmacy/surgery relations. The OR pharmacy satellite is a successful cost-effective operation.
Urbonas, Gvidas; Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Savickas, Arūnas
Objective. The main objective of this study was to analyze pharmacy specialists’ attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at Lithuanian community pharmacies. Material and methods. Between April and June 2009, a total of 471 Lithuanian community pharmacy specialists completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate their attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at community pharmacies. The main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted by principal ...
... Consumer Updates RSS Feed The Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding Get Consumer Updates by E-mail Consumer ... page: A Troubling Trend What You Can Do Pharmacy compounding is a practice in which a licensed ...
Kay, B G; Boyar, R L; Raspante, P S
Cooperation between the pharmacy director and the hospital's architects in planning a modern hospital pharmacy is described. The pharmacy director at an 870-bed voluntary nonprofit institution and the hospital's architects planned the design for a new 3250-square foot pharmacy department. They developed a preliminary floor plan based on the following functions that the pharmacy would perform: centralized unit dose drug distribution; compounding; bulk and unit dose prepackaging; preparation of sterile products; controlled substance storage; outpatient and employee prescription dispensing; reserve stock storage; purchasing, receiving, and inventory control; drug information services; and administrative services. A final floor plan was designed that incorporated these functions with structural and utility requirements, such as placement of the computer system and dispensing and lighting fixtures. By integrating modern material management concepts with contemporary hospital pharmacy practice, the pharmacy director and the hospital's architects were able to plan and construct a pharmacy that receives, processes, and dispenses medication efficiently.
Deb, Sanjukta; Chana, Simran
Dental caries remains a challenge in the improvement of oral health. It is the most common and widespread biofilm-dependent oral disease, resulting in the destruction of tooth structure by the acidic attack from cariogenic bacteria. The tooth is a heavily mineralised tissue, and both enamel and dentine can undergo demineralisation due to trauma or dietary conditions. The adult population worldwide affected by dental caries is enormous and despite significant advances in caries prevention and tooth restoration, treatments continue to pose a substantial burden to healthcare. Biomaterials play a vital role in the restoration of the diseased or damaged tooth structure and, despite providing reasonable outcomes, there are some concerns with clinical performance. Amalgam, the silver grey biomaterial that has been widely used as a restorative material in dentistry, is currently in throes of being phased out, especially with the Minimata convention and treaty being signed by a number of countries (January 2013; http://mercuryconvention.org/Convention/) that aims to control the anthropogenic release of mercury in the environment, which naturally impacts the use of amalgam, where mercury is a component. Thus, the development of alternative restoratives and restoration methods that are inexpensive, can be used under different climatic conditions, withstand storage and allow easy handling, the main prerequisites of dental biomaterials, is important. The potential for using biologically engineered tissue and consequent research to replace damaged tissues has also seen a quantum leap in the last decade. Ongoing research in regenerative treatments in dentistry includes alveolar ridge augmentation, bone tissue engineering and periodontal ligament replacement, and a future aim is bioengineering of the whole tooth. Research towards developing bioengineered teeth is well underway and identification of adult stem cell sources to make this a viable treatment is advancing; however, this
Urbonas, Gvidas; Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Savickas, Arūnas
The main objective of this study was to analyze pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at Lithuanian community pharmacies. Between April and June 2009, a total of 471 Lithuanian community pharmacy specialists completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate their attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at community pharmacies. The main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted by principal component analysis. Two main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted: pharmacotherapeutic aspects (provision of information about drug therapy, possible side effects, health promotion, the amount of time spent with a patient, and the ascertainment that a patient understood the provided information) and socioeconomic aspects (considering patient's needs and financial capabilities, making a patient confident with the services provided). Pharmacy specialists evaluated the quality of both dimensions positively, but the quality of the first dimension was rated significantly worse than that of the second dimension. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at independent pharmacies were more positive toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects as compared to the specialists working at chain or state pharmacies. Pharmacotherapeutic aspects were rated better by pharmacy specialists, aged ≥ 55 years, than those younger than 45 years. Moreover, the attitudes of 45-54-year-old pharmacy specialists toward the socioeconomic aspects were more positive as compared with those of 35-44-year olds. Pharmacists rated the socioeconomic aspects of pharmaceutical service quality worse as compared with pharmacy technicians. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with 6-9 specialists were more negative toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects than those of the pharmacies with 1-2 specialists. Pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with ≥ 10 specialists reported lower scores of socioeconomic
Full Text Available Electrosurgery has been used in dentistry for more than half a century. There is abundant literature on electrosurgery dating back more than a century. During the past three decades, a substantial increase in minimally invasive surgery and microvascular surgery prompted greater use of electrosurgery. Although this surge in utilization has resulted in new applications, equipment features, problems and solutions, the use of electrosurgery in the field of restorative dentistry has remained relatively unchanged. The presence of conflicting and sometimes confusing information on electrosurgical wound healing in the dental literature is the most likely reason. This article briefly explains the literature review of electrosurgery and clinical application of electrosurgery in aesthetic and restorative dentistry.
Sintes, J L
This article presents a nutrition program in general dentistry following an oral health nutrition care process, and provides a guideline for identifying patients at risk of developing marginal malnutrition as a result of oral health procedures. The program highlights the importance of assessing nutritional status by segregating high-risk patients from low-risk patients. A case report demonstrates the therapeutic dietary management of a patient whose jaws were immobilized as a result of trauma.
Gammie, Shivaun M; Rodgers, Ruth M; Loo, Ruey Leng; Corlett, Sarah A; Krska, Janet
Public awareness of pharmacy services designed to support the use of medicines is low, yet little is known about how the public view promotion of these services, or their preferences for the attributes of pharmacies from which they would like to receive them. To compare the public's preferred attributes of pharmacies and methods for promoting medicine-related services with community pharmacists' perceptions of their customers' views. Parallel surveys were conducted in South East England, using a street survey for the general public and a postal survey for community pharmacists. Response rates were as follows: public 47.2% (1,000/2,012) and pharmacists 40.8% (341/836). Pharmacists' perceptions of customer preferences for using the same pharmacy, independent ownership, and personal knowledge of the pharmacist were higher than actual public preferences. More pharmacists than public respondents also believed that approachability and previous good service would be important. The public's desires for long opening hours and for a pharmacy with a good relationship with their doctor's surgery were higher than pharmacists believed. The majority of the public prefer not to interrupt a pharmacist who is busy in the dispensary, which was not perceived by pharmacists as a factor. Pharmacists' perceptions aligned more with the preferences of regular medicine users and frequent pharmacy users. Both groups viewed direct recommendation as the most effective approach for promoting pharmacy services, particularly by doctors and pharmacy staff. Pharmacists' expectations of the effectiveness of posters and mass media methods were much higher than those of the public. Pharmacists and pharmacy owners must ensure good relationships with local medical practices to enable them to maximize opportunities for using the promotional methods judged most effective in encouraging the use of medicine-related services. Staff must be approachable and enable access to pharmacists, ensuring that
Full Text Available Objectives : A Public health course has an important role in the undergraduate education of pharmacy and dentistry in terms of emphasizing preventive care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of pharmacy and dentistry students on a public health course and preventive health care. Methods: 173 students enrolled at Ege University, Faculties of Pharmacy and Dentistry completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats analysis and replied to 18 Likert type question to determine their perceptions on a public health course and preventive health care. The comments of the students were reviewed and categorized into key themes. Results: SWOT analysis and the results of quantitative Likert type questions supported each other. According to the quantitative results, there was no significant difference between the scores of students from both schools in terms of their statements about the public health course and preventive care. Both groups of students mentioned the contribution of the public health course to their professions in the future. They also appreciated the importance of preventive care in the health services.
Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Dogan, Fethi
Objectives: A Public health course has an important role in the undergraduate education of pharmacy and dentistry in terms of emphasizing preventive care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of pharmacy and dentistry students on a public health course and preventive health care. Methods: 173 students enrolled at Ege University, Faculties of Pharmacy and Dentistry completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and replied to 18 Likert type question to determine their perceptions on a public health course and preventive health care. The comments of the students were reviewed and categorized into key themes. Results: SWOT analysis and the results of quantitative Likert type questions supported each other. According to the quantitative results, there was no significant difference between the scores of students from both schools in terms of their statements about the public health course and preventive care. Both groups of students mentioned the contribution of the public health course to their professions in the future. They also appreciated the importance of preventive care in the health services. PMID:22347604
There are many costs associated with parenteral nutrition: physician time, nursing time, biochemical monitoring, patient education, ancillary equipment and the nutrition solutions themselves. The solutions are easily identified as responsible for a large proportion of these costs. There are several strategies that can be used to help control pharmacy costs, such as selection of ingredients, purchasing contracts, standardized formulae and prescribing procedures, preprinted doctor's order forms, automated manufacturing and labelling processes, patient monitoring, all-in-one preparation, and contracted manufacturing services. Individual pharmacies need to know what options are available in order to select those that, in the context of their own institutions, can lead to cost savings and improved efficiency.
Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Farris, Karen B; Kittisopee, Tanattha
The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was customer perceptions about pharmacist that influenced
This paper reviews Minimally Invasive Dentistry (MID) from a day-to-day dentistry perspective, focusing mostly on cariology and restorative dentistry, even though it embraces many aspects of dentistry. The concept of MID supports a systematic respect for the original tissue, including diagnosis, risk assessment, preventive treatment, and minimal tissue removal upon restoration. The motivation for MID emerges from the fact that fillings are not permanent and that the main reasons for failure are secondary caries and filling fracture. To address these flaws, there is a need for economical re-routing so that practices can survive on maintaining dental health and not only by operative procedures.
Trushkowsky, Richard D; Alsadah, Zainab; Brea, Luis M; Oquendo, Anabella
Previously dentists focused on repair and maintenance of function. However, the emphasis of many patients and dentists is now on esthetics. Often there is a need for the disciplines of orthodontics, periodontics, restorative dentistry, and maxillofacial surgery to work together in order to achieve optimum results. Currently the sequencing planning process begins with esthetics and then function, structure, and ultimately biology.
Cannon, H Eric
Although standard vaccines have traditionally been granted full coverage in managed care, the recent introduction of several novel vaccine products has necessitated the revision of pharmacy management strategies throughout the nation. To review pharmacy management strategies for a number of emerging vaccines, with unique plan perspectives from SelectHealth, an Intermountain Healthcare company serving approximately 500,000 members in Utah. Because several recently introduced vaccines target previously unaddressed diseases and carry higher costs than traditional vaccines, several plans have adapted a novel approach to manage vaccine coverage on an individual product basis. At SelectHealth, recently introduced vaccines for rotavirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), herpes zoster, and human papillomavirus (HPV) have required special attention in terms of pharmacy management. After carefully weighing acquisition and administration costs, anticipated uptake and use, direct and indirect health care costs averted, and quality of life issues, plan leadership decided to cover many of the new vaccines (i.e., rotavirus, RSV, and herpes zoster) under a nonstandard vaccination benefit. However, because substantial cost savings and high use of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was anticipated within SelectHealth, the plan decided to fully cover the product. Although they complicate traditional pharmacy management, novel vaccines provide clinical benefit that managed care organizations cannot ignore. One universal strategy will not suffice in managing all the different vaccines entering the market, and a tailored approach should be employed based on the individual characteristics and use of each product.
Full Text Available Shivaun M Gammie, Ruth M Rodgers, Ruey Leng Loo, Sarah A Corlett, Janet Krska Medway School of Pharmacy, The Universities of Greenwich and Kent, Chatham Maritime, Kent, UK Background: Public awareness of pharmacy services designed to support the use of medicines is low, yet little is known about how the public view promotion of these services, or their preferences for the attributes of pharmacies from which they would like to receive them.Objective: To compare the public’s preferred attributes of pharmacies and methods for promoting medicine-related services with community pharmacists’ perceptions of their customers’ views.Methods: Parallel surveys were conducted in South East England, using a street survey for the general public and a postal survey for community pharmacists.Results: Response rates were as follows: public 47.2% (1,000/2,012 and pharmacists 40.8% (341/836. Pharmacists’ perceptions of customer preferences for using the same pharmacy, independent ownership, and personal knowledge of the pharmacist were higher than actual public preferences. More pharmacists than public respondents also believed that approachability and previous good service would be important. The public’s desires for long opening hours and for a pharmacy with a good relationship with their doctor’s surgery were higher than pharmacists believed. The majority of the public prefer not to interrupt a pharmacist who is busy in the dispensary, which was not perceived by pharmacists as a factor. Pharmacists’ perceptions aligned more with the preferences of regular medicine users and frequent pharmacy users. Both groups viewed direct recommendation as the most effective approach for promoting pharmacy services, particularly by doctors and pharmacy staff. Pharmacists’ expectations of the effectiveness of posters and mass media methods were much higher than those of the public.Conclusion: Pharmacists and pharmacy owners must ensure good relationships with
Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata
The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women. The general principles that apply in this situation are discussed, followed by the relevant physiologic changes and their treatment implications, the risks of various medications to the mother and fetus, the management of concomitant medical problems in the pregnant patient, appropriate timing of oral and maxillofacial surgery during pregnancy, and management of emergencies during pregnancy. Information about the compatibility, complications, and excretion of the common drugs during pregnancy is provided. Guidelines for the management of a pregnant patient in the dental office are summarized. How to cite this article: Kurien S, Kattimani V S, Sriram R, Sriram S K, Prabhakar Rao V K, Bhupathi A, Bodduru R, Patil N N. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):88-97.
Hagan, Angela M; Campbell, Hope E; Gaither, Caroline A
Objective. To describe the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among faculty members (faculty) in schools and colleges of pharmacy (COP) compared to US Census Bureau data; to evaluate the representation of racial and ethnic minorities in historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), newer doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs, and PharmD programs with a religious affiliation compared with all pharmacy programs; and to compare racial and ethnic pharmacy faculty data to trends in medical and dental schools, and all higher education. Methods. Information was obtained from national databases and published reports; data was comparatively evaluated. Results. Compared to the general population, Asians are overrepresented in pharmacy, while all other minority groups are underrepresented. The HBCUs, newer schools, and religious-affiliated institutions have greater numbers of African American/Black faculty. Newer schools also have better representation of Hispanic faculty. Pharmacy has been more successful than medicine and dentistry in recruiting African American/Black faculty, but lag behind dental schools in their representation of Hispanic faculty. Conclusion. To meet the health care needs of the population, we recommend the implementation of short-term and long-term diversity and inclusion strategies that address minority representation in COP.
Andreasen, Jens Ove; Lauridsen, Eva; Daugaard-Jensen, Jette
Traumatic dental injuries are very frequent during childhood and adolescence. In fact, 2 out of 3 children have suffered a traumatic dental injury before adulthood. This fact links dental traumatology to pediatric dentistry. Unfortunately, this is not reflected by active participation by pediatric dentists in acute treatment, follow-up, and research. To examine the status of pediatric dentistry in relation to dental trauma, a publication analysis was undertaken in 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2007 about trauma articles published in 4 pediatric journals: journal of Dentistry for Children, Pediatric Dentistry, The journal of Pedodontics, and the International journal of Pediatric Dentistry. This study shows an average publication rate of trauma articles of approximately 3 percent of all articles published and with no improvement in later decennia. If only clinical studies are considered (leaving out case reports), the publication rate is less than 1 percent--completely out of proportion to the size of the problem dental trauma impose in children.
Andreasen, Jens Ove; Lauridsen, Eva; Daugaard-Jensen, Jette
Traumatic dental injuries are very frequent during childhood and adolescence. In fact, 2 out of 3 children have suffered a traumatic dental injury before adulthood. This fact links dental traumatology to pediatric dentistry. Unfortunately, this is not reflected by active participation by pediatric...... dentists in acute treatment, follow-up, and research. To examine the status of pediatric dentistry in relation to dental trauma, a publication analysis was undertaken in 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2007 about trauma articles published in 4 pediatric journals: journal of Dentistry for Children, Pediatric...... Dentistry, The journal of Pedodontics, and the International journal of Pediatric Dentistry. This study shows an average publication rate of trauma articles of approximately 3 percent of all articles published and with no improvement in later decennia. If only clinical studies are considered (leaving out...
Andreasen, Jens Ove; Lauridsen, Eva; Daugaard-Jensen, Jette
Traumatic dental injuries are very frequent during childhood and adolescence. In fact, 2 out of 3 children have suffered a traumatic dental injury before adulthood. This fact links dental traumatology to pediatric dentistry. Unfortunately, this is not reflected by active participation by pediatric...... dentists in acute treatment, follow-up, and research. To examine the status of pediatric dentistry in relation to dental trauma, a publication analysis was undertaken in 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2007 about trauma articles published in 4 pediatric journals: journal of Dentistry for Children, Pediatric...... Dentistry, The journal of Pedodontics, and the International journal of Pediatric Dentistry. This study shows an average publication rate of trauma articles of approximately 3 percent of all articles published and with no improvement in later decennia. If only clinical studies are considered (leaving out...
Wohrle, P S; Levin, R P
The application of the KAL-Technique to the field of implant dentistry allows both patients and dental practices to benefit. It is an exciting advance that decreases frustration and stress in providing implant procedures and lowers overall costs. Professionals using the KAL-Technique report significant predictability in achieving passive framework fit. They are also lowering overall cost of implant cases, which increases the number of patients who can accept implant treatment. It has been well established that the more individuals in a practice that receive implants, the more referrals a practice will gain. This is because implant patients find tremendous advances in the quality of life, and do not hesitate to tell others who can take advantage of this opportunity. Implant dentistry is one of the fastest growing fields in dentistry today. While some other areas of dentistry begin to decline in volume and need, implant dentistry provides the opportunity to keep practices strong and to insure long-term success.
Mihnea Ioan Nicolescu
Full Text Available This review aims to trace the contour lines of regenerative dentistry, to offer an introductory overview on this emerging field to both dental students and practitioners. The crystallized depiction of the concept is a translational approach, connecting dental academics to scientific research and clinical utility. Therefore, this review begins by presenting the general features of regenerative medicine, and then gradually introduces the specific aspects of major dental subdomains, highlighting the progress achieved during the last years by scientific research and, in some cases, which has already been translated into clinical results. The distinct characteristics of stem cells and their microenvironment, together with their diversity in the oral cavity, are put into the context of research and clinical use. Examples of regenerative studies regarding endodontic and periodontal compartments, as well as hard (alveolar bone and soft (salivary glands related tissues, are presented to make the reader further acquainted with the topic. Instead of providing a conclusion, we will emphasize the importance for all dental community members, from young students to experienced dentists, of an early awareness rising regarding biomedical research progress in general and regenerative dentistry in particular.
Omar Saad Saleh Abrika
Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the perceptions among pharmacy practitioners in Libya on the importance of social pharmacy education. A qualitative methodology was employed to conduct this study. Using a purposive sampling technique, a total of ten Libyan registered pharmacists were interviewed. Based on the content analysis of the interviews, two major themes emerged, namely the understanding of social pharmacy education and the need for incorporating social pharmacy courses into the pharmacy education curriculum. The majority of the respondents knew about the concept. Of those that had no prior knowledge of this term, half of them expressed interest in knowing more about it. There was a positive perception of introducing social pharmacy into the undergraduate curricula among the respondents, and they believed that it is necessary for future pharmacists to know about social pharmacy components. The findings from the pharmacy practitioners??evaluation suggest the need to incorporate social pharmacy courses into the curricula of all pharmacy schools in Libya.
White, S J; Generali, J A
Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.
Gudeman, Jennifer; Jozwiakowski, Michael; Chollet, John; Randell, Michael
Pharmacy compounding involves the preparation of customized medications that are not commercially available for individual patients with specialized medical needs. Traditional pharmacy compounding is appropriate when done on a small scale by pharmacists who prepare the medication based on an individual prescription. However, the regulatory oversight of pharmacy compounding is significantly less rigorous than that required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs; as such, compoun...
Müller, Anna Sonja; Janjić, Klara; Lilaj, Bledar; Edelmayer, Michael; Agis, Hermann
The understanding of the cell biological processes underlying development and regeneration of oral tissues leads to novel regenerative approaches. Over the past years, knowledge on key roles of the hypoxia-based response has become more profound. Based on these findings, novel regenerative approaches for dentistry are emerging, which target cellular oxygen sensors. These approaches include hypoxia pre-conditioning and pharmacologically simulated hypoxia. The increase in studies on hypoxia and hypoxia-based strategies in regenerative dentistry highlights the growing attention to hypoxia's role in regeneration and its underlying biology, as well as its application in a therapeutic setting. In this narrative review, we present the current knowledge on the role of hypoxia in oral tissues and review the proposed hypoxia-based approaches in different fields of dentistry, including endodontics, orthodontics, periodontics, and oral surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko
The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism.
Gupta, Roopali; Ingle, Navin Anand; Kaur, Navpreet; Yadav, Pramod; Ingle, Ekta; Charania, Zohara
Ayurvedic medicine was considered to be world's oldest medical system, which was originated in India dating back over thousands of years. There was a long history regarding plants for the improvement of dental health and oral hygiene. To study various plants and their products as effective medicines in the treatment of various ailments since ancient times. Data were performed in PubMed Central and Cochrane library using MeSH Terms - Dentistry, Herbal Medicine, Periodontitis. A total of 142 relevant articles were found in 2013 and 2014 followed by case reports. Various studies have mentioned the uses of herbs, which are found to be statistically significant in treatment and management of oral diseases. Current researches showed that herbal extracts are effective because of the interaction with specific chemical receptors within the body. Nowadays, there has been a sudden increase in the use of herbal extracts or plant products as an alternative approach to modern day medicines.
Full Text Available Ayurveda is considered as the "science of life," because the ancient Indian system of health care focused views of man and his illness. India has an age-old heritage of traditional herbal medicine. Conventional drugs usually provide effective antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections, but there is an increasing problem of antibiotic resistance and a continuing need for new solutions. Hence, now herbal drugs are being preferred to synthetic antibiotics. ′Triphala′ is a well-known powdered preparation in the Indian system of medicine (ISM. It consists of equal parts of the Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia belerica. Currently, Triphala is being extensively researched for its various therapeutic effects including its anti-caries, antioxidant, anti-collagenase, and anti-microbial activities. The present review will focus on the comprehensive appraisal of Triphala and its several applications in dentistry.
Anusavice, K J
Standardization of clinical decisions in restorative dentistry should be based on the tenets of the Hippocratic Oath. Although there is wide variability in preventive and operative treatment decisions, some of these decisions may lead along parallel courses to similar, clinically ethical outcomes. However, what parameters must be considered in judging the relative magnitude of positive and negative outcomes? This paper proposes several decision-making strategies for selecting optimum treatment plans for preventive and restorative situations. The caries-risk level of patients must first be identified in a systematic way and then it must be coupled with treatment options that are consistent with the potential future caries increment. A decision-tree approach and/or the treatment-index concept can then be applied to specific clinical conditions and preventive-restorative options to derive an "expected value" for each possible outcome.
Doughty, J; Lala, R; Marshman, Z
The popularity of cosmetic surgery has seen a rapid increase recently, with the trend mirrored in dentistry. The Department of Health expressed concerns about the potential for biological and psychosocial harm of these cosmetic procedures. Furthermore, the dental public health implications (DPH) of the growing uptake of cosmetic dental procedures have not been explored. Conduct a scoping review to explore the DPH implications of cosmetic dentistry and identify gaps for future research. A fivestage scoping review was conducted of studies identified using the search terms cosmetic AND dentistry. Data from the studies meeting the inclusion criteria were extracted, collated and summarised into themes. Fifty-seven papers met the inclusion criteria (11 cross-sectional studies, 10 literature reviews and 36 opinion pieces). The DPH implications were summarised into five emergent themes: dento-legal and ethical, marketing, psychosocial, biological and workforce. These themes revealed patients' increased expectations, expanding commercialisation of the profession, psychological risks to vulnerable patients, the iatrogenic consequences of invasive cosmetic dental procedures and workforce implications of the current trends. The scoping review found that existing literature on cosmetic dentistry is predominately anecdotal - professional opinions and discussions. Despite this, our findings demonstrated workforce training and governance implications due to increased demand for cosmetic dentistry. Further empirical research is needed to understand the DPH implications of the increasing demand and uptake of cosmetic dental procedures to guide evidence-based policy to safeguard patients and improve the quality of dental services.
Thomas, J A; Martin, V; Frank, S
Anesthesia services can account for a significant portion of a healthcare organization's costs. Deaconess Hospital of Evansville, Indiana, used a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to implement process improvements that yielded significant cost savings while improving patient care. Shifting responsibility for drug distribution from the operating room (OR) nurses to a pharmacist, the hospital established a satellite pharmacy service for the OR. As a result, the hospital was able to improve control of drug distribution and record-keeping, reduce turnaround time for medication preparation, lower its medication charge error rate, and increase the percentage of surgeries that start on time. The success of the OR satellite pharmacy led the hospital to expand satellite pharmacy services to labor and delivery, the cardiac cath laboratory, and the intensive care units.
Chieruzzi, Manila; Pagano, Stefano; Moretti, Silvia; Pinna, Roberto; Milia, Egle; Torre, Luigi; Eramo, Stefano
The tissue engineering (TE) of dental oral tissue is facing significant changes in clinical treatments in dentistry. TE is based on a stem cell, signaling molecule, and scaffold triad that must be known and calibrated with attention to specific sectors in dentistry. This review article shows a summary of micro- and nanomorphological characteristics of dental tissues, of stem cells available in the oral region, of signaling molecules usable in TE, and of scaffolds available to guide partial or total reconstruction of hard, soft, periodontal, and bone tissues. Some scaffoldless techniques used in TE are also presented. Then actual and future roles of nanotechnologies about TE in dentistry are presented.
Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Rehman, Rabia; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur
Applications of proteomics tools revolutionized various biomedical disciplines such as genetics, molecular biology, medicine, and dentistry. The aim of this review is to highlight the major milestones in proteomics in dentistry during the last fifteen years. Human oral cavity contains hard and soft tissues and various biofluids including saliva and crevicular fluid. Proteomics has brought revolution in dentistry by helping in the early diagnosis of various diseases identified by the detection of numerous biomarkers present in the oral fluids. This paper covers the role of proteomics tools for the analysis of oral tissues. In addition, dental materials proteomics and their future directions are discussed.
Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Rehman, Rabia; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur
Applications of proteomics tools revolutionized various biomedical disciplines such as genetics, molecular biology, medicine, and dentistry. The aim of this review is to highlight the major milestones in proteomics in dentistry during the last fifteen years. Human oral cavity contains hard and soft tissues and various biofluids including saliva and crevicular fluid. Proteomics has brought revolution in dentistry by helping in the early diagnosis of various diseases identified by the detection of numerous biomarkers present in the oral fluids. This paper covers the role of proteomics tools for the analysis of oral tissues. In addition, dental materials proteomics and their future directions are discussed. PMID:27187379
Michael, O S
The book appraised in this edition of Chronicles of Medical History, History of Dentistry in Nigeria, is a product of many years of painstaking research. The Author, Professor Eyitope Ogunbodede, has put together an excellent book that is a great work of art. Dentistry is one of the first specialties in medicine with a very long history; evidence of periodontal disease has been traced back to at least 100, 000 years in human remains. However, the book by Professor Ogunbodede is the first comprehensive record of the History of dentistry in Nigeria. It is a must-read for every medical professional practicing in Nigeria and a worthy addition to every library.
The American Society of Health- System Pharmacists (ASHP) believes that specially trained pharmacy technicians can assume important supportive roles in pharmacy informatics. These roles include automation and technology systems management, management of projects, training and education, policy and governance, customer service, charge integrity, and reporting. Such roles require pharmacy technicians to gain expertise in information technology (IT) systems, including knowledge of interfaces, computer management techniques, problem resolution, and database maintenance. This knowledge could be acquired through specialized training or experience in a health science or allied scientific field (e.g., health informatics). With appropriate safeguards and supervision, pharmacy technician informaticists (PTIs) will manage IT processes in health-system pharmacy services, ensuring a safe and efficient medication-use process.
Full Text Available One of the main objectives of contemporary dentistry is to preserve healthy tooth structure by applying techniques of noninvasive treatment. Air abrasion is a minimally invasive nonmechanical technique of tooth preparation that uses kinetic energy to remove carious tooth structure. A powerful narrow stream of moving aluminum-oxide particles hit the tooth surface and they abrade it without heat, vibration or noise. Variables that affect speed of cutting include air pressure, particle size, powder flow, tip’s size, angle and distance from the tooth. It has been proposed that air abrasion can be used to diagnose early occlusal-surface lesions and treat them with minimal tooth preparation using magnifier. Reported advantages of air abrasion include reduced noise, vibration and sensitivity. Air abrasion cavity preparations have more rounded internal contours than those prepared with straight burs. This may increase the longevity of placed restorations because it reduces the incidence of fractures and a consequence of decreased internal stresses. However, air abrasion cannot be used for all patients, i.e. in cases involving severe dust allergy, asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, recent extraction or other oral surgery, open wounds, advanced periodontal disease, recent placement of orthodontic appliances and oral abrasions, or subgingival caries removal. Many of these conditions increase the risk of air embolism in the oral soft tissues. Dust control is a challenge, and it necessitates the use of rubber dam, high-volume evacuation, protective masks and safety eyewear for both the patient and the therapist. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009
Richardson, James D.; And Others
A study investigated use of upper-level undergraduate pharmacy students, rather than graduate students, as mentors/teaching assistants in a pharmacy ethics course. Course participants felt the student mentors facilitated their successful completion of the course, and that carefully selected, trained, and supported upper-level undergraduate student…
Malamed, S F
One hundred and fifty years ago, Horace Wells opened the door to local anesthetics. Since then, many advances have been made in pain control. The development of dentistry's most important drugs is highlighted here.
Alleman, David S; Deliperi, Simone
With the recent founding of the International Academy for Adhesive Dentistry (IAAD), scientific research, commercially available products, and clinically proven protocols will be brought together with the dental profession.
An ultrasound (US) gives a visible image of the organs that are present inside the body. In medicine it serves for diagnosing and also its therapeutic benefits are well established for bone healing, osteointegration and soft tissue healing. In dentistry it is widely used for diagnostic purposes. When it was discovered it was introduced for therapeutic purposes, but due to lack of clinical studies its use as therapy was remittent in dentistry. The aim of the present paper was to establish the ...
Christensen, Gordon J
Minimally invasive dentistry, in cases in which it is appropriate, is a concept that preserves dentitions and supporting structures. In this column, I have discussed several examples of minimally invasive dental techniques. This type of dentistry is gratifying for dentists and appreciated by patients. If more dentists would practice it, the dental profession could enhance the public's perception of its honesty and increase its professionalism as well.
Fjortoft, Nancy; Van Winkle, Lon J; Hojat, Mohammadreza
To validate the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession Students version (JSE-HPS) in pharmacy students. The JSE-HPS (20 items), adapted from the original Jefferson Scale of Empathy for use among students in the healthcare professions, was completed by 187 first-year pharmacy students at Midwestern University Chicago College of Pharmacy. Two factors, "perspective-taking" and "compassionate care," emerged from factor analysis in this study, accounting for 31% and 8% of the variance, respectively. These factors are similar to the prominent ones reported in previous research involving physicians and medical students, supporting the construct validity of this instrument for pharmacy students. In the current study, mean JSE-HPS score was comparable to those reported for medical students, and consistent with previous findings with medical students and physicians. Women scored significantly higher than men. Findings support the construct validity and reliability of the JSE-HPS for measuring empathy in pharmacy students.
Rupp, Michael T
In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture.
Conclusion: Fourth year students believed that pharmacy education and practice affect the health care system. Their favorite career areas were clinical pharmacy, industrial pharmacy, and hospital pharmacy. Personal interest was the most important factor involved in this selection. Most of them were interested in pharmacy-related research activities.
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...
Hickey, Lisa M; Farris, Karen B; Peterson, N Andrew; Aquilino, Mary L
To determine whether the population demographics of the location of pharmacies were associated with tobacco sales in pharmacies, when controlling for pharmacy type. Retrospective analysis. Iowa. All retailers in Iowa that obtained tobacco licenses and all pharmacies registered with the Iowa Board of Pharmacy in 2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE AND INTERVENTIONS: Percentage of pharmacies selling tobacco (examined by pharmacy type using chi-square analysis); median income and distribution of race/ethnicity in the county for pharmacies that did or did not sell tobacco (t tests); predictors of whether a pharmacy sold tobacco (logistic regression using the independent variables county-level demographic variables and pharmacy characteristics). County gender composition, race/ethnicity make-up, and income levels were different for tobacco-selling and -nonselling pharmacies. Logistic regression showed that whether a pharmacy sold tobacco was strongly dependent on the type of pharmacy; compared with independent pharmacies (of which only 5% sold tobacco products), chain pharmacies were 34 times more likely to sell tobacco products, mass merchandiser outlets were 47 times more likely to stock these goods, and grocery stores were 378 times more likely to do so. Pharmacies selling tobacco were more likely to be located in counties with significantly higher numbers of multiracial groups. The best predictor of whether an Iowa pharmacy sells tobacco products is type of pharmacy. In multivariable analyses, population demographics of the county in which pharmacies were located were generally not predictive of whether a pharmacy sold tobacco.
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the pharmacy...
Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M
Pharmacy practice and social pharmacy are two important research areas within pharmaceutical and health sciences. As the disciplines have undergone and are still undergoing changes, it is useful to reflect on the current state of their research as the basis for discussing further development....... The two areas are currently beset by a lack of consensus and charged all too often with evaluating narrowly focused pharmacy services. With the added challenge of diminished funding for research and the pressures to publish results, these fields have to accommodate a much broader research framework than...
AlSarheed, Maha A.
Objectives: To identify the intranasal (IN) sedatives used to achieve conscious sedation during dental procedures amongst children. Methods: A literature review was conducted by identifying relevant studies through searches on Medline. Search included IN of midazolam, ketamine, sufentanil, dexmedetomidine, clonidine, haloperidol and loranzepam. Studies included were conducted amongst individuals below 18 years, published in English, and were not restricted by year. Exclusion criteria were articles that did not focus on pediatric dentistry. Results: Twenty studies were included. The most commonly used sedatives were midazolam, followed by ketamine and sufentanil. Onset of action for IN midazolam was 5-15 minutes (min), however, IN ketamine was faster (mean 5.74 min), while both IN sufentanil (mean 20 min) and IN dexmedetomidine (mean 25 min) were slow in comparison. Midazolam was effective for modifying behavior in mild to moderately anxious children, however, for more invasive or prolonged procedures, stronger sedatives, such as IN ketamine, IN sufentanil were recommended. In addition, ketamine fared better in overall success rate (89%) when compared with IN midazolam (69%). Intranasal dexmedetomidine was only used as pre-medication amongst children. While its’ onset of action is longer when compared with IN midazolam, it produced deeper sedation at the time of separation from the parent and at the time of anesthesia induction. Conclusion: Intranasal midazolam, ketamine and sufentanil are effective and safe for conscious sedation, while intranasal midazolam, dexmedetomidine and sufentanil have proven to be effective premedications. PMID:27570849
In this paper, the venezuelan dentists express their necessities of knowing certain aspects of psychology that could be useful in the relations with their patients. In the investigation a 16 item questionnaire was elaborated, taking 5 areas in consideration: a. Psychological management of the dental patient. b. Psychological consequences of the dental disease. c. Dental disease psychogenesis. d. Patient first contact behavior. e. Aspects of work organization. 100 dentists and 100 dental students of the last 2 years were inquired, in order to compare these two populations at the XXXth Congress of the venezuelan dentists. The two proportion coefficient test was used with: P less than or equal to 0.01. As a result 4 groups of items had a significant difference: a. Patient dissertation. b. Children with problematic behavior. c. Anxious patients; and d. Professional fees. Quantitatively 16 items were recognized as items in with Psychology could be useful to be applied in dentistry. The article concludes with 6 recommendations underlining the important role of the dental psychology in the dental school as well as in private practice.
AlSarheed, Maha A
To identify the intranasal (IN) sedatives used to achieve conscious sedation during dental procedures amongst children. A literature review was conducted by identifying relevant studies through searches on Medline. Search included IN of midazolam, ketamine, sufentanil, dexmedetomidine, clonidine, haloperidol, and loranzepam. Studies included were conducted amongst individuals below 18 years, published in English, and were not restricted by year. Exclusion criteria were articles that did not focus on pediatric dentistry. Twenty studies were included. The most commonly used sedatives were midazolam, followed by ketamine and sufentanil. Onset of action for IN midazolam was 5-15 minutes (min), however, IN ketamine was faster (mean 5.74 min), while both IN sufentanil (mean 20 min) and IN dexmedetomidine (mean 25 min) were slow in comparison. Midazolam was effective for modifying behavior in mild to moderately anxious children, however, for more invasive or prolonged procedures, stronger sedatives, such as IN ketamine, IN sufentanil were recommended. In addition, ketamine fared better in overall success rate (89%) when compared with IN midazolam (69%). Intranasal dexmedetomidine was only used as pre-medication amongst children. While its' onset of action is longer when compared with IN midazolam, it produced deeper sedation at the time of separation from the parent and at the time of anesthesia induction. Intranasal midazolam, ketamine, and sufentanil are effective and safe for conscious sedation, while intranasal midazolam, dexmedetomidine, and sufentanil have proven to be effective premedications.
Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta
In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development.
Schaub, R.M.; Baat, C. de
In recent years, a specialization in geriatric dentistry has been established and along with it an educational programme. A specialist in geriatric dentistry is a dentist general practitioner with special knowledge and skills for delivering oral care to frail elderly people. The educational programm
Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy.
Ryan, Melody; Yang, Li; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Zhai, Suo-Di; Shi, Lu-Wen; Lubawy, William C.
Pharmacy education in China focuses on pharmaceutical sciences, with the bachelor of science (BS) of pharmacy as the entry-level degree. Pharmacy practice curricula in these programs are centered on compounding, dispensing, pharmacy administration, and laboratory experiences, which are the traditional responsibilities for pharmacists. Additional graduate-level training is available at the master of science (MS) and the doctor of philosophy (PhD) levels, most of which concentrate on drug discovery and drug development research. Presently, the emphasis in practice is beginning to shift to clinical pharmacy. With this change, additional degree offerings are being developed to meet the growing demand for clinical pharmacists. There is also interest in developing more clinical skills in practicing pharmacists through additional non-degree training. The Ministry of Education is considering a proposal for an entry-level professional degree of master and/or doctor in clinical pharmacy similar to the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree in the United States. PMID:19325949
De Luca, D.; Gaeta, G. M.; Lepore, M.
Nowadays laser sources are largely adopted in dentistry due to their unique properties making them good candidates to substitute traditional scalpel and conventional diamond bur in the surgery of the soft and hard oral tissue, respectively. The large use of laser sources outside the research laboratories without the need of highly specialized personnel can ask for a widespread knowledge of safety issues related to this kind of equipment. The main hazard of accidental exposures regards eyes injury but increasing the power of the laser beam also skin can be involved. Safety legislations in Europe and U.S.A. take into account non ionizing radiations and laser radiation for the hazards for the health deriving from physical agents. Laser safety standards introduce 3 useful parameters for hazard characterization: "Accessible Emission Limit" (AEL), "Maximum Permissible Exposure" (MPE) and "Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance" (NOHD). We measured the MPE and NOHD for Er:YAG and other laser sources currently adopted in dentistry and we compared our results with data elaborated from standards in order to single out safe and comfortable working conditions. In fact an experimental assessment of the hazard parameters and the comparison with those of reference from safety standards turns out to be useful in order to estimate the residual hazard that can be still present after applying all the engineering protection and administrative rules.
Mashlah, A M
This cross-sectional questionnaire survey assessed the motives for choosing dentist as a profession among dentistry students at Damascus University, Syrian Arab Republic. A total of 408 undergraduate students (233 males and 175 females) aged 18-23 years were selected randomly from students in the second, third and fourth years of dentistry study. They completed a questionnaire that enquired about their reasons for studying dentistry as well as their sociodemographic characteristics. The number of admissions in females had increased over the 3 years. Most parents of the students were university-educated. The main motivation for choosing dentistry was as a means to achieve personal goals, including getting a good job abroad, having financial independence, and attaining a good reputation. There were significant differences between the sexes with regard to the reasons for choosing dentistry.
Westrick, Salisa C; Mount, Jeanine; Watcharadamrongkun, Suntaree
To examine the relationship between pharmacy college/school affiliation and community pharmacies' involvement in immunization and emergency preparedness activities. Telephone interviews were completed with 1,704 community pharmacies randomly sampled from 17 states to determine the pharmacies' involvement in immunization promotion, vaccine distribution, in-house immunization delivery, and health emergency preparedness and response, affiliation with college/school of pharmacy, and selected pharmacy and public health-related characteristics. Pharmacy college/school-affiliated community pharmacies were more likely than non-affiliated pharmacies to participate in immunization and emergency preparedness when controlling for pharmacy characteristics. College/school affiliation generally became nonsignificant, however, when public health-related characteristics were included in the analysis. Affiliation with a college/school of pharmacy was related to community pharmacies' involvement in immunization and emergency preparedness.
Costantinides, Fulvia; Rizzo, Roberto; Pascazio, Lorenzo; Maglione, Michele
Background The aim of this paper is to contribute to the discussion on how to approach patients taking new orally administered anticoagulants (NOAs) dabigatran etexilate (a direct thrombin inhibitor), rivaroxaban and apixaban (factor Xa inhibitors), before, during and after dental treatment in light of the more recent knowledges. Discussion In dentistry and oral surgery, the major concerns in treatment of patients taking direct thrombin inhibitors and factor Xa inhibitors is the risk of haemo...
Kinney, Ashley; Bui, Quyen; Hodding, Jane; Le, Jennifer
Background: Innovative approaches, including LEAN systems and dashboards, to enhance pharmacy production continue to evolve in a cost and safety conscious health care environment. Furthermore, implementing and evaluating the effectiveness of these novel methods continues to be challenging for pharmacies. Objective: To describe a comprehensive, real-time pharmacy dashboard that incorporated LEAN methodologies and evaluate its utilization in an inpatient Central Intravenous Additives Services (CIVAS) pharmacy. Methods: Long Beach Memorial Hospital (462 adult beds) and Miller Children's and Women's Hospital of Long Beach (combined 324 beds) are tertiary not-for-profit, community-based hospitals that are served by one CIVAS pharmacy. Metrics to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were developed and implemented on a dashboard in real-time from March 2013 to March 2014. Results: The metrics that were designed and implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of CIVAS were quality and value, financial resilience, and the department's people and culture. Using a dashboard that integrated these metrics, the accuracy of manufacturing defect-free products was ≥99.9%, indicating excellent quality and value of CIVAS. The metric for financial resilience demonstrated a cost savings of $78,000 annually within pharmacy by eliminating the outsourcing of products. People and value metrics on the dashboard focused on standard work, with an overall 94.6% compliance to the workflow. Conclusion: A unique dashboard that incorporated metrics to monitor 3 important areas was successfully implemented to improve the effectiveness of CIVAS pharmacy. These metrics helped pharmacy to monitor progress in real-time, allowing attainment of production goals and fostering continuous quality improvement through LEAN work.
Paulo Vinícius Soares
Full Text Available Sports Dentistry (SD acts in the prevention, maintenance and treatment of oral and facial injuries, as well as the collection and dissemination of information on dental trauma, beyond stimulus to research. Establishes as a duty for the dentist detect problems related to the athlete’s stomatognathic system. This essay is based on the provided data from the literature related to SD, including definition, practice areas and research fields. To discuss the data, six areas were categorized: shares in sports dentistry; oral health of athlete; sports-related dental implications; dental-facial trauma; face shields; and mouthguards. The analyzed data show that the SD is still an underexplored field of action by dentists, but it is expanding, despite not being recognized specialty by the Federal Council of Dentistry, but the Brazilian Academy of Sports Dentistry has been created with a mission to show the real importance of Dentistry in sport. The dentist should be part of the group of professionals associated with the athlete to perform periodic checks in order to ensure oral health which may contribute to athletes´performance. When impact occurs, however, it would be possible reduce the severity of the impact related to injuries, by using helmets, masks, goggles, face shields and mouthguard. Additionally, it is imperative that dentists, sports coaching, athletes, and professional who work with athletes be aware of the benefits of incorporating SD as an important academic and professional subject.
Full Text Available Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT is a developing imaging technique designed to provide relatively low-dose high-spatial-resolution visualization of high-contrast structures in the head and neck and other anatomic areas. It is a vital content of a dental patient's record. A literature review demonstrated that CBCT has been utilized for oral diagnosis, oral and maxillofacial surgery, endodontics, implantology, orthodontics; temporomandibular joint dysfunction, periodontics, and restorative and forensic dentistry. Recently, higher emphasis has been placed on the CBCT expertise, the three-dimensional (3D images, and virtual models. This literature review showed that the different indications for CBCT are governed by the needs of the specific dental discipline and the type of procedure performed.
Mészáros, Károly; Barnett, Mitchell J; Lenth, Russell V; Knapp, Katherine K
..., and these criteria are reflected in the Author Instructions provided on the Journal's Web site. This paper discusses the relevance of these criteria for publication of survey research regarding pharmacy colleges and schools...
Cunningham, Marsha A.
A national survey of predoctoral community dentistry faculty members provided ratings of importance for 32 community dentistry topics and information on clock hours of didactic instruction in each topic. (MSE)
Naseem; Shah; Nikhil; Bansal; Ajay; Logani
Dentistry has witnessed tremendous advances in all its branches over the past three decades. With these advances, the need for more precise diagnostic tools,specially imaging methods, have become mandatory.From the simple intra-oral periapical X-rays, advanced imaging techniques like computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have also found place in modern dentistry. Changing from analogue to digital radiography has not only made the process simpler and faster but also made image storage, manipulation(brightness/contrast, image cropping, etc.) and retrieval easier. The three-dimensional imaging has made the complex cranio-facial structures more accessible for examination and early and accurate diagnosis of deep seated lesions. This paper is to review current advances in imaging technology and their uses in different disciplines of dentistry.
Full Text Available Background Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF has wider use in many fields of dentistry due to its endogenous biocompatible regenerative potential i.e., their potential to stimulate and accelerate tissue healing and bone regeneration. Aims This review shows the increasing use of PRGF technology in various fields of dentistry. Methods In the last nine years PubMed has been searched in order to find out published articles upon PRGF in dentistry and 36 papers have been included. Results PRGF technology has many advantages with positive clinical and biological outcomes in tissue healing and bone regeneration. Conclusion In order to determine the most effective therapeutic value for patients, further research is required.
Carmalt, James L
Dental problems are some of the most common reasons for a horse to be presented to an equine veterinarian. Despite the importance of anecdotal evidence as a starting point, the science of equine dentistry (especially prophylactic dentistry) has remained poorly supported by evidence-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment. In the 21st century, veterinarians have an ethical responsibility to promote and use the results of evidence-based research and not propagate statements attesting to the purported benefits of intervention without supporting research. Consider also that society is becoming more litigious and therefore is basing treatment plans and advice on published research, which protects the profession from legal challenges concerning our professional conduct. This article reviews the current published evidence concerning the role of equine dentistry in feed digestibility and performance.
Full Text Available Rationalizing has become a new trend in the world of science and technology. Nanotechnology has ascended to become one of the most favorable technologies, and one which will change the application of materials in different fields. The quality of dental biomaterials has been improved by the emergence of nanotechnology. This technology manufactures materials with much better properties or by improving the properties of existing materials. The science of nanotechnology has become the most popular area of research, currently covering a broad range of applications in dentistry. This review describes the basic concept of nanomaterials, recent innovations in nanomaterials and their applications in restorative dentistry. Advances in nanotechnologies are paving the future of dentistry, and there are a plenty of hopes placed on nanomaterials in terms of improving the health care of dental patients.
Smith, J E; Phillips, D J; Meyer, G E
Several ways used by the pharmacy department of a large university hospital to generate revenue through diversification are described. The department offers its facilities and staff as a resource in training medical service representatives for several pharmaceutical manufacturers, which is projected to provide $85,000 in net income for fiscal year (FY) 1983-84. The pharmacy department also conducts a six-month program for training pharmacy technicians, which yields a small net profit. The pharmacy department actively participates in educational programs such as college courses and clerkships earning extra income. An apothecary-style outpatient pharmacy was set up under a for-profit corporation. Services have been expanded to include the preparation of i.v. solutions that support home care. A durable medical equipment (DME) business is planned. The ambulatory and home-care programs are expected to generate approximately $165,000 in net profit next year. Contract pharmaceutical services are provided to another hospital. The net income generated through diversification in this pharmacy department will exceed $250,000 in FY 1983-84.
Cranin, A Norman
Dentistry has a long, often well documented history. Evidence of tooth pullings has been discovered in crude carvings on the walls of caves that are over 10,000 years old. The ancient Egyptians, the Athenians, and the early inhabitants of Rome required oral health care; in addition to tooth extractions, they underwent tumor removal, tamponade for hemorrhage, reduction of jaw fractures with gold wire ligatures, cautery using white hot platinum loops, and an additional variety of remedies and nostrums. Pain relief was offered, with courses of treatment as varied as postural change, alteration of ambient temperature, and vegetable and organic medicines in poultices or via oral and rectal routes. Through the centuries, great surgeons and physicians introduced various methods of treatment: Hippocrates codified ethical standards; Maimonides established pragmatic rules for physicians; LeFort categorized facial fractures; Pasteur clarified the need for sterilization; Semmelweis standardized antiseptic conditions in the operating theater; Morton and Wells discovered safer methods of analgesia; Freud explored the theraupeutic uses of narcotics; Roentgen championed X-ray imaging; Curie pioneered the use of chemotherapy; and Barton and Nightingale were models of empathy and patient care. In more recent times, we have profited from the genius of Watson and Crick (DNA); Fleming (penicillin); Venable and Stuck (Chrome-cobalt--molybdenum alloy); Gershkoff and Goldberg (the subperiosteal implant); Chercheve, Branemark, Linkow, Misch, Tatum, and Niznick (innovative root forms, titanium and its alloys, and sinus floor grafting). The 20th century has brought to us phenomenal imaging, breathtaking intrauterine fetal surgery, wildly promising stem cell research, and astonishing CADCAM techniques. We've had great teachers and clinicians who have introduced us to new forms of therapy and advanced methods, including the role of the hemidesmasomes, the essential elements of bone grafting
Abou Neel EA
Full Text Available Ensanya Ali Abou Neel,1–3 Laurent Bozec,3 Roman A Perez,4,5 Hae-Won Kim,4–6 Jonathan C Knowles3,5 1Division of Biomaterials, Operative Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; 3UCL Eastman Dental Institute, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, London, UK; 4Institute of Tissue Regenerative Engineering (ITREN, 5Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 Plus NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, 6Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea Abstract: Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation. Keywords: nanotechnology, nanointerfaces, biofilm-related oral diseases, tissue engineering, drug delivery, toxicity
Stabholz, Adam; Zeltser, Rephael; Sela, Mordechai; Peretz, Benjamin; Moshonov, Joshua; Ziskind, Daniel; Stabholz, Ayala
This article describes the principles of laser operation and the clinical application of laser technology in the different fields of dentistry. It discusses the use of the Er:YAG laser in restorative dentistry, pediatric dentistry, and periodontics, as well as the introduction of a new side-firing spiral tip for efficient cleaning of the root canal system by means of lateral laser irradiation. Although the Er:YAG laser is used mostly on enamel and dentin, the gingival depigmentation procedure using this laser also is described. Clinical applications of the CO2 and diode lasers on soft tissues, particularly in the fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery and perodontics, are explained. Because teeth whitening for esthetic reasons has gained increasing popularity in dentistry, the application of diode lasers for this purpose is discussed. All the dental laser procedures described in this article are conducted at the Hebrew University-Hadassah School of Dental Medicine and are further investigated in various clinical research projects.
Ramos-Gomez, Francisco J
Traditional curricula of pediatric dental residency programs have overemphasized restorative dentistry while failing to give adequate attention to early diagnosis, preventive disease management, risk assessment, cultural competency, advocacy, community partnerships and interprofessional education. The University of California, Los Angeles, Community Health and Advocacy Training Program in Pediatric Dentistry emphasizes these lesser-taught areas, integrating them within a structured education in classical restorative techniques and Commission on Dental Accreditation-approved standards, providing a diverse curriculum and preparing residents for practice in increasingly diverse communities.
da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; de Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira; de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho
The established importance of Forensic Dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article presents a literature review referring to the main studies on Forensic Dentistry that involve the use of DNA for human identification, and makes an overview of the evolution of this technology in the last years, highlighting the importance of molecular biology in forensic sciences.
Andreea Dana Tudose
technical report of treatment ( labor - price, average duration, satisfaction, relative to direct restoration techniques versus indirect techniques . In conclusion, SWOT analysis can be successfully applied to a better targeting of treatments, applying a plan lines for management in dental treatment units. None of direct techniques can not fit the bioeconomy principles (saves time, money, dental tissue in the short term. All maneuvers efficient in terms of functional aesthetics dentistry win at time saving and lost tooth structure chapter to the cost issue. In the long run costs can be amortized, especially since the restoration increases predictability.
Dickerson, T C
Coaching is a subject dentistry appears to have let slip by, yet as this article outlines, it has so much to offer in many different aspects of dentistry, but particularly in fulfilling the Standards for dental professionals determined by the General Dental Council (GDC). Evidence suggests that coaching has produced tremendous benefits to business, and dentistry is a business.
Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.
The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.
Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Awaisu, Ahmed; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Ahmed, Syed Imran
To develop and implement a new course on public health into the bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) curriculum in Malaysia. A required 2-credit-hour course was designed to provide an overview of public health pharmacy roles and the behavioral aspects of human healthcare issues. Graded activities included nursing home visits, in-class quizzes, mini-projects, and poster sessions, and a comprehensive final examination. The majority of the students performed well on the class activities and 93 (71.5%) of the 130 students enrolled received a grade of B or higher. A Web-based survey was administered at the end of the semester and 90% of students indicated that they had benefited from the course and were glad that it was offered. The majority of students agreed that the course made an impact in preparing them for their future role as pharmacists and expanded their understanding of the public health roles of a pharmacist. A public health pharmacy course was successfully designed and implemented in the BPharm curriculum. This study highlighted the feasibilities of introducing courses that are of global relevance into a Malaysian pharmacy curriculum. The findings from the students' evaluation suggest the needs to incorporate a similar course in all pharmacy schools in the country and will be used as a guide to improve the contents and methods of delivery of the course at our school.
Full Text Available For the first time in 1922, a pharmacy division was set up atthe school of medicine. In 1926, the first union of Iranianpharmacy students who had graduated in France and returnedto Iran. Duration of this course was 3 years. In 1939 this coursechanges to 4-years program and 140 Credits. After that TehranUniversity changed the Pharmacy degree from Masters todoctorate (Pharm.D. and the duration of the study wasincreased to 5 years [1, 2].During all these years pharmacy department were belongto faculty of medicine. In 1956 the first faculty of pharmacywas established. Then, in 1973 each academic year waschanged into two semesters. After this modification, Pharmacystudents would get their Pharm.D degree after writing thesesand taking an oath . Graduates need to present and defendtheir theses in different fields of pharmacy and this addsanother year to their studies and generally after 6 yearsstudents can graduate as Doctor in Pharmacy. The Pharm.Ddegree program requires at least 2-years of specific preprofessional(undergraduate coursework followed by 4-academic years of professional study. Pharmacy colleges andschools accept students directly from high school for Pharm.Dprogram .When Iranian students finished eight years of primaryschool and four years of high school in natural sciences(Experimental Sciences Diploma, can attend a nationalentrance exam for universities. At now, we have 16 faculty ofpharmacy in university of medical sciences. After Fivesemesters which is equal to 90-100 credits of general and basicsciences study, students entrance National test named “thebasic sciences exam” which is held for pharmacy students.
Schneider, Philip J
To summarize key points from the most recent Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, Preventing Medication Errors, and their relevance to health-system pharmacists. Creating a culture of safety is an important antecedent to making changes needed to reduce medication errors. The patient can play an important, but often unrealized, role in preventing medication errors. There are considerable opportunities to improve the application of technology to prevent medication errors. The National Hospital Pharmacy surveys conducted ty the American Society of Health- System Pharmacists have demonstrated the slow rate of adoption of technologies. Pharmacists can play a leadership role in improving both the patients' role and the use of technology to improve medication-use safety. There are major opportunities for pharmacists to re-think how involved patients are in their care in the institutional setting, by seeing patients as building another check into the medication-use system and by recommitting ourselves to getting patients involved. There are also opportunities to help with patient-safety technology decisions. These extremely expensive technologies almost always involve people changing what they do and their implementation and use often involve other people besides pharmacists, yet the potential is great for new technologies to reduce medication errors.
Raggio, D.P.; Camargo, L.B.; Naspitz, G.M.C.C.; Politano, G.T.; Bonifacio, C.C.; Mendes, F.M.; Kierstman, F.
Generally natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy is detected after some exposition to the material. As NRL is commonly found in different materials used daily in dental clinic, the allergy can be manifested in the pediatric dentistry clinic. The first clinical manifestation can be smooth but also severe
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.
The laws, rules and regulations of the New York State Education Department governing dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state are presented. In addition, the requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist in New York are discussed. The following chapters are provided: (1)…
A. Ballini, S. Capodiferro, M. Toia, S. Cantore, G. Favia, G. De Frenza, F.R. Grassi
Full Text Available The importance of evidence for every branch of medicine in teaching in order to orient the practitioners among the great amount of most actual scientific information's, and to support clinical decisions, is well established in health care, including dentistry. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of lifelong, self-directed, problem-based learning which leads to the need for clinically important information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and other clinical and health care issues. Nowadays the practice of dentistry is becoming more complex and challenging because of the continually changing in dental materials and equipments, an increasingly litigious society, an increase in the emphasis of continuing professional development, the information explosion and the consumer movement associated with advances on the Internet. The need for reliable information and the electronic revolution have come together to allow the “paradigm shift” towards evidence-based health care. Recent years have seen an increase in the importance of evidence-based dentistry, aiming to reduce to the maximum the gap between clinical research and real world dental practice. Aim of evidence-based practice is the systematic literature review, which synthesizes the best evidences and provides the basis for clinical practice guidelines. These practice guidelines give a brief review of what evidence-based dentistry is and how to use it.
Ramandeep Singh Gambhir
Full Text Available Nanotechnology offers advances particularly in each and every field of human activity such as electronics, industry, telecommunications, environmental science, etc., The field of nanotechnology has got remarkable potential that can bring considerable improvements to the human health, enhanced use of natural resources, and reduced environmental pollution. Since 1990s, nanotechnology has been exploited for potential medical and dental applications. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. Dentistry is undergoing yet another change to benefit mankind, this time by transforming itself to the nanodentistry. A variety of nanostructures such as nanorobots, nanospheres, nanofibers, nanorods, etc., have been studied for various applications in dentistry and medicine. Preventive dentistry has also utilized nanodentistry to develop the nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. However, due to insufficient evidence on potential hazards on human health and environment, nanotechnology has become a controversial issue. It is documented that nanomaterials can enter the human body through several routes and can pose a threat to human health by interacting with the DNA. The present article focuses on the current status and the future implications of nanotechnology in dentistry.
Gibson, G. B.; Swanson, A. E.
The process used by the University of British Columbia to establish and improve an undergraduate hospital dentistry program is chronicled. The program's initial structure and objectives, use of student input for program improvement, and the success of the approach in developing an effective program are discussed. (MSE)
Evidence-based dentistry is the judicious integration of scientific information relating to the patient's oral health and medical condition with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's own treatment needs and preferences. In this triad of factors, we (the dentists) are least likely to be formally trained in recognizing our patient's preferences. Do we understand what shapes these preferences?
Wismeijer, D.; Buser, D.; Chen, S.
The ITI Treatment Guide series, a unique compendium of evidence-based treatment methods in implant dentistry in daily practice, written by renowned clinicians, provides a comprehensive overview of various therapeutic options. Using an illustrated step-by-step approach, the ITI Treatment Guide shows
Raggio, D.P.; Camargo, L.B.; Naspitz, G.M.C.C.; Politano, G.T.; Bonifacio, C.C.; Mendes, F.M.; Kierstman, F.
Generally natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy is detected after some exposition to the material. As NRL is commonly found in different materials used daily in dental clinic, the allergy can be manifested in the pediatric dentistry clinic. The first clinical manifestation can be smooth but also
Ballini, A; Capodiferro, S; Toia, M; Cantore, S; Favia, G; De Frenza, G; Grassi, F R
The importance of evidence for every branch of medicine in teaching in order to orient the practitioners among the great amount of most actual scientific information's, and to support clinical decisions, is well established in health care, including dentistry. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of lifelong, self-directed, problem-based learning which leads to the need for clinically important information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and other clinical and health care issues. Nowadays the practice of dentistry is becoming more complex and challenging because of the continually changing in dental materials and equipments, an increasingly litigious society, an increase in the emphasis of continuing professional development, the information explosion and the consumer movement associated with advances on the Internet. The need for reliable information and the electronic revolution have come together to allow the "paradigm shift" towards evidence-based health care. Recent years have seen an increase in the importance of evidence-based dentistry, aiming to reduce to the maximum the gap between clinical research and real world dental practice. Aim of evidence-based practice is the systematic literature review, which synthesizes the best evidences and provides the basis for clinical practice guidelines. These practice guidelines give a brief review of what evidence-based dentistry is and how to use it.
... Enforcement Administration Ideal Pharmacy Care, Inc., D/B/A Esplanade Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration On... to Show Cause and Immediate Suspension of Registration to Ideal Pharmacy Care, Inc., d/b/a Esplanade Pharmacy (Registrant), of New Orleans, Louisiana. The Show Cause Order proposed the revocation of...
McCook, William M.; Speranza, Kenneth A., Sr.
The results of a study with 168 students from three professional classes at the University of Connecticut's School of Pharmacy suggest that clinical pharmacy education may overcome the disillusionment toward pharmacy shown to develop in pharmacy students as they progress through a professional curriculum. (LBH)
Csaky, T. Z.
Two recent trends in the field of health education-the declining emphasis on basic sciences in medical instruction and the heavy emphasis on pharmacology, therapeutics, and clinical pharmacy in colleges of pharmacy-are compared. (Editor)
Holdford, David A.
The objectives of this article are to define business models, contrast the business models in pharmacy schools, and discuss issues that can arise from misunderstandings about whom pharmacy schools serve and how they do so. PMID:28720910
Hamoudi, N M; Shirwaikar, A A; Ali, H S; Al Ayoubi, E I
.... Pharmacy profession is evolving steadily in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pharmacists in UAE are so much occupied in their administrative and managerial duties that dispensing is mostly attended to by pharmacy technicians...
Traulsen, Janine M; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna
In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy...... and industrial policy. In order to analyse and understand pharmaceutical policy, it is important to know how policymakers view pharmacy and pharmacists. The authors look at the issues that arise when policy regulates pharmacy as a business, and what this means for the profession. The perspective of pharmacy...... in managerialism, and how the division of labour with other health professionals such as physicians and pharmacy assistants is affecting the pharmacy profession's position in the labour market. Next the authors look at ways in which the pharmacy profession has affected policy. Pharmacists have been instrumental...
Alemayehu B Mekonnen
Full Text Available Objective: Clinical pharmacy practice has developed internationally to expand the role of a pharmacist well beyond the traditional roles of compounding and supplying drugs to roles more directly in caring for patients and providing medication consultation to staff. This area of practice is at the infant stage in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to explore key informants’ perspective in the implementation of clinical pharmacy practice in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. Method: A qualitative study was conducted through in-depth interviews with the heads of departments (internal medicine, paediatrics, surgery, nurse, pharmacy, medical director, administration and pharmacy student representatives. Qualitative data analysis was done after audiotapes were transcribed verbatim and notes were compiled. Results: All of the respondents interviewed express diverse and conflicting perspectives on pharmacists’ role, varying from a health-care professional to a business man. Despite this, the current pace of change worldwide takes the professions’ mission to that of a provider of clinical pharmacy services. The data ascertained the change in pharmacy practice, and integrating clinical pharmacy services within the health-care system should be seen as a must. Pharmacists should delineate from a business perspective and focus on widening the scope of the profession of pharmacy and should come close to the patient to serve directly. Conclusions: Although the perception of people on traditional roles of pharmacists was weak, there were promising steps in developing clinical pharmacy practice within the health-care system. Moreover, the results of this study revealed a high demand for this service among health-care providers.
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy services. 483.60 Section 483.60 Public... Care Facilities § 483.60 Pharmacy services. The facility must provide routine and emergency drugs and... the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of receipt and...
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal dialysis...
Contrary to Tournier's assertion (thesis of 1938), the law of germinal (the seventh month of the eleventh year of the French Republican Calendar) had not been respected by the regular/secular priesthood because it was so ambiguous that they could seize the opportunity to carry on practising the art of medicine or manufacturing and selling drugs. In fact there were three reasons for the lack of steadiness of authorities: the practice of charity, financial concerns and the rise of the science which incited to illegal practice of pharmacy although professionals protested against. On the other hand, the priesthood officials tardily took the decision of forbidding the practice of medicine, surgery and pharmacy until 1936 when it was anew forbidden after a meeting of French cardinals and bishops. In 1941, with the agreement of all concerned persons the problem came to its end.
Berger, Bruce A; Bertram, Carl T
It is well documented in substance abuse and health care literature that motivational interviewing is an evidenced-based and effective intervention for influencing patient behaviors and associated positive health outcomes. The introduction of motivational interviewing training in specialty pharmacy has great potential to increase patient and pharmacist satisfaction, maximize adherence rates, and improve health outcomes. This commentary examines the need for effective approaches for improving patient adherence and outcomes and briefly describes the history and efficacy of motivational interviewing. Case studies using traditional approaches to patient care and motivational interviewing are analysed, and real-world experience using motivational interviewing is presented in the form of a specialty pharmacy case study.
Max Joseph Herman
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional
Topol, Eric J
Few would argue that the ability to match individual patients with the safest and most effective drugs and doses would be a major advance for clinical medicine. But while clinicians have been reluctant to routinely use pharmacogenomic analyses to guide their prescribing practices, pharmacy benefit managers and drugstores are proceeding with major pharmacogenetic initiatives.
Schommer, Jon C; Singh, Reshmi L; Cline, Richard R; Hadsall, Ronald S
From a pharmacist workforce perspective, an understanding of pharmacy location is important for monitoring access points for pharmacist services such as medication dispensing, medication counseling, medication therapy management, and disease management. To understand access to community pharmacies, our goal was to describe changes in pharmacy mix (independent vs chain) between 1992 and 2002 for 87 counties in Minnesota. Study objectives were to describe the association of (1) change in population density, (2) metropolitan designation, change in (3) proportion of nonwhite population, (4) proportion of elderly population, and (5) household income with change in (a) number of community pharmacies overall, (b) number of chain pharmacies, (c) number of independent pharmacies, and (d) the independent-to-total community pharmacy ratio. Records from the State of Minnesota Board of Pharmacy were used to examine changes in the community pharmacy mix from 1992 to 2002. Data on county level demographics in 1990 and 2000 were obtained from the US Census Bureau and Datanet. Chi-square analysis was used to test the relationships between the independent and dependent variables. As of 2002, every county in Minnesota had at least one pharmacy as was the case in 1992. The ratio of independent to chain pharmacies changed from approximately 2:1 in 1992 to approximately 1:1 in 2002. Chi-square results revealed that change in population density was significantly associated with change in the number of community pharmacies overall (Pchain pharmacies (P=0.03). The findings revealed an interesting u-shaped pattern for the association between population density and change in independent pharmacies. It appears that chain pharmacies follow changes in population density for making decisions about market entry and exit. The results suggest that some independent pharmacies might be closing due to chain competition in high population density growth areas. However, there was also evidence to
Koort, Hans J.; Frentzen, Matthias
The great interest in the field of laser applications in dentistry provokes the question, if all these new techniques may really fulfill advantages, which are expected after initial in-vitro studies. Whereas laser surgery of soft oral tissues has been developed to a standard method, laser treatment of dental hard tissues and the bone are attended with many unsolved problems. Different laser types, especially pulsed lasers in a wide spectrum of wavelengths have been proofed for dental use. Today neither the excimer lasers, emitting in the far uv-range from 193 to 351 nm, nor the mid-infrared lasers like Nd:YAG (1,064 μm), Ho:YAG (2,1 μm) and Er:YAG (2,96 μm) or the C02-laser (10,6 μm) show mechanism of interaction more carefully and faster than a preparation of teeth with diamond drillers. The laser type with the most precise and considerate treatment effects in the moment is the short pulsed (15 ns) ArF-excimer laser with a wavelength of 193 nm. However this laser type has not yet the effectivity of mechanical instruments and it needs a mirror system to deliver the radiation. Histological results point out, that this laser shows no significant pathological alterations in the adjacent tissues. Another interesting excimer laser, filled with XeCI and emitting at a wavelength of 308 nm has the advantage to be good to deliver through quartz fibers. A little more thermal influence is to be seen according to the longer wavelength. Yet the energy density, necessary to cut dental hard tissues will not be reached with the laser systems available now. Both the pulsed Er:YAG- (2,94 μm, pulse duration 250 s) and the Ho:YAG -laser (2,1 μm, pulse duration 250 μs) have an effective coupling of the laser energy to hydrogeneous tissues, but they do not work sufficient on healthy enamel and dentine. The influence to adjacent healthy tissue is not tolerable, especially in regard of the thermal damage dentine and pulp tissues. Moreover, like the 193 nm ArF-excimer laser
Full Text Available Emergence of advanced digital technology has opened up new perspectives for design and production in the field of dentistry. Rapid prototyping (RP is a technique to quickly and automatically construct a three-dimensional (3D model of a part or product using 3D printers or stereolithography machines. RP has various dental applications, such as fabrication of implant surgical guides, zirconia prosthesis and molds for metal castings, maxillofacial prosthesis and frameworks for fixed and removable partial dentures, wax patterns for the dental prosthesis and complete denture. Rapid prototyping presents fascinating opportunities, but the process is difficult as it demands a high level of artistic skill, which means that the dental technicians should be able to work with the models obtained after impression to form a mirror image and achieve good esthetics. This review aims to focus on various RP methods and its application in dentistry.
Handal, B; Groenlund, C; Gerzina, T
This paper reports an exploratory survey study about students' perceptions of learning management systems (LMS) at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney. Two hundred and fifty-four students enrolled in the Bachelor of Dentistry and the Bachelor of Oral Health programmes participated in an online survey aimed at exploring their beliefs and attitudes as well as their preferences for eLearning tools. Results indicated a strong preference of students for using LMSs as resource repositories rather than for higher-order learning activities such as online discussion forums. This finding holds importance for consideration of the development of the educational resources modalities that support development of essential graduate attributes such as information literacy and collaborative learning.
The discovery of the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology, which enables us to produce pluripotent stem cells by introducing a few genetic factors, commands considerable attention in the field of dentistry. These iPS cells may be of particular importance for developing innovative technologies to regenerate missing jaw bones and lost teeth, and there are expectations that several types of tissue stem cells and mucosal cells in the oral area can be used as an ideal iPS cell source. We previously reported that the gingiva, which is often resected during general dental treatments and treated as biomedical waste, is a promising source of iPS cells. In this review, the current trends in iPS cell research in dentistry are outlined, and future aspects of potential applications of the iPS cell technologies to dental treatments will be discussed.
Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Bozec, Laurent; Perez, Roman A; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C
Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation.
Formicola, Allan J
Two factors have, at times, pushed dentistry and medicine together and pulled them apart. The factor acting to create a symbiosis is the common biomedical or scientific foundation for these fields. The factor causing independence deals with socio-cultural matters impacting on the professions and the public. These two factors will be examined at three points in time when the relationship between the two professions was significantly important for the welfare of the public: the 1920s and '30s, the 1960s and '70s, and our own time. Contemporary major discussion about the alignment of dental education, scientific advances, and societal needs point to a need for a new look at how dentistry and medicine relate to one another.
Bauer, Janet; Spackman, Sue; Chiappelli, Francesco; Prolo, Paolo; Stevenson, Richard
Evidence-based dentistry is a discipline that provides best, explicit-based evidence to dentists and their patients in shared decision-making. Currently, dentists are being trained and directed to adopt the role of translational researchers in developing evidence-based dental practices. Practically, evidence-based dentistry is not usable in its current mode for the provision of labor-intensive services that characterize current dental practice. The purpose of this article is to introduce a model of evidence-based dental practice. This model conceptualizes a team approach in explaining problems and solutions to change current dental practice. These changes constitute an evidence-based dental practice that involves the electronic chart, centralized database, knowledge management software, and personnel in optimizing effective oral health care to dental patients.
Paul, D P
Direct reimbursement, or DR, has been a popular topic in organized dentistry for much of the last decade, and the concept is beginning to be more widely known. This article explores the underpinnings of and future for DR. TYPES OF LITERATURE REVIEWED: This article is based on an online review of the dental, medical and business literature. The author explores the advantages of DR for patients, employers and dentists. He also presents purported disadvantages of DR, and refutes them. Organized dentistry's marketing efforts and the importance of third-party administrators also are examined. During the next several years, DR has the potential to become the vehicle of choice for financing much of the dental care provided in the United States. Dentists need to become more aware of what DR is and what it can offer the public. They then will be better able to promote DR, which is a significantly better payment system for dental care than any other available today.
Stein, Pamela S; Sullivan, Jennifer; Haubenreich, James E; Osborne, Paul B
Composite resin has been used for nearly 50 years as a restorative material in dentistry. Use of this material has recently increased as a result of consumer demands for esthetic restorations, coupled with the public's concern with mercury-containing dental amalgam. Composite is now used in over 95% of all anterior teeth direct restorations and in 50% of all posterior teeth direct restorations. Carbon fiber reinforced composites have been developed for use as dental implants. In medicine, fiber-reinforced composites have been used in orthopedics as implants, osseous screws, and bearing surfaces. In addition, hydroxyapatite composite resin has become a promising alternative to acrylic cement in stabilizing fractures and cancellous screw fixation in elderly and osteoporotic patients. The use of composite resin in dentistry and medicine will be the focus of this review, with particular attention paid to its physical properties, chemical composition, clinical applications, and biocompatibility.
Mohammed Nadeem A Bijle
Full Text Available Dentistry in recent years has developed interest in the field of intellectual property rights (IPR and Patents due to extensive research in the fraternity and existing competition. There have been various patent applications and grants in the field of dentistry abroad due to better understanding of IPR but India still has very few patent grants and applications on the subject matter. This review article in particular deals with the understanding of IPR and Patents as a whole, especially for dental professionals involved in research and development. Hence, this would also act as an asset for dental researchers to explore and expand their scope of activities, with special privileges empowered for their work.
Full Text Available The ultimate goal of any dental treatment is the regeneration of lost tissues and alveolar bone. Under the appropriate culture conditions, periosteal cells secrete extracellular matrix and form a membranous structure. The periosteum can be easily harvested from the patient's own oral cavity, where the resulting donor site wound is invisible. Owing to the above reasons, the periosteum offers a rich cell source for bone tissue engineering; hence, the regenerative potential of periosteum is immense. Although the use of periosteum as a regenerative tool has been extensive in general medical field, the regenerative potential of periosteum is highly underestimated in dentistry; therefore, the present paper reviews the current literature related to the regenerative potential of periosteum and gives an insight to the future use of periosteum in dentistry.
Jabr S. Al-Sanabani
Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.
Full Text Available Rosaiah Kanaparthy1, Aruna Kanaparthy2 1Department of Periodontics, 2Conservative Dentistry, Peoples Dental Academy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: The human body comprises molecules; hence, the availability of molecular nanotechnology will permit dramatic progress to address medical problems and will use molecular knowledge to maintain and improve human health at the molecular scale. Nanomedicine could develop devices that are able to work inside the human body in order to identify the early presence of a disease, and to identify and quantify toxic molecules and tumor cells, for example. Nanodentistry will make possible the maintenance of comprehensive oral health by employing nanomaterials, including tissue engineering and, ultimately, dental nanorobots. This review is an attempt to highlight the possible applications of nanotechnology and the use of nanomaterials in dentistry. Keywords: nanotechnology, molecule, nanomedicine, nanodentistry, nanorobots
Bhardwaj, Archana; Bhardwaj, Abhishek; Misuriya, Abhinav; Maroli, Sohani; Manjula, S; Singh, Arvind Kumar
Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on the molecular and atomic levels. It has the potential to bring enormous changes into the fields of medicine and dentistry. A day may soon come when nanodentistry will succeed in maintaining near-perfect oral health through the aid of nanorobotics, nanomaterials and biotechnology. However, as with all developments, it may also pose a risk for misuse. Time, economical and technical resources, and human needs will determine the direction this revolutionizing development may take. This article reviews the current status and the potential clinical applications of nanotechnology, nanaomedicine and nanodentistry. How to cite the article: Bhardwaj A, Bhardwaj A, Misuriya A, Maroli S, Manjula S, Singh AK. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Present and future. J Int Oral Health 2013;6(1):121-6.
Full Text Available In 1960 , Theodore Harold Maiman , an American of Hughes Aircraft corporation , observed the stimulated emission in the visible portion of the spectrum by using an excited synthetic ruby rod , and generated the first “LASER” beam an acronym for “Light Amplification by Stimulated Emis sion of Radiation”. 1 The acceptance of lasers as viable alternatives to traditional methods in medicine was one of the events that created an explosion of interest in the last decade in the role of lasers in dentistry. 2 Dentistry has entered the 1990s an e ra of high technology . W e are fortunate to have at our disposal many technological innovations to enhance treatment , including intraoral video cameras , computer imaging , and air abrasive units. However no instruments are more representative of the term high - tech than the laser. 3
Weber, Robert J.
Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department’s goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25717212
Weber, Robert J
Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department's goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services.
Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Kildemoes, Helle Wallach
Social Pharmacy (SP) is a multidisciplinary field to promote the adequate use of medicine. The field of SP is increasingly important due to a numbers of new trends all posing challenges to society. The SP group at the University of Copenhagen has for several years used a broad approach to SP...
Conclusion: This study concludes that the current status of community pharmacy practice is below par. There is a need to involve more pharmacists at community level and develop awareness programs to counter patients′ routine drug issues and reducing the burden of disease from society.
Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh
-based study. Concepts related to AR are described; in addition, the multifaceted role of the action researcher is described, along with a set of data quality criteria for evaluating the quality of an AR-based study. Then follows a thorough description of a Danish AR-based pharmacy practice study. The chapter...
Chambers, David W
Digital communication offers advantages and challenges to dental practice. As dentistry becomes comfortable with this technology, it is essential that commercial and other values not be accepted on a par with professional ones and that the traditional dentist-patient relationship not be compromised by inserting third parties that introduce nonprofessional standards. The Officers and Regents of the American College of Dentist have prepared this background and position paper as a guide to the ethical use of digital communication in dental practice.
Chen, Yen-Liang; Chang, Hao-Hueng; Chiang, Yu-Chih; Lin, Chun-Pin
Since the 1950s, dentistry's ultrasonic instruments have developed rapidly. Because of better visualization, operative convenience, and precise cutting ability, ultrasonic instruments are widely and efficiently applied in the dental field. This article describes the development and improvement of ultrasonic instruments in several dental fields. Although some issues still need clarification, the results of previous studies indicate that ultrasonic instruments have a high potential to become convenient and efficient dental tools and deserve further development.
Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva; Arsenio Sales-Peres; Rogério Nogueira de Oliveira; Fernando Toledo de Oliveira; Sílvia Helena de Carvalho Sales-Peres
The established importance of Forensic Dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article presents a literature review referring...
Davidson, C L
Restorative materials in pediatric dentistry have to fulfill special requirements. They should be easy to handle and applicable in a not always dry mouth. They should potentially be adhesive in order to avoid too much mechanical preparation. They do not have to be extremely wear resistant as the dwell time of the restorations is relatively short. Glass-ionomer cements and in particular the resin modified types possess properties which make them almost ideal for the required purpose.
Brostek, Andrew M; Bochenek, Andrew J; Walsh, Laurence J
The term "Minimal Invasive (MI) Dentistry" can best be defined as the management of caries with a biological approach, rather than with a traditional (surgical) operative dentistry approach. Where operative dentistry is required, this is now carried out in the most conservative manner with minimal destruction of tooth structure. This new approach to caries management changes the emphasis from diagnosing carious lesions as cavities (and a repeating cycle of restorations), to one of diagnosing the oral ecological imbalance and effecting biological changes in the biofilm. The goal of MI is to stop the disease process and then to restore lost tooth structure and function, maximizing the healing potential of the tooth. The thought process which underpins this new minimal invasive approach can be organized into three main categories: (1) Recognize, which means identify patient caries risk, (2) Remineralize, which means prevent caries and reverse non-cavitated caries, and (3) Repair, which means control caries activity, maximize healing and repair the damage. The disease of dental caries is not just demineralization, but a process of repeated demineralization cycles caused by an imbalance in the ecological and chemical equilibrium of the biofilm /tooth interface (the ecological plaque hypothesis). Dietary and lifestyle patterns, especially carbohydrate frequency, water intake and smoking, play an important role in changing the biofilm ecology and pathogenicity. Tools for chairside assessment of saliva and plaque, allow risk to be assessed and patient compliance monitored. The remineralizing properties of saliva can be enhanced using materials which release biologically available calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions (CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP). Use of biocides can also alter the pathogenic properties of plaque. Use of these MI treatment protocols, can repair early lesions and improve patient understanding and compliance. This review article introduces some of the key concepts
Coppa, A; Bondioli, L; Cucina, A; Frayer, D W; Jarrige, C; Jarrige, J-F; Quivron, G; Rossi, M; Vidale, M; Macchiarelli, R
Prehistoric evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo has so far been limited to isolated cases from less than six millennia ago. Here we describe eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults discovered in a Neolithic graveyard in Pakistan that dates from 7,500-9,000 years ago. These findings provide evidence for a long tradition of a type of proto-dentistry in an early farming culture.
Maya Lyapina; Mariana Cekova; Maria Dencheva; Assya Krasteva; Mariela Yaneva-Deliverska; Jordan Deliverski; Angelina Kisselova
Nanodentistry is defined as the science and technology of diagnosing, treating and preventing oral and dental diseases, relieving pain, preserving and improving dental health using nanostructured material. Varieties of new dental products are available that rely on nanoscale properties, ranging from implants to oral hygiene products. Nanodentistry encourages the concept of minimally invasive dentistry, creating a more dentist friendly atmosphere. However, patient awareness and education is im...
Ogle, Orrett E; Mahjoubi, Ghazal
Local pain management is the most critical aspect of patient care in dentistry. The improvements in agents and techniques for local anesthesia are probably the most significant advances that have occurred in dental science. This article provides an update on the most recently introduced local anesthetic agents along with new technologies used to deliver local anesthetics. Safety devices are also discussed, along with an innovative method for reducing the annoying numbness of the lip and tongue following local anesthesia.
A. Ballini, S. Capodiferro, M. Toia, S. Cantore, G. Favia, G. De Frenza, F.R. Grassi
The importance of evidence for every branch of medicine in teaching in order to orient the practitioners among the great amount of most actual scientific information's, and to support clinical decisions, is well established in health care, including dentistry. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of lifelong, self-directed, problem-based learning which leads to the need for clinically important information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and other clinical and health care ...
Mitsiadis, T A; Orsini, G.; Jimenez-Rojo, L
Repair of dental pulp and periodontal lesions remains a major clinical challenge. Classical dental treatments require the use of specialised tissue-adapted materials with still questionable efficacy and durability. Stem cell-based therapeutic approaches could offer an attractive alternative in dentistry since they can promise physiologically improved structural and functional outcomes. These therapies necessitate a sufficient number of specific stem cell populations for implantation. Dental m...
Ramesh, K.; Hariprasad, M. P.; Bhuvanewari, S.
Development of improved designs of implant systems in dentistry have necessitated the study of stress fields in the implant regions of the mandible/maxilla for better understanding of the biomechanics involved. Photoelasticity has been used for various studies related to dental implants in view of whole field visualization of maximum shear stress in the form of isochromatic contours. The potential of digital photoelasticity has not been fully exploited in the field of implant dentistry. In this paper, the fringe field in the vicinity of the connected implants (All-On-Four® concept) is analyzed using recent advances in digital photoelasticity. Initially, a novel 3-D photoelastic model making procedure, to closely mimic all the anatomical features of the human mandible is proposed. By choosing appropriate orientation of the model with respect to the light path, the essential region of interest were sought to be analysed while keeping the model under live loading conditions. Need for a sophisticated software module to carefully identify the model domain has been brought out. For data extraction, five-step method is used and isochromatics are evaluated by twelve fringe photoelasticity. In addition to the isochromatic fringe field, whole field isoclinic data is also obtained for the first time in implant dentistry, which could throw important information in improving the structural stability of the implant systems. Analysis is carried out for the implant in the molar as well as the incisor region. In addition, the interaction effects of loaded molar implant on the incisor area are also studied.
V. N. V. Madhav
Full Text Available Medical implants and biological models have three main characteristics: low volume, complex shape, and can be customized. These characteristics suit very well with Rapid Prototyping (RP and Rapid Manufacturing (RM processes. RP/RM processes are fabricated part layer- by-layer until complete shape finished from 3D model. Biocompatible materials, such as Titanium and Titanium alloy, Zirconium, Cobalt Chromium, PEEK, etc, are used for fabrication process. Reverse Engineering (RE technology greatly affects RP/RM processes. RE is used to capture or scan image of the limb, cranium, tooth, and other biological objects. Three common methods to get the image are 3D laser scanning, Computer Tomography (CT, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Main RP/RM techniques used in Dentistry are Stereotype Lithography Apparatus (SLA, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS, and ink jet printing. This article reviews the changing scenario of technology in dentistry with special emphasis on Rapid Prototyping and its various applications in Dentistry.
Knösel, Michael; Jung, Klaus; Bleckmann, Annalen
The objective of this study was to systematically assess the informational value, intention, source, and bias of videos related to dentistry available on the video-sharing Internet platform YouTube. YouTube (www.youtube.com) was searched for videos related to dentistry, using the system-generated sorts "by relevance" and "most viewed" and two categories (All and Education). Each of the first thirty results was rated by two assessors filling out a questionnaire for each (total: 120). The data were subjected to statistical analysis using Cohen's kappa, Pearson's correlation coefficient tau, Mann-Whitney U-tests, and a nonparametric three-way ANOVA, including an analysis of the interaction between the sorting and category effect, with an α-level of 5 percent. The scan produced 279,000 results in the category All and 5,050 in the category Education. The analysis revealed a wide variety of information about dentistry available on YouTube. The purpose of these videos includes entertainment, advertising, and education. The videos classified under Education have a higher degree of usefulness and informational value for laypersons, dental students, and dental professionals than those found in a broader search category. YouTube and similar social media websites offer new educational possibilities that are currently both underdeveloped and underestimated in terms of their potential value. Dentists and dental educators should also recognize the importance of these websites in shaping public opinion about their profession.
Kim, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Mi-Ae; Han, Geum-Jun; Cho, Byeong-Hoon
Plasma-related technologies are essential in modern industries. Recently, plasma has attracted increased attention in the biomedical field. This paper provides a basic knowledge of plasma and a narrative review of plasma applications in dentistry. To review plasma applications in dentistry, an electronic search in PubMed, SCOPUS and Google scholar up to December 2012 was done. This was followed by extensive hand searching using reference lists from relevant articles. There have been attempts to apply plasma technology in various fields of dentistry including surface modifications of dental implants, adhesion, caries treatment, endodontic treatment and tooth bleaching. Although many studies were in early stages, the potential value of plasma for dental applications has been demonstrated. To enlarge the scope of plasma applications and put relevant research to practical use, interdisciplinary research with participation of dental professionals is required.
General dentistry is an important part of the dental medicine and general dentists and general dentistry form the basis of clinical dental medicine. China's general dentistry has a long history, which started as an independent specialist in the 1990s. At present, the Chinese general dental medicine has received more and more attention as an independent profession. General dental medical model has been rapidly developed in the general hospital department of dentistry, private practice and community dentistry institutions, dental specialist hospitals and so on. In this paper, we will review the rise and development of China's general dentistry, and report its theoretical characteristics, institutional framework, academic progress, member development report, and look forward to its development in the future.
Sartori MS, PhD, Neimar
Adhesive dentistry allowed restoring lost tooth structures using Minimally Invasive direct or indirect bonded restorations. Adhesive systems and bonding techniques have been constantly evolving since the introduction of Sevriton Cavity Seal, in 1940 by Oskar Hagger. As we celebrate the 60th anniversary of adhesive dentistry in 2015 the future of the Minimally Invasive Adhesive Dentistry is more promising than ever. A better understanding of long-term resin-dentin bonds interaction is guiding ...
Full Text Available Air abrasion dentistry has evolved over a period of time from a new concept of an alternative means of cavity preparation to an essential means of providing a truly conservative preparation for preservation of a maximal sound tooth structure. The development of bonded restorations in combination with air abrasion dentistry provides a truly minimal intervention dentistry. This article reviews the development of air abrasion, its clinical uses, and the essential accessories required for its use.
Hegde, Vivek S; Khatavkar, Roheet A
Air abrasion dentistry has evolved over a period of time from a new concept of an alternative means of cavity preparation to an essential means of providing a truly conservative preparation for preservation of a maximal sound tooth structure. The development of bonded restorations in combination with air abrasion dentistry provides a truly minimal intervention dentistry. This article reviews the development of air abrasion, its clinical uses, and the essential accessories required for its use.
Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) concept has caused great impact and interest in the field of dentistry. For its development is important to use research protocols and study designs according to the research problem. The aim of this review is to present basic aspects for the start of a quantitative research in dentistry.It presents the topics necessary to transform a research problem to a question with clinical approach. Then, concepts about finding relevant scientific articles in the electroni...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports by online pharmacies. 1304.55 Section 1304... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.55 Reports by online pharmacies. (a) Each online pharmacy shall report to the Administrator the total quantity of each controlled substance that the pharmacy has dispensed...
Among private Universities of Pharmacy in Japan, Kyoritsu University of Pharmacy was the first to introduce courses in social pharmacy in 1991. Social pharmacy is a discipline driven by social needs. By studying the relationship between pharmacy and society, particularly through case studies, the impact of drugs and changes in societal expectation of them, as well as through historical background studies and surveys of current trends, this discipline acts to determine the roles of pharmacists and pharmacies expected by society. Social pharmacy requires a basic knowledge of pharmaceutical science, but an understanding from economic viewpoints of the current systems and structures in which healthcare functions is important as well. Once these are understood, the goal is to identify social problems, and to create and apply models for their resolution which connect pharmacy and society. So far, social pharmacy has played an important role in training programs for community-based pharmacists essential for a hyper-aged society, for community pharmacies' health management programs aimed at promoting the health of residents, and educational programs for elementary and middle school children.
By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.
de Medeiros, Glaucia Helena Faraco; Brüning, Vanessa
Aim: Appoint the main chronic diseases and the most frequent medications used by the patients by the graduation students of Dentistry between 2012 and 2014/A,through patients’dentistry records.Material and Methods: Two studies were performed: one retrospective in patients’ dentistry records, attended at the Clinical School of Dentistry and a cross-sectional study with the students enrolled between the 6th and 9th semester in 2014/B. After the record, the data were inserted on an Excel® spread...
Kassam, Rosemin; Collins, John B; Berkowitz, Jonathan
To compare patients' expectations and experiences at pharmacies offering traditional APPE learning opportunities with those offering enhanced APPEs that incorporate pharmaceutical care activities. A survey of anchored measures of patient satisfaction was conducted in 2 groups of APPE- affiliated community pharmacies: those participating in an enhanced APPE model versus those participating in the traditional model. The enhanced intervention included preceptor training, a comprehensive student orientation, and an extended experience at a single pharmacy rather than the traditional 2 x 4-week experience at different pharmacies. While patient expectations were similar in both traditional and enhanced APPE pharmacies, patients in enhanced pharmacies reported significantly higher in-store satisfaction and fewer service gaps. Additionally, satisfaction was significantly higher for patients who had received any form of consultation, from either pharmacist or students, than those reporting no consultations. Including provision of pharmaceutical care services as part of APPEs resulted in direct and measurable improvements in patient satisfaction.
pockets in excess of 4-5 mm. e. Prosthetics: 1. Soldiers that require complete dentures or remo- vable partial dentures to properly masticate food. 2...Shulman ARMY COMMUNITY DENTISTRY - PROGRAM PLANNING .. ............... 7-1 Lieutenant Colonel John E. King HISTORY OF PREVENTIVE DENTISTRY IN THE ARMY... History of Preventive COL Barnes Dentistry in the Army 0900 ACO - Program Evaluation LTC King 1000 BREAK 1015 Dental Readiness Program Ms. Bowen at
Full Text Available Aim: To characterize personal, institutional or national scientific production is a need to understand and improve the generation of knowledge. The aim of this study is to describe the bibliometric profile of ISI publications related of Universidad de Concepción School of Dentistry during 1989-2012 timespan.Matherial and methods: Bibliometric study. A search on Web of Knowledge of Thomson Reuters for Science Citation Index Expanded database was perfomed, about the scientific productivity of Universidad de Concepción School of Dentistry during 1989-2012 period. The analyzed variables were the number of publications, cites, magazines on which they were published, authors, institutions and coauthor countries.Results: Thirty nine articles were identified. These articles were cited in 266 opportunities (6,82 cites per article and h-index of 10. In relation with journals, stands out Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontology (21.9%, Journal of Oral Pathology Medicine (12.2%, and International Journal of Morphology (7.3%. More productive authors were Rojas (13, Martínez (11 y Brethauer (9. 48,72% of publications was concentrated in last five-years and 69.23% in last ten-years.Conclusions: Universidad de Concepción School of Dentistry scientific production is poor, being observed an increase during the last 5 years.
... retail pharmacy pharmacist transmitting the prescription, and the date of transmittal; (2) Ensure that... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and refill prescriptions of Schedule III, IV... Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial...
.... When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training...
Atkinson, Jeffrey; Rombaut, Bart
The PHARMINE consortium consists of 50 universities from European Union member states or other European countries that are members of the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy (EAFP). EU partner associations representing community (PGEU), hospital (EAHP) and industrial pharmacy (EIPG), together with the European Pharmacy Students' Association (EPSA) are also part of the consortium. THE CONSORTIUM SURVEYED PHARMACIES AND PHARMACISTS IN DIFFERENT SETTINGS: community, hospital, industry and other sectors. The consortium also looked at how European Union higher education institutions and courses are organised. The PHARMINE survey of pharmacy and pharmacy education in Europe produced country profiles with extensive information for EU member states and several other European countries. These data are available at: http://www.pharmine.org/losse_paginas/Country_Profiles/. This 2011 PHARMINE report presents the project and data, and some preliminary analysis on the basic question of how pharmacy education is adapted to pharmacy practice in the EU.
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Pharmacy Locations dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'Pharmacies, licensed - name,...
Babar, Zaheer Ud Din; Almarsdottir, Anna Birna
The chapter starts by outlining the current and future scenario related to pharmacy practice research. This chapter then sets the scene by discussing issues that are pertinent for practice research. These issues are changes in population demographics; changes in technology, the role of the pharmacy...... as an institution and consumer behaviour; as well as changes in the pharmacy profession. It also outlines the major shifts in pharmacy practice research, which include interprofessional collaboration and teamwork with patients, describing and measuring outcomes of interventions as well as patients’ cultural...... diversity. It concludes by drawing attention to methodologies that would be most commonly used in future pharmacy practice research. Some of the future methodological challenges could be the emergence of big and complex data sets, dealing with electronic health records and pharmacy practice researchers...
Soon, Judith A.; Levine, Marc
Objectives. To characterize rural health care and pharmacy recruitment and retention issues explored in Canadian pharmacy strategic guidelines and Canadian Faculties of Pharmacy curricula; compare the availability of pharmacy workforce across Canadian jurisdictions; and identify models for potential collaborations between universities and rural pharmacies in the North. Methods. Review of Canadian pharmacy strategic documents, Canadian Faculty of Pharmacy websites, Canadian pharmacy workforce ...
Matsuura, Gregory T; Weeks, Douglas L
The use of pharmacy informatics resources by clinical pharmacy services and the presence of a pharmacy informatics specialist in acute care hospitals were evaluated. Two hundred randomly selected pharmacies in general medical and surgical hospitals in the United States with at least 100 acute care beds were surveyed via mail. Survey items gathered information regarding facility attributes, opinions about staff pharmacists' understanding of information technology, and departmental utilization of pharmacy informatics. Of the 200 surveys mailed, 114 (57%) were returned completed. When asked to rate their departments' use of pharmacy informatics, 82% indicated that pharmacy informatics use was good or fair, while 12% considered information use to be optimized. A majority of respondents (60%) indicated that a pharmacy informatics specialist was employed within the pharmacy, with 47% indicating that the specialist was a pharmacist. An overwhelming percentage of these pharmacists received informatics training on the job, and roughly half had specialty positions integrated into their pharmacist job description. No significant association existed between the use of pharmacy informatics and facility teaching status (teaching versus nonteaching), geographic location (urban versus rural), or use of computerized prescriber order entry. Employment of a pharmacy informatics specialist was significantly associated with the use of such informatics applications as database mining, renal-dosing-rules engines, antibiotic-pathogen matching-rules engines, and pharmacokinetic-monitoring rules engines. The use of clinical pharmacy informatics in patient care in acute care hospitals with at least 100 beds was significantly more likely when a pharmacy informatics specialist was present in the pharmacy. However, 4 in 10 hospital pharmacies did not employ a pharmacy informatics specialist.
Arkaravichien, Wiwat; Wongpratat, Apichaya; Lertsinudom, Sunee
Background Quality indicators determine the quality of actual practice in reference to standard criteria. The Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand), with technical support from the International Pharmaceutical Federation, developed a tool for quality assessment and quality improvement at community pharmacies. This tool has passed validity and reliability tests, but has not yet had feasibility testing. Objective (1) To test whether this quality tool could be used in routine settings. (2) To compare quality scores between accredited independent and accredited chain pharmacies. Setting Accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in the north eastern region of Thailand. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies. Quality scores were assessed by observation and by interviewing the responsible pharmacists. Data were collected and analyzed by independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate. Results were plotted by histogram and spider chart. Main outcome measure Domain's assessable scores, possible maximum scores, mean and median of measured scores. Results Domain's assessable scores were close to domain's possible maximum scores. This meant that most indicators could be assessed in most pharmacies. The spider chart revealed that measured scores in the personnel, drug inventory and stocking, and patient satisfaction and health promotion domains of chain pharmacies were significantly higher than those of independent pharmacies (p independent pharmacies and chain pharmacies in the premise and facility or dispensing and patient care domains. Conclusion Quality indicators developed by the Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand) could be used to assess quality of practice in pharmacies in routine settings. It is revealed that the quality scores of chain pharmacies were higher than those of independent pharmacies.
Full Text Available R Guzmán-Álvarezv,1 M Medeiros,2,3 LI Reyes Lagunes,4 AE Campos-Sepúlveda11Pharmacology Department, UNAM School of Medicine and Dentistry, Mexico City, 2Pharmacology Clinical Seminar, UNAM School of Medicine, Mexico City, 3Medical Sciences Department, Mexico Federico Gómez Children's Hospital, Mexico City, 4Measuring and Evaluation Unit, UNAM School of Psychology, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: Students in schools of dentistry attend to patients with illnesses, and often prescribe medication. Because students are still learning, they are influenced by a variety of factors: the different teaching approaches of the professors at the clinics and in the pharmacology course, fellow students, and even the information provided by the pharmaceutical industry.Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to assess the prescription knowledge and common mistakes in fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.Methods: In March 2010, a survey was conducted among 66 fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry, applying a previously validated questionnaire consisting of six open-ended questions The following factors were assessed: the most frequent illness requiring dental prescription; the most prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics; the most frequent errors; sources of information used for prescribing drugs; and whether the students knew and followed the World Health Organization Guide to Good Prescribing.Results: The most frequent response for each question was considered the most significant. The most common reason for prescribing medication was infection (n = 37, 56%, followed by pain (n = 24, 38%; the most used painkillers were ibuprofen and acetaminophen at equal levels (n = 25, 37.8%, followed by ketorolac (n = 7, 10.6%, naproxen (n = 6, 9.1%, diclofenac (n = 2, 3%, and aspirin (n = 1, 1.5%; the most widely prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (n = 52, 78
Rabinovich, S A; Anisimova, E N; Zavodilenko, L A
The Russian delegation of the European Federation for the Advancement of Anesthesia in Dentistry (EFAAD) participated in IV Congress of EFAAD where were considered such problems of dental and anxiolysis in patients with severe concomitant diseases and training dentists improvements on such problems as anesthesia, sedation, prophylaxis and emergency management inpatients with accompanying diseases.
Dummett, Clifton O
Inspired by recently published NDA II: The Story of America's Second National Dental Association and sponsored jointly by the National Dental Association Foundation and the Colgate-Palmolive Company, an historical exhibit on dentistry in the African-American community was one of the celebrations for the Golden Anniversary of the American Academy of the History of Dentistry. This exhibit premiered on Sept. 27, 2002 in the National Museum of Dentistry located on the medical/dental campus of the University of Maryland in Baltimore. The Museum recently became an affiliate of the Smithsonian Institution. Contents of the exhibit were photographs, charts, artifacts, memorabilia, etc. These materials presented an overview of African-American activities in dental education, research, patient care, general practice, dental specialities, military service, and public health. Also included were inter-racial relationships, socioeconomic developments, and participation in civil rights endeavors that played a major role in changing out-dated accepted customs. The exhibit's purpose was to celebrate dentistry's ministrations as a health professional among African Americans in particular and the nation at large over the past two centuries. Respect for and progress of black dentists paralleled that of black physicians who were instrumental in including dentist and pharmacists as equal members in the National Medical Association since the latter's inception in 1895.
Bie, J. de; Kijlstra, N.B.; Daemen, B.J.G.; Bouvy, M.L.
Aims: To develop a national system of quality indicators for community pharmacy care, reported by community pharmacies. Methods: After preliminary validation, an online consensus study was conducted. Pharmacy practice experts (round 1) and practising pharmacists (round 2) were approached.
Todd, Kelli; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith
Retail pharmacies provide essential services to residents of rural areas and serve many communities as the sole provider of pharmacist services. Losing the only retail pharmacy within a rural community (census designated city), and within a 10 mile radius based on driving distance ("sole community pharmacy"), may affect access to prescription and over-the-counter drugs and, in some cases, leave the community without proximate access to any clinical provider. This policy brief documents the closure of local retail pharmacies in which the pharmacist was the only clinical provider available in the community at the time the pharmacy closed. Characteristics of the community and the retail pharmacy are described. The findings may suggest future policy actions to minimize the risk or mitigate the negative consequences of pharmacy closures. Key Findings. (1) Between May 1, 2006, and October 31, 2010, 119 sole community pharmacies closed. (2) Of those 119 pharmacies, 31 were located in rural communities with no other health professionals or clinical providers. (3) In 16 states, at least 1 community lost a sole community retail pharmacy, and there was no other pharmacy within 10 miles (actual driving distance). (4) Of the 31 pharmacy closures in communities with no other providers, 17% were located in remote rural areas designated with a Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) score of 10 or higher. Such a score means that, on average, 60 minutes of travel time is required to reach an urbanized area, and 40 minutes is required to reach a large urban cluster of 20,000 population or more.
Paradis, Johanne; Gauthier, Jacques-Bernard
The lack of interest of researchers in relation to question of hospital pharmacy management, and the status quo of existing managerial practices serving the reforms, justifies analysis of theoretical foundations of hospital pharmacy management. The objective is twofold. First, provide an overview of the socio-historical eras of the organizational theories in order to position the hospital pharmacy management on the axis of the changing ways of thinking about the organization and management. S...
Yang, Z; Peterson, R T; Huang, L
Like most businesses, online pharmacy companies will only be successful if they make sure customers are satisfied with the service they receive. But what attributes of service quality lead to satisfaction and dissatisfaction? This study identified 19 Internet pharmacy service quality dimensions in three categories: (1) product cost and availability, (2) customer service, and (3) the online information system. Our analysis uncovered attributes that tend to determine consumer satisfaction and points out ways to improve overall service quality in the Internet pharmacy arena.
Bosso, John A; Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Nappi, Jean; Gubbins, Paul O; Ross, Leigh Ann
Benchmarking in academic pharmacy, and recommendations for the potential uses of benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments are discussed in this paper. Benchmarking is the process by which practices, procedures, and performance metrics are compared to an established standard or best practice. Many businesses and industries use benchmarking to compare processes and outcomes, and ultimately plan for improvement. Institutions of higher learning have embraced benchmarking practices to facilitate measuring the quality of their educational and research programs. Benchmarking is used internally as well to justify the allocation of institutional resources or to mediate among competing demands for additional program staff or space. Surveying all chairs of academic pharmacy departments to explore benchmarking issues such as department size and composition, as well as faculty teaching, scholarly, and service productivity, could provide valuable information. To date, attempts to gather this data have had limited success. We believe this information is potentially important, urge that efforts to gather it should be continued, and offer suggestions to achieve full participation.
Ozar, D T
While countries varies significantly in the financing of dental care, they are much more alike in the delivery of dentistry. Dental care is principally provided in dental offices and clinics that are independent business entities whose business leaders are most often the dentists themselves. However society expects from dentists a level of professionalism (i.e. habitually acting ethically, both in terms of competence and conduct) in contrast to the methods and motivations of the marketplace. This is why the single most important challenge of dental professional ethics continues to be giving proper priority to patients' well being and building ethically correct decision-making relationships with patients while, at the same time, trying to maintain a successful business operation. If we look into dentistry's future, the centrality of this aspect of professional ethics is not likely to change, although the ways in which dentists might violate this trust will probably multiple as funding mechanisms become increasingly complex. It is important that dentists reflect with fresh eyes on their ethical commitments. One challenge is the increased availability of oral health information to the public and the fact that so many people are uncritical of the accuracy of information in the media and on the web. A second is the increase in the amount of health care advertising in many societies. A third is the growth of aesthetic dentistry that differs from standard oral health care in important and ethically significant ways. The fourth is insurance that frequently complicates the explanation of a patient's treatment alternatives and often brings a third party into the treatment decision relationship. The ethical challenges of each of these factors will be considered and ultimately tying it to the central theme of dental professionalism.
Jammula Surya Prasanna
Full Text Available It was only toward the close of the last century that women emancipated themselves from their former small territory of usefulness in a strictly domestic life, and pushing forward, proved themselves often the business equal to men and sometimes their superior. If was long before this progression, when a women in business or professional ranks was almost a curiosity. When women first entered the profession, they faced many obstacles. Mentors or faculty in the dental organizations majority were male restraining women by all means. In the beginning, men were resentful because they feel women are inferior. It took a long time for women to become a consistent presence in dental schools. In the beginning, dental schools used to admit one or two women each year, later the number increased slowly. Olden day′s women used to relieve not even the tooth ache but also used to relieve others fret also. But histories of dentistry were not acknowledged the talent of women whatsoever. The efforts and achievements of women punch the clock in the future dentistry. The current scenario has totally changed now. Nearly, half of all dental students′ are women and 25% of them are practicing dentists. Only 3% women dentists were there before the 1970s.  Women struggled to obtain a degree, to establish practices, and are respected as professionals. Some women choose this rewarding occupation as career followed by their family members. The population tally of chosen work upbringing has changed over time. This paper reports in a delineative way of the amelioration, staggering presence, and intendment of dentistry practicing by worldwide women.
Phipps, D.L.; Bie, J. de; Herborg, H.; Guerreiro, M.; Eickhoff, C.; Fernandes-Llimos, F.; Bouvy, M.L.; Rossing, C.; Mueller, U.; Ashcroft, D.M.
Objective: To evaluate the internal reliability, factor structure and construct validity of the Pharmacy Safety Climate Questionnaire (PSCQ) when applied to a pan-European sample of community pharmacies. Design: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Setting: Community pharmacies in Denmark,
Shajahan, P A; Kumar, P Ranjith; Hariprasad, A; Mathew, Jyothis; Shaji, A P; Ahammed, M Fazeel
In this era of fast developing technologies and innovative ideas, the need for faster treatment has become a necessity. Treatment with lasers that is much less time-consuming and painless is accepted and appreciated by the patient. Use of Lasers is not new; they have been in use for decades since their development by Maiman in 1960. Lasers have travelled a long way from ruby lasers to erbium lasers and are being fondly used in every aspect of dental treatment. This article aims at elaborate the use and applications of lasers in the field of esthetic dentistry. PMID:26124614
Full Text Available Anxiety and fear are normal reactions in humans when situations are evaluating as being painful. In medical dentistry, anxiety and fear characterize in fact o problematic patient with special reactions during dental interventions and avoidance behavior, both behaviors having a great impact on patient’s dental health. The paper presents some aspects on the psychological profile of odontophobics, causes and consequences of dental fear on patient’s dental health, and some considerations on psychological interventions meant at reducing anxiety and fear during dental treatment.
Glass, R Thomas
While body identification by dental means has not changed substantially since 9/11, or even since the bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995, the conditions and potential risks of a bioterrorism action to the dental personnel is new. The purpose of this article is to review general forensic dentistry disaster responses and to address the impact a bioterrorism action might have on primary, secondary and tertiary dental responders. It will also examine the triage role that dental offices might play in the event of such a disaster.
Full Text Available Ozone is an allotropic form of oxygen, which is effectively used in the treatment of different diseases for more than 100 years. In the present era of increasing antibiotic resistance, ozone therapy is an alternative medical treatment that rationales to increase the amount of oxygen to the body through institution of ozone into the body. Owing to its beneficial biological properties including antimicrobial and immune-stimulating effects, ozone therapy has opened new vistas in treatment modalities of dental pathologies for patients of all ages. The objective of this article is to review the literature available on applications of ozone in dentistry.
Patients today are incteasingly aware of dental implants.and their expectations are for esthetically and functionally pleasingimplant restorations that mimic natural teeth.This presentation will give both the experienced and novice practitioner a better understand-ing of how restorative implant dentistry has evolved.Treatment planning and restorative options for single implants.multiple implants andfully edentulons arches will be discussed,and the use of modern materials and CADCAM technology in fabricating the most contemporaryfixed implant supported prostheses will be demonstrated.
The concept of minimally invasive dentistry will provide favorable conditions for the use of composite resin. However, a number of factors must be considered when placing composite resins in conservatively prepared cavities, including: aspects on the adaptation of the composite resin to the cavity walls; the use of adhesives; and techniques for obtaining adequate proximal contacts. The clinician must also adopt an equally conservative approach when treating failed restorations. The quality of the composite resin restoration will not only be affected by the outline form of the preparation but also by the clinician's technique and understanding of the materials.
Attri, Joginder Pal; Sharan, Radhe; Makkar, Vega; Gupta, Kewal Krishan; Khetarpal, Ranjana; Kataria, Amar Parkash
Dental fear and anxiety is a common problem in pediatric patients. There is considerable variation in techniques used to manage them. Various sedation techniques using many different anesthetic agents have gained considerable popularity over the past few years. Children are not little adults; they differ physically, psychologically, and emotionally. The purpose of this review is to survey recent trends and concerning issues in the rapidly changing field of pediatric sedation. We will study the topic from the perspective of an anesthesiologist. It will also provide information to practitioners on the practice of conscious sedation in dentistry and will also outline the route of administration, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of various drugs used.
Kanaparthy, Rosaiah; Kanaparthy, Aruna
The human body comprises molecules; hence, the availability of molecular nanotechnology will permit dramatic progress to address medical problems and will use molecular knowledge to maintain and improve human health at the molecular scale. Nanomedicine could develop devices that are able to work inside the human body in order to identify the early presence of a disease, and to identify and quantify toxic molecules and tumor cells, for example. Nanodentistry will make possible the maintenance of comprehensive oral health by employing nanomaterials, including tissue engineering and, ultimately, dental nanorobots. This review is an attempt to highlight the possible applications of nanotechnology and the use of nanomaterials in dentistry.
Marriott, Jennifer L.; Nation, Roger L.; Roller, Louis; Costelloe, Marian; Galbraith, Kirstie; Stewart, Peter; Charman, William N.
Accredited pharmacy programs in Australia provide a high standard of pharmacy education, attracting quality students. The principal pharmacy degree remains the 4-year bachelor of pharmacy degree; however, some universities offer graduate-entry master of pharmacy degrees taught in 6 semesters over a 2-year period. Curricula include enabling and applied pharmaceutical science, pharmacy practice, and clinical and experiential teaching, guided by competency standards and an indicative curriculum ...
Brijlal, Pradeep; Brijlal, Priscilla
An investigation of the intentions and knowledge of entrepreneurship of final-year university dentistry students is reported, with particular regard to the factors of gender and race. A questionnaire survey was used with final-year dentistry students, over two years, at the University of the Western Cape in South Africa. The findings show that…
Naughton, Cynthia A; Schweiger, Teresa A; Angelo, Lauren B; Lea Bonner, C; Dhing, Conrad W; Farley, Joel F
Although the use of a professional dress code is standard practice across colleges and schools of pharmacy during introductory and advanced pharmacy practice experiences, requiring professional attire...
Look, Kevin A; Mott, David A
To evaluate trends and patterns in the prevalence of multiple pharmacy use (MPU) and to describe the number and types of pharmacies used by multiple pharmacy users from 2003 to 2009. Retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study. United States from 2003 to 2009. 89,941 responses to the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey over 7 years. Analysis of respondent pharmacy use behaviors. Annual use of more than one pharmacy and number and types of pharmacies used. MPU among patients using medications increased significantly during the study period (from 36.4% [95% CI 35.2-37.6] in 2003 to 43.2% [41.9-44.4] in 2009)-a relative increase of 18.7% ( P = 0.01). Multiple pharmacy users used between 2 and 17 different pharmacies per year to obtain prescription medications. Although approximately 70% of multiple pharmacy users used only two pharmacies, the proportion using three or more pharmacies increased from 24.1% (22.5-25.7) in 2003 to 29.1% (27.4-30.8) in 2009. Mail service pharmacy use had the largest relative increase among multiple pharmacy users during the study period (27.2%), and MPU was nearly twice as high (75%) among mail service users compared with non-mail service users. MPU is common on a national level and has increased greatly in recent years. Patient use of pharmacies that have the potential to share medication information electronically is low among multiple pharmacy users, suggesting increased workload for pharmacists and potential medication safety concerns. This has important implications for pharmacists, as it potentially impedes their ability to maintain accurate medication profiles for patients.
Full Text Available Bioactive glasses are silicate-based and can form a strong chemical bond with the tissues. These biomaterials are highly biocompatible and can form a hydroxyapatite layer when implanted in the body or soaked in the simulated body fluid. Due to several disadvantages, conventional glass processing method including melting of glass components, is replaced by sol-gel method with a large number of benefits such as low processing temperature, higher purity and homogeneity and therefore better control of bioactivity. Bioactive glasses have a wide range of applications, particularly in dentistry. These glasses can be used as particulates or monolithic shapes and porous or dense constructs in different applications such as remineralization or hypersensitivity treatment. Some properties of bioactive glasses such as antibacterial properties can be promoted by adding different elements into the glass. Bioactive glasses can also be used to modify different biocompatible materials that need to be bioactive. This study reviews the significant developments of bioactive glasses in clinical application, especially dentistry. Furthermore, we will discuss the field of bioactive glasses from beginning to the current developments, which includes processing methods, applications, and properties of these glasses.
Vagish Kumar L S
Full Text Available Probiotics are living bacteria that can benefit our health. They may reduce the overgrowth of pathogens and are used in the form of food and food supplements. Probiotics which is being commonly used for the management of intestinal tract problems has recently been used to promote oral health. The concept of administering beneficial bacteria with a view to replace harmful microbes by useful ones is revived by probiotic concept. In oral cavity probiotics form a biofilm that is protective against oral diseases. Probiotics can compete for adhesion sites as well as for nutrients and growth factors with cariogenic, halithogenic, fungal and periodontal pathogens thereby inhibiting their growth. Thus they may be useful in preventing and treating various oral diseases. Probiotics with gene therapy are capable of yielding amazing success in intercepting and treating diseases. A literature search in Pub-Med, Google scholar, EBSCO HOST, SciELO, ScienceDirect database was done for English articles, using the following search terms: and ldquo;probiotics and rdquo; , and ldquo;oral health and rdquo;, and ldquo;dentistry and rdquo;; no restrictions were used for publication dates. The aim of article is to provide an insight about probiotics and their applications in dentistry. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 703-723
Khan, Mohd Toseef; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Zahid, Syed Naved; Chaudhary, Prabhat K
Neuromuscular dentistry has been a controversial topic in the field of dentistry and still remains debatable. The issue of good occlusion and sound health has been repeatedly discussed. Sometimes we get complains of sensitive teeth and sometimes of tired facial muscles on getting up in the morning. Owing to the intimate relation of masticatory apparatus with the cranium and cervico-scapular muscular system, the disorders in any system, draw attention from concerned clinicians involved in management, to develop an integrated treatment protocol for the suffering patients. There may be patients reporting to the dental clinics after an occlusal restoration or extraction, having pain in or around the temporomandibular joint, headache or neck pain. Although their esthetic demands must not be undermined during the course of treatment plan, whenever dental treatment of any sort is planned, occlusion/bite should be given prime importance. Very few dentist are able to diagnose the occlusal disease and of those who diagnose many people resort to aggressive treatment modalities. This paper aims to report the signs of occlusal disease, and discuss their association with TMDs and posture.
Badami, Vijetha; Ahuja, Bharat
By definition and general agreement, smart materials are materials that have properties which may be altered in a controlled fashion by stimuli, such as stress, temperature, moisture, pH, and electric or magnetic fields. There are numerous types of smart materials, some of which are already common. Examples include piezoelectric materials, which produce a voltage when stress is applied or vice versa, shape memory alloys or shape memory polymers which are thermoresponsive, and pH sensitive polymers which swell or shrink as a response to change in pH. Thus, smart materials respond to stimuli by altering one or more of their properties. Smart behaviour occurs when a material can sense some stimulus from its environment and react to it in a useful, reliable, reproducible, and usually reversible manner. These properties have a beneficial application in various fields including dentistry. Shape memory alloys, zirconia, and smartseal are examples of materials exhibiting a smart behavior in dentistry. There is a strong trend in material science to develop and apply these intelligent materials. These materials would potentially allow new and groundbreaking dental therapies with a significantly enhanced clinical outcome of treatments.
Williams, S D; Hughes, T E; Adler, C J; Brook, A H; Townsend, G C
In 2007, only four years after the completion of the Human Genome Project, the journal Science announced that epigenetics was the 'breakthrough of the year'. Time magazine placed it second in the top 10 discoveries of 2009. While our genetic code (i.e. our DNA) contains all of the information to produce the elements we require to function, our epigenetic code determines when and where genes in the genetic code are expressed. Without the epigenetic code, the genetic code is like an orchestra without a conductor. Although there is now a substantial amount of published research on epigenetics in medicine and biology, epigenetics in dental research is in its infancy. However, epigenetics promises to become increasingly relevant to dentistry because of the role it plays in gene expression during development and subsequently potentially influencing oral disease susceptibility. This paper provides a review of the field of epigenetics aimed specifically at oral health professionals. It defines epigenetics, addresses the underlying concepts and provides details about specific epigenetic molecular mechanisms. Further, we discuss some of the key areas where epigenetics is implicated, and review the literature on epigenetics research in dentistry, including its relevance to clinical disciplines. This review considers some implications of epigenetics for the future of dental practice, including a 'personalized medicine' approach to the management of common oral diseases.
Full Text Available By definition and general agreement, smart materials are materials that have properties which may be altered in a controlled fashion by stimuli, such as stress, temperature, moisture, pH, and electric or magnetic fields. There are numerous types of smart materials, some of which are already common. Examples include piezoelectric materials, which produce a voltage when stress is applied or vice versa, shape memory alloys or shape memory polymers which are thermoresponsive, and pH sensitive polymers which swell or shrink as a response to change in pH. Thus, smart materials respond to stimuli by altering one or more of their properties. Smart behaviour occurs when a material can sense some stimulus from its environment and react to it in a useful, reliable, reproducible, and usually reversible manner. These properties have a beneficial application in various fields including dentistry. Shape memory alloys, zirconia, and smartseal are examples of materials exhibiting a smart behavior in dentistry. There is a strong trend in material science to develop and apply these intelligent materials. These materials would potentially allow new and groundbreaking dental therapies with a significantly enhanced clinical outcome of treatments.
Maman, Paramjot; Nagpal, Manju; Gilhotra, Ritu Mehra; Aggarwal, Geeta
Management of the health of oral tissues is a prime requirement in dentistry. The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges. The limitations in dental materials, medications, instruments, procedures put off the accomplishment of this goal. Rationalization of science and technology has made possible to work out these limitations. Nanotechnology which is the outcome of this rationalization has become one of the most favored technologies in medical and dental application. The substantial contribution of nano dental materials is the identification of oral health related problems by better diagnosis and management of dental disorders by bionanomaterials. Application of nanodentistry holds promise for comprehensive dental care by utilizing nanomaterials ans ultimately by nanorobots. This review discusses the rationale of nanodentistry, nanocarriers researched in treatment of different dental diseases, the latest innovations in nanomaterials in various disciplines of dentistry; patent literature and related marketed products. Advances in nanotechnology have placed plenty of hopes in terms of improving the oral health care of dental patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Marcelo Coelho GOIATO
Full Text Available Introduction: The world population is getting old, mainly in countries in development like Brazil. So, the number of pathologies, which appears in the elderly, will happen in a higher frequency. Among these diseases, we can point Alzheimer, an irreversible dementia, that has been related to age, cerebral vascular disease, stroke, immunological defects and to genetic factors (Down Syndrome. It is known that with the progression of dementia, patients present difficulties of oral hygiene caused by decrease of motor and cognitive functions of Alzheimer's bearers. These patients demand specific strategies for a dental treatment without bigger difficulties. Objective: the aim of this paper was to review the articles about the relationship of geriatric dentistry and Alzheimer disease focusing and the characteristics of the patients with this kind of dementia and the cares to them. For this purpose, a peer-reviewed literature was completed using Medline database for the period from 1972 to 2006, including alzheimer disease and dentistry, and BBO for the period from 1987 to 2004, with geriatric keyword. Conclusion: The available data indicate that individuals with Alzheimer disease have more oral health problems than individuals without dementia.
Full Text Available Background: Dental care presents affordability issues in Central & Eastern European transitional economies due to lack of insurance coverage in most countries of the region and almost complete out-of-pocket payments by citizens.Objective: Real world estimates on cost differentials across clinical dentistry branches, ICD-10 diagnostic groups and groups of dental services.Methods: Prospective case-series cost analysis was conducted from the patient perspective. A six months time horizon was adopted. Sample size was 752 complete episodes of treatment in 250 patients, selected in 2012/2013 throughout several specialist state- and private-owned dental clinics in Serbia. All direct costs of dental care were taken into account and expressed in Euros (€.Results: Mean total costs of dental care were € 46 ± 156 per single dentist visit while total costs incurred by this population sample were € 34,424. Highest unit utilization of services belongs to conservative dentistry (31.9%, oral surgery (19.5% and radiology (17.4%, while the resource with the highest monetary value belongs to implantology € 828 ± 392, orthodontics € 706 ± 667 and prosthetics € 555 ± 244. The most frequently treated diagnosis was tooth decay (33.8% unit services provided, pulpitis (11.2% and impacted teeth (8.5%, while most expensive to treat were anomalies of tooth position (€ 648 ± 667, abnormalities of size and form of teeth (€ 508 ± 705 and loss of teeth due to accident, extraction or local periodontal disease (€ 336 ± 339.Conclusion: Although the range of dental costs currently falls behind EU average, Serbia’s emerging economy is likely to expand in the long run while market demand for dental services will grow. Due to threatened financial sustainability of current health insurance patterns in Western Balkans, getting acquainted with true size and structure of dental care costs could essentially support informed decision making in future
Derikvand, Nahid; Chinipardaz, Zahra; Ghasemi, Sara; Chiniforush, Nasim
Introduction: Laser surgery has been considered a popular alternative over conventional modalities in dentistry during the last few years. Among different types of lasers, diode lasers have gained special attention in oral soft tissue surgery. Case Reports: Five patients were referred to a private office. After careful evaluation of medical history and oral examination, oral diagnosis and treatment plan of each patient was established as follows: (1) A 21-year-old female with ankyloglossia (tongue-tie); (2) A 65-year-old female with a poor denture fit needing vestibuloplasty and frenectomy; (3) A 10-year-old male patient with pigmented gingiva in mandible and maxilla; (4) A 14-year-old female needing exposure of maxillary right canine for bracket bonding; and (5) A 25-year-old female patient who has a gingival maxillary frenum with a nodule. The treatment plan for all the patients was laser surgery with diode laser at 980 nm, in continuous mode. Results: All the patients experienced normal healing process with no postoperative complications. Favorable outcomes of laser surgery were observed on follow-up sessions. Conclusion: Considering the versatility of the 980 nm diode laser in oral soft tissue surgeries and the advantages of laser surgery, this study suggests the use of 980 nm diode laser in this regard.
Derikvand, Nahid; Chinipardaz, Zahra; Ghasemi, Sara; Chiniforush, Nasim
Introduction: Laser surgery has been considered a popular alternative over conventional modalities in dentistry during the last few years. Among different types of lasers, diode lasers have gained special attention in oral soft tissue surgery. Case Reports: Five patients were referred to a private office. After careful evaluation of medical history and oral examination, oral diagnosis and treatment plan of each patient was established as follows: (1) A 21-year-old female with ankyloglossia (tongue-tie); (2) A 65-year-old female with a poor denture fit needing vestibuloplasty and frenectomy; (3) A 10-year-old male patient with pigmented gingiva in mandible and maxilla; (4) A 14-year-old female needing exposure of maxillary right canine for bracket bonding; and (5) A 25-year-old female patient who has a gingival maxillary frenum with a nodule. The treatment plan for all the patients was laser surgery with diode laser at 980 nm, in continuous mode. Results: All the patients experienced normal healing process with no postoperative complications. Favorable outcomes of laser surgery were observed on follow-up sessions. Conclusion: Considering the versatility of the 980 nm diode laser in oral soft tissue surgeries and the advantages of laser surgery, this study suggests the use of 980 nm diode laser in this regard. PMID:28144444
Ardis M Copenhaver; Jennie B Jarrett; Jennifer Phillips; Jacob P Gettig
Every year the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Match for pharmacy residency programs becomes more competitive as the pool of applicants outnumbers available pharmacy residency positions...
Snyder, Margie E; Frail, Caitlin K; Gernant, Stephanie A; Bacci, Jennifer L; Coley, Kim C; Colip, Lauren M; Ferreri, Stefanie P; Hagemeier, Nicholas E; McGivney, Melissa Somma; Rodis, Jennifer L; Smith, Megan G; Smith, Randall B
To describe common facilitators, challenges, and lessons learned in 5 schools and colleges of pharmacy in establishing community pharmacy research fellowships. Five schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States. Schools and colleges of pharmacy with existing community partnerships identified a need and ability to develop opportunities for pharmacists to engage in advanced research training. Community pharmacy fellowships, each structured as 2 years long and in combination with graduate coursework, have been established at the University of Pittsburgh, Purdue University, East Tennessee State University, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and The Ohio State University. Program directors from each of the 5 community pharmacy research fellowships identified common themes pertaining to program structure, outcomes, and lessons learned to assist others planning similar programs. Common characteristics across the programs include length of training, prerequisites, graduate coursework, mentoring structure, and immersion into a pharmacist patient care practice. Common facilitators have been the existence of strong community pharmacy partnerships, creating a fellowship advisory team, and networking. A common challenge has been recruitment, with many programs experiencing at least one year without filling the fellowship position. All program graduates (n = 4) have been successful in securing pharmacy faculty positions. Five schools and colleges of pharmacy share similar experiences in implementing community pharmacy research fellowships. Early outcomes show promise for this training pathway in growing future pharmacist-scientists focused on community pharmacy practice. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate awareness and significance of pictograms among pharmacy and non-pharmacy students. The study was conducted in two public and private sector institutes of Karachi during July to Oct 2013. Altogether 306 pharmacy and non pharmacy students participated in the study. A self administered questionnaire was used for this purpose. Nineteen pictograms from the USP-DI and corresponding set of 19 locally developed pictograms conveying the same medication instructions or messages were evaluated. Respondents were evaluated for their interpretation of all 38 pictograms. More than 98% of the pharmacy students agreed that pictograms attracts attention of people to provide information about medicine use. 97% considered that pictograms are used as universal language that can be easily understood by everyone and they are effective tools for educating the illiterate patients. 97.87% non pharmacy students agreed that patients are unfamiliar with medical terminologies and pictograms may be used to convey the medically significant information to patients. Both pharmacy and non pharmacy students preferred USP-DI pictograms over the pictograms of local origin. It is a need of time to introduce pictograms as a topic in curriculum of Pharm -D courses like Dispensing Pharmacy, Hospital pharmacy and Community pharmacy so that during professional life pharmacist can use these tools to improve patient counseling techniques. It is a way to maximize patient care and provide patient education regardless of any barrier.
Khandoobhai, Anand; Weber, Robert J
In 2013, the Director's Forum published our assessment of issues facing pharmacy leaders to assist pharmacy directors in planning for the year ahead. The issues include health care reform and the Affordable Care Act, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative, the health care workforce, patients' perceptions of pharmacists, and the changing landscape of pharmacy education. Based on our environmental scan, the issues addressed in 2013 are pertinent to a department's plan for 2014. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to each of these issues to help pharmacy directors focus their department's goals for 2014 to support the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. This column will address (1) strategies to reduce medication costs and generate new pharmacy revenue streams, (2) innovative approaches to improving medication safety and quality, (3) steps to advance the clinical practice model, and (4) ways to create mutually beneficial student experiences.
Prescott, Julie; Wilson, Sarah Ellen; Wan, Kai-Wai
To determine the level of importance pharmacy students placed on science and mathematics subjects for pursuing a career in pharmacy. Two hundred fifty-four students completed a survey instrument developed to investigate students' perceptions of the relevance of science and mathematics subjects to a career in pharmacy. Pharmacy students in all 4 years of a master of pharmacy (MPharm) degree program were invited to complete the survey instrument. Students viewed chemistry-based and biology-based subjects as relevant to a pharmacy career, whereas mathematics subjects such as physics, logarithms, statistics, and algebra were not viewed important to a career in pharmacy. Students' experience in pharmacy and year of study influenced their perceptions of subjects relevant to a pharmacy career. Pharmacy educators need to consider how they can help students recognize the importance of scientific knowledge earlier in the pharmacy curriculum.
Hepler, Charles D.
Research needs for pharmacy administration and clinical pharmacy include study of the relationship of pharmacists and society, management methods for providing health care services, pharmacist training and socialization, competence evaluation, formative and summative research on drug use control, and organizational decision making. (MSE)
Stoner, Paul S.; Bayuse, Tina
The Johnson Space Center Pharmacy began operating in March of 2003. The pharmacy serves in two main capacities: to directly provide medications and services in support of the medical clinics at the Johnson Space Center, physician travel kits for NASA flight surgeon staff, and remote operations, such as the clinics in Devon Island, Star City and Moscow; and indirectly provide medications and services for the International Space Station and Space Shuttle medical kits. Process changes that occurred and continued to evolve in the advent of the installation of the new JSC Pharmacy, and the process of stocking medications for each of these aforementioned areas will be discussed. Methods: The incorporation of pharmacy involvement to provide services for remote operations and supplying medical kits was evaluated. The first step was to review the current processes and work the JSC Pharmacy into the existing system. The second step was to provide medications to these areas. Considerations for the timeline of expiring medications for shipment are reviewed with each request. The third step was the development of a process to provide accountability for the medications. Results: The JSC Pharmacy utilizes a pharmacy management system to document all medications leaving the pharmacy. Challenges inherent to providing medications to remote areas were encountered. A process has been designed to incorporate usage into the electronic medical record upon return of the information from these remote areas. This is an evolving program and several areas have been identified for further improvement.
Montoya, Isaac D; Jano, Elda
Sales of consumer products over the Internet have grown rapidly, including sales of pharmaceutical products. Online pharmacies mimic mail order pharmacies. To operate legally online, pharmacies must be licensed in every state in which sales occur. Although online pharmacies provide benefits to consumers, when compared with traditional pharmacies patients' safety may be compromised. Purchasing prescription drugs online may pose a risk to consumers because they cannot tell whether the site is offering drugs of the same quality offered by a retail pharmacy. There is also a possibility that prescription drugs purchased online may be counterfeit, illegal, or unapproved. A U.S. General Accounting Office study conducted in June 2004 showed that most counterfeit and unapproved drugs sold online are from non-U.S. pharmacies. The Food and Drug Administration and other government agencies have worked to enforce laws on drug sales over the Internet. The biggest challenge in regulating non-U.S. pharmacies is due to their off-shore location. Unfortunately, given the widespread anonymous and ever-changing nature of the Internet, it is very difficult to close down illegal websites.
This thesis deals with the development of patient education in the community pharmacy. The research questions concentrate on the determinants of technicians patient education behavior and the effects of a one-year lasting intervention program on the patient education activities in the pharmacy. Thi
Full Text Available Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm. degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union.
Hepler, Charles D.
Research needs for pharmacy administration and clinical pharmacy include study of the relationship of pharmacists and society, management methods for providing health care services, pharmacist training and socialization, competence evaluation, formative and summative research on drug use control, and organizational decision making. (MSE)
Full Text Available Anandi V Law, Eric K Gupta, Micah Hata, Karl M Hess, Roger S Klotz, Quang A Le, Emmanuelle Schwartzman, Bik-Wai Bilvick Tai Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA Abstract: Collaborative practice among health professionals is slowly coming of age, given the global focus on efficiency and effectiveness of care to achieve positive patient outcomes and to reduce the economic burden of fragmented care. Collaborative pharmacy practice (CPP is accordingly evolving within different models including: disease management, medication therapy management, patient centered medical home, and accountable care organizations. Pharmacist roles in these models relate to drug therapy management and include therapy introduction, adjustment, or discontinuation, patient counseling and education, and identification, resolution, and prevention of problems leading to drug interactions and adverse reactions. Most forms of CPP occur with physicians in various settings. Collaborative practice agreements exist in many states in the US and are mentioned in the International Pharmaceutical Federation policy statement. Impetus for CPP comes from health system and economic concerns, as well as from a regulatory push. There are positive examples in community, ambulatory care, and inpatient settings that have well documented protocols, indicators of care, and measurement and reporting of clinical, economic, and patient reported outcomes; however, implementation of the practice is still not widespread. Conceptual and implementation challenges include health professional training, attitudes, confidence and comfort levels, power and communication issues, logistic barriers of time, workload, proximity, resistance to establish and adopt regulations, and importantly, payment models. Some of the attitudinal and perceptual challenges can be mitigated by incorporation of interprofessional concepts and
Largent, Beverly A
Founded in 1947, the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) is a not-for-profit membership association representing the specialty of pediatric dentistry. The AAPD's 7,500 members are primary oral health care providers who offer comprehensive specialty treatment for millions of infants, children, adolescents, and individuals with special healthcare needs. The AAPD also represents general dentists who treat a significant number of children in their practices. As advocates for children's oral health, the AAPD develops and promotes evidence-based policies and guidelines, fosters research, contributes to scholarly work concerning pediatric oral health, and educates healthcare providers, policymakers, and the public on ways to improve children's oral health. The academy's philanthropic arm, Healthy Smiles, Healthy Children: The Foundation of the AAPD, advances the AAPD mission through the support and promotion of education, research, service, and policy development.
Redman, B K
The pharmacy profession's responsibility to provide ethical leadership to its members is explained, and areas where pharmacy should take a leadership role are described. Changes taking place in health care offer many opportunities for pharmacy in its transformation into a fully clinical discipline. The profession needs to address the ethical issues that will affect it as part of this revolution. The role pharmacy is taking to eliminate medication misadventuring will be a test case for the profession's ability to exert the leadership it must, as part of its new definition of itself. Pharmacy needs to define the structure, process, and outcomes necessary to improve its own practice to avoid drug misadventuring, with a clear set of practice and ethical standards, and engage medicine and nursing to adopt similar standards. Pharmacy should also take a leadership role in health care reform, working with other clinicians to ensure that the changes provide better outcomes for patients. Health care professionals are bound together by a common moral purpose: to act in the patient's best interest. Thus, each health profession is a moral community, which must determine and promote ethical behavior among its members. Pharmacy must practice ethical leadership: it must define and prove its contribution to patient outcomes, further develop legal and ethical standards, and examine its responsibilities for vulnerable patient groups such as children. It must work to overcome the traditional dominance of medicine; pharmacy, nursing, and medicine must come together in service of the patient and develop a cross-professional conception of ethics. Pharmacy also must participate in the broader debate about health care. Pharmacy has begun to take a leadership role among the health professions through its efforts to eliminate medication misadventuring. Additional leadership challenges for the profession are suggested.
Hinton, Robert J; Dechow, Paul C; Abdellatif, Hoda; Jones, Daniel L; McCann, Ann L; Schneiderman, Emet D; D'Souza, Rena
In the early years of the new millennium, the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research of the National Institutes of Health began funding Oral Health Research Education Grants using the R25 mechanism to promote the application of basic and clinical research findings to clinical training and to encourage students to pursue careers in oral health research. This report describes the impact of an R25 grant awarded to the Texas A&M Health Science Center's Baylor College of Dentistry (BCD) on its curriculum and faculty development efforts. At BCD, the R25 grant supports a multipronged initiative that employs clinical research as a vehicle for acquainting both students and faculty with the tools of evidence-based dentistry (EBD). New coursework and experiences in all four years of the curriculum plus a variety of faculty development offerings are being used to achieve this goal. Progress on these fronts is reflected in a nascent EBD culture characterized by increasing participation and buy-in by students and faculty. The production of a new generation of dental graduates equipped with the EBD skill set as well as a growing nucleus of faculty members who can model the importance of evidence-based practice is of paramount importance for the future of dentistry.
Jones, Daniel L; Hinton, Robert J; Dechow, Paul C; Abdellatif, Hoda; McCann, Ann L; Schneiderman, Emet D; D'Souza, Rena
This report describes the impact of an R25 Oral Health Research Education Grant awarded to the Texas A&M Health Science Center-Baylor College of Dentistry (BCD) to promote the application of basic and clinical research findings to clinical training and encourage students to pursue careers in oral health research. At Baylor, the R25 grant supports a multi-pronged initiative that employs clinical research as a vehicle for acquainting both students and faculty with the tools of evidence-based dentistry (EBD). New coursework and experiences in all 4 years of the curriculum plus a variety of faculty development offerings are being used to achieve this goal. Progress on these fronts is reflected in a nascent "EBD culture" characterized by increasing participation and buy-in by students and faculty. The production of a new generation of dental graduates equipped with the EBD skill set as well as a growing nucleus of faculty who can model the importance of evidence-based practice is of paramount importance for the future of dentistry.
Koole, S; Vandeweghe, S; Mattheos, N; De Bruyn, H
To promote consensus on implant dentistry university education in Europe, a workshop amongst university teachers and opinion leaders was organised in 2008. As a result, guidelines on both under- and postgraduate education were issued. This study aims to investigate the current status of university teaching of implant dentistry and the impact of the recommendations for teaching and assessment, 5 years after the first consensus. Finally, this report attempts to identify future directions in education within the discipline. An online survey was distributed amongst 105 academic leaders in implant education in Europe, and 52 questionnaires were returned (response rate 50%). The average amount of implant dentistry in undergraduate curricula has increased to 74 h, compared to 36 h in 2008, and the inclusion of pre-clinical and clinical education has increased. No change occurred with regard to the aimed competence levels. It was suggested that certain implant procedures including surgery should be provided by dentists after attending additional courses, whilst complex treatments will still require specialist training. The 2008 workshop guidelines have been implemented to a varying extent (25-100%) in under- and postgraduate education. Main reported implementation barriers included limited time availability in the curriculum and limited financial/material resources. Future discussions about implant dentistry in Europe should be focused towards integration in current dental curricula, approaches to overcome barriers and the relations with and role of industrial partners. Implant dentistry is increasingly integrating in undergraduate dental education. Development of the consensus guidelines in 2008 may have facilitated this process. Nevertheless, further progress is needed on all educational levels to align training of professionals to the growing treatment needs of the population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sarbani Deb Sikdar
Full Text Available The various biochemical processes in the human body generate heat, which must be dissipated. Skin is the major route for heat dissipation using blood as the heat exchange fluid. Skin temperature is an indicator of aberrations in metabolism, hemodynamis or in neuronal thermoregulatory processes. Since most of the heat dissipation of skin is by infrared black body emission skin temperature should be measured without contact, by monitoring the emitted infrared radiation. This has been the basis of telethermography Thermography is being used to detect various pathological conditions in the medical field. There are also various orofacial conditions in which thermography can be used. This paper deals with the history of thermography and its various uses in dentistry.
Full Text Available Nanodentistry is defined as the science and technology of diagnosing, treating and preventing oral and dental diseases, relieving pain, preserving and improving dental health using nanostructured material. Varieties of new dental products are available that rely on nanoscale properties, ranging from implants to oral hygiene products. Nanodentistry encourages the concept of minimally invasive dentistry, creating a more dentist friendly atmosphere. However, patient awareness and education is important to make them understand the developments in the field and the options available in the treatment. Following the progress of nanotechnology, current dental research is exploring designs for restorative systems. During the last decades, an increasing variety of dental restorative materials were developed. The paper reviews the most innovative nanocomposites, their structure, antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities, economical and ethical aspects and safety issues.
Ure, David; Harris, Jonathan
The speed at which advances are being made in science has catapulted nanotechnology from its theoretical foundations straight into the real world. There are now many examples of commercially available products demonstrating that, in given situations, the technology really does work and that its scope for further application is wide. Healthcare, along with society as a whole, is facing a major revolution in the wake of ongoing technological developments in the field of nanotechnology. Dentistry as an individual healthcare discipline is not exempt, having already been targeted directly with novel 'nano-materials' at the same time as indirectly enjoying the benefits of nano-related advances in the electronics industry through the ongoing computerization of the modern practice. This article examines current practical applications of nanotechnology alongside proposed applications in the future and aims to demonstrate that, as well as a good deal of science fiction, there is some tangible science fact emerging from this novel multi-disciplinary science.
Full Text Available Ozone therapy has been successfully used in the medical field for treatment of various diseases, for more than 100 years. Researches have shown the efficacy of both gaseous and dissolved ozone in eradicating a wide range of bacteria, bacterial spores and viruses. Ozone could also help in healing wounds, treatment of radiation-induced mucositis and osteoradionecrosis by increasing the blood supply and through modulation of inflammatory mediators. Despite of these advantages, therapeutic ozone’s application in dentistry is limited because of its possible side effects on upper respiratory system. Dental practitioners need to know the proper usage of modern pharmaceutical methods like ozone, that can provide better patient care and considerably cut down the time and cost of treatment. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(3.000: 171-176
Nanotechnology, or nanoscience, refers to the research and development of an applied science at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular levels (i.e. molecular engineering, manufacturing). The prefix "nano" is defined as a unit of measurement in which the characteristic dimension is one billionth of a unit. Although the nanoscale is small in size, its potential is vast. As nanotechnology expands in other fields, clinicians, scientists, and manufacturers are working to discover the uses and advances in biomedical sciences. Applications of nanotechnology in medical and dental fields have only approached the horizon with opportunities and possibilities for the future that can only be limited by our imagination. This paper provides an early glimpse of nanotechnology applications in medicine and dentistry to illustrate their potentially far-reaching impacts on clinical practice. It also narrates the safety issues concerning nanotechnology applications.
Sharma Lakhanpal Manisha
Full Text Available This era of advanced technology is marked by progress in identifying and understanding the molecular and cellular cause of a disease. With the conventional methods of treatment failing to render satisfactory results, gene therapy is not only being used for the cure of inherited diseases but also the acquired ones. The broad spectrum of gene therapy includes its application in the treatment of oral cancer and precancerous conditions and lesions, treatment of salivary gland diseases, bone repair, autoimmune diseases, DNA vaccination, etc. The aim of this article is to throw light on the history, methodology, applications and future of gene therapy as it would change the nature and face of dentistry in the coming years.
Scully, C; Greenspan, J S
HIV transmission in the health-care setting is of concern. To assess the current position in dentistry, we have reviewed the evidence to November 1, 2005. Transmission is evidently rare in the industrialized nations and can be significantly reduced or prevented by the use of standard infection control measures, appropriate clinical and instrument-handling procedures, and the use of safety equipment and safety needles. We hope that breaches in standard infection control will become vanishingly small. When occupational exposure to HIV is suspected, the application of post-exposure protocols for investigating the incident and protecting those involved from possible HIV infection further reduces the likelihood of HIV disease, and also stress and anxiety.
In the history of many professions there are periods of more or less pronounced borderline fights against other professions and/or charlatans. This article is about such an example from the profession of dentistry in Sweden. From the middle of the second decade of this century, there was an increasing discrepancy between the need for dental care and the too low number of dentists. Furthermore: the majority of the Swedish people could not afford dental care at all. In the public debate the concept "dental misery" was created. In 1919 a famous Swedish paediatric professor, Isak Jundell, presented a debate article in "Allmänna Svenska Läkartidningen" (Journal of the Swedish Medical Association), with a proposal for building up a corps of dental assistants with shorter training than dentists, but still with competence for tooth cleaning, extraction and some operative dentistry. The aim of the proposal was to give people easier available and cheaper dental care. The dental profession had been questioned and threatened and the reaction from the advocates of the dentists was immediate and intense. Now followed an almost five year long struggle, with the Swedish Dental Association on one side and parts of the medical profession, dental technicians, even some dentists and a number of politicians on the other. The controversy ended up in the Swedish Parliament in 1924 where many members in both the chambers had signed motions concerning authorisation of dental technicians. The dentists won the fight thanks to the resolution in the Parliament not to authorise the technicians. But still more important, from a social political point of view, was a statement from the Parliament with a commission to the Government to analyse the prerequisites for building up a Public Dental Health Service organisation in Sweden. After a series of committees this was finally a reality fourteen years later, in 1938, when the Parliament in a resolution initiated "folktandvården".
Corelli, Robin L; Chai, Tiffany; Karic, Alda; Fairman, Melinda; Baez, Karina; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek
To characterize the extent to which state and national professional pharmacy associations have implemented formal policies addressing the sale of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies. To determine existence of tobacco and alcohol policies, national professional pharmacy associations (n = 10) and state-level pharmacy associations (n = 86) affiliated with the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) and/or the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) were contacted via telephone and/or e-mail, and a search of the association websites was conducted. Of 95 responding associations (99%), 14% have a formal policy opposing the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and 5% have a formal policy opposing the sale of alcohol in pharmacies. Of the associations representing major tobacco-producing states, 40% have a formal policy against tobacco sales in pharmacies, significantly more than the 8% of non-tobacco state associations with such policies. Among national professional pharmacy associations, only APhA and ASHP have formal policy statements opposing the sale of both tobacco and alcohol in pharmacies. Most state-level professional pharmacy associations affiliated with these two national organizations have no formal policy statement or position.
Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Fayyaz, Muhammad; Ashraf, Nida; Bhagavathula, Akshaya
The objective of this study was to assess the association of the constructs of theory of planned behaviour (behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, control beliefs) and demographic variables with the intentions of pharmacy students to become pharmacy owner. A cross sectional study was conducted between October and November, 2014, using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire delivered to a sample of 350 pharmacy students at a private university of Pakistan. Behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were assessed on four point Likert scale of agreement. The scores were summed and dichotomized based on an arbitrary 50% cut-off score to assess positive and negative beliefs. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the data. A total of 313 participants (89.4%) responded to the questionnaire. Participants' behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were negative towards pharmacy ownership with the mean scores of 13.90 ± 0.41 (score range: 6-24), 9.66 ± 0.49 (score range: 4-16) and 16.88 ± 0.40 (score range: 7-28) respectively. Professional year and family business were significantly associated with intentions of pharmacy students to own a pharmacy (p Behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were negative towards pharmacy ownership. Implementation of entrepreneurship course in pharmacy school may transform the beliefs of pharmacy students towards pharmacy ownership.
Bhavikatti, Shaeesta Khaleelahmed; Bhardwaj, Smiti; Prabhuji, M L V
With the increasing demand for advances in diagnosis and treatment modalities, nanotechnology is being considered as a groundbreaking and viable research subject. This technology, which deals with matter in nanodimensions, has widened our views of poorly understood health issues and provided novel means of diagnosis and treatment. Researchers in the field of dentistry have explored the potential of nanoparticles in existing therapeutic modalities with moderate success. The key implementations in the field of dentistry include local drug delivery agents, restorative materials, bone graft materials, and implant surface modifications. This review provides detailed insights about current developments in the field of dentistry, and discusses potential future uses of nanotechnology.
ZHOU Lin-fu; ZHU Hai-hong; LIN Jun; HU Min-jun; CHEN Feng; CHEN Zhi
Objective: To investigate the viral contamination of invasive medical instruments in dentistry and to provide health administrative institutions with surveillance data. Methods: Sterilized samples were randomly collected from the department of dentistry to detect HBV-DNA, HCV-RNA, HIV-RNA and HBsAg. Results: Of the invasive medical instruments that were sterilized with 2% glutaraldehyde, one of the samples was positive for HBV-DNA, and another sample was positive for HBsAg.Conclusion: Though massive virus contamination of invasive medical instruments in dentistry has been reduced to a low level, the occurrence of contamination still remains.
Muhammad Umair Khan
Full Text Available Purpose: In Pakistan, courses in pharmacy practice, which are an essential component of the PharmD curriculum, were launched with the aim of strengthening pharmacy practice overall and enabling pharmacy students to cope with the challenges involved in meeting real-world healthcare needs. Since very little research has assessed the efficacy of such courses, we aimed to evaluate students’ perceptions of pharmacy practice courses and their opinions about whether their current knowledge of the topics covered in pharmacy practice courses is adequate for future practice. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted over two months among the senior pharmacy students of two pharmacy colleges. A content- and face-validated questionnaire was used to collect data, which were then analysed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed. Results: Research in pharmacy practice (30.2%, applied drug information (34.4%, health policy (38.1%, public health and epidemiology (39.5%, pharmacovigilance (45.6%, and pharmacoeconomics (47.9% were the major courses that were covered to the least extent in the PharmD curriculum. However, hospital pharmacy practice (94.4%, pharmacotherapeutics (88.8%, and community pharmacy practice (82.8% were covered well. Although 94% of students considered these courses important, only 37.2% considered themselves to be competent in the corresponding topics. Of the participants, 87.9% agreed that the pharmacy courses in the present curriculum should be redesigned. Conclusion: Our results showed that the pharmacy practice courses in the current PharmD curriculum do not encompass some important core subjects. A nationwide study is warranted to further establish the necessity for remodelling pharmacy practice courses in Pakistan.
Flaherty, Anne Guerin
This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pharmacy application requirements. 1311.205... ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.205 Pharmacy application requirements. (a) The pharmacy may only use a pharmacy application that meets the requirements in paragraph (b...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is the...
Zgarrick, David P.; Talluto, Beverly A.
Midwestern University-Chicago College of Pharmacy has developed a five-week elective community pharmacy management rotation in partnership with local pharmacies. Students work directly with district and pharmacy managers, covering a list of topics developed by faculty and preceptors and performing one major project and several smaller ones.…
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration under § 1301.13 may request that the Administrator modify its registration to authorize the pharmacy...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification by online pharmacies. 1304.40 Section... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.40 Notification by online pharmacies. (a) Thirty days prior to offering a... pharmacy shall: (1) Notify the Administrator of its intent to do so by submitting an application for...
Doucette, William R; Rippe, Julia J; Gaither, Caroline A; Kreling, David H; Mott, David A; Schommer, Jon C
To describe services provided by community pharmacies and to identify factors associated with services being provided in community pharmacies. Cross-sectional national mail survey. Pharmacists actively practicing in community pharmacies (independent, chain, mass merchandisers, and supermarkets). Frequency and type of pharmacy services available in a community pharmacy, including medication therapy management, immunization, adjusting medication therapy, medication reconciliation, disease state management, health screening or coaching, complex nonsterile compounding, and point-of-care testing. With a 48.4% response rate, the survey showed that community pharmacies offered on average 3 of the 8 services studied. Pharmacy chains and supermarket pharmacies reported providing significantly more services than did mass merchandise pharmacies. The number of pharmacy services provided was positively associated with involvement in an interprofessional care team, innovativeness, and perceived workload. The number of pharmacy services was negatively correlated with having 3.5 or more pharmacy technicians on duty. Pharmacy chains and supermarkets are providing the most pharmacy services among community pharmacy settings. The number of services provided was associated with innovativeness, technician staffing, and perceived workload. Also, involvement with an interprofessional care team supported greater service delivery. Community pharmacies vary in their provision of services beyond dispensing. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flaherty, Anne Guerin
This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…
... Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery MedlinePlus What is bariatric surgery? Bariatric surgery helps people who are very obese to ... What are the endocrine-related benefits of bariatric surgery? Bariatric surgery and the weight loss that results can: ...
Norris, Pauline; Horsburgh, Simon; Sides, Gerald; Ram, Sanya; Fraser, John
Geographic access to community pharmacies is an important aspect of access to appropriate medicines. This study aimed to explore changes in the number and location of pharmacies in New Zealand and determine whether some populations have poor geographical access to pharmacies. Pharmacy numbers in New Zealand have been declining since the mid-1980s, and, adjusted for population growth, there are now only half the number there was in 1965. While the urbanisation of pharmacies has been matched by loss of population in rural areas, the loss of pharmacies from smaller rural towns leaves many people with poor access to pharmacy services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Youngkyung Ko, NamRyang Kim, Seojin Park, Jun-Beom ParkDepartment of Periodontics, Seoul St Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, KoreaBackground: Soft tissue augmentation is a widely used procedure in partially and fully edentulous patients to increase soft tissue volume. Polyurethanes have been used for scaffolds in a variety of implantable devices. Artelon® is a degradable polyurethane that has been manufactured as fibers, films, and porous scaffolds to be used for various purposes. In this review, the characteristics of Artelon are described, and its clinical applications in orthopedics, dermatology, cardiovascular medicine, and dentistry are also discussed.Methods: A Medline (PubMed search was conducted, and articles published in English were included. Keywords, including “Artelon”, “polyurethanes”, “soft tissue augmentation”, “biocompatibility”, “resorption”, “mechanical stability”, and “complications” were used in different combinations. Titles and abstracts were screened, and full text article analyses were performed.Results: Most of the studies reported orthopedic, dermal, and myocardial applications. There were only a few reports related to dental and implant applications. Artelon has been successfully used for reinforcement of soft tissues, including the rotator cuff, Achilles, patellar, biceps, and quadriceps tendons in orthopedic surgery, and is used clinically for the treatment of osteoarthritis in the hand, wrist, and foot. One type of Artelon material, Artelon Cosmetic, has been used in the dental field to increase soft tissue volume, and stable results are achieved for up to 6 months. This material is reported to be easily handled when cut to the desired shape, with little additional time needed for manipulation during surgery, eliminates the need for connective tissue autografts, and thereby decreases patient morbidity and postoperative discomfort, with increased likelihood of a
Kujundzić, N; Inić, S
The first study of pharmacy on Croatian territory was founded in the early 19th century (1806-1813). Vicencio Dandolo (1758-1819), a pharmacist from Venice who was Napoleon's governor of Dalmatia, established a lyceum in Zadar in 1806. It included education for pharmacists. The Lyceum (later the Central School) was closed in 1811. The founding of the modern University of Zagreb (1874) and its Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences (1876) created the conditions for the development of university education for pharmacists. The study of pharmacy was introduced at the University of Zagreb in 1882 through the efforts of the Croatian-Slavonian Pharmaceutical Association and the professors of the Faculty of Philosophy. The study went through a series of reforms. The most significant one came with the introduction of the four-year study of pharmacy and the establishment of the Pharmacy Department of the Faculty of Philosophy (1928). The independent Faculty of Pharmacy (today's Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry) was founded at the University of Zagreb in 1942. Since 1989, it has had two separate studies (Pharmacy and Medical Biochemistry).
Blair, Jan N.; Lipman, Arthur G.
A combined program leading to the MS in Hospital Pharmacy, MBA, and Certificate of Residency in Hospital Pharmacy established at the University of Utah in 1978 is described. The program provides coursework in both hospital pharmacy and management plus practical experience in hospital pharmacy practice management. (Author/MLW)
Blair, Jan N.; Lipman, Arthur G.
A combined program leading to the MS in Hospital Pharmacy, MBA, and Certificate of Residency in Hospital Pharmacy established at the University of Utah in 1978 is described. The program provides coursework in both hospital pharmacy and management plus practical experience in hospital pharmacy practice management. (Author/MLW)
... prescription has been transmitted, the name of the retail pharmacy pharmacist transmitting the prescription... retail pharmacy pharmacist transmitting the prescription, and the date of transmittal must be added to... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled...
Scalise, Alissa A; Ležaja, Gabrielle S; Nemec, Eric C; Spooner, Joshua J; Kennedy, Daniel R
To determine the attributes of postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) community pharmacy residency applicants and candidates that are most appealing to community residency program directors (CRPDs). A 22-question online survey, designed to collect residency demographics, desirable characteristics for consideration for interview invitation (applicants), and characteristics that should be displayed during an interview (candidates). American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)-recognized community pharmacy residency programs (CPRPs). The CRPDs of 109 ASHP-recognized CPRPs throughout the United States. Not applicable. Minimum applicant requirements; rank order of valued characteristics at application and interview stage of hiring process. The response rate was 71/109 (65.1%). Applicant work experience in chain pharmacy (90.1%) and independent pharmacy (77.5%) was most highly valued by CRPDs, with 85.9% preferring applicants with a minimum of 1 year or more of community pharmacy experience. A large majority of CPRPs (91.4%) indicated a preference for applicants who have been an officer of a student organization. Among CPRPs that required minimum grade point averages (GPAs), a mean GPA of 2.88 ± 0.34 was reported (range 2.0 to 3.5; mode 3.0). Pharmacy work experience (68.1%) and letters of recommendation (59.4%) were most frequently cited as top factors in the decision-making process for selecting candidates to interview. At the interview stage, CRPDs rated interest and knowledge about the residency (62.3%), time management and prioritization (50.7%), and self-awareness and commitment to improvement (43.5%) as the most important skills for candidates to demonstrate. Community pharmacy work experience, organizational leadership experience, and positive letters of recommendation appear to be the most valued attributes of a community pharmacy residency applicant. Applicants should consider aligning themselves with these characteristics to successfully match to a community
Metzger, Anne H.; Hardy, Yolanda M.; Jarvis, Courtney; Steven C Stoner; Pitlick, Matthew; Hilaire, Michelle L.; Hanes, Scott; Carey, Katherine; Burke, Jack; Lodise, Nicole M.
Formal guidelines for mentoring faculty members in pharmacy practice divisions of colleges and schools of pharmacy do not exist in the literature. This paper addresses the background literature on mentoring programs, explores the current state of mentoring programs used in pharmacy practice departments, and provides guidelines for colleges and schools instituting formal mentoring programs. As the number of pharmacy colleges and schools has grown, the demand for quality pharmacy faculty member...
Leitch, Jason; Macpherson, Avril
Dentistry treatment is one of the most anxiety-inducing events in people's lives. The development of pain and anxiety-control techniques has always been very closely aligned to the development of dentistry. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent literature in this field. The literature in the last 12 months falls into four main categories: dental anxiety and its influence on patient care, dental sedation for children, sedation with benzodiazepines for dentistry, and intravenous propofol sedation for dentistry. Considerable progress is being made with a number of innovative techniques. Oral midazolam for children and patient-controlled propofol show very promising results. More research is needed before propofol can be recommended for use without anaesthetic staff. The recently published systematic review of sedation in children outlines gaps in the literature and contains recommendations for future work.
Dharmani, Umesh Kumar; Devi, T. Premlata; Sh. Priyadarshini; Jadhav, Ganesh; Dharmani, Charan Kamal Kaur; Singh, Bishnupati; Kumar, Vinay
Background: The Journal of Conservative Dentistry (JCD) has been online since 2008. Materials and Methods: This paper reviews the publication in this journal over a 5-year period (2011–2015). It assesses the types of articles published, coverage of various types of subjects of endodontics, and conservative dentistry in the journal and explores the authorship patterns in the publication and citation of the journal over this period. Results and Conclusion: JCD has delivered broad-based, balanced coverage of endodontics and conservative dentistry between 2011 and 2015, with contributions from all over India, as well as abroad. Although a maximum number of articles were from India, the publications from other countries are also on an increase. Thus, the widespread coverage of this journal suggests that JCD has begun to represent the global face of the Indian Association of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics. PMID:27656069
Shafiei, Fereshteh; Memarpour, Mahtab
This literature review summarizes the published research regarding the antibacterial agents used in adhesive dentistry. This article provides information about the clinical applications, beneficial effects, and possible disadvantages of antibacterials when used in various bonding situations.
Factors affecting anxiety-fear of surgical procedures in dentistry. ... the questions concerning previous dental experience, education level, and previous ... structure and gender are the significantly effective factors on dental anxiety and fear.
The earliest records and more recent cases where forensic dentistry has been used to identify bodies in France are described. The establishment of the French Society of Forensic Odontology is detailed.
Clarkson, Jan E; Bonetti, Debbie
Evidence-based dentistry champions are committed to improving the quality, effectiveness, and appropriateness of dental care through the application of evidence-based principles and tools. They share knowledge and skills to promote evidence-based dentistry (EBD) in practice, guiding colleagues, patients and policy makers in the application of critical thinking skills and evidence-based decision-making. Being an evidence-based champion requires furthering an understanding of the full process and the challenges of evidence based dentistry, including the development of an evidence base, evidence synthesis and summary, the creation of best practice guidelines, as well as evidence implementation. Efforts to improve the quality, effectiveness, and appropriateness of dental care need to occur at, and be coordinated across, multiple levels of dentistry, including the patient, clinician, team, organization, and policy.
Helbert Eustáquio Cardoso da Silva
Full Text Available The curricula of Dentistry are in the process of modernization , to suit the labor market geared to the needs of the population . The changes seek a teaching method that is conducive to student elfmanagement of their knowledge through a transdisciplinary vision. Objective: To examine about the training of teachers responsible for the disciplines of dentistry , as well as new possibilities of knowledge transmission . In this context, the distance is shown as an alternative to the continuing education of future dentists , covering new technologies and new methods of teaching adults. Methods: Through a literature review , we discuss about the goals of the national curriculum guidelines and the training of teachers of courses in dentistry and also surveys are presented in distance education in healthcare. Results: The study shows successful application of distance learning for adult learners courses in Dentistry .
Full Text Available Evidence-based dentistry (EBD concept has caused great impact and interest in the field of dentistry. For its development is important to use research protocols and study designs according to the research problem. The aim of this review is to present basic aspects for the start of a quantitative research in dentistry.It presents the topics necessary to transform a research problem to a question with clinical approach. Then, concepts about finding relevant scientific articles in the electronic databases available on the Internet. It also presents observational and experimental research designs, their classification and topics for your choice. These elements represents simple and clear recommendations for research in dentistry.
Hicks, C Gray; Jones, James E; Saxen, Mark A; Maupome, Gerardo; Sanders, Brian J; Walker, Laquia A; Weddell, James A; Tomlin, Angela
This study describes what training programs in pediatric dentistry and dental anesthesiology are doing to meet future needs for deep sedation/general anesthesia services required for pediatric dentistry...
Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie
Qualitative research within pharmacy practice is concerned with understanding the behavior of actors such as pharmacy staff, pharmacy owners, patients, other healthcare professionals, and politicians to explore various types of existing practices and beliefs in order to improve them. As qualitative...... research attempts to answer the “why” questions, it is useful for describing, in rich detail, complex phenomena that are situated and embedded in local contexts. Typical methods include interviews, observation, document analysis, and netnography. Qualitative research has to live up to a set of rigid...... quality criteria of research conduct to provide trustworthy results that contribute to the further development of the area....
Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D
This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice...... of the trends for pharmacy practice research methods are discussed. © 2016, Springer International Publishing....... research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging...
McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Dean, Meredith J; Mumper, Russell J; Blouin, Robert A; Roth, Mary T
Educational research must play a critical role in informing practice and policy within pharmacy education. Understanding the educational environment and its impact on students, faculty members, and other stakeholders is imperative for improving outcomes and preparing pharmacy students to meet the needs of 21st century health care. To aid in the design and implementation of meaningful educational research within colleges and schools of pharmacy, this roadmap addresses philosophy and educational language; guidelines for the conduct of educational research; research design, including 4 approaches to defining, collecting, and analyzing educational data; measurement issues; ethical considerations; resources and tools; and the value of educational research in guiding curricular transformation.
Full Text Available New developments in the pharmacy education structure in Pakistan led to the formation of a separate department grouping high specialized services/subjects. However, inadequate planning has exposed a vacuity, as the educational authorities failed to develop a workforce before creating the specialized department. As a result, this vacuum is on the verge of being impinged by pharmacy professionals specialized in entirely different domains which would be detrimental to the future prospects of the development of pharmacy practice in Pakistan.
English C; Rey JA; Schlesselman LS
Hazardous use of alcohol continues to be recognized as a problem at the university level. Knowledge regarding alcohol consumption in healthcare professional students is limited, especially in regards to pharmacy students. Much of the information available focuses on pharmacy student drinking patterns in specific geographic regions or is simply outdated. Objective This study was designed to assess levels of alcohol consumption and estimate the level of hazardous drinking among pharmacy student...
Full Text Available The contemporary trends and concepts in pharmacy are widely affected by the emergence of Nano-, Bio- or Info- technologies (NBI as an attempt to develop different principles of medicine. This commentary is trying to make a think tank room for 50 years ahead of today’s pharmacy, where the ambience of pharmacy will be affected by such technologies together with cognition (NBIC to achieve intelligent, low adverse reaction and holistic action medicals.
Nazemisalman, Bahareh; Farsadeghi, Mahya; Sokhansanj, Mehdi
Laser technology has been recently introduced into the dental field with the idea to replace drilling. Having a less painful first dental experience by the use of modern instruments like laser can be an efficient preventive and therapeutic strategy in pediatric dentistry. Pedodontists need to learn the new less invasive technologies and adopt them in their routine practice. This study aimed to review the available types of lasers and their applications in pediatric dentistry. An electronic se...
Tuloglu, Nuray; Bayrak, Sule; Tunc, Emine Sen
Ribbond is a bondable, biocompatible, esthetic, translucent and easy-to-use reinforced ribbon. By virtue of its wide spectrum of intended properties, it enjoys various applications in clinical dentistry. This case report demonstrates usage of Ribbond as a space maintainer, a fixed partial denture with a natural tooth pontic, an endodontic post and cores and a splint material in children. Ribbond can be used as an alternative to conventional treatment in pediatric dentistry.
Saraswathi V Naik; K, Rajeshwari; Kohli, Shivani; Zohabhasan, Sayyad; Bhatia, Shekhar
The usage of ozone in dentistry has been proposed because of its antimicrobial, disinfectant, biocompatibility and healing properties. In the last decade a number of therapeutic protocols with ozone have been developed to address common dental infections associated with periodontal disease, RCT and caries. Despite these advantages, therapeutic ozone’s application in dentistry is limited because of its possible side effects. Hence, dental practitioners need to know the proper usage of ozone th...
The subject of this thesis is the stability of the adhesive interface in dentistry. Success in adhesive dentistry means long lasting restorations. However, there is substantial evidence that this ideal objective is not achieved. Current research in this field aims at increasing the resin-dentin bond durability. This doctoral research examines the fundamental processes responsible for the aging mechanisms involved in the degradation of resin-bonded interfaces, as well as some potential approac...
Eda Arat Maden
Full Text Available Polyethylene fiber (Ribbond is a bondable, biocompatible, esthetic, translucent material. By virtue of its wide spectrum of intended properties, it enjoys various applications in clinical dentistry. Different clinical applications of Ribbond include space maintainers, fixed partial dentures with a natural tooth pontic, endodontic posts and cores and splint materials in children. Ribbond can be used as an alternative to conventional treatment in pediatric dentistry. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(2.000: 110-115
Tuloglu, Nuray; Bayrak, Sule; Tunc, Emine Sen
Ribbond is a bondable, biocompatible, esthetic, translucent and easy-to-use reinforced ribbon. By virtue of its wide spectrum of intended properties, it enjoys various applications in clinical dentistry. This case report demonstrates usage of Ribbond as a space maintainer, a fixed partial denture with a natural tooth pontic, an endodontic post and cores and a splint material in children. Ribbond can be used as an alternative to conventional treatment in pediatric dentistry. PMID:19826607
Luiz Renato Paranhos; Eduardo de Novaes Benedicto; Mário Marques Fernandes; Fábio Roberto de Souza Viotto; Eduardo Daruge Júnior
Introduction and objective: The aim of this study was to discuss the ethical and legal use of marketing in dentistry by the professionals. Marketing itself is very important for solving the problems of competitiveness of daily private practice, but in several times its application methods may raise concern due to the current regulations. Literature review: The marketing concepts have been frequently reported, and this literature review shows that the methods of marketing in Dentistry are v...
Sílvio Augusto Fernandes de Menezes; Helder Henrique Costa Pinheiro; Luciana Teixeira Passos; Camila de Almeida Smith; Tatiany Oliveira de Alencar Menezes
Objective: To assess the characteristics of special needs patients assisted at the Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Pará. Methods: A descriptive observational study conducted from March 2007 to December 2009, assessing 137 records of which were extracted the following data: gender, age, origin, current and past medical history, type of special needs and major oral diseases. We applied descriptive statistics, one-dimensional frequency table and prepare...
Full Text Available Objectives: To (1 investigate the relationships between students’ characteristics and their (a perceptions of research in general and (b attitudes towards pharmacy practice research; (2 identify strategies that could be used by pharmacy educators to promote research interest in pharmacy practice; and (3 identify perceived barriers to the pursuit or completion of a pharmacy practice research degree. Methods: A survey was administered to all students enrolled in each year of the four-year pharmacy undergraduate program, University of Sydney, Australia. Perceptions of research in general were measured using 4 items on a five-point semantic-differential scale and attitudes towards pharmacy practice research were measured using 16 items on a five-point Likert scale. Student characteristics were also collected as were responses to open-ended questions which were analysed using content analysis. Results: In total 853 students participated and completed the survey (83% response rate. Participants’ characteristics were associated with some but not all aspects of research and pharmacy practice research. It appeared that positive attitudes and perspectives were influenced strongly by exposure to the ‘research’ process through projects, friends or mentors, previous degrees or having future intentions to pursue a research degree. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest positive attitudes and perceptions of research can be nurtured through the formal inclusion in research processes, particularly the utility of practice research in clinical practice across the four years of study. Participants indicated there was a lack of awareness of the needs, benefits and career opportunities associated with pharmacy practice research and voiced clear impediments in their career path with respect to the choice of practice research-related careers. Conclusions: Future research should investigate changes in perceptions and attitudes in a
A poster entitled "Space Medicine - A New Role for Clinical Pharmacists" was presented in December 2001 highlighting an up-and-coming role for pharmacists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Since that time, the operational need for the pharmacy profession has expanded with the administration s decision to open a pharmacy on site at JSC to complement the care provided by the Flight Medicine and Occupational Medicine Clinics. The JSC Pharmacy is a hybrid of traditional retail and hospital pharmacy and is compliant with the ambulatory care standards set forth by the Joint Commission. The primary charge for the pharmacy is to provide medication management for JSC. In addition to providing ambulatory care for both clinics, the pharmacists also practice space medicine. A pharmacist had been involved in the packing of both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Medical Kits before the JSC Pharmacy was established; however, the role of the pharmacist in packing medical kits has grown. The pharmacists are now full members of the operations team providing consultation for new drug delivery systems, regulations, and patient safety issues. As the space crews become more international, so does the drug information provided by the pharmacists. This presentation will review the journey of the JSC Pharmacy as it celebrated its five year anniversary in April of 2008. The implementation of the pharmacy, challenges to the incorporation of the pharmacy into an existing health-care system, and the current responsibilities of a pharmacist at the Johnson Space Center will be discussed.
Jee, Samuel D; Jacobs, Sally; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Elvey, Rebecca; Hassell, Karen; Noyce, Peter R
With revalidation in pharmacy in the United Kingdom fast approaching, appropriate systems of revalidation in community pharmacy are required. With little known about the potential use of appraisals for evaluating fitness to practice in pharmacy professionals (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) in this sector, research was undertaken to explore their potential utility in a revalidation process. To examine existing structures and processes in community pharmacy appraisals in Great Britain (ie, England, Scotland, and Wales) and consider the views of pharmacy stakeholders on if, and how, appraisals could contribute to revalidation of pharmacy professionals. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with senior staff (eg, superintendents and professional development managers) from chain community pharmacies as well as pharmacy managers/owners from independent pharmacies. Senior staff from locum agencies and pharmacy technician stakeholders were also interviewed. Appraisals were in place for pharmacists in most chain pharmacies but not in independent pharmacies. Locum pharmacists were not appraised, either by the companies they worked for or by the locum agencies. Pharmacy managers/owners working in independent pharmacies were also not appraised. Pharmacy technicians were appraised in most chain pharmacies but only in some independent pharmacies. Where appraisals were in operation, they were carried out by line managers who may or may not be a pharmacist. Appraisals did not seem to cover areas relevant to fitness to practice but instead focused more on performance related to business targets. This was particularly true for those in more senior positions within the organization such as area managers and superintendent pharmacists. Existing systems of appraisal, on their own, do not seem to be suitable for revalidating a pharmacy professional. Considerable changes to the existing appraisal systems in community pharmacy and employer engagement may be necessary
Full Text Available The Japanese introduction of dentistry into Korea was for treating the Japanese residing in Korea Noda-Oji was the first Japanese dentist for Japanese people in Korea in 1893. and Narajaki doyoyo, an invited dentist was posted in the Korean headquarter of Japanese army in september, 1905. The imperialist Japan licensed the dental technicians(yipchisa without limit and controled them generously so they could practice dentistry freely. This measure was contrary to that in Japan. (In Japan no new dental technician was licensed. Komori, a dental technician opened his laboratory at Chungmuro in 1902. The dental technician had outnumerbered by 1920. In 1907, the first Korean dental technician Sung-Ryong Choi practiced dentistry in Jongno. The imperialist Japan made the regulation for dental technicians to set a limit to the advertisement and medical practice of dental technicians. The first Korean dentist Suk-Tae Ham was registered No. 1 in the dentist license. The Kyungsung dental school was established by Nagira Dasoni for the purpose of educating some korean people that contributed to Japanese colonization. It made progress with the help of Japan. it was given the approval of the establishment of the professional school in January the 25th, 1929. it was intended to produce Korean dentists in the first place but became the school for Japanese students later on. The association of Chosun dentist, which had been founded by Narajaki doyoyo, was managed by Japanese dentists in favor of the colonial ruling. The Hansung Association of Dentists established in 1925 was the organization made by the necessity of the association for Koreans only. the Japanese forcefully annexed the Association of Hansung Dentists (Koreans only to the Association of Kyungsung Dentists to avoid collective actions of Korean dentists in the name of 'Naesunilche'--'Japan and Korea are one'. Their invading intention was shown in the event of 'decayed tooth preventive day'. Japanese
Artênio José Isper Garbin
Full Text Available Objective: To verify whether the professionals who make use of advertising in Dentistry by means of billboards respect the ethical aspects determined by the Federal Council of Dentistry Resolution No 71, 2006. Methods: This was an observational study in which 178 billboards of dental clinics in the municipality of São Paulo were assessed. Results: Among the billboards analyzed, 91.4% belonged to private persons and 9.6% to corporate bodies. With regard to the ethical aspects related to the advertisement, only 44.9% of the billboards presented all the mandatory items in accordance with the Federal Council of Dentistry. The item found the least number of times in the advertisements was the registration number in the Regional Council of Dentistry (34.8%. Among the items allowed by the Federal Council of Dentistry, the telephone number (65.2% was the most commonly found. Among the ethical infractions, 1.7% of the billboards advertised the terms of payment. Conclusion: Professionals are not following the ethical precepts established by the Code of Ethics in Dentistry, and awareness of these professionals needs to be aroused, so that information about their services is communicated and divulged in an ethical manner.
Maria Valeria Jimenez-Baez
Full Text Available Objectives: Determine the domain of preventive dentistry in nursing personnel assigned to a primary care unit. Methods: Prospective descriptive study, questionnaire validation, and prevalence study. In the first stage, the questionnaire for the practice of preventive dentistry (CPEP, for the term in Spanish was validated; consistency and reliability were measured by Cronbach's alpha, Pearson's correlation, factor analysis with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. In the second stage, the domain in preventive dental nurses was explored. Results: The overall internal consistency of CPEP is α= 0.66, ICC= 0.64, CI95%: 0.29-0.87 (p >0.01. Twenty-one subjects in the study, average age 43, 81.0% female, average seniority of 12.5 were included. A total of 71.5% showed weak domain, 28.5% regular domain, and there was no questionnaire with good domain result. The older the subjects were, the smaller the domain; female nurses showed greater mastery of preventive dentistry (29%, CI95%: 0.1-15.1 than male nurses. Public health nurses showed greater mastery with respect to other categories (50%, CI95%: 0.56-2.8. Conclusions: The CDEP has enough consistency to explore the domain of preventive dentistry in health-care staff. The domain of preventive dentistry in primary care nursing is poor, required to strengthen to provide education in preventive dentistry to the insured population. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE
Willcocks, Stephen George
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore selective leadership approaches in the context of dentistry in the UK. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper utilising published sources from relevant literature about leadership theory and practice and the policy background to dentistry in the UK. Findings This paper suggests that there is merit in identifying and applying an eclectic mix of leadership theory to the case of dentistry. It offers insight into individual aspects of the leadership role for dentists and applies this to the dental context. It also contrasts these individual approaches with shared leadership and suggests this may also be relevant to dentistry. It highlights the fact that leadership will be of growing concern for dentistry in the light of recent policy changes. Research limitations/implications This paper points out that there are developmental implications depending on the particular approach taken. It argues that leadership development will become increasingly important in dentistry in the UK. Originality/value This paper addresses a topic that has so far received limited attention in the literature.
Katoue, Maram Gamal; Al-Taweel, Dalal; Matar, Kamal Mohamed; Kombian, Samuel B
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore parenteral nutrition (PN) practices in hospital pharmacies of Kuwait and identify potential avenues for quality improvement in this service. Design/methodology/approach - A descriptive, qualitative study about PN practices was conducted from June 2012 to February 2013 in Kuwait. Data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews with the head total parenteral nutrition (TPN) pharmacists at seven hospitals using a developed questionnaire. The questionnaire obtained information about the PN service at each hospital including the existence of nutritional support teams (NSTs), PN preparation practices, quality controls and guidelines/protocols. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed for content. Findings - Seven hospitals in Kuwait provided PN preparation service through TPN units within hospital pharmacies. Functional NSTs did not exist in any of these hospitals. All TPN units used paper-based standard PN order forms for requesting PN. The content of PN order forms and PN formulas labeling information were inconsistent across hospitals. Most of the prepared PN formulas were tailor-made and packed in single compartment bags. Quality controls used included gravimetric analysis and visual inspection of PN formulations, and less consistently reported periodic evaluation of the aseptic techniques. Six TPN units independently developed PN guidelines/protocols. Originality/value - This study revealed variations in many aspects of PN practices among the hospitals in Kuwait and provided recommendations to improve this service. Standardization of PN practices would enhance the quality of care provided to patients receiving PN and facilitate national monitoring. This can be accomplished through the involvement of healthcare professionals with expertise in nutrition support working within proactive NSTs.
Full Text Available Background: Pharmacy education has been changed in recent years. Pharmacy students need more practical and clinical skills which come from direct interaction with patients and other health care providers. To achieve this, students need more effective courses and clerkships. In this paper we describe our method to design and evaluate clinical pharmacy clerkship for the first time in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (AJUMS.Methods: To determine the most beneficial way of education we designed a pilot study in educational hospital of AJUMS. After analyzing the conclusions from pilot study, 40 fifth year pharmacy student divided in ten groups and each group had a six week rotation in three different wards under supervision of medical residents. Each student was asked to provide evaluations during six total weeks of three different rotation sites.Results and Discussion: Clinical pharmacy clerkship led to successfully improved clinical skills for students such as being familiar with different practice environments, direct communication whit patients and medical team and participation in direct patient care activities. All the students participate in the course could pass the final exam and 85% of students believed this would be a necessary education course in their clerkship programs. Although there were some problems but pharmacy students benefited from this course and it gives them advantages in clinical knowledge and professional communication skills.
Solomon O Nwhator
Solomon O NwhatorDepartment of Preventive and Community Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, NigeriaAbstract: Advancements in restorative dentistry have resulted in people keeping their teeth for longer, and an increase in gingival recession as the gums recede due to age, periodontal disease, thin gingiva, or other factors. The demand for periodontal plastic surgery appears to be increasing. Several methods have been used in the treatment of denuded roots. Of these, the free gingiv...
Fejzic, Jasmina; Barker, Michelle; Hills, Ruth; Priddle, Alannah
Objective. To examine the effectiveness of simulated learning modules (SLMs) encompassing EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) core competencies in enhancing pharmacy students' professional communication skills. Methods. Students completed three hours of preparatory lectures and eight hours of workshops comprising six SLMs themed around pharmacy practice and pharmacy placements. Each SLM comprised role-plays with actors, facilitation using EXCELL Social Interaction Maps (SIMs), and debriefing. Evaluations of SLMs included quantitative and qualitative survey responses collected before, during and after workshops, and after placements. Facilitators reflected on SLMs as a pedagogic modality. Results. Student feedback was positive about SLMs as an effective learning tool. The majority indicated areas of new learning and found SLMs enhanced their professional skills and confidence. Facilitator feedback was positive, and suggested SLM optimization strategies. Conclusion. Student and teaching team recommendations will inform future curriculum development including the optimization of SLMs in pharmacy education.
Gourley, Dick R; Vaidya, Varun A; Hufstader, Meghan A; Ray, Max D; Chisholm-Burns, Marie A
This report describes the experiences of the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy over 20 years with an international capstone educational experience for students. Although the university provides reciprocal opportunities to international students, this report focuses on the experiences of the college's pharmacy students who have participated in the program. This capstone course is offered as an elective course in the advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) component of the college's experiential program. Goals of the program and a brief description of its organizational structure are provided. Results of a structured student satisfaction survey and a survey covering the most recent 3 years of the program are presented. This program has greatly broadened participants' cultural horizons and expanded their global view and understanding of the contributions of pharmacy to health care.
Simonsmeier, L M
The implications of the 1978 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Marshall vs. Barlow's, Inc., regarding warrantless inspections of pharmacies are discussed. Reviewed are the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, related U.S. Supreme Court decisions (Camera vs. Municipal Court and See vs. City of Seattle), new "probable cause" standards, and exceptions to the requirement of warrants for inspections. The effect of the Barlow's case with specific reference to FDA, DEA and state board of pharmacy inspections is discussed. Although the Barlow's case has provided further case law in the area of administrative inspections, each case still requires individual resolution. DEA inspections are well delineated by statute and regulation. Under the "licensing exceptions," warrantless pharmacy inspections by the FDA and by boards of pharmacy are probably permissible.
ComPETe): A Pilot Survey in a Malaysia City ... Pharmacy Preference Evaluation Questionnaire (ComPETe). ... analysis. Results: A total of 198 respondents returned the questionnaire but only 120 respondents .... Study design and data collection.
Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments...... for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During...... are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use....
Pharmacy education in Yemen has faced many challenges since its introduction in the 1980s. Most Yemeni pharmacy schools, especially private ones, are experiencing difficulties in providing the right quality and quantity of clinical educational experiences. Most of these challenges are imbedded in a teaching style and curricula that have failed to respond to the needs of the community and country. The slow shift from traditional drug-dispensing to a patient-centered or focused approach in pharmacy practice requires a fundamental change in the roles and responsibilities of both policymakers and educators. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss the challenges facing the pharmacy education in Yemen; (2) to provided recommendations to overcome challenges. PMID:25386011
White, SC; Scarfe, WC; Schulze, RKW; Lurie, AG; Douglass, JM; Farman, AG; Law, CS; Levin, MD; Sauer, RA; Valachovic, RW; Zeller, GG; Goske, MJ
© 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc. The Image Gently in Dentistry campaign to be launched in September 2014 is a specific initiative of the Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging, supported by organized dentistry and dental education as well as many dental specialty organizations. The objective of the campaign is to change practice by increasing awareness of the opportunities to improve radiation protection when imaging children in dental practices. Six practical steps are provided ...
Bayuse, T.; Schuyler, C.; Bayuse, Tina M.
This viewgraph poster presentation reviews the rationale for a call for a new program in residency for aerospace pharmacy. Aerospace medicine provides a unique twist on traditional medicine, and a specialty has evolved to meet the training for physicians, and it is becoming important to develop such a program for training in pharmacy designed for aerospace. The reasons for this specialist training are outlined and the challenges of developing a program are reviewed.
Peirce, Gretchen L; Smith, Michael J; Abate, Marie A; Halverson, Joel
Prescription drug abuse is a major health concern nationwide, with West Virginia having one of the highest prescription drug death rates in the United States. Studies are lacking that compare living subjects with persons who died from drug overdose for evidence of doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances. The study objectives were to compare deceased and living subjects in West Virginia for evidence of prior doctor and pharmacy shopping for controlled substances and to identify factors associated with drug-related death. A secondary data study was conducted using controlled substance, Schedule II-IV, prescription data from the West Virginia Controlled Substance Monitoring Program and drug-related death data compiled by the Forensic Drug Database between July 2005 and December 2007. A case-control design compared deceased subjects 18 years and older whose death was drug related with living subjects for prior doctor and pharmacy shopping. Logistic regression identified factors related to the odds of drug-related death. A significantly greater proportion of deceased subjects were doctor shoppers (25.21% vs. 3.58%) and pharmacy shoppers (17.48% vs. 1.30%) than living subjects. Approximately 20.23% of doctor shoppers were also pharmacy shoppers, and 55.60% of pharmacy shoppers were doctor shoppers. Younger age, greater number of prescriptions dispensed, exposure to opioids and benzodiazepines, and doctor and pharmacy shopping were factors with greater odds of drug-related death. Doctor and pharmacy shopping involving controlled substances were identified, and shopping behavior was associated with drug-related death. Prescription monitoring programs may be useful in identifying potential shoppers at the point of care.
Using econometric evidence, this article confirms that distribution of medicines online is split into two market segments of very diverse quality, and identifies the factors that drive quality and quality assurance in this activity. Unlike fraudulent, ‘rogue,’ websites, which offer scant guarantees and usually sell just a few medicines without prescription, online pharmacies offering insurance coverage and linked to conventional pharmacies typically sell a whole range of drugs, require third-...
Thomas, Christian E L; Phipps, Denham L; Ashcroft, Darren M
Our aim was to explore how members of community pharmacy staff perceive and experience the role of procedures within the workplace in community pharmacies. Community pharmacies in England and Wales. 24 community pharmacy staff including pharmacists and pharmacy support staff were interviewed regarding their view of procedures in community pharmacy. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. 3 main themes were identified. According to the 'dissemination and creation of standard operating procedures' theme, community pharmacy staff were required to follow a large amount of procedures as part of their work. At times, complying with all procedures was not possible. According to the 'complying with procedures' theme, there are several factors that influenced compliance with procedures, including work demands, the high workload and the social norm within the pharmacy. Lack of staff, pressure to hit targets and poor communication also affected how able staff felt to follow procedures. The third theme 'procedural compliance versus using professional judgement' highlighted tensions between the standardisation of practice and the professional autonomy of pharmacists. Pharmacists feared being unsupported by their employer for working outside of procedures, even when acting for patient benefit. Some support staff believed that strictly following procedures would keep patients and themselves safe. Dispensers described following the guidance of the pharmacist which sometimes meant working outside of procedures, but occasionally felt unable to voice concerns about not working to rule. Organisational resilience in community pharmacy was apparent and findings from this study should help to inform policymakers and practitioners regarding factors likely to influence the implementation of procedures in community pharmacy settings. Future research should focus on exploring community pharmacy employees' intentions and attitudes towards rule-breaking behaviour and the impact this
Duncan, H F
Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins alters gene expression and induces a host of cellular effects. The acetylation process is homeostatically balanced by two groups of cellular enzymes, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HAT activity relaxes the structure of the human chromatin, rendering it transcriptionally active, thereby increasing gene expression. In contrast, HDAC activity leads to gene silencing. The enzymatic balance can be \\'tipped\\' by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), leading to an accumulation of acetylated proteins, which subsequently modify cellular processes including stem cell differentiation, cell cycle, apoptosis, gene expression, and angiogenesis. There is a variety of natural and synthetic HDACi available, and their pleiotropic effects have contributed to diverse clinical applications, not only in cancer but also in non-cancer areas, such as chronic inflammatory disease, bone engineering, and neurodegenerative disease. Indeed, it appears that HDACi-modulated effects may differ between \\'normal\\' and transformed cells, particularly with regard to reactive oxygen species accumulation, apoptosis, proliferation, and cell cycle arrest. The potential beneficial effects of HDACi for health, resulting from their ability to regulate global gene expression by epigenetic modification of DNA-associated proteins, also offer potential for application within restorative dentistry, where they may promote dental tissue regeneration following pulpal damage.
Chambers, D W
The extent to which dentists influence the outcomes of dental care, compared to the effects of dental technology or patient variation, has not been well studied. A review of the literature on the personality and value structures of dentists and dental students reveals general trends involving preferences of concrete, utilitarian, unambiguous, and conventional situations that are classified and judged in terms of their potential for dentists' power and control and for relationships of helping others but avoiding mutual dependency. These findings are summarized in a hypothesis that dentists seek situations where they can exercise control and establish paternalistic relationships with others. The evidence about career satisfaction of dentists is difficult to interpret. Between 20 percent and 50 percent of dentists report that they would not choose to enter the profession again if given a chance. Yet the number leaving the profession voluntarily is less than the number of career changers in the general population by a factor of about 1 to 15. Career satisfaction of practitioners can be partially predicted from an understanding of dentists' personality and values. Factors such as uncooperative patients, incompetent staff, and government and insurance intrusions are major dissatisfiers; they threaten dentists' core need for control. Factors such as quality of work, which is under the control of dentists, are major satisfiers. The personalities and values of dentists and the expression of these in professional norms may function to limit our understanding of dentistry. Based on this analysis, eight predictions are offered about the profession.
Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
In dentistry, Radio Visio Graphy was introduced as a first electronic dental x-ray imaging modality in 1989. Thereafter, many types of direct digital radiographic systems have been produced in the last decade. They are based either on charge-coupled device (CCD) or on storage phosphor technology. In addition, new types of digital radiographic system using amorphous selenium, image intensifier etc. are under development. Advantages of digital radiographic system are elimination of chemical processing, reduction in radiation dose, image processing, computer storage, electronic transfer of images and so on. Image processing includes image enhancement, image reconstruction, digital subtraction, etc. Especially digital subtraction and reconstruction can be applied in many aspects of clinical practice and research. Electronic transfer of images enables filmless dental hospital and teleradiology/teledentistry system. Since the first image management and communications system (IMACS) for dentomaxillofacial radiology was reported in 1992, IMACS in dental hospital has been increasing. Meanwhile, researches about computer-assisted diagnosis, such as structural analysis of bone trabecular patterns of mandible, feature extraction, automated identification of normal landmarks on cephalometric radiograph and automated image analysis for caries or periodontitis, have been performed actively in the last decade. Further developments in digital radiographic imaging modalities, image transmission system, imaging processing and automated analysis software will change the traditional clinical dental practice in the 21st century.
Full Text Available Introduction. Dental professionals may be at increased risk of developing occupational allergic diseases specially to methacrylates that can permeate protective disposable gloves. Case report. We presented a case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in a 28-year-old dental technician. The patient had complained of itching and cracking of fingers for 6 months. The dermatitis improved over weekends. Skin erythema and scaling were present with primarily involvement of the fingertips. Patch testing with dental series gave positive vesicular reaction to methyl methacrylate. Follow-up after 6 months of allergen avoidance showed a complete regression of dermatitis. Conclusion. Methacrylates serve as bases for acrylic resins which are used in prosthetics. Methyl methacrylate as a small molecular acrylate can permeate thin protective disposable gloves. Using adequate personal protective equipment, like nitrile rubber gloves, is the most important preventive measure in this occupation. Health practitioners should recognize possible occupational hazards in dentistry and implement appropriate preventive measures to protect health of workers.
Sukhvinder Singh Oberoi
Full Text Available Dental disease restricts activities in school, work, and home and often significantly diminishes the quality of life for many children and adults, especially those who have low income or are uninsured. Though the overall dentist population ratio in India is 1:10,000, at present in rural India, one dentist is serving 2.5 lakhs of people. Only 15-20% of people in India are able to get dental services through national schemes, and 80-85% are spending money from their pockets, providing an ideal breeding ground for quackery into dental practice in India. Dental quacks cater to the lower-middle and lower socioeconomic classes that cannot afford qualified dental practitioners. A large number of people visiting these quacks seek care only when in pain, have a restricted budget, and are not very quality conscious. Dentistry has come a long way in the last one and a half century; today it is ranked as one of the most respected professions. It is incumbent upon dentists everywhere to protect this hard-earned reputation by weeding out quacks from among them. The government should urge fresh graduates to practice in rural areas and provide more incentives to them. Public health dentists should take the initiative of adopting more community-oriented oral health programs to increase the awareness among rural populations.
The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.
Bathala, Lakshmana Rao; Rachuri, Narendra Kumar; Rayapati, Srinivas Rao; Kondaka, Sudheer
After major disasters such as earthquakes, fires, floods, tsunami, bomb blasts or terrorist attacks, accurate, and early identification of the dead and injured becomes an utmost importance. Restorations, cariesteeth, missingteeth and/or prostheses are most useful aids for the dental identification. At times, only identifiable remains are a victim's partial or complete dentures. The central principle of dental identification is that postmortem dental remains can be compared with antemortem dental records which include, studycasts, radiographs, etc., to confirm the identity of the victims. Marking/labeling dentures have been considered an important aid in forensic dentistry. Other than finger printing, when compared with all the methods, the marking/labeling of dentures is an accurate and rapid method to identify the unknown victims. There are no standardized methods to follow, but dental practitioners needs to maintain some dental records of their patients. This may include documentation of the "marking of dentures." The preparedness is the key to success in mass disaster identification. The aim of this review article is to discuss the methods of denture identification, advantages of denture labeling for the rapid identification during major disasters/accidents and the importance of maintaining the patient records.
Full Text Available Zirconia restorations have been used successfully for years in dentistry owing to their biocompatibility and good mechanical properties. Because of their lack of translucency, zirconia cores are generally veneered with porcelain, which makes restorations weaker due to failure of the adhesion between the two materials. In recent years, all-ceramic zirconia restorations have been introduced in the dental sector with the intent to solve this problem. Besides the elimination of chipping, the reduced occlusal space requirement seems to be a clear advantage of monolithic zirconia restorations. However, scientific evidence is needed to recommend this relatively new application for clinical use. This mini-review discusses the current scientific literature on monolithic zirconia restorations. The results of in vitro studies suggested that monolithic zirconia may be the best choice for posterior fixed partial dentures in the presence of high occlusal loads and minimal occlusal restoration space. The results should be supported with much more in vitro and particularly in vivo studies to obtain a final conclusion.
Rossomando, Edward F
Improvements in understanding the process of remineralization have resulted in a reappraisal of repair of damaged tooth structure and call into question the principles of cavity preparation of GV Black and his principle of "extension for prevention." From this reappraisal has emerged the idea of minimally invasive dentistry (MID). The goal of MID is to remove as little of the sound tooth structure during the restoration phase as possible. This goal is in our reach in part because of availability of products that promote mineralization and of dental excavation instruments, like the dental laser, that can be managed to remove only damaged tooth structure. It is critical that the leaders of the dental enterprise endorse MID. Delay could allow new products to move from the dental profession to other health care providers. For example, a caries vaccine will soon enter the market place. Will dentists expand the scope of their practices to include the application of this vaccine, or will they ignore this new product and allow the new technology to enter the scope of practice of other health providers?
Schiesser, E; Geyer, H; Kummer, M; Jackson, M
The interest in equine dentistry has significantly increased in the last 15 years. On the part of the veterinarians as well as of the horse owners there is a strong attention to the topic. The aim of the questionnaire was to investigate amongst horse owners what their level of information and preferences about dental treatment are and how they are implemented. The questionnaire was translated into the three national languages and included 20 questions about level and sources of information, frequency of treatments and the horse owner's stance over sedation of the animals. With a return rate of 45% (1'466 of 3'250 sent questionnaires) significant conclusions could be drawn. Horse owners showed a strong demand for clarification regarding tooth problems, the causes, consequences and methods of treatment. More than half of the owners considered themselves not well informed. The treating person was in 66.7% a veterinarian with a special education. Horse owners indicated that information circulated most frequently by word of mouth recommendations and they explicitly wished information from professional and reliable sources. The questionnaire provided a clear result about current equine dental treatments. We suggest that they should be performed by veterinarians only with a special education.
Kelly, J. Robert
This review is intended to provide the ceramic engineer with information about the history and current use of ceramics in dentistry, contemporary research topics, and potential research agenda. Background material includes intra-oral design considerations, descriptions of ceramic dental components, and the origin, composition, and microstructure of current dental ceramics. Attention is paid to efforts involving net-shape processing, machining as a forming method, and the analysis of clinical failure. A rationale is presented for the further development of all-ceramic restorative systems. Current research topics receiving attention include microstructure/processing/property relationships, clinical failure mechanisms and in vitro testing, wear damage and wear testing, surface treatments, and microstructural modifications. The status of the field is critically reviewed with an eye toward future work. Significant improvements seem possible in the clinical use of ceramics based on engineering solutions derived from the study of clinically failed restorations, on the incorporation of higher levels of "biomimicry" in new systems, and on the synergistic developments in dental cements and adhesive dentin bonding.
Gautam, Rupali; Singh, Raghuwar D; Sharma, Vinod P; Siddhartha, Ramashanker; Chand, Pooran; Kumar, Rakesh
Biocompatibility or tissue compatibility describes the ability of a material to perform with an appropriate host response when applied as intended. Poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) based resins are most widely used resins in dentistry, especially in fabrication of dentures and orthodontic appliances. They are considered cytotoxic on account of leaching of various potential toxic substances, most common being residual monomer. Various in vitro and in vivo experiments and cell based studies conducted on acrylic based resins or their leached components have shown them to have cytotoxic effects. They can cause mucosal irritation and tissue sensitization. These studies are not only important to evaluate the long term clinical effect of these materials, but also help in further development of alternate resins. This article reviews information from scientific full articles, reviews, or abstracts published in dental literature, associated with biocompatibility of PMMA resins and it is leached out components. Published materials were searched in dental literature using general and specialist databases, like the PubMED database.
Nogueira, Túlio Eduardo; Gonçalves, Andréia Souza; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Costa, Luciane Rezende
Publication retraction is a mechanism to preserve the scientific literature against publications that contain seriously flawed or erroneous data, redundant publication, plagiarism, unethical research, and other features that compromise the integrity of science. An increase in the occurrence of retractions in recent years has been reported. Nevertheless, there is scarce information on this topic concerning publications in dentistry and related specialties. Thus, this study aimed to investigate retracted papers published in dental journals. Data collection included an exploratory search in PubMed and a specific search in SCImago Journal Rank indexed journals, complemented by the cases reported on the Retraction Watch website and in PubMed. All 167 dental journals included in SCImago were searched for identification of retracted articles up to March 2016. The selected retracted articles and their corresponding retraction notices were recorded and assessed for classification according to the reason for retraction and other additional information. Forty of the 167 journals scrutinised at SCImago (23.9%) had at least one retracted article, and four additional journals were identified from the Retraction Watch website. A total of 72 retracted found were retracted for the reasons: redundant publication (20.8%), plagiarism (18.1%), misconduct (13.8%), overlap (13.6%) and honest error (9.7%). Higher number of retractions were reported in those journals with cites/doc retractions were mostly due to the authors' malpractice and were more frequently related to journals with less impact.
Erstad, Brian L; Mann, Henry J; Weber, Robert J
Critical care medicine has grown from a small group of physicians participating in patient care rounds in surgical and medical intensive care units (ICUs) to a highly technical, interdisciplinary team. Pharmacy's growth in the area of critical care is as exponential. Today's ICU requires a comprehensive pharmaceutical service that includes both operational and clinical services to meet patient medication needs. This article provides the elements for a business plan to justify critical care pharmacy services by describing the pertinent background and benefit of ICU pharmacy services, detailing a current assessment of ICU pharmacy services, listing the essential ICU pharmacy services, describing service metrics, and delineating an appropriate timeline for implementing an ICU pharmacy service. The structure and approach of this business plan can be applied to a variety of pharmacy services. By following the format and information listed in this article, the pharmacy director can move closer to developing patient-centered pharmacy services for ICU patients.
Khan, M O Faruk; Deimling, Michael J; Philip, Ashok
The origins and advancements of pharmacy, medicinal chemistry, and drug discovery are interwoven in nature. Medicinal chemistry provides pharmacy students with a thorough understanding of drug mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationships (SAR), acid-base and physicochemical properties, and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) profiles. A comprehensive understanding of the chemical basis of drug action equips pharmacy students with the ability to answer rationally the "why" and "how" questions related to drug action and it sets the pharmacist apart as the chemical expert among health care professionals. By imparting an exclusive knowledge base, medicinal chemistry plays a vital role in providing critical thinking and evidence-based problem-solving skills to pharmacy students, enabling them to make optimal patient-specific therapeutic decisions. This review highlights the parallel nature of the history of pharmacy and medicinal chemistry, as well as the key elements of medicinal chemistry and drug discovery that make it an indispensable component of the pharmacy curriculum.
Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J
Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.
Briesacher, B; Corey, R
Patients' satisfaction with pharmaceutical services at independent community pharmacies and chain community pharmacies was studied. An interviewer administered the Pharmacy Encounter Survey (PES) face-to-face to 260 consecutive people immediately after their visits to randomly selected chain pharmacies (n = 10) or independent pharmacies (n = 16) in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. The 15-item PES gathers demographic data and asks respondents to rate their satisfaction with the time it took for prescriptions to be filled, the technical skills and courtesy of pharmacy personnel, the convenience of the pharmacy's location, and other aspects of the experience. An aggregate of responses across the two pharmacy types showed an excellent or very good rating given by most respondents for all items. Respondents were most satisfied with pharmacy location and least satisfied with time spent waiting for prescriptions to be filled. However, for each item rated, and for the overall visit, respondents rated independent pharmacies better than chain pharmacies. The PES was a practical, easy-to-administer tool for measuring satisfaction, an increasingly important dimension of quality in managed care organizations. People interviewed with the PES at independent and chain community pharmacies in Philadelphia County rated the pharmacies highly, with higher ratings being given to the independent pharmacies.
Pepla, Erlind; Besharat, Lait Kostantinos; Palaia, Gaspare; Tenore, Gianluca; Migliau, Guido
This study aims to critically summarize the literature about nano-hydroxyapatite. The purpose of this work is to analyze the benefits of using nano-hydroxyapatite in dentistry, especially for its preventive, restorative and regenerative applications. We also provide an overview of new dental materials, still experimental, which contain the nano-hydroxyapatite in its nano-crystalline form. Hydroxyapatite is one of the most studied biomaterials in the medical field for its proven biocompatibility and for being the main constituent of the mineral part of bone and teeth. In terms of restorative and preventive dentistry, nano-hydroxyapatite has significant remineralizing effects on initial enamel lesions, certainly superior to conventional fluoride, and good results on the sensitivity of the teeth. The nano-HA has also been used as an additive material, in order to improve already existing and widely used dental materials, in the restorative field (experimental addition to conventional glass ionomer cements, that has led to significant improvements in their mechanical properties). Because of its unique properties, such as the ability to chemically bond to bone, to not induce toxicity or inflammation and to stimulate bone growth through a direct action on osteoblasts, nano-HA has been widely used in periodontology and in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Its use in oral implantology, however, is a widely used practice established for years, as this substance has excellent osteoinductive capacity and improves bone-to-implant integration.
Galli, M G; Tesauro, M; Consonni, M
Aim of this investigation is to identify possible sanitary risks connected with the practice of dentistry and to draw up guidelines which may help all those who work in this field. Between April and July 1998, we distributed 231 questionnaires to public and private dental offices in Milan, to evaluate dentists' knowledge of sanitary risks in their practices. One hundred and sixteen of the 231 distributed questionnaires were returned. All the dentists contacted, used protective measures such as gloves, masks, glasses, and high-speed aspirators. Survey responses indicated that the most readily transmittable infectious diseases in dentist's practices are, in order of importance, hepatitis, AIDS, airborne diseases, and herpes. Surgery, endodontics, and the use of sharp instruments most likely lead to transmission of pathogens in both patients and dentists. Dentist's knowledge of out-patient treatment is good whereas their knowledge of the use of disinfectants for dental equipment is poor. The latter suggests the utility of continuing education in this critical aspect of the practice of dentistry.
Ahmad, Mas S; Razak, Ishak A; Borromeo, Gelsomina L
Meeting the oral health care needs of the growing population of people with special health care needs (SHCN) starts with dental students' acquisition of sound knowledge and development of clinical competence at the predoctoral level. The aim of this study was to review the level of undergraduate education in Special Needs Dentistry (SND) in Malaysian and Australian dental schools. The deans of all six Malaysian public dental schools and eight of nine Australian dental schools participated in a postal survey on current undergraduate didactic and clinical training in SND at their institutions. The results showed the number of dental schools in Malaysia with teaching in SND as a specific discipline was relatively low compared to that of Australia. However, a high percentage of Malaysian and Australian dental schools reported incorporating teaching of SND into pediatric dentistry (83.3 percent vs. 75 percent), oral medicine/oral pathology (66.7 percent vs. 75 percent), and oral surgery (66.7 percent vs. 25 percent). Most respondents said their school delivered SND clinical training in dental school clinics, hospital-based settings, and residential aged care facilities. Respondents in both countries viewed lack of faculty expertise as the greatest barrier to providing SND education. The study provides valuable information that can direct SND curriculum development in the two countries.
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Full Text Available ; "> The relationship between oral health and systemic diseases had been abundantly studied, however, mostly were related to adultsuch as cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus etc. Nevertheless, it was still uncommon that oral healthalso related to allergic disease. The field of pediatric dentistry is mostly related to preventive dentistry (i.e. prophylactic procedures,preventive orthodontic etc., but rarely related to preventive medicine such allergy prevention in children. Allergic diseases develop outof a close interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental triggers, and progress continuously since infancy regarding tothe allergic march. Concerning to the partially developed immunity in children, children are more susceptible to infection and allergicdiseases than adults. Unfortunately, infection and allergic diseases are interrelated; infection impaired allergy and vice versa. Poororal health is closely related to infection; however, improving oral health is not included in allergy management protocol. In order toanticipate the future, dentist or especially pediatric dentist should be able to review about basic children immunity and oral mucosalimmunity. Additionally, it is essential to explain to the parents and medical practitioners who are not familiar to this new paradigm.The objective of this study is to review articles related to children’s oral health and allergic symptoms. Regarding to the successfuloral management of allergic symptoms, the propensity that improving oral health could be included in children’s allergy managementprotocol is likely.
Alkhateeb, Fadi M.; Latif, David A.; Adkins, Rachel
Schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States have struggled over the past several decades with identifying a consistent title for the broad body of knowledge related to the social, economic, behavioral, and administrative aspects of pharmacy. This paper examines the educational background and professional experience of those teaching…
Saengcharoen, Woranuch; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan
To describe practice behavior and understanding among pharmacy personnel, both pharmacists and non-pharmacist staff, in the management of mild and moderate migraines. Migraine is recognized as a prevalent and chronic neurological disorder. In developing countries, such as Thailand, community pharmacies are a widely used source of health care for various illnesses including migraine. However, the quality of migraine management and knowledge among pharmacy personnel is unclear. Cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 142 randomly selected community pharmacies in a city in the south of Thailand. Simulated clients visited the pharmacies twice, at least 1 month apart, to ask for the treatment of mild and moderate migraines. After the encounters, question asking, drug dispensing, and advice giving by pharmacy staff were recorded. Subsequently, the providers in 135 pharmacies participated in the interview to evaluate their knowledge in migraine management. The majority of pharmacy personnel were less likely to ask questions in cases of mild migraine when compared with moderate attack (mean score [full score = 12] 1.8 ± 1.6 vs 2.6 ± 1.5, respectively, P personnel had inadequate knowledge on migraine management. Pharmacists had better knowledge on question asking (mild migraine 5.1 ± 2.1 vs 3.1 ± 1.3, respectively, P personnel, particularly the pharmacists. © 2013 American Headache Society.
Malewski, David F; Ream, Aimrie; Gaither, Caroline A
Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care can be a strong predictor of medication and other health-related outcomes. Less understood is the role that location of pharmacies in urban or suburban environments plays in patient satisfaction with pharmacy and pharmacist services. The purpose of this study was to serve as a pilot examining urban and suburban community pharmacy populations for similarities and differences in patient satisfaction. Community pharmacy patients were asked to self-administer a 30-question patient satisfaction survey. Fifteen questions addressed their relationship with the pharmacist, 10 questions addressed satisfaction and accessibility of the pharmacy, and five questions addressed financial concerns. Five urban and five suburban pharmacies agreed to participate. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis. Most patients reported high levels of satisfaction. Satisfaction with pharmacist relationship and service was 70% or higher with no significant differences between locations. There were significant differences between the urban and suburban patients regarding accessibility of pharmacy services, customer service and some patient/pharmacist trust issues. The significant differences between patient satisfaction in the suburban and urban populations warrant a larger study with more community pharmacies in other urban, suburban and rural locations to better understand and validate study findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
English, Clayton; Rey, Jose A; Schlesselman, Lauren S
Hazardous use of alcohol continues to be recognized as a problem at the university level. Knowledge regarding alcohol consumption in healthcare professional students is limited, especially in regards to pharmacy students. Much of the information available focuses on pharmacy student drinking patterns in specific geographic regions or is simply outdated. This study was designed to assess levels of alcohol consumption and estimate the level of hazardous drinking among pharmacy students in a larger sample size that is representative of US pharmacy schools. An anonymous survey regarding alcohol usage was offered to students at nine schools of pharmacy across the United States. The survey consisted of demographic questions, the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and questions that assess particular alcohol-induced behaviors. More than 25% of 1161 respondents had a total AUDIT score ≥ 8, which indicates a risk of alcohol-related problems. Students that were male, in their first or second professional year of school, not married, and without children were statistically more likely to have AUDIT scores in the hazardous drinking range. Grade point average and student housing did not statistically affect student's AUDIT scores. These results indicate that over one-fourth of pharmacy students surveyed have indicators of harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy schools should continue to address and confront hazardous alcohol use on campuses in order to curtail heavy alcohol consumption and reduce the risk of alcohol-related problems in pharmacy students.
Full Text Available Hazardous use of alcohol continues to be recognized as a problem at the university level. Knowledge regarding alcohol consumption in healthcare professional students is limited, especially in regards to pharmacy students. Much of the information available focuses on pharmacy student drinking patterns in specific geographic regions or is simply outdated.Objectives: This study was designed to assess levels of alcohol consumption and estimate the level of hazardous drinking among pharmacy students in a larger sample size that is representative of US pharmacy schools.Methods: An anonymous survey regarding alcohol usage was offered to students at nine school of pharmacy across the United States. The survey consisted of demographic questions, the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, and questions that assess particular alcohol-induced behaviorsResults: More than 25% of 1161 respondents had a total AUDIT score = 8, which indicates a risk of alcohol-related problems. Students that were male, in their first or second professional year of school, not married, and without children were statistically more likely to have AUDIT scores in the hazardous drinking range. Grade point average and student housing did not statistically affect student’s AUDIT scores.Conclusion: These results indicate that over one-fourth of pharmacy students surveyed have indicators of harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy schools should continue to address and confront hazardous alcohol use on campuses in order to curtail heavy alcohol consumption and reduce the risk of alcohol-related problems in pharmacy students.
Norkin, Frederic J; Ganeles, Jeffrey; Zfaz, Samuel; Modares, Alireza
As implant dentistry has progressed, greater emphasis has been placed on natural-looking tooth replacement, minimally invasive techniques, and better cost efficiencies, with implant positioning being guided by the desired prosthetic outcome. Image-guided surgery is a technique that merges preoperative diagnostic imaging with computer-based planning tools to facilitate surgical and restorative plans and procedures. This article discusses the intricacies of guided implant surgery, including 3-dimensional presurgical planning and the challenges of maintaining guide stability during surgical execution.
Welty, Timothy E
Generic substitution of antiepileptic drugs is an issue that is gathering a lot of attention in the neurology community but is not receiving much attention within pharmacy. Several proposals have been drafted that restrict a pharmacist's decision-making in generic substitution. These proposals highlight concerns about the pharmacy community related to generic substitution. Careful consideration needs to be given to these issues by pharmacists and pharmacy professional organizations. Unless pharmacy as a profession takes strong positions in support of a pharmacist's ability to make decisions about pharmacotherapy and addresses many of the pharmacy-related problems of generic substitution, policies that negatively impact pharmacy will be established.
Maria Giovanna Gandolfi; Francesco Siboni; Antonella Polimeni; Maurizio Bossù; Francesco Riccitiello; Sandro Rengo; Carlo Prati
Aim: Calcium silicate-based materials are hydraulic self-setting materials with physico-chemical properties suitable for endodontic surgery and good biological/clinical outcomes. The study aim was to evaluate the bio-properties (biointeractivity and apatite-forming ability) and selected physical properties (porosity, water sorption, solubility, and setting time) of Biodentine, a tricalcium silicate material for endodontics and restorative dentistry, compared to that of ProRoot MTA (Mineral ...
Llena Puy, M C; Ausina Márquez, V
We describe and analize the activities we carried out in a surgery from a preventive dentistry unit. Longitudinal descriptive study from 1993 since 1994. Health Area 8 from the Valencian Autonomous Region. Children from 3 to 14 year-old attendant to the preventive dentistry unit's surgery (2.497). We visited 5.012 children. The highest percentage of population corresponded to the zona 4, where began at first the preventive service. The activities distribution was as follow: oral explorations and plaque control (100%), fluoride topic aplication (90.38%), diet control (36.81%), pit and fisure sealants (6.46%), profilaxis (8.71%), radiological diagnosis (6.46%), dental emergencies (2.17%). The users origin was: 38.88% school oral explorations made over 6- and 10-year-old children; 63.71% from self-request; and 16.45% sent by other health professionals. 41.42% were continuated visits. Demand of preventive dental services is very high in our health area, although incorporation of therapeutic techniques is wished by the population. This demand increase as well as the surgery is closer to the user. People from big cities are stubborn using these services from smallest villages, even having transport facilities. Children start coming to the consults between 5-6 year-old, keeping an acceptable control until 12 approximately.
Reutzel, T J; Wilson, L A
Visits were made to 21 pharmacies in two poor neighborhoods on the west side of Chicago and interviews conducted with pharmacists-in-charge. The objective of the study was to provide a comprehensive description of the function, capabilities, and problems of urban pharmacy. We present results on the structure and function of these inner-city pharmacies. The pharmacies fit one of three structural forms: chain, independent, or medical center. The majority of respondents viewed the function of the inner-city pharmacy as patient-centered but also identified several barriers to effective patient communication. The results suggest that inner-city physicians and pharmacists should communicate with patients more often and in ways that patients understand. Also, Medicaid and other drug insurance programs should develop patient information networks and coverage packages intended to maximize patient health status.
Thompson, E O
This article suggests precautions that should be taken if dentists are to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Dentists are considered to be at higher risk of contracting AIDS than physicians. AIDS patients often present at dental offices seeking treatment for the oral symptoms sometimes associated with the virus. Identification of patients who may have AIDS is a critical factor in establishing treatment and protective guidelines; however, such identification is hindered by the prolonged incubation period. It is suggested that questions identifying symptoms of AIDS should be added to the Medical-Dental History Form (a sample form is included with the article). If responses to this form raise suspicion that a patient might have AIDS, the patient should be referred to his physician before an oral examination is scheduled. There is good evidence that AIDS patients can be safely treated in the dental office if the following precaustions are observed: 1) faithful use of an updated medical-dental history form with the follow-up measures suggested, 2) limitation to an absolute minimum of any dental operations; and 3) control of splashback. It is reasonable to assume that liquids that come from the mouth contain blood, infected fluids, saliva, sputum, and mucus that can act as carriers for the AIDS virus if they become droplets and/or aerosols and are transmitted to others through the mucuous membranes of the mouth or eyes. The use of face masks, washed-field dentistry, the rubber dam, protective eyeglasses, rubber gloves, disposable needles, autocleavable instruments, and disposable cap and gown is advocated to protect dentists from the AIDS virus.
Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Kwai Chong, David Weng; Ahmadi, Keivan; Se, Wong Pei; Hassali, Mohammed Azmi; Hata, Ernieda Mohammed; Hadi, Muhammed Abdul; Sridhar, Sathvik Belagodu; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Yean, Low Bee; Efendie, Benny
To identify and evaluate factors affecting the career preferences of fourth-year bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) students in Malaysia in the presence of a 4-year period of mandatory government service. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used in this cross-sectional study to collect data from final-year BPharm students enrolled at 3 government-funded universities and 1 private university in Malaysia. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Three hundred fourteen students responded (213 from public universities and 101 from the private university). Approximately 32% of public university students and 37% of private university students ranked their own interest in pharmacy as the reason for undertaking pharmacy degree studies; 40.4% of public and 19.8% of private university respondents stated that they would enter a nonpharmacy-related career upon graduation if given the choice. Public university students ranked hospital pharmacy as their choice of first career setting (4.39, p = 0.001), while private students ranked community pharmacy first (4.1, p = 0.002). On a scale of 1 to 5, salary received the highest mean score (3.9 and 4.0, p = 0.854) as the extrinsic factor most influencing their career choice. Final-year students at Malaysian public universities were most interested in hospital pharmacy practice as their first career step upon graduation, while private university students were most interested in community pharmacy. The top 3 extrinsic factors rated as significant in selecting a career destination were salary, benefits, and geographical location.
Wilder, Rebecca S; O'Donnell, Jean A; Barry, J Mark; Galli, Dominique M; Hakim, Foroud F; Holyfield, Lavern J; Robbins, Miriam R
The goal of interprofessional education (IPE) is to bring various professional groups together in the educational environment to promote collaborative practice and improve the health care of patients. Interest in IPE has been sparked by several factors in the health care system, including the increased awareness of oral-systemic connections, an aging population, the shift of the burden of illness from acute to chronic care, and lack of access to basic oral care. Increasingly, since the publication of the U.S. surgeon general's report in 2000, the dialogue surrounding IPE in dentistry has escalated. But how has dentistry changed regarding IPE since the report was released? This position paper argues that little has changed in the way dental students are taught and prepared to participate in IPE. The authors contend that academic dentistry and organized dentistry must take the lead in initiating and demanding IPE if dental students are to be prepared to work in the health care environment of the twenty-first century. Included are reasons why IPE is necessary and why dentistry must lead the conversation and participate in the solution to the oral health care crisis. It explores existing models and alternate approaches to IPE, barriers to implementation, and proposed strategies for academic institutions.
Full Text Available Melatonin (MLT is a neuroendocrine hormone secreted mainly by the pineal gland. Recent studies have shown that it is also synthesized in various other parts of the body including salivary glands. The most significant effects of MLT are because of its potent antioxidant, antiageing, immunomodulatory, shielding and antineoplastic properties. Because of these effects, it might be used therapeutically in dentistry for the potentially malignant disorders, lesions of mechanical, bacterial, fungal or viral origin. It stimulates synthesis of collagen fibers and bone formation, and can be used in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions, periodontal therapies, and dental implants. Thus, it is important for the dental clinicians to be familiar with the possible therapeutic uses of MLT in dentistry. The aim of the present article is to review related articles in the literature that have focused on MLT and its applications in dentistry and to provide a quick sketch of applications of MLT in dentistry for dental clinicians. Our review concludes that the research to date certainly offers valid applications of MLT in dentistry. Meanwhile, practical strategies with the highest success rates are needed for further interventions.
Aji P. Tjikman
Full Text Available Dental implant has become a fast developing and dynamic field in dental practice. It is acknowledged as a predictable treatment modality with high clinical success rates. Conventional fixed prostheses are no longer considered to be the first choice of treatment for replacing a missing tooth. Despite the increasing number of patients requesting dental implant treatments, there are only some clinicians who are offering implant therapy in their daily practice. The International team for Implantology described a straightforward case as a simple case such as implant placements in adquate soft and hard tissue conditions and single-tooth restorations in a non-aesthetic zone. A review of the current literature discussed the implementation of implant dentistry in universities worldwide into their curriculum for both undergraduate and postgraduate programs in general dentistry. The European consensus in implant dentistry education concluded that it is desirable to include the surgical technique for implant placement for straightforward cases into the dental curriculum. The levels and limitations to which the various aspects of implant dentistry and related skills are taught to be determined by the academic community. This review aimed at promoting awareness amongst dental practitioners and institutions in Indonesia of the shifting treatment paradigm in the maangement of a missing tooth. Hence clinicians will be able to include implant dentistry in the treatment planning of their patients and also undertake a significant part in the execution of such treatments.
Volmer, Daisy; Vendla, Kaidi; Vetka, Andre; Bell, J Simon; Hamilton, David
To describe practice and research related to pharmaceutical care in Estonia following the country's restoration of independence from Russia in 1991. The transition from a Soviet to a free market economy has impacted the healthcare and pharmacy systems in Estonia. Following independence, ownership of community pharmacies was transferred from the State government to individual pharmacists. However, pharmacy ownership is no longer restricted to pharmacists and recent years have seen the emergence of large pharmacy chains. The number of community pharmacies in Estonia increased from 270 in 1992 to 523 in 2007. In addition to dispensing, Estonian pharmacies retain a focus on compounding of extemporaneous products and supply of herbal medications. Research into pharmaceutical care has addressed topics including pharmaceutical policy and the quality of pharmacy services provided at community pharmacies. There has been limited pressure to date from the governmental institutions and patient organizations to introduce extended pharmaceutical services. However, the trend toward providing health services in primary care will create greater responsibilities and new opportunities for community pharmacists. Recent inclusion of clinical pharmacy and interprofessional learning in the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum will help ensure ongoing development of the profession and high-quality pharmacy services in the future. Pharmaceutical care services in Estonian community pharmacies have become more patient-oriented over the past 17 years. However, community pharmacies continue to retain a focus on traditional roles.
Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Chui, Michelle A
To understand how community pharmacists use electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) technology and to describe the workflow challenges pharmacy personnel encounter as a result of using e-prescribing technology. Cross-sectional qualitative study. Seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin from December 2010 to March 2011. 16 pharmacists and 14 pharmacy technicians (in three chain and four independent pharmacies). Think-aloud protocols and pharmacy group interviews. Pharmacy staff descriptions of their use of e-prescribing technology and challenges encountered in their daily workflow related to this technology. Two contributing factors were perceived to influence e-prescribing workflow: issues stemming from prescribing or transmitting software and issues from within the pharmacy. Pharmacies experienced both delayed and inaccurate e-prescriptions from physician offices. An overwhelming number of e-prescriptions with inaccurate or unclear information resulted in serious time delays for patients as pharmacists contacted physicians to clarify wrong information. In addition, lack of formal training and the disconnect between pharmacy procedures for verifying prescription accuracy and presentation of e-prescription information on the computer screen influenced the speed of processing an e-prescription. E-prescriptions processing can hinder pharmacy workflow. As the number of e-prescriptions transmitted to pharmacies increases because of legislative mandates, it is essential that the technology supporting e-prescriptions (both on the prescriber and pharmacy operating systems) be redesigned to facilitate pharmacy workflow processes and to prevent unintended increase in medication errors, user frustration, and stress.
Cates, Marshall E.; Hogue, Michael D.
Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's…
Cates, Marshall E.; Hogue, Michael D.
Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's…
Full Text Available Moral and ethical principles in production and distribution of medicaments in R Slovenia are based on medieval heritage reflected in Dispensatorium Norinbergense by Valerius Cordus (1545 as proven by the solemn pledge given by Joanes Leykauff, apothecary at Novo mesto (1598 and the Apothecaries ordinance for the Duchy of Creina (given in Ljubljana, 1710. The subsequent evolution of pharmacy demonstrates the continuos care for quality production and distribution of medicament according to ethical and deontological normatives of its time.Codex of pharmaceutical ethics of the Slovenian pharmaceutical society (2000, Codex of apothecaries deontology by the Apothecaries chamber of Slovenia (1994, The deontological codex of medicinal biochemists of Slovenia (1992 are three basic documents for pharmacist’s activities in Slovenia. Detailed instructions on production, distribution, prescribing and expediting to patients are given by the Medicinal products act and Medical devices act already harmonized with the European aquis communautaire.Some ethical dilemmas concerning prescription free medicinals and selfmedication in EC and R Slovenia are presented. Insufficient or nonexistent communication between patients, medical doctors and pharmacists lead to noncompliant or risky medicamentation.
As a profession, we must remember that tooth replacement is not a luxury; it is often a necessity for health reasons. Although bone augmentation and CBCT and expensive surgical guides are often indicated for complex cases, they are being overused. Simple or straightforward implant cases, when there is sufficient natural bone for narrow or shorter implant, can be predictable performed by well-trained GPs and other trained specialists. Complex cases requiring bone augmentation and other complexities as described herein, should be referred to a surgical specialist. Implant courses and curricula have to be based on the level of complexity of implant surgery that each clinician wishes to provide to his or her patients. Using a "logical approach" to implant dentistry keeps cases simple or straightforward, and more accessible to patients by the correct use of narrow and shorter implants.
Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Adhikari, Kishor; Shankar, Pathiyil Ravi; K C, Vikash Kumar; Basnet, Suyog
Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The 'Current Index of Medical Specialties' was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range of services including, but not limited to
Weidmann, Anita Elaine; MacLure, Katie; Marshall, Sarah; Gray, Gwen; Stewart, Derek
Obesity has reached pandemic levels with more than 1.4 billion adults affected worldwide. While there is a need to systematically develop and evaluate community pharmacy based models of weight management, it is imperative to describe and understand the perspectives of pharmacy staff. In the UK, trained and accredited community pharmacy medicines counter assistants (MCAs) are commonly the front line staff involved in patient consultations and sale of over-the-counter medicines. To explore the beliefs and experiences of pharmacists and MCAs in the North-East of Scotland on community pharmacy weight management. All 135 community pharmacies in the North-East of Scotland. A qualitative approach of semi-structured telephone interviews with 31 pharmacists and 20 MCAs in the North-East of Scotland. The semi-structured interview schedule was developed with reference to key domains describing professional practice (i.e. awareness and knowledge, skills, practicalities, motivation, acceptance and beliefs) and contextualised with policy documents and published research on community pharmacy based weight management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Pharmacists' and MCAs' beliefs and experiences with delivering weight management services in community pharmacy. There were mixed responses from pharmacists and MCAs around pharmacy based weight management services from positive views of providing the service in community pharmacy to those more reticent who would always favour patients visiting their physician. While all described similar services e.g. measurement of weight, healthy eating advice, supply of products, they acknowledged that support was often opportunistic at the request of customers, with little integration of other providers. Roles described varied from pharmacist only functions to any staff member. While pharmacists generally felt comfortable and confident, MCAs gave more diverse responses. Both Pharmacist and MCAs highlighted
Background Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. Methods A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Results Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The ‘Current Index of Medical Specialties’ was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Conclusions Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range
Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Bissell, Paul
Nørgaard LS, Morgall JM, Bissell P. . International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2000; 8 (2): 77-81.......Nørgaard LS, Morgall JM, Bissell P. . International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2000; 8 (2): 77-81....
Wiederholt, Joseph B.; And Others
A course in community pharmacy management that involves community pharmacy managers in the instruction of the course found a high degree of pharmacist interest in course projects and in participation in the program. (MSE)
Barone, Joseph; And Others
A postdoctoral pharmacy fellowship is described that provides training in industrial clinical pharmacy practice and related tasks associated with the development of new pharmaceuticals, through experience in industrial and hospital settings and in research projects. (MSE) PUBTYPE[141
Szeinbach, Sheryl; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Parekh, Ashish; Herderick, Michelle
This study examined the impact of pharmacists' perceptions of errors in dispensing, errors in communication, delays in prescription processing, efficiency and physical mobility in the pharmacy by practice setting and sociotechnical factors (i.e. pharmacy design, drive through pick-up window services and automated dispensing systems). Community pharmacy practice in the USA. A two-page survey was mailed to a geographically stratified random sample of 1047 community pharmacies. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine the impact of attitudinal items with respect to pharmacy practice setting (e.g. mass merchant, supermarket, chain and independent) and sociotechnical factors. Pharmacy characteristics, pharmacist experience and total dispensing errors were also addressed. The response rate was 45.0% (n = 429). Pharmacists perceived that pharmacy design significantly (P pharmacy practice and other environments.
Information technology (IT) has transformed the practice of pharmacy ... advanced e-mail management skills (58.7%) were the most cited pharmacists' ... Harare community pharmacies and to ... part of a chain business or independent (X2.
Describes the experiences of Albert Bowie of San Juan Pueblo, who became the first Native American to graduate from the University of New Mexico's Doctor of Pharmacy program. A sidebar discusses academic opportunities in the field of pharmacy. (TD)
Shepler, Brian M.
Objective. To quantify the impact of pharmacy students’ clinical interventions in terms of number and cost savings throughout advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) using a Web-based documentation program.
Barone, Joseph; And Others
A postdoctoral pharmacy fellowship is described that provides training in industrial clinical pharmacy practice and related tasks associated with the development of new pharmaceuticals, through experience in industrial and hospital settings and in research projects. (MSE) PUBTYPE[141
Ashker, Sumer; Burkiewicz, Jill S
The attitudes of pharmacy residents toward pharmaceutical industry promotion and the perceived effects of such promotion on the knowledge and professional practice of the residents were studied. A questionnaire study of current postgraduate year 1 and postgraduate year 2 pharmacy residents was conducted. Questions were adapted from instruments used in studies of medical student or physician attitudes regarding the pharmaceutical industry. The questionnaire requested demographic information about the resident, information regarding the resident's exposure to specific types of pharmaceutical company-related activities, and the resident's perception of whether the residency program or department had policies or guidelines regarding interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Questions investigated the attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry promotion and the perceived influence of pharmaceutical industry promotion on the professional knowledge and behavior of the residents. Responses were received from 496 pharmacy residents. Nearly all (89%) residents agreed that pharmaceutical company-sponsored educational events enhance knowledge. Almost half (43%) of the respondents reported that information from educational events influences therapeutic recommendations. One quarter (26%) of the pharmacy residents indicated prior training regarding pharmacist-industry interactions, and most (60%) residents indicated that their institution's residencies or departments have policies regarding interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Most surveyed pharmacy residents believed that educational events sponsored by pharmaceutical companies enhance knowledge. Respondents whose institutions had policies or who had received training about such events were less likely than other respondents to perceive an influence of the events on their knowledge and behavior.
Pharmacy in Turkey underwent a radical change within the last decade. Introduction of the Health Transformation Program in 2003 has had a significant impact on Turkey's pharmacy system in accordance with objectives of the program to establish new pricing regulations for pharmaceuticals based on reference prices, and to develop better computer based health information/record systems. In this context, Pharmaceutical Tracking (Track-and-Trace) System using two dimensional matrix barcodes was initiated to prevent not only drug counterfeiting, but also fraud against the medical insurance system and off-record transactions within the pharmaceutical sector; and the process of recording prescriptions in an electronic format was launched. Some other improvements have also been made with respect to pharmacy education, law and practice. In contrast with all these positive outcomes, Turkish pharmacy sector is currently in a deep financial struggle. This paper aims to provide a brief overview of the recent developments in Turkish pharmacy system and to discuss future roles and challenges of the profession.
... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a) (2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Dates and Times: May 20, 2013...
... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Date and Time: August 29, 2013,...
Singh, Vijendra P; Uppoor, Ashita S; Nayak, Dilip G; Shah, Dipen
In recent years, clinician and dentist's esthetic demand in dentistry have increased rapidly, driven by an enhanced awareness of beauty and esthetics. The ultimate goal in modern restorative dentistry is to achieve "white" and "pink" esthetics in esthetically important zones. "White esthetics" is the natural dentition or the restoration of dental hard tissues with suitable materials. "Pink esthetics" refers to the surrounding soft-tissues, which includes the interdental papilla and gingiva that can enhance or diminish the esthetic result. Reconstruction of the lost interdental papilla is one of the most challenging and least predictable problems. Restoration and maintenance of these tissues with adequate surgical and prosthetic techniques are a real challenge in modern esthetic dentistry. Treatment of marginal tissue recession, excessive gingival display, deficient ridges, ridge collapse, and esthetic defects around teeth and implants are some of the esthetic problems associated with the interdental papilla that have to be corrected in todays scenario which has been discussed in this review.
Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of identifying specific competencies of Master in dentistry. The results of the analysis of domestic and foreign scientific literature, legal documents regulating the implementation of competence-based approach in higher medical education is presented, international experience in the modernization of higher education, including medical, on the basis of changes in the educational paradigm on competence approach is studied. In the process of identifying set of special competences of Master of dentistry, the main ideas of the existing professional Standards in Dentistry were used. A worked out set of special competences reflects peculiarities of the profession in accordance with the algorithm, aimed to help dental patient in a vicious circle from disease prevention to rehabilitation after diseases, the latter includes legal, methodical, social and managerial aspects of the professional activities of a dentist.
Kasat, Vikrant; Gupta, Aditi; Ladda, Ruchi; Kathariya, Mitesh; Saluja, Harish; Farooqui, Anjum-Ara
Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological method which is widely used by medical and paramedical professionals for the management of acute and chronic pain in a variety of conditions. Similarly, it can be utilized for the management of pain during various dental procedures as well as pain due to various conditions affecting maxillofacial region. This review aims to provide an insight into clinical research evidence available for the analgesic and non analgesic uses of TENS in pediatric as well as adult patients related to the field of dentistry. Also, an attempt is made to briefly discuss history of therapeutic electricity, mechanism of action of TENS, components of TENs equipment, types, techniques of administration, advantages and contradictions of TENS. With this we hope to raise awareness among dental fraternity regarding its dental applications thereby increasing its use in dentistry. Key words:Dentistry, pain, TENS.
Feinberg, Edward M
Evidence-based dentistry seems to be more popular with researchers and those in policy positions than with clinicians. A private practitioner looks at the difference between the promise of evidence-based dentistry, which urges a blend of science, clinical judgment, and patient preferences, and the actuality of the rhetoric of rigorous and formulaic clinical trials. The same dichotomy exists in medicine, where the concept originated. Without subscribing to the formality of evidence-based dentistry, practitioners can place a valid scientific foundation under their practices by avoiding unproven assumptions, carefully monitoring outcomes, using measures that are clinically relevant, relating both positive and negative outcomes to possible explanations, and cautiously introducing new techniques. The standards for publishing clinical research seem to favor adherence to methodological rules over useful of outcomes.
Bauer, Janet; Chiappelli, Francesco; Spackman, Sue; Prolo, Paolo; Stevenson, Richard
This article explains the fundamentals of evidence-based dentistry for the dentist. Evidence-based dentistry is a discipline whose primary participant is the translational researcher. Recent developments have emphasized the importance of this discipline (clinical and translational research) for improving health care. The process of evidence-based dentistry is the reciprocation of new and existing evidence between dentists and quantitative and qualitative researchers, facilitated by the translational researcher. The product of this reciprocation is the clinical practice guideline, or best evidence, that provides the patient options in choosing treatments or services. These options are quantified and qualified by decision, utility, and cost data. Using shared decision-making, the dentist and patient arrive at a mutual understanding of which option best meets an acceptable and preferred treatment course that is cost effective. This option becomes the clinical decision.
Diana Krystyna Harbuz
Full Text Available Background Sedation in dentistry is a controversial topic given the variety of opinions regarding its safe practice. Aims This article evaluates the various techniques used to administer sedation in dentistry and specific methods practiced to form a recommendation for clinicians. Methods An extensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Google, and local library resources. Results Most of the literature revealed a consensus that light sedation on low-risk American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA groups, that is ASA I, and possibly II, is the safest method for sedation in a dental outpatient setting. Conclusion Formal training is essential to achieve the safe practice of sedation in dentistry or medicine. The appropriate setting for sedation should be determined as there is an increased risk outside the hospital setting. Patients should be adequately assessed and medication titrated appropriately, based on individual requirements.
Shashirekha, Govind; Jena, Amit; Mohapatra, Satyajit
Nanotechnology is emerging as an interdisciplinary field that is undergoing rapid development and has brought about enormous changes in medicine and dentistry. Nanomaterial-based design is able to mimic some of the mechanical and structural properties of native tissue and can promote biointegration. Nanotechnology has various applications in dentistry, including dentition renaturalization, therapy for dentin hypersensitivity, complete orthodontic realignment in a single visit, covalently bonding diamondized enamel, enhancing properties of root canal sealers, and continuous oral health maintenance using mechanical dentifrobots. A range of synthetic nanoparticles such as hydroxyapatite, bioglass, titanium, zirconia, and silver nanoparticles are proposed for dental restoration. This review focuses on the developments in the field of nanomaterials in dentistry in the form of tissue regeneration materials, implantable devices, nanocomposites, endodontic sealers etc. and issues of patient safety.
Full Text Available Background: Bay leaf or Eugenia polyantha Wight is a species that has several chemical properties. Bay leaf consists of tanine, flavonoid, essensial oil, including citric acid and eugenol. However, only few reports were published about the use of bay leaf in dentistry. Purpose: The aim of this article is to describe the chemical properties of Eugenia polyantha Wight that are widely used in dentistry. Reviews: The chemical properties of Eugenia polyantha Wight have analgesic, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effect, so they can be used as an alternative dental therapy. These properties can be used as a basic of therapy or as a basic ingredients of treatment. Conclusion: Eugenia polyantha Wight has some useful pharmacologic activities that are useful in dentistry. We suggest this article can be used as a basic knowledge for dental researchers.
Dentistry is highly energy and resource intensive with significant environmental impact. Factors inherent in the profession such as enormous electricity demands of electronic dental equipment, voluminous water requirements, environmental effects of biomaterials (before, during and after clinical use), the use of radiation and the generation of hazardous waste involving mercury, lead etc have contributed towards this. With rising temperatures across the world due to global warming, efforts are being made worldwide to mitigate the effects of environmental damage by resorting to sustainability concepts and green solutions in a myriad of ways. In such a scenario, a professional obligation and social responsibility of dentists makes it imperative to transform the practice of dentistry from a hazardous to a sustainable one, by adopting environmental-friendly measures or 'green dentistry'. The NHS in the UK has been proactive in implementing sustainability in healthcare by setting targets, developing guidance papers, initiating steering groups to develop measures and implementing actions through its Sustainable Development Unit (SDU). Such sustainable frameworks, specific to dentistry, are not yet available and even the scientific literature is devoid of studies in this field although anecdotal narratives abound. Hence this paper attempts to present a comprehensive evaluation of the existing healthcare sustainability principles, for their parallel application in the field of dentistry and lays out a blueprint for integrating the two main underlying principles of sustainability - resource use efficiency and eliminating or minimising pollution - in the day-to-day practice. The article also highlights the importance of social values, community care, engaging stakeholders, economic benefits, developing policy and providing leadership in converting the concept of green dentistry into a practised reality.
Larsson M; Binh NT; Tomson G; Chuc NTK; Falkenberg T
Objective: To investigate self reported practice and actual practice of private pharmacy staff in relation to drug regulations and provision of prednisolone (a prescription-only corticosteroid) on request to treat lower back pain. Method: Sixty private pharmacies in Hanoi were randomly selected. Self reported practice was assessed through interviews with pharmacy staff using a questionnaire; actual practice was assessed with the Simulated Client Method with 5 encounters in each pharmacy (a ...
Navigation technology is applied successfully in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Laser beams are used for caries removal. With nanodentistry, it is possible to maintain comprehensive oral health care. Nanorobots induce oral analgesia, desensitize teeth, and manipulate the tissue. They can also be used for preventive, restorative, and curative procedures. Strategies to engineer tissue can be categorized into 3 major classes: conductive, inductive, and cell transplantation approaches. Several populations of cells with stem cell properties have been isolated from different parts of the tooth.
Malamed, Stanley F
Local anesthetics are the safest most effective drugs in medicine for the control and management of pain. They also represent the most important drugs in dentistry. Today, dentistry has a spectrum of local anesthetics that permit pain control to be tailored to the specific needs of the patient: short-, intermediate-, and long-acting drugs. Bupivacaine has become a standard part of the armamentarium for postsurgical pain control while articaine has become the second-most used local anesthetic in the United States since its introduction in 2000. Despite an increase in anecdotal reports of paresthesia since articaine's introduction there is yet, no supporting scientific evidence.
Full Text Available An adequate understanding of the relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure adequate form, function, esthetics and comfort of the dentition. While most clinicians are aware of this important relationship, uncertainty remains regarding specific concepts such as biologic width, its maintenance and applications of crown lengthening in cases of biologic width violation. Relevant publications regarding biologic width, its violation and management were identified up to August 2011 using manual and electronic database search in Medline, Embase, Directory of Open Access Journals and Google Scholar. This review discusses the concept of biologic width around tooth and its relationship to periodontal health and restorative dentistry.
Naik, Saraswathi V; K, Rajeshwari; Kohli, Shivani; Zohabhasan, Sayyad; Bhatia, Shekhar
The usage of ozone in dentistry has been proposed because of its antimicrobial, disinfectant, biocompatibility and healing properties. In the last decade a number of therapeutic protocols with ozone have been developed to address common dental infections associated with periodontal disease, RCT and caries. Despite these advantages, therapeutic ozone's application in dentistry is limited because of its possible side effects. Hence, dental practitioners need to know the proper usage of ozone therapy that can provide better patient care and considerably cut down the time and cost of the treatment.
Knott, N J
As the use of information and communication technology (ICT) becomes more widespread in dentistry the risk of breaching electronic commerce laws and patient confidentiality increases. It is necessary to be aware of the responsibilities internet usage entails, especially within a dental practice where the protection of patient information is of the utmost importance. More should be done to outline the various precautions that should be taken to ensure ICT security within the professional domain, as it would appear dentistry has been neglected with regard to receiving the proper ICT education, training and support systems.
Davidowitz, Gary; Kotick, Philip G
Computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) have become an increasingly popular part of dentistry over the past 25 years. The technology, which is used in both the dental laboratory and the dental office, can be applied to inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns, fixed partial dentures, implant abutments, and even full-mouth reconstruction. This article discusses the history of CAD/CAM in dentistry and gives an overview of how it works. It also provides information on the advantages and disadvantages, describes the main products available, discusses how to incorporate the new technology into your practice, and addresses future applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In recent years, the field of dentistry has embossed its presence by taking major leaps in research and further bringing it into practice. The most valuable ongoing research in regenerative dentistry is the study on stem cells. It was instituted that stem cells grow rapidly and have the potential to form specialized dentin, bone, and neuronal cells. These neuronal cells can be used for dental therapies and can provide better treatment options for patients. The stem cells based therapies could help in new advances in treating damaged teeth, inducing bone regeneration and treating neural injury as well.
Koralakunte, Pavankumar Ravi; Aljanakh, Mohammad
Virtual reality is a computer based technology linked with the future of dentistry and dental practice. The virtual articulator is one such application in prosthetic and restorative dentistry based on virtual reality that will significantly reduce the limitations of the mechanical articulator, and by simulation of real patient data, allow analyses with regard to static and dynamic occlusion as well as to jaw relation. It is the purpose of this article to present the concepts and strategies for a future replacement of the mechanical articulator by a virtual one. Also, a brief note on virtual reality haptic system has been highlighted along with newly developed touch enabled virtual articulator.
Garner, J K
The role that cosmetic dentistry can play in improving one's overall facial esthetics has become increasingly more meaningful to patients, dentists, and physicians as elective cosmetic procedures continue to gain momentum and acceptance in today's Western culture. By incorporating fundamental principals of proper smile design into a total esthetic facial enhancement treatment plan, dramatic improvements may be realized. As cosmetic dentists, maxillofacial surgeons, and orthodontists continue to make successful strides with their physician counterparts, they must continue to emphasize the key role that the smile commands. Although a review of current literature discloses few references to the specific topic of facial enhancements through cosmetic dentistry, it is nonetheless a topic for further discussion.
Marković-Peković, Vanda; Grubiša, Nataša
Self-medication with antibiotics adds to the global risk of increased spread of bacterial resistance. Attitudes and behavior of health professionals also may reinforce self-medication with antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-medication with antibiotics is possible in our community pharmacies and to what extent, and to evaluate the behavior and service of pharmacy health professionals regarding non-prescription antibiotic dispensation. An observational, cross-section study was conducted, and pseudo-patient methodology was used to establish the kind of professional service provided in case of patient's explicit demand to buy an antibiotic for treatment of self-diagnosed upper respiratory tract infection. Of the total 318 community pharmacies, 131 (41%) were visited and included in the study. Non-prescription antibiotics were dispensed in 76 (58%) pharmacies. Counseling and symptomatic therapy was offered in 88 (67%) pharmacies. In 25% of pharmacies, no symptomatic therapy was offered; instead, only an antibiotic was sold. Amoxicillin was sold in 85% of cases and, mostly, the one of 1.30 Euro per pack. Both oral and written use instructions were given in 78% cases, whereas none was given in 3% of cases. Self-medication with antibiotics occurs in our community pharmacies, despite being illegal. Pharmacy staff behavior can be a factor that puts patients at risk for self-medication with antibiotics. Community pharmacies are failing their tasks in enhancing rational use of antibiotics. Such a practice may be a consequence of weak enforcement and control over the legislation and professional standards. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Moore, Janice M; Matlin, Olga S; Lotvin, Alan M; Brennan, Troyen A; Falkenrath, Randy; Kymes, Steven; Singh, Surya C; Kyrychenko, Pavlo; Shrank, William H
A new service model integrates the specialty pharmacy's comprehensive service with the retail pharmacy's patient contact, giving patients options for medication delivery to home, pharmacy, or doctor's office. Evaluate the impact of the new service model on medication adherence. Retrospective cohort study One hundred fifteen CVS retail stores in Philadelphia participated in a pilot from May 2012 to October 2013, and 115 matched CVS retail stores from around the nation served as controls. All eligible patients from the intervention and control stores received specialty medications through CVS retail pharmacies prior to implementation of the new service model. The intervention patients were transitioned from retail pharmacy service to the specialty pharmacy with delivery options. The control patients received standard retail pharmacy services. Proportion of days covered and first fill persistence were tracked for 12 months before and after program implementation. Under the new service model, 228 patients new to therapy in the post period had a 17.5% increase in the rate of obtaining a second fill as compared to matched controls. Patients on therapy in both the pre- and the post-periods had a pre-post increase of 6.6% in average adherence rates and a pre-post increase of 10.8% in optimal adherence rates as compared to 326 matched controls. The study demonstrated significant improvement in both adherence to therapy and first-fill persistence among patients in the new service model integrating specialty pharmacy's comprehensive services with the retail pharmacy's patient contact and medication delivery choices. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The role of pharmacies in the social and health systems has gone through significant changes in the last decades of the twentieth century. From the place for the production of medicines, through procurement and distribution, pharmacy eventually became the modern health care facilities that participates in the health system and the retail pharmaceutical market. The dualistic role of pharmacy requires adjustment to the demands of contemporary health policy and market principles. Implementation of modern tools of business, such as marketing, was not present to a greater extent until recently in pharmacies, so this study is focused on the example of Pharmacy Subotica, which emphasizes the practical importance and specifics of marketing in pharmaceutical practice. Activities in the implementation of the marketing mix in the period 2009-2012 will be shown in this paper, as well as indicators of business success of Pharmacies Subotica in the same period. Following a four-year period in which strategy related to elements of the marketing mix strategy (4P, was implemented the growth of financial performance indicators (number of issued fiscal receipt and financially volume of business. At the same time, due to the more rigid regulations, the number of prescriptions in 2012 declined in amount. Pharmacy Subotica is one of the first pharmacies in Serbia, which has structured and implemented marketing planning tools for the purpose of positioning in the retail pharmaceutical market. By modeling business policy in line with modern market principles, developments of information technology and the ethics of health care workers, this institution has made pioneering steps in pharmaceutical marketing in the Serbian pharmacy.
... Enforcement Administration Top RX Pharmacy; Decision and Order On November 8, 2012, Chief Administrative Law... ALJ's reasoning suggests that ``inaction'' on the part of a pharmacy's principals in dispensing.../Pharmacy Nos. 219 and 5195, 77 FR 62316, 62317-22 (2012). Order Pursuant to the authority vested in me by...
... Enforcement Administration Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy Decision and Order On September 14, 2011... Registration, BT9856002, issued to Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy, be, and it hereby is, revoked. I further order that any pending application of Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy, to renew or modify his...
Heiskanen, K; Ahonen, R; Karttunen, P; Kanerva, R; Timonen, J
To explore the frequency, the reasons behind, and the consequences of medicine shortages in Finnish community pharmacies. During the 27-day study period in the autumn of 2013, randomly selected pharmacies reported on medicines that were in short supply from orders made to wholesalers. Altogether 129 (66%, n=195) pharmacies participated in the study, and the study material consisted of 3311 report forms. Of the study pharmacies, 79.8% had medicine shortages daily or almost daily. Medicines in short supply were most commonly medicines that affect the nervous system (30.8%) and the cardiovascular system (17.5%). The reason behind the shortage was reported to the pharmacies in 11.2% of the shortage cases. The medicine shortages caused problems for the pharmacies in 33.0% of the cases. In most cases (67.0%) the medicine shortages did not cause problems for the pharmacies, usually because a substitutable product was available (48.5%). Medicine shortages are common in Finnish community pharmacies. Medicines in short supply were commonly used medicines. The reason behind the shortage was rarely told to the pharmacies. Medicine shortages caused problems for the pharmacies in one-third of all the shortage cases. These shortages may be significant for the customers or the pharmacies, as they cause customer dissatisfaction and increase the workload of the pharmacy staff. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weissman, Fred G.; And Others
A clerkship at the University of Southern California School of Pharmacy was developed to provide students with (1) experience in the identification, development,, implementation, and evaluation of patient care services in community pharmacies and (2) the skills required to successfully operate a community pharmacy on a day-to-day basis.…
Oakley, Robert S.; And Others
Hospital pharmacy directors ranked their academic needs as: personnel and financial management (greatest), computers, hospital organization, clinical pharmacy practice, traditional pharmacy practice, and statistics. Those with MBAs perceived themselves stronger in these areas than did those with other degrees. Only MBAs and MSs felt adequately…
American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Bethesda, MD.
The purpose of the report is to give a state-of-the-art picture of clinical pharmacy education and training in the United States as represented by 4 prototype pharmacy school curricula chosen for documentation by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. Criteria for selection relate to the environment in which the various curricula are…
Describes the responses of pharmacy schools in New England to the current shortage of pharmacists. The lengthened pharmacy program, recently expanded from 5 years to 6, is being accompanied by increased regional cooperation, with internships and some tuition breaks for pharmacy students. (SLD)
Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Wolkin, Amy; Sanchez, Carlos; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Young, Stacy; Kieszak, Stephanie; Oberst, Kathleen; Batts, Dahna; Thomas, Charles C; Rubin, Carol
To evaluate the impact of Hurricane Ivan, which made landfall east of Mobile, Alabama, on September 16, 2004, on pharmacies in the affected areas. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Baldwin County, Alabama. Pharmacy community rapid-needs-assessment survey. 41 hospital and community (chain and independent) pharmacies. Posthurricane pharmacy hours of operations, prescription volumes, infrastructure damage, and prehurricane disaster planning. During the week of the hurricane, both chain and independent community pharmacies within the evacuation zone worked significantly fewer hours (46% and 49%, respectively) and dispensed significantly fewer prescriptions (37% and 52%) compared with the same week of the prior year. Overall, 40% of pharmacies depleted their supplies of certain medications (e.g., anxiolytics, antihypertensives). A total of 60% of the chain and independent pharmacies outside the evacuation zone closed because of loss of electricity, but pharmacies with a generator were significantly less likely to report having turned away patients. The proportion of pharmacies that had a disaster plan but turned away patients or rationed or ran out of medications was similar to that of pharmacies without a disaster plan. Although Hurricane Ivan primarily affected the operation of pharmacies within the evacuation zone, pharmacies in the surrounding area were also affected because of loss of power. Emergency management officials should evaluate the efficacy of specific guidelines outlined in disaster plans and identify ways to deliver essential medications to people in disaster-affected areas.
Mark, M. P.
Objective To determine the frequency and nature of general pharmacy work at three Dutch community pharmacies. Methods In a purposive and convenience sample of three Dutch community pharmacies the general work was investigated. Multi-dimensional work sampling (MDWS) was used. The study took six
Mark, M. P.
Objective To determine the frequency and nature of general pharmacy work at three Dutch community pharmacies. Methods In a purposive and convenience sample of three Dutch community pharmacies the general work was investigated. Multi-dimensional work sampling (MDWS) was used. The study took six weeks
In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to motivation and job satisfaction among hospital pharmacy practitioners. Institutional pharmacy managers should become more aware of ways in which they can motivate members of their staff. Specifically, Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is discussed in reference to its origination, major tenets, and practical applications in institutional pharmacy practice settings. Principally, Herzberg's theory explains needs of workers in terms of extrinsic factors called "hygienes" and intrinsic factors called "motivators." The theory suggests that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but two separate dimensions. According to this theory, an employee will be motivated if the task allows for the following: 1)actual achievement, 2) recognition for achievement, 3) increased responsibility, 4) opportunity for growth (professionally), and 5) chance for advancement. It is concluded that some of these suggested applications can be useful to managers who are faced with low morale among the members of their staff.
Roth, Justin J.; Okoro, Olihe; Kimberlin, Carole; Odedina, Folakemi T.
Improving health care providers' knowledge and ability to provide culturally competent care can limit the health disparities experienced by disadvantaged populations. As racial and ethnic cultures dominate cultural competency topics in education, alternative cultures such as disability have consistently been underrepresented. This article will make the case that persons with disabilities have a unique cultural identity, and should be addressed as an important component of cultural competency education in pharmacy schools. Examples of efforts in pharmacy education to incorporate cultural competency components are highlighted, many of which contain little or no mention of disability issues. Based on initiatives from other health professions, suggestions and considerations for the development of disability education within pharmacy curricula also are proposed. PMID:21519416
Hanes, Carole M.
Methods of assessing the general goals for the Pediatric Dentistry Department at the Medical College of Georgia School of Dentistry are discussed. Goals are: (1) to prepare dentists to provide comprehensive dental care for the pediatric patient; (2) to create positive attitudes toward pediatric dentistry; (3) to encourage students to seek to…
... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Date and Time: June 13, 2011, 1 p.m... Secretary, Division of Medicine and Dentistry, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and...
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York... of Dentistry has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian... the human remains may contact the New York University College of Dentistry. Disposition of the...
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York... of Dentistry has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian... the human remains may contact the New York University College of Dentistry. Disposition of the...
... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Date and Time: November 1, 2012, 10... Jerilyn K. Glass, M.D., Ph.D., Division of Medicine and Dentistry, Bureau of Health Professions,...
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York... Dentistry, New York, NY. The human remains were removed from Broward and Levy Counties, FL, and an unknown... assessment of the human remains was made by the New York University College of Dentistry professional...
... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary CareMedicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Date and Time: April 22, 2010, 8 a.m... of Health Professions, Division of Medicine and Dentistry. In the plenary session, the...
... Dentistry's Current Grantees; One-Year Extension AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA... Pediatric Dentistry's (T17) Current Grantees. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration... Pediatric Dentistry awards to Columbia University, The Regents of the University of California and...
... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care, Medicine and Dentistry . Dates and Times: November 7, 2011, 8:30 a.m.... Purpose: The Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry (``Advisory...
... Care Medicine and Dentistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Training in Primary Care, Medicine and Dentistry (ACTPCMD). Date and Time: November 15, 2010, 8... Secretary, Division of Medicine and Dentistry, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and...
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York... Dentistry, New York, NY. The human remains were removed from the Allred Bluff and Salts Bluff Rockshelters... assessment of the human remains was made by the New York University College of Dentistry professional...
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York... of Dentistry has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian... the human remains may contact the New York University College of Dentistry. Repatriation of the...
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York... Dentistry, New York, NY. The human remains were removed from Lovelock Cave, Churchill County, NV. This... remains was made by the New York University College of Dentistry professional staff in consultation...
... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: New York University College of Dentistry, New York... of an inventory of human remains in the possession of the New York University College of Dentistry... made by New York University College of Dentistry professional staff in consultation...
Rosenbluth, S A; Madhavan, S S; Borker, R D; Maine, L L
To describe the Pharmacy Immunization Project, a pharmacy/county health department (CHD) partnership model for immunizing infants and adults in rural areas, and to develop service procedures and disseminate lessons learned for adapting the model to different settings. Independent community pharmacies in five contiguous rural counties in West Virginia. Participating pharmacies varied markedly in space, prescription volume, and population of service areas. Childhood and adult immunization service. Pharmacists partnered with nurses from CHDs to offer year-round immunizations at times when other providers were typically closed. Working under standing orders of the CHD medical directors, nurses also conducted routine well-baby examinations in the pharmacy. Promotions involved direct mailing, posters, fliers, direct communication, and ads in newspapers, radio, and TV. Pharmacists' and CHDs' continued willingness to participate, use of the service by local citizens, and feedback from participants and other health care providers and the West Virginia Immunization Program (WVIP). All sites except one continued their participation through the life of the project. The one exception was a pharmacy with few infant patients, which discontinued participation during year 4 of the project. Remaining sites were used and well accepted by the community. The WVIP remains a loyal supporter, and no problems arose with local health care providers. The model appears adaptable to urban as well as rural practice and to chain as well as independent practice in states not authorizing pharmacists to administer vaccines, for pharmacists who for other reasons prefer not to administer, and for those who prefer to offer adult immunization on a seasonal basis. From the CHD perspective, the partnership model is useful in establishing "satellite" locations to target hard-to-reach patients. Recommendations regarding agreements and responsibilities are available, as are lessons learned during project