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  1. American College of Surgeons remains committed to patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Thomas R; Jones, R Scott

    2006-11-01

    Since 1913 the American College of Surgeons has addressed patient safety as a top priority, so they are pleased to contribute this article offering the College's perspective on this critical subject. More specifically, this piece reviews the College's perennial efforts to ensure surgeons and hospitals access to scientifically verifiable standards, availability of effective quality improvement tools, and a better understanding of errors in care. Additionally, they examine the cultural changes required within surgery and provide an overview of the College's recent initiatives in research, accreditation, and education.

  2. The First 100 Years of American College of Surgeons Presidential Addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Omar M; Heitmiller, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the first 100 years of presidential addresses delivered at the fall congress of the American College of Surgeons (ACS). Our hypothesis was that these addresses would be an excellent indicator of the College's position on surgical policy, ethics, methods, and education. All ACS presidential addresses from 1913 to 2013 were identified through the ACS archives website. This included the presenter, title, year, and citation if published in a peer reviewed journal. The text of each address was obtained from the ACS archives, or from the listed citations. Addresses were then classified into 1 of 6 subgroups based on content-surgical credo, medical innovation, medical education, surgical history, business and legal, and personal tribute. The 100-year period was divided into 5 interval each of 20-year and the frequency of each category was graphed over time. There were 111 ACS presidential addresses delivered in the study period. Distribution by category was surgical credo (57%), surgical history (14%), medical innovation (10%), medical education (8%), business and legal (6%), and personal tributes (5%). The frequency of surgical credo has remained stable over time. Business and legal emerged as a new category in 1975. The other topics had low, but stable frequency. ACS presidential addresses do reflect the College's position on surgical policy and practice. The college has remained consistent in serving its members, maintaining, and defining the role of its organization, the qualifications for membership, and the expectations for the professional conduct of its members. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Evaluation of the American college of surgeons thyroid and parathyroid ultrasound course: Results of a web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Giriraj K; Sofferman, Robert A; Armstrong, William B

    2017-08-01

    The American College of Surgeons Thyroid and Parathyroid Ultrasound Skills-Oriented Course (TPUSC) was designed to teach surgeons how to interpret and perform office-based head and neck ultrasound (HNUS). The objective of this study was to survey attendees of the TPUSC to evaluate the usefulness of the course, to track surgeon performed HNUS practice patterns, and to help identify potential roadblocks to incorporation of HNUS into a surgeon's practice. Cross-sectional survey. A Web-based survey was sent to 952 surgeons who completed the TPUSC between 2010 and 2014. Questions included surgeon specialty, practice type, Likert scale rating of the TPUSC, competency with different HNUS procedures, and current HNUS practice patterns. The response rate was 24%. On a scale from 1 (not useful) to 5 (extremely valuable), the mean course usefulness rating was 4.2. Educational goals were met for 194 (92%) surgeons, and 162 (77%) surgeons reported performing HNUS in their practice. Of 48 surgeons not performing HNUS, 24 (50%) attributed insufficient time in their clinic schedule, and 21 (44%) attributed high equipment costs. The TPUSC is a valuable educational experience for surgeons seeking to gain proficiency in HNUS. The majority of TPUSC graduates gain competency with at least one type of HNUS procedure following the course. NA Laryngoscope, 127:1950-1958, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Outcomes of Concurrent Operations: Results From the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason B; Berian, Julia R; Ban, Kristen A; Liu, Yaoming; Cohen, Mark E; Angelos, Peter; Matthews, Jeffrey B; Hoyt, David B; Hall, Bruce L; Ko, Clifford Y

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether concurrently performed operations are associated with an increased risk for adverse events. Concurrent operations occur when a surgeon is simultaneously responsible for critical portions of 2 or more operations. How this practice affects patient outcomes is unknown. Using American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data from 2014 to 2015, operations were considered concurrent if they overlapped by ≥60 minutes or in their entirety. Propensity-score-matched cohorts were constructed to compare death or serious morbidity (DSM), unplanned reoperation, and unplanned readmission in concurrent versus non-concurrent operations. Multilevel hierarchical regression was used to account for the clustered nature of the data while controlling for procedure and case mix. There were 1430 (32.3%) surgeons from 390 (77.7%) hospitals who performed 12,010 (2.3%) concurrent operations. Plastic surgery (n = 393 [13.7%]), otolaryngology (n = 470 [11.2%]), and neurosurgery (n = 2067 [8.4%]) were specialties with the highest proportion of concurrent operations. Spine procedures were the most frequent concurrent procedures overall (n = 2059/12,010 [17.1%]). Unadjusted rates of DSM (9.0% vs 7.1%; P < 0.001), reoperation (3.6% vs 2.7%; P < 0.001), and readmission (6.9% vs 5.1%; P < 0.001) were greater in the concurrent operation cohort versus the non-concurrent. After propensity score matching and risk-adjustment, there was no significant association of concurrence with DSM (odds ratio [OR] 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.21), reoperation (OR 1.16; 95% CI 0.96-1.40), or readmission (OR 1.14; 95% CI 0.99-1.29). In these analyses, concurrent operations were not detected to increase the risk for adverse outcomes. These results do not lessen the need for further studies, continuous self-regulation and proactive disclosure to patients.

  5. Executive Summary of the American College of Surgeons/Surgical Infection Society Surgical Site Infection Guidelines-2016 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Kristen A; Minei, Joseph P; Laronga, Christine; Harbrecht, Brian G; Jensen, Eric H; Fry, Donald E; Itani, Kamal M F; Dellinger, E Patchen; Ko, Clifford Y; Duane, Therese M

    Guidelines regarding the prevention, detection, and management of surgical site infections (SSIs) have been published previously by a variety of organizations. The American College of Surgeons (ACS)/Surgical Infection Society (SIS) Surgical Site Infection (SSI) Guidelines 2016 Update is intended to update these guidelines based on the current literature and to provide a concise summary of relevant topics.

  6. American College of Surgeons NSQIP: quality in-training initiative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Morgan M; Reinke, Caroline E; Kreider, Susan; Meise, Chelsey; Nelis, Kara; Volpe, Anita; Anzlovar, Nancy; Ko, Clifford; Kelz, Rachel R

    2013-11-01

    College of Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  7. Noninvasive Breast Carcinoma: Results of a National Survey by the American College of Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Dutzu; Bedwani, Ramez N.; Vana, Josef; Baker, Harvey W.; Murphy, Gerald P.

    1980-01-01

    This study evaluates the data of noninvasive (in situ) lobular (ISLC) and ductal (ISDC) carcinoma, collected from 498 hospitals in a National Breast Cancer Survey, carried out by the American College of Surgeons in 1978. ISLC and ISDC were identified in 323 (3.2%) of 10,054 female patients with lobular and ductal carcinoma, of the total of 23,972 patients with histologically proven breast cancer surveyed (1.4%). The frequency of ISLC was significantly higher (18.5%) than ISDC (2.1%) suggesting a less agressive nature of ISLC, with a slower progression to invasion than ISDC. There was a different age distribution of ISLC and ISDC: about 80% of ISLC and 50% of ISDC were diagnosed in patients who were less than 54 years old, and the incidence showed a marked decrease in the older age groups in ISLC, whereas the incidence remained high in the following decade in ISDC. In this series there was a distinctly better five-year cure rate in the patients with ISLC (83.5%) than in the patients with ISDC (68.8%), in spite of the fact that radical surgery was performed more frequently in ISDC (67.8%) than ISLC (36.3%). The recurrence rate was five times higher (10.5%) in ISDC than in ISLC (2.5%). In black patients the recurrence rate (21.3%) was significantly higher in ISDC than in white patients (9.3%). In the present study there were no statistically significant differences in the five-year cure and recurrence rate in patients with noninvasive carcinoma, treated by more conservative procedures (72.9% and 8.5%) and those treated by more extensive surgeries (76.2% and 7.7%). The results of this study suggests that the biologic behavior of ISLC and ISDC may be different with regard to their propensity to invade and their overall prognosis. In contrast, the infiltrative form of lobular and ductal carcinoma, were found to have the same prognosis, regardless of the type of operative procedure performed. PMID:6250497

  8. "Taking Training to the Next Level": The American College of Surgeons Committee on Residency Training Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damewood, Richard B; Blair, Patrice Gabler; Park, Yoon Soo; Lupi, Linda K; Newman, Rachel Williams; Sachdeva, Ajit K

    The American College of Surgeons (ACS) appointed a committee of leaders from the ACS, Association of Program Directors in Surgery, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, and American Board of Surgery to define key challenges facing surgery resident training programs and to explore solutions. The committee wanted to solicit the perspectives of surgery resident program directors (PDs) given their pivotal role in residency training. Two surveys were developed, pilot tested, and administered to PDs following Institutional Review Board approval. PDs from 247 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited general surgery programs were randomized to receive 1 of the 2 surveys. Bias analyses were conducted, and adjusted Pearson χ 2 tests were used to test for differences in response patterns by program type and size. All accredited general surgery programs in the United States were included in the sampling frame of the survey; 10 programs with initial or withdrawn accreditation were excluded from the sampling frame. A total of 135 PDs responded, resulting in a 54.7% response rate (Survey A: n = 67 and Survey B: n = 68). The respondent sample was determined to be representative of program type and size. Nearly 52% of PD responses were from university-based programs, and 41% had over 6 residents per graduating cohort. More than 61% of PDs reported that, compared to 10 years ago, both entering and graduating residents are less prepared in technical skills. PDs expressed significant concerns regarding the effect of duty-hour restrictions on the overall preparation of graduating residents (61%) and quality of patient care (57%). The current 5-year training structure was viewed as needing a significant or extensive increase in opportunities for resident autonomy (63%), and the greatest barriers to resident autonomy were viewed to be patient preferences not to be cared for by residents (68%), liability concerns (68%), and Centers for Medicare and

  9. Publication Rates for Oral Manuscript and Poster Presentations From the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons: 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Calvin J; Galan, Gabriel P; Ivankiv, Roman; Oxios, Adam J; Rathnayake, Viraj R; Ramil, Madelin C; Chussid, Fredric; Spinner, Steven M

    2018-04-26

    The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS) annual conference has served as a premiere platform to disseminate the latest innovations and research in the field of foot and ankle surgery. The quality of national society conferences is often assessed indirectly by analyzing the the journal publication rate of the abstracts presented. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the journal publication rate for abstracts (oral manuscripts and posters) accepted for presentation at the ACFAS conference from 2010 to 2014. All accepted abstracts from this period were compiled by the ACFAS office. PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus searches were performed using abstract titles and author names. Overall, the journal publication rate was 76.9% (83 of 108) for oral manuscripts and 23.2% (258 of 1113) for poster abstracts. The mean time to publication was 9.6 (range 0 to 44) months and 19.8 (range 0 to 66) months for oral and poster abstracts, respectively. The most common journal for abstract publication was The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery. Notably, the ACFAS oral manuscript publication rate from 2010 to 2014 (76.9%) exceeded its previously reported rate from 1999 to 2008 (67.5%) and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society podium publication rate from 2008 to 2012 (73.7%). To the best of our knowledge, the publication incidence for oral abstracts presented at the ACFAS conference is now the highest reported of any national foot and ankle society conference to date. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Burnout and career satisfaction among American surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, Tait D; Balch, Charles M; Bechamps, Gerald J; Russell, Thomas; Dyrbye, Lotte; Satele, Daniel; Collicott, Paul; Novotny, Paul J; Sloan, Jeff; Freischlag, Julie A

    2009-09-01

    To determine the incidence of burnout among American surgeons and evaluate personal and professional characteristics associated with surgeon burnout. : Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization that leads to decreased effectiveness at work. A limited amount of information exists about the relationship between specific demographic and practice characteristics with burnout among American surgeons. Members of the American College of Surgeons (ACS) were sent an anonymous, cross-sectional survey in June 2008. The survey evaluated demographic variables, practice characteristics, career satisfaction, burnout, and quality of life (QOL). Burnout and QOL were measured using validated instruments. Of the approximately 24,922 surgeons sampled, 7905 (32%) returned surveys. Responders had been in practice 18 years, worked 60 hours per week, and were on call 2 nights/wk (median values). Overall, 40% of responding surgeons were burned out, 30% screened positive for symptoms of depression, and 28% had a mental QOL score >1/2 standard deviation below the population norm. Factors independently associated with burnout included younger age, having children, area of specialization, number of nights on call per week, hours worked per week, and having compensation determined entirely based on billing. Only 36% of surgeons felt their work schedule left enough time for personal/family life and only 51% would recommend their children pursue a career as a physician/surgeon. Burnout is common among American surgeons and is the single greatest predictor of surgeons' satisfaction with career and specialty choice. Additional research is needed to identify individual, organizational, and societal interventions that preserve and promote the mental health of American surgeons.

  11. Predictors of readmission in nonagenarians: analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, Zachary; Baker, Dustin; Jenkins, Christina S; Douglas, Jason; Callahan, Rose E; Shuell, Catherine C; Long, Graham W; Welsh, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    Increased longevity has led to more nonagenarians undergoing elective surgery. Development of predictive models for hospital readmission may identify patients who benefit from preoperative optimization and postoperative transition of care intervention. Our goal was to identify significant predictors of 30-d readmission in nonagenarians undergoing elective surgery. Nonagenarians undergoing elective surgery from January 2011 to December 2012 were identified using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project participant use data files. This population was randomly divided into a 70% derivation cohort for model development and 30% validation cohort. Using multivariate step-down regression, predictive models were developed for 30-d readmission. Of 7092 nonagenarians undergoing elective surgery, 798 (11.3%) were readmitted within 30 d. Factors significant in univariate analysis were used to develop predictive models for 30-d readmissions. Diabetes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-1.84), dialysis dependence (OR: 2.97, CI: 1.77-4.99), functional status (OR: 1.52, CI: 1.29-1.79), American Society of Anesthesiologists class II or higher (American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status classification system; OR: 1.80, CI: 1.42-2.28), operative time (OR: 1.05, CI: 1.02-1.08), myocardial infarction (OR: 5.17, CI: 3.38-7.90), organ space surgical site infection (OR: 8.63, CI: 4.04-18.4), wound disruption (OR: 14.3, CI: 4.80-42.9), pneumonia (OR: 8.59, CI: 6.17-12.0), urinary tract infection (OR: 3.88, CI: 3.02-4.99), stroke (OR: 6.37, CI: 3.47-11.7), deep venous thrombosis (OR: 5.96, CI: 3.70-9.60), pulmonary embolism (OR: 20.3, CI: 9.7-42.5), and sepsis (OR: 13.1, CI: 8.57-20.1), septic shock (OR: 43.8, CI: 18.2-105.0), were included in the final model. This model had a c-statistic of 0.73, indicating a fair association of predicted probabilities with observed outcomes. However, when applied to the validation

  12. Wound healing in plastic surgery: does age matter? An American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanos, Efstathios; Osgood, Geoff; Siddiqui, Aamir; Rubinfeld, Ilan

    2015-03-01

    Increasing age has traditionally been associated with impairment in wound healing after operative interventions. This is based mostly on hearsay and anecdotal information. This idea fits with the authors’ understanding of biology in older organisms. This dictum has not been rigorously tested in clinical practice. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was retrospectively queried for all patients undergoing plastic surgery from 2005 to 2010. Variables extracted included basic demographics, comorbidities, previous steroid and tobacco use, wound classification at the end of the surgery, and development of postoperative surgical-site infections. Multivariate analyses were used to investigate the impact of aging in wound dehiscence. A total of 25,967 patients were identified. Overall, the incidence of wound dehiscence was 0.75 percent (n = 196). When patients younger than 30 years were compared to older patient groups, no difference in the probability of developing wound dehiscence was noted. Specifically, the groups of patients aged 61 to 70 years and older than 70 years did not have statistically significant wound healing deficiencies [adjusted OR, 0.63 (95 percent CI, 0.11 to 3.63), adjusted p = 0.609; 2.79 (0.55 to 14.18), adjusted p = 0.217, for 61 to 70 years and older than 70 years, respectively]. Factors independently associated with wound dehiscence included postoperative abscess development, paraplegia, quadriplegia, steroid and tobacco use, deep surgical-site infection development, increasing body mass index, and wound classification at the end of surgery. In patients undergoing plastic surgery, wound dehiscence is a rare complication (0.75 percent). Aging is not associated with an increased incidence of wound dehiscence. Risk, III.

  13. Publication rates of poster presentations at the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons annual scientific conference between 1999 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abicht, Bradley P; Donnenwerth, Michael P; Borkosky, Sara L; Plovanich, Elizabeth J; Roukis, Thomas S

    2012-01-01

    Publication is the desired end point of scientific research. Ultimately, it is desired that research presented in poster format at a scientific conference will be developed into a report and become published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. Moreover, poster presentations of research studies are often referenced and, as a result, influence treatment care plans. No data exist for the actual publication rate of podiatric foot and ankle surgery poster presentations. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the actual publication rates of poster presentations at the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS) annual scientific conference (ASC) during a 10-year period. Print or electronic media for the ACFAS ASC official program from 1999 to 2008 were obtained. Each year's official program was manually searched for any poster presentation and, when identified, the authors and title were individually searched using Internet-based search engines to determine whether a poster presentation had been followed by publication. Of the 825 posters, 198 (24%) poster presentations were ultimately published in 1 of 32 medical journals within a weighted mean of 17.6 months. Of the 32 journals, 25 (78.1%) represented peer-reviewed journals. The publication rate of poster presentations at the ACFAS ASC was less than that of oral manuscripts presented at the same meeting during the same period and was also less than the orthopedic subspecialty poster presentation publication rates. Therefore, attendees of the ACFAS ASC should be aware that only a few of the posters presented at the ACFAS ASC will be valid because they will not survive the rigors of publication 76% of the time. Additionally, more stringent selection criteria should be used so that the selected poster presentations can ultimately withstand the publication process. Copyright © 2012 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An Observational Study of Abstracts Presented at the American College of Veterinary Surgeon Annual Meetings (2001-2008) and Their Subsequent Full-Text Publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Katherine E; Lindem, Margaret J; Giuffrida, Michelle A

    2016-07-01

    To determine the frequency of abstracts presented at American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) meetings from 2001 to 2008 that were published as complete articles, to identify abstract characteristics associated with final full-text publication, and to examine consistency of information between abstracts and final full-text publications. Observational bibliographic study. Abstracts were retrieved from published proceedings. Published articles were retrieved from bibliographic databases. Features of abstract and article authorship, design, and content were recorded. Regression analysis identified abstract features associated with article publication, and evaluated consistency between abstracts and final publications. Seven hundred eighty-two of 1078 (73%) abstracts were published as complete articles. Median time to publication was 1 year; 90% were published within 3 years. Abstracts originating from academic institutions were published more often than abstracts from practice or industry sites (odds ratio 2.61, 95% confidence interval 1.68-4.05). Compared to their conference abstracts, 49% of articles contained major inconsistences including changes in study design, interventions, outcomes, sample size, and results. For each year elapsed between presentation and publication, the odds of major inconsistency increased 2.4 times (odds ratio 2.36, 95% confidence interval 1.57-3.55) for retrospective studies and 1.4 times (odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.17-1.56) for other study designs. Changes in study title and authorship were frequent, particularly in publications that contained major inconsistencies. ACVS abstracts were promptly and reliably published, but final full-text publications often differed substantially from the original abstracts. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Learning how to "teach one": A needs assessment of the state of faculty development within the Consortium of the American College of Surgeons Accredited Education Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, John T; Khamis, Nehal N; Cooper, Jeffrey B

    2017-11-01

    Developing faculty competencies in curriculum development, teaching, and assessment using simulation is critical for the success of the Consortium of the American College of Surgeons Accredited Education Institutes program. The state of and needs for faculty development in the Accredited Education Institute community are unknown currently. The Faculty Development Committee of the Consortium of the Accredited Education Institutes conducted a survey of Accredited Education Institutes to ascertain what types of practices are used currently, with what frequency, and what needs are perceived for further programs and courses to guide the plan of action for the Faculty Development Committee. The Faculty Development Committee created a 20-question survey with quantitative and qualitative items aimed at gathering data about practices of faculty development and needs within the Consortium of Accredited Education Institutes. The survey was sent to all 83 Accredited Education Institutes program leaders via Survey Monkey in January 2015 with 2 follow-up reminders. Quantitative data were compiled and analyzed using descriptive statistics, and qualitative data were interpreted for common themes. Fifty-four out of the 83 programs (65%) responded to the survey. Two-thirds of the programs had from 1 to 30 faculty teaching at their Accredited Education Institutes. More than three-quarters of the programs taught general surgery, emergency medicine, or obstetrics/gynecology. More than 60% of programs had some form of faculty development, but 91% reported a need to expand their offerings for faculty development with "extreme value" for debriefing skills (70%), assessment (47%), feedback (40%), and curriculum development (40%). Accredited Education Institutes felt that the Consortium could assist with faculty development through such activities as the provision of online resources, sharing of best practices, provision of a blueprint for development of a faculty curriculum and information

  16. The American College of Surgeons/Association of Program Directors in Surgery National Skills Curriculum: adoption rate, challenges and strategies for effective implementation into surgical residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korndorffer, James R; Arora, Sonal; Sevdalis, Nick; Paige, John; McClusky, David A; Stefanidis, Dimitris

    2013-07-01

    The American College of Surgeons/Association of Program Directors in Surgery (ACS/APDS) National Skills Curriculum is a 3-phase program targeting technical and nontechnical skills development. Few data exist regarding the adoption of this curriculum by surgical residencies. This study attempted to determine the rate of uptake and identify implementation enablers/barriers. A web-based survey was developed by an international expert panel of surgical educators (5 surgeons and 1 psychologist). After piloting, the survey was sent to all general surgery program directors via email link. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the residency program characteristics and perceptions of the curriculum. Implementation rates for each phase and module were calculated. Adoption barriers were identified quantitatively and qualitatively using free text responses. Standardized qualitative methodology of emergent theme analysis was used to identify strategies for success and details of support required for implementation. Of the 238 program directors approached, 117 (49%) responded to the survey. Twenty-one percent (25/117) were unaware of the ACS/APDS curriculum. Implementation rates for were 36% for phase I, 19% for phase II, and 16% for phase III. The most common modules adopted were the suturing, knot-tying, and chest tube modules of phase I. Over 50% of respondents identified lack of faculty protected time, limited personnel, significant costs, and resident work-hour restrictions as major obstacles to implementation. Strategies for effective uptake included faculty incentives, adequate funding, administrative support, and dedicated time and resources. Despite the availability of a comprehensive curriculum, its diffusion into general surgery residency programs remains low. Obstacles related to successful implementation include personnel, learner, and administrative issues. Addressing these issues may improve the adoption rate of the curriculum. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc

  17. 2017 American College of Rheumatology/American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons Guideline for the Perioperative Management of Antirheumatic Medication in Patients With Rheumatic Diseases Undergoing Elective Total Hip or Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Susan M; Springer, Bryan; Guyatt, Gordon; Abdel, Matthew P; Dasa, Vinod; George, Michael; Gewurz-Singer, Ora; Giles, Jon T; Johnson, Beverly; Lee, Steve; Mandl, Lisa A; Mont, Michael A; Sculco, Peter; Sporer, Scott; Stryker, Louis; Turgunbaev, Marat; Brause, Barry; Chen, Antonia F; Gililland, Jeremy; Goodman, Mark; Hurley-Rosenblatt, Arlene; Kirou, Kyriakos; Losina, Elena; MacKenzie, Ronald; Michaud, Kaleb; Mikuls, Ted; Russell, Linda; Sah, Alexander; Miller, Amy S; Singh, Jasvinder A; Yates, Adolph

    2017-08-01

    This collaboration between the American College of Rheumatology and the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons developed an evidence-based guideline for the perioperative management of antirheumatic drug therapy for adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthritis (SpA) including ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) undergoing elective total hip (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A panel of rheumatologists, orthopedic surgeons specializing in hip and knee arthroplasty, and methodologists was convened to construct the key clinical questions to be answered in the guideline. A multi-step systematic literature review was then conducted, from which evidence was synthesized for continuing versus withholding antirheumatic drug therapy and for optimal glucocorticoid management in the perioperative period. A Patient Panel was convened to determine patient values and preferences, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology was used to rate the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations, using a group consensus process through a convened Voting Panel of rheumatologists and orthopedic surgeons. The strength of the recommendation reflects the degree of certainty that benefits outweigh harms of the intervention, or vice versa, considering the quality of available evidence and the variability in patient values and preferences. The guideline addresses the perioperative use of antirheumatic drug therapy including traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, biologic agents, tofacitinib, and glucocorticoids in adults with RA, SpA, JIA, or SLE who are undergoing elective THA or TKA. It provides recommendations regarding when to continue, when to withhold, and when to restart these medications, and the optimal perioperative dosing of glucocorticoids. The guideline includes 7 recommendations, all of which are conditional

  18. Facilitating the implementation of the American College of Surgeons/Association of Program Directors in Surgery phase III skills curriculum: training faculty in the assessment of team skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Louise; Arora, Sonal; Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Sevdalis, Nick

    2015-11-01

    Effective teamwork is critical to safety in the operating room; however, implementation of phase III of the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and Association of Program Directors in Surgery (APDS) Curriculum that focuses on team-based skills remains worryingly low. Training and assessing the complexities of teamwork is challenging. The objective of this study was to establish guidelines and recommendations for training faculty in assessing/debriefing team skills. A multistage survey-based consensus study was completed by 108 experts responsible for training and assessing surgical residents from the ACS Accredited Educational Institutes. Experts agreed that a program to teach faculty to assess team-based skills should include training in the recognition of teamwork skills, practice rating these skills, and training in the provision of feedback/debriefing. Agreement was reached that faculty responsible for conducting team-based skills assessment should be revalidated every 2 years and stringent proficiency criteria should be met. Faculty development is critical to ensure high-quality, standardized training and assessment. Training faculty to assess team-based skills has the potential to facilitate the effective implementation of phase III of the ACS and APDS Curriculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of Tricuspid Regurgitation With Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Outcomes: A Report From The Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Fenton H; Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Li, Zhuokai; Thourani, Vinod; Matsouaka, Roland A; Desai, Nimesh D; Kirtane, Ajay; Anwaruddin, Saif; Williams, Matthew L; Giri, Jay; Vallabhajosyula, Prashanth; Li, Robert H; Herrmann, Howard C; Bavaria, Joseph E; Szeto, Wilson Y

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) severity with outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We analyzed data from 34,576 patients who underwent TAVR at 365 US hospitals from November 2011 through March 2015 submitted to The Society of Thoracic Surgeon/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry. We examined unadjusted mortality and heart failure readmission stratified by degree of preoperative TR and used multivariable models for 1-year mortality and heart failure readmission. Tricuspid regurgitation was present in 80% (n = 27,804) of TAVR patients, with mild TR in 56% (n = 19,393), moderate TR in 19% (n = 6687), and severe TR in 5% (n = 1,724). Increasing TR severity was associated with a number of comorbidities and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality increased (p < 0.001): no TR (7.3 ± 5.4); mild TR (8.0 ± 5.7); moderate TR (9.6 ± 6.8); and severe TR (10.7 ± 7.4). In unadjusted analysis, moderate and severe TR were associated with increased use of cardiopulmonary bypass, longer intensive care unit and hospital stays, new dialysis, inhospital major adverse cardiac event, inhospital mortality, observed-to-expected inhospital mortality ratio, long-term heart failure readmission, and mortality (p < 0.001). Adjusted mortality at 1 year was significantly worse for patients with severe TR when left ventricular ejection fraction greater than 30% (hazard ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval: 1.11 to 1.50) as was heart failure readmission (hazard ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.54). Tricuspid regurgitation was common among patients undergoing TAVR. Increasing TR severity was associated with higher risk patients and increased mortality and readmission-particularly for patients with severe TR and left ventricular ejection fraction greater than 30%. The effectiveness of TAVR alone in patients with aortic stenosis and concomitant

  20. An Analysis of Future Publications, Career Choices, and Practice Characteristics of Research Presenters at an American College of Surgeons State Conference: A 15-Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Humera F; Jarman, Benjamin T; Kallies, Kara J; Shapiro, Stephen B

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires scholarly activity within general surgery residency programs. The association between in-training research presentations and postgraduation publications is unknown. We hypothesized that surgical trainee presentations at an American College of Surgeons (ACS) state chapter meeting resulted in peer-reviewed publications and future scholarly activity. The ACS Wisconsin state chapter meeting agendas from 2000 to 2014 were reviewed to identify all trainees who delivered podium presentations. A literature search was completed for subsequent publications. Program coordinators were queried and an electronic search was performed to determine practice location and type for each residency graduate. Wisconsin state chapter ACS meeting. General surgery residents, fellows, and medical students in Wisconsin. There were 288 podium presentations by trainees (76% residents, 20% medical students, and 4% fellows). Presentations were clinical (79.5%) and basic science (20.5%). There were 204 unique presenters; 25% presented at subsequent meetings. Of these unique presenters, 46% published their research and 31% published additional research after residency. Among presenters who completed residency or fellowship (N = 119), 34% practiced in a university setting, and 61% practiced in a community setting; 31% practiced in Wisconsin. When comparing clinical vs basic science presenters, there was no difference in fellowship completion (37% vs 44%; p = 0.190) or practice type (38% vs 46% in a university setting; p = 0.397). Repeat presenters were more likely to pursue a fellowship vs those presenting once (76% vs 37%; p = 0.001). Research presentations by surgical trainees at an ACS state chapter meeting frequently led to peer-reviewed publications. Presenters were likely to pursue research opportunities after residency. Repeat presenters were more likely to pursue a fellowship. ACS Wisconsin chapter meetings provide an

  1. What Is the Best Way to Measure Surgical Quality? Comparing the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program versus Traditional Morbidity and Mortality Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jacques X; Song, Diana; Bedford, Julie; Bucevska, Marija; Courtemanche, Douglas J; Arneja, Jugpal S

    2016-04-01

    Morbidity and mortality conferences have played a traditional role in tracking complications. Recently, the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatrics (ACS NSQIP-P) has gained popularity as a risk-adjusted means of addressing quality assurance. The purpose of this article is to report an analysis of the two methodologies used within pediatric plastic surgery to determine the best way to manage quality. ACS NSQIP-P and morbidity and mortality data were extracted for 2012 and 2013 at a quaternary care institution. Overall complication rates were compared statistically, segregated by type and severity, followed by a subset comparison of ACS NSQIP-P-eligible cases only. Concordance and discordance rates between the two methodologies were determined. One thousand two hundred sixty-one operations were performed in the study period. Only 51.4 percent of cases were ACS NSQIP-P eligible. The overall complication rates of ACS NSQIP-P (6.62 percent) and morbidity and mortality conferences (6.11 percent) were similar (p = 0.662). Comparing for only ACS NSQIP-P-eligible cases also yielded a similar rate (6.62 percent versus 5.71 percent; p = 0.503). Although different complications are tracked, the concordance rate for morbidity and mortality and ACS NSQIP-P was 35.1 percent and 32.5 percent, respectively. The ACS NSQIP-P database is able to accurately track complication rates similarly to morbidity and mortality conferences, although it samples only half of all procedures. Although both systems offer value, limitations exist, such as differences in definitions and purpose. Because of the rigor of the ACS NSQIP-P, we recommend that it be expanded to include currently excluded cases and an extension of the study interval.

  2. Coma and Stroke Following Surgical Treatment of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysm: An American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Brandon A; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Porter, Amanda L; Rinaldo, Lorenzo; Murphy, Meghan; Maloney, Patrick; Shepherd, Daniel; Hirshman, Brian R; Carter, Bob S; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Bydon, Mohamad; Meyer, Fredric

    2016-07-01

    A large national surgical registry was used to establish national benchmarks and associated predictors of major neurologic complications (i.e., coma and stroke) after surgical clipping of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data set between 2007 and 2013 was used for this retrospective cohort analysis. Demographic, comorbidity, and operative characteristics associated with the development of a major neurologic complication (i.e., coma or stroke) were elucidated using a backward selection stepwise logistic regression analysis. This model was subsequently used to fit a predictive score for major neurologic complications. Inclusion criteria were met by 662 patients. Of these patients, 57 (8.61%) developed a major neurologic complication (i.e., coma or stroke) within the 30-day postoperative period. On multivariable analysis, operative time (log odds 0.004 per minute; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.002-0.007), age (log odds 0.05 per year; 95% CI, 0.02-0.08), history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (log odds 1.26; 95% CI, 0.43-2.08), and diabetes (log odds 1.15; 95% CI, 0.38-1.91) were associated with an increased odds of major neurologic complications. When patients were categorized according to quartile of a predictive score generated from the multivariable analysis, rates of major neurologic complications were 1.8%, 4.3%, 6.7%, and 21.2%. Using a large, national multi-institutional cohort, this study established representative national benchmarks and a predictive scoring system for major neurologic complications following operative management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The model may assist with risk stratification and tailoring of decision making in surgical candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Patient Age and Tumor Subtype Predict the Extent of Axillary Surgery Among Breast Cancer Patients Eligible for the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Trial Z0011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Cecilia T; Thomas, Samantha M; Blitzblau, Rachel C; Fayanju, Oluwadamilola M; Park, Tristen S; Plichta, Jennifer K; Rosenberger, Laura H; Hyslop, Terry; Shelley Hwang, E; Greenup, Rachel A

    2017-11-01

    The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0011 trial established the safety of omitting axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for early-stage breast cancer patients with limited nodal disease undergoing lumpectomy. We examined the extent of axillary surgery among women eligible for Z0011 based on patient age and tumor subtype. Patients with cT1-2, cN0 breast cancers and one or two positive nodes diagnosed from 2009 to 2014 and treated with lumpectomy were identified in the National Cancer Data Base. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was defined as the removal of 1-5 nodes and ALND as the removal of 10 nodes or more. Tumor subtype was categorized as luminal, human epidermal growth factor 2-positive (HER2+), or triple-negative. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of receiving SLNB alone versus ALND. The inclusion criteria were met by 28,631 patients (21,029 SLNB-alone and 7602 ALND patients). Patients 70 years of age or older were more likely to undergo SLNB alone than ALND (27.0% vs 20.1%; p alone and 89.7% after ALND. In the multivariate analysis, the uptake of Z0011 recommendations increased over time (2014 vs 2009: odds ratio [OR] 13.02; p alone than older patients (age alone than those with luminal subtypes. Among women potentially eligible for ACOSOG Z0011, the use of SLNB alone increased over time in all groups, but the extent of axillary surgery differed by patient age and tumor subtype.

  4. Risk factors for unplanned readmission within 30 days after pediatric neurosurgery: a nationwide analysis of 9799 procedures from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Brandon A.; Johnston, James M.; Rocque, Brandon G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Readmission rate is increasingly used as a quality outcome measure after surgery. The purpose of this study was to establish, using a national database, the baseline readmission rates and risk factors for readmission after pediatric neurosurgical procedures. Methods The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program–Pediatric database was queried for pediatric patients treated by a neurosurgeon from 2012 to 2013. Procedures were categorized by current procedural terminology code. Patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, operative variables, and postoperative complications were analyzed via univariate and multivariate techniques to find associations with unplanned readmission within 30 days of the primary procedure. Results A total of 9799 cases met the inclusion criteria, 1098 (11.2%) of which had an unplanned readmission within 30 days. Readmission occurred 14.0 ± 7.7 days postoperatively (mean ± standard deviation). The 4 procedures with the highest unplanned readmission rates were CSF shunt revision (17.3%), repair of myelomeningocele > 5 cm in diameter (15.4%), CSF shunt creation (14.1%), and craniectomy for infratentorial tumor excision (13.9%). Spine (6.5%), craniotomy for craniosynostosis (2.1%), and skin lesion (1.0%) procedures had the lowest unplanned readmission rates. On multivariate regression analysis, the odds of readmission were greatest in patients experiencing postoperative surgical site infection (SSI; deep, organ/space, superficial SSI and wound disruption: OR > 12 and p readmission risk. Independent patient risk factors for unplanned readmission included Native American race (OR 2.363, p = 0.019), steroid use > 10 days (OR 1.411, p = 0.010), oxygen supplementation (OR 1.645, p = 0.010), nutritional support (OR 1.403, p = 0.009), seizure disorder (OR 1.250, p = 0.021), and longer operative time (per hour increase, OR 1.059, p = 0.014). Conclusions This study may aid in

  5. 2017 American College of Rheumatology/American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons Guideline for the Perioperative Management of Antirheumatic Medication in Patients With Rheumatic Diseases Undergoing Elective Total Hip or Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Susan M; Springer, Bryan; Guyatt, Gordon; Abdel, Matthew P; Dasa, Vinod; George, Michael; Gewurz-Singer, Ora; Giles, Jon T; Johnson, Beverly; Lee, Steve; Mandl, Lisa A; Mont, Michael A; Sculco, Peter; Sporer, Scott; Stryker, Louis; Turgunbaev, Marat; Brause, Barry; Chen, Antonia F; Gililland, Jeremy; Goodman, Mark; Hurley-Rosenblatt, Arlene; Kirou, Kyriakos; Losina, Elena; MacKenzie, Ronald; Michaud, Kaleb; Mikuls, Ted; Russell, Linda; Sah, Alexander; Miller, Amy S; Singh, Jasvinder A; Yates, Adolph

    2017-09-01

    This collaboration between the American College of Rheumatology and the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons developed an evidence-based guideline for the perioperative management of antirheumatic drug therapy for adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthritis (SpA) including ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) undergoing elective total hip (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A panel of rheumatologists, orthopedic surgeons specializing in hip and knee arthroplasty, and methodologists was convened to construct the key clinical questions to be answered in the guideline. A multi-step systematic literature review was then conducted, from which evidence was synthesized for continuing versus withholding antirheumatic drug therapy and for optimal glucocorticoid management in the perioperative period. A Patient Panel was convened to determine patient values and preferences, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology was used to rate the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations, using a group consensus process through a convened Voting Panel of rheumatologists and orthopedic surgeons. The strength of the recommendation reflects the degree of certainty that benefits outweigh harms of the intervention, or vice versa, considering the quality of available evidence and the variability in patient values and preferences. The guideline addresses the perioperative use of antirheumatic drug therapy including traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, biologic agents, tofacitinib, and glucocorticoids in adults with RA, SpA, JIA, or SLE who are undergoing elective THA or TKA. It provides recommendations regarding when to continue, when to withhold, and when to restart these medications, and the optimal perioperative dosing of glucocorticoids. The guideline includes 7 recommendations, all of which are conditional

  6. Risk factors for unplanned readmission within 30 days after pediatric neurosurgery: a nationwide analysis of 9799 procedures from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Brandon A; Johnston, James M; Rocque, Brandon G

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Hospital readmission rate is increasingly used as a quality outcome measure after surgery. The purpose of this study was to establish, using a national database, the baseline readmission rates and risk factors for patient readmission after pediatric neurosurgical procedures. METHODS The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric database was queried for pediatric patients treated by a neurosurgeon between 2012 and 2013. Procedures were categorized by current procedural terminology (CPT) code. Patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, operative variables, and postoperative complications were analyzed via univariate and multivariate techniques to find associations with unplanned readmissions within 30 days of the primary procedure. RESULTS A total of 9799 cases met the inclusion criteria, 1098 (11.2%) of which had an unplanned readmission within 30 days. Readmission occurred 14.0 ± 7.7 days postoperatively (mean ± standard deviation). The 4 procedures with the highest unplanned readmission rates were CSF shunt revision (17.3%; CPT codes 62225 and 62230), repair of myelomeningocele > 5 cm in diameter (15.4%), CSF shunt creation (14.1%), and craniectomy for infratentorial tumor excision (13.9%). The lowest unplanned readmission rates were for spine (6.5%), craniotomy for craniosynostosis (2.1%), and skin lesion (1.0%) procedures. On multivariate regression analysis, the odds of readmission were greatest in patients experiencing postoperative surgical site infection (SSI; deep, organ/space, superficial SSI, and wound disruption: OR > 12 and p 10 days (OR 1.411, p = 0.010), oxygen supplementation (OR 1.645, p = 0.010), nutritional support (OR 1.403, p = 0.009), seizure disorder (OR 1.250, p = 0.021), and longer operative time (per hour increase, OR 1.059, p = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS This study may aid in identifying patients at risk for unplanned readmission following pediatric neurosurgery

  7. American Indian Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  8. Angiographic Validation of the American College of Cardiology Foundation–The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Collaboration on the Comparative Effectiveness of Revascularization Strategies Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Anjan K.; Grau-Sepulveda, Maria V.; O’Brien, Sean; Abueg, Cassandra; Ponirakis, Angelo; Delong, Elizabeth; Peterson, Eric; Klein, Lloyd W.; Garratt, Kirk N.; Weintraub, William S.; Gibson, C. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to compare angiographic interpretation of coronary arteriograms by sites in community practice versus those made by a centralized angiographic core laboratory. Methods and Results The study population consisted of 2013 American College of Cardiology–National Cardiovascular Data Registry (ACC–NCDR) records with 2- and 3- vessel coronary disease from 54 sites in 2004 to 2007. The primary analysis compared Registry (NCDR)-defined 2- and 3-vessel disease versus those from an angiographic core laboratory analysis. Vessel-level kappa coefficients suggested moderate agreement between NCDR and core laboratory analysis, ranging from kappa=0.39 (95% confidence intervals, 0.32–0.45) for the left anterior descending artery to kappa=0.59 (95% confidence intervals, 0.55–0.64) for the right coronary artery. Overall, 6.3% (n=127 out of 2013) of those patients identified with multivessel disease at NCDR sites had had 0- or 1-vessel disease by core laboratory reading. There was no directional bias with regard to overcall, that is, 12.3% of cases read as 3-vessel disease by the sites were read as <3-vessel disease by the core laboratory, and 13.9% of core laboratory 3-vessel cases were read as <3-vessel by the sites. For a subset of patients with left main coronary disease, registry overcall was not linked to increased rates of mortality or myocardial infarction. Conclusions There was only modest agreement between angiographic readings in clinical practice and those from an independent core laboratory. Further study will be needed because the implications for patient management are uncertain. PMID:24496239

  9. Angiographic validation of the American College of Cardiology Foundation-the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Collaboration on the Comparative Effectiveness of Revascularization Strategies study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Anjan K; Grau-Sepulveda, Maria V; O'Brien, Sean; Abueg, Cassandra; Ponirakis, Angelo; Delong, Elizabeth; Peterson, Eric; Klein, Lloyd W; Garratt, Kirk N; Weintraub, William S; Gibson, C Michael

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this study was to compare angiographic interpretation of coronary arteriograms by sites in community practice versus those made by a centralized angiographic core laboratory. The study population consisted of 2013 American College of Cardiology-National Cardiovascular Data Registry (ACC-NCDR) records with 2- and 3- vessel coronary disease from 54 sites in 2004 to 2007. The primary analysis compared Registry (NCDR)-defined 2- and 3-vessel disease versus those from an angiographic core laboratory analysis. Vessel-level kappa coefficients suggested moderate agreement between NCDR and core laboratory analysis, ranging from kappa=0.39 (95% confidence intervals, 0.32-0.45) for the left anterior descending artery to kappa=0.59 (95% confidence intervals, 0.55-0.64) for the right coronary artery. Overall, 6.3% (n=127 out of 2013) of those patients identified with multivessel disease at NCDR sites had had 0- or 1-vessel disease by core laboratory reading. There was no directional bias with regard to overcall, that is, 12.3% of cases read as 3-vessel disease by the sites were read as <3-vessel disease by the core laboratory, and 13.9% of core laboratory 3-vessel cases were read as <3-vessel by the sites. For a subset of patients with left main coronary disease, registry overcall was not linked to increased rates of mortality or myocardial infarction. There was only modest agreement between angiographic readings in clinical practice and those from an independent core laboratory. Further study will be needed because the implications for patient management are uncertain.

  10. Structure, Process, and Culture of Intensive Care Units Treating Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Survey of Centers Participating in the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Aziz S; McCredie, Victoria A; Mainprize, Todd G; Gomez, David; Nathens, Avery B

    2017-10-01

    Outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) differs substantially between hospitals. Explaining this variation begins with understanding the differences in structures and processes of care, particularly at intensive care units (ICUs) where acute TBI care takes place. We invited trauma medical directors (TMDs) from 187 centers participating in the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program (ACS TQIP) to complete a survey. The survey domains included ICU model, type, availability of specialized units, staff, training programs, standard protocols and order sets, approach to withdrawal of life support, and perceived level of neurosurgeons' engagement in the ICU management of TBI. One hundred forty-two TMDs (76%) completed the survey. Severe TBI patients are admitted to dedicated neurocritical care units in 52 hospitals (37%), trauma ICUs in 44 hospitals (31%), general ICUs in 34 hospitals (24%), and surgical ICUs in 11 hospitals (8%). Fifty-seven percent are closed units. Board-certified intensivists directed 89% of ICUs, whereas 17% were led by neurointensivists. Sixty percent of ICU directors were general surgeons. Thirty-nine percent of hospitals had critical care fellowships and 11% had neurocritical care fellowships. Fifty-nine percent of ICUs had standard order sets and 61% had standard protocols specific for TBI, with the most common protocol relating to intracranial pressure management (53%). Only 43% of TMDs were satisfied with the current level of neurosurgeons' engagement in the ICU management of TBI; 46% believed that neurosurgeons should be more engaged; 11% believed they should be less engaged. In the largest survey of North American ICUs caring for TBI patients, there is substantial variation in the current approaches to ICU care for TBI, highlighting multiple opportunities for comparative effectiveness research.

  11. Locoregional Recurrence After Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection With or Without Axillary Dissection in Patients With Sentinel Lymph Node Metastases: Long-term Follow-up From the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (Alliance) ACOSOG Z0011 Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Armando E; Ballman, Karla; McCall, Linda; Beitsch, Peter; Whitworth, Pat W; Blumencranz, Peter; Leitch, A Marilyn; Saha, Sukamal; Morrow, Monica; Hunt, Kelly K

    2016-09-01

    The early results of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0011 trial demonstrated no difference in locoregional recurrence for patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) randomized either to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) alone. We now report long-term locoregional recurrence results. ACOSOG Z0011 prospectively examined overall survival of patients with SLN metastases undergoing breast-conserving therapy randomized to undergo ALND after SLND or no further axillary specific treatment. Locoregional recurrence was prospectively evaluated and compared between the groups. Four hundred forty-six patients were randomized to SLND alone and 445 to SLND and ALND. Both groups were similar with respect to age, Bloom-Richardson score, Estrogen Receptor status, adjuvant systemic therapy, histology, and tumor size. Patients randomized to ALND had a median of 17 axillary nodes removed compared with a median of only 2 SLNs removed with SLND alone (P alone arm (P = 0.28). Ten-year cumulative locoregional recurrence was 6.2% with ALND and 5.3% with SLND alone (P = 0.36). Despite the potential for residual axillary disease after SLND, SLND without ALND offers excellent regional control for selected patients with early metastatic breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy and adjuvant systemic therapy.

  12. Surgical complications associated with sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) plus axillary lymph node dissection compared with SLND alone in the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Trial Z0011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, Anthony; McCall, Linda Mackie; Beitsch, Peter D; Whitworth, Patrick W; Reintgen, Douglas S; Blumencranz, Peter W; Leitch, A Marilyn; Saha, Sukumal; Hunt, Kelly K; Giuliano, Armando E

    2007-08-20

    The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group trial Z0011 was a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial comparing overall survival between patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) who did and did not undergo axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The current study compares complications associated with SLN dissection (SLND) plus ALND, versus SLND alone. From May 1999 to December 2004, 891 patients were randomly assigned to SLND + ALND (n = 445) or SLND alone (n = 446). Information on wound infection, axillary seroma, paresthesia, brachial plexus injury (BPI), and lymphedema was available for 821 patients. Adverse surgical effects were reported in 70% (278 of 399) of patients after SLND + ALND and 25% (103 of 411) after SLND alone (P alone group. At 1 year, lymphedema was reported subjectively by 13% (37 of 288) of patients after SLND + ALND and 2% (six of 268) after SLND alone (P alone. Lymphedema was more common after SLND + ALND but was significantly different only by subjective report. The use of SLND alone resulted in fewer complications.

  13. American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons 2006 to 2016: Another Decade of Excellence in Education and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Gaby; Totonchi, Ali; Wexler, Andy; Gosain, Arun K

    2017-09-01

    Over the past 10 years, the American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons (ASMS) has continued to advance to meet its mission of being the premier organization to represent maxillofacial and pediatric plastic surgery in the United States. These advances are focused on education of its members, to include the American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons basic course, the preconference symposium, the annual meeting, two basic maxillofacial courses per year, advanced maxillofacial courses, a boot camp for craniofacial fellows, a cleft course, quarterly webinars, sponsored fellowships, a visiting professorship, and the ASMS journal. In addition, the ASMS has continued to advance as the premier national organization representing maxillofacial and pediatric plastic surgery in the United States, thereby positioning the organization as a primary advocate for these surgical specialties. Outreach of the ASMS has grown over the past decade and now includes representatives to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons/Plastic Surgery Foundation, the American Board of Plastic Surgeons, the American Medical Association, and most recently a seat as a governor with the American College of Surgeons. The ASMS has also initiated an annual Summer Leadership Seminar to explore topics of relevance in a changing health care environment. The present report outlines the major initiatives of the ASMS over the past 10 years.

  14. Prevalence and Outcomes of Mitral Stenosis in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Findings From the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapies Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Lee; Bashir, Mohammad; Xiang, Qun; Yerokun, Babatunde A; Matsouaka, Roland Albert; Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Kapadia, Samir; Cigarroa, Joaquin E; Zahr, Firas

    2018-04-09

    This study sought to examine the prevalence of mitral stenosis (MS) and its impact on in-hospital and 1-year clinical outcomes among patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Patients with coexisting severe aortic stenosis and MS are increasingly being considered for TAVR. The study cohort included 44,755 patients (age ≥18 years) who underwent TAVR during November 1, 2011, to September 30, 2015, and were registered in Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapies (TVT) Registry. One-year outcomes were assessed by linking TVT registry data of this cohort to patient-specific Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services administrative claims data (n = 31,453). The primary outcome was the composite of death, stroke, heart failure-related hospitalization, and mitral valve intervention at 1 year. MS was present in 11.6% of cohort (mean age, 82 years; 52% males), being severe in 2.7%. Severe MS was associated with higher in-hospital mortality rates (5.6% vs. 3.9% for nonsevere MS and 4.1% for no MS; p = 0.02). In contrast to those without MS, severe MS group had significantly higher risk for the primary outcome, mortality (1 year), and heart failure-related hospitalization (1 year) (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1 to 1.4], 1.2 [95% CI: 1.0 to 1.4], and 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1 to 1.5], respectively; p < 0.05 for all). Approximately one-tenth of patients undergoing TAVR have concomitant MS. Severe MS is an independent predictor of 1-year adverse clinical outcomes following TAVR. The higher risk for long-term adverse events must be considered when evaluating patients with combined aortic stenosis and MS for TAVR. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inclusion of Functional Status Measures in the Risk Adjustment of 30-Day Mortality After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Report From the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology TVT Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne V; O'Brien, Sean M; Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Cohen, David J; Stebbins, Amanda; Brennan, J Matthew; Shahian, David M; Grover, Fred L; Holmes, David R; Thourani, Vinod H; Peterson, Eric D; Edwards, Fred H

    2018-03-26

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a risk adjustment model for 30-day mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) that accounted for both standard clinical factors and pre-procedural health status and frailty. Assessment of risk for TAVR is important both for patient selection and provider comparisons. Prior efforts for risk adjustment have focused on in-hospital mortality, which is easily obtainable but can be biased because of early discharge of ill patients. Using data from patients who underwent TAVR as part of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology TVT (Transcatheter Valve Therapy) Registry (June 2013 to May 2016), a hierarchical logistic regression model to estimate risk for 30-day mortality after TAVR based only on pre-procedural factors and access site was developed and internally validated. The model included factors from the original TVT Registry in-hospital mortality model but added the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (health status) and gait speed (5-m walk test). Among 21,661 TAVR patients at 188 sites, 1,025 (4.7%) died within 30 days. Independent predictors of 30-day death included older age, low body weight, worse renal function, peripheral artery disease, home oxygen, prior myocardial infarction, left main coronary artery disease, tricuspid regurgitation, nonfemoral access, worse baseline health status, and inability to walk. The predicted 30-day mortality risk ranged from 1.1% (lowest decile of risk) to 13.8% (highest decile of risk). The model was able to stratify risk on the basis of patient factors with good discrimination (C = 0.71 [derivation], C = 0.70 [split-sample validation]) and excellent calibration, both overall and in key patient subgroups. A clinical risk model was developed for 30-day death after TAVR that included clinical data as well as health status and frailty. This model will facilitate tracking outcomes over time as TAVR expands to lower risk patients and

  16. Elective Stoma Reversal Has a Higher Incidence of Postoperative Clostridium Difficile Infection Compared With Elective Colectomy: An Analysis Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and Targeted Colectomy Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skancke, Matthew; Vaziri, Khashayar; Umapathi, Bindu; Amdur, Richard; Radomski, Michal; Obias, Vincent

    2018-05-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is caused by the proliferation of a gram-positive anaerobic bacteria after medical or surgical intervention and can result in toxic complications, emergent surgery, and death. This analysis evaluates the incidence of C difficile infection in elective restoration of intestinal continuity compared with elective colon resection. This was a retrospective database review of the 2015 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project and targeted colectomy database. The intervention cohort was defined as the primary Current Procedural Terminology codes for ileostomy/colostomy reversal (44227, 44620, 44625, and 44626) and International Classification of Diseases codes for ileostomy/colostomy status (VV44.2, VV44.3, VV55.2, VV55.3, Z93.2, Z93.3, Z43.3, and Z43.2). A total of 2235 patients underwent elective stoma reversal compared with 10403 patients who underwent elective colon resection. Multivariate regression modeling of the impact of stoma reversal on postoperative C difficile infection risk was used as the study intervention. The incidence of C difficile infection in the 30 days after surgery was measured. The incidence of C difficile infection in the 30-day postoperative period was significantly higher (3.04% vs 1.25%; p difficile infection incidence in the 30-day postoperative period. The study was limited because it was a retrospective database review with observational bias. Patients who undergo elective stoma reversal have a higher incidence of postoperative C difficile infection compared with patients who undergo an elective colectomy. Given the impact of postoperative C difficile infection, a heightened sense of suspicion should be given to symptomatic patients after stoma reversal. See at Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A553.

  17. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HRS/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2017 Appropriate Use Criteria for Multimodality Imaging in Valvular Heart Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, John U; Kort, Smadar; Mehran, Roxana; Schoenhagen, Paul; Soman, Prem; Dehmer, Greg J; Doherty, John U; Schoenhagen, Paul; Amin, Zahid; Bashore, Thomas M; Boyle, Andrew; Calnon, Dennis A; Carabello, Blase; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Conte, John; Desai, Milind; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Ferrari, Victor A; Ghoshhajra, Brian; Mehrotra, Praveen; Nazarian, Saman; Reece, T Brett; Tamarappoo, Balaji; Tzou, Wendy S; Wong, John B; Doherty, John U; Dehmer, Gregory J; Bailey, Steven R; Bhave, Nicole M; Brown, Alan S; Daugherty, Stacie L; Dean, Larry S; Desai, Milind Y; Duvernoy, Claire S; Gillam, Linda D; Hendel, Robert C; Kramer, Christopher M; Lindsay, Bruce D; Manning, Warren J; Mehrotra, Praveen; Patel, Manesh R; Sachdeva, Ritu; Wann, L Samuel; Winchester, David E; Wolk, Michael J; Allen, Joseph M

    2018-04-01

    This document is 1 of 2 companion appropriate use criteria (AUC) documents developed by the American College of Cardiology, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. This document addresses the evaluation and use of multimodality imaging in the diagnosis and management of valvular heart disease, whereas the second, companion document addresses this topic with regard to structural heart disease. Although there is clinical overlap, the documents addressing valvular and structural heart disease are published separately, albeit with a common structure. The goal of the companion AUC documents is to provide a comprehensive resource for multimodality imaging in the context of valvular and structural heart disease, encompassing multiple imaging modalities. Using standardized methodology, the clinical scenarios (indications) were developed by a diverse writing group to represent patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included common applications and anticipated uses. Where appropriate, the scenarios were developed on the basis of the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. A separate, independent rating panel scored the 92 clinical scenarios in this document on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that a modality is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Midrange scores of 4 to 6 indicate that a modality may be appropriate for the clinical scenario, and scores of 1 to 3 indicate that a modality is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario. The primary objective of the AUC is to provide a framework for the assessment of these scenarios by practices that will

  18. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HRS/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2017 Appropriate Use Criteria for Multimodality Imaging in Valvular Heart Disease : A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, John U; Kort, Smadar; Mehran, Roxana; Schoenhagen, Paul; Soman, Prem

    2017-12-01

    This document is 1 of 2 companion appropriate use criteria (AUC) documents developed by the American College of Cardiology, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. This document addresses the evaluation and use of multimodality imaging in the diagnosis and management of valvular heart disease, whereas the second, companion document addresses this topic with regard to structural heart disease. Although there is clinical overlap, the documents addressing valvular and structural heart disease are published separately, albeit with a common structure. The goal of the companion AUC documents is to provide a comprehensive resource for multimodality imaging in the context of valvular and structural heart disease, encompassing multiple imaging modalities.Using standardized methodology, the clinical scenarios (indications) were developed by a diverse writing group to represent patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included common applications and anticipated uses. Where appropriate, the scenarios were developed on the basis of the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines.A separate, independent rating panel scored the 92 clinical scenarios in this document on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that a modality is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Midrange scores of 4 to 6 indicate that a modality may be appropriate for the clinical scenario, and scores of 1 to 3 indicate that a modality is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario.The primary objective of the AUC is to provide a framework for the assessment of these scenarios by practices that will

  19. American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a robust series of courses leading to a brand new certification – the College Health and Wellness Professional ( ... future college health and wellness professionals, and strengthen awareness of the profession and association. Each month we' ...

  20. Ki67 Proliferation Index as a Tool for Chemotherapy Decisions During and After Neoadjuvant Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment of Breast Cancer: Results From the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1031 Trial (Alliance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Matthew J.; Suman, Vera J.; Hoog, Jeremy; Goncalves, Rodrigo; Sanati, Souzan; Creighton, Chad J.; DeSchryver, Katherine; Crouch, Erika; Brink, Amy; Watson, Mark; Luo, Jingqin; Tao, Yu; Barnes, Michael; Dowsett, Mitchell; Budd, G. Thomas; Winer, Eric; Silverman, Paula; Esserman, Laura; Carey, Lisa; Ma, Cynthia X.; Unzeitig, Gary; Pluard, Timothy; Whitworth, Pat; Babiera, Gildy; Guenther, J. Michael; Dayao, Zoneddy; Ota, David; Leitch, Marilyn; Olson, John A.; Allred, D. Craig; Hunt, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in estrogen receptor (ER) –positive primary breast cancer triaged to chemotherapy when the protein encoded by the MKI67 gene (Ki67) level was > 10% after 2 to 4 weeks of neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy. A second objective was to examine risk of relapse using the Ki67-based Preoperative Endocrine Prognostic Index (PEPI). Methods The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z1031A trial enrolled postmenopausal women with stage II or III ER-positive (Allred score, 6 to 8) breast cancer whose treatment was randomly assigned to neoadjuvant AI therapy with anastrozole, exemestane, or letrozole. For the trial ACOSOG Z1031B, the protocol was amended to include a tumor Ki67 determination after 2 to 4 weeks of AI. If the Ki67 was > 10%, patients were switched to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A pCR rate of > 20% was the predefined efficacy threshold. In patients who completed neoadjuvant AI, stratified Cox modeling was used to assess whether time to recurrence differed by PEPI = 0 score (T1 or T2, N0, Ki67 2) versus PEPI > 0 disease. Results Only two of the 35 patients in ACOSOG Z1031B who were switched to neoadjuvant chemotherapy experienced a pCR (5.7%; 95% CI, 0.7% to 19.1%). After 5.5 years of median follow-up, four (3.7%) of the 109 patients with a PEPI = 0 score relapsed versus 49 (14.4%) of 341 of patients with PEPI > 0 (recurrence hazard ratio [PEPI = 0 v PEPI > 0], 0.27; P = .014; 95% CI, 0.092 to 0.764). Conclusion Chemotherapy efficacy was lower than expected in ER-positive tumors exhibiting AI-resistant proliferation. The optimal therapy for these patients should be further investigated. For patients with PEPI = 0 disease, the relapse risk over 5 years was only 3.6% without chemotherapy, supporting the study of adjuvant endocrine monotherapy in this group. These Ki67 and PEPI triage approaches are being definitively studied in the ALTERNATE trial (Alternate Approaches for

  1. American College of Gastroenterology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... journal published to provide an opportunity to share interesting case reports. Edited by GI fellows, it is ... AmCollegeGastro Events November 9 Advances in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases – AIBD 2017 November 9 - 11, 2017 Walt Disney ...

  2. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/STS 2017 Appropriate Use Criteria for Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease : A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manesh R; Calhoon, John H; Dehmer, Gregory J; Grantham, James Aaron; Maddox, Thomas M; Maron, David J; Smith, Peter K

    2017-10-01

    The American College of Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and American Association for Thoracic Surgery, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, have completed a 2-part revision of the appropriate use criteria (AUC) for coronary revascularization. In prior coronary revascularization AUC documents, indications for revascularization in acute coronary syndromes and stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) were combined into 1 document. To address the expanding clinical indications for coronary revascularization, and to align the subject matter with the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines, the new AUC for coronary artery revascularization were separated into 2 documents addressing SIHD and acute coronary syndromes individually. This document presents the AUC for SIHD.Clinical scenarios were developed to mimic patient presentations encountered in everyday practice. These scenarios included information on symptom status; risk level as assessed by noninvasive testing; coronary disease burden; and, in some scenarios, fractional flow reserve testing, presence or absence of diabetes, and SYNTAX score. This update provides a reassessment of clinical scenarios that the writing group felt were affected by significant changes in the medical literature or gaps from prior criteria. The methodology used in this update is similar to the initial document but employs the recent modifications in the methods for developing AUC, most notably, alterations in the nomenclature for appropriate use categorization.A separate, independent rating panel scored the clinical scenarios on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that revascularization is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Scores of 1 to 3 indicate that revascularization is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario, whereas scores in the mid-range of 4 to 6 indicate that

  3. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/STS 2016 Appropriate Use Criteria for Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes : A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manesh R; Calhoon, John H; Dehmer, Gregory J; Grantham, James Aaron; Maddox, Thomas M; Maron, David J; Smith, Peter K

    2017-04-01

    The American College of Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and American Association for Thoracic Surgery, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, have completed a 2-part revision of the appropriate use criteria (AUC) for coronary revascularization. In prior coronary revascularization AUC documents, indications for revascularization in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and stable ischemic heart disease were combined into 1 document. To address the expanding clinical indications for coronary revascularization, and in an effort to align the subject matter with the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines, the new AUC for coronary artery revascularization were separated into 2 documents addressing ACS and stable ischemic heart disease individually. This document presents the AUC for ACS. Clinical scenarios were developed to mimic patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included information on symptom status, presence of clinical instability or ongoing ischemic symptoms, prior reperfusion therapy, risk level as assessed by noninvasive testing, fractional flow reserve testing, and coronary anatomy. This update provides a reassessment of clinical scenarios that the writing group felt to be affected by significant changes in the medical literature or gaps from prior criteria. The methodology used in this update is similar to the initial document but employs the recent modifications in the methods for developing AUC, most notably, alterations in the nomenclature for appropriate use categorization. A separate, independent rating panel scored the clinical scenarios on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that revascularization is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Scores of 1 to 3 indicate that revascularization is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario, whereas scores in the mid-range (4 to 6

  4. Close relationships between asian american and european american college students

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E

    2001-01-01

    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes reg...

  5. Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Minimally Invasive Surgery and Therapy World. Nezhat’s History of Endoscopy In 2005 pioneering surgeon Dr. Camran Nezhat was awarded a fellowship by The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology to research and write this important ...

  6. Close relationships between Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E

    2001-02-01

    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans.

  7. Help-Seeking Experiences and Attitudes among African American, Asian American, and European American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Anderson, Page L.; Twohig, Michael P.; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Chou, Ying-Yi; Wendell, Johanna W.; Stormo, Analia R.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined African American, Asian American, and European American college students' previous direct and indirect experiences of seeking professional psychological services and related attitudes. Survey data were collected from 254 European American, 182 African American and 82 Asian American college students. Results revealed that fewer…

  8. Surveyed opinion of American trauma surgeons in management of colon injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, N; Mullins, R J; Mayberry, J C; Brand, D M; Crass, R A; Trunkey, D D

    1998-01-01

    Primary repair or resection and anastomosis of colon wounds have been advocated in many recent studies, but the proportion of trauma surgeons accepting these recommendations is unknown. To determine the current preferences of American trauma surgeons for colon injury management. Four hundred forty-nine members of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma were surveyed regarding their preferred management of eight types of colon wounds among three options: diverting colostomy (DC), primary repair (PR), or resection and anastomosis (RA). The influence of selected patient factors and surgeons' characteristics on the choice of management was also surveyed. Seventy-three percent of surgeons completed the survey. Ninety-eight percent chose PR for at least one type of injury. Thirty percent never selected DC. High-velocity gunshot wound was the only injury for which the majority (54%) would perform DC. More than 55% of the surgeons favored RA when the isolated colon injury was a contusion with possible devascularization, laceration greater than 50% of the diameter, or transection. Surgeons who managed five or fewer colon wounds per year chose DC more frequently (p colon wounds per year. The prevailing opinion of trauma surgeons favors primary repair or resection of colon injuries, including anastomosis of unprepared bowel. Surgeons who manage fewer colon wounds prefer colostomy more frequently.

  9. Contextualizing Asian American College Student Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christopher T. H.; Liu, Jessica; Nguyen, David; Song, Ge

    2017-01-01

    With attention to race, culture, and gender, this chapter contextualizes the help-seeking behaviors and psychological aspects of health facing Asian American college students. Recommendations are provided to student affairs professionals and counselors.

  10. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Professionals Find an Allergist American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Seeking Relief? Find an Allergist ... shots? View All Postings Ask the Allergist Index Allergy & Asthma News Let it snow, but don’t ...

  11. Analysis on constitution of American college republicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on internet survey and comparative analysis, according to the firsthand materials, comprehensively and systematically probes the formation of the constitution form and structure, and analyzes its contents of Constitution of American College Republicans among 15 colleges respectively, which includes the illustration of constitution, membership, personnel, meeting, financial amendment, etc. Finally, this essay analyzes the characteristics of constitution of college republicans and its advantages.

  12. Sentinel Lymph Node Frozen-Section Utilization Declines After Publication of American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 Trial Results With No Change in Subsequent Surgery for Axillary Lymph Node Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorns, Julie M; Kidwell, Kelley M

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate use of sentinel lymph node (SLN) frozen section (FS) before and after publication of the Z0011 trial. We identified 116 pre-Z0011 and 134 post-Z0011 patients from 18 months before and after Z0011-initiated changes. Clinicopathologic features were assessed by chart review. Post-Z0011 SLN FS use markedly declined when performed with breast-conserving therapy (BCT) (P < .0001), with SLN FS in 53 (73.6%) of 72 and 19 (25.0%) of 76 in pre- and post-Z0011 groups, respectively. There was post-Z0011 decline in axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) (P = .014) but no difference in later procedures for ALND. SLN positivity was associated with larger (≥1.6 cm) tumor size (P = .002). Nodal upstage was more frequent with invasive lobular (3/32; 9.4%) vs other invasive (2/188; 1.1%) subtypes. Our findings support reduced need for SLN FS for BCT patients post-Z0011. However, those with specific clinicopathologic features may derive greater benefit from SLN FS. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The William Houston Medal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, A M

    2004-06-01

    The William Houston medal is a prestigious prize awarded to the individual achieving the most outstanding examination performance at the Membership in Orthodontics examination for the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. Five clinical cases treated by the candidate are presented as part of the final examination; two of these cases are described below. The first a Class III malocclusion, and the second a Class II division 1 malocclusion, were both treated by orthodontic camouflage.

  14. Depressive Symptomatology and College Persistence among African American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Güler; Horne, Sharon G; Owens, Archandria C; Armstrong, Aisha P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and college outcomes among African American students, as well as to determine whether these relationships were moderated by gender and type of university. Participants included 569 African American first-year students attending two public universities in the Southeast United States: a historically Black college/university (HBCU) and a predominantly White institution (PWI). Using a longitudinal study design, data were collected at three time points. Results indicated that, after adjusting for the effects of the control variables (gender, type of institution, high school GPA, participation in on-campus activities, institutional and goal commitments), depressive symptomatology present in the first semester of college was associated with increased likelihood of dropping out of college before the end of the second year of college. The relationship between these two variables was mediated by first-year cumulative GPA. Results also indicated that the hypothesized relationships did not vary as a function of gender and the university type.

  15. Music as Narrative in American College Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, John Michael

    2016-01-01

    American college football features an enormous amount of music woven into the fabric of the event, with selections accompanying approximately two-thirds of a game's plays. Musical selections are controlled by a number of forces, including audio and video technicians, university marketing departments, financial sponsors, and wind bands. These blend…

  16. The American Association of Endocrine Surgeons Guidelines for Definitive Management of Primary Hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Scott M; Wang, Tracy S; Ruan, Daniel T; Lee, James A; Asa, Sylvia L; Duh, Quan-Yang; Doherty, Gerard M; Herrera, Miguel F; Pasieka, Janice L; Perrier, Nancy D; Silverberg, Shonni J; Solórzano, Carmen C; Sturgeon, Cord; Tublin, Mitchell E; Udelsman, Robert; Carty, Sally E

    2016-10-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is a common clinical problem for which the only definitive management is surgery. Surgical management has evolved considerably during the last several decades. To develop evidence-based guidelines to enhance the appropriate, safe, and effective practice of parathyroidectomy. A multidisciplinary panel used PubMed to review the medical literature from January 1, 1985, to July 1, 2015. Levels of evidence were determined using the American College of Physicians grading system, and recommendations were discussed until consensus. Initial evaluation should include 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurement, 24-hour urine calcium measurement, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and supplementation for vitamin D deficiency. Parathyroidectomy is indicated for all symptomatic patients, should be considered for most asymptomatic patients, and is more cost-effective than observation or pharmacologic therapy. Cervical ultrasonography or other high-resolution imaging is recommended for operative planning. Patients with nonlocalizing imaging remain surgical candidates. Preoperative parathyroid biopsy should be avoided. Surgeons who perform a high volume of operations have better outcomes. The possibility of multigland disease should be routinely considered. Both focused, image-guided surgery (minimally invasive parathyroidectomy) and bilateral exploration are appropriate operations that achieve high cure rates. For minimally invasive parathyroidectomy, intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring via a reliable protocol is recommended. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is not routinely recommended for known or suspected multigland disease. Ex vivo aspiration of resected parathyroid tissue may be used to confirm parathyroid tissue intraoperatively. Clinically relevant thyroid disease should be assessed preoperatively and managed during parathyroidectomy. Devascularized normal parathyroid tissue should be autotransplanted. Patients should be observed

  17. Attitudes towards chiropractic: an analysis of written comments from a survey of north american orthopaedic surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse Jason W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest by chiropractors in North America regarding integration into mainstream healthcare; however, there is limited information about attitudes towards the profession among conventional healthcare providers, including orthopaedic surgeons. Methods We administered a 43-item cross-sectional survey to 1000 Canadian and American orthopaedic surgeons that inquired about demographic variables and their attitudes towards chiropractic. Our survey included an option for respondants to include written comments, and our present analysis is restricted to these comments. Two reviewers, independantly and in duplicate, coded all written comments using thematic analysis. Results 487 surgeons completed the survey (response rate 49%, and 174 provided written comments. Our analysis revealed 8 themes and 24 sub-themes represented in surgeons' comments. Reported themes were: variability amongst chiropractors (n = 55; concerns with chiropractic treatment (n = 54; areas where chiropractic is perceived as effective (n = 43; unethical behavior (n = 43; patient interaction (n = 36; the scientific basis of chiropractic (n = 26; personal experiences with chiropractic (n = 21; and chiropractic training (n = 18. Common sub-themes endorsed by surgeon's were diversity within the chiropractic profession as a barrier to increased interprofessional collaboration, endorsement for chiropractic treatment of musculoskeletal complaints, criticism for treatment of non-musculoskeletal complaints, and concern over whether chiropractic care was evidence-based. Conclusions Our analysis identified a number of issues that will have to be considered by the chiropractic profession as part of its efforts to further integrate chiropractic into mainstream healthcare.

  18. Gerald J. Marks, M.D., FACS (1925-), founder of the Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Theresa P; Cowan, Scott W; Yeo, Charles J

    2018-03-01

    This historical vignette describes the professional career of Gerald J. Marks, the founder of the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons and the International Federation of Societies of Endoscopic Surgeons. Dr. Marks is also the founding Associate Editor of Surgical Endoscopy, which celebrated its 30th anniversary in 2017. Dr. Marks is a renowned colorectal surgeon, an accomplished watercolor artist, and a fascinating personality.

  19. Surgical Residency Training in Developing Countries: West African College of Surgeons as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, Oluwole Gbolagunte; Alao, Adekola

    2016-01-01

    In 1904, William Halsted introduced the present model of surgical residency program which has been adopted worldwide. In some developing countries, where surgical residency training programs are new, some colleges have introduced innovations to the Halsted's original concept of surgical residency training. These include 1) primary examination, 2) rural surgical posting, and 3) submission of dissertation for final certification. Our information was gathered from the publications on West African College of Surgeons' (WACS) curriculum of the medical schools, faculty papers of medical schools, and findings from committees of medical schools. Verbal information was also gathered via interviews from members of the WACS. Additionally, our personal experience as members and examiners of the college are included herein. We then noted the differences between surgical residency training programs in the developed countries and that of developing countries. The innovations introduced into the residency training programs in the developing countries are mainly due to the emphasis placed on paper qualifications and degrees instead of performance. We conclude that the innovations introduced into surgical residency training programs in developing countries are the result of the misconception of what surgical residency training programs entail. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Malignant mast cell tumor of the thymus in an Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terayama, Yui; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2017-01-01

    A 152-week-old male Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat kept as a non-treated animal in a long-term animal study presented with a soft mass in the anterior mediastinum, which adhered to the pleura of the lung. Histopathologically, the mass mainly consisted of round to short spindle-shaped tumor cells that had infiltrated through the hyperplastic thymic tissue. The tumor cells were arranged in loose to dense sheets. Nuclei were moderate in size and round to spindle-shaped, with small nucleoli. Almost all tumor cells exhibited abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, including eosinophilic granules of a range of sizes. The granules of tumor cells exhibited metachromasia with toluidine blue stain and were positive for c-kit and mast cell protease II. These findings indicate that the tumor described here represents a rare case of spontaneous malignant mast cell tumor with thymic epithelial hyperplasia.

  1. Journalism and Academic Surgery: The Denver Post and The American Surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Don K

    2015-07-01

    Publication in professional journals is where advancements in surgery are reported and verified. Thus academic surgery holds common ground with journalism, where the principles of service, communication, and integrity are the basis of their public trust and standing in society. Writing for the Denver Post the author learned lessons that are relevant to academic surgery. Facts have to be solid. There are important issues to be discussed. Articles have to be interesting and not tiresome to read. And if it's something new--the essence of news--get it out there first. The American Surgeon embodies the same principles. The journal is a place where members of the Southeastern Surgical Congress discuss important matters, like surgical education, and share stories of interest, like a Japanese surgeon trying to treat victims of nuclear war. It is accessible yet disciplined, dedicated to advancing our field and fostering fellowship and communication among its members.

  2. African Americans: College Majors and Earnings. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Fasules, Megan L.; Porter, Andrea; Landis-Santos Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Access to college for African Americans has increased, but African Americans are highly concentrated in lower-paying majors. The college major, which has critical economic consequences throughout life, reflects personal choices but also reflects the fact that African-American students are concentrated in open-access four-year institutions that…

  3. Did the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons osteoarthritis guidelines miss the mark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannuru, Raveendhara R; Vaysbrot, Elizaveta E; McIntyre, Louis F

    2014-01-01

    The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) 2013 guidelines for knee osteoarthritis recommended against the use of viscosupplementation for failing to meet the criterion of minimum clinically important improvement (MCII). However, the AAOS's methodology contained numerous flaws in obtaining, displaying, and interpreting MCII-based results. The current state of research on MCII allows it to be used only as a supplementary instrument, not a basis for clinical decision making. The AAOS guidelines should reflect this consideration in their recommendations to avoid condemning potentially viable treatments in the context of limited available alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Examining Factors Influencing Asian American and Latino American Students' College Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Yeung, Leilani Weichun

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines the gap in college enrollment between Asian Americans and Latino Americans regarding the effects of family and school factors, classifying them into the six ethnic/generational status groups (Asian American first generation, Asian American second generation, Asian American third generation and plus, Latino American first…

  5. Sounding narrative medicine: studying students' professional identity development at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eliza; Balmer, Dorene; Hermann, Nellie; Graham, Gillian; Charon, Rita

    2014-02-01

    To learn what medical students derive from training in humanities, social sciences, and the arts in a narrative medicine curriculum and to explore narrative medicine's framework as it relates to students' professional development. On completion of required intensive, half-semester narrative medicine seminars in 2010, 130 second-year medical students at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons participated in focus group discussions of their experiences. Focus group transcriptions were submitted to close iterative reading by a team who performed a grounded-theory-guided content analysis, generating a list of codes into which statements were sorted to develop overarching themes. Provisional interpretations emerged from the close and repeated readings, suggesting a fresh conceptual understanding of how and through what avenues such education achieves its goals in clinical training. Students' comments articulated the known features of narrative medicine--attention, representation, and affiliation--and endorsed all three as being valuable to professional identity development. They spoke of the salience of their work in narrative medicine to medicine and medical education and its dividends of critical thinking, reflection, and pleasure. Critiques constituted a small percentage of the statements in each category. Students report that narrative medicine seminars support complex interior, interpersonal, perceptual, and expressive capacities. Students' lived experiences confirm some expectations of narrative medicine curricular planners while exposing fresh effects of such work to view.

  6. Sounding Narrative Medicine: Studying Students’ Professional Identity Development at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eliza; Balmer, Dorene; Hermann, Nellie; Graham, Gillian; Charon, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To learn what medical students derive from training in humanities, social sciences, and the arts in a narrative medicine curriculum and to explore narrative medicine’s framework as it relates to students’ professional development. Method On completion of required intensive, half-semester narrative medicine seminars in 2010, 130 second-year medical students at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons participated in focus group discussions of their experiences. Focus group transcriptions were submitted to close iterative reading by a team who performed a grounded-theory-guided content analysis, generating a list of codes into which statements were sorted to develop overarching themes. Provisional interpretations emerged from the close and repeated readings, suggesting a fresh conceptual understanding of how and through what avenues such education achieves its goals in clinical training. Results Students’ comments articulated the known features of narrative medicine—attention, representation, and affiliation—and endorsed all three as being valuable to professional identity development. They spoke of the salience of their work in narrative medicine to medicine and medical education and its dividends of critical thinking, reflection, and pleasure. Critiques constituted a small percentage of the statements in each category. Conclusions Students report that narrative medicine seminars support complex interior, interpersonal, perceptual, and expressive capacities. Students’ lived experiences confirm some expectations of narrative medicine curricular planners while exposing fresh effects of such work to view. PMID:24362390

  7. Reclaiming the American Dream. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Community and technical colleges are known as "Democracy's colleges." They are grounded in the core American value that all people deserve the opportunity to move up in the world, regardless of where they are from, what obstacles they face and where they need to start. At a time when college education is the ticket to a middle-class…

  8. The Role of Collectivism among Latino American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Irving; So, Dominicus; McNaughton-Cassill, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to explain the lower Latino college graduation rate, the current study focuses on collectivism in kin and nonkin helping situations. The sample comprised 60 students at a 4-year college in the southwestern United States. Results revealed significance between ethnicity and nonkin collectivism: Latino American college students were…

  9. African American College Students, the Black Church, and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avent Harris, Janeé R.; Wong, Christine D.

    2018-01-01

    African American undergraduate students face numerous challenges during college; however, they are less likely to seek help from college counseling services. Often, African Americans seek support from spiritual resources. In the current phenomenological study, participants shared in a focus group interview. Overall, participants seemed to value…

  10. Japanese College Students' Attitudes towards Japan English and American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Shoko

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated contemporary Japanese college students' attitudes towards Japan English (JE) and American English (AE) through a verbal guise test (VGT) as well as a questionnaire. Forty-four Japanese college students listened to four Japanese and four North Americans reading a text in English, rated them in terms of solidarity-related…

  11. Predictors, Quality Markers, and Economics of Volunteering Internationally: Results from a Comprehensive Survey of American Society of Plastic Surgeons Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Joyce K; Schoenbrunner, Anna R; Kelley, Kristen D; Gosman, Amanda A

    2017-09-01

    Plastic surgeons have a long history of international volunteer work. To date, there have been no outcome-based studies among surgeons who volunteer internationally. The purpose of this study was to describe predictors of volunteering, clinical quality markers, and economics of international volunteering among American plastic surgeons. A cross-sectional validated e-mail survey tool was sent to all board-certified plastic surgeons by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. The survey response rate was 15 percent (745 total individuals), of which 283 respondents traveled within the past 5 years. Analysis was performed in R. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the predictors of death/complication. Respondents reported high use of medical records, follow-up care, and host affiliation. Fewer than half of all respondents reported use of international safety surgery guidelines, and the majority of respondents reported volunteering abroad outside of their scope of practice. The majority of children younger than 5 years were not cared for by a pediatric anesthesiologist. The majority of participants reported personally spending more than $1000 on their last trip and performing surgery estimated to be worth on average $28,000 each. International surgical volunteer trips attempt to ease the global burden of surgical disease. The authors' study reports variation in quality of care provided on these trips. Most significantly, the majority of children younger than 5 years were not cared for by a pediatric anesthesiologist, and many plastic surgeons operated outside of their scope of practice.

  12. Readability of Trauma-Related Patient Education Materials From the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; P Thomas, Nathan; Yang, Heejae; Daniels, Alan H; Born, Christopher T

    2016-02-01

    According to the american medical association (AMA) and the national institutes of health (NIH), the recommended readability of patient education materials should be no greater than a sixth-grade reading level. The online patient education information produced by the american academy of orthopaedic surgeons (AAOS) may be too complicated for some patients to understand. This study evaluated whether the AAOS's online trauma-related patient education materials meet recommended readability guidelines for medical information. Ninety-nine articles from the "Broken Bones and Injuries" section of the AAOS-produced patient education website, orthoinfo.org, were analyzed for grade level readability using the Flesch-Kincaid formula, a widely-used and validated tool to evaluate the text reading level. Results for each webpage were compared to the AMA/NIH recommended sixth-grade reading level and the average reading level of U.S. adults (eighth-grade). The mean (SD) grade level readability for all patient education articles was 8.8 (1.1). All but three of the articles had a readability score above the sixth-grade level. The readability of the articles exceeded this level by an average of 2.8 grade levels (95% confidence interval, 2.6 - 3.0; P reading skill level of U.S. adults (eighth grade) by nearly an entire grade level (95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.0; P education website have readability levels that may make comprehension difficult for a substantial portion of the patient population.

  13. Democracy's College: The American Community College in the 21st Century--Framing the Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Amelia M.; Powers, Jeanne M.

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, the guest editors of the EPAA Special Issue on "Democracy's College: The American Community College in the 21st Century": a) introduce the background, history, and context of community colleges in the larger higher education landscape; b) summarize the three research papers and two video commentaries that were…

  14. Supportive College Environment for Meaning Searching and Meaning in Life among American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joo Yeon; Steger, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether American college students who perceive their college environment as supportive for their meaning searching report higher levels of meaning in life. We also examined whether students' perception of college environmental support for meaning searching moderates the relation between the presence of and search for meaning. Students'…

  15. An Official American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girard, Timothy D; Alhazzani, Waleed; Kress, John P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interventions that lead to earlier liberation from mechanical ventilation can improve patient outcomes. This guideline, a collaborative effort between the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST), provides evidence-based recommendations to o...

  16. Cultural Community Connection and College Success: An Examination of Southeast Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Shiroma, Kiana; Dizon, Jude Paul

    2016-01-01

    Low rates of college success continue to be a persisting problem in the United States, particularly among Southeast Asian Americans and other populations of color. The purpose of the current inquiry was to understand how cultural community connections influence the success of Southeast Asian American college students. Qualitative methods were…

  17. Impact of the economic downturn on adult reconstruction surgery: a survey of the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Richard; Davis, Charles M; Healy, William L; Fehring, Thomas K; O'Connor, Mary I; York, Sally

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of the economic downturn on adult reconstruction surgery in the United States, a survey of the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons (AAHKS) membership was conducted. The survey evaluated surgical and patient volume, practice type, hospital relationship, total joint arthroplasty cost control, employee staffing, potential impact of Medicare reimbursement decreases, attitudes toward health care reform options and retirement planning. A surgical volume decrease was reported by 30.4%. An outpatient visit decrease was reported by 29.3%. A mean loss of 29.9% of retirement savings was reported. The planned retirement age increased to 65.3 years from 64.05 years. If Medicare surgeon reimbursement were to decrease up to 20%, 49% to 57% of AAHKS surgeons would be unable to provide care for Medicare patients, resulting in an unmet need of 92,650 to 160,818 total joint arthroplasty procedures among AAHKS surgeons alone. Decreases in funding for surgeons and inadequate support for subspecialty training will likely impact access and quality for Americans seeking adult reconstruction surgery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The quality of operative note taking: an audit using the Royal College of Surgeons Guidelines as the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayah, A; Agada, F O; Gunasekaran, S; Jassar, P; England, R J A

    2007-04-01

    To assess the quality of operative note keeping and compare the results with the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) of England guidelines 'Good Surgical Practice' as the gold standard. ENT Department at Hull Royal Infirmary, University Hospital. A hundred consecutive operative notes were selected between November 2005 and January 2006. The documentation of the operative notes in each case was compared with the RCS of England guidelines. All surgeons were made aware of the results of the first cycle and the guidelines were made available in all ENT theatres in the form of a printed aide-memoir. A second audit cycle was then carried out prospectively between April and June 2006. The results demonstrated a change in practice in key areas. The 1st cycle results showed the documentation of patient identification (94%), name of surgeon (98%) and clearly written postoperative instructions (94%). However, surgeons performed suboptimally at recording the name of assistant (82%), operative diagnosis (46%), the incision type (87%) and the type of wound closure (83%). After introducing the aide-memoir, the second cycle demonstrated a change in practice with 100% documentation in most of the assessed parameters except that the time of surgery and the type of surgery (emergency or elective) were not adequately recorded. We recommend that all surgical departments should have the RCS guidelines as an aide-memoir in theatres to enhance the quality and standardise operative note recording.

  19. Entrepreneurship Education in American Community Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Nicole

    This is an analysis of entrepreneurship-education opportunities at various American community colleges, universities, and business schools. Roughly 100 institutions offer formal educational programs that focus on entrepreneurship; however, approximately 1,500 colleges offer courses in entrepreneurship and small-business management. Community…

  20. Abelard to Apple: The Fate of American Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMillo, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of American college students attend two thousand or so private and public institutions that might be described as the Middle--reputable educational institutions, but not considered equal to the elite and entrenched upper echelon of the Ivy League and other prestigious schools. Richard DeMillo has a warning for these colleges and…

  1. Patterns of Care for Craniopharyngioma: Survey of members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankinson, Todd C.; Palmeri, Nicholas O.; Williams, Sarah A.; Torok, Michelle R.; Serrano, Cesar A.; Foreman, Nicholas K.; Handler, Michael H.; Liu, Arthur K.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Significance Initial therapy for craniopharyngioma remains controversial. Population-based datasets indicate that traditional algorithms (GTR versus STR +/− XRT) are often not employed. We investigated neurosurgical practice patterns. Methods A ten-question survey was electronically distributed to members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Responses were analyzed using standard statistical techniques. Results One hundred-two responses were collected, with a median 25 craniopharyngiomas managed per respondent. 36% estimated their practice included ≥75% pediatrics and 61% had an academic practice. 36% would recommend observation or radiation therapy for a suspected craniopharyngioma in the absence of a tissue diagnosis, with 46% of these indicating this recommendation in ≥10% of cases. Following STR, 35% always recommend XRT and 59% recommend it in over half of cases. However, following STR or biopsy alone, 18% and 11% never recommend XRT. There was no association between type of practice (i.e. academic or ≥75% pediatrics) and practice patterns. Conclusions This survey verifies that deviation from established algorithms is common, underscoring the clinical complexity of these patients and recent secondary data analyses This should influence clinical researchers to investigate outcomes for patients treated using alternative methods. This will lend insight into appropriate treatment options and contribute to quality of life outcomes studies for craniopharyngioma. PMID:24577430

  2. Most American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons' online patient education material exceeds average patient reading level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Sharma, Pranav; Wang, Jing; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-04-01

    Advancing health literacy has the potential to improve patient outcomes. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons' (AAOS) online patient education materials serve as a tool to improve health literacy for orthopaedic patients; however, it is unknown whether the materials currently meet the National Institutes of Health/American Medical Association's recommended sixth grade readability guidelines for health information or the mean US adult reading level of eighth grade. The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate the mean grade level readability of online AAOS patient education materials; and (2) to determine what proportion of the online materials exceeded recommended (sixth grade) and mean US (eighth grade) reading level. Reading grade levels for 99.6% (260 of 261) of the online patient education entries from the AAOS were analyzed using the Flesch-Kincaid formula built into Microsoft Word software. Mean grade level readability of the AAOS patient education materials was 9.2 (SD ± 1.6). Two hundred fifty-one of the 260 articles (97%) had a readability score above the sixth grade level. The readability of the AAOS articles exceeded the sixth grade level by an average of 3.2 grade levels. Of the 260 articles, 210 (81%) had a readability score above the eighth grade level, which is the average reading level of US adults. Most of the online patient education materials from the AAOS had readability levels that are far too advanced for many patients to comprehend. Efforts to adjust the readability of online education materials to the needs of the audience may improve the health literacy of orthopaedic patients. Patient education materials can be made more comprehensible through use of simpler terms, shorter sentences, and the addition of pictures. More broadly, all health websites, not just those of the AAOS, should aspire to be comprehensible to the typical reader.

  3. Developing a research agenda for the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons: results of a delphi approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Caroline G; Cima, Robert R; Koltun, Walter A; Littlejohn, Charles E; Ricciardi, Rocco; Temple, Larissa K; Rothenberger, David A; Baxter, Nancy N

    2009-05-01

    By use of a systematic approach, the aim of this project was to survey a group of colorectal specialists and reach a consensus on the research questions of highest importance in terms of clinical care. A modified Delphi process was performed. In Round 1 research questions were solicited from members of The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. A review group categorized the results, combined similar questions, and presented them to The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons membership in Round 2 for prioritizing according to importance. In Round 3 the 50 questions with the highest scores in Round 2 were reranked by The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons membership to produce the 20 highest-priority research questions. A total of 203 respondents in Round 1 submitted 746 questions. The review team reduced these to 105 individual questions encompassing 21 topics in colorectal surgical practice. In Rounds 2 and 3, 399 and 360 respondents, respectively, prioritized the questions presented. The final 20 items included 14 questions related to colorectal cancer, and 6 were on benign disease topics. The research agenda produced by this study reflects the clinical issues of greatest importance to colorectal surgeons. The results are of potential benefit to researchers, funding organizations, medical journals, and ultimately, patients.

  4. The American College Student Cell Phone Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study of cell phone use among college students. This group is considered particularly important because college students tend to be among the first to try new technology, are the group most likely to innovate new ways of using existing technology, and are most vocal about what they need and/or want to see changed…

  5. Three Licentiates of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh who were decorated with the Victoria Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M H

    2011-08-01

    Since the Victoria Cross was introduced in January 1856 by Queen Victoria to reward acts of valour in the face of the enemy, initially during the Crimean War, over 1350 medals have been awarded. Of these, three were awarded to medical officers who had previously gained the Licentiate Diploma of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (LRCS Edin) - Valentine Munbee McMaster on 25 September 1857, Henry Thomas Sylvester on 20 November 1857 (although the acts of valour for which he was awarded his VC occurred on two occasions in September 1855) and Campbell Mellis (or Millis) Douglas on 7 May 1867.

  6. Dimensions of Acculturation in Native American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy L.; Sodano, Sandro M.; Ecklund, Timothy R.; Guyker, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to the responses of two respective independent samples of Native American college students on the Native American Acculturation Scale (NAAS). Three correlated dimensions were found to underlie NAAS items and these dimensions may also comprise a broader higher order dimension of Native…

  7. Victimization and Substance Use among Native American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jillian; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Patterson Silver Wolf, David A.

    2017-01-01

    According to Tribal Critical Race Theory, Native American students have low retention rates due to the structural barriers and racism inherent in colleges and universities. Similarly, structural barriers and racism could put Native American students at risk for victimization and substance use, thus influencing their academic success. The purposes…

  8. Multiculturalism, Diversity, and African American College Students: Receptive, Yet Skeptical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Kelly S.

    2001-01-01

    Hypothesized that African American college students with higher racial self-esteem would be more open to diversity and multiculturalism than students with lower racial self-esteem. Surveys indicated that most students valued diversity-oriented courses, though most also believed that diversity courses were biased against African Americans. Students…

  9. Surveyed opinion of American trauma, orthopedic, and thoracic surgeons on rib and sternal fracture repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, John C; Ham, L Bruce; Schipper, Paul H; Ellis, Thomas J; Mullins, Richard J

    2009-03-01

    Rib and sternal fracture repair are controversial. The opinion of surgeons regarding those patients who would benefit from repair is unknown. Members of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma, the Orthopedic Trauma Association, and thoracic surgeons (THS) affiliated with teaching hospitals in the United States were recruited to complete an electronic survey regarding rib and sternal fracture repair. Two hundred thirty-eight trauma surgeons (TRS), 97 orthopedic trauma surgeons (OTS), and 70 THS completed the survey. Eighty-two percent of TRS, 66% of OTS, and 71% of THS thought that rib fracture repair was indicated in selected patients. A greater proportion of surgeons thought that sternal fracture repair was indicated in selected patients (89% of TRS, 85% of OTS, and 95% of THS). Chest wall defect/pulmonary hernia (58%) and sternal fracture nonunion (>6 weeks) (68%) were the only two indications accepted by a majority of respondents. Twenty-six percent of surgeons reported that they had performed or assisted on a chest wall fracture repair, whereas 22% of surgeons were familiar with published randomized trials of the surgical repair of flail chest. Of surgeons who thought rib fracture or sternal fracture repair was rarely, if ever, indicated, 91% and 95%, respectively, specified that a randomized trial confirming efficacy would be necessary to change their negative opinion. A majority of surveyed surgeons reported that rib and sternal fracture repair is indicated in selected patients; however, a much smaller proportion indicated that they had performed the procedures. The published literature on surgical repair is sparse and unfamiliar to most surgeons. Barriers to surgical repair of rib and sternal fracture include a lack of expertise among TRS, lack of research of optimal techniques, and a dearth of randomized trials.

  10. The college life experiences of African American women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A

    1997-10-01

    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population.

  11. Nutrition education in the medical school curriculum: a review of the course content at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland-Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, K R; Cunningham, F O

    2016-11-01

    Only 14 % of American physicians report that they feel adequately trained to provide nutritional counselling. The average number of nutrition teaching hours in American medical schools is falling below recommendations by the National Academy of Sciences and nutritional education in the medical school curriculum is currently an important discussion topic. This study aimed to review the teaching hours delivered during a 6-year medical programme at The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland-Bahrain (RCSI-B) and define the importance of nutritional education for medical students. Lecture time regarding the topic of nutrition was quantified by studying the contents of the 6-year course materials on the Moodle ® platform virtual learning environment used by RCSI-B. Students are exposed to approximately 15 h of education in nutrition during their medical studies at RCSI-B. The 15 h spent educating RCSI-B medical students on nutrition is inadequate according to international recommendations. However, RCSI-B is one of many medical schools that do not reach the minimum required hours (25-44) as set by the National Academy of Sciences and the American Society for Nutrition. We recommend that more teaching hours on nutrition be introduced into the curriculum. These extra teaching hours may greatly benefit RCSI-B students, patients and public health in Bahrain.

  12. Looking back at the John Mitchell Crouch Fellowship: the most prestigious research award of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boult, Margaret; Babidge, Wendy; Pleass, Susan; Scott, David

    2015-10-01

    The John Mitchell Crouch Fellowship is a generous endowment made to the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) by the young neurosurgeon's family, following his death from a brain tumour. In this article, we examine the significance and legacy of the grant since its inception in 1979. This is the highest level of research fellowship awarded by the RACS recognizing early career excellence, as part of its significant research funding programme (over $1.7 million in 2015). John Mitchell Crouch recipients have been pioneers in various areas of medicine where they have developed new technologies, established research centres, improved patient safety and military surgery and embraced evidence-based medicine. The funds they received have directly contributed to research published in numerous highly respected peer-reviewed journals such as The New England Journal of Medicine; established new laboratories, helped fund clinical trials and allowed new directions of research to be pursued. Recipients of the John Mitchell Crouch Fellowship have been recognized with many awards including 11 Australian and New Zealand Honours to date. Many other significant research funds have been subsequently bestowed, including over 120 National Health Medical Research Council (NHMRC) grants to Australian and New Zealand recipients subsequent to their Fellowship. This article also shows the range of disciplines in which the award has supported cutting-edge research leading to benefits for patients and health care. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Anxiety in Kuwaiti and American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David

    2006-10-01

    Samples of Kuwaiti (n=646) and American (n=320) undergraduates responded to the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale in Arabic and English, respectively. Differences by sex were significant, with women having a higher mean anxiety score than men and by country with Kuwaiti women having a higher anxiety score than American women.

  14. International Education at American Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danxia

    2008-01-01

    Higher education has an incalculable impact on society and the development of its citizens. In today's globalizing world, the responsibility of community colleges for producing high quality graduates with global competence cannot be ignored. The study reported here researches international education and provides insights of importance to community…

  15. Publication patterns of oral and poster presentations at the annual meetings of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons and the American Association of Neurological Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Akash J; Cherian, Jacob; Fox, Benjamin D; Whitehead, William E; Curry, Daniel J; Luerssen, Thomas G; Jea, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    National and international meetings, such as the Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS) and the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) meetings, provide a central location for the gathering and dissemination of research. The purpose of this study was to determine the publication rates of both oral and poster presentations at CNS and AANS meetings in peer-reviewed journals. The authors reviewed all accepted abstracts, presented as either oral or poster presentations, at the CNS and AANS meetings from 2003 to 2005. This information was then used to search PubMed to determine the rate of publication of the abstracts presented at the meetings. Abstracts were considered published if the data presented at the meeting was identical to that in the publication. The overall publication rate was 32.48% (1243 of 3827 abstracts). On average, 41.28% of oral presentations and 29.03% of poster presentations were eventually published. Of those studies eventually published, 98.71% were published within 5 years of presentation at the meeting. Published abstracts were published most frequently in the Journal of Neurosurgery and Neurosurgery. Approximately one-third of all presentations at the annual CNS and AANS meetings will be published in peer-reviewed, MEDLINE-indexed journals. These meetings are excellent forums for neurosurgical practitioners to be exposed to current research. Oral presentations have a significantly higher rate of eventual publication compared with poster presentations, reflecting their higher quality. The Journal of Neurosurgery and Neurosurgery have been the main outlets of neurosurgical research from these meetings.

  16. A history of the American College of Medical Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterolf, Donald; Brodie, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    The American College of Medical Quality is a national organization of health care professionals who are interested in the advancement of medical quality as a field. Composed primarily of doctorate-level individuals in medicine, dentistry, and podiatry, it also includes affiliate members in preprofessional training as well as nursing. Origins of the organization date to 1973, when it was first called the American College of Utilization Review Physicians. It is formally recognized by the American Medical Association and holds a seat in its House of Delegates. The College views the advancement of medical quality as a field of study within itself and offers multiple venues for self-education, testing, and professional networking for its members. Recently, rising national awareness of quality in health care as a field of endeavor has elevated enrollment levels and increased interest in the organization.

  17. Accountancy, teaching methods, sex, and American College Test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, J; Harper, B S; Harper, J P

    1990-10-01

    This study examines the significance of sex, methodology, academic preparation, and age as related to development of judgmental and problem-solving skills. Sex, American College Test (ACT) Mathematics scores, Composite ACT scores, grades in course work, grade point average (GPA), and age were used in studying the effects of teaching method on 96 students' ability to analyze data in financial statements. Results reflect positively on accounting students compared to the general college population and the women students in particular.

  18. History of the Journal of the American College of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Mildred S

    2004-01-01

    This companion article to the History of the American College of Toxicology also is written in celebration of the 25th Anniversary of the American College of Toxicology (ACT). It relates how the official journal of the College evolved from a privately owned publication, the Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology (JEPT), into publications owned and managed by the College and its Board, for the first 17 years as the Journal of the American College of Toxicology (JACT) and currently as The International Journal of Toxicology (IJT). It relates how the first journal focused on toxicological studies, potential cancer causes and concerns associated with environmental contamination and chemical exposure safety issues. It tells how this journal was replaced by one more broadly based that addressed multiple industries and regulatory approaches, accepted previously unpublishable "no-effect" studies, so important in eliminating unwarranted animal use, and provided review articles, rather than only original research. It also described how the JACT evolved into an international journal finally recognized for its quality reviews and peer-reviewed research. Each of the three journals that represented the College is described, as well as interesting events associated with their development and publication, including the activities and contributions of the first four editors in chief, Drs. Myron A. Mehlman, Mildred S. Christian, Robert M. Diener and Harihara Mehendale.

  19. American Film Comedy (College Course File).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Katherine S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a course in American film comedy which includes three types of comedy: the tradition of the clown (beginning with silent comedy), romantic comedy, and sociopolitical comedy. Addresses such issues as escapism versus social purpose, fantasy versus realism, comedy versus laughter, and role of spectator versus role of text. (KEH)

  20. Relational Variables and Life Satisfaction in African American and Asian American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkel, LaVerne A.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2005-01-01

    The authors explored associations among relationship harmony, perceived family conflicts, relational self-concept, and life satisfaction in a sample of 169 African American and Asian American college women. As hypothesized, higher relational self-concept, or the extent to which individuals include close relationships in their self-concepts, and…

  1. College and University Ranking Systems: Global Perspectives and American Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanoff, Alvin P.; Usher, Alex; Savino, Massimo; Clarke, Marguerite

    2007-01-01

    When U.S. News & World Report began its ranking of American colleges in 1983, publishers in other countries quickly followed with their own hierarchical measures, providing consumer information (and opportunities for institutional marketing) while attempting to impact the quality of higher education. In the course of the last two decades,…

  2. Predictors of Familial Acculturative Stress in Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Linda G.; Zahn, Marion P.; Cano, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the predictors of familial acculturative stress in 85 Asian American college students. Participants were primarily 1st- and 2nd-generation U.S. citizens. Results showed that perceived acculturative family conflict and family intragroup marginalization were related to higher levels of familial acculturative stress for…

  3. Intergenerational Family Conflict and Coping Among Hmong American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jenny; Lee, Richard M.; Vang, Shary

    2005-01-01

    Problem solving and social support, as different styles of coping with intergenerational family conflict, were examined among 86 Hmong American college students. Problem solving and social support were hypothesized to differentially moderate the effects of family conflict on psychological adjustment. Furthermore, the effects of attributions of…

  4. The Community College Presidency: An Asian Pacific American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, M. Jack

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the status of Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) in higher education compared to their representation in chief executive positions, describing a glass ceiling effect and common stereotypes regarding APAs. Reviews characteristics of chief executive officers in California community colleges. Provides strategies for increasing APA representation…

  5. Personal Gambling Expectancies among Asian American and White American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alan Ka Ki; Zane, Nolan; Wong, Gloria; Song, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Many college students are involved in gambling behavior as a recreational activity. Their involvement could potentially develop into problem gambling, an issue of increasing concern to student health. At the same time, evidence suggests that Asian Americans are overrepresented amongst problem gamblers in this age period. Research on factors related to initiation and development of problem gambling in college students is necessary to inform the development of effective and culturally-sensitive prevention efforts against gambling. The relationships between personal gambling expectancies at two levels of specificity (two general and six specific types of expectancies) and college student gambling at two levels of behavior (initiation and problems) were examined in a sample of 813 Asian American and White American college students. The study aimed to address (a) whether expectancies explained ethnic differences in gambling, (b) ethnic similarities and differences in the pattern of relationships between expectancies and gambling, and (c) whether expectancies that emerged in both ethnic groups have a greater risk or protective effect for one group than another. Results showed that Asian American students reported more problem gambling than White American students, but expectancies did not account for this group difference. Risk and protective factors for initiation were relatively similar between groups, but different patterns of risk emerged for each group for problem gambling. Implications for college primary prevention and harm reduction programs are discussed. PMID:23832755

  6. Personal gambling expectancies among Asian American and White American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alan Ka Ki; Zane, Nolan; Wong, Gloria M; Song, Anna V

    2015-03-01

    Many college students are involved in gambling behavior as a recreational activity. Their involvement could potentially develop into problem gambling, an issue of increasing concern to student health. At the same time, evidence suggests that Asian Americans are overrepresented amongst problem gamblers in this age period. Research on factors related to initiation and development of problem gambling in college students is necessary to inform the development of effective and culturally-sensitive prevention efforts against gambling. The relationships between personal gambling expectancies at two levels of specificity (two general and six specific types of expectancies) and college student gambling at two levels of behavior (initiation and problems) were examined in a sample of 813 Asian American and White American college students. The study aimed to address (a) whether expectancies explained ethnic differences in gambling, (b) ethnic similarities and differences in the pattern of relationships between expectancies and gambling, and (c) whether expectancies that emerged in both ethnic groups have a greater risk or protective effect for one group than another. Results showed that Asian American students reported more problem gambling than White American students, but expectancies did not account for this group difference. Risk and protective factors for initiation were relatively similar between groups, but different patterns of risk emerged for each group for problem gambling. Implications for college primary prevention and harm reduction programs are discussed.

  7. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND ASSOCIAZIONE MEDICI ENDOCRINOLOGI MEDICAL GUIDELINES FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF THYROID NODULES - 2016 UPDATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, Hossein; Papini, Enrico; Garber, Jeffrey R

    2016-01-01

    by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), American College of Endocrinology (ACE) and Associazione Medici Endocrinologi (AME). ABBREVIATIONS: AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACE = American College of Endocrinology AME = Associazione Medici Endocrinologi BEL = best...

  8. African-American College Student Attitudes toward Physics and Their Effect on Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Carl Timothy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or…

  9. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and The American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology: Clinical Practice Guidelines-Anticoagulation During Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Lesserson, Linda; Baker, Robert A; Ferraris, Victor A; Greilich, Philip E; Fitzgerald, David; Roman, Philip; Hammon, John W

    2018-02-01

    more than two thirds agreement on each recommendation. The quality of information for a given recommendation allowed assessment of the level of evidence as recommended by the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Recommendations were written in the three following areas: (1) heparin dosing and monitoring for initiation and maintenance of CPB; (2) heparin contraindications and heparin alternatives; and (3) reversal of anticoagulation during cardiac operations. It is hoped that this guideline will serve as a resource and will stimulate investigators to conduct more research and to expand on the evidence base on the topic of anticoagulation therapy for CPB. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, International Anesthesia Research Society, and the American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anger Suppression, Interdependent Self-Construal, and Depression among Asian American and European American College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depressio...

  11. Depression and Relational Health in Asian American and European American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Terese J.; Chan, Pauline; Liang, Belle

    2014-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates elevated rates of depression among college-aged women, yet evidence of racial differences in depression among this population are poorly understood. Moreover, the correlates of depression among Asian American women are also understudied. In this exploratory analysis, we examined mean differences in depression…

  12. Optical Coherence Tomography of Retinal Degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons Rats and Its Correlation with Morphology and Electroretinography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Kodai; Mounai, Natsuki; Tanabu, Reiko; Nakazawa, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the correlation between optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the histological, ultrastructural and electroretinography (ERG) findings of retinal degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS-/-) rats. Materials and Methods Using OCT, we qualitatively and quantitatively observed the continual retinal degeneration in RCS-/- rats, from postnatal (PN) day 17 until PN day 111. These findings were compared with the corresponding histological, electron microscopic, and ERG findings. We also compared them to OCT findings in wild type RCS+/+ rats, which were used as controls. Results After PN day 17, the hyperreflective band at the apical side of the photoreceptor layer became blurred. The inner segment (IS) ellipsoid zone then became obscured, and the photoreceptor IS and outer segment (OS) layers became diffusely hyperreflective after PN day 21. These changes correlated with histological and electron microscopic findings showing extracellular lamellar material that accumulated in the photoreceptor OS layer. After PN day 26, the outer nuclear layer became significantly thinner (P RCS-/- and RCS+/+ rats. Conclusion Our results suggest that OCT demonstrates histologically validated photoreceptor degeneration in RCS rats, and that OCT findings partly correlate with ERG findings. We propose that OCT is a less invasive and useful method for evaluating photoreceptor degeneration in animal models of retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:27644042

  13. How Should Social Media Be Used in Transplantation? A Survey of The American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Macey L; Adler, Joel T; Van Pilsum Rasmussen, Sarah E; Thomas, Alvin G; Herron, Patrick D; Waldram, Madeleine M; Ruck, Jessica M; Purnell, Tanjala S; DiBrito, Sandra R; Holscher, Courtenay M; Haugen, Christine E; Alimi, Yewande; Konel, Jonathan M; Eno, Ann K; Garonzik Wang, Jacqueline M; Gordon, Elisa J; Lentine, Krista L; Schaffer, Randolph L; Cameron, Andrew M; Segev, Dorry L

    2018-04-21

    Social media platforms are increasingly used in surgery and have shown promise as effective tools to promote deceased donation and expand living donor transplantation. There is growing need to understand how social media-driven communication is perceived by providers in the field of transplantation. We surveyed 299 members of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) about their use of, attitudes toward, and perceptions of social media and analyzed relationships between responses and participant characteristics. Respondents used social media to communicate with: family and friends (76%), surgeons (59%), transplant professionals (57%), transplant recipients (21%), living donors (16%), and waitlisted candidates (15%). Most respondents (83%) reported using social media for at least one purpose. While most (61%) supported sharing information with transplant recipients via social media, 42% believed it should not be used to facilitate living donor-recipient matching. Younger age (p=0.02) and fewer years of experience in the field of transplantation (p=0.03) were associated with stronger belief that social media can be influential in living organ donation. Respondents at transplant centers with higher reported use of social media had more favorable views about sharing information with transplant recipients (psocial media. Transplant center involvement and support for social media may influence clinician perceptions and practices. Increasing use of social media among transplant professionals may provide an opportunity to deliver high quality information to patients.

  14. Tweeting the Meeting: Twitter Use at The American Society of Breast Surgeons Annual Meeting 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attai, Deanna J; Radford, Diane M; Cowher, Michael S

    2016-10-01

    Twitter social media is being used to disseminate medical meeting information. Meeting attendees and other interested parties have the ability to follow and participate in conversations related to meeting content. We analyzed Twitter activity generated from the 2013-2016 American Society of Breast Surgeons Annual Meetings. The Symplur Signals database was used to determine number of tweets, tweets per user, and impressions for each meeting. The number of unique physicians, patients/caregivers/advocates, and industry participants was determined. Physician tweeters were cross-referenced with membership and attendance rosters. Tweet transcripts were analyzed for content and tweets were categorized as either scientific, social, administrative, industry promotion, or irrelevant. From 2013 to 2016, the number of tweets increased by 600 %, the number of Twitter users increased by 450 %, and the number of physician tweeters increased by 457 %. The number of impressions (tweets × followers) increased from more than 3.5 million to almost 20.5 million, an increase of 469 %. The majority of tweets were informative (70-80 %); social tweets ranged from 13 to 23 %. A small percentage (3-6 %) of tweets were related to administrative matters. There were very few industry or irrelevant tweets. Twitter social media use at the American Society of Breast Surgeons annual meeting showed a substantial increase during the time period evaluated. The use of Twitter during professional meetings is a tremendous opportunity to share information. The authors feel that medical conference organizers should encourage Twitter participation and should be educating attendees on the proper use of Twitter.

  15. A mediation model of professional psychological help seeking for suicide ideation among Asian American and white American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joel; Brownson, Chris; Rutkowski, Leslie; Nguyen, Chi P; Becker, Marty Swanbrow

    2014-01-01

    This study examined professional psychological help seeking among 1,045 white American and Asian American students from 70 U.S. colleges and universities who had seriously considered attempting suicide. The authors found that Asian American college students had lower rates of professional psychological help seeking for their suicide ideation than White American college students. Guided by social network perspectives on professional psychological help seeking, the authors also tested mediators of this racial disparity. Relative to white Americans, Asian Americans were advised by fewer people (especially fewer family members) to seek professional help, which was, in turn, associated with lower rates of professional psychological help seeking for suicide ideation. These findings underscore the importance of gatekeeping as a suicide prevention strategy for Asian American college students.

  16. Optical Coherence Tomography of Retinal Degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons Rats and Its Correlation with Morphology and Electroretinography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobu Adachi

    Full Text Available To evaluate the correlation between optical coherence tomography (OCT and the histological, ultrastructural and electroretinography (ERG findings of retinal degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS-/- rats.Using OCT, we qualitatively and quantitatively observed the continual retinal degeneration in RCS-/- rats, from postnatal (PN day 17 until PN day 111. These findings were compared with the corresponding histological, electron microscopic, and ERG findings. We also compared them to OCT findings in wild type RCS+/+ rats, which were used as controls.After PN day 17, the hyperreflective band at the apical side of the photoreceptor layer became blurred. The inner segment (IS ellipsoid zone then became obscured, and the photoreceptor IS and outer segment (OS layers became diffusely hyperreflective after PN day 21. These changes correlated with histological and electron microscopic findings showing extracellular lamellar material that accumulated in the photoreceptor OS layer. After PN day 26, the outer nuclear layer became significantly thinner (P < 0.01 and hyperreflective compared with that in the controls; conversely, the photoreceptor IS and OS layers, as well as the inner retinal layers, became significantly thicker (P < 0.001 and P = 0.05, respectively. The apical hyperreflective band, as well as the IS ellipsoid zone, gradually disappeared between PN day 20 and PN day 30; concurrently, the ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes deteriorated. In contrast, the thicknesses of the combined retinal pigment epithelium and choroid did not differ significantly between RCS-/- and RCS+/+ rats.Our results suggest that OCT demonstrates histologically validated photoreceptor degeneration in RCS rats, and that OCT findings partly correlate with ERG findings. We propose that OCT is a less invasive and useful method for evaluating photoreceptor degeneration in animal models of retinitis pigmentosa.

  17. The Meaning of African American College Women's Experiences Attending a Predominantly White Institution: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Christine R.; Woodside, Marianne; Pollard, Brittany L.; Roman, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Because both race and gender are important to the development of African American women, student affairs professionals need to understand the unique experiences of African American women within the context of the college environment. In this phenomenological study, we examined African American women's lived experiences as college students at a…

  18. Burnout in the Plastic Surgeon: Implications and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Christina; Ketteler, Erika; Evans, Gregory

    2017-03-01

    A career as a plastic surgeon is both rewarding and challenging. The road to becoming a surgeon is a long arduous endeavor and can bring significant challenges not only to the surgeon but their family. A study by the American College of Surgeons (ACS) suggested that over 40% of surgeons experience burnout and a recent survey of American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) showed that more than one-fourth of plastic surgeons have signs of professional burnout. Burnout is a state of physical and mental exhaustion. The three main components of burnout are emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Exhaustion occurs as a result of emotional demands. Depersonalization refers to a cynical, negative or a detached response to patient care. The reduced accomplishment refers to a belief that one can no longer work effectively. There has been a recent explosion in the literature characterizing burnout within the surgical profession. Reports of burnout, burnout victims, and burnout syndrome are filling the medical literature, books, blogs, and social media across all different specialties. Burnout in a plastic surgeon has negative and potentially fatal repercussions to the surgeon, their family, their patients, their staff, colleagues, coworkers, and their organization. To date, there are a limited number of publications addressing burnout in the plastic surgery community. The goals of this paper are to review the symptoms of burnout, its effect on plastic surgeons, and discuss potential solutions for burnout prevention and physician wellness.

  19. Great aspirations: the postwar American college counseling center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Tom

    2014-02-01

    In the decade after World War II, psychologists, eager to bring the benefits of counseling to larger numbers, convinced hundreds of American colleges and universities to establish counseling centers. Inspired by the educational-vocational counseling center founded by psychologists at the University of Minnesota in 1932, Carl R. Rogers's "client-centered" methods of personal adjustment counseling, and the 400-plus college counseling centers created by the Veterans Administration to provide the educational-vocational counseling benefit promised to returning World War II servicemen under the 1944 GI Bill, these counseling psychologists created a new place to practice where important currents in psychology, higher education, and federal policy converged and where they attempted to integrate educational-vocational counseling with personal adjustment counseling based on techniques from psychotherapy. By the mid-1960s, half of America's colleges and universities had established counseling centers, and more than 90% offered students educational, vocational, and psychological counseling services, a great achievement of the first generation of counseling psychologists.

  20. Asian and European American cultural values and communication styles among Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong S; Kim, Bryan S K

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between adherence to Asian and European cultural values and communication styles among 210 Asian American and 136 European American college students. A principal components analysis revealed that, for both Asian Americans and European Americans, the contentious, dramatic, precise, and open styles loaded onto the first component suggesting low context communication, and interpersonal sensitivity and inferring meaning styles loaded onto the second component suggesting high context communication. Higher adherence to emotional self-control and lower adherence to European American values explained Asian Americans' higher use of the indirect communication, while higher emotional self-control explained why Asian Americans use a less open communication style than their European American counterparts. When differences between sex and race were controlled, adherence to humility was inversely related to contentious and dramatic communication styles but directly related to inferring meaning style, adherence to European American values was positively associated with precise communication and inferring meaning styles, and collectivism was positively related to interpersonal sensitivity style. 2008 APA

  1. Retention of Mohs surgeons in academic dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shali; Mina, Mary Alice; Brown, Marc D; Zwald, Fiona O

    2015-08-01

    Retention of academic Mohs surgeons is important for the growth of this specialty and teaching of residents and students. To examine factors that influence retention of Mohs surgeons in academics and to better understand reasons for their departure. A survey was electronically distributed to academic Mohs surgeons in the American College of Mohs Surgery, asking them to rate the importance of several variables on their decision to remain in academia. Private practice Mohs surgeons who had left academics were also surveyed. Two hundred thirty-six dermatologic surgeons completed the survey. Twenty-nine percent work full time in academics, and approximately 7% work part time. The top reasons for practicing in the academic setting are intellectual stimulation, teaching opportunities, and collaboration with other university physicians and researchers. Seventy-one percent of respondents reported they would stay in academics, 7% indicated they would not, and 22% were unsure. Unfair compensation, inadequate support staff, poor leadership, increased bureaucracy, and decreased autonomy were top reasons that may compel a Mohs surgeon to leave. Opportunities for intellectual stimulation, collaboration, and teaching remain the main draw for academic Mohs surgeons. A supportive environment, strong leadership, and establishing fair compensation are imperative in ensuring their stay.

  2. Basal membrane complex architecture is disrupted during posterior subcapsular cataract formation in Royal College of Surgeons rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies detailing the development of posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSC) in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats have shown that aberrant fiber-end migration underlies the structural compromise. This investigation was conducted to examine the distribution of select basal membrane complex (BMC) components and to assess the intravitreal levels of specific cytokines during PSC formation. Methods Lenses from 52 RCS dystrophic rats (RCS/Lav) and 28 genetically matched control animals (RCS-rdy+/Lav) from 2 to 8 weeks old were used. After enucleation, vitreous was collected for eventual cytokine level analyses; lenses were then removed and processed for immunocytochemical localization of actin, cadherin, β integrin, vinculin, and cell nuclei. Results At 2–3 weeks postnatal, dystrophic lenses showed normal BMC distribution of actin, cadherin, and vinculin; however β integrin distribution was altered as compared to controls. By 4–6 weeks of age, F-actin was visible as bright foci arranged in a “rosette” pattern around fiber-end profiles. Concurrently, vinculin was rearranged into a diffuse pattern within the BMC. Cadherin delineated the fiber ends in dystrophic lenses until 5 weeks postnatal, after which it displayed diffuse cytoplasmic staining with more definitive labeling at the BMC periphery. β integrin was initially distributed as punctuate spots at 2–3 weeks postnatal; however, by 4–6 weeks it was co-localized with F-actin around the periphery of fiber ends. The distribution of F-actin, cadherin, and β integrin components did not undergo further changes after 6 weeks of age; however, vinculin was present predominantly at the periphery of the BMC in 7–8-week-old dystrophic lenses. Intravitreal cytokine levels were assessed for interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interferon (IFN)-γ. Levels of IL-1α, IL-4, TNF, and IFN-γ demonstrated a similar pattern, with concentrations increasing from 2 to 6

  3. The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jon D; Eskicioglu, Cagla; Weiser, Martin R; Feingold, Daniel L; Steele, Scott R

    2017-10-01

    The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons is dedicated to ensuring high-quality patient care by advancing the science, prevention, and management of disorders and diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus. The Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee is composed of society members who are chosen because they have demonstrated expertise in the specialty of colon and rectal surgery. This committee was created to lead international efforts in defining quality care for conditions related to the colon, rectum, and anus. This is accompanied by developing Clinical Practice Guidelines based on the best available evidence. These guidelines are inclusive and not prescriptive. Their purpose is to provide information on which decisions can be made, rather than to dictate a specific form of treatment. These guidelines are intended for the use of all practitioners, health care workers, and patients who desire information about the management of the conditions addressed by the topics covered in these guidelines. It should be recognized that these guidelines should not be deemed inclusive of all proper methods of care or exclusive of methods of care reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. The ultimate judgment regarding the propriety of any specific procedure must be made by the physician in light of all the circumstances presented by the individual patient.

  4. Electronic Communication in Plastic Surgery: Guiding Principles from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Health Policy Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Perdikis, Galen; Damitz, Lynn; Krochmal, Dan J; Kalliainen, Loree K; Bonawitz, Steven C

    2018-02-01

    With the advancement of technology, electronic communication has become an important mode of communication within plastic and reconstructive surgery. This can take the form of e-mail, text messaging, video conferencing, and social media, among others. There are currently no defined American Society of Plastic Surgeons guidelines for appropriate professional use of these technologies. A search was performed on PubMed and the Cochrane database; terms included "telemedicine," "text messaging," "HIPAA," "metadata," "video conferencing," "photo sharing," "social media," "Facebook," "Twitter," and "Instagram." Initial screening of all identified articles was performed; the level of evidence, limitations, and recommendations were evaluated and articles were reviewed. A total of 654 articles were identified in the level I screening process; after more comprehensive review, 41 articles fit inclusion criteria: social networking, 12; telemedicine, 11; text messaging, 10; metadata, four; video conferencing, three; and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, one. General themes were identified from these articles and guidelines proposed. Electronic communication can provide an efficient method of information exchange for professional purposes within plastic surgery but should be used thoughtfully and with all professional, legal, and ethical considerations.

  5. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and The American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology: Clinical Practice Guidelines-Anticoagulation During Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Lesserson, Linda; Baker, Robert A; Ferraris, Victor A; Greilich, Philip E; Fitzgerald, David; Roman, Philip; Hammon, John W

    2018-02-01

    Despite more than a half century of "safe" cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the evidence base surrounding the conduct of anticoagulation therapy for CPB has not been organized into a succinct guideline. For this and other reasons, there is enormous practice variability relating to the use and dosing of heparin, monitoring heparin anticoagulation, reversal of anticoagulation, and the use of alternative anticoagulants. To address this and other gaps, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and the American Society of Extracorporeal Technology developed an Evidence Based Workgroup. This was a group of interdisciplinary professionals gathered to summarize the evidence and create practice recommendations for various aspects of CPB. To date, anticoagulation practices in CPB have not been standardized in accordance with the evidence base. This clinical practice guideline was written with the intent to fill the evidence gap and to establish best practices in anticoagulation therapy for CPB using the available evidence. To identify relevant evidence, a systematic review was outlined and literature searches were conducted in PubMed using standardized medical subject heading (MeSH) terms from the National Library of Medicine list of search terms. Search dates were inclusive of January 2000 to December 2015. The search yielded 833 abstracts, which were reviewed by two independent reviewers. Once accepted into the full manuscript review stage, two members of the writing group evaluated each of 286 full papers for inclusion eligibility into the guideline document. Ninety-six manuscripts were included in the final review. In addition, 17 manuscripts published before 2000 were included to provide method, context, or additional supporting evidence for the recommendations as these papers were considered sentinel publications. Members of the writing group wrote and developed recommendations based on review of the articles obtained and achieved

  6. Readability of sports medicine-related patient education materials from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Abhishek; Yi, Paul H; Hussein, Khalil; Frank, Rachel M

    2014-04-01

    Although studies have revealed high readability levels of orthopedic patient education materials, no study has evaluated sports medicine-related patient education materials. We conducted a study to assess the readability of sports medicine-related patient education materials from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM). All sports medicine patient education articles available online in 2012 from the AAOS and the AOSSM, including the Stop Sports Injuries Campaign (STOP), were identified, and their readability was assessed with the Flesch-Kinkaid (FK) readability test. Mean overall FK grade level of the 170 articles reviewed (104 from AAOS, 36 from AOSSM, 30 from STOP) was 10.2. Mean FK levels for the 3 sources were 9.5 (AAOS), 11.0 (AOSSM), and 11.5 (STOP) (P = .16). Fifteen (8.8%) of the 170 articles had a readability level at or below eighth grade (average reading level of US adults); only 2 (1.2%) of the 170 articles were at or below the recommended sixth-grade level. The majority of sports medicine-related patient education materials from AAOS and AOSSM had reading levels higher than recommended, indicating that the majority of the patient population may find it difficult to comprehend these articles.

  7. Implementing an innovated preservation technology: The American Society of Transplant Surgeons' (ASTS) Standards Committee White Paper on Ex Situ Liver Machine Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintini, Cristiano; Martins, Paulo N; Shah, Shimul; Killackey, Mary; Reed, Alan; Guarrera, James; Axelrod, David A

    2018-05-23

    The pervasive shortage of deceased donor liver allografts contributes to significant waitlist mortality despite efforts to increase organ donation. Ex vivo liver perfusion appears to enhance preservation of donor organs, extending viability and potentially evaluating function in organs previously considered too high risk for transplant. These devices pose novel challenges for organ allocation, safety, training, and finances. This white paper describes the American Society of Transplant Surgeons' belief that organ preservation technology is a vital advance, but its use should not change fundamental aspects of organ allocation. Additional data elements need to be collected, made available for organ assessment by transplant professionals to allow determination of organ suitability in the case of reallocation and incorporated into risk adjustment methodology. Finally, further work is needed to determine the optimal strategy for management and oversight of perfused organs prior to transplantation. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  8. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: American College of Nurse-Midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Variations in uterine bleeding, termed abnormal uterine bleeding, occur commonly among women and often are physiologic in nature with no significant consequences. However, abnormal uterine bleeding can cause significant distress to women or may signify an underlying pathologic condition. Most women experience variations in menstrual and perimenstrual bleeding in their lifetimes; therefore, the ability of the midwife to differentiate between normal and abnormal bleeding is a key diagnostic skill. A comprehensive history and use of the PALM-COEIN classification system will provide clear guidelines for clinical management, evidence-based treatment, and an individualized plan of care. The purpose of this Clinical Bulletin is to define and describe classifications of abnormal uterine bleeding, review updated terminology, and identify methods of assessment and treatment using a woman-centered approach. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  9. Motivation to Attend College in American and Chinese Students: Correlates with ADHD Symptomatology and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvilitis, Jill M.; Reid, Howard M.; Ling, Sun; Chen, Sisi

    2013-01-01

    Data were analyzed from 178 American and 153 Chinese college students who participated in a study examining motivation to attend college. Students in the two countries reported similar motivations for attending college, with career and personal reasons being most important and helping family least important. Also, the study assessed the influence…

  10. American College Biology and Zoology Course Requirements: A de facto Standardized Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Frank; And Others

    Without a formal mechanism to produce consensus, American colleges generally have come to agree on what constitutes an appropriate set of course requirements for Biology and Zoology majors. This report describes a survey of American four-year colleges and universities offering biology and/or zoology degrees. Questionnaires were sent to 741 biology…

  11. A Qualitative Study of African American Women in Engineering Technology Programs in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of African American women in engineering technology programs in community colleges. There is a lack of representation of African American women in engineering technology programs throughout higher education, especially in community/technical colleges. There is also lack of representation of African American…

  12. Cultural Values, Counseling Stigma, and Intentions to Seek Counseling among Asian American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miville, Marie L.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2007-01-01

    The authors explored the extent to which Asian American college women's perceived stigma about counseling mediated the relationship between their adherence to Asian cultural values and intentions to seek counseling, Participants, 201 Asian American college women (age range = 18-24 years), completed measures of Asian cultural values, perceived…

  13. Understanding the Influence of Model Minority Stereotypes on Asian American Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assalone, Amanda E.; Fann, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to the model minority myth that portrays Asian Americans as academic all-stars overrepresented in elite 4-year institutions, nearly half of all Asian American college students do, in fact, attend community colleges, and many experience myriad challenges. This exploratory study utilized a qualitative analysis and investigated how model…

  14. Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Immunizations among Asian American College Students: Infection, Exposure, and Immunity Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Kiang, Peter; Watanabe, Paul; Halon, Patricia; Shi, Ling; Church, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, exposure, and immunity among Asian American college students as a basis for evaluating HBV screening and vaccination policy. Participants and Methods: Self-identified Asian American college students aged 18 years or older were examined. Serological tests of HBV surface…

  15. Acculturation, Enculturation, and Asian American College Students' Mental Health and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Yang, Minji; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Lim, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we tested a theoretically and empirically derived partially indirect effects acculturation and enculturation model of Asian American college students' mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Latent variable path analysis with 296 self-identified Asian American college students supported the…

  16. Calling Out the Elephant: An Examination of African American Male Achievement in Community Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Bush

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This mixed method study examines the effects of community college institutional factors on the academic achievement of African American males and their perceptions of their college experience. We found that African American men in comparison to other ethnic and gender sub-groups (for both the California community college system and at Inland Community College are disproportionately underachieving in all segments of the academic outcomes measured. African American men throughout California’s community college system (including Inland Community College are the lowest performing subgroup when one considers: percentage of degrees earned, persistence rates, and average cumulative grade point average. The analysis of African American men’s perceptions of their college experience suggest that African American men have greater amounts of dissatisfaction and do not engage with the various segments of the college when compared to the other subgroups in the study. African American males were more likely not to meet with faculty members or have contact with them outside of the classroom. More importantly, faculty interaction predicted if African American male students persisted, transferred, and maintained a higher grade point average at the case study institution. The variables associated with campus climate predicted if African American male students transferred, had higher grade point averages, and graduated at higher rates from the case institution.

  17. Anger Suppression, Interdependent Self-Construal, and Depression among Asian American and European American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students as well as those with high vs. low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression—depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PMID:21058815

  18. Anger suppression, interdependent self-construal, and depression among Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Park, Irene J K

    2010-10-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression-depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students, as well as those with high versus low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression-depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Digital curation and online resources: digital scanning of surgical tools at the royal college of physicians and surgeons of Glasgow for an open university learning resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Kirsty; Livingstone, Daniel; Rea, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Collection preservation is essential for the cultural status of any city. However, presenting a collection publicly risks damage. Recently this drawback has been overcome by digital curation. Described here is a method of digitisation using photogrammetry and virtual reality software. Items were selected from the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow archives, and implemented into an online learning module for the Open University. Images were processed via Agisoft Photoscan, Autodesk Memento, and Garden Gnome Object 2VR. Although problems arose due to specularity, 2VR digital models were developed for online viewing. Future research must minimise the difficulty of digitising specular objects.

  20. Media exposure, internalization of the thin ideal, and body dissatisfaction: comparing Asian American and European American college females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mahsa; Hill, Laura G; Orrell-Valente, Joan K

    2011-09-01

    Internalization of the thin ideal mediates the media exposure-body dissatisfaction relation in young adult European American females. There is little related research on Asian Americans. We used structural equations modeling to test: (1) whether media exposure was associated with body dissatisfaction in Asian American young adult females, (2) internalization of the thin ideal mediated any such association, and (3) whether the mediational model provided equivalent fit for European American and Asian American samples. Participants were 287 college females (154 Asian Americans, 133 European Americans). Internalization of the thin ideal explained the media exposure-body dissatisfaction association equally well for both groups. Results suggest that Asian Americans may be employing unhealthy weight control behaviors, and may be prone to developing eating disorders, at rates similar to European American young adult females. Clinicians need to screen carefully for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and eating disorders in Asian American females. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Critical health literacy in American deaf college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Ryan, Claire; Smith, Scott; Kushalnagar, Raja

    2017-05-24

    This study investigates the relationship between critical health literacy (CHL) and discussion of health information among college deaf students who use American Sign Language. CHL is crucial in making appropriate health-related decisions for oneself and aiding others in making good health-choices. Research on general youth population shows that frequent health-related discussions with both friends and family is associated with higher health literacy. However, for our sample of deaf college-aged students who might have had less access to communication at home, we hypothesize that health-related discussions with same-age peers may be more important for critical health literacy. We asked two questions to assess the frequency of health-related discussions with friends and families: "How often do you discuss health-related information with your friends" and "How often do you discuss your family medical history with your family?". Participants rated their experience on a scale from 1-5 (1=never, 5=always). To assess CHL, 38 deaf and 38 hearing participants were shown a short scenario that showed a woman confiding in her friend after finding a lump in her breast. Participants were then asked what the friend should say. Responses were scored by a team of 3 raters using a CHL rubric. As predicted, results showed a strong relationship between discussion of health-related information with friends and CHL in both deaf and hearing samples. Discussion with family was linked to CHL only for hearing participants, but not deaf participants in our study. These findings underscore the importance of socializing with health-literate, accessible peers to improve the health literacy and health outcomes of all deaf people. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Hookah and Cigarette Smoking among African American College Students: Implications for Campus Risk Reduction and Health Promotion Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brittni D.; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify individual and institutional risks and protections for hookah and cigarette smoking among African American (AA) college students. Participants: AA college students (N = 1,402; mean age = 20, range = 18-24 years; 75% female) who completed the Fall 2012 American College Health Association--National College Health Assessment…

  3. Recommended dietary pattern to achieve adherence to the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2013, the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology published the "Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk," which was based on a systematic review originally initiated by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The guideline supports the America...

  4. Official Executive Summary of an American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Gregory A; Girard, Timothy D; Kress, John P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This clinical practice guideline addresses six questions related to liberation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST). METHODS: A mult...

  5. Challenging the Model Minority Myth: Engaging Asian American Students in Research on Asian American College Student Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyemoto, Karen L.; Kim, Grace S.; Tanabe, Miwa; Tawa, John; Day, Stephanie C.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce a method of understanding the experiences and needs of Asian American students on college campuses through the research process. Specifically, the authors offer a students-as-researchers approach to connect the transformative educational aims of Asian American studies to the scholarship, service, and lived…

  6. Concurrent Surgery and the Role of the Pediatric Attending Surgeon: Comparing Parents' and Surgeons' Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jennie K; Ibarra, Christopher; Feinn, Richard S; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I; Carter, Cordelia W

    2018-06-01

    The common practice of performing concurrent or overlapping operations has been intensely scrutinized by lay media and academic press to investigate its safety and cost-effectiveness. However, there is little information about its use within the pediatric population. Even less is known about parents' expectations about the surgeon's role on the day of operation and how they align with those of pediatric surgeons and surgical trainees, despite the potential for significant discrepancies in expectations to erode trust and damage the physician-family relationship. A 5-point Likert-style survey was designed to characterize expectations about the degree of involvement by pediatric attending surgeons throughout a surgical case (1 = strongly disagree, 3 = neutral, 5 = strongly agree). The survey was administered to parents of pediatric patients undergoing elective operations during a 3-month interval at a single academic institution. The survey was also administered to surgeons and surgical residents at the same institution. Multivariate multiplicity-adjusted t-tests were used to identify significant differences between responders. One hundred and ten parents and 84 pediatric surgeons and trainees completed the survey. Parents' responses to the survey ranged from 4.15 to 4.89, compared with 2.75 to 4.86 from surgeons. The differences achieved statistical significance (p children. There is a significant mismatch between parents' expectations and those of pediatric surgeons about the role of the surgeon on the day of operation, with parents consistently expecting more direct involvement by the attending surgeon. These discrepancies can have implications for both parent/patient satisfaction and medical education. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Charles Bernard Puestow (1902-1973): American surgeon and commander of the 27th Evacuation Hospital during the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmia, Anand N; Christein, John D

    2017-08-01

    Dr. Charles Bernard Puestow (1902-1973) was an American surgeon who is well known for developing the longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy, which is known as the "Puestow procedure" in his honor. Puestow served in the American military during the Second World War and commanded the 27th Evacuation Hospital, which provided medical and surgical services to wounded individuals in Europe and North Africa. In 1946, he founded the surgical residency training program at the Hines Veterans Hospital, which was the first such program in the United States based at a veterans hospital.

  8. The relationship between Mexican American cultural values and resilience among Mexican American college students: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L; Llamas, Jasmin D

    2013-10-01

    The current study investigated the role of cultural values in the resilience of Mexican American college students. Utilizing mixed methodology, 124 self-identified Mexican American college students were asked to complete an online survey, including a demographic questionnaire, the Resilience Scale, Mexican American Cultural Values Scale, and 2 open-ended questions concerning overcoming adversity and cultural values. As hypothesized, Mexican American traditional cultural values (Familismo, Respeto, Religiosidad, and Traditional Gender Roles) predicted resilience, with Familismo accounting for the majority of the variance. Consensual qualitative research (Hill, Thompson, & Nutt Williams, 1997) was used to identify emergent domains and themes within the open-ended question responses. Traditional Mexican American Value themes included Familismo, Ethnic Identity, Religiosidad, Perseverance, and Respeto. Results highlight the important role that certain Mexican American cultural values play in providing strength for overcoming adversities.

  9. A Cross-Cultural Study of Differences in Romantic Attitudes between American and Albanian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Eneda; Hatala, Mark N.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in romantic attitudes are often taken for granted and accepted. However, very little research has been conducted to clearly state how much and how different Albanian and American college students are in the way they love. Results indicate that Americans are more romantic than Albanians. In addition, Americans are more…

  10. The Lived Experiences of Asian Americans Who Became Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of California Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramones, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of Asian Americans who became chief executive officers (CEOs) of a California Community College District. This study discussed the experiences, the influence of Asian culture, the perception of Asian Americans, and the challenges encountered by Asian American CEOs. To…

  11. What's Values Got to Do with It? Thriving among Mexican/Mexican American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L.; Llamas, Jasmín; Consoli, Andrés J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined traditional Mexican/Mexican American and perceived U.S. mainstream cultural values as predictors of thriving. One hundred twenty-four (37 men, 87 women) self-identified Mexican/Mexican American college students participated in the study. The traditional Mexican/Mexican American cultural values of family support and religion…

  12. Disaggregating Qualitative Data from Asian American College Students in Campus Racial Climate Research and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Truong, Kimberly A.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights the utility of disaggregating qualitative research and assessment data on Asian American college students. Given the complexity of and diversity within the Asian American population, scholars have begun to underscore the importance of disaggregating data in the empirical examination of Asian Americans, but most of those…

  13. A Comparative Study of Personal Time Perspective Differences between Korean and American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oi-Sook; Geistfeld, Loren V.

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the personal time perspectives of Korean and American college students. The results indicate American students have a personal time perspective that is different from their Korean counterparts. Implications for working with Koreans and Americans as foreign students are considered. (Contains 5 tables.)

  14. African American college women: constructing a hierarchy of sexual arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, F E

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand and describe the safer sex decision-making processes of a group of African American college women. The study participants consisted of 15 women aged 19 to 33, who were full-time students attending a four-year university in Texas. The women self-identified as having been sexually active with at least one male partner within the past year. Semi-structured in-depth interviews lasting approximately 1.5 hours provided data. Theme and domain analysis of the interviews and field notes revealed that women employed both emotional and philosophical strategies to determine their safer sex behaviour. These strategies involved the use of a 'self-defined' sexual arrangements hierarchy. This hierarchy served to define the way women ordered and valued different types of sexual arrangement, from casual to committed. The resulting hierarchy also guided the safer sex behaviour of these women. The implications for intervention programmes that are targeted at increasing safer sex behaviour and HIV risk reduction are discussed in light of these findings.

  15. Associations between depression, distress tolerance, delay discounting, and alcohol-related problems in European American and African American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G

    2011-12-01

    Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors.

  16. Compliance With the AAOS Guidelines for Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Survey of the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Victor Rex; Ong, Alvin Chua; Orozco, Fabio Ramiro; Hernandez, Victor Hugo; Lutz, Rex William; Post, Zachary Douglas

    2018-02-01

    The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) published a series of evidence-based guidelines for treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). We studied compliance with these guidelines among orthopaedic surgeons. We sent a survey to members of the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons. It included five clinical vignettes based on the Kellgren-Lawrence radiographic system for classification of knee OA. Respondents selected treatment currently supported or not supported by the AAOS guidelines. Of 345 responses, the frequency of use of recommended interventions was 80%, 82%, 21%, 50%, and 98% for OA at stages 0 through 4, respectively. For stage 2 and stage 3 OA, intra-articular hyaluronic acid was the most commonly selected intervention not recommended by the AAOS. Apparently, AAOS guidelines on the treatment of OA have not reached the orthopaedic community, resulting in lack of treatment consensus and continued use of modalities with no proven patient benefits. Management of moderate to severe knee OA does not align with AAOS guidelines. We encourage researchers to conduct clinical trials to identify the role of intra-articular corticosteroids in treating this condition.

  17. Weight changes in African American college students: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Shavon

    2014-01-01

    Over one-third of all adults in the United States are obese and African Americans represent over 49.5% of these cases. Young adults with some college education show the most rapid increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, with African Americans leading among all groups. The purpose of this paper is to consider why students gain weight in college and if racial and ethnic differences exist in the context of weight gain. Both physical environment and psychological factors affect the college students' weight-related behaviors. College students experience significant increases in their weight and African Americans are disproportionately affected. However, the role of race and ethnicity is under-examined. Future research should explore racial and ethnic differences in weight gain in college students.

  18. Networks for Success: Preparing Mexican American AVID College Students for Credentials, Completion, and the Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Richard; Watt, Karen M.

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative study examines how Mexican American students participating in an AVID for Higher Education course perceived their preparation for the workforce and efficacy of completing a college credential. A focus group approach was used to explore how social and cultural networks (networks for success) contribute to college completion. The…

  19. Racial Attitudes among Asian and European American College Students: A Cross-Cultural Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B.; Bowman, Raquel; Hsu, Sungti

    2007-01-01

    College campuses are becoming increasingly racially diverse and may provide an optimal setting for the reduction of racial stereotypes and prejudices perpetuated in society. To better understand racism among college students, this study evaluated the attitudes of Asian and White European Americans toward several racial out-groups. Participants…

  20. Causes of Mortality among American College Students: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James C.; Leno, E. Victor; Keller, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study from self-selected institutions of higher education provides an estimate of the causes and rates of mortality among college students between the ages of 18 and 24 years old. One hundred fifty-seven 4-year colleges participated in an online survey of student deaths during one academic year. A total of 254 deaths were reported. The…

  1. College Textbooks in American History: Brickbats and Bouquets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carrie; Rickert-Epstein, Connie

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes seven college-level U.S. history survey texts to determine the deteriorating quality of college history textbooks. Focuses on three areas: (1) the simplification of style and content, (2) indications of implicit censorship, and (3) the lack of a thematic structure which would contribute to the students' understanding of history. (LS)

  2. Majoring in Money: How American College Students Manage Their Finances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallie Mae Bank, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Sallie Mae, the nation's saving, planning, and paying for college company, along with Ipsos, one of the world's largest, independent market research companies, surveyed 800 college students to learn more about how they are managing their finances and using credit. The online survey, completed in December 2015, comprised a cross-section of key…

  3. The American Community College: Nexus for Workforce Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Robert H., Ed.

    Emphasizing the central role of community colleges in workforce development, this two-part monograph reviews the status of workforce development initiatives at the national, state, and local levels and provides descriptions of 10 exemplary programs at community colleges across North America. The first part focuses on the status of and operating…

  4. Surgical capacity building in Timor-Leste: a review of the first 15 years of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons-led Australian Aid programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Glenn D; Scott, David F; Xavier, Joao P; Martins, Nelson; Vreede, Eric; Chennal, Antony; Moss, Daliah; Watters, David A

    2017-06-01

    Timor-Leste suffered a destructive withdrawal by the Indonesian military in 1999, leaving only 20 Timorese-based doctors and no practising specialists for a population of 700 000 that has now grown to 1.2 million. This article assesses the outcomes and impact of Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) specialist medical support from 2001 to 2015. Three programmes were designed collaboratively with the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and Australian Aid. The RACS team began to provide 24/7 resident surgical and anaesthesia services in the capital, Dili, from July 2001. The arrival of the Chinese and Cuban Medical Teams provided a medical workforce, and the Cubans initiated undergraduate medical training for about 1000 nationals both in Cuba and in Timor-Leste, whilst RACS focused on specialist medical training. Australian Aid provided AUD$20 million through three continuous programmes over 15 years. In the first 10 years over 10 000 operations were performed. Initially only 10% of operations were done by trainees but this reached 77% by 2010. Twenty-one nurse anaesthetists were trained in-country, sufficient to cover the needs of each hospital. Seven Timorese doctors gained specialist qualifications (five surgery, one ophthalmology and one anaesthesia) from regional medical schools in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Indonesia and Malaysia. They introduced local specialist and family medicine diploma programmes for the Cuban graduates. Timor-Leste has developed increasing levels of surgical and anaesthetic self-sufficiency through multi-level collaboration between the Ministry of Health, Universidade Nacional de Timor Lorosa'e, and sustained, consistent support from external donors including Australian Aid, Cuba and RACS. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Surgeons' Leadership Styles and Team Behavior in the Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue-Yung; Parker, Sarah Henrickson; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Arriaga, Alexander F; Peyre, Sarah E; Corso, Katherine A; Roth, Emilie M; Yule, Steven J; Greenberg, Caprice C

    2016-01-01

    The importance of leadership is recognized in surgery, but the specific impact of leadership style on team behavior is not well understood. In other industries, leadership is a well-characterized construct. One dominant theory proposes that transactional (task-focused) leaders achieve minimum standards and transformational (team-oriented) leaders inspire performance beyond expectations. We videorecorded 5 surgeons performing complex operations. Each surgeon was scored on the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, a validated method for scoring transformational and transactional leadership style, by an organizational psychologist and a surgeon researcher. Independent coders assessed surgeons' leadership behaviors according to the Surgical Leadership Inventory and team behaviors (information sharing, cooperative, and voice behaviors). All coders were blinded. Leadership style (Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire) was correlated with surgeon behavior (Surgical Leadership Inventory) and team behavior using Poisson regression, controlling for time and the total number of behaviors, respectively. All surgeons scored similarly on transactional leadership (range 2.38 to 2.69), but varied more widely on transformational leadership (range 1.98 to 3.60). Each 1-point increase in transformational score corresponded to 3 times more information-sharing behaviors (p leadership and its impact on team performance in the operating room. As in other fields, our data suggest that transformational leadership is associated with improved team behavior. Surgeon leadership development, therefore, has the potential to improve the efficiency and safety of operative care. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Perceived parental psychological control, familism values, and Mexican American college students' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Gabrielle C; Killoren, Sarah E; Alfaro, Edna C

    2016-10-01

    Drawing from cultural ecological and risk and resilience perspectives, we investigated associations among Mexican American college students' perceptions of mothers' and fathers' psychological control and familism values, and college students' adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and self-esteem). Additionally, we examined how familism values moderated the relations between perceived psychological control and college students' adjustment. Participants were 186 Mexican American college students (78.5% women; Mage = 21.56 years), and data were collected using self-report online surveys. Using path analyses, we found that perceived maternal psychological control was positively associated and familism values were negatively associated with college students' depressive symptoms. Additionally, perceived paternal psychological control was negatively associated with college students' self-esteem when college students reported low, but not high, familism values. Findings highlight the importance of family relationships for Mexican American college students and the significance of examining these relationships within this cultural context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Acculturation Style and Alcohol Use among African American College Students: An Exploration of Potential Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Tahirah; Brown, Tamara L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship exists between acculturation and alcohol use among African American college students and if the relationship varies by religiosity and gender. Most researchers use unidimensional African American acculturation measures that cannot capture the construct's complexity; this study is the first to use a…

  8. American College Students Studying Abroad in China: Language, Identity, and Self-Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hang

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of qualitative analyses of data drawn from monthly informal individual interviews of 29 American college students who were spending one semester studying Mandarin Chinese abroad in a program in China. While some data confirm previous findings that some students' identification as Americans was strengthened during…

  9. The Social Construction of Ethnicity and Masculinity of African American College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jonathan Lee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how African American college men construct masculine and ethnic notions of their identities, despite disproportionate social obstacles and hegemonic stereotypes. The primary research question of this study was, "how might African American undergraduate males understand and develop healthy concepts…

  10. Using a Positive Psychology and Family Framework to Understand Mexican American Adolescents' College-Going Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Gonzalez, Stacey Lee

    2017-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American adolescents' academic experiences. We used a quantitative, predictive design to explore how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, subjective happiness, hope, and family importance influenced 131 Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs. We used…

  11. Beyond Black and White: How White, Male, College Students See Their Asian American Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.

    2014-01-01

    This research is a cross-site analysis of how white, male, college students see their Asian American peers. Semi-structured interviews with 43 white males were conducted at two universities that differed substantially in their representation of Asian American students. The interviews were theoretically framed by Critical Whiteness Studies and Bobo…

  12. An Exploratory Study of Undergraduates' Attitudes toward Affirmative Action Policies for Asian Americans in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel; Lowinger, Robert Jay

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined white undergraduate students' (a) racial attitudes towards Asian Americans, (b) principled policy attitudes toward affirmative action, and (c) self-interest in relation to their support for college-based affirmative action policies for Asian Americans at a Midwestern university. A sample (n = 264, 28% male, 72%…

  13. College and Career Readiness for Gifted African American Girls: A Call to School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Renae D.; Hines, Erik M.

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on college and career readiness highlights the role of educators in promoting the success of all students. However, few studies have focused on the specific needs of gifted African American girls. This article discusses the school experiences and career development of gifted African American girls and it provides a culturally…

  14. An Examination of Mature Interpersonal Relationships among International and American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Bona

    2012-01-01

    Educating students to relate harmoniously with people from different backgrounds has become an important agenda for student affairs professional because of the increasingly diverse nature of the American society. The purpose of this study was to assess how American and international college students develop mature interpersonal relationship…

  15. The Continuing Significance of Racism in the Lives of Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Park, Julie J.

    2015-01-01

    Asian Americans are one of the most misunderstood populations in higher education, and more research on this population is warranted. In this investigation, authors sought to understand the range of ways that Asian American students experience racism on a daily basis in college. They analyzed data from 46 individual, face-to-face qualitative…

  16. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT ON MENOPAUSE-2017 UPDATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobin, Rhoda H; Goodman, Neil F

    2017-07-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE)/American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Position Statement is designed to update the previous menopause clinical practice guidelines published in 2011 but does not replace them. The current document reviews new clinical trials published since then as well as new information regarding possible risks and benefits of therapies available for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. AACE reinforces the recommendations made in its previous guidelines and provides additional recommendations on the basis of new data. A summary regarding this position statement is listed below: New information available from randomized clinical trials and epidemiologic studies reported after 2011 was critically reviewed. No previous recommendations from the 2011 menopause clinical practice guidelines have been reversed or changed. Newer information enhances AACE's guidance for the use of hormone therapy in different subsets of women. Newer information helps to support the use of various types of estrogens, selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and progesterone, as well as the route of delivery. Newer information supports the previous recommendation against the use of bioidentical hormones. The use of nonhormonal therapies for the symptomatic relief of menopausal symptoms is supported. Newer information enhances AACE's guidance for the use of hormone therapy in different subsets of women. Newer information helps to support the use of various types of estrogens, SERMs, and progesterone, as well as the route of delivery. Newer information supports the previous recommendation against the use of bioidentical hormones. The use of nonhormonal therapies for the symptomatic relief of menopausal symptoms is supported. New recommendations in this position statement include: 1. the use of menopausal hormone therapy in symptomatic postmenopausal women should be based on consideration of all risk factors for

  17. Young, black, and connected: Facebook usage among African American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E Bun

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the extent and intensity of Facebook usage among African American college students and investigates their reasons for using Facebook. As expected, 98% of students in the survey had a Facebook account, and a large number of Facebook “friends.” Younger users spent significantly more time on Facebook than older ones. Our findings underscore the importance of cultural influence for African American online users. Displaying photographs and personal interests on Facebook signals racial identity among African American college students. Personality traits, such as self-esteem, trust in people, satisfaction with university life, and racial identity, were not significant predictors on the time spent on Facebook.

  18. Wrestling with Expectations: An Examination of How Asian American College Students Negotiate Personal, Parental, and Societal Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samura, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This research draws on a broader study that situates Asian American college students within larger sociohistorical and political contexts. I examined Asian American college students' experiences and what it means to be "Asian American" in and through these experiences. Two types of expectations emerged from the data: students' internal…

  19. Improving the Medical Curriculum in Predoctoral Dental Education: Recommendations From the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Committee on Predoctoral Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Matthew J; Bennett, Jeffrey D; DeLuke, Dean M; Evans, Erik W; Hudson, John W; Nattestad, Anders; Ness, Gregory M; Yeung, Allison

    2017-02-01

    Dental procedures are often performed on patients who present with some level of medical fragility. In many dental schools, the exercise of taking a medical history is all too often a transcription of information to the dental chart, with little emphasis on the presurgical risk assessment and the development of a treatment plan appropriate to the medical status of the dental patient. Changes in dentistry, driven by an increasingly medically complex population of dental patients, combined with treatment advances rooted in the biomedical sciences necessitate the adaptation of our dental education to include a stronger background in systemic health. Many predoctoral educators in the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) have expressed concern about the medical preparedness of our dental students; therefore, the AAOMS and its Committee on Predoctoral Education and Training have provided recommendations for improving the medical curriculum in predoctoral dental education, including a strengthening of training in clinical medicine and biomedical sciences, with specific recommendations for improved training of our dental students and dental faculty. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethics education in chiropractic colleges: a North American survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsinger, Stuart; Soave, David

    2012-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to survey Council on Chiropractic Education-accredited chiropractic colleges in North America and to describe curricular details on the teaching of bioethics. A custom-designed survey was sent to chiropractic colleges. Total number of contact hours, whether the ethics was a stand-alone course or integrated elsewhere, type of instructor, and if there was a required or recommended course text were queried. Of 19 surveys sent by mail, 15 surveys were returned. The average time in ethics instruction was 18.7 hours including lecture format, small group tutorial, and self-study. Chiropractic ethics education includes 8 areas of content (boundaries, law and jurisprudence, professionalism, basic ethic tenets/principles, ethical codes of conduct, prevention of financial and of sexual abuse, and resolving an ethical dilemma). Some colleges include content taught to students under the domain of law and jurisprudence. The results of this survey indicate that there are opportunities to further develop the educational ethics program at Council on Chiropractic Education-accredited colleges. All colleges currently offer bioethics teaching. An expanded role for this content is recommended so as to offer optimal benefit for students and practitioners. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An Analysis of the Perceptions of "U.S. News and World Report" College Ranking Systems by Enrollment Managers of American Jesuit Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Adam C.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study involves the perceptions held by enrollment managers at the American Jesuit Catholic colleges and universities of national rankings of colleges and universities and the strategic use of this information. Enrollment management emerged within colleges and universities in response to increasing competition for incoming…

  2. Surgeon distress as calibrated by hours worked and nights on call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Charles M; Shanafelt, Tait D; Dyrbye, Lotte; Sloan, Jeffrey A; Russell, Thomas R; Bechamps, Gerald J; Freischlag, Julie A

    2010-11-01

    The relationships of working hours and nights on call per week with various parameters of distress among practicing surgeons have not been previously examined in detail. More than 7,900 members of the American College of Surgeons responded to an anonymous, cross-sectional survey. The survey included self-assessment of their practice setting, a validated depression screening tool, and standardized assessments of burnout and quality of life. There was a clear gradient between hours and burnout, with the prevalence of burnout ranging from 30% for surgeons working hours/week, 44% for 60 to 80 hours/week, and 50% for those working >80 hours/week (p hours and nights on call (both p worked >80 hours/week reported a higher rate of medical errors compared with those who worked hours/week (10.7% versus 6.9%; p work and home conflicts were higher among surgeons who worked longer hours or had ≥2 nights on call. A significantly higher proportion of surgeons who worked >80 hours/week or had >2 nights on call/week would not become a surgeon again (p hours worked and nights on call per week appear to have a substantial impact on surgeons, both professionally and personally. These factors are strongly related to burnout, depression, career satisfaction, and work and home conflicts. Copyright © 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Recruitment and Baseline Characteristics of American Indian Tribal College Students Participating in a Tribal College Tobacco and Behavioral Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won S; Nazir, Niaman; Pacheco, Christina M; Filippi, Melissa K; Pacheco, Joseph; White Bull, Julia; Nance, Christi; Faseru, Babalola; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine Makosky

    2016-06-01

    American Indians (AIs) have the highest cigarette smoking rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. Although the overall smoking prevalence in the United States for nonminority populations has decreased over the past several decades, the same pattern is not observed among AIs. The purpose of this observational study was to collect cigarette smoking and related information from American Indian tribal college students to inform tailored interventions. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional survey of American Indian tribal college students, Tribal College Tobacco and Behavior Survey (TCTABS), with a focus on recruiting all incoming freshman at three participating tribal colleges in the Midwest and Northern Plains regions. A total of 1256 students participated in the baseline surveys between April 2011 and October 2014. The overall smoking prevalence of this sample was 34.7%, with differences by region (Northern Plains-44.0% and Midwest-28%). The majority, 87.5% of current smokers reported smoking 10 or less cigarettes per day, 41% reported smoking menthol cigarettes, 52% smoked Marlboro brand, and the mean age of their first cigarette was 14 years. The majority, 62% had made at least one quit attempt in the past year. The overwhelming majority of respondents, regardless of their smoking status, thought that the current smoking prevalence on campus was greater than 41% and approximately one-third believed that it was as high as 61%. Very few studies of smoking have been conducted in this population and results from our study confirm the need for effective interventions. AIs have the highest cigarette smoking rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Furthermore, limited studies have examined the epidemiology of cigarette smoking among tribal college students. This study addresses health disparities related to smoking among college students by examining the demographic, cultural, and environmental characteristics of smoking and

  4. Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Source Code The Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative To help focus attention on the importance of ... health campaign, called the Surgeon General's Family History Initiative, to encourage all American families to learn more ...

  5. Perceived racism and alcohol consequences among African American and Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  6. COMPETITIVE BALANCE IN AMERICAN COLLEGE FOOTBALL: THE GI BILL, GRANT-IN-AID AND THE COLLEGE FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Salaga

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies three historical events, listed in the title, representing key changes in the business structure of American college football and then tests to see whether these events are associated with changes in competitive balance. The analysis shows that balance has been relatively stable despite these alterations. The significant effects that are uncovered are confined to single conferences suggesting these events are not tied to widespread changes in balance throughout the sport...

  7. [Improving the surgeon's image: introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Tomoo

    2004-05-01

    -centered field. The Japanese Surgical Society appears to be the only medical society that is capable of leading a revolution in the health care system of this country with its autonomy and self-discipline. It is timely for the Japanese Surgical Society to consider a modification of its stated mission by adding "to improve the care of the surgical patient" as dictated by the American College of Surgeons.

  8. Intermittent Auscultation for Intrapartum Fetal Heart Rate Surveillance: American College of Nurse-Midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Fetal heart rate surveillance is a standard component of intrapartum care. The fetal heart rate can be evaluated using intermittent auscultation or electronic fetal monitoring. Research that has compared these 2 strategies found them to be equivalent with respect to long-term neonatal outcomes. The purpose of this clinical bulletin by the American College of Nurse-Midwives is to review the evidence for use of intermittent auscultation and provide recommendations for intermittent auscultation technique, interpretation, and documentation. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  9. Testing a multiple mediation model of Asian American college students' willingness to see a counselor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul Youngbin; Park, Irene J K

    2009-07-01

    Adapting the theory of reasoned action, the present study examined help-seeking beliefs, attitudes, and intent among Asian American college students (N = 110). A multiple mediation model was tested to see if the relation between Asian values and willingness to see a counselor was mediated by attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help and subjective norm. A bootstrapping procedure was used to test the multiple mediation model. Results indicated that subjective norm was the sole significant mediator of the effect of Asian values on willingness to see a counselor. The findings highlight the importance of social influences on help-seeking intent among Asian American college students.

  10. Minority stress and college persistence attitudes among African American, Asian American, and Latino students: perception of university environment as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin

    2011-04-01

    We examined whether perception of university environment mediated the association between minority status stress and college persistence attitudes after controlling for perceived general stress. Participants were 160 Asian American, African American, and Latino students who attended a predominantly White university. Results of a path model analysis showed that university environment was a significant mediator for the association between minority status stress and college persistence attitudes. Additionally, minority status stress was distinct from perceived general stress. Finally, the results from a multiple-group comparison indicated that the magnitude of the mediation effect was invariant across Asian American, African American, and Latino college students, thus supporting the generalizability of the mediation model.

  11. Motivators and Barriers to Blood Donation in African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaz, Beth H.; Demmons, Derrick G.; Crittenden, Colleen P.; Carnevale, Claudine V.; Lee, Mark; Burnett, Miriam; Easley, Kirk; Hillyer, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    Background An adequate blood supply depends on volunteer non-remunerated blood donors. African Americans have lower blood donation rates than whites. To improve African American blood donation rates, the motivators and barriers to African Americans must be explored. To study the differences in motivators and barriers to blood donation between donor and non-donor African American college students. Methods African Americans college students at two Historically Black Colleges and Universities completed a 41-item, self-administered questionnaire, which assessed participant’s donation frequency, motivators and barriers toward donation, and knowledge and beliefs towards blood donation. Results 364 primarily female college students (96% African Americans, 93% female) completed the questionnaire. 49% reported prior blood donation experience (donors) and 51% were non-donors. The primary motivator for donors and non-donors was convenience (89% donor, 82% non-donor). Donors were more likely than non-donors to disagree with statements regarding blood donation as being too painful (82% donor, 44% non-donor), resulting in feeling faint, dizzy, or nauseated (61% donor, 29% non-donor). Donors more often agreed that the blood supply is safe (77% donor, 58% non-donor), less often concerned about receiving a transfusion (61% donor, 73% non-donor), and more often aware of local blood shortages (50% donor, 35% non-donor). Conclusions African Americans female college students are willing to donate blood given convenience and support from their university. Educational campaigns to increase knowledge regarding the safety of the blood donation process and the ongoing needs of an adequate blood supply might be effective methods to increase blood donation. PMID:19782000

  12. Influences of Personal Standards and Perceived Parental Expectations on Worry for Asian American and White American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Howard; Okazaki, Sumie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined perceptions of living up to parental expectations and personal standards as possible mediators of the relationship between ethnicity and worry in a sample of 836 Asian American and 856 White American college students. Asian Americans reported higher frequency of academic- and family-related worry, but they did not report higher levels of global tendency to worry. Perceptions of living up to parental expectations of current academic performance and personal standards for preparation for a future career partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of academic worry. Personal standards and perceptions of living up to parental expectations for respect for the family partially explained ethnic differences in frequency of family worry. The findings highlight the importance of targeting domain-specific personal standards and perceived parental expectations to reduce worry among Asian Americans. PMID:22416875

  13. Acculturation and substance use in a Mexican American college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Alfonso; Ramirez, Maria; Sharma, Rachita; Popan, Jason; Avalos Latorre, Maria Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Although the association between acculturation and substance use among Latino groups is important, it is often understudied, especially within specific Latino groups living in geographically distinct communities, such as the Mexican American population in South Texas. The researchers of this study aimed to better understand the effect of acculturation on substance use and alcohol dependence in a Mexican American college student population. This survey study investigated the correlation between acculturation and substance use and dependence by using the Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA), items related to substance use (nicotine, marijuana, and cocaine) in a Mexican American college student sample (N = 1,494), and the Short Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire (SADD; N = 715). The study was conducted in the Texas-Mexico border region. The results suggest that higher levels of acculturation do not predict increased drug use or alcohol dependence in the Mexican American college students. However, acculturation was found to be associated with lower use of cocaine and marijuana. The discussion examines commonalities and differences in drug use and dependence. Specifically, acculturation seems to have an inverse relationship to substance use and may serve as a protective factor to licit and illicit drug use among Mexican American college students.

  14. Overview of American Heart Association / American College of Cardiology guidelines 2017 for management of patients with valvular heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Т. Vatutin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available n June 2017, Circulation journal published updated recommendations of the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology (AHA / ACC on the management of patients with valvular heart disease. The main provisions of this manual are set out in this message. It should be emphasized that the recommendations written by leading US experts in this field are set out clearly, using a variety of tables and figures, which will undoubtedly make them a desktop guide to action for most practitioners in the following years. As usual, when creating such guidelines, the authors were guided by evidence-based methodology using the classes of recommendations and levels of evidence.

  15. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT ON TESTING FOR AUTONOMIC AND SOMATIC NERVE DYSFUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinik, Aaron I; Camacho, Pauline M; Davidson, Jaime A; Handelsman, Yehuda; Lando, Howard M; Leddy, Anne L; Reddy, Sethu K; Cook, Richard; Spallone, Vicenza; Tesfaye, Solomon; Ziegler, Dan

    2017-12-01

    This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology. Where there were no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician.

  16. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT ON THE ASSOCIATION OF TESTOSTERONE AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Neil; Guay, Andre; Dandona, Paresh; Dhindsa, Sandeep; Faiman, Charles; Cunningham, Glenn R

    2015-09-01

    This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology. Where there were no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician.

  17. The Eating Disorders Inventory among Asian American College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Grace; Gray, James

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the prevalence rate of bulimic disorders among 257 female Asian Americans from 18 to 30 years old. Finds that only two of the 257 women met the classification for bulimia nervosa. Contends that the findings illustrate the need for future research among culturally different populations. (CMK)

  18. Bicultural Work Motivation Scale for Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Lung; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2016-01-01

    The bicultural work motivations of Asian Americans have not yet been comprehensively captured by contemporary vocational constructs and scales. For this study, we conducted two studies on the initial reliability and validity of the Bicultural Work Motivation Scale (BWMS) by combining qualitative and quantitative methods. First, a pilot study was…

  19. Filipino American College Students at the Margins of Neoliberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Xavier J.

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the various ways that Filipino American students have navigated the system of higher education in lieu of expanding neoliberal public policies. In an era where neoliberalism has sought to minimize minority difference within a universal "common sense" pursuit of individual freedoms, the academic, economic, social,…

  20. African American Male College Athletes' Narratives on Education and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, John N.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…

  1. Lee Acculturation Dream Scale for Korean-American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Bok

    2005-04-01

    This study examined acculturation as represented in dream narratives of 165 Korean immigrant college students living in the USA. A total of 165 dreams were collected and evaluated using the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale, for which locations of dream contents were coded. 39% of the dreams took place in South Korea, while 38% were in the USA. Also, 16% of the dreams included both locations, whereas 7% had no specific dream location. The dreams contained overlapping dream messages, images, scenes, and interactions in both South Korea and the USA. A two-sample t test on the mean scores of the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale indicated no significant difference between men and women.

  2. Longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking: A comparison between Caucasians and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The current study compared longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking from early adolescence to adulthood for Caucasians and African Americans. Methods Data were collected from N=9,988 non-Hispanic Caucasian and African American participants from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Growth curve modeling tested differences in rates of change and levels of heavy drinking from ages 13–31 among non-college youth, college withdrawers, 2-year-college graduates, and 4-year-college graduates, and compared these differences for Caucasians and African Americans. Results There were significant racial differences in relationships between college education with both changes in and levels of heavy drinking. Rates of change of heavy drinking differed significantly across the college education groups examined for Caucasians but not for African Americans. In addition, Caucasians who graduated from 4-year colleges showed the highest levels of heavy drinking after age 20, although differences between the four groups diminished by the early 30s. In contrast, for African Americans, graduates from 2- or 4-year colleges did not show higher levels of heavy drinking from ages 20–31 than the non-college group. Instead, African American participants who withdrew from college without an associate’s, bachelor’s, or professional degree consistently exhibited the highest levels of heavy drinking from ages 26–31. Conclusions The relationship between college education and increased levels of heavy drinking in young adulthood is significant for Caucasians but not African Americans. Conversely, African Americans are likely to be more adversely affected than Caucasians by college withdrawal. PMID:23707401

  3. Longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking: a comparison between Caucasians and African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C

    2013-09-01

    The current study compared longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking from early adolescence to adulthood for Caucasians and African-Americans. We analyzed data from 9,988 non-Hispanic Caucasian and African-American participants from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Growth curve modeling tested differences in rates of change and levels of heavy drinking from ages 13 to 31 years among non-college youth, college withdrawers, 2-year college graduates, and 4-year college graduates, and compared these differences for Caucasians and African-Americans. There were significant racial differences in relationships between college education with both changes in and levels of heavy drinking. Rates of change of heavy drinking differed significantly across the college education groups examined for Caucasians but not for African-Americans. In addition, Caucasians who graduated from 4-year colleges showed the highest levels of heavy drinking after age 20 years, although differences among the four groups diminished by the early 30s. In contrast, for African-Americans, graduates from 2- or 4-year colleges did not show higher levels of heavy drinking from ages 20 to 31 years than the non-college group. Instead, African-American participants who withdrew from college without an associate's, bachelor's, or professional degree consistently exhibited the highest levels of heavy drinking from ages 26 to 31 years. The relationship between college education and increased levels of heavy drinking in young adulthood is significant for Caucasians but not African-Americans. Conversely, African-Americans are likely to be more adversely affected than are Caucasians by college withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Comparative Study of Recent Trends and Characteristics of Students Entering American Junior Colleges, 1968-72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.; Scott, Craig S.

    Recent changes in the background characteristics and attributes of students entering American junior colleges are compared with those of students entering colleges offering baccalaureate and graduate degrees. Comparisons are also made between students entering private and public junior colleges. The characteristics and attributes are: Level of…

  5. The Impact of Co-Locating American Job Centers on Community College Campuses in North Carolina. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noy, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between community colleges and the public workforce system might have an important role in promoting students' success in the labor market and in college. In particular, the co-location of American Job Centers (AJC) on community college campuses is a particularly strong form of relationship that might benefit students. Yet little is…

  6. Mexican Americans in Higher Education: Cultural Adaptation and Marginalization as Predictors of College Persistence Intentions and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Castillo, Linda G.; Rosales Meza, Rocío; Piña-Watson, Brandy

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how college persistence intentions and life satisfaction influenced by acculturation, enculturation, White marginalization, and Mexican American marginalization among 515 Mexican American college students. The utility of a path analysis model was supported. Enculturation positively predicted persistence and life satisfaction.…

  7. Options for Online Undergraduate Courses in Biology at American Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varty, Alison K.

    2016-01-01

    I aimed to document the online undergraduate course supply in biology to evaluate how well biology educators are serving the diverse and growing population of online students. I documented online biology course offerings in the 2015-2016 academic year at 96 American colleges and universities. I quantified differences in variety, extent, and…

  8. The Current Status of Sport Sociology within American and Canadian Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Dana D.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of sport sociology within American and Canadian Colleges and Universities. The study investigated: (1) the number of graduate and undergraduate courses offered in sport sociology; (2) current research area(s) of interest within sport sociology; (3) current text used as reference and…

  9. Impact of Selection Practices on Career Advancement of African American Women in Community College Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancy-Tooks, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative ethnographic study was to explore the experiences of African American women about their perceptions of factors (i.e. senior administrator selection practices, institutional practices, barriers, and coping strategies) that hinder or facilitate advancement in community college administration. The following questions…

  10. Social Cognitive and Cultural Orientation Predictors of Well-Being in Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kayi; Lent, Robert W.; Miller, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the predictive utility of Lent and Brown's social cognitive model of educational and work well-being with a sample of Asian American college students, indexing well-being in terms of academic and social domain satisfaction. In addition, we examined the role of acculturation and enculturation as culture-specific predictors of…

  11. Comparing International and American Students: Involvement in College Life and Overall Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Cole, Darnell

    2017-01-01

    Using longitudinal survey data, this study compares 191 international and 409 American students' involvement in college life, the extent to which the involvement is influenced by race/ethnicity, gender, and language background, and the extent to which the involvement influences overall satisfaction. Major findings include: International and…

  12. University of Central Florida and the American Association of State Colleges and Universities: Blended Learning Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDUCAUSE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Blended Learning Toolkit supports the course redesign approach, and interest in its openly available clearinghouse of online tools, strategies, curricula, and other materials to support the adoption of blended learning continues to grow. When the resource originally launched in July 2011, 20 AASCU [American Association of State Colleges and…

  13. Male and Female: Career Development of African American College Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jamie Dowdy

    2015-01-01

    Tendency to foreclose on careers, vocational exploration, and career commitment were examined in relationship to racial-ethnic socialization, parental responsiveness, and career-related verbal encouragement and emotional support among 228 African American male and female college athletes and non-athletes. A number of tests were conducted to test…

  14. Complicating College Students' Conception of the American Dream through Community Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott C.; Gillmor, Susan C.; Rabinowicz, Samantha A.

    2010-01-01

    This study considered the impact of the SERVE Program upon participating college students' belief in the American Dream. The SERVE Program is a community service learning program sponsored by the philosophy and theology departments at Ignatius University. Using a mixed methods approach, the authors found that participating students demonstrated…

  15. Validation of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Scale with American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaopeng; Paulson, Sharon E.

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined the factor structure of the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) scale with an American college sample (n = 404, 322 females, 88.9% Whites). Data were collected through an online survey, and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test several proposed factor models from previous studies. The results…

  16. Influence of Family Perceptions of Acting White on Acculturative Stress in African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 African American college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…

  17. Racial Identity and the MMPI in African American Male College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, P. Richard; Allen, James; Dana, Richard H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-Black, Short Form (RIAS-B) was examined among 50 African American male college students Results indicated RIAS-B scale scores functioned as predictors of MMPI scale scores. Implications of these findings for MMPI-2 research with…

  18. Reasons for Attending, Expected Obstacles, and Degree Aspirations of Asian Pacific American Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Winnie W.; Chang, June C.; Lew, Jonathan W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how the academic aspirations of Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) attending community colleges are influenced by their demographic and educational background, reasons for attending, and obstacles they expect to encounter. The sample consisted of 846 APAs out of a total student sample of 5,000 in an urban community college…

  19. Using Self-Regulated Learning Methods to Increase Native American College Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David A.; Ahuna, Kelly H.; Tinnesz, Christine Gray; Vanzile-Tamsen, Carol

    2014-01-01

    A big challenge facing colleges and university programs across the United States is retaining students to graduation. This is especially the case for Native American students, who have had one of the highest dropout rates over the past several decades. Using data from a large university that implemented a self-regulated learning course for…

  20. Negating Stereotype Threat: Autonomy Support and Academic Identification Boost Performance of African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Dustin R.; Komarraju, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, we examined the effects of stereotype threat and autonomy support on the test performance of 190 African American college students. Participants completed a set of 7 easy and 7 difficult problems from Raven's Progressive Matrices and a survey including measures of Academic Self-Concept, Learning Climate, and…

  1. The Role of Behavioral and Cognitive Cultural Orientation on Mexican American College Students' Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Edwards, Lisa M.; Hardin, Erin E.; Piña-Watson, Brandy

    2014-01-01

    We examined the role of behavioral (acculturation and enculturation) and cognitive cultural orientation (independent and interdependent self-construal) on Mexican American college students' life satisfaction. Analyses explained 28% of the variance in life satisfaction, with social class, grade point average, and independent self-construal being…

  2. Climate change and health: a position paper of the American College of Physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolle-Mir, Laurence; Andre, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Although climate change is often considered an environmental, economic and political problem, it is also a huge health threat. Physicians and the broader global health care community therefore have an important role to play, according to the American College of Physicians in this position paper calling for immediate action. (authors)

  3. College of Engineering alumnus honored with American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Abe M. Zarem Award

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2009-01-01

    Adam Cowling, a recent master's graduate of Virginia Tech's Aerospace and Ocean Engineering Department in the College of Engineering, is the 2009 recipient of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Abe M. Zarem Award for Distinguished Achievement in Astronautics.

  4. Visualizing Peer Connections: The Gendered Realities of African American College Men's Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Brian L.

    2017-01-01

    I explored how African American college men conceptualized gender within their interpersonal relationships at a traditionally White institution. In interviews using both semistructured and photo elicitation interview formats, 17 participants shared stories about their interpersonal relationships with other men and ascribed multiple meanings to…

  5. East vs. West: A Comparison of Mobile Phone Use by Chinese and American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosehfeld, Barbara; O'Connor-Petruso, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are used around the world, however, there are no definitive rules regarding their appropriate use. In the absence of such codification, the researchers surveyed 225 American and 115 Chinese college students to understand their perceptions of etiquette and appropriate use of mobile phones both in the classroom and in other public…

  6. Predictors of Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy in Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann-Yi, Sujin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine what career development variables, according to the Social Cognitive Career Theory, contribute to career decision-making self-efficacy, one of the key components of career development in a sample of Asian American undergraduate college students. The career literature is historically limited in empirical…

  7. Asian American College Students' Suicide Ideation: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y. Joel; Koo, Kelly; Tran, Kimberly K.; Chiu, Yu-Chen; Mok, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore the phenomenon of suicide ideation among 293 Asian American college students. Guided by T. Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior, the authors examined the relationships among perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, self-construals, and suicide…

  8. Emerging adolescent sexuality: a comparison of American and Dutch college women’s experiences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, M.; Caron, S.L.; Rademakers, J.

    2010-01-01

    The United States has the highest rates of teen pregnancy, births, and abortions of all industrialized countries. On the contrary, The Netherlands has the lowest rates. Using qualitative and quantitative methods, this retrospective study investigated American and Dutch college women’s sexual

  9. Perceptions of Lakota Native American Students Taking Online Business Course at Oglala Lakota College (OLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asfour, Ahmed; Bryant, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the perceptions of Lakota Native American students taking a Business online course at the Oglala Lakota College on the Pine Ridge Reservation. The study was conducted in the fall of 2010 and spring of 2011. The themes found in this study were flexibility, transportation, communication, and technical support. Furthermore, the…

  10. The Role of Character Strengths and Family Importance on Mexican American College Students' Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Ikonomopoulos, James; Gonzalez, Stacey L.; Rodriguez, Basilio

    2017-01-01

    We examined how character strengths and family importance influenced Mexican American college students' life satisfaction. Using multiple regression analysis, findings indicated that optimism, grit, and gratitude were significant predictors of life satisfaction. We provide a discussion regarding the importance of these findings as well as…

  11. African American Doctoral Students at For-Profit Colleges and Universities: A Critical Race Theory Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    Many people regard the doctorate as the pinnacle of success. Despite the challenges of completing the terminal degree, the dream of earning the doctoral degree remains a goal for many every year. Understanding the phenomenon of African American student enrollment at for-profit colleges and universities (FPCUs) is necessary because many African…

  12. Social Cognitive Predictors of Mexican American College Students' Academic and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Navarro, Rachel L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used Lent's (2004) social cognitive model of well being to examine the academic and life satisfaction of 457 Mexican American college students attending a Hispanic-Serving Institution. Using structural equation modeling, results indicated that the model provided a good fit to the data. Specifically, we found positive relations…

  13. Recommended Dietary Pattern to Achieve Adherence to the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) Guidelines: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Linda; Carson, Jo Ann S; Appel, Lawrence J; Burke, Lora E; Economos, Christina; Karmally, Wahida; Lancaster, Kristie; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Johnson, Rachel K; Thomas, Randal J; Vos, Miriam; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2016-11-29

    In 2013, the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology published the "Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk," which was based on a systematic review originally initiated by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The guideline supports the American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Impact Goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction by providing more specific details for adopting evidence-based diet and lifestyle behaviors to achieve those goals. In addition, the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans issued updated evidence relevant to reducing cardiovascular risk and provided additional recommendations for adopting healthy diet and lifestyle approaches. This scientific statement, intended for healthcare providers, summarizes relevant scientific and translational evidence and offers practical tips, tools, and dietary approaches to help patients/clients adapt these guidelines according to their sociocultural, economic, and taste preferences. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. American College of Radiology-American Brachytherapy Society practice parameter for electronically generated low-energy radiation sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Phillip M; Gaspar, Laurie E; Buzurovic, Ivan; Demanes, D Jeffrey; Kasper, Michael E; Nag, Subir; Ouhib, Zoubir; Petit, Joshua H; Rosenthal, Seth A; Small, William; Wallner, Paul E; Hartford, Alan C

    This collaborative practice parameter technical standard has been created between the American College of Radiology and American Brachytherapy Society to guide the usage of electronically generated low energy radiation sources (ELSs). It refers to the use of electronic X-ray sources with peak voltages up to 120 kVp to deliver therapeutic radiation therapy. The parameter provides a guideline for utilizing ELS, including patient selection and consent, treatment planning, and delivery processes. The parameter reviews the published clinical data with regard to ELS results in skin, breast, and other cancers. This technical standard recommends appropriate qualifications of the involved personnel. The parameter reviews the technical issues relating to equipment specifications as well as patient and personnel safety. Regarding suggestions for educational programs with regard to this parameter,it is suggested that the training level for clinicians be equivalent to that for other radiation therapies. It also suggests that ELS must be done using the same standards of quality and safety as those in place for other forms of radiation therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society and American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Selling College: A Longitudinal Study of American College Football Bowl Game Public Service Announcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobolowsky, Barbara F.; Lowery, John Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Using ideological analysis as a frame, researchers analyzed institutionally created commercials (PSAs) that appeared in 28 U.S. college football bowl games over a seven-year period (2003-2009) to better understand the universities' brands as represented in these advertisements. They found many common elements such as showing traditional…

  16. Swedish or American heterosexual college youth: who is more permissive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, M S; Lottes, I L; Shaver, F M

    1995-08-01

    Theories of human sexuality have proposed that two factors reduce the double standard of sexuality and lead to a convergence of male and female sexual behavior: the degree of social benefits and amount of power women have in basic societal institutions and the extent to which a society accepts permissive sexual norms. As these factors increase, the strength of the double standard will decrease and the convergence between male and female behaviors will increase. Compared to the United States, Sweden has instituted more policies to promote gender equality and has been thought to accept more permissive premarital sexual attitudes. The focus of the research reported here is to examine country and gender differences in sexual attitudes and sexual behavior for a sample of university students in the United States (N = 407) and Sweden (N = 570). Results indicate that Swedish students endorsed more similar sexual standards for women and men and reported more accepting attitudes than did American students. For sexual behavior, American men reported the most sexual experience, Swedish men the least, with the women of both countries generally in the middle category. Notwithstanding this more permissive behavior on the part of American men, gender convergence with respect to sexual behavior is stronger in Sweden on several of the dimensions examined: age of first engaging in partner-related sexual activities for those who were sexually experienced, relationship with first partner, number of partners both in the last year and in their lifetime, and affective reactions to first coitus. Gender convergence, however, is weaker in Sweden than in the United States with respect to the incidence and frequency of various sexual activities and the degree of satisfaction with current sex life. Findings are discussed with respect to the questions they raise about the current theories that framed this research and the differential amount of sex education provided in the two countries.

  17. The Applicability of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria for Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chee Loong; Ponnuthurai, Francis A; Allman, Kevin C; van Gaal, William

    2018-04-01

    The American College of Cardiology (ACC) Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for radionuclide myocardial perfusion scans (MPS) was developed to promote its rational use in the assessment of stable ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We sought to validate the applicability of this document in the Australian context. 1009 consecutive patients who underwent MPS were retrospectively audited at a single major metropolitan hospital in Victoria, Australia. Appropriateness was assigned based on the 2013 ACC AUC, and common indications and predictors of positive scan results were examined. The AUC was successfully applied (99.1%) retrospectively. A large proportion of scans were deemed appropriate (82.7%), whilst 7.8% were maybe appropriate. Positive detection rates in these groups were 17.0% and 17.9% respectively. Eighteen patients (1.8%) were unclassifiable, but had a detection rate of 44.4%. Positive predictors of an abnormal MPS result included prior history of coronary artery disease, typical angina, and following the conservative management of an acute coronary syndrome. Scans that were rarely appropriate had a detection rate of 0%. The retrospective application of the 2013 ACC AUC is feasible. Whilst the majority of the scans were appropriate, a group of unclassifiable patients was observed to have a high detection rate. Scans that were rarely appropriate could potentially be rationalised to reduce radiation risk. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Academic achievement and college persistence of African American students with trauma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Güler; Horne, Sharon G; Owens, Archandria C; Armstrong, Aisha P

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and college persistence in African American 1st-year students from 2 universities. Of the 569 participants, 423 (74%) reported lifetime exposure to traumatic events; 20.6% of these students met the criteria for PTSD. For trauma-exposed females, after controlling for academic and nonacademic factors, higher levels of PTSD symptomatology in the 1st semester of college were associated with increased likelihood of leaving college prior to the end of the 2nd year of college; the relationship between the 2 variables was partially mediated by 1st-year grade point average (GPA). PTSD symptomatology was not significantly associated with academic achievement or persistence for males. For trauma-exposed females, in addition to PTSD symptomatology, being a student at a predominantly White institution and entering college with low high school GPA were identified as risk factors for low academic achievement and college dropout; on the other hand, involvement in on-campus activities and higher levels of perceived academic integration in the 1st semester were associated with higher 1st-year GPA, which, in turn, was related to increased likelihood of remaining in college. Clinical implications and strategies to support students with trauma exposure and PTSD are discussed.

  19. COMPETITIVE BALANCE IN AMERICAN COLLEGE FOOTBALL: THE GI BILL, GRANT-IN-AID AND THE COLLEGE FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Salaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies three historical events, listed in the title, representing key changes in the business structure of American college football and then tests to see whether these events are associated with changes in competitive balance. The analysis shows that balance has been relatively stable despite these alterations. The significant effects that are uncovered are confined to single conferences suggesting these events are not tied to widespread changes in balance throughout the sport. Additionally, the margin of victory ratio, a metric accounting for game closeness is introduced. Based on this measure, game uncertainty in individual conferences has improved over time.

  20. Self-disclosure in romantic relationships and friendships among American and Japanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, Mie

    2005-04-01

    The author examined whether the level of self-disclosure would differ across four types of relationships--passionate love relationships, companionate love relationships, same-sex friendships, and cross-sex friendships--and across cultures: American culture and Japanese culture. Participants were 145 college students (64 Americans and 81 Japanese). The results supported three hypotheses: (a) Japanese students scored lower in self-disclosure than American students, regardless of relationship types, (b) self-disclosure was higher in same-sex friendships than in cross-sex friendships both among American participants and among Japanese participants, and (c) self-disclosure was higher in romantic relationships than in friendships both among American students and among Japanese students. However, the correlation between self-disclosure and passionate love was not stronger than the correlation between self-disclosure and companionate love. The author discussed the present study's findings and contribution.

  1. Role of Family, Culture, and Peers in the Success of First-Generation Cambodian American College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jennifer; Kim, Simon; Haviland, Don

    2015-01-01

    Cambodian American college students are often overlooked in academe because of the model minority myth. The stereotype overshadows the challenges and heterogeneity in the Asian American and Pacific Islander population. This exploratory study examined the experiences of 13 first-generation Cambodian American college students at a large, public institution in California. Findings revealed that, despite obstacles of being first-generation with limited cultural capital, students were transformed ...

  2. Reclaiming the American Dream: Community Colleges and the Nation’s Future. A Report from the 21st-Century Commission on the Future of Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 2011, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched a new 21st-Century Initiative. The overall goal of the initiative is to educate an additional 5 million students with degrees, certificates, or other credentials by 2020. Grounded in the enduring commitment of community colleges to improving the lives of students…

  3. Collective Bargaining Agreement 1985-1987 between Regis College and the Regis College Chapter of the American Association of University Professors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis Coll., Denver, CO.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Regis College and the Regis College Chapter (50 members) of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) covering the period August 1985-August 1987 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: definitions and AAUP recognition; faculty-administration relationships; stipends for…

  4. Smoking, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit in Asian American versus Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Sarah; Kurz, Andrew S

    2012-10-01

    Few smoking cessation programs are designed for college students, a unique population that may categorically differ from adolescents and adults, and thus may have different motivations to quit than the general adult population. Understanding college student motives may lead to better cessation interventions tailored to this population. Motivation to quit may differ, however, between racial groups. The current study is a secondary analysis examining primary motives in college student smokers, and differences between Asian American and Caucasian students in smoking frequency, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit. Participants (N = 97) listed personal motives to quit cigarette smoking, which were then coded into categories: health, personal relationships (e.g., friends, family, romantic partners), self-view (e.g., "addicted" or "not in control"), image in society, impact on others or the environment (e.g., second-hand smoke, pollution), and drain on personal resources (e.g., money, time). Mean number of motives were highest in the category of health, followed by personal relationships, drain on resources, self-view, image, and impact. Asian American students listed significantly fewer motives in the categories of health, self-view and image, and significantly more in the category of personal relationships than Caucasian students. Nicotine dependence was significantly higher for Asian American students. However, frequency of smoking did not differ between groups. Results may inform customization of smoking cessation programs for college students and address relevant culturally specific factors of different racial groups.

  5. Misogyny, Acculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Relation to Rape-Supportive Attitudes in Asian American College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kelly H.; Stephens, Kari A.; Lindgren, Kristen P.; George, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim’s refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality. PMID:21290256

  6. Agreement between Los Rios Community College District and Los Rios College Federation of Teachers (Local 2279, American Federation of Teachers, AFL-CIO), July 1, 1987-June 30, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Rios Community Coll. District, Sacramento, CA.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the Los Rios Community College District Board of Trustees and the Los Rios College Federation of Teachers/California Teachers Association/National Education Association is presented. This contract, covering faculty at American River College, Cosumnes River College, and Sacramento City College, applies to…

  7. Laparoscopic versus open inguinal hernia repair in patients with obesity: an American College of Surgeons NSQIP clinical outcomes analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froylich, Dvir; Haskins, Ivy N; Aminian, Ali; O'Rourke, Colin P; Khorgami, Zhamak; Boules, Mena; Sharma, Gautam; Brethauer, Stacy A; Schauer, Phillip R; Rosen, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    The laparoscopic approach to inguinal hernia repair (IHR) has proven beneficial in reducing postoperative pain and facilitating earlier return to normal activity. Except for indications such as recurrent or bilateral inguinal hernias, there remains a paucity of data that specifically identities patient populations that would benefit most from the laparoscopic approach to IHR. Nevertheless, previous experience has shown that obese patients have increased wound morbidity following open surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a laparoscopic versus open surgical approach to IHR on early postoperative morbidity and mortality in the obese population using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. All IHRs were identified within the NSQIP database from 2005 to 2013. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 . A propensity score matching technique between the laparoscopic and open approaches was used. Association of obesity with postoperative outcomes was investigated using an adjusted and unadjusted model based on clinically important preoperative variables identified by the propensity scoring system. A total of 7346 patients met inclusion criteria; 5573 patients underwent laparoscopic IHR, while 1773 patients underwent open IHR. On univariate analysis, obese patients who underwent laparoscopic IHR were less likely to experience a deep surgical site infection, wound dehiscence, or return to the operating room compared with those who underwent an open IHR. In both the adjusted and unadjusted propensity score models, there was no difference in outcomes between those who underwent laparoscopic versus open IHR. The laparoscopic approach to IHR in obese patients has similar outcomes as an open approach with regard to 30-day wound events. Preoperative risk stratification of obese patients is important to determining the appropriate surgical approach to IHR. Further studies are needed to investigate the long-term effects of the open and laparoscopic approaches to IHR in the obese population.

  8. American College of Surgeons/Association for Surgical Education medical student simulation-based surgical skills curriculum needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Charity C; Acton, Robert D; Blair, Patrice G; Campbell, Andre R; Deutsch, Ellen S; Jones, Daniel B; Liscum, Kathleen R; Sachdeva, Ajit K; Scott, Daniel J; Yang, Stephen C

    2014-02-01

    Simulation can enhance learning effectiveness, efficiency, and patient safety and is engaging for learners. A survey was conducted of surgical clerkship directors nationally and medical students at 5 medical schools to rank and stratify simulation-based educational topics. Students applying to surgery were compared with others using Wilcoxon's rank-sum tests. Seventy-three of 163 clerkship directors (45%) and 231 of 872 students (26.5%) completed the survey. Of students, 28.6% were applying for surgical residency training. Clerkship directors and students generally agreed on the importance and timing of specific educational topics. Clerkship directors tended to rank basic skills, such as examination skills, higher than medical students. Students ranked procedural skills, such as lumbar puncture, more highly than clerkship directors. Surgery clerkship directors and 4th-year medical students agree substantially about the content of a simulation-based curriculum, although 4th-year medical students recommended that some topics be taught earlier than the clerkship directors recommended. Students planning to apply to surgical residencies did not differ significantly in their scoring from students pursuing nonsurgical specialties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Salish Kootenai College Project for Recruitment and Retention of Native Americans in Associate Degree Nursing. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolberry, Jacque

    The purpose of the Salish Koontenai College (SKC) Project for Recruitment and Retention of Native Americans in Associate Degree Nursing was to increase the numbers of Native American registered nurses providing health care to the Native American population of Montana and the northwest mountain states. Recruitment and retention efforts targeted…

  10. Sir John Struthers (1823-1899), Professor of Anatomy in the University of Aberdeen (1863-1889), President of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (1895-1897).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M H

    2015-11-01

    Between 1841 and 1845 John Struthers attended both the University of Edinburgh and some of the various Extra-mural Schools of Medicine associated with Surgeons' Hall. While a medical student he became a Member of the Hunterian Medical Society of Edinburgh and later was elected one of their Annual Presidents. He graduated with the MD Edin and obtained both the LRCS Edin and the FRCS Edin diplomas in 1845. Shortly afterwards he was invited to teach Anatomy in Dr Handyside's Extra-mural School in Edinburgh. The College of Surgeons certified him to teach Anatomy in October 1847. He had two brothers, and all three read Medicine in Edinburgh. His younger brother, Alexander, died of cholera in the Crimea in 1855 while his older brother James, who had been a bachelor all his life, practised as a Consultant Physician in Leith Hospital, Edinburgh, until his death.When associated with Dr Handyside's Extra-mural School in Edinburgh, John taught Anatomy there until he was elected to the Chair of Anatomy in Aberdeen in 1863. Much of his time was spent in Aberdeen teaching Anatomy and in upgrading the administrative facilities there. He resigned from this Chair in 1889 and subsequently was elected President of Leith Hospital from 1891 to 1897. This was in succession to his older brother, James, who had died in 1891. Later, he was elected President of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh from 1895 to 1897 and acted as its Vice-President from 1897 until his death in 1899. In 1898, Queen Victoria knighted him. His youngest son, John William Struthers, was the only one of his clinically qualified sons to survive him and subsequently was elected President of the Edinburgh College of Surgeons from 1941 to 1943. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association vs Hypertension Canada High Blood Pressure Guidelines and Potential Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Rémi; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Vallée, Michel

    2018-05-01

    In this report we examine the differences between the 2017 Hypertension Canada and 2017 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) blood pressure (BP) guidelines regarding the proportions of individuals with a diagnosis of hypertension, BP above thresholds for treatment initiation, and BP below targets using the CARTaGENE cohort. Compared with the 2017 Canadian guidelines, the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines would result in increases of 8.7% in hypertension diagnosis and 3.4% of individuals needing treatment, with 17.2% having a different BP target. In conclusion, implementing the 2017 ACC/AHA hypertension guidelines in Canada could result in major effects for millions of Canadians. Copyright © 2018 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of Family, Culture, and Peers in the Success of First-Generation Cambodian American College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cambodian American college students are often overlooked in academe because of the model minority myth. The stereotype overshadows the challenges and heterogeneity in the Asian American and Pacific Islander population. This exploratory study examined the experiences of 13 first-generation Cambodian American college students at a large, public institution in California. Findings revealed that, despite obstacles of being first-generation with limited cultural capital, students were transformed into successful leaners when they received validation from their parents and peers and felt a sense of belonging to the college community through their involvement in an ethnic-based student organization.

  13. Are Dimensions of Parenting Differentially Linked to Substance Use Across Caucasian and Asian American College Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Parental warmth and autonomy granting are commonly thought of as protective factors against substance use among Caucasians. However, limited research has examined whether associations between parenting dimensions and substance use outcomes are the same or different among Asian Americans. A final analytic sample of 839 college students was used to test whether race (Caucasian vs. Asian American) moderated the relations between parenting dimensions and substance use outcomes across Caucasians and Asian Americans. We utilized the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker, Tupling, & Brown, 1979) to measure maternal and paternal warmth, encouragement of behavioral freedom, and denial of psychological autonomy. Multivariate regression models controlling for covariates including age, gender, and paternal education indicated four significant parenting by race interactions on alcohol problems and/or marijuana use. Specifically, maternal warmth was inversely associated with both alcohol problems and marijuana use among Caucasians but not among Asian Americans. Both maternal and paternal denial of psychological autonomy were positively associated with alcohol problems among Caucasians but not among Asian Americans. Consistent with emerging cross-cultural research, the associations between parenting dimensions and substance use behaviors observed in Caucasian populations may not be readily generalized to Asian Americans. These findings highlight the importance of considering different parenting dimensions in understanding substance use etiology among Asian Americans. Future research should use longitudinal data to replicate these findings across development and seek to identify other parenting dimensions that may be more relevant for Asian American youth.

  14. African American Male College Students Navigate to Achieve: The Relationship among College Adjustment Experiences, Coping, and GPA for Black Males at Two Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Sabrina Denise

    2017-01-01

    African American males face daunting obstacles as they pursue higher education as research has shown. This study sought to better understand the impact of specific factors--social support, racial identity, perceived racial discrimination, coping, and religious coping--on the academic achievement of African American male college student…

  15. CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING: A CONSENSUS CONFERENCE OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vivian A; Grunberger, George; Anhalt, Henry; Bailey, Timothy S; Blevins, Thomas; Garg, Satish K; Handelsman, Yehuda; Hirsch, Irl B; Orzeck, Eric A; Roberts, Victor Lawrence; Tamborlane, William

    2016-08-01

    Barriers to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use continue to hamper adoption of this valuable technology for the management of diabetes. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology convened a public consensus conference February 20, 2016, to review available CGM data and propose strategies for expanding CGM access. Conference participants agreed that evidence supports the benefits of CGM in type 1 diabetes and that these benefits are likely to apply whenever intensive insulin therapy is used, regardless of diabetes type. CGM is likely to reduce healthcare resource utilization for acute and chronic complications, although real-world analyses are needed to confirm potential cost savings and quality of life improvements. Ongoing technological advances have improved CGM accuracy and usability, but more innovations in human factors, data delivery, reporting, and interpretation are needed to foster expanded use. The development of a standardized data report using similar metrics across all devices would facilitate clinician and patient understanding and utilization of CGM. Expanded CGM coverage by government and private payers is an urgent need. CGM improves glycemic control, reduces hypoglycemia, and may reduce overall costs of diabetes management. Expanding CGM coverage and utilization is likely to improve the health outcomes of people with diabetes. A1C = glycated hemoglobin AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACE = American College of Endocrinology ASPIRE = Automation to Simulate Pancreatic Insulin Response CGM = continuous glucose monitoring HRQOL = health-related quality of life ICER = incremental cost-effectiveness ratio JDRF = Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation MARD = mean absolute relative difference MDI = multiple daily injections QALY = quality-adjusted life years RCT = randomized, controlled trial SAP = sensor-augmented pump SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose STAR = Sensor

  16. Shared Decision Making in ICUs: An American College of Critical Care Medicine and American Thoracic Society Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Alexander A; Davidson, Judy E; Morrison, Wynne; Danis, Marion; White, Douglas B

    2016-01-01

    Shared decision making is endorsed by critical care organizations; however, there remains confusion about what shared decision making is, when it should be used, and approaches to promote partnerships in treatment decisions. The purpose of this statement is to define shared decision making, recommend when shared decision making should be used, identify the range of ethically acceptable decision-making models, and present important communication skills. The American College of Critical Care Medicine and American Thoracic Society Ethics Committees reviewed empirical research and normative analyses published in peer-reviewed journals to generate recommendations. Recommendations approved by consensus of the full Ethics Committees of American College of Critical Care Medicine and American Thoracic Society were included in the statement. Six recommendations were endorsed: 1) DEFINITION: Shared decision making is a collaborative process that allows patients, or their surrogates, and clinicians to make healthcare decisions together, taking into account the best scientific evidence available, as well as the patient's values, goals, and preferences. 2) Clinicians should engage in a shared decision making process to define overall goals of care (including decisions regarding limiting or withdrawing life-prolonging interventions) and when making major treatment decisions that may be affected by personal values, goals, and preferences. 3) Clinicians should use as their "default" approach a shared decision making process that includes three main elements: information exchange, deliberation, and making a treatment decision. 4) A wide range of decision-making approaches are ethically supportable, including patient- or surrogate-directed and clinician-directed models. Clinicians should tailor the decision-making process based on the preferences of the patient or surrogate. 5) Clinicians should be trained in communication skills. 6) Research is needed to evaluate decision

  17. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Position Paper on the Use of Telemedicine for Allergists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Tania; Shih, Jennifer; Dinakar, Chitra; Portnoy, Jay; Fineman, Stanley

    2017-12-01

    The integration of telecommunications and information systems in health care first began 4 decades ago with 500 patient consultations performed via interactive television. The use of telemedicine services and technology to deliver health care at a distance is increasing exponentially. Concomitant with this rapid expansion is the exciting ability to provide enhancements in quality and safety of care. Telemedicine enables increased access to care, improvement in health outcomes, reduction in medical costs, better resource use, expanded educational opportunities, and enhanced collaboration between patients and physicians. These potential benefits should be weighed against the risks and challenges of using telemedicine. The American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology advocates for incorporation of meaningful and sustained use of telemedicine in allergy and immunology practice. This article serves to offer policy and position statements of the use of telemedicine pertinent to the allergy and immunology subspecialty. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acculturation, enculturation, and Asian American college students' mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Yang, Minji; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Lim, Robert H

    2011-07-01

    In the present study, we tested a theoretically and empirically derived partially indirect effects acculturation and enculturation model of Asian American college students' mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Latent variable path analysis with 296 self-identified Asian American college students supported the partially indirect effects model and demonstrated the ways in which behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, values acculturation, values enculturation, and acculturation gap family conflict related to mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help directly and indirectly through acculturative stress. We also tested a generational status moderator hypothesis to determine whether differences in model-implied relationships emerged across U.S.- (n = 185) and foreign-born (n = 107) participants. Consistent with this hypothesis, statistically significant differences in structural coefficients emerged across generational status. Limitations, future directions for research, and counseling implications are discussed.

  19. A comparative study of American and Chinese college students' motives for food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcey, Sharon M; Zhan, Ginny Q

    2018-04-01

    Previous cross-cultural research has examined college students' food choice decisions in different countries. The current study aimed to add to the literature by examining similarities and differences in motives for food choice between American (N = 328) and Chinese (N = 333) college students. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) was used to measure the participants' motives for food choice. Students' perceptions on the importance of diet and on their body satisfaction were also obtained. Results show that, while there are many similarities between the two cultural groups on the FCQ items, there are also significant differences. Specifically, the two groups view sensory appeal, weight, health, mood, and familiarity in a similar way, but the American participants score higher on price and convenience whereas the Chinese score higher on natural content and ethical concerns. We believe contextual cultural factors of each country may be related to these results. Women view sensory appeal and weight as significantly more important than men. Interactions between culture and gender are also found. For example, American women score significantly higher than American men on mood whereas there is no gender difference in the Chinese group; on the other hand, Chinese men score significantly higher on price than Chinese women whereas there is no gender difference in the American group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Barriers and Strategies for Healthy Food Choices among American Indian Tribal College Students: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Jill F; Stastny, Sherri; Brunt, Ardith; Agnew, Wanda

    2018-06-01

    American Indian and Alaskan Native individuals experience disproportionate levels of chronic health conditions such as type 2 diabetes and overweight and obesity that are influenced by dietary patterns and food choices. Understanding factors that influence healthy food choices among tribal college students can enrich education and programs that target dietary intake. To build an understanding of factors that influence healthy food choices among tribal college students at increased risk for college attrition. A nonexperimental cohort design was used for qualitative descriptive analysis. Participants (N=20) were purposively sampled, newly enrolled, academically underprepared tribal college students enrolled in a culturally relevant life skills course at an upper Midwest tribal college between September 2013 and May 2015. Participant demographic characteristics included various tribal affiliations, ages, and number of dependents. Participant responses to qualitative research questions about dietary intake, food choices, self-efficacy for healthy food choices, psychosocial determinants, and barriers to healthy food choices during telephone interviews were used as measures. Qualitative analysis included prestudy identification of researcher bias/assumptions, audiorecording and transcription, initial analysis (coding), secondary analysis (sorting and identifying meaning), and verification (comparative pattern analysis). Qualitative analysis revealed a variety of themes and subthemes about healthy food choices. Main themes related to barriers included taste, food gathering and preparation, and difficulty clarifying healthy food choices. Main themes related to strategies included taste, cultural traditions and practices, and personal motivation factors. Qualitative analysis identified barrier and strategy themes that may assist nutrition and dietetics practitioners working with tribal/indigenous communities, tribal college educators and health specialists, and tribal

  1. Report of the Annual Scientific Session of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) 2018, Orlando.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Ako, Junya

    2018-04-28

    The 67 th Annual Scientific Session and Expo of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) were held at the Orange County Convention Center, Orlando, from March 10-12, 2018. This meeting offered 2,700 accepted abstracts presented in oral and poster sessions by 2,100 experts and 37 Late-Breaking Clinical Trials and Featured Clinical Research presentations. This report introduces the key presentations and highlights from the ACC 2018 Scientific Session.

  2. "Great aspirations: The postwar American college counseling center": Correction to McCarthy (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Reports an error in "Great aspirations: The postwar American college counseling center" by Tom McCarthy ( History of Psychology , 2014[Feb], Vol 17[1], 1-18). In the article, the copyright attribution was incorrect. The copyright is "In the public domain". The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-04967-001.) In the decade after World War II, psychologists, eager to bring the benefits of counseling to larger numbers, convinced hundreds of American colleges and universities to establish counseling centers. Inspired by the educational-vocational counseling center founded by psychologists at the University of Minnesota in 1932, Carl R. Rogers's "client-centered" methods of personal adjustment counseling, and the 400-plus college counseling centers created by the Veterans Administration to provide the educational-vocational counseling benefit promised to returning World War II servicemen under the 1944 GI Bill, these counseling psychologists created a new place to practice where important currents in psychology, higher education, and federal policy converged and where they attempted to integrate educational-vocational counseling with personal adjustment counseling based on techniques from psychotherapy. By the mid-1960s, half of America's colleges and universities had established counseling centers, and more than 90% offered students educational, vocational, and psychological counseling services, a great achievement of the first generation of counseling psychologists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The Right Organ for the Right Recipient: the Ninth Annual American Society of Transplant Surgeons' State-of-the-Art Winter Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Randall S; Abt, Peter L; Desai, Dev M; Garvey, Catherine A; Segev, Dorry L; Kaufman, Dixon B

    2011-01-01

    With an increasing number of individuals with end-stage organ disease and the increasing success of organ transplantation, the demand for transplants has steadily increased. This growth has led to a greater need to utilize organs from as many donors as possible. As selection criteria have become less stringent to accommodate increasing demand, transplant outcomes are more strongly influenced by recipient and donor factors; thus, finding the right organ for the right recipient is more important than ever. The Ninth Annual American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) State-of-the-Art Winter Symposium, entitled "The Right Organ for the Right Recipient," addressed the matching of donor organs to appropriate recipients. Representative dilemmas in the matching of donor organs with recipients were discussed. These included the following: matching by donor and recipient risk characteristics; use of organs with risk for disease transmission; biologic incompatibility; use of organs from donors after cardiac death; the justification for combined organ transplants like liver-kidney and kidney-pancreas; and the role of allocation in facilitating the matching of donors and recipients. Regardless of the particular issue, decisions about donor-recipient matching should be evidence-based, practical, and made with the goal of maximizing organ utilization while still protecting individual patient interests. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Spanish version of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons-Foot and Ankle Module (AAOS-FAMsp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Manuel; Velasco-Ramos, Esther; Ruiz-Muñoz, Maria; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I

    2016-07-06

    The current study performed a cross-cultural adaptation to Spanish and examined the internal and external validation of the AAOS-FAM questionnaire. A direct translation (English to Spanish) and a reverse translation (Spanish to English) were performed by two independent professional native translators. Cronbach's α coefficients were calculated to analyse the internal consistency of the measure. The factor structure and construct validity were analysed after extraction by maximum likelihood (EML); extraction was necessary if the following three requirements were met: accounting for ≥10 % of variance, Eigenvalue >1.0 and a scree plot inflexion point. The standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change 90 (MDC90) were calculated. Criterion validity was calculated by analysing the correlation between the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons-Foot and Ankle Module (Spanish version) (AAOS-FAMsp) and Spanish versions of the questionnaires FFI and FHSQ. Regarding internal consistency, Cronbach's α was 0.877, and in the test-retest analysis, the ICC ranged between 0.899 and 0.942. Error measures were calculated by MDC90 and SEM, which showed values of 3.444 and 1.476 %, respectively. The analysis demonstrated a goodness of fit chi-squared value of 803.166 (p validity, the correlation value with FFIsp was r = 0.837 (p Spanish-speaking individuals into both research and clinical practice.

  5. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and The American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Bypass--Temperature Management During Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Richard; Baker, Robert A; Likosky, Donald S; Grigore, Alina; Dickinson, Timothy A; Shore-Lesserson, Linda; Hammon, John W

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve our understanding of the evidence-based literature supporting temperature management during adult cardiopulmonary bypass, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiology and the American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology tasked the authors to conduct a review of the peer-reviewed literature, including: 1) optimal site for temperature monitoring, 2) avoidance of hyperthermia, 3) peak cooling temperature gradient and cooling rate, and 4) peak warming temperature gradient and rewarming rate. Authors adopted the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association method for development clinical practice guidelines, and arrived at the following recommendations: CLASS I RECOMMENDATIONS: a)The oxygenator arterial outlet blood temperature is recommended to be utilized as a surrogate for cerebral temperature measurement during CPB. (Class I, Level C) b)To monitor cerebral perfusate temperature during warming, it should be assumed that the oxygenator arterial outlet blood temperature under-estimates cerebral perfusate temperature. (Class I, Level C) c)Surgical teams should limit arterial outlet blood temperature to<37°C to avoid cerebral hyperthermia. (Class 1, Level C) d)Temperature gradients between the arterial outlet and venous inflow on the oxygenator during CPB cooling should not exceed 10°C to avoid generation of gaseous emboli. (Class 1, Level C) e)Temperature gradients between the arterial outlet and venous inflow on the oxygenator during CPB rewarming should not exceed 10°C to avoid out-gassing when blood is returned to the patient. (Class 1, Level C) CLASS IIa a)Pulmonary artery or nasopharyngeal temperature recording is reasonable for weaning and immediate post-bypass temperature measurement. (Class IIa, Level C)b)Rewarming when arterial blood outlet temperature ≥30° C: i.To achieve the desired temperature for separation from bypass, it is reasonable to maintain a temperature gradient between

  6. Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Delay Retinal Degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons Rats Through Anti-Apoptotic and VEGF-Mediated Neuroprotective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Wang, J; Gao, F; Zhang, J; Tian, H; Shi, X; Lian, C; Sun, Y; Li, W; Xu, J-Y; Li, P; Zhang, J; Gao, Z; Xu, J; Wang, F; Lu, L; Xu, G-T

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic approach for retinal degeneration (RD). Our study investigated the effects of human adipose derived stem cell (hADSCs) on Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled hADSCs were transplanted subretinally into RCS rats at postnatal (PN) 21 days to explore potential therapeutic effects, while adeno-associated viral vector (AAV2)-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and siVEGF-hADSCs were used to aid the mechanistic dissections. Visual function was evaluated by Electroretinogram (ERG) recording. Potential transdifferentiations were examined by Immunofluorescence (IF) and gene expressions were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Apoptotic retinal cells were detected by Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assay and the cytokines secreted by hADSCs were measured by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The visual function of RCS rats began to decrease one week after their eyes opened at PN week 3 and almost lost in PN 5 weeks, accompanied by the loss of retinal outer nuclear layer (ONL). Subretinal transplantation of hADSCs significantly improved the visual function 2 weeks after the transplantation and such therapeutic effect persisted up to 8 weeks after the treatment (PN 11 weeks), with 3-4 rows of photoreceptors remained in the ONL and reduced apoptosis. Consistent with these phenotypic changes, the gene expression of rod photoreceptor markers Rhodopsin (Rho), Crx and Opsin (Opn1) in RCS rats showed obvious decreasing trends over time after PN 3 weeks, but were elevated with hADSC treatment. hADSC transplantation also repressed the expressions of Bax, Bak and Caspase 3, but not the expression of anti-apoptotic genes, including Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Finally, substantial VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) secretions from hADSCs were detected, while endogenous

  7. Tribal Colleges and Universities/American Indian Research and Education Initiatives Advanced Manufacturing Technical Assistance Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atcitty, Stanley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The overall goal of this project is to establish a network of TCUs with essential advanced manufacturing (AM) facilities, associated training and education programs, and private sector and federal agency partnerships to both prepare an American Indian AM workforce and create economic and employment opportunities within Tribal communities through design, manufacturing, and marketing of high quality products. Some examples of high quality products involve next generation grid components such as mechanical energy storage, cabling for distribution of energy, and electrochemical energy storage enclosures. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is tasked to provide technical advising, planning, and academic program development support for the TCU/American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) Advanced Manufacturing Project. The TCUs include Bay Mills Community College (BMCC), Cankdeska Cikana Community College (CCCC), Navajo Technical University (NTU), Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI), and Salish Kooteani College. AIHEC and Sandia, with collaboration from SIPI, will be establishing an 8-week summer institute on the SIPI campus during the summer of 2017. Up to 20 students from TCUs are anticipated to take part in the summer program. The goal of the program is to bring AM science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) awareness and opportunities for the American Indian students. Prior to the summer institute, Sandia will be providing reviews on curriculum plans at the each of the TCUs to ensure the content is consistent with current AM design and engineering practice. In addition, Sandia will provide technical assistance to each of the TCUs in regards to their current AM activities.

  8. Disordered eating among Asian American college women: A racially expanded model of objectification theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Tran, Alisia G T T; Miyake, Elisa R; Kim, Helen Youngju

    2017-03-01

    Objectification theory has been applied to understand disordered eating among college women. A recent extension of objectification theory (Moradi, 2010) conceptualizes racism as a socialization experience that shapes women of color's objectification experiences, yet limited research has examined this theoretical assertion. The present study proposed and examined a racially expanded model of objectification theory that postulated perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing as correlates of Asian American college women's (N = 516) self-objectification processes and eating disorder symptomatology. Perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing were indirectly associated with eating disordered symptomatology through self-objectification processes of internalization of media ideals of beauty (media internalization), body surveillance, and body shame. Results support the inclusion of racial stressors as contexts of objectification for Asian American women. The present findings also underscore perceived racial discrimination, racial/ethnic teasing, and perpetual foreigner racism as group-specific risk factors with major theoretical, empirical, and clinical relevance to eating disorder research and treatment with Asian American college women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. eHealth Literacy and Health Behaviors Affecting Modern College Students: A Pilot Study of Issues Identified by the American College Health Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Rebecca Katherine; Collins, William Bart; Wilson, Kari; Linnemeier, Georgiann; Englebert, Andrew Mark

    2017-12-19

    The eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) has been widely adopted by researchers to understand how eHealth literacy can be put into context. eHealth researchers need to know how to promote positive health behavior changes across college students, given the importance of the Internet to acquire and use health information. The American College Health Association identified a set of key health issues that affect college students today. By understanding how eHEALS might be related to college students' maintenance of their health and their use of online health resources, researchers will be provided with a better understanding of eHealth literacy and its pragmatic implications for health campaigns and future interventions. The goal of the study was to examine what eHEALS reveals about college student health behaviors identified by the American College Health Association. To understand college student current health maintenance and their intentions to maintain their health and use online resources, the theory of planned behavior was used as the theoretical framework for the study. Data were collected via a survey of 422 college students that included the eHEALS measure and questions about health issues based on the recommendations of the American College Health Association. These questions asked about college student current health, subsequent use of online health resources, and their intention to maintain their health and make use of such resources in the future. eHEALS was positively and significantly associated with all 8 areas of health issues identified by the American College Health Association for college student current maintenance of health and use of online health resources and for future intention of health maintenance and use of online resources. Key issues that emerged with eHealth literacy were maintaining safe sex practices and seeking out related information, seeking out information on an exercise regime, information on vaccinations, and maintaining a balanced

  10. eHealth Literacy and Health Behaviors Affecting Modern College Students: A Pilot Study of Issues Identified by the American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William Bart; Wilson, Kari; Linnemeier, Georgiann; Englebert, Andrew Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background The eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) has been widely adopted by researchers to understand how eHealth literacy can be put into context. eHealth researchers need to know how to promote positive health behavior changes across college students, given the importance of the Internet to acquire and use health information. The American College Health Association identified a set of key health issues that affect college students today. By understanding how eHEALS might be related to college students’ maintenance of their health and their use of online health resources, researchers will be provided with a better understanding of eHealth literacy and its pragmatic implications for health campaigns and future interventions. Objective The goal of the study was to examine what eHEALS reveals about college student health behaviors identified by the American College Health Association. To understand college student current health maintenance and their intentions to maintain their health and use online resources, the theory of planned behavior was used as the theoretical framework for the study. Methods Data were collected via a survey of 422 college students that included the eHEALS measure and questions about health issues based on the recommendations of the American College Health Association. These questions asked about college student current health, subsequent use of online health resources, and their intention to maintain their health and make use of such resources in the future. Results eHEALS was positively and significantly associated with all 8 areas of health issues identified by the American College Health Association for college student current maintenance of health and use of online health resources and for future intention of health maintenance and use of online resources. Key issues that emerged with eHealth literacy were maintaining safe sex practices and seeking out related information, seeking out information on an exercise regime, information on

  11. College Graduation Reduces Vulnerability to STIs / HIV among African-American Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; DePadilla, Lara M.; Simpson-Robinson, LaShun

    2012-01-01

    African-American women are disproportionately affected by STIs including HIV. The Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) posits that economic exposures, including educational attainment, place women at increased risk for STIs/HIV. This study examined the association between educational attainment and vulnerability to STIs/HIV, as well as potential TGP-driven mediators of this association, among African-American women. Baseline data were assessed from an STI/HIV prevention intervention for African-American women (N=848) aged 18–29 recruited from three Kaiser Permanente Centers in Atlanta, GA. Data collection included 1) a survey of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and 2) self-collected, laboratory-confirmed vaginal swabs for STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus). Multiple regression analyses and multivariate mediation analyses were used to examine the association between educational attainment with a laboratory-confirmed STI and potential TGP mediators. Controlling for age and receipt of public assistance, the odds of an STI diagnosis were 73% lower among participants with a college degree or greater compared to participants who had not completed high school. There were also significant associations between educational attainment and multiple TGP mediators from the Sexual Division of Power and the Structure of Cathexis. TGP constructs did not mediate the association between educational attainment and laboratory-confirmed STI. The current study suggests that graduating from college may lead to a beneficial reduction in vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. Findings from this study support expanding structural level interventions, emphasizing both high-school and college graduation, as a means of reducing vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. PMID:22555218

  12. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT ON THE ASSOCIATION OF SGLT-2 INHIBITORS AND DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, Yehuda; Henry, Robert R; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Dagogo-Jack, Sam; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Einhorn, Daniel; Ferrannini, Ele; Fonseca, Vivian A; Garber, Alan J; Grunberger, George; LeRoith, Derek; Umpierrez, Guillermo E; Weir, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACE = American College of Endocrinology DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis EMA = European Medicines Agency FDA = U.S. Food and Drug Administration SGLT-2 = sodium glucosecotransporter 2 T1D = type 1 diabetes T2D = type 2 diabetes.

  13. American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, Antonio C.; Hammond, M. Elizabeth H.; Schwartz, Jared N.; Hagerty, Karen L.; Allred, D. Craig; Cote, Richard J.; Dowsett, Mitchell; Fitzgibbons, Patrick L.; Hanna, Wedad M.; Langer, Amy; McShane, Lisa M.; Paik, Soonmyung; Pegram, Mark D.; Perez, Edith A.; Press, Michael F.; Rhodes, Anthony; Sturgeon, Catharine; Taube, Sheila E.; Tubbs, Raymond; Vance, Gail H.; van de Vijver, Marc; Wheeler, Thomas M.; Hayes, Daniel F.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing in invasive breast cancer and its utility as a predictive marker. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of American Pathologists convened an expert panel,

  14. The Appropriateness of Using Three Measures of Self-Beliefs with European American, Latino/a, and Native American College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Payakkakom, Anusorn; Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Chee, Christine; Arredondo, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the psychometric appropriateness of the Valuing/ Commitment to Education scale (A. M. Gloria, 1993), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (M. Rosenberg, 1965), and the Educational Self-Efficacy Scale (A. M. Gloria, 1993) for use with European American, Latina/o, and Native American college freshmen. Strong to moderate…

  15. Spanish Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Foot and Ankle Outcomes Questionnaire in Mexican-Americans With Traumatic Foot and Ankle Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Boris A; Francisco, Ben S; Bossmann, James P; Fajardo, Roberto J; Bhandari, Mohit

    2017-05-01

    Hispanics represent the largest minority group within the US population accounting for an estimated 55.4 million individuals. Enrolling Hispanics into clinical outcome studies is important in order for study populations to be externally valid and representative of the US population. Inclusion of Mexican-Americans in clinical studies is frequently limited by the lack of validated outcome measures. The goal of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Foot and Ankle Outcomes Questionnaire (AAOS-FAOQ) in Mexican-Americans with traumatic foot and ankle injuries. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation procedure was performed by a committee of bilingual speakers using the following steps: (1) forward translation and adaptation, (2) synthesis, (3) back translation, (4) committee review, and (5) pilot testing. The validation was performed in 100 Mexican-Americans with traumatic foot and ankle injuries. A total of 41 females and 59 males were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 42.98 years (range 18-88). The Spanish version of the Global Foot and Ankle Scale of the AAOS-FAOQ showed statistically significant correlations with all 8 subscales of the Spanish SF-36 as well as the Physical Component Summary scale and the Mental Component Summary scale (P Foot and Ankle scale of the Spanish AAOS-FAOQ demonstrated a test-retest reliability of 0.68. We provide a Spanish translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the AAOS-FAOQ. The instrument demonstrates appropriate psychometric properties in Mexican-Americans with traumatic foot and ankle injuries.

  16. Practice Patterns and Job Satisfaction of Mohs Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Nita; Golda, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    There is a paucity of data on Mohs surgery workforce patterns. To identify if gender differences exist in practice patterns of Mohs surgeons, factors that influence these differences, and factors influencing job satisfaction among Mohs surgeons. An electronic survey was distributed to dermatology organizations targeting members of the American College of Mohs Surgery (ACMS), from October 2015 to April 2016. Two hundred twenty-seven ACMS members responded; 37% were women. Twenty-five percent of women and 19% of men work part time. Thirty-seven percent of women practice in academia versus 22% of men. Forty-three percent of women and 23% of men identified children as a factor affecting their ability to work full time. Gender comparisons for current job satisfaction show 57% of men and 35% of women being very satisfied. Supervision/feedback/recognition adds to satisfaction at a higher rate for women (53%) than for men (29%). For both genders combined, work content, patient base, and autonomy had the highest average job satisfaction ratings. Gender differences exist in practice patterns and job satisfaction of Mohs surgeons. This study demonstrates factors that could influence job satisfaction among female Mohs surgeons-knowledge that is important to individuals who lead, mentor, or supervise female Mohs surgeons.

  17. Perceived and Personal Mental Health Stigma in Latino and African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFreitas, Stacie Craft; Crone, Travis; DeLeon, Martha; Ajayi, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Mental health stigma occurs when people have negative thoughts and beliefs of those with mental health illnesses or mental health treatment. Mental health stigma is related to an assortment of negative outcomes including discrimination in housing and employment, reduced usage of mental health services, and poor mental health outcomes. These implications may be particularly salient for ethnic minorities such as African Americans and Latinos who already suffer from other types of discrimination. This study examines perceived and personal mental health stigma in African American and Latino college students from a nontraditional university to help elucidate factors related to the development of mental health stigma. Students completed surveys concerning their stigma beliefs. African American students were found to have higher rates of mental health stigma than Latino students. Furthermore, anxiety about those with mental illness was related to greater mental health stigma for both groups. For African Americans, it was found that their perception of their ability to visibly identify those with mental illness was related to greater mental health stigma. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce mental health stigma in college students should target specific ethnic minority groups and focus on issues that are particularly salient to those communities. PMID:29536000

  18. Perceived and Personal Mental Health Stigma in Latino and African American College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie Craft DeFreitas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mental health stigma occurs when people have negative thoughts and beliefs of those with mental health illnesses or mental health treatment. Mental health stigma is related to an assortment of negative outcomes including discrimination in housing and employment, reduced usage of mental health services, and poor mental health outcomes. These implications may be particularly salient for ethnic minorities such as African Americans and Latinos who already suffer from other types of discrimination. This study examines perceived and personal mental health stigma in African American and Latino college students from a nontraditional university to help elucidate factors related to the development of mental health stigma. Students completed surveys concerning their stigma beliefs. African American students were found to have higher rates of mental health stigma than Latino students. Furthermore, anxiety about those with mental illness was related to greater mental health stigma for both groups. For African Americans, it was found that their perception of their ability to visibly identify those with mental illness was related to greater mental health stigma. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce mental health stigma in college students should target specific ethnic minority groups and focus on issues that are particularly salient to those communities.

  19. The Policy Recommendations of the Association of American Geographers as Reflected In the Ventura County Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannold, Thomas A.

    A survey was conducted to identify the degree to which the Association of American Geographers (AAG) 1970 recommendations on geography programs in two-year colleges were reflected in geography programs offered in the Ventura County Community College District (California). Results indicated that the recommendations were followed to a great extent,…

  20. Conceptualizing American Indian/Alaska Native College Student's Classroom Experiences: Negotiating Cultural Identity between Faculty and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Nanci M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. dominant culture's values and ways of knowing depicted in college curriculum assume that American Indian/Alaska Native college students will assimilate to dominant cultural beliefs and values in order to acquire a degree in higher education. Representative of this hegemonic pedagogical paradigm is the prescribed basic communication course…

  1. A Qualitative Investigation of the College Choice Process for Asian Americans and Latina/os at a Public HBCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramba, Dina C.; Palmer, Robert T.; Yull, Denise; Ozuna, Taryn

    2015-01-01

    Although research has shown that more Asian American and Latino students are choosing to attend historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs), no research has offered insight into what motivates students from these demographics to enroll in these institutions. Given this, the authors explored the college choice process for Asian American…

  2. Obesity Status and Body Satisfaction: Are There Differences between African American College Females at Black and White Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C. S.; Bonds, Jennifer R.

    2006-01-01

    The goals of this project were to 1) assess obesity status and body satisfaction among African American college students, and 2) to compare differences in these variables between students at a predominantly white university (PWU) and a historically black college and university (HBCU). Four hundred and two undergraduate females completed a…

  3. A Delineation of Asian American and Latino/a Students' Experiences with Faculty at a Historically Black College and University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the enrollment of Asian American and Latino/a students are increasing at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Nevertheless, research on how these students experience the institutional climate of HBCUs is nonexistent. Hence, this study sought to explore the college choice process and perceptions of campus…

  4. American Association of Neurological Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate background-image: background-image: banner 8 AANS Neurosurgeon September 2017 The Enemy of Human Happiness: Pain ... the globe. View Calendar Find a Board-Certified Neurosurgeon Search for a neurosurgeon based on location or ...

  5. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Research Tools Research Roadmap Facts and Figures Unified Orthopaedic Research Agenda Sex and Gender in Research ... Career Center Clinician Scholar Career Development Clinician-Patient Communication Leadership Fellows Program Medical Student Resources Postgraduate Orthopaedic ...

  6. Relationship of recalled parenting style to self-perception in Korean American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyesoo; Chung, Ruth H Gim

    2003-12-01

    The authors examined the relationship of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles and the number of years in the United States with self-perception (academic competence, morality, and self-reliance) as recalled by Korean American college students (N = 144). Authoritative parenting behaviors were most common in Korean American families, followed by authoritarian behaviors, with permissive behaviors a distant 3rd. Authoritative parenting styles and the number of years lived in the United States were predictive of higher academic competence. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were predictive of lower self-reliance, whereas number of years lived in the United States was related to higher self-reliance. Those findings provide partial support for generalizing D. Baumrind's (1971) model of parenting styles to Korean American families, and the findings demonstrate the importance of considering acculturation issues in parenting studies.

  7. Psychomotor skills assessment in practicing surgeons experienced in performing advanced laparoscopic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anthony G; Smith, C Daniel; Bowers, Steven P; Seymour, Neal E; Pearson, Adam; McNatt, Steven; Hananel, David; Satava, Richard M

    2003-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has introduced a new and unique set of psychomotor skills for a surgeon to acquire and master. Although assessment technologies have been proposed, precise and objective psychomotor skills assessment of surgeons performing laparoscopic procedures has not been detailed. Two hundred ten surgeons attending the 2001 annual meeting of the American College of Surgeons in New Orleans who reported having completed more than 50 laparoscopic procedures participated. Subjects were required to complete one box-trainer laparoscopic cutting task and a similar virtual reality task. These tasks were specifically designed to test only psychomotor and not cognitive skills. Both tasks were completed twice. Performance of tasks was assessed and analyzed. Demographic and laparoscopic experience data were also collected. Complete data were available on 195 surgeons. In this group, surgeons performed the box-trainer task better with their dominant hand (p psychomotor skills is now possible. Surgeons who had performed more than 50 laparoscopic procedures showed considerable variability in their performance on a simple laparoscopic and virtual reality task. Approximately 10% of surgeons tested performed the task significantly worse than the group's average performance. Studies such as this may form the methodology for establishing criteria levels and performance objectives in objective assessment of the technical skills component of determining surgical competence.

  8. Women surgeons in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppmann, Kathrin M; Palis, Bryan E; Goodnight, James E; Ho, Hung S; Troppmann, Christoph

    2009-07-01

    Women are increasingly entering the surgical profession. To assess professional and personal/family life situations, perceptions, and challenges for women vs men surgeons. National survey of American Board of Surgery-certified surgeons. A questionnaire was mailed to all women and men surgeons who were board certified in 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, or 2004. Of 3507 surgeons, 895 (25.5%) responded. Among these, 178 (20.3%) were women and 698 (79.7%) were men. Most women and men surgeons would choose their profession again (women, 82.5%; men, 77.5%; P = .15). On multivariate analysis, men surgeons (odds ratio [OR], 2.5) and surgeons of a younger generation (certified in 2000 or 2004; OR, 1.3) were less likely to favor part-time work opportunities for surgeons. Most of the surgeons were married (75.6% of women vs 91.7% of men, P women surgeons (OR, 5.0) and surgeons of a younger generation (OR, 1.9) were less likely to have children. More women than men surgeons had their first child later in life, while already in surgical practice (62.4% vs 32.0%, P women surgeons vs 79.4% of men surgeons (P women surgeons than men surgeons thought that maternity leave was important (67.8% vs 30.8%, P work (86.5% vs 69.7%, P Women considering a surgical career should be aware that most women surgeons would choose their profession again. Strategies to maximize recruitment and retention of women surgeons should include serious consideration of alternative work schedules and optimization of maternity leave and child care opportunities.

  9. Supply and demand: Will we have enough vascular surgeons by 2030?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katherine; Schneider, Brandon; Lajos, Paul; Marin, Michael; Faries, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The increase in prevalence of certain cardiovascular risk factors increases susceptibility to vascular disease, which may create demand for surgical intervention. In our study, data collected by the American Association of Medical Colleges Physician Specialty Databook of 2012, the United States Census Bureau, and other nationwide organizations were referenced to calculate future changes in vascular surgeon supply and prevalence of people at risk for vascular disease. In 2010, there were 2853 active vascular surgeons. By 2040, the workforce is expected to linearly rise to 3573. There will be an exponential rise in people with cardiovascular risk factors. Adding to concern, in 2030, an estimated 3333 vascular surgeons will be available for 180,000,000 people with at least one risk factor for peripheral arterial disease. The paucity of properly trained surgeons entering the workforce needs to be addressed before this shortage becomes a larger burden on healthcare providers and governmental spending. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Surgeon Scientists Are Disproportionately Affected by Declining NIH Funding Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, Adishesh K; Mehaffey, J Hunter; Hawkins, Robert B; Charles, Eric J; Baderdinni, Pranav K; Chandrabhatla, Anirudha S; Kocan, Joseph W; Jones, R Scott; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Kron, Irving L; Kern, John A; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2018-04-01

    Obtaining National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding over the last 10 years has become increasingly difficult due to a decrease in the number of research grants funded and an increase in the number of NIH applications. National Institutes of Health funding amounts and success rates were compared for all disciplines using data from NIH, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB), and Blue Ridge Medical Institute. Next, all NIH grants (2006 to 2016) with surgeons as principal investigators were identified using the National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools Expenditures and Results (NIH RePORTER), and a grant impact score was calculated for each grant based on the publication's impact factor per funding amount. Linear regression and one-way ANOVA were used for analysis. The number of NIH grant applications has increased by 18.7% (p = 0.0009), while the numbers of funded grants (p rate of funded grants with surgeons as principal investigators (16.4%) has been significantly lower than the mean NIH funding rate (19.2%) (p = 0.011). Despite receiving only 831 R01s during this time period, surgeon scientists were highly productive, with an average grant impact score of 4.9 per $100,000, which increased over the last 10 years (0.15 ± 0.05/year, p = 0.02). Additionally, the rate of conversion of surgeon scientist-mentored K awards to R01s from 2007 to 2012 was 46%. Despite declining funding over the last 10 years, surgeon scientists have demonstrated increasing productivity as measured by impactful publications and higher success rates in converting early investigator awards to R01s. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The sexual behavior of American college women: an empirical study and an historical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, M B

    1965-01-01

    A ramdom sample of 49 seniors at an Eastern women's college is used as the basis for a study on the sexual behavior of college women. The women, who were primarily from the upper middle classes, were interviewed several times a year beginning in their freshman year. Sexual behavior was placed into 5 catagories: limited experience, restricted petting, extensive petting, intercourse confined to serious relationships, and uninhibited behavior. Only 6% exhibited unhibited behavior. 16% had had intercourse with 1 or 2 men with whom they had ha d serious relationships. 41% indulged in extensive petting; 27% in restricted petting; and 10% had had limited experience, which is described as simply kissing. Most of the subjects were content with their status quo. Many experienced a liberalization of their attitudes toward sexual behavior for others during the 4-year college experience, but not for themselves. Reasons for remaining a virgin were practical. There was a singular lack of abstract moral or ethical considerations. The only personality scale that related significantly to the catagories for both freshmen and seniors was the Impulse Expression scale--at the .01 level for freshmen and the .05 level for seniors. The data presented are consistent with those of other studies which report the incidence of nonvirginity among college women to be 25% or lower. The incidence of nonvirginity has changed little since the 1930s. However, the incidence of female homosexuality among college women has decreased sharply since the 1920s. It is concluded that American college students may have evolved patterns of sexual behavior that will remain stable. This behavior consists of petting, intercourse among some engaged couples, and early marriage.

  12. Publication Rates in Podium and Poster Presentations at the 2012-2014 American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons Annual Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Aaron M; Horn, Jarryd G; Scott, Jared T; Vassar, Matt J

    2017-11-09

    Subspecialty conferences are an important forum for disseminating the latest research relevant to clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to identify publication rates in podium and poster abstracts for the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons (AAHKS) Annual Meeting and to identify the most common journals of publication and the reasons for nonpublication. Six hundred ten accepted abstracts (182 podium presentations, 428 posters) from the 2012-2014 AAHKS meetings were searched using Google, Google Scholar, and PubMed. If an abstract could not be found after efforts by multiple searchers, the first author was emailed to determine where the research was published or why it was not published. For articles that were published, the journal, time to publication, and journal impact factor were noted. The overall rate of publication was 71% (436/610). Podium presentations (164/182, 90%) were published at a higher rate than posters (271/428, 63%). The most common journal of publication was the Journal of Arthroplasty (218/436, 50%), followed by Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (77/436, 18%) and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (40/436, 9%). Average time to publication was 14.5 months (range, -4 to 44 months) from the date of the conference in which it was presented. Presentations at the AAHKS annual meeting have an impressive rate of publication. The research presented at the meeting is impactful and high quality, warranting consideration for future publication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Readability of arthroscopy-related patient education materials from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and Arthroscopy Association of North America Web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Paul H; Ganta, Abhishek; Hussein, Khalil I; Frank, Rachel M; Jawa, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    We sought to assess the readability levels of arthroscopy-related patient education materials available on the Web sites of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the Arthroscopy Association of North America (AANA). We identified all articles related to arthroscopy available in 2012 from the online patient education libraries of AAOS and AANA. After performing follow-up editing, we assessed each article with the Flesch-Kincaid (FK) readability test. Mean readability levels of the articles from the AAOS Web site and the AANA Web site were compared. We also determined the number of articles with readability levels at or below the eighth-grade level (the average reading ability of the US adult population) and sixth-grade level (the widely recommended level for patient education materials). Intraobserver reliability and interobserver reliability of FK grade assessment were evaluated. A total of 62 articles were reviewed (43 from AAOS and 19 from AANA). The mean overall FK grade level was 10.2 (range, 5.2 to 12). The AAOS articles had a mean FK grade level of 9.6 (range, 5.2 to 12), whereas the AANA articles had a mean FK grade level of 11.4 (range, 8.7 to 12); the difference was significant (P Online patient education materials related to arthroscopy from AAOS and AANA may be written at a level too difficult for a large portion of the patient population to comprehend. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasound-Guided Core-Needle Versus Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy: A Cost Analysis Based on the American Society of Breast Surgeons' Mastery of Breast Surgery Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Ian; Vasquez, Tony; Tawfik, Sara; Grady, Sean

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the cost-efficacy of vacuum-assisted ultrasound-guided breast biopsy instruments compared to ultrasound-guided 14-gauge spring-loaded core-needle biopsy. The American Society of Breast Surgeons' Mastery of Breast Surgery Registry was reviewed. Biopsy findings, any rebiopsy, and the instrument used were abstracted for 31,451 ultrasound-guided biopsy procedures performed between 2001 and July 2014. Rates of cancer diagnosis and rebiopsy were calculated for each instrument. A linear mathematical model was developed to calculate total cost per cancer diagnosis, including procedural costs and the costs of any additional surgical rebiopsy procedures. Mean cost per cancer diagnosis with confidence limits was then determined for 14-gauge spring-loaded core-needle biopsy and 14 different vacuum-assisted instruments. For 14-gauge spring-loaded core-needle biopsy, mean cost per cancer diagnosis was $4346 (4327-$4366). For the vacuum-assisted instruments, mean cost per cancer diagnosis ranged from a low of $3742 ($3732-$3752) to a high of $4779 ($4750-$4809). Vacuum-assisted instruments overall were more cost-effective than core with a mean cost per cancer diagnosis of $4052 ($4038-$4067) (p cancer diagnosis of $3978 ($3964-$3991) (p cancer diagnosis of $4369 ($4350-$4388), a result no better than core (p breast biopsy had a lower mean cost per cancer diagnosis than 14-gauge spring-loaded core-needle biopsy. This advantage was only seen in tethered vacuum-assisted instruments. Within device families, larger instruments tended to outperform smaller instruments.

  15. Timing of Chemotherapy After MammoSite Radiation Therapy System Breast Brachytherapy: Analysis of the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite Breast Brachytherapy Registry Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffty, Bruce G.; Vicini, Frank A.; Beitsch, Peter; Quiet, Coral; Keleher, Angela; Garcia, Delia; Snider, Howard; Gittleman, Mark; Zannis, Victor; Kuerer, Henry; Whitacre, Eric; Whitworth, Pat; Fine, Richard; Keisch, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cosmetic outcome and radiation recall in the American Society of Breast Surgeons registry trial, as a function of the interval between accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and initiation of chemotherapy (CTX). Methods and Materials: A total of 1440 patients at 97 institutions participated in this trial. After lumpectomy for early-stage breast cancer, patients received APBI (34 Gy in 10 fractions) with MammoSite RTS brachytherapy. A total of 148 patients received CTX within 90 days of APBI. Cosmetic outcome was evaluated at each follow-up visit and dichotomized as excellent/good or fair/poor. Results: Chemotherapy was initiated at a mean of 3.9 weeks after the final MammoSite procedure and was administered ≤3 weeks after APBI in 54 patients (36%) and >3 weeks after APBI in 94 patients (64%). The early and delayed groups were well balanced with respect to multiple factors that may impact on cosmetic outcome. There was a superior cosmetic outcome in those receiving chemotherapy >3 weeks after APBI (excellent/good in 72.2% at ≤3 weeks vs. excellent/good in 93.8% at >3 weeks; p = 0.01). Radiation recall in those receiving CTX at ≤3 weeks was 9 of 50 (18%), compared with 6 of 81(7.4%) in those receiving chemotherapy at >3 weeks (p = 0.09). Conclusion: The majority of patients receiving CTX after APBI have excellent/good cosmetic outcomes, with a low rate of radiation recall. Chemotherapy initiated >3 weeks after the final MammoSite procedure seems to be associated with a better cosmetic outcome and lower rate of radiation recall. An excellent/good cosmetic outcome in patients receiving CTX after 3 weeks was similar to the cosmetic outcome of the overall patient population who did not receive CTX

  16. Attitudes Regarding Labial Hypertrophy and Labiaplasty: A Survey of Members of the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons and the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Lauren B; Oakley, Susan H; Mazloomdoost, Donna; Crisp, Catrina C; Kleeman, Steven D; Benbouajili, Janine M; Pauls, Rachel N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe gynecologists' attitudes toward labial hypertrophy and explore possible differences among providers for pediatric/adolescent patients. This was an institutional review board-approved, cross-sectional survey of physician attendees at 2 national meetings in 2014: the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons (SGS) and the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (NASPAG). The survey was designed to query demographics and impressions regarding labial hypertrophy and labiaplasty. Three hundred sixty-five surveys were completed (response rate, 50%); 268 were analyzed: 55% from SGS and 45% from NASPAG. Most were older than 41 years; 170 (63%) were women, and 93 (35%) were men. More men than women attended SGS (60%); however, women were the majority at NASPAG (94%).Most respondents believed labial hypertrophy to be infrequently reported and "a condition that impacts body image." Common symptoms were "discomfort with exercise" and "dissatisfaction with appearance naked." The majority felt this to impact sexual function "in some cases," citing "self-esteem" and "comfort" most often.Concerning therapies for provided labial hypertrophy, 83% of practitioners provide reassurance, whereas 77% would offer labiaplasty. Expertise with labiaplasty varied; 28% felt "very comfortable," and 11% felt "very uncomfortable."Provider preference for treatment differed based on meeting attendance. After logistic regression controlling for sex and age, attendance at SGS remained associated with offering labiaplasty (P = 0.001; odds ratio, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-9.3), whereas NASPAG attendance was associated with providing reassurance (P = 0.008; odds ratio, 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.70). Although the majority surveyed view labial hypertrophy to be bothersome, gynecologists caring for our youngest patients are more likely to provide reassurance. Consensus guidelines are needed to aid practitioners in appropriate management

  17. Experiential Learning for Native American Students at Tribal Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauve, M. L.; Moore, K.

    2003-12-01

    In reaffirming its commitment to Indian tribes and Alaska Native entities, the Federal Government issued Executive Order 13270 of July 3, 2002, stating the policy that " this Nation's commitment to education excellence and opportunity must extend as well to the tribal colleges and universities." Further, the Federal Government has called on the private sector to contribute to these colleges' educational and cultural mission. American University, through its American Indian Internship Program, has responded to this call. American University, a private liberal arts institution of higher education in the Nation's capital, has long ago recognized the importance of experiential learning in undergraduate education. For over 50 years, its Washington Semester Program brings students from other universities around the country and the world to American University's campus and to Washington, D.C. for a unique academic experience. The Washington Semester Program combines academic seminars in various fields of concentration with internship work in government agencies, congressional offices, non-profit organizations, foundations and research institutions in the Nation's capital. Students in this Program get to meet the Nation's leaders, experts in the field, and notable newsmakers while incorporating their academic skills and courses in practice at their internship assignments. The American Indian Internship Program (also knows as Washington Internship for Native Students-WINS) is one of the programs in Washington Semester. This program is designed to give American Indian students the chance to study issues of interest to the Native community and to gain valuable work experience through an internship in the Nation's capital. All costs to attend the program are paid by the internship sponsors and American University, including transportation between the students' home and Washington, DC, tuition and program fees for 6 credit hours in the summer and 12 credit hours in fall

  18. Medical and surgical tourism: the new world of health care globalization and what it means for the practicing surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unti, James A

    2009-04-01

    In this issue of the Bulletin, the leadership of the American College of Surgeons has published a Statement on Medical and Surgical Tourism (see page 26). The statement addresses a number of concerns about this new industry and some of the safety and quality issues that patients may encounter if they seek health care services outside of the U.S. On June 16, 2008, the American Medical Association adopted its own first set of guidelines on medical tourism to help ensure the safety of patients who are considering traveling abroad for medical care. The American College of Surgeons' statement and the American Medical Association's guidelines together provide an important set of principles for consideration by patients, employers, insurers, and other third-party groups responsible for coordinating such travel outside of the country.

  19. Sources of stress and coping in American college students who have been diagnosed with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aselton, Pamela

    2012-08-01

    The study aims to explore the sources of stress in American college students who had been treated for depression and to discern their coping mechanisms. A phenomenological approach using Seidman's guide to in-depth qualitative interviews using a three-part approach was used in the study. Online in-depth interviews utilizing e-mail with asynchronous communication were used. Sources of stress included roommate issues, academic problems, financial and career concerns, and pressure from family. Exercise, talking to friends, self-talk, deep breathing, journaling, marijuana use, and listening to music were common coping mechanisms. College students who have been treated for depression are under increasing stress today from a variety of sources. Nonmedical methods of coping were often cited as more effective than medication therapy. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Bibliometrics study on the Journal of American College Health:1994-2014☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Zheng; Yong-Ju Liu; Wei-Hong Hu; Huang Huang; Yan-Pei Ni; Hui-Ning Zhao; Zhen-Zhen Jin; Chi-Chen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To help readers around the world comprehensively understand the development of the journal and evolution of cooperation study, we employed a bibliometrics analysis for the Journal of American College Health. Methods: One-thousand-one-hundred-forty-three articles published in this journal from 1994 were analyzed using the bibliometrics and visualization software CiteSpace. Results: The annual number of published articles and cited studies increased. The published studies by RP Keeling and H Wechsler were at the forefront. "College student" and "alcohol" were prevalent key-words. University of Wisconsin and Harvard University were the institutional leaders of contributions. Conclusions: This journal provides an important platform for sharing research achievements and pro-moting cooperation in this field. The level of articles published is continually improving. A research cooperative network promoted by famous scholars and institutions is developing. However, cross-regional and international cooperation is relatively limited.

  1. "I Am because We Are:" Collectivism as a Foundational Characteristic of African American College Student Identity and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Leslie R.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends current research on African American college student achievement by focusing on collectivism, a key characteristic of African American racial identity. Collectivism serves as the framework for analysis of students' beliefs about the purpose of higher education, conceptualization of their roles and responsibilities as students,…

  2. Mental Health Help-Seeking Behaviors among Asian American Community College Students: The Effect of Stigma, Cultural Barriers, and Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meekyung; Pong, Helen

    2015-01-01

    According to the 2008 U.S. Census, there are 15.5 million Asian Americans in the United States, and 17% are students enrolled in a university (Shea & Yeh, 2008). Asian American college students in higher education are oftentimes perceived as the "model minority" with high academic achievements and few mental and/or behavioral…

  3. The Impact of Social Capital on the Access, Adjustment, and Success of Southeast Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2015-01-01

    Given that Southeast Asian American (SEAA) students are severely underrepresented in higher education and less likely to persistence to graduation compared to other ethnic groups in the Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) community, this study explored critical factors to their college success. Indeed, several themes emerged from this national…

  4. An Investigation of High-Achieving African-American Students Attending Community Colleges: A Mixed Methods Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, John; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.; McLean, Carolyn

    2018-01-01

    While much more research has been conducted about African-American college students in recent decades, there still exists a need for further explorations concerning factors related to student success and retention. For example, articles often explore the experiences of African-American students at four-year institutions and often use deficit…

  5. Surgeons in Difficulty: An Exploration of Differences in Assistance-Seeking Behaviors between Male and Female Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfey, Hilary; Fromson, John; Mellinger, John; Rakinic, Jan; Williams, Michael; Williams, Betsy

    2015-08-01

    Physician burnout is associated with diminished ability to practice with requisite skill and safety. Physicians are often reluctant to seek help for an impaired colleague or for impairment that affects their own ability to practice. To better support surgeons in difficulty, we explored sex differences in assistance-seeking behaviors under stress. Surgeons in 3 national societies completed an IRB-approved anonymous multiple-choice and free-text response survey. Responses were explored with the general linear model using item-specific continuous and categorical methods. Two hundred and twelve surgeons (n = 79 [37.3%] male, n = 133 [63%] female) responded. Although men and women worked similar hours (p > 0.05), women worked more clinical (p work-life balance, as identified by aggregate variables related to emotional/decisional partnership, non-work-related chore support, and personal fulfillment (F = 15.29; df 3/16; p < 0.01), but change jobs less frequently (F = 4.23; df 1/201; p < 0.05). Males are more likely to seek help from colleagues (chi-square 107.5; p < 0.01) or friends (chi-square 123.8; p < 0.01) and women are more likely to seek support from professional counselors (chi-square 146.8; p < 0.01). Almost one-third of surgeons would ignore behaviors that adversely impact well being and could result in potential personal or patient safety. The differences between the assistance-seeking and reporting behaviors of male and female surgeons in distress could have implications for identification and treatment of this population. These findings can be used to develop educational activities to teach surgeons how to effectively handle these challenging situations. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sociocultural influences on eating attitudes and behaviors, body image, and psychological functioning: a comparison of African-American, Asian-American, and Caucasian college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akan, G E; Grilo, C M

    1995-09-01

    Eating attitudes and behaviors, body image, and psychological functioning were evaluated in 98 female college students: 36 African-Americans, 34 Asian-Americans, and 28 Caucasians. African-Americans had significantly higher body mass index than either Asian-American or Caucasians. In contrast, Caucasians reported greater levels of disordered eating and dieting behaviors and attitudes and greater body dissatisfaction than did Asian-Americans and African-Americans who differed little on these measures. The nature of variability in these eating behaviors and attitudes and body image was also examined within each of the three groups. A generally consistent pattern emerged within each racial group: low self-esteem and high public self-consciousness were associated with greater levels of problematic eating behaviors and attitudes and body dissatisfaction. A history of being teased about weight and size was associated with problematic eating behaviors and attitudes and body dissatisfaction in African-Americans and Caucasians but not in Asian-Americans. The findings suggest that there exist important racial differences on various aspects of eating, dieting, and body image in college women. Contrary to hypothesis, the degree of acculturation and assimilation within the African-American and Asian-American groups was unrelated to variability in these domains.

  7. Accreditation of Individualized Quality Control Plans by the College of American Pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeltge, Gerald A

    2017-03-01

    The Laboratory Accreditation Program of the College of American Pathologists (CAP) began in 2015 to allow accredited laboratories to devise their own strategies for quality control of laboratory testing. Participants now have the option to implement individualized quality control plans (IQCPs). Only nonwaived testing that features an internal control (built-in, electronic, or procedural) is eligible for IQCP accreditation. The accreditation checklists that detail the requirements have been peer-reviewed by content experts on CAP's scientific resource committees and by a panel of accreditation participants. Training and communication have been key to the successful introduction of the new IQCP requirements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Report of the Annual Scientific Sessions of the American College of Cardiology (ACC), Washington DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiro, Takafumi

    2017-05-25

    The 66 th Annual Scientific Sessions and Expo of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) were held at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Washington DC, from March 17 th to 19 th , 2017. This meeting offered 23 Late-Breaking Clinical Trial (LBCT) presentations, 17 Featured Clinical Research presentations with and without LBCT, and 2,572 abstracts presented in oral and poster sessions by over 2,000 experts. This report presents the highlights of this meeting, including the opening showcase, several important LBCTs and some international joint symposiums.

  9. The survey of American college students computer technology preferences & purchasing plans

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data from a survey of more than 400 American college students.  The report presents data on student computer ownership of both PCs and laptops, purchasing plans for PCs and laptops, as well as purchasing plans for cell phones and digital cameras.  The report also provides details on how student finance their computer purchases, how much money comes from parents or guardians, and how much from the student themselves, or from their parties.  In addition to data on PCs the report provides detailed info on use of popular word processing packages such as Word, WordPerfect and Open Office.

  10. American College of Radiology Accreditation Program for mammographic screening sites: Physical evaluation criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrick, R.E.; Haus, A.G.; Hubbard, L.B.; Lasky, H.J.; McCrohan, J.; McLelland, R.; Rothenberg, L.N.; Tanner, R.L.; Zinninger, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The American College of Radiology has initiated a program for the accreditation of mammographic screening sites, which includes evaluation by mail of image quality and average glandular breast dose. Image quality is evaluated by use of a specially designed phantom (a modified RMI 152D Mammographic Phantom) containing simulated microcalcifications, fibrils and masses. Average glandular dose to a simulated 4.5-cm-thick (50% glandular, 50% fat) compressed breast is evaluated by thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements of entrance exposure and half value layer. Standards for acceptable image quality and patient doses are presented and preliminary results of the accreditation program are discussed

  11. The State of Black Education: The Politics of Educating African American Students at Colleges and Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earnest N. Bracey, Ph.D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In terms of higher education for African American students, the “school-to-prison pipeline” or Prison Industrial Complex must be totally dismantled in order to focus entirely on academic performance at colleges and universities and HBCUs. Additionally, mentors should be identified to tutor and guide and help black youngsters overcome their fear of learning and going to school, so that our whole society can benefit and improve academically. Finally, in this respect, we-the-people can move our nation forward by graduating people of color at higher institutions of learning, while providing them with a more productive life, and social advancement.

  12. Acculturative Stress, Self-Esteem, and Eating Pathology in Latina and Asian American Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudat, Kimberly; White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S

    2016-01-01

    The overarching purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among acculturative stress, self-esteem, and eating pathology in Asian American and Latina female college students. Participants (N = 638, mean age = 19.88) completed self-report measures of the variables of interest online. Bivariate correlations indicated that for women of both ethnic groups, acculturative stress was negatively correlated with self-esteem and positively correlated with eating pathology. Multigroup structural equation modeling indicated that for Asian American and Latina women, self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between acculturative stress and eating pathology. However, self-esteem did not serve as a significant moderator of this relationship for either ethnic group. Overall, data suggest that acculturative stress is associated with increased eating pathology and self-esteem may mediate this relationship. These relationships suggest that assessment of eating pathology and self-esteem may be indicated for women presenting clinically with acculturative stress concerns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K. Johnson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone min-eral density (BMD among African-American and Caucasian college-aged wom-en are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race.Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50 and Caucasian (n=51 females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables.Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116] and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129] were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098] and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134] were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD.Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors.

  14. Local Control, Toxicity, and Cosmesis in Women >70 Years Enrolled in the American Society of Breast Surgeons Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Registry Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Atif J.; Vicini, Frank A.; Beitsch, Peter; Goyal, Sharad; Kuerer, Henry M.; Keisch, Martin; Quiet, Coral; Zannis, Victor; Keleher, Angela; Snyder, Howard; Gittleman, Mark; Whitworth, Pat; Fine, Richard; Lyden, Maureen; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The American Society of Breast Surgeons enrolled women in a registry trial to prospectively study patients treated with the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System breast brachytherapy device. The present report examined the outcomes in women aged >70 years enrolled in the trial. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,449 primary early stage breast cancers were treated in 1,440 women. Of these, 537 occurred in women >70 years old. Fisher’s exact test was performed to correlate age (≤70 vs. >70 years) with toxicity and with cosmesis. The association of age with local recurrence (LR) failure times was investigated by fitting a parametric model. Results: Older women were less likely to develop telangiectasias than younger women (7.9% vs. 12.4%, p = 0.0083). The incidence of other toxicities was similar. Cosmesis was good or excellent in 92% of the women >70 years old. No significant difference was found in LR as a function of age. The 5-year actuarial LR rate with invasive disease for the older vs. younger population was 2.79% and 2.92%, respectively (p = 0.5780). In women >70 years with hormone-sensitive tumors ≤2 cm who received hormonal therapy (n = 195), the 5-year actuarial rate of LR, overall survival, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival was 2.06%, 89.3%, 87%, and 97.5%, respectively. These outcomes were similar in women who did not receive hormonal therapy. Women with small, estrogen receptor-negative disease had worse LR, overall survival, and disease-free survival compared with receptor-positive patients. Conclusions: Accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite radiation therapy system resulted in low toxicity and produced similar cosmesis and local control at 5 years in women >70 years compared with younger women. This treatment should be considered as an alternative to omitting adjuvant radiotherapy for older women with small-volume, early-stage breast cancer.

  15. Local Control, Toxicity, and Cosmesis in Women >70 Years Enrolled in the American Society of Breast Surgeons Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Registry Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Atif J., E-mail: atif_khan@rwjuh.edu [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Vicini, Frank A.; Beitsch, Peter [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States); Goyal, Sharad [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Kuerer, Henry M.; Keisch, Martin; Quiet, Coral; Zannis, Victor; Keleher, Angela; Snyder, Howard; Gittleman, Mark; Whitworth, Pat; Fine, Richard [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States); Lyden, Maureen [BioStat International, Inc., Tampa, FL (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The American Society of Breast Surgeons enrolled women in a registry trial to prospectively study patients treated with the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System breast brachytherapy device. The present report examined the outcomes in women aged >70 years enrolled in the trial. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,449 primary early stage breast cancers were treated in 1,440 women. Of these, 537 occurred in women >70 years old. Fisher's exact test was performed to correlate age ({<=}70 vs. >70 years) with toxicity and with cosmesis. The association of age with local recurrence (LR) failure times was investigated by fitting a parametric model. Results: Older women were less likely to develop telangiectasias than younger women (7.9% vs. 12.4%, p = 0.0083). The incidence of other toxicities was similar. Cosmesis was good or excellent in 92% of the women >70 years old. No significant difference was found in LR as a function of age. The 5-year actuarial LR rate with invasive disease for the older vs. younger population was 2.79% and 2.92%, respectively (p = 0.5780). In women >70 years with hormone-sensitive tumors {<=}2 cm who received hormonal therapy (n = 195), the 5-year actuarial rate of LR, overall survival, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival was 2.06%, 89.3%, 87%, and 97.5%, respectively. These outcomes were similar in women who did not receive hormonal therapy. Women with small, estrogen receptor-negative disease had worse LR, overall survival, and disease-free survival compared with receptor-positive patients. Conclusions: Accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite radiation therapy system resulted in low toxicity and produced similar cosmesis and local control at 5 years in women >70 years compared with younger women. This treatment should be considered as an alternative to omitting adjuvant radiotherapy for older women with small-volume, early-stage breast cancer.

  16. American Indians and Minnesota's Private Colleges. An Evaluation of the Minnesota Private College Research Foundation's Indian Education Project, 1971-72 -- 1974-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, Emanuel

    The Minnesota Private College Research Foundation - Indian Education Project (MPCRF-IEP) provided additional financial support for programs that were unique, developmental, and Indian in their approach to expansion of higher educational opportunities for Native American students. Funding allocated by the Project was made on a dollar for dollar…

  17. Comparison between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Suzana Alves; Suzuki, Cláudio Shigueki; de Freitas, Isabel Cristina Martins

    2013-01-01

    the study aims to evaluate the reproducibility between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in an adult population living in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. population-based cross-sectional study, including 930 adults of both genders. The reliability was evaluated by Kappa statistics, estimated according to socio-demographic strata. the kappa estimates showed good agreement between the two criteria in all strata. However, higher prevalence of "actives" was found by using the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association. although the estimates have indicated good agreement, the findings suggest caution in choosing the criteria to classify physical activity profile mainly when "walking" is the main modality of physical activity.

  18. Screening for cancer: advice for high-value care from the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Timothy J; Harris, Russell P; Qaseem, Amir

    2015-05-19

    Cancer screening is one approach to reducing cancer-related morbidity and mortality rates. Screening strategies vary in intensity. Higher-intensity strategies are not necessarily higher value. High-value strategies provide a degree of benefits that clearly justifies the harms and costs incurred; low-value screening provides limited or no benefits to justify the harms and costs. When cancer screening leads to benefits, an optimal intensity of screening maximizes value. Some aspects of screening practices, especially overuse and underuse, are low value. Screening strategies for asymptomatic, average-risk adults for 5 common types of cancer were evaluated by reviewing clinical guidelines and evidence syntheses from the American College of Physicians (ACP), U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Cancer Society, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Gastroenterological Association, and American Urological Association. "High value" was defined as the lowest screening intensity threshold at which organizations agree about screening recommendations for each type of cancer and "low value" as agreement about not recommending overly intensive screening strategies. This information is supplemented with additional findings from randomized, controlled trials; modeling studies; and studies of costs or resource use, including information found in the National Cancer Institute's Physician Data Query and UpToDate. The ACP provides high-value care screening advice for 5 common types of cancer; the specifics are outlined in this article. The ACP strongly encourages clinicians to adopt a cancer screening strategy that focuses on reaching all eligible persons with these high-value screening options while reducing overly intensive, low-value screening.

  19. Relative Age Effect and Academic Timing in American Junior College Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Thomas C; Furtado, Ovande; Fontana, Fabio E

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has shown that older athletes within age groupings are often perceived to be more talented simply due to advanced maturity, leading to biased selection in higher levels of sports competition, now commonly termed relative age effect (RAE). This study's goals were to determine whether (a) RAE influenced the selection of junior college baseball participants and (b) academic timing ( Glamser & Marciani, 1992 ), in which academic status determines age groupings more than strict age guidelines for college sports, influenced the formation of RAE. Participants were 150 junior college baseball players. Our results showed that RAE was only a significant factor, comparing the birth distribution of participants born before and after the midpoint of the participation year, when academic timing was also a factor in determining age groupings. In addition, the birth rate distribution, though not significantly different than expected, was greater only when those participants born during the expected participation year were included. The results of this study indicate that RAE could bear more influence among American student-athletes than was previously reported in that RAE in conjunction with academic timing does influence the selection of collegiate athletes.

  20. American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.

  1. Stemming the Escalating Cost of Prescription Drugs: A Position Paper of the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Hilary

    2016-03-29

    This American College of Physicians position paper, initiated and written by its Health and Public Policy Committee and approved by the Board of Regents on 16 February 2016, reports policy recommendations from the American College of Physicians to address the escalating costs of prescription drugs in the United States. Prescription drugs play an important part in treating and preventing disease. However, the United States often pays more for some prescription drugs than other developed countries, and the high price and increasing costs associated with prescription medication is a major concern for patients, physicians, and payers. Pharmaceutical companies have considerable flexibility in how they price drugs, and the costs that payers and patients see are dependent on how payers are able to negotiate discounts or rebates. Beyond setting list prices are issues of regulatory approval, patents and intellectual property, assessment of value and cost-effectiveness, and health plan drug benefits. These issues are linked, and comprehensive efforts will be needed to affect how drugs are priced in the United States.

  2. Adapting an Evidence-Based HIV Intervention for At-Risk African American College Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities Who Use Alcohol and Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla Marie Sawyer-Kurian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of the high prevalence of HIV incidence among African American adolescent and adult women along with substance use and risky sexual behavior among university students necessitates the development of a HIV intervention specifically addressing culture, gender, and college factors for female African American university students. The woman-focused HIV intervention was chosen for adaptation because it has been shown to be efficacious with reducing risk for African American women who use alcohol and drugs, and has been successfully adapted 7 times. The target population was African American college women enrolled at a historically Black university who use alcohol and other drugs, and who engaged in risky sex behaviors. To understand and assess the needs of this population, we conducted four focus groups with African American college women, two in-depth interviews with faculty, and a combination of in-depth interviews and focus groups with student affairs and health staff that were analyzed using content analysis. From this analysis, several themes emerged that were used to adapt the intervention. Emerging themes included challenges related to identity and societal stereotypes, lack of knowledge about sexual health (i.e., negotiating safer sex and the function of female and male anatomies, high incidents of pregnancy, negative consequences related to alcohol and marijuana use, and the need to incorporate testimonies from college students, media enhancements, and role-plays to convey intervention messages. After the preliminary adaptation, 11 college women reviewed the adapted intervention and provided positive feedback. Plans for future research are discussed.

  3. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY GUIDELINES FOR MANAGEMENT OF DYSLIPIDEMIA AND PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Paul S; Handelsman, Yehuda; Rosenblit, Paul D; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Fonseca, Vivian A; Garber, Alan J; Grunberger, George; Guerin, Chris K; Bell, David S H; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Wyne, Kathleen; Smith, Donald; Brinton, Eliot A; Fazio, Sergio; Davidson, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Recommendations are based on diligent reviews of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors, according to established AACE/ACE guidelines for guidelines protocols. The Executive Summary of this document contains 87 recommendations of which 45 are Grade A (51.7%), 18 are Grade B (20.7%), 15 are Grade C (17.2%), and 9 (10.3%) are Grade D. These detailed, evidence-based recommendations allow for nuance-based clinical decision-making that addresses multiple aspects of real-world medical care. The evidence base presented in the subsequent Appendix provides relevant supporting information for Executive Summary Recommendations. This update contains 695 citations of which 203 (29.2 %) are EL 1 (strong), 137 (19.7%) are EL 2 (intermediate), 119 (17.1%) are EL 3 (weak), and 236 (34.0%) are EL 4 (no clinical evidence). This CPG is a practical tool that endocrinologists, other health care professionals, health-related organizations, and regulatory bodies can use to reduce the risks and consequences of dyslipidemia. It provides guidance on screening, risk assessment, and treatment recommendations for a range of individuals with various lipid disorders. The recommendations emphasize the importance of treating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in some individuals to lower goals than previously endorsed and support the measurement of coronary artery calcium scores and inflammatory markers to help stratify risk. Special consideration is given to individuals with diabetes, familial hypercholesterolemia, women, and youth with dyslipidemia. Both clinical and cost-effectiveness data are provided to support treatment decisions. 4S

  4. Effects of ALDH2*2 on Alcohol Problem Trajectories of Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E.; Yarnell, Lisa M.; Prescott, Carol A.; Myers, Mark G.; Liang, Tiebing; Wall, Tamara L.

    2014-01-01

    The variant aldehyde dehydrogenase allele, ALDH2*2, consistently has been associated with protection against alcohol dependence, but the mechanism underlying this process is not known. This study examined growth trajectories of alcohol consumption (frequency, average quantity, binge drinking, maximum drinks) and problems over the college years and then tested whether the ALDH2 genotype mediated or moderated the relationship between alcohol consumption and problems. Asian American college students (N = 433) reported on their drinking behavior in their first year of college and then annually for 3 consecutive years. Alcohol consumption and problems increased over the college years for both those with and without ALDH2*2, but having an ALDH2*2 allele was associated with less of an increase in problems over time. A mediation model was supported, with ALDH2*2 group differences in problems fully accounted for by differences in frequency of binge drinking. Findings also supported a moderation hypothesis: All four alcohol consumption variables were significant predictors of subsequent alcohol problems, but these relationships were not as strong in those with ALDH2*2 as in those without ALDH2*2. Our findings suggest that the interplay between ALDH2*2 and drinking-related problems is complex, involving both mediation and moderation processes that reduce the likelihood of developing problems via reduction of heavy drinking as well as by altering the relationship between alcohol consumption and problems. Results of this longitudinal study provide evidence that what seems like a relatively straightforward effect of a diminished ability to metabolize alcohol on drinking behavior is actually dependent on behavior and developmental stage. PMID:24661165

  5. Shared Decision Making in Intensive Care Units: An American College of Critical Care Medicine and American Thoracic Society Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Alexander A.; Davidson, Judy E.; Morrison, Wynne; Danis, Marion; White, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Shared decision-making (SDM) is endorsed by critical care organizations, however there remains confusion about what SDM is, when it should be used, and approaches to promote partnerships in treatment decisions. The purpose of this statement is to define SDM, recommend when SDM should be used, identify the range of ethically acceptable decision-making models, and present important communication skills. Methods The American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) and American Thoracic Society (ATS) Ethics Committees reviewed empirical research and normative analyses published in peer-reviewed journals to generate recommendations. Recommendations approved by consensus of the full Ethics Committees of ACCM and ATS were included in the statement. Main Results Six recommendations were endorsed: 1) Definition: Shared decision-making is a collaborative process that allows patients, or their surrogates, and clinicians to make health care decisions together, taking into account the best scientific evidence available, as well as the patient’s values, goals, and preferences. 2) Clinicians should engage in a SDM process to define overall goals of care (including decisions regarding limiting or withdrawing life-prolonging interventions) and when making major treatment decisions that may be affected by personal values, goals, and preferences. 3) Clinicians should use as their “default” approach a SDM process that includes three main elements: information exchange, deliberation, and making a treatment decision. 4) A wide range of decision-making approaches are ethically supportable including patient- or surrogate-directed and clinician-directed models. Clinicians should tailor the decision-making process based on the preferences of the patient or surrogate. 5) Clinicians should be trained in communication skills. 6) Research is needed to evaluate decision-making strategies. Conclusions Patient and surrogate preferences for decision-making roles regarding value

  6. American Society of Clinical Oncology/College Of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for immunohistochemical testing of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammond, M.E.; Hayes, D.F.; Dowsett, M.; Allred, D.C.; Hagerty, K.L.; Badve, S.; Fitzgibbons, P.L.; Francis, G.; Goldstein, N.S.; Hayes, M.; Hicks, D.G.; Lester, S.; Love, R.; Mangu, P.B.; McShane, L.; Miller, K.; Osborne, C.K.; Paik, S.; Perlmutter, J.; Rhodes, A.; Sasano, H.; Schwartz, J.N.; Sweep, F.C.; Taube, S.; Torlakovic, E.E.; Valenstein, P.; Viale, G.; Visscher, D.; Wheeler, T.; Williams, R.B.; Wittliff, J.L.; Wolff, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of immunohistochemical (IHC) estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) testing in breast cancer and the utility of these receptors as predictive markers. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of

  7. American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for immunohistochemical testing of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammond, M.E.; Hayes, D.F.; Dowsett, M.; Allred, D.C.; Hagerty, K.L.; Badve, S.; Fitzgibbons, P.L.; Francis, G.; Goldstein, N.S.; Hayes, M.; Hicks, D.G.; Lester, S.; Love, R.; Mangu, P.B.; McShane, L.; Miller, K.; Osborne, C.K.; Paik, S.; Perlmutter, J.; Rhodes, A.; Sasano, H.; Schwartz, J.N.; Sweep, F.C.; Taube, S.; Torlakovic, E.E.; Valenstein, P.; Viale, G.; Visscher, D.; Wheeler, T.; Williams, R.B.; Wittliff, J.L.; Wolff, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of immunohistochemical (IHC) estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) testing in breast cancer and the utility of these receptors as predictive markers. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of

  8. American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for immunohistochemical testing of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer (unabridged version).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammond, M.E.; Hayes, D.F.; Dowsett, M.; Allred, D.C.; Hagerty, K.L.; Badve, S.; Fitzgibbons, P.L.; Francis, G.; Goldstein, N.S.; Hayes, M.; Hicks, D.G.; Lester, S.; Love, R.; Mangu, P.B.; McShane, L.; Miller, K.; Osborne, C.K.; Paik, S.; Perlmutter, J.; Rhodes, A.; Sasano, H.; Schwartz, J.N.; Sweep, F.C.; Taube, S.; Torlakovic, E.E.; Valenstein, P.; Viale, G.; Visscher, D.; Wheeler, T.; Williams, R.B.; Wittliff, J.L.; Wolff, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of immunohistochemical (IHC) estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) testing in breast cancer and the utility of these receptors as predictive markers. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of

  9. Laboratory compliance with the American Society of Clinical Oncology/college of American Pathologists guidelines for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing: a College of American Pathologists survey of 757 laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Raouf E; Grimm, Erin E; Idowu, Michael O; Souers, Rhona J; Fitzgibbons, Patrick L

    2010-05-01

    To ensure quality human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2) testing in breast cancer, the American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guidelines were introduced with expected compliance by 2008. To assess the effect these guidelines have had on pathology laboratories and their ability to address key components. In late 2008, a survey was distributed with the HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) proficiency testing program. It included questions regarding pathology practice characteristics and assay validation using fluorescence in situ hybridization or another IHC laboratory assay and assessed pathologist HER2 scoring competency. Of the 907 surveys sent, 757 (83.5%) were returned. The median laboratory accessioned 15 000 cases and performed 190 HER2 tests annually. Quantitative computer image analysis was used by 33% of laboratories. In-house fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed in 23% of laboratories, and 60% of laboratories addressed the 6- to 48-hour tissue fixation requirement by embedding tissue on the weekend. HER2 testing was performed on the initial biopsy in 40%, on the resection specimen in 6%, and on either in 56% of laboratories. Testing was validated with only fluorescence in situ hybridization in 47% of laboratories, whereas 10% of laboratories used another IHC assay only; 13% used both assays, and 12% and 15% of laboratories had not validated their assays or chose "not applicable" on the survey question, respectively. The 90% concordance rate with fluorescence in situ hybridization results was achieved by 88% of laboratories for IHC-negative findings and by 81% of laboratories for IHC-positive cases. The 90% concordance rate for laboratories using another IHC assay was achieved by 80% for negative findings and 75% for positive cases. About 91% of laboratories had a pathologist competency assessment program. This survey demonstrates the extent and characteristics of HER2 testing. Although some American Society of

  10. Social support, acculturation, and optimism: understanding positive health practices in Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Cynthia G; Mahat, Ganga

    2012-07-01

    This study developed and tested a theory to better understand positive health practices (PHP) among Asian Americans aged 18 to 21 years. It tested theoretical relationships postulated between PHP and (a) social support (SS), (b) optimism, and (c) acculturation, and between SS and optimism and acculturation. Optimism and acculturation were also tested as possible mediators in the relationship between SS and PHP. A correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 163 Asian college students in an urban setting completed four questionnaires assessing SS, PHP, optimism, and acculturation and one demographic questionnaire. There were statistically significant positive relationships between SS and optimism with PHP, between acculturation and PHP, and between optimism and SS. Optimism mediated the relationship between SS and PHP, whereas acculturation did not. Findings extend knowledge regarding these relationships to a defined population of Asian Americans aged 18 to 21 years. Findings contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge base regarding health practices among Asian Americans. The theoretical and empirical findings of this study provide the direction for future research as well. Further studies need to be conducted to identify and test other mediators in order to better understand the relationship between these two variables.

  11. The effects of contact with Asians and Asian Americans on White American college students: attitudes, awareness of racial discrimination, and psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Khanh T; Weinstein, Traci L; Nemon, Melissa; Rondeau, Sara

    2008-12-01

    On the basis of acculturation theory, explicating mutual influences between different cultural or ethnic groups coming into contact, this study focused "on the other side of acculturation" theory by examining the effects of intercultural contact with Asians and Asian Americans on the psychosocial experiences of White American college students. Participants (N = 315), undergraduates attending a public university located within the state of Massachusetts, completed a survey that assessed demographic and personal characteristics, acculturation (extent of intercultural contact with Asian people and Asian cultures), attitudes towards Asians and Asian Americans, awareness of institutional discrimination and blatant racial issues, and psychological distress. Results indicated that White American students' intercultural contact with Asians and Asian Americans contributed significant variance to the prediction of their attitudes towards this ethnic group and awareness of discrimination and racial issues, but not to psychological distress. This study provides implications for understanding mutual acculturative influences between different ethnic groups in the United States.

  12. Collective self-esteem: role of social context among Asian-American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunha; Lee, Donghyuck

    2011-12-01

    The present study explored several layers of individual and contextual variables as related to collective self-esteem among 304 Asian-American college students. The findings suggested that variables, such as immigration generation status and cultural identification, were significantly associated with Private collective self-esteem (personal evaluation of one's ethnic group), while contextual variables, including number of same-ethnicity peers and community ethnic composition, were associated with Public collective self-esteem (judgment of how other people evaluate one's ethnic group). In addition to these variables, age and fluency of heritage language were positively related to Membership esteem (how worthy one feels as a member of one's ethnic group). For the Importance of identity (the importance of ethnic group membership to one's self-concept), cultural identification, number of same-ethnicity peers, and perceived campus climate were statistically significant. The implication of the present findings for future research is discussed.

  13. Friendship, perceived mattering and happiness: a study of American and Turkish college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Melikşah; Ozen, Ayça; Doğan, Aysun

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well established that friendship is a consistent correlate of happiness, less is known about how friendship experiences might promote happiness. The current investigation addressed this gap by testing a mediational model proposing that perceived mattering explains the association of friendship quality with happiness among college students in Turkey and the United States. An alternative model suggesting friendship quality as the mediator was also tested to enhance confidence in the proposed model. SEM analyses revealed that perceived mattering mediated the association of friendship with happiness only in the American sample. In the Turkish sample, friendship quality mediated the association between mattering and happiness. Findings highlight the importance of cross-cultural research and suggest that the underlying processes and psychological mechanisms related to the friendship-happiness link might be different in different cultures.

  14. Climate Change and Health: A Position Paper of the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Ryan A

    2016-05-03

    Climate change could have a devastating effect on human and environmental health. Potential effects of climate change on human health include higher rates of respiratory and heat-related illness, increased prevalence of vector-borne and waterborne diseases, food and water insecurity, and malnutrition. Persons who are elderly, sick, or poor are especially vulnerable to these potential consequences. Addressing climate change could have substantial benefits to human health. In this position paper, the American College of Physicians (ACP) recommends that physicians and the broader health care community throughout the world engage in environmentally sustainable practices that reduce carbon emissions; support efforts to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change; and educate the public, their colleagues, their community, and lawmakers about the health risks posed by climate change. Tackling climate change is an opportunity to dramatically improve human health and avert dire environmental outcomes, and ACP believes that physicians can play a role in achieving this goal.

  15. Declining loneliness over time: evidence from american colleges and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D Matthew T; Loxton, Natalie J; Tobin, Stephanie J

    2015-01-01

    We examined changes in loneliness over time. Study 1 was a cross-temporal meta-analysis of 48 samples of American college students who completed the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (total N = 13,041). In Study 1, loneliness declined from 1978 to 2009 (d = -0.26). Study 2 used a representative sample of high school students from the Monitoring the Future project (total N = 385,153). In Study 2, loneliness declined from 1991 to 2012. Declines were similar among White students (d = -0.14), Black students (d = -0.17), male students (d = -0.11), and female students (d = -0.11). Different loneliness factors showed diverging trends. Subjective isolation declined (d = -0.20), whereas social network isolation increased (d = 0.06). We discuss the declines in loneliness within the context of other cultural changes, including changes to group membership and personality. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Sex education among Asian American college females: who is teaching them and what is being taught.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine; Tran, Denise Yen; Thoi, Deanna; Chang, Melissa; Wu, Lisa; Trieu, Sang Leng

    2013-04-01

    Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health.

  17. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Seventh-day Adventist African American and Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Sovyanhadi, Marta

    2009-01-01

    All age, sex, and racial groups are affected by the obesity epidemic in the United States, although disparities exist among these groups. The Seventh-day Adventists are a religious group of people who are believed to live longer and healthier lives than do their non-Adventist counterparts because they do not smoke or drink alcohol and they eat a healthier diet. This study assessed the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Seventh-day Adventist college students attending 2 private universities in the southern United States. Most students' body mass index (65.8%) was within the normal weight category, 3.7% were underweight, 20.6% were overweight, and 9.9% were obese. Body mass index > or = 25 kg/m2 was more prevalent among men and African Americans. In all ethnic subgroups, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was lower than that among non-Adventist students reported in other studies.

  18. Avoiding burnout: the personal health habits and wellness practices of US surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, Tait D; Oreskovich, Michael R; Dyrbye, Lotte N; Satele, Daniel V; Hanks, John B; Sloan, Jeff A; Balch, Charles M

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the health habits, routine medical care practices, and personal wellness strategies of American surgeons and explore associations with burnout and quality of life (QOL). Burnout and low mental QOL are common among US surgeons and seem to adversely affect quality of care, job satisfaction, career longevity, and risk of suicide. The self-care strategies and personal wellness promotion practices used by surgeons to deal with the stress of practice are not well explored. Members of the American College of Surgeons were sent an anonymous, cross-sectional survey in October 2010. The survey included self-assessment of health habits, routine medical care practices, and personal wellness strategies and standardized assessments of burnout and QOL. Of 7197 participating surgeons, 3911 (55.0%) participated in aerobic exercise and 2611 (36.3%) in muscle strengthening activities, in a pattern consistent with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations. The overall and physical QOL scores were superior for surgeons' following the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations (all P work, focusing on what is important in life, maintaining a positive outlook, and embracing a philosophy that stresses work/life balance were less likely to be burned out (all P < 0.0001). Although many factors associated with lower risk of burnout were also associated with achieving a high overall QOL, notable differences were observed, indicating surgeons' need to employ a broader repertoire of wellness promotion practices if they desire to move beyond neutral and achieve high well-being. This study identifies specific measures surgeons can take to decrease burnout and improve their personal and professional QOL.

  19. Provision of services for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. Fourth report of a Joint Cardiology Committee of the Royal College of Physicians of London and the Royal College of Surgeons of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    -regional funding for infant cardiac surgery and transplantation has been successful and should be continued. 10 Despite advances in non-invasive diagnosis of congenital heart disease the amount of cardiac catheterisation of children has risen due to the increase in number of interventional procedures. Vacant consultant posts in paediatric cardiology and the need for an increase in the number of such posts cannot be filled from existing senior registrar posts. All paediatric cardiac units should have a senior registrar and in the meantime it may be necessary to make proleptic appointments to consultant posts with arrangements for the appointees to complete their training. 11 Provision of care for the increasing number of adolescent and adult survivors of complex congenital heart disease is urgently required. The management of these patients is specialised, and the committee recommends that it should ultimately be undertaken by either adult or pediatric cardiologists with appropriate additional training working in supra-regionally funded centers alongside specially trained surgeons. 12 Cardiac rehabilitation should be available to all patients in the United Kingdom. 13 New recommendations for training in cardiology are for a total of at least five years in the specialty after general professional training, plus a year as senior registrar in general medicine. An additional year may be required for those wishing to work in interventional cardiology and adequate provision must be made for those with an academic interest. 14 It is essential that both basic and clinical research is carried out in cardiac centres but these activities are becoming increasingly limited by the lack of properly funded posts in the basic sciences and restriction in the number of honorary posts for clinical research workers. 15 A joint audit committee of the Royal College of Physicians and the British Cardiac Society has been established to coordinate audit in the specialty. All district and regional cardiac

  20. Rheumatoid arthritis disease activity measures: American College of Rheumatology recommendations for use in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaclyn; Caplan, Liron; Yazdany, Jinoos; Robbins, Mark L; Neogi, Tuhina; Michaud, Kaleb; Saag, Kenneth G; O'Dell, James R; Kazi, Salahuddin

    2012-05-01

    Although the systematic measurement of disease activity facilitates clinical decision making in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), no recommendations currently exist on which measures should be applied in clinical practice in the US. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) convened a Working Group (WG) to comprehensively evaluate the validity, feasibility, and acceptability of available RA disease activity measures and derive recommendations for their use in clinical practice. The Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Disease Activity Measures Working Group conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify RA disease activity measures. Using exclusion criteria, input from an Expert Advisory Panel (EAP), and psychometric analysis, a list of potential measures was created. A survey was administered to rheumatologists soliciting input. The WG used these survey results in conjunction with the psychometric analyses to derive final recommendations. Systematic review of the literature resulted in identification of 63 RA disease activity measures. Application of exclusion criteria and ratings by the EAP narrowed the list to 14 measures for further evaluation. Practicing rheumatologists rated 9 of these 14 measures as most useful and feasible. From these 9 measures, the WG selected 6 with the best psychometric properties for inclusion in the final set of ACR-recommended RA disease activity measures. We recommend the Clinical Disease Activity Index, Disease Activity Score with 28-joint counts (erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein), Patient Activity Scale (PAS), PAS-II, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data with 3 measures, and Simplified Disease Activity Index because they are accurate reflections of disease activity; are sensitive to change; discriminate well between low, moderate, and high disease activity states; have remission criteria; and are feasible to perform in clinical settings. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  1. Family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination among Asian American male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Yeh, Christine Jean; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Carrera, Stephanie; Su, Jenny C

    2013-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine under what situation (i.e., when individuals used more or less family support) and for whom (i.e., those with high or low self-esteem) perceived racial discrimination would or would not have a significant positive association with psychological distress. A total of 95 Asian American male college students completed an online survey. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated a significant 3-way interaction of family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination in predicting psychological distress after controlling for perceived general stress. A simple effect analysis was used to explore the nature of the interaction. When Asian American male college students used more family support to cope with racial discrimination, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high or low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when more family support was used, the 2 slopes for high and low self-esteem were not significantly different from each other. Conversely, when they used less family support, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high self-esteem, but was significantly positive for those with low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when less family support was used, the slopes for high and low self-esteem were significantly different. The result suggested that low use of family support may put these male students with low self-esteem at risk for psychological distress. Limitations, future research directions, and clinical implications were discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Danish surgeons' views on minimally invasive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Hellen; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Advancements in minimally invasive surgery have led to increases in popularity of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) and natural orifice translumenal surgery (NOTES(®); American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy [Oak Brook, IL] and Society of American...... Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons [Los Angeles, CA]) due to their postulated benefits of better cosmesis, less pain, and quicker recovery. This questionnaire-based study investigated Danish surgeons' attitudes toward these new procedures. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A 26-item questionnaire was developed...... and distributed electronically via e-mail to a total of 1253 members of The Danish Society of Surgeons and The Danish Society of Young Surgeons. RESULTS: In total, 352 (approximately 30%) surgeons completed the questionnaire, 54.4% were over 50 years of age, and 76.6% were men. When choosing surgery, the most...

  3. A Case Study of Perceptions and Experiences among African-American Males Regarding College Dropout Rates in a Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, James

    2017-01-01

    Community colleges enroll nearly half of the students in public undergraduate programs and a disproportionate number of first-generation, low-income, underprepared, and minority students. The new national completion agenda initiated by President Barack Obama had brought both visibility and pressure to community colleges, which had completion rates…

  4. Associating with Occupational Depictions: How African American College Women Are Influenced by the Portrayals of Women in Professional Careers on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ways portrayals of professional Black women on television influence the higher education and occupational choices of African American college women. The central research question of this study was: How do college age African American women make meaning of the portrayals of the people they see on television? Two analytic…

  5. An Intersectional Social Capital Analysis of the Influence of Historically Black Sororities on African American Women's College Experiences at a Predominantly White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyerbiehl, Lindsay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Research exploring the college experiences of African American women at predominantly White institutions (PWI) continues to be a necessity as African American women graduate at lower rates than their racial/ethnic peers. This qualitative study explored the influence historically Black sororities had on the college experiences of African American…

  6. Lessons in Success: A Multi-Campus Study of Factors Influencing Academic Accomplishment among High-Achieving African American Students at Private Liberal Arts Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the academic experiences of highly successful African-American male graduates of small, private liberal arts colleges using a qualitative approach. Fourteen highly successful alumni from selective, private colleges were purposefully selected for the study, including seven African-American males and seven…

  7. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  8. "Having Our Say": High Achieving African American Male College Graduates Speak about Parental Involvement and Parenting Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Lynn Lanier; McNeese, Rose M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patterns of parental involvement and parenting styles of the parents of academically successful African American males who graduated from historically Black colleges or universities (Odom, 2013). More specifically, the study investigated relationships among students' perceptions of their parents'…

  9. Understanding Physical Activity Behavior in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Chris; Fisher, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Erich; Rhodes, Ryan; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for African American students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. Objective: In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and…

  10. The Influence of Acculturation and Enculturation on Mexican American High School Students' Decision to Apply to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Linda G.; Lopez-Arenas, Araceli; Saldivar, Isaac M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the influence of acculturation, enculturation, parental education level, financial concerns, and gender on 106 Mexican American high school students' decisions to apply to college. Results indicated that acculturation and female gender were significant predictors. Implications for interventions with Latino high school students…

  11. Help-Seeking Stigma in Asian American College Women: The Role of Disordered Eating Cognitions and Psychological Inflexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Goodnight, Bradly L.; Ng, Stacey Y.; Ward Schaefer, L.; Tully, Erin C.; Chan, Wing Yi; Drake, Chad E.

    2017-01-01

    Help-seeking stigma is considered a major obstacle to seeking professional psychological services in Asian American college women. Informed in part by objectification theory and the psychological flexibility model of behavior change, the present cross-sectional study examines the role of disordered eating cognition and psychological inflexibility…

  12. Understanding How Key Institutional Agents Provide Southeast Asian American Students with Access to Social Capital in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Mueller, M. Kalehua.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we focus on understanding how institutional agents can and do foster success among Southeast Asian American (SEAA) students in higher education. Specifically, qualitative methods were utilized to examine the experiences of 34 SEAA undergraduate students at 5 public 4-year colleges and universities across the United States and…

  13. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  14. The 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism Classification Criteria for Rheumatoid Arthritis Phase 2 Methodological Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neogi, Tuhina; Aletaha, Daniel; Silman, Alan J.; Naden, Raymond L.; Felson, David T.; Aggarwal, Rohit; Bingham, Clifton O.; Birnbaum, Neal S.; Burmester, Gerd R.; Bykerk, Vivian P.; Cohen, Marc D.; Combe, Bernard; Costenbader, Karen H.; Dougados, Maxime; Emery, Paul; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Hazes, Johanna M. W.; Hobbs, Kathryn; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Kay, Jonathan; Khanna, Dinesh; Kvien, Tore K.; Laing, Timothy; Liao, Katherine; Mease, Philip; Ménard, Henri A.; Moreland, Larry W.; Nair, Raj; Pincus, Theodore; Ringold, Sarah; Smolen, Josef S.; Stanislawska-Biernat, Ewa; Symmons, Deborah; Tak, Paul P.; Upchurch, Katherine S.; Vencovský, Jiří; Wolfe, Frederick; Hawker, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Objective. The American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism have developed new classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of Phase 2 of the development process was to achieve expert consensus on the clinical and laboratory variables that should

  15. The 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis: Phase 2 methodological report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Neogi (Tuhina); D. Aletaha (Daniel); A.J. Silman (Alan); R.L. Naden (Raymond); D. Felson; R. Aggarwal (Rohit); C.O. Bingham (Clifton); N.S. Birnbaum (Neal); G.R. Burmester (Gerd); V.P. Bykerk (Vivian); M.D. Cohen (Marc); B. Combe (Bernard); K.H. Costenbader (Karen); M. Dougados (Maxime); P. Emery (Paul); G. Ferraccioli (Gianfranco); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); K. Hobbs (Kathryn); T.W.J. Huizinga (Tom); A. Kavanaugh (Arthur); J. Kay (Jonathan); D. Khanna (Dinesh); T.K. Kvien (Tore); T. Laing (Timothy); K. Liao (Katherine); P. Mease (Philip); H.A. Ménard (Henri); L.W. Moreland (Larry); R. Nair (Raj); T. Pincus (Theodore); S. Ringold (Sarah); J.S. Smolen (Josef); E. Stanislawska-Biernat (Ewa); D. Symmons (Deborah); P.P. Tak (Paul); K.S. Upchurch (Katherine); J. Vencovský (Jiří); F. Wolfe (Frederick); G. Hawker (Gillian)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective. The American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism have developed new classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of Phase 2 of the development process was to achieve expert consensus on the clinical and laboratory variables that

  16. 1980 Survey of Faculty Teaching in Departments of Medicinal/Pharmaceutical Chemistry at American Colleges of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszak, Alice Jean; Sarnoff, Darwin

    1981-01-01

    An American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy survey of medicinal/pharmaceutical chemistry faculty is reported. Data, including academic and experience backgrounds of faculty and their teaching load, are presented. Differences in training are noted in comparing the average chemistry professor to the average assistant professor. (Author/MLW)

  17. Arab American College Students' Physical Activity and Body Composition: Reconciling Middle East-West Differences Using the Socioecological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David

    2011-01-01

    In this study, I conducted focus group interviews with 21 Arab American college students (9 men, 12 women; 9 Muslims, 12 non-Muslims), who were selected for extreme manifestation of religiosity or acculturation, to explore their beliefs and attitudes toward socioecological (SE) factors that facilitated and hindered their individual physical…

  18. Acculturation, White Marginalization, and Family Support as Predictors of Perceived Distress in Mexican American Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; Brossart, Daniel F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of psychosociocultural variables of acculturation, White attitudinal marginalization, family support, and income on perceived distress in 247 Mexican American female college students. Participants were bicultural and attended primarily White universities in the West and Southwest. Results showed that comfort with…

  19. Adaptation of the 2015 American College of Rheumatology treatment guideline for rheumatoid arthritis for the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darzi, Andrea; Harfouche, Manale; Arayssi, Thurayya

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that adaptation of health practice guidelines to the local setting is expected to improve their uptake and implementation while cutting on required resources. We recently adapted the published American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) tr...

  20. Evaluation of the Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness Scales with Mexican American High School and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lerma, Eunice; Ikonomopoulos, James

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the psychometric properties of two meaningful measures of subjective well-being among Mexican American high school and college students. Participants completed the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) or Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) as measures of subjective well-being. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)…

  1. A Comparison of Dietary Intakes between Male and Female Korean American College Students: A Two Generation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Chick F.; Lew, PoLong; Schwartz, Miriam; Poon, George; An, JaeYoon; Lee, Jina; Chan, Katie; Li, Kenneth; Cheung, Yuen Ting; Luong, Duyen; Davis, Rebecca; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook; Kim, Samuel Saychang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe the differences in dietary intakes between two generations, male and female Korean American college students with their respective parents, living in the Los Angeles Areas. This study compared dietary nutrient intakes between old Koreans (KO) (n=28, average age: 53.4[plus or minus]6.4 years, with 13 males…

  2. College Access and Success among High School Graduates Taking the SAT®: Asian American Students. Research Note 2013-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillip, Mary E. M.; Mackey, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    This report shows college enrollment and graduation trends among Asian American SAT® takers who finished high school in 2004 and 2010 by student characteristics, including aspirations, self-perceived ability, and academic achievements. In every case, students in the top categories (high aspirations, high-perceived ability, high-assessed ability)…

  3. Teaching Modules to Build HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Safer Sex Skills among African-American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Amar; Sharma, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has taken a tremendous toll on the population of the United States. College students, including African-Americans aged 13-24 years, across the nation are susceptible to contracting sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS as they participate in unsafe sex practices. The purpose of this article is to provide teaching…

  4. Influence of Remedial Education Policies: Experiences of Low-Income Native American Women at a Midwestern Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Armour, Carole Cristine

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how policies regarding remedial education can influence the experiences of students who identify as low socioeconomic (SES) Native American women at a Midwestern community college. This study proposed to use interpretive policy analysis and phenomenological qualitative research to learn more about how low…

  5. Impostorism as a Mediator between Survivor Guilt and Depression in a Sample of African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Chammie C.; Clark, Eddie M.; Ross, Michael J.; Taylor, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore the mediating effects of impostorism on the association between survivor guilt feelings and self-report depressive symptomatology. Ninety-seven African American college students were asked to complete measures of empathy based survivor guilt, impostor feelings, and depression. Results indicated that…

  6. American College of Radiology In-Training Examination for Residents in Radiation Oncology (2004-2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulino, Arnold C.; Kurtz, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To review the results of the recent American College of Radiology (ACR) in-training examinations in radiation oncology and to provide information regarding the examination changes in recent years. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of the 2004 to 2007 ACR in-training examination was undertaken. Results: The number of residents taking the in-training examination increased from 2004 to 2007, compatible with the increase in the number of radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. The number of questions decreased from approximately 510 in 2004 and 2005, to 405 in 2006 and 360 in 2007, most of these changes were in the clinical oncology section. Although the in-training examination showed construct validity with resident performance improving with each year of additional clinical oncology training, it did so only until Level 3 for biology and physics. Several changes have been made to the examination process, including allowing residents to keep the examination booklet for self-study, posting of the answer key and rationales to questions on the ACR Website, and providing hard copies to residency training directors. In addition, all questions are now A type or multiple choice questions with one best answer, similar to the American Board of Radiology written examination for radiation oncology. Conclusion: Several efforts by the ACR have been made in recent years to make the examination an educational tool for radiation oncology residents and residency directors

  7. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Proctor, David N; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Minson, Christopher T; Nigg, Claudio R; Salem, George J; Skinner, James S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide an overview of issues critical to understanding the importance of exercise and physical activity in older adult populations. The Position Stand is divided into three sections: Section 1 briefly reviews the structural and functional changes that characterize normal human aging, Section 2 considers the extent to which exercise and physical activity can influence the aging process, and Section 3 summarizes the benefits of both long-term exercise and physical activity and shorter-duration exercise programs on health and functional capacity. Although no amount of physical activity can stop the biological aging process, there is evidence that regular exercise can minimize the physiological effects of an otherwise sedentary lifestyle and increase active life expectancy by limiting the development and progression of chronic disease and disabling conditions. There is also emerging evidence for significant psychological and cognitive benefits accruing from regular exercise participation by older adults. Ideally, exercise prescription for older adults should include aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening exercises, and flexibility exercises. The evidence reviewed in this Position Stand is generally consistent with prior American College of Sports Medicine statements on the types and amounts of physical activity recommended for older adults as well as the recently published 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. All older adults should engage in regular physical activity and avoid an inactive lifestyle.

  8. The Plastic Surgeon at Work and Play: Surgeon Health, Practice Stress, and Work-Home Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Plastic surgeon wellness encompasses physical and mental health, considered in the context of practice stress. In addition, the challenges of work-home balance can lead to substantial negative impact on the surgeon, family, staff, and patients. The data-driven impact of each of these three components with personal vignettes, both individually and collectively, is presented by Michael Bentz, MD as the 2016 presidential address of American Association of Plastic Surgeons.

  9. Relationship Between Pretraining Subjective Wellness Measures, Player Load, and Rating-of-Perceived-Exertion Training Load in American College Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govus, Andrew D; Coutts, Aaron; Duffield, Rob; Murray, Andrew; Fullagar, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between pretraining subjective wellness and external and internal training load in American college football is unclear. To examine the relationship of pretraining subjective wellness (sleep quality, muscle soreness, energy, wellness Z score) with player load and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE-TL) in American college football players. Subjective wellness (measured using 5-point, Likert-scale questionnaires), external load (derived from GPS and accelerometry), and s-RPE-TL were collected during 3 typical training sessions per week for the second half of an American college football season (8 wk). The relationship of pretraining subjective wellness with player load and s-RPE training load was analyzed using linear mixed models with a random intercept for athlete and a random slope for training session. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) denote the effect magnitude. A 1-unit increase in wellness Z score and energy was associated with trivial 2.3% (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.5, 4.2; SMD 0.12) and 2.6% (90% CI 0.1, 5.2; SMD 0.13) increases in player load, respectively. A 1-unit increase in muscle soreness (players felt less sore) corresponded to a trivial 4.4% (90% CI -8.4, -0.3; SMD -0.05) decrease in s-RPE training load. Measuring pretraining subjective wellness may provide information about players' capacity to perform in a training session and could be a key determinant of their response to the imposed training demands American college football. Hence, monitoring subjective wellness may aid in the individualization of training prescription in American college football players.

  10. [The surgeon and deontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucila, Antanas

    2002-01-01

    The aim of study is to recall surgeons deontological principles and errors. The article demonstrates some specific deontological errors, performed by surgeon on patients and his colleagues; points out painful sequela of these errors as well. CONCLUSION. The surgeon should take in account deontological principles rigorously in routine daily practice.

  11. A Nation at Risk: Increasing College Participation and Persistence Among African American Males to Stimulate U.S. Global Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriel A. Hilton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Today’s knowledge-based, global commerce requires continuous investment in human capital through postsecondary education for countries to be fiercely competitive. Countries, such as China and India, are experiencing growth in the number of people participating in postsecondary education; the United States has fallen behind. While America needs to focus on increasing college access and degree completion among underrepresented ethnic minorities, particularly in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM, educators and policymakers assert that this is particularly important for African American males. Increasing matriculation and graduation rates for African Americans is not only a matter of equity, but in the context of STEM, it has major implications for the competitiveness of the United States in the global economy. This article identifies strategies that educators and policymakers can employ to promote the participation of African American males in college in general, particularly in STEM.

  12. Predicting the admission into medical school of African American college students who have participated in summer academic enrichment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, A; Cregler, L L; Lewis, L

    1998-02-01

    To identify cognitive and noncognitive variables as predictors of the admission into medical school of African American college students who have participated in summer academic enrichment programs (SAEPs). The study sample comprised 309 African American college students who participated in SAEPs at the Medical College of Georgia School of Medicine from 1980 to 1989 and whose educational and occupational statuses were determined by follow-up tracking. A three-step logistic regression was used to analyze the data (with alpha = .05); the criterion variable was admission to medical school. The 17 predictor variables studied were one of two types, cognitive and noncognitive. The cognitive variables were (1) Scholastic Aptitude Test mathematics (SAT-M) score, (2) SAT verbal score, (3) college grade-point average (GPA), (4) college science GPA, (5) SAEP GPA, and (6) SAEP basic science GPA (BSGPA). The noncognitive variables were (1) gender, (2) highest college level at the time of the last SAEP application, (3) type of college attended (historically African American or predominately white), (4) number of SAEPs attended, (5) career aspiration (physician or another health science option) (6) parents who were professionals, (7) parents who were health care role models, (8) evidence of leadership, (9) evidence of community service, (10) evidence of special motivation, and (11) strength of letter of recommendation in the SAEP application. For each student the rating scores for the last four noncognitive variables were determined by averaging the ratings of two judges who reviewed relevant information in each student's file. In step 1, which explained 20% of the admission decision variance, SAT-M score, SAEP BSGPA, and college GPA were the three significant cognitive predictors identified. In step 2, which explained 31% of the variance, the three cognitive predictors identified in step 1 were joined by three noncognitive predictors: career aspiration, type of college, and

  13. Synopsis and Review of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association 2013 ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen F

    2014-01-01

    The "2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines" is a major revision of the 2004 guideline. This article provides a synopsis and review of the guideline focusing on changes in patient care and implementing processes to ensure quality care. The implementation of this guideline provides nursing with a unique opportunity to affect patients and families primarily by recognition of the event and education about lifestyle modification and disease management. Regionalization of emergency systems provides a novel situation for nursing to develop interdepartmental and system protocols.

  14. CONSENSUS STATEMENT BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY ON THE COMPREHENSIVE TYPE 2 DIABETES MANAGEMENT ALGORITHM--2015 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Alan J; Abrahamson, Martin Julian; Barzilay, Joshua I; Blonde, Lawrence; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Bush, Michael A; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Davidson, Michael B; Einhorn, Daniel; Garber, Jeffrey R; Garvey, W Timothy; Grunberger, George; Handelsman, Yehuda; Hirsch, Irl B; Jellinger, Paul S; McGill, Janet B; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Rosenblit, Paul David; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2015-12-01

    This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology. Where there were no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician.

  15. The Glass Houses of Attending Surgeons: An Assessment of Unprofessional Behavior on Facebook Among Practicing Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenfeld, Sean J; Sudbeck, Craig; Luers, Thomas; Adamson, Peter; Cook, Gates; Schenarts, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Our recent publication demonstrated that unprofessional behavior on Facebook is common among surgical residents. In the formulation of standards and curricula to address this issue, it is important that surgical faculty lead by example. Our current study refocuses on the Facebook profiles of faculty surgeons involved in the education of general surgery residents. The American College of Surgeons (ACS) web site was used to identify general surgery residencies located in the Midwest. Departmental web sites were then searched to identify teaching faculty for the general surgery residency. Facebook was then searched to determine which faculty had profiles available for viewing by the general public. Profiles were then placed in 1 of the 3 following categories: professional, potentially unprofessional, or clearly unprofessional. A chi-square test was used to determine significance. In all, 57 residency programs were identified on the ACS web site, 100% of which provided an institutional web site listing the surgical faculty. A total of 758 general surgery faculty were identified (133 women and 625 men), of which 195 (25.7%) had identifiable Facebook accounts. In all, 165 faculty (84.6%) had no unprofessional content, 20 (10.3%) had potentially unprofessional content, and 10 (5.1%) had clearly unprofessional content. Inter-rater reliability was good (88.9% agreement, κ = 0.784). Clearly unprofessional behavior was found only in male surgeons. For male surgeons, clearly unprofessional behavior was more common among those in practice for less than 5 years (p = 0.031). Alcohol and politics were the most commonly found variables in the potentially unprofessional group. Inappropriate language and sexually suggestive material were the most commonly found variables in the clearly unprofessional group. Unprofessional behavior on Facebook is less common among surgical faculty compared with surgical residents. However, the rates remain unacceptably high, especially among men and

  16. Profiles of African American College Students’ Alcohol Use and Sexual Behaviors: Associations With Stress, Racial Discrimination, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Isha W.; Cooper, Shauna M.; Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Onyeuku, Chisom; Griffin, Charity Brown

    2017-01-01

    Though studies show that alcohol use and sexual activity increase during emerging adulthood, few studies examine within–ethnic group differences, particularly among African American college students. This investigation utilized a latent class analytic methodology to identify risk behavior profiles of alcohol use (frequency and amount of alcohol consumed), sexual activity (number of intimate partners), and co-occurring risk behaviors (drinking before sexual intercourse) among 228 African American college students. This investigation also examined whether identified risk behavior profiles were associated with stress (interpersonal, intraperso-nal, academic, and environmental), experiences of racial discrimination, and social support (from family, friends, and the college community). Results identified five distinct profiles within this sample: (a) High Sexual Risk—above-average sexual activity; (b) Abstainers—below-average alcohol use and sexual activity; (c) Low Risk—average alcohol use and sexual activity; (d) Alcohol Risk—above-average alcohol use and below-average sexual activity; and (e) Co-Occurring Risk—above-average alcohol use and sexual activity. Identified profiles differed across interpersonal and environmental stress, and self-reported frequency of experiences with racial discrimination. Implications for prevention programs and interventions aimed at reducing alcohol and sexual activity for African American college students are discussed. PMID:27215314

  17. Profiles of African American College Students' Alcohol Use and Sexual Behaviors: Associations With Stress, Racial Discrimination, and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Isha W; Cooper, Shauna M; Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Onyeuku, Chisom; Griffin, Charity Brown

    2017-01-01

    Though studies show that alcohol use and sexual activity increase during emerging adulthood, few studies examine within-ethnic group differences, particularly among African American college students. This investigation utilized a latent class analytic methodology to identify risk behavior profiles of alcohol use (frequency and amount of alcohol consumed), sexual activity (number of intimate partners), and co-occurring risk behaviors (drinking before sexual intercourse) among 228 African American college students. This investigation also examined whether identified risk behavior profiles were associated with stress (interpersonal, intrapersonal, academic, and environmental), experiences of racial discrimination, and social support (from family, friends, and the college community). Results identified five distinct profiles within this sample: (a) High Sexual Risk-above-average sexual activity; (b) Abstainers-below-average alcohol use and sexual activity; (c) Low Risk-average alcohol use and sexual activity; (d) Alcohol Risk-above-average alcohol use and below-average sexual activity; and (e) Co-Occurring Risk-above-average alcohol use and sexual activity. Identified profiles differed across interpersonal and environmental stress, and self-reported frequency of experiences with racial discrimination. Implications for prevention programs and interventions aimed at reducing alcohol and sexual activity for African American college students are discussed.

  18. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY PROTOCOL FOR STANDARDIZED PRODUCTION OF CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES, ALGORITHMS, AND CHECKLISTS - 2017 UPDATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Camacho, Pauline; Correa, Ricardo; Figaro, M Kathleen; Garber, Jeffrey R; Jasim, Sina; Pantalone, Kevin M; Trence, Dace; Upala, Sikarin

    2017-08-01

    Clinical practice guideline (CPG), clinical practice algorithm (CPA), and clinical checklist (CC, collectively CPGAC) development is a high priority of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE). This 2017 update in CPG development consists of (1) a paradigm change wherein first, environmental scans identify important clinical issues and needs, second, CPA construction focuses on these clinical issues and needs, and third, CPG provide CPA node/edge-specific scientific substantiation and appended CC; (2) inclusion of new technical semantic and numerical descriptors for evidence types, subjective factors, and qualifiers; and (3) incorporation of patient-centered care components such as economics and transcultural adaptations, as well as implementation, validation, and evaluation strategies. This third point highlights the dominating factors of personal finances, governmental influences, and third-party payer dictates on CPGAC implementation, which ultimately impact CPGAC development. The AACE/ACE guidelines for the CPGAC program is a successful and ongoing iterative exercise to optimize endocrine care in a changing and challenging healthcare environment. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACC = American College of Cardiology ACE = American College of Endocrinology ASeRT = ACE Scientific Referencing Team BEL = best evidence level CC = clinical checklist CPA = clinical practice algorithm CPG = clinical practice guideline CPGAC = clinical practice guideline, algorithm, and checklist EBM = evidence-based medicine EHR = electronic health record EL = evidence level G4GAC = Guidelines for Guidelines, Algorithms, and Checklists GAC = guidelines, algorithms, and checklists HCP = healthcare professional(s) POEMS = patient-oriented evidence that matters PRCT = prospective randomized controlled trial.

  19. Policies to restrict secondhand smoke exposure: American College of Preventive Medicine Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Michelle; Alonso, Alina M; Sherin, Kevin M; Koh, Yumi; Dhamija, Asha; Lowe, Andrea L

    2013-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure poses serious health risks for all nonsmokers, especially children and pregnant women. SHS is estimated to contribute to heart attacks in nonsmokers and nearly 53,800 deaths in the U.S. annually. A literature review of English-language articles was performed using PubMed, organizational websites, and pertinent review articles. Over the past 25 years, smokefree policies have protected nearly half the U.S. population from the adverse health effects of SHS. Smokefree policies have been shown to improve health outcomes with no consequences to local businesses. As of April 2013, a total of 24 states and 561 municipalities and territories, including the District of Columbia, New York City, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, have established laws that require nonhospitality workplaces, restaurants, and bars to be 100% smokefree. Four other states-Florida, Indiana, Louisiana, and Nevada-have smokefree laws that cover restaurants but provide an exemption for stand-alone bars. At least 14 states have no smokefree laws. This paper describes the benefits of policies that reduce SHS and concludes with recommendations for future directions. The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) recommends expanded clean indoor air policies for workplaces, stand-alone bars, restaurants, and multi-use family housing such as apartment buildings. ACPM recommends clean air policies for all university campuses, secondary school campuses, primary schools, child care centers, and city landmarks to further shift social norms and protect the health of children, adolescents, and adults. ACPM recommends closing existing gaps in clean indoor air policies. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. To Test or Not to Test: Barriers and Solutions to Testing African American College Students for HIV at a Historically Black College/University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Naomi M; Peterson, Jennifer; Johnson, Malynnda

    2014-01-01

    Young African Americans are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The purpose was to identify reasons that African American college students at a historically Black college/university (HBCU) identified as barriers to HIV testing, and how these barriers can be removed. Fifty-seven heterosexual-identified undergraduate students (ages 18-25) attending an HBCU in the southeastern US participated in a mixed method study. Latent content analytic techniques were used to code the transcripts for themes and categories, and representative quotations were used in the findings. Quantitative data indicates high levels of perceived knowledge about HIV transmission, low perception of risk and concern of contracting HIV, yet continued sexual risk behavior. Qualitative data indicates three main themes used to avoid testing and three themes to encourage testing. Students were forthcoming in discussing the themes around avoidance of HIV testing (being scared to know, preferring not to know, and lack of discussion about HIV) and encouraging testing (group testing, increasing basic knowledge, and showing the reality of HIV). It is important for college healthcare professionals, researchers, and officials to identify appropriate ways to encourage HIV testing, and promote testing as part of overall health.

  1. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY 2018 POSITION STATEMENT ON INTEGRATION OF INSULIN PUMPS AND CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberger, George; Handelsman, Yehuda; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Fonseca, Vivian A; Garber, Alan J; Haas, Richard A; Roberts, Victor L; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2018-03-01

    This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology. Where there are no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician. AACE/ACE Task Force on Integration of Insulin Pumps and Continuous Glucose Monitoring in the Management of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Chair George Grunberger, MD, FACP, FACE Task Force Members Yehuda Handelsman, MD, FACP, FNLA, MACE Zachary T. Bloomgarden, MD, MACE Vivian A. Fonseca, MD, FACE Alan J. Garber, MD, PhD, FACE Richard A. Haas, MD, FACE Victor L. Roberts, MD, MBA, FACP, FACE Guillermo E. Umpierrez, MD, CDE, FACP, FACE Abbreviations: AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACE = American College of Endocrinology A1C = glycated hemoglobin BGM = blood glucose monitoring CGM = continuous glucose monitoring CSII = continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion DM = diabetes mellitus FDA = Food & Drug Administration MDI = multiple daily injections T1DM = type 1 diabetes mellitus T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus SAP = sensor-augmented pump SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose STAR 3 = Sensor-Augmented Pump Therapy for A1C Reduction phase 3 trial.

  2. Improving diagnosis in health care: perspectives from the American College of Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bibb; Chatfield, Mythreyi; Burleson, Judy; Thorwarth, William T

    2017-09-26

    In September of 2014, the American College of Radiology joined a number of other organizations in sponsoring the 2015 National Academy of Medicine report, Improving Diagnosis In Health Care. Our presentation to the Academy emphasized that although diagnostic errors in imaging are commonly considered to result only from failures in disease detection or misinterpretation of a perceived abnormality, most errors in diagnosis result from failures in information gathering, aggregation, dissemination and ultimately integration of that information into our patients' clinical problems. Diagnostic errors can occur at any point on the continuum of imaging care from when imaging is first considered until results and recommendations are fully understood by our referring physicians and patients. We used the concept of the Imaging Value Chain and the ACR's Imaging 3.0 initiative to illustrate how better information gathering and integration at each step in imaging care can mitigate many of the causes of diagnostic errors. Radiologists are in a unique position to be the aggregators, brokers and disseminators of information critical to making an informed diagnosis, and if radiologists were empowered to use our expertise and informatics tools to manage the entire imaging chain, diagnostic errors would be reduced and patient outcomes improved. Heath care teams should take advantage of radiologists' ability to fully manage information related to medical imaging, and simultaneously, radiologists must be ready to meet these new challenges as health care evolves. The radiology community stands ready work with all stakeholders to design and implement solutions that minimize diagnostic errors.

  3. The American College of Nurse-Midwives' dream becomes reality: The Division of Accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Betty Watts; Burst, Helen Varney

    2005-01-01

    Recognized continuously by the US Department of Education since 1982 as a specialized accrediting agency, the American College of Nurse-Midwives' Division of Accreditation (DOA) accredits not only nurse-midwifery education programs at the postbaccalaureate or higher academic level as certificate and graduate programs for registered nurses (RNs), but also precertification programs for professional midwives from other countries who are licensed as RNs in the United States. The DOA also accredits midwifery education programs for non-nurses at the postbaccalaureate or higher academic level as certificate and graduate programs, and precertification programs for professional midwives from other countries. The accreditation process is a voluntary activity involving both nurse-midwifery and/or midwifery education programs and the DOA. Present plans include another expansion of recognition: to become an institutional accreditation agency for independent and proprietary schools and to continue as a programmatic accrediting agency. Since its inception, the accreditation process has been viewed as a positive development in nurse-midwifery education.

  4. Supporting medical education research quality: the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical Education Research Certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.

  5. Midwifery Provision of Home Birth Services: American College of Nurse-Midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The number of women in the United States choosing to give birth at home has risen substantially in the past decade, creating an increased need for understanding of the evidence regarding the provision of midwifery care to women and families considering this option. The safety of home birth has been evaluated in observational studies in several industrialized nations, including the United States. Most studies find that women who are essentially healthy at term with a singleton fetus and give birth at home have positive outcomes and a lower rate of interventions during labor. Although some studies have found increased neonatal morbidity and mortality in newborns born at home when compared to newborns born in a hospital, the absolute numbers reported in both birth sites are very low. The purpose of this clinical bulletin is to review the evidence on provision of care to women and families who plan to give birth at home, including roles and responsibilities, shared decision making, informed consent, and ongoing assessment for birth site selection. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  6. Technical quality assessment of breast ultrasound according to American College of Radiology (ACR) Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Kyung Hee; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Young Ah; Son, Eun Ju; Oh, Ki Keun; Chung, Sun Yang

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the technical quality of breast ultrasound based on American College of Radiology(ACR) standards. Between March 2002 and July 2002, ninety three breast sonograms obtained from 73 institutions were evaluated based on ACR standards for the hardware, technical settings, labeling of the images and identification. Of 93 breast sonograms, a satisfactory compliance with all ACR standards in the performance of breast US examinations was documented in 31% while the remaining 69% did not fully meet all ACR standards. 4.3% of breast US examinations were performed with a convex transducers, and the focal zone was inappropriately positioned in 14.2%. Gray-scale gain was subjectively characterized as inappropriate in 26.9%, and the size of lesion was not measured in 7.5%. Anatomic location of lesions was inappropriately described in 9.3%. The orientation of an US transducer was not properly labeled on any images in 33.3%. Inadequate recording of patient's information was noted in 43.3%. 50% of sonograms at University medical centers and larger general hospitals fully met all ACR standards while 36.8% at radiologic clinics and 12.1% at other private clinics met all ACR standards. Overall, 69% of breast sonograms failed to meet the quality criteria of the ACR standards. Therefore, it is essential to educate the basic technical details in performing breast US for the quality control.

  7. Changes in racial identity among African American college students following the election of Barack Obama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Burrow, Anthony L; Ong, Anthony D

    2011-11-01

    The current study considered the influence of the 2008 presidential election on the racial identity of African American college students (M(age) = 19.3 years; 26.3% male). The design of the study consisted of 2 components: longitudinal and daily. The longitudinal component assessed 3 dimensions of racial identity (centrality, private regard, and public regard) 2 weeks before and 5 months after the election, and the daily diary component assessed racial identity and identity exploration on the days immediately before and after the election. Daily items measuring identity exploration focused on how much individuals thought about issues relating to their race. Analyses considered the immediate effects of the election on identity exploration and the extent to which changes in exploration were shaped by racial identity measured prior to the election. We also considered immediate and longer term changes in racial identity following the election and the extent to which longer term changes were conditioned by identity exploration. Findings suggest that the election served as an "encounter" experience (Cross, 1991, 1995, pp. 60-61), which led to increases in identity exploration. Moreover, analyses confirmed that changes in identity exploration were most pronounced among those with higher levels of racial centrality. Results also suggest that the election had both an immediate and a longer term influence on racial identity, which in some instances was conditioned by identity exploration.

  8. Surgical pathology report defects: a College of American Pathologists Q-Probes study of 73 institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmar, Keith E; Idowu, Michael O; Hunt, Jennifer L; Souers, Rhona J; Meier, Frederick A; Nakhleh, Raouf E

    2014-05-01

    The rate of surgical pathology report defects is an indicator of quality and it affects clinician satisfaction. To establish benchmarks for defect rates and defect fractions through a large, multi-institutional prospective application of standard taxonomy. Participants in a 2011 Q-Probes study of the College of American Pathologists prospectively reviewed all surgical pathology reports that underwent changes to correct defects and reported details regarding the defects. Seventy-three institutions reported 1688 report defects discovered in 360,218 accessioned cases, for an aggregate defect rate of 4.7 per 1000 cases. Median institutional defect rate was 5.7 per 1000 (10th to 90th percentile range, 13.5-0.9). Defect rates were higher in institutions with a pathology training program (8.5 versus 5.0 per 1000, P = .01) and when a set percentage of cases were reviewed after sign-out (median, 6.7 versus 3.8 per 1000, P = .10). Defect types were as follows: 14.6% misinterpretations, 13.3% misidentifications, 13.7% specimen defects, and 58.4% other report defects. Overall, defects were most often detected by pathologists (47.4%), followed by clinicians (22.0%). Misinterpretations and specimen defects were most often detected by pathologists (73.5% and 82.7% respectively, P benchmarking data on report defects and defect fractions using standardized taxonomy.

  9. Entrustable Professional Activities for Pathology: Recommendations From the College of American Pathologists Graduate Medical Education Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Cindy B; Domen, Ronald E; Conran, Richard M; Hoffman, Robert D; Post, Miriam D; Brissette, Mark D; Gratzinger, Dita A; Raciti, Patricia M; Cohen, David A; Roberts, Cory A; Rojiani, Amyn M; Kong, Christina S; Peterson, Jo Elle G; Johnson, Kristen; Plath, Sue; Powell, Suzanne Zein-Eldin

    2017-01-01

    Competency-based medical education has evolved over the past decades to include the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Accreditation System of resident evaluation based on the Milestones project. Entrustable professional activities represent another means to determine learner proficiency and evaluate educational outcomes in the workplace and training environment. The objective of this project was to develop entrustable professional activities for pathology graduate medical education encompassing primary anatomic and clinical pathology residency training. The Graduate Medical Education Committee of the College of American Pathologists met over the course of 2 years to identify and define entrustable professional activities for pathology graduate medical education. Nineteen entrustable professional activities were developed, including 7 for anatomic pathology, 4 for clinical pathology, and 8 that apply to both disciplines with 5 of these concerning laboratory management. The content defined for each entrustable professional activity includes the entrustable professional activity title, a description of the knowledge and skills required for competent performance, mapping to relevant Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestone subcompetencies, and general assessment methods. Many critical activities that define the practice of pathology fit well within the entrustable professional activity model. The entrustable professional activities outlined by the Graduate Medical Education Committee are meant to provide an initial framework for the development of entrustable professional activity-related assessment and curricular tools for pathology residency training.

  10. Renewing the American Community College. The Jossey-Bass Higher Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William L.; And Others

    A framework for examining the future development of the community college and specific policy and program proposals is provided by the 13 essays in this collection. Part one, "The Community College in Perspective," includes "The Evolution of Two-Year Colleges Through Four Generations," by Dale Tillery and William L. Deegan; and "Determining…

  11. Epidemiology of Alcohol and Other Drug Use among American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2002-01-01

    Presents information on the extent of alcohol use and other drug use among college students. Alcohol rates are very high among college students, with use higher among males than females. White students are highest in heavy drinking, black students are lowest and Hispanics are intermediate. Results indicate colleges should do more to reduce heavy…

  12. Relationship styles of self-focused autonomy, other-focused connection, and mutuality among Mexican American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Kristin D; Brabeck, Kalina M; Kearney, Lisa K

    2006-10-01

    The author examined relationship styles of self-focused autonomy (SFA), other-focused connection (OFC), and mutuality among 415 European and Mexican American young adults in 2 U.S. colleges. Mutuality was the most commonly reported style for both ethnic groups, although Mexican American men were more likely than the others to indicate that they had the SFA style. Mexican American participants perceived their fathers' styles as SFA more often than did the others regarding either of their parents' styles. Mutuality was associated with the best mental-health outcomes regardless of gender or ethnicity. The present results indicate that the cultural influences on autonomy and connection are complex and that collectivistic cultural contexts may sometimes promote autonomy concerns in men.

  13. "The Two Joes Meet--Joe College, Joe Veteran": The G. I. Bill, College Education, and Postwar American Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines how the World War II veterans' influx into higher education changed the perception of that institution in the minds of the public and its portrayal in popular media. Previously characterized as an upper-crust indulgence, college became an acceptable symbol of social mobility. Includes reproductions of magazine advertisements. (MJP)

  14. Ready or Not: The Academic College Readiness of Southeast Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Chia S.

    2014-01-01

    The educational experiences of Southeast Asian Americans, particularly Cambodian Americans, Hmong Americans, Laotian Americans, and Vietnamese Americans, are characterized by numerous challenges, which can be attributed to their migration history, socioeconomic status, and English proficiency. By the end of 11th grade, a high percentage of…

  15. African American Mother–Daughter Communication About Sex and Daughters’ Sexual Behavior: Does College Racial Composition Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Mia Smith

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of African American mothers’ communication about sexual topics on the sexual attitudes and behavior of their college-enrolled daughters. Daughters were enrolled at a historically Black college/university (HBCU) or a predominantly White institution (PWI) to assess whether and how college racial context might affect daughters’ sexual attitudes and behavior. Findings indicated that daughters at the HBCU had less permissive attitudes about premarital sex than their counterparts at the PWI. This result was especially true for daughters of mothers with more conservative attitudes about premarital sex and who discussed such topics infrequently. Last, the combination of positive mother–daughter communication and fewer discussions about sexual topics resulted in lower levels of sexual experience among the daughters. PMID:17500604

  16. African American mother-daughter communication about sex and daughters' sexual behavior: does college racial composition make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Mia Smith

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the influence of African American mothers' communication about sexual topics on the sexual attitudes and behavior of their college-enrolled daughters. Daughters were enrolled at a historically Black college/university (HBCU) or a predominantly White institution (PWI) to assess whether and how college racial context might affect daughters' sexual attitudes and behavior. Findings indicated that daughters at the HBCU had less permissive attitudes about premarital sex than their counterparts at the PWI. This result was especially true for daughters of mothers with more conservative attitudes about premarital sex and who discussed such topics infrequently. Last, the combination of positive mother-daughter communication and fewer discussions about sexual topics resulted in lower levels of sexual experience among the daughters. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Lifelong Learning for the Hand Surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkinson, Joshua M; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-09-01

    Hand surgeons are faced with the impossible task of mastering a rapidly expanding pool of knowledge and surgical techniques. Dedication to lifelong learning is, therefore, an essential component of delivering the best, most up-to-date care for patients. Board certification, participation in continuing medical education and maintenance of certification activities, and attendance at national meetings are essential mechanisms by which hand surgeons may foster the acquisition of essential knowledge and clinical skills, This article highlights the history, current status, and emerging needs in continuing medical education for the hand surgeon. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The roles of family, culture, and social cognitive variables in the career interests and goals of Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kayi; Lent, Robert W

    2018-01-01

    Although family and cultural factors have been assumed to play important roles in the career development of Asian Americans, theory-driven research on this topic remains limited. We examined culturally relevant factors that may contribute to Asian Americans' consideration of fields in which they are overrepresented (e.g., science, technology, engineering) and underrepresented (e.g., education, social science). Drawing from social cognitive career theory, a culture-specific, social cognitive model of career interests and choice was tested in Holland's (1997) Investigative (I) and Social (S) themes. A sample of 802 Asian American undergraduates completed measures of family support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interest, and career choice consideration in relation to both Holland themes. Two indicators of acculturation/enculturation (adherence to Asian values and generation status in the United States) were also obtained. The model accounted for a substantial amount of variance in Asian American college students' career consideration in both themes. Family support and acculturation played varying roles, depending on the Holland theme. For example, family support was linked to career choice consideration both directly (in the S theme) and indirectly, via other predictors (in both themes). Contrary to expectations, the acculturation variables did not moderate the relation of family support or interest to career consideration in either theme. We discuss the implications of these findings for efforts to understand and facilitate the career development of Asian American college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale among Asian American college students: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Justin C; Vance, Kristen S; Helms, Janet E

    2009-04-01

    In this study, an exploratory factor analysis of the People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale (PRIAS; Helms, 1995b) among a sample of Asian American college students (N = 225) was conducted. The factorial structure that emerged revealed mixed results in terms of consistency with the People of Color (POC) theory (Helms, 1995a). The measure's construct validity for Asian Americans may be improved through further scale development and revision. Directions for future research on the PRIAS are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. College of American Pathologists Gynecologic Cytopathology Quality Consensus Conference on good laboratory practices in gynecologic cytology: background, rationale, and organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworek, Joseph A; Henry, Michael R; Blond, Barbara; Jones, Bruce Allen

    2013-02-01

    Gynecologic cytopathology is a heavily regulated field, with Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 mandating the collection of many quality metrics. There is a lack of consensus regarding methods to collect, monitor, and benchmark these data and how these data should be used in a quality assurance program. Furthermore, the introduction of human papilloma virus testing and proficiency testing has provided more data to monitor. To determine good laboratory practices in quality assurance of gynecologic cytopathology. Data were collected through a written survey consisting of 98 questions submitted to 1245 Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-licensed or Department of Defense laboratories. There were 541 usable responses. Additional input was sought through a Web posting of results and questions on the College of American Pathologists Web site. Four senior authors who authored the survey and 28 cytopathologists and cytotechnologists were assigned to 5 working groups to analyze data and present statements on good laboratory practices in gynecologic cytopathology at the College of American Pathologists Gynecologic Cytopathology Quality Consensus Conference. Ninety-eight attendees at the College of American Pathologists Gynecologic Cytopathology Quality Consensus Conference discussed and voted on good laboratory practice statements to obtain consensus. This paper describes the rationale, background, process, and strengths and limitations of a series of papers that summarize good laboratory practice statements in quality assurance in gynecologic cytopathology.

  1. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Di Marco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of the sports dietitian. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins and to contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  2. A 25-year analysis of the American College of Gastroenterology Research Grant Program:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Seth D.; Dellon, Evan S.; Bright, Stephanie D.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) has awarded research grants for 25 years. We assessed the characteristics of grant recipients, their current academic status, and the likelihood of publication resulting from the grant. Methods Demographic data, year and amount of award, title of project, and recipient’s institution were extracted from ACG databases. Using ACG reports and medical literature search engines, we assessed publication based on grant-funded research, as well as career publication record. We also determined the current position of awardees. Similar analysis was performed for recipients of junior investigator awards. Results A total of 396 clinical research awards totaling $5,374,497 ($6,867,937 in 2008 dollars) were awarded to 341 recipients in the 25 years between 1983 and 2008. The most commonly funded areas of research were endoscopy (22% of awards) and motility/functional disorders (21%). At least one peer-reviewed publication based on grant-funded research occurred in 255 of the awards (69%). Higher award value was associated with subsequent publication. Of 341 past awardees, 195 (62%) are currently in academic positions. Factors associated with staying in academics included higher award value (pacademics. Overall, the mean cost in grant dollars per published paper based on the research was $14,875. Conclusion The majority of ACG grant recipients published the results of their research and remained in academics. Higher amount of award, holding an advanced degree, and publication were associated with careers in academics. The ACG research grant award program is an important engine of investigation, publications, and academic career development in the field of gastroenterology. PMID:19319125

  3. Ethics and the Legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide: An American College of Physicians Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder Sulmasy, Lois; Mueller, Paul S

    2017-10-17

    Calls to legalize physician-assisted suicide have increased and public interest in the subject has grown in recent years despite ethical prohibitions. Many people have concerns about how they will die and the emphasis by medicine and society on intervention and cure has sometimes come at the expense of good end-of-life care. Some have advocated strongly, on the basis of autonomy, that physician-assisted suicide should be a legal option at the end of life. As a proponent of patient-centered care, the American College of Physicians (ACP) is attentive to all voices, including those who speak of the desire to control when and how life will end. However, the ACP believes that the ethical arguments against legalizing physician-assisted suicide remain the most compelling. On the basis of substantive ethics, clinical practice, policy, and other concerns articulated in this position paper, the ACP does not support legalization of physician-assisted suicide. It is problematic given the nature of the patient-physician relationship, affects trust in the relationship and in the profession, and fundamentally alters the medical profession's role in society. Furthermore, the principles at stake in this debate also underlie medicine's responsibilities regarding other issues and the physician's duties to provide care based on clinical judgment, evidence, and ethics. Society's focus at the end of life should be on efforts to address suffering and the needs of patients and families, including improving access to effective hospice and palliative care. The ACP remains committed to improving care for patients throughout and at the end of life.

  4. 2015 Gout classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Tuhina; Jansen, Tim L Th A; Dalbeth, Nicola; Fransen, Jaap; Schumacher, H Ralph; Berendsen, Dianne; Brown, Melanie; Choi, Hyon; Edwards, N Lawrence; Janssens, Hein J E M; Lioté, Frédéric; Naden, Raymond P; Nuki, George; Ogdie, Alexis; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Saag, Kenneth; Singh, Jasvinder A; Sundy, John S; Tausche, Anne-Kathrin; Vaquez-Mellado, Janitzia; Yarows, Steven A; Taylor, William J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Existing criteria for the classification of gout have suboptimal sensitivity and/or specificity, and were developed at a time when advanced imaging was not available. The current effort was undertaken to develop new classification criteria for gout. Methods An international group of investigators, supported by the American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism, conducted a systematic review of the literature on advanced imaging of gout, a diagnostic study in which the presence of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals in synovial fluid or tophus was the gold standard, a ranking exercise of paper patient cases, and a multi-criterion decision analysis exercise. These data formed the basis for developing the classification criteria, which were tested in an independent data set. Results The entry criterion for the new classification criteria requires the occurrence of at least one episode of peripheral joint or bursal swelling, pain, or tenderness. The presence of MSU crystals in a symptomatic joint/bursa (ie, synovial fluid) or in a tophus is a sufficient criterion for classification of the subject as having gout, and does not require further scoring. The domains of the new classification criteria include clinical (pattern of joint/bursa involvement, characteristics and time course of symptomatic episodes), laboratory (serum urate, MSU-negative synovial fluid aspirate), and imaging (double-contour sign on ultrasound or urate on dual-energy CT, radiographic gout-related erosion). The sensitivity and specificity of the criteria are high (92% and 89%, respectively). Conclusions The new classification criteria, developed using a data-driven and decision-analytic approach, have excellent performance characteristics and incorporate current state-of-the-art evidence regarding gout. PMID:26359487

  5. Impact of disability and other physical health issues on academic outcomes among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A; Vanzile-Tamsen, Carol; Black, Jessica; Billiot, Shanondora M; Tovar, Molly

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether self-identified disabilities among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students impact academic performance and persistence to graduation and explored the differences in health and academic grades between American Indian and Alaskan Native students and students of other racial and ethnic identities using the National College Health Assessment. Findings indicate that American Indian or Alaskan Native students have significantly lower grades than White and Asian students, and American Indian and Alaskan Native women report the highest incidence of health problems of any demographic group. Exploratory results point to future research to determine the full impact of disabilities and poor health on academic success.

  6. Supply and Demand Analysis of the Orthopaedic Trauma Surgeon Workforce in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielatycki, John A; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Mir, Hassan R

    2016-05-01

    To investigate recent trends in the orthopaedic trauma workforce and to assess whether supply of orthopaedic trauma surgeons (OTS) matches the demand for their skills. Supply estimated using Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) membership and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons census data. The annual number of operative pelvic and acetabular fractures reported by American College of Surgeons verified trauma centers in the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) was used as a surrogate of demand. Because surrogates were used, the annual rate of change in OTA membership versus rate of change in operative injuries per NTDB center was compared. From 2002 to 2012, reported operative pelvic and acetabular injuries increased by an average of 21.0% per year. The number of reporting trauma centers increased by 27.2% per year. The number of OTA members increased each year except in 2009, with mean annual increase of 9.8%. The mean number of orthopaedic surgeons per NTDB center increased from 7.98 to 8.58, an average of 1.5% per year. The annual number of operative pelvic and acetabular fractures per NTDB center decreased from 27.1 in 2002 to 19.03 in 2012, down 2.0% per year. In the United States, from 2002 to 2012, the number of OTS trended upward, whereas operative pelvic and acetabular cases per reporting NTDB center declined. These trends suggest a net loss of such cases per OTS over this period.

  7. A Preliminary Study of Library Programs Related to American Indian Studies Programs in Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Charles

    The presence of library programs and their relationship to academic programs of Native American Studies were surveyed in 27 institutions of higher education. Institutions surveyed were those with (1) a program for recruiting American Indians, (2) a distinct staff devoted to American Indians, and (3) some course about American Indians offered in a…

  8. Examining the burdens of gendered racism: implications for pregnancy outcomes among college-educated African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, F M; Phillips, M T; Hogue, C J; Curry-Owens, T Y

    2001-06-01

    As investigators increasingly identify racism as a risk factor for poor health outcomes (with implications for adverse birth outcomes), research efforts must explore individual experiences with and responses to racism. In this study, our aim was to determine how African American college-educated women experience racism that is linked to their identities and roles as African American women (gendered racism). Four hundred seventy-four (474) African American women collaborated in an iterative research process that included focus groups, interviews, and the administration of a pilot stress instrument developed from the qualitative data. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data from the responses of a subsample of 167 college-educated women was conducted to determine how the women experienced racism as a stressor. The responses of the women and the results from correlational analysis revealed that a felt sense of obligations for protecting children from racism and the racism that African American women encountered in the workplace were significant stressors. Strong associations were found between pilot scale items where the women acknowledged concerns for their abilities to provide for their children's needs and to the women's specific experiences with racism in the workplace (r = 0.408, p gendered racism that precede and accompany pregnancy may be risk factors for adverse birth outcomes.

  9. The Significance of Family, Environment, and College Preparation: A Study of Factors Influencing Graduation and Persistence Rates of African American Males Playing Division I Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Enzley, IV

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify specific external factors including family composition, pre-college environment, and college preparation that contribute to why some African American males playing basketball at the NCAA Division I level graduate and persist while others do not. Despite an aggressive advertising campaign from the NCAA…

  10. The Role of the Small Private College in Creating a Moral, Spiritual Climate in American Society. CASC Newsletter Supplements, 1976-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Mark

    The capacity of American institutions to preserve and convey basic values to new generations has substantially diminished, suggests this former U.S. Senator from Oregon. His opinion is that the small private college can help create a moral and spiritual climate in society. The range of topics discussed includes: college preservation of values;…

  11. Examining the Effects of Campus Climate, Ethnic Group Cohesion, and Cross-Cultural Interaction on Filipino American Students' Sense of Belonging in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramba, Dina C.; Museus, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how campus climate, ethnic group cohesion and cross cultural interaction influence Filipino American college students' sense of belonging in college. Specifically, we examine the impact of three environmental and behavioral factors on students' sense of belonging: 1) campus racial climate, 2) ethnic group…

  12. Ethnic Diversity and Latino/a College Access: A Comparison of Mexican American and Puerto Rican Beginning College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Anne-Marie; Crisp, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that there are differences among the diverse Latino/a ethnic groups in their K-12 educational experiences, but little is known about variations in their postsecondary experiences. Drawing on a conceptual framework informed by the theory of French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, this research examined Mexican American and…

  13. Do self-report measures of social anxiety reflect cultural bias or real difficulties for Asian American college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lorinda Y; Lau, Anna S

    2011-01-01

    Construal of the self as independent or interdependent in relation to others has been found to correlate significantly with social anxiety symptom ratings, raising concerns about possible cultural bias in these measures for Asian Americans. To investigate the validity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms, we examined the role of ethnicity in the associations among social anxiety, self-construal, and adaptive social functioning in a sample of 229 Asian- and European American college students. Results revealed that ethnicity moderated the relationship between self-construal and social anxiety such that interdependent self-construal was associated with higher social anxiety only for first generation Asian Americans. However, there were no significant ethnic differences in the associations between social anxiety self-reports and several measures of social functioning.

  14. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and American College of Radiology (ACR) Practice Guideline for the Transperineal Permanent Brachytherapy of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, Seth A.; Bittner, Nathan H.J.; Beyer, David C.; Demanes, D. Jeffrey; Goldsmith, Brian J.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Lee, W. Robert; Nag, Subir; Suh, W. Warren; Potters, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Transperineal permanent prostate brachytherapy is a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with organ-confined prostate cancer. Careful adherence to established brachytherapy standards has been shown to improve the likelihood of procedural success and reduce the incidence of treatment-related morbidity. A collaborative effort of the American College of Radiology (ACR) and American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has produced a practice guideline for permanent prostate brachytherapy. The guideline defines the qualifications and responsibilities of all the involved personnel, including the radiation oncologist, physicist and dosimetrist. Factors with respect to patient selection and appropriate use of supplemental treatment modalities such as external beam radiation and androgen suppression therapy are discussed. Logistics with respect to the brachtherapy implant procedure, the importance of dosimetric parameters, and attention to radiation safety procedures and documentation are presented. Adherence to these practice guidelines can be part of ensuring quality and safety in a successful prostate brachytherapy program.

  15. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and American College of Radiology (ACR) Practice Guideline for the Performance of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, Beth A.; Demanes, D. Jeffrey; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Hayes, John K.; Hsu, I-Chow J.; Morris, David E.; Rabinovitch, Rachel A.; Tward, Jonathan D.; Rosenthal, Seth A.

    2011-01-01

    High-Dose-Rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with a variety of different malignancies. Careful adherence to established standards has been shown to improve the likelihood of procedural success and reduce the incidence of treatment-related morbidity. A collaborative effort of the American College of Radiology (ACR) and American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has produced a practice guideline for HDR brachytherapy. The guideline defines the qualifications and responsibilities of all the involved personnel, including the radiation oncologist, physicist and dosimetrists. Review of the leading indications for HDR brachytherapy in the management of gynecologic, thoracic, gastrointestinal, breast, urologic, head and neck, and soft tissue tumors is presented. Logistics with respect to the brachytherapy implant procedures and attention to radiation safety procedures and documentation are presented. Adherence to these practice guidelines can be part of ensuring quality and safety in a successful HDR brachytherapy program.

  16. Implementation of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Blood Cholesterol Guideline Including Data From the Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeian, Boback; Dinkler, John; Watson, Karol

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The management of blood cholesterol through use of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) in at-risk patients is a pillar of medical therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The recent 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline on managing blood cholesterol provides an important framework for the effective implementation of risk-reduction strategies. The guideline identifies four cohorts of patients with proven benefits from statin therapy and streamlines the dosing and monitoring recommendations based on evidence from published, randomized controlled trials. Primary care physicians and cardiologists play key roles in identifying populations at elevated ASCVD risk. In providing a practical management overview of the current blood cholesterol guideline, we facilitate more informed discussions on treatment options between healthcare providers and their patients. PMID:26198559

  17. Seasonal Changes in Sleep Duration in African American and African College Students Living In Washington, D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Volkov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD, but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans report more “problems” with change in seasons than African Americans, we expected that the seasonal changes in sleep duration would be greater in African students than in African American students. Based on Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ responses, African American and African college students in Washington, D.C. (N = 575 were grouped into a winter SAD/S-SAD group or a no winter diagnosis group, and winter and summer sleep length were determined. We conducted a 2 (season × 2 (sex × 2 (ethnicity × 2 (winter diagnosis group ANCOVA on reported sleep duration, controlling for age. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that African and African American students with winter SAD/S-SAD report sleeping longer in the summer than in the winter. No differences in seasonality of sleep were found between African and African American students. Students with winter SAD or S-SAD may need to sacrifice sleep duration in the winter, when their academic functioning/efficiency may be impaired by syndromal or subsyndromal depression, in order to meet seasonally increased academic demands.

  18. A Study of Entropy in the Perception of African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Robin A.

    2011-01-01

    People who earn college degrees are more likely positioned socially, occupationally, and economically for consideration of leadership roles and salary increases. Research conducted by Adams (2008) revealed that regardless of a students' gender, race, social, or economic status, the impact of a college education on lifetime earnings is 20%…

  19. Automated Library Networking in American Public Community College Learning Resources Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Adbul J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for community colleges to assess their participation in automated library networking systems (ALNs). Presents results of questionnaires sent to 253 community college learning resource center directors to determine their use of ALNs. Reviews benefits of automation and ALN activities, planning and communications, institution size,…

  20. North American Christian Study Abroad Programs: Wheaton College and Whitworth University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lindy

    2015-01-01

    Study abroad programs are in vogue today, especially among Christian colleges and universities. It is, therefore, appropriate to ask tough questions of these programs. Do they help our students become more mature followers of Jesus? Are they respectful of people in the target culture? College and university leaders must focus in particular on how…

  1. Chasing the American Dream: Recent College Graduates and the Great Recession. Work Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Charley; Van Horn, Carl; Zukin, Cliff

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the findings of a nationally representative sample of 444 recent college graduates from the class of 2006 through 2011. The purpose of this study is to understand how recent college graduates are faring in the workforce, specifically looking at those individuals who graduated before and during the difficult labor market…

  2. The Cultural Context of Academic Motives: A Comparison of Filipino and American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.

    1992-01-01

    Comparing self-reported academic motives of 409 male and 511 female Filipino college students and 407 male and 506 female (plus 12 unidentified) U.S. college students indicates that Filipinos rank approval and self-improvement higher and U.S. students rank motives involving performance standards higher. Many gender differences in motives…

  3. ADIPOSITY-BASED CHRONIC DISEASE AS A NEW DIAGNOSTIC TERM: THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Hurley, Daniel L; Garvey, W Timothy

    2017-03-01

    The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) have created a chronic care model, advanced diagnostic framework, clinical practice guidelines, and clinical practice algorithm for the comprehensive management of obesity. This coordinated effort is not solely based on body mass index as in previous models, but emphasizes a complications-centric approach that primarily determines therapeutic decisions and desired outcomes. Adiposity-Based Chronic Disease (ABCD) is a new diagnostic term for obesity that explicitly identifies a chronic disease, alludes to a precise pathophysiologic basis, and avoids the stigmata and confusion related to the differential use and multiple meanings of the term "obesity." Key elements to further the care of patients using this new ABCD term are: (1) positioning lifestyle medicine in the promotion of overall health, not only as the first algorithmic step, but as the central, pervasive action; (2) standardizing protocols that comprehensively and durably address weight loss and management of adiposity-based complications; (3) approaching patient care through contextualization (e.g., primordial prevention to decrease obesogenic environmental risk factors and transculturalization to adapt evidence-based recommendations for different ethnicities, cultures, and socio-economics); and lastly, (4) developing evidence-based strategies for successful implementation, monitoring, and optimization of patient care over time. This AACE/ACE blueprint extends current work and aspires to meaningfully improve both individual and population health by presenting a new ABCD term for medical diagnostic purposes, use in a complications-centric management and staging strategy, and precise reference to the obesity chronic disease state, divested from counterproductive stigmata and ambiguities found in the general public sphere. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ABCD = Adiposity

  4. Income, productivity, and satisfaction of breast surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendorf, David C; Helmer, Stephen D; Osland, Jacqueline S; Tenofsky, Patty L

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how the practice patterns of breast surgeons affect their income and job satisfaction. A 19-question survey regarding practice patterns and income and job satisfaction was mailed to all active US members of the American Society of Breast Surgeons. There were 772 responses. An increasing percentage of breast care was associated with lower incomes (P=.0001) and similar income satisfaction (P=.4517) but higher job satisfaction (P=.0001). The increasing proportion of breast care was also associated with fewer hours worked per week (P=.0001). Although incomes were lower in surgeons with a higher proportion of their practice in breast care, income satisfaction was not affected. Although cause and effect relationships between income and breast surgery are difficult to establish, several trends do emerge. Most significantly, we found that dedicated breast surgeons have higher job satisfaction ratings and similar income satisfaction despite lower incomes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-schema as a non-drinker: a protective resource against heavy drinking in Mexican-American college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Stein, Karen F; Corte, Colleen; Steffen, Alana

    2017-03-21

    Alcohol use is considered less acceptable for women than men in the Mexican culture. However, recent studies of Mexican-American (MA) women show that prevalence and rates of alcohol use are escalating, particularly in those with high acculturation to Western standards. Building on recent studies that demonstrated that drinking-related identities (self-schemas) are important predictors of alcohol use in college populations, this secondary data analysis investigated the association between acculturation, MA cultural values, and acculturative stress, drinking-related self-schemas and heavy drinking over time in college-enrolled MA women. Data were drawn from a 12-month longitudinal study of self-schemas and health-risk behaviors in 477 college-enrolled MA women. Drinking-related self-schemas, acculturation, MA cultural values and acculturative stress were measured at baseline, and heavy drinking was measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Thirty-six percent of women had a non-drinker self-schema but only 3% had a drinker self-schema. Higher spirituality was protective against heavy drinking, and this effect can be partially explained by presence of a non-drinker self-schema. Interventions that emphasize the personal relevance of being a non-drinker and support the importance of spirituality may help to prevent heavy drinking in MA college women. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The cultural context of nondisclosure of alcohol-involved acquaintance rape among Asian American college women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kelly H; Nguyen, Hong V; Andrasik, Michele P; George, William H

    2015-01-01

    With high college enrollment and increasing alcohol use, Asian American (AA) college women may be at particular risk for experiencing alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Although AA women have expressed the weakest intentions to report rape when compared to other ethnic groups, cultural factors influencing these intentions remain unexamined. Guided by grounded theory, 17 self-identified AA college women were interviewed about how the average AA college woman would respond to an alcohol-involved acquaintance rape. Despite awareness of benefits of disclosing rape, participants emphasized that nondisclosure would be the normative response. Three themes emerged from participants: institutional, sociocultural, and psychological contexts of nondisclosure. At an institutional level, nondisclosure referenced mental health and police services, which included Asian stereotypes and mistrust of police. Within a sociocultural context, rape nondisclosure focused on negative consequences on relationships with parents and, to a lesser extent, on friendships. Emotional avoidance and not labeling an acquaintance rape as rape were psychological strategies for rape nondisclosure. Participant's conceptualizations of mental and physical health concerns, specifically post-rape concerns, were framed within sociocultural/macrostructural contexts and may not match that of the more individualistic U.S. mainstream conceptualizations of health. Culturally sensitive rape education may be more effective in increasing rape prevention and support.

  7. A validation study of the 2003 American College of Cardiology/European Society of Cardiology and 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association risk stratification and treatment algorithms for sudden cardiac death in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Constantinos; Tome-Esteban, Maite; Lambiase, Pier D; Pantazis, Antonios; Dickie, Shaughan; McKenna, William J; Elliott, Perry M

    2013-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a common mode of death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but identification of patients who are at a high risk of SCD is challenging as current risk stratification guidelines have never been formally validated. The objective of this study was to assess the power of the 2003 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and 2011 ACC Foundation (ACCF)/American Heart Association (AHA) SCD risk stratification algorithms to distinguish high risk patients who might be eligible for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) from low risk individuals. We studied 1606 consecutively evaluated HCM patients in an observational, retrospective cohort study. Five risk factors (RF) for SCD were assessed: non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, severe left ventricular hypertrophy, family history of SCD, unexplained syncope and abnormal blood pressure response to exercise. During a follow-up period of 11 712 patient years (median 6.6 years), SCD/appropriate ICD shock occurred in 20 (3%) of 660 patients without RF (annual rate 0.45%), 31 (4.8%) of 636 patients with 1 RF (annual rate 0.65%), 27 (10.8%) of 249 patients with 2 RF (annual rate 1.3%), 7 (13.7%) of 51 patients with 3 RF (annual rate 1.9%) and 4 (40%) of 10 patients with ≥4 RF (annual rate 5.0%). The risk of SCD increased with multiple RF (2 RF: HR 2.87, p≤0.001; 3 RF: HR 4.32, p=0.001; ≥4 RF: HR 11.37, p<0.0001), but not with a single RF (HR 1.43 p=0.21). The area under time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves (representing the probability of correctly identifying a patient at risk of SCD on the basis of RF profile) was 0.63 at 1 year and 0.64 at 5 years for the 2003 ACC/ESC algorithm and 0.61 at 1 year and 0.63 at 5 years for the 2011 ACCF/AHA algorithm. The risk of SCD increases with the aggregation of RF. The 2003 ACC/ESC and 2011 ACCF/AHA guidelines distinguish high from low risk individuals with limited power.

  8. Factors that Influence College Choice and Pathways among Vietnamese American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Huy

    2012-01-01

    Asian Americans are often depicted as a highly successful group, attaining advanced levels of education and upward mobility. However, research indicates Southeast Asian Americans are underrepresented in higher education and earn less bachelor degrees than East Asian Americans. To explore the phenomenon of unequal representation between Southeast…

  9. Religious coping moderates the relation between racism and psychological well-being among Christian Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul Youngbin; Kendall, Dana L; Webb, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the moderating role of positive and negative religious coping in the relation between racism and psychological well-being in a sample of Catholic and Protestant Asian American college students (N = 107). On the basis of prior theorizing on the 2 types of religious coping, combined with some limited empirical evidence, they predicted that positive religious coping would have a buffering effect (Hypothesis 1) on the racism-mental health relation and that negative religious coping would have an exacerbating effect (Hypothesis 2). Participants completed an online survey containing measures corresponding to the study variables. Results indicated that the interaction between positive religious coping and racism was nonsignificant, so Hypothesis 1 was not supported. For Hypothesis 2, the negative religious coping and racism interaction term was statistically significant, but the moderating effect was in an unexpected direction, such that negative religious coping actually protected against the deleterious impact of racism on mental health. The findings suggest that the theorized deleterious influence of negative religious coping may need to be reconsidered in an Asian American setting. The findings have the potential to inform practitioners who work with Asian American college students to better cope with the detrimental consequences of racism. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. The Surgeon and Advocacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and how the hospital administration handles and resolves ... regard to having systems that improve patient care. Surgeons have been ... implementation of the Surgical safety checklist (9). ... aviation industry, has helped to streamline patient.

  11. Civil Surgeon Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — USCIS designates certain doctors (also known as civil surgeons) to perform the medical exam required for most Green Card applicants. This data set represents the...

  12. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Apply for Membership Membership Directory Pay Your Dues Industry Mailing List License & eBlast Communications Programs Advertise on ... Hotel Discount Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. ...

  13. Food cravings, food addiction, and a dopamine-resistant (DRD2 A1) receptor polymorphism in Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Joanna; Trang, Amy; Henning, Susanne M; Wilhalme, Holly; Carpenter, Catherine; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2016-01-01

    In an era where obesity remains an important public health concern, food addiction has emerged as a possible contributor to obesity. The DRD2 gene is the most studied polymorphism. The aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between food addiction questionnaires, body composition measurements, and a dopamine- resistant receptor polymorphism (DRD2 A1) among Asian Americans. A total of 84 Asian American college students were recruited. Participants underwent body composition measurement via bioelectrical impedance, answered questionnaires (Food Craving Inventory and Power of Food Scale), and had blood drawn for genotyping (PCR). There was no difference in body composition (BMI, percent body fat) between the A1 (A1A1 or A1A2) and A2 (A2A2) groups. There were statistically significant differences in food cravings of carbohydrates and fast food on the Food Craving Inventory between the A1 and A2 groups (p=0.03), but not for sugar or fat. Among Asian college females, there was also a difference on the Power of Food questionnaire (p=0.04), which was not seen among men. 13 out of 55 women also had >30% body fat at a BMI of 21.4 to 28.5 kg/m2. Greater carbohydrate and fast food craving was associated with the DRD2 A1 versus A2 allele among Asian Americans. Further studies examining the ability of dopamine agonists to affect food craving and to reduce body fat in Asian American are warranted. More studies in food addiction among obese Asian Americans are needed with careful definition of obesity, specifically for Asian women.

  14. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) are to prevent cardiovascular (CV) diseases, improve the management of people who have these diseases through professional education and research, and develop guidelines, standards and policies that promot...

  15. Dispositional optimism among American and Jordanian college students: are Westerners really more upbeat than Easterners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallad, Yacoub

    2010-02-01

    The present study aimed at assessing some previous research conclusions, based primarily on comparisons of North Americans and East Asians, that Westerners tend to be optimistic while Easterners tend to be pessimistic. Two samples of European American and Jordanian college students were administered a questionnaire consisting of items measuring dispositional optimism along with items pertaining to risk and self-protective behaviors (e.g., seatbelt use, vehicular speeding, smoking) and social and demographic factors (e.g., sex, socioeconomic status, religiosity). The findings uncovered dispositional optimism to be stronger for American compared to Jordanian participants. Separate analyses of optimism versus pessimism revealed that Jordanian participants were more pessimistic, but not less optimistic than their American counterparts. No significant correlations were found between dispositional optimism and sex, socioeconomic status, or religiosity. The levels of optimism displayed by Jordanians in this study are inconsistent with previous claims of an optimistic West and a pessimistic East, and suggest that self-enhancing processes may not be confined to Western or highly individualistic groups. The findings did not uncover an association between dispositional optimism and risk or self-protective behaviors. Multiple regression analyses showed cultural background and sex to be the best predictors of these behaviors. The implications of these findings are discussed. La présente étude avait pour but d'évaluer quelques conclusions de recherches passées, fondées principalement sur des comparaisons de nord-américains et d'asiatiques de l'est, indiquant que les occidentaux tendent à être optimistes alors que les orientaux tendent à être pessimistes. Deux échantillons d'étudiants américains-européens et jordaniens du collège ont rempli un questionnaire ayant des items mesurant l'optimisme dispositionnel avec d'autres items qui portent sur les comportements de

  16. Adult College Students in American Films: An Untapped Resource for Research in Adult and Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Rick

    1990-01-01

    Considers the value of extending adult education research into films about adult college students as a source of cultural information. Analyzes the 1949 film, "Mother Is a Freshman," as an example. (SK)

  17. TRANSCULTURALIZATION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DEVELOPING LATIN AMERICAN CLINICAL PRACTICE ALGORITHMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY--PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2015 PAN-AMERICAN WORKSHOP BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Harrell, R Mack; Allende-Vigo, Myriam Z; Alvayero, Carlos; Arita-Melzer, Onix; Aschner, Pablo; Camacho, Pauline M; Castillo, Rogelio Zacarias; Cerdas, Sonia; Coutinho, Walmir F; Davidson, Jaime A; Garber, Jeffrey R; Garvey, W Timothy; González, Fernando Javier Lavalle; Granados, Denis O; Hamdy, Osama; Handelsman, Yehuda; Jiménez-Navarrete, Manuel Francisco; Lupo, Mark A; Mendoza, Enrique J; Jiménez-Montero, José G; Zangeneh, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) convened their first Workshop for recommendations to optimize Clinical Practice Algorithm (CPA) development for Latin America (LA) in diabetes (focusing on glycemic control), obesity (focusing on weight loss), thyroid (focusing on thyroid nodule diagnostics), and bone (focusing on postmenopausal osteoporosis) on February 28, 2015, in San Jose, Costa Rica. A standardized methodology is presented incorporating various transculturalization factors: resource availability (including imaging equipment and approved pharmaceuticals), health care professional and patient preferences, lifestyle variables, socio-economic parameters, web-based global accessibility, electronic implementation, and need for validation protocols. A standardized CPA template with node-specific recommendations to assist the local transculturalization process is provided. Participants unanimously agreed on the following five overarching principles for LA: (1) there is only one level of optimal endocrine care, (2) hemoglobin A1C should be utilized at every level of diabetes care, (3) nutrition education and increased pharmaceutical options are necessary to optimize the obesity care model, (4) quality neck ultrasound must be part of an optimal thyroid nodule care model, and (5) more scientific evidence is needed on osteoporosis prevalence and cost to justify intervention by governmental health care authorities. This 2015 AACE/ACE Workshop marks the beginning of a structured activity that assists local experts in creating culturally sensitive, evidence-based, and easy-to-implement tools for optimizing endocrine care on a global scale.

  18. Is a management degree worth the investment for physicians? A survey of members of the American College of Physician Executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Lazarus, Arthur; Wallace, Amy E

    2008-01-01

    In a survey of 568 physician members of the American College of Physician Executives (ACPE), most of whom had advanced management degrees (MBA, MMM, MPH), approximately 90% of respondents reported that their investment in the education was "worth it." The return on investment was independent of the quality of the academic institution, although primary care physicians stood to gain more relative to specialists. Salary comparisons showed that female physicians had approximately 20% lower incomes than male physicians, confirming the presence of a "glass ceiling" for female physician executives as seen in other medical specialties. These findings have implications for early and mid-career physicians and physician recruiters.

  19. Addressing Social Determinants to Improve Patient Care and Promote Health Equity: An American College of Physicians Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Hilary; Bornstein, Sue S; Kane, Gregory C

    2018-04-17

    Social determinants of health are nonmedical factors that can affect a person's overall health and health outcomes. Where a person is born and the social conditions they are born into can affect their risk factors for premature death and their life expectancy. In this position paper, the American College of Physicians acknowledges the role of social determinants in health, examines the complexities associated with them, and offers recommendations on better integration of social determinants into the health care system while highlighting the need to address systemic issues hindering health equity.

  20. Current trends in chaperone use by plastic and reconstructive surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, Umar; Barta, Ruth J; Kim, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    There is a paucity of literature regarding the use of chaperones by surgeons when examining patients. Use of a chaperone not only makes the patient comfortable but also potentially protects the surgeon from perceived misconduct. This is especially true for plastic surgeons who examine sensitive areas commonly. The purpose of this study was to determine the current trends in chaperone use by plastic surgeons when examining patients. A 23-question online survey was sent to all members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Data collected online were analyzed using Student t test and Pearson χ test. A P use by plastic surgeons during all examinations of patients was 30%. This rate increased up to 60% while examining sensitive areas. Male surgeons reported a higher frequency of chaperone use than female surgeons (P use compared to reconstructive surgeons (P = 0.001). Similarly, surgeons who had been in practice for more than 20 years reported a higher rate of chaperone use compared to surgeons in practice for less than 20 years (P = 0.032). Sixty-one (7.6%; 56 male and 5 female) surgeons reported being accused of inappropriate behavior by patients, of whom 49 (80%) did not have a chaperone present. There was no significant difference among male and female surgeons in rates of being accused of inappropriate behavior (7.9% vs 4.2%, P = 0.19). There was a higher rate of chaperone use by male plastic surgeons, surgeons with more than 20 years experience, and cosmetic surgeons. Despite the difference in chaperone use between the sexes, both had similar rates of being accused of inappropriate behavior during examinations by patients, and although these incidents were quite low, most had no chaperone present during those examinations.

  1. Description of a Method to Obtain Complete One-Year Follow-Up in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, Jordan; Neatherlin, Holly; Mahoney, Cecile; Squiers, John J; Tabachnick, Deborah; Suresh, Mitta; Huff, Eleanor; Basra, Sukhdeep S; DiMaio, J Michael; Brown, David L; Mack, Michael J; Holper, Elizabeth M

    2018-03-15

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services National Coverage Determination requires centers performing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) to report clinical outcomes up to 1 year. Many sites encounter challenges in obtaining complete 1-year follow-up. We report our process to address this challenge. A multidisciplinary process involving clinical personnel, data and quality managers, and research coordinators was initiated to collect TAVI data at baseline, 30 days, and 1 year. This process included (1) planned clinical follow-up of all patients at 30 days and 1 year; (2) query of health-care system-wide integrated data warehouse (IDW) to ascertain last date of clinical contact within the system for all patients; (3) online obituary search, cross-referencing for unique patient identifiers to determine if mortality occurred in remaining unknown patients; and (4) phone calls to remaining unknown patients or patients' families. Between January 2012 and December 2016, 744 patients underwent TAVI. All 744 patients were eligible for 30-day follow-up and 546 were eligible for 1-year follow-up. At routine clinical follow-up of 22 of 744 (3%) patients at 30 days and 180 of 546 (33%) patients at 1 year had unknown survival status. The integrated data warehouse query confirmed status-alive for an additional 1 of 22 patients at 30 days (55%) and 91 of 180 patients at 1 year (51%). Obituaries were identified for 23 of 180 additional patients at 1 year (13%). Phone contact identified the remaining unknown patients at 30 days and 1 year, resulting in 100% known survival status for patients at 30 days (744 of 744) and at 1 year (546 of 546). In conclusion, using a comprehensive approach, we were able to determine survival status in 100% of patients who underwent TAVI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Randomized multicenter trial of hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with melphalan alone compared with melphalan plus tumor necrosis factor: American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Trial Z0020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, Wendy R; McCall, Linda M; Petersen, Rebecca P; Ross, Merrick I; Briele, Henry A; Noyes, R Dirk; Sussman, Jeffrey J; Kraybill, William G; Kane, John M; Alexander, H Richard; Lee, Jeffrey E; Mansfield, Paul F; Pingpank, James F; Winchester, David J; White, Richard L; Chadaram, Vijaya; Herndon, James E; Fraker, Douglas L; Tyler, Douglas S

    2006-09-01

    To determine in a randomized prospective multi-institutional trial whether the addition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) to a melphalan-based hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) treatment would improve the complete response rate for locally advanced extremity melanoma. Patients with locally advanced extremity melanoma were randomly assigned to receive melphalan or melphalan plus TNF-alpha during standard HILP. Patient randomization was stratified according to disease/treatment status and regional nodal disease status. The intervention was completed in 124 patients of the 133 enrolled. Grade 4 adverse events were observed in 14 (12%) of 129 patients, with three (4%) of 64 in the melphalan-alone arm and 11 (16%) of 65 in the melphalan-plus-TNF-alpha arm (P = .0436). There were two toxicity-related lower extremity amputations in the melphalan-plus-TNF-alpha arm, and one disease progression-related upper extremity amputation in the melphalan-alone arm. There was no treatment-related mortality in either arm of the study. One hundred sixteen patients were assessable at 3 months postoperatively. Sixty-four percent of patients (36 of 58) in the melphalan-alone arm and 69% of patients (40 of 58) in the melphalan-plus-TNF-alpha arm showed a response to treatment at 3 months, with a complete response rate of 25% (14 of 58 patients) in the melphalan-alone arm and 26% (15 of 58 patients) in the melphalan-plus-TNF-alpha arm (P = .435 and P = .890, respectively). In locally advanced extremity melanoma treated with HILP, the addition of TNF-alpha to melphalan did not demonstrate a significant enhancement of short-term response rates over melphalan alone by the 3-month follow-up, and TNF-alpha plus melphalan was associated with a higher complication rate.

  3. Basic airway skills acquisition using the American College of Surgeons/Association for Surgical Education medical student simulation-based surgical skills curriculum: Initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Sydne; Kim, Michael; Olasky, Jaisa; Campbell, Andre; Acton, Robert

    2017-02-01

    The ACS/ASE Medical Student Simulation-Based Skills Curriculum was developed to standardize medical student training. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and validity of implementing the basic airway curriculum. This single-center, prospective study of medical students participating in the basic airway module from 12/2014-3/2016 consisted of didactics, small-group practice, and testing in a simulated clinical scenario. Proficiency was determined by a checklist of skills (1-15), global score (1-5), and letter grade (NR-needs review, PS-proficient in simulation scenario, CP-proficient in clinical scenario). A proportion of students completed pre/post-test surveys regarding experience, satisfaction, comfort, and self-perceived proficiency. Over 16 months, 240 students were enrolled with 98% deemed proficient in a simulated or clinical scenario. Pre/post-test surveys (n = 126) indicated improvement in self-perceived proficiency by 99% of learners. All students felt moderately to very comfortable performing basic airway skills and 94% had moderate to considerable satisfaction after completing the module. The ACS/ASE Surgical Skills Curriculum is a feasible and effective way to teach medical students basic airway skills using simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Young transplant surgeons and NIH funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englesbe, M J; Sung, R S; Segev, D L

    2011-02-01

    Transplant surgeons have historically been instrumental in advancing the science of transplantation. However, research in the current environment inevitably requires external funding, and the classic career development pathway for a junior investigator is the NIH K award. We matched transplant surgeons who completed fellowships between 1998 and 2004 with the NIH funding database, and also queried them regarding research effort and attitudes. Of 373 surgeons who completed a fellowship, only 6 (1.8%) received a K award; of these, 3 subsequently obtained R-level funding. An additional 5 individuals received an R-level grant within their first 5 years as faculty without a K award, 3 of whom had received a prior ASTS-sponsored award. Survey respondents reported extensive research experience during their training (78.8% spent median 24 months), a high proportion of graduate research degrees (36%), and a strong desire for more research time (78%). However, they reported clinical burdens and lack of mentorship as their primary perceived barriers to successful research careers. The very low rate of NIH funding for young transplant surgeons, combined with survey results that indicate their desire to participate in research, suggest institutional barriers to access that may warrant attention by the ASTS and the transplant surgery community. ©2010 The Authors Journal compilation©2010 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Acculturation, Enculturation, Perceived Racism, and Psychological Symptoms among Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamilla, Saul G.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Walker, Tamisha; Sisson, Frederick Riley

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the potential moderating influences of behavioral and values acculturation and enculturation in a sample of 113 Asian Americans. Findings from regression analyses revealed that acculturation to European American cultural values, alone and in interaction with perceived racism, was related to less psychological symptoms, whereas…

  6. Alcohol Use and American Indian/Alaska Native Student Academic Performance among Tribal Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometsevah, Cecelia L.

    2013-01-01

    Student academic performance, persistence, and graduation among American Indian/Alaska Native students in higher education are very low compared to other racial groups. Studies have shown that American Indian students enter higher education with a lack of academic preparedness, financial challenges, lack of social skills development, and lack of…

  7. What's up with This Leadership Thing? Voices of African American Male College Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston-Cunningham, Tammie; Boyd, Barry L.; Elbert, Chanda D.; Dooley, Kim E.; Peck-Parrott, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the perceptions of leadership of African American undergraduate males who attend a predominately-White institution in the Southwest after participation in a leadership development program. Research concerning African American undergraduate males in education has been from a deficit-orientated narrative and focused primarily…

  8. Tribal Colleges and Universitie/American Indian Higher Education Consortium Advanced Manufacturing Technical Assistance Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atcitty, Stanley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) created a Minority Serving Institution Partnership Plan (MSIPP) to 1) align investments in a university capacity and workforce development with the NNSA mission to develop the needed skills and talent for NNSA’s enduring technical workforce at the laboratories and production plants and 2) to enhance research and education at under-represented colleges and universities. Out of this effort, MSIPP launched a new program in early FY17 focused on Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs). The following report summarizes the project focus and status update during this reporting period.

  9. Tribal Colleges and Universitie/American Indian Higher Education Consortium Advanced Manufacturing Technical Assistance Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atcitty, Stanley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) created a Minority Serving Institution Partnership Plan (MSIPP) to 1) align investments in a university capacity and workforce development with the NNSA mission to develop the needed skills and talent for NNSA’s enduring technical workforce at the laboratories and production plants and 2) to enhance research and education at under-represented colleges and universities. Out of this effort, MSIPP launched a new program in early FY17 focused on Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs). The following report summarizes the project focus and status update during this reporting period.

  10. The relationship between racial identity and self-esteem in African American college and high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, S J; Sellers, R M; Chavous, T M; Smith, M A

    1998-03-01

    The Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity was used to examine the relationship between racial identity and personal self-esteem (PSE) in a sample of African American college students (n = 173) and a sample of African American high school students (n = 72). Racial identity was assessed using the Centrality and Regard scales of the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity, whereas the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess PSE. Four predictions were tested: (a) racial centrality is weakly but positively related to PSE; (b) private regard is moderately related to PSE; (c) public regard is unrelated to PSE; and (d) racial centrality moderates the relationship between private regard and PSE. Multiple regression analysis found that racial centrality and public racial regard were unrelated to PSE in both samples. Private regard was positively related to PSE in the college sample. Racial centrality moderated the relationship between private regard and PSE in both samples, such that the relationship was significant for those with high levels of centrality but nonsignificant for those with low levels.

  11. BEATING ISIS IN THE DIGITAL SPACE: FOCUS TESTING ISIS DEFECTOR COUNTER-NARRATIVE VIDEOS WITH AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allision McDowell-Smith

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ISIS recruits on a 24/7 basis in over 21 languages over the Internet using videos, memes, tweets and other social media postings and swarming in on anyone that retweets, likes or endorses their materials to try to seduce them into the group. Their unprecedented social media drive has resulted in over 30,000 foreign fighters from more than 100 countries migrating to Syria and Iraq. ISIS recruitment in the U.S. is for the most part Internet based and has resulted in the actual and attempted recruitment of over 100 individuals residing in the U.S. with over 200 Americans traveling to Syria to join terrorist groups. To date very little counter-narrative material exists and most of it is cognitive versus emotionally impactful. The International Center for the Study of Violent Extremism (ICSVE Breaking the ISIS Brand – the ISIS Defectors Interviews Project has managed to collect 43 ISIS defector interviews and thus far produce two video clips of ISIS defectors denouncing the group which were focus tested in this research in a small normative college student sample of 75 undergraduate students. The results demonstrate that American college students find the videos authentic, disturbing and turn them away from ISIS, fulfilling the goals that the project is aiming for in producing counter-narrative materials.

  12. Stress in surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A; Duthie, H L; Young, H L; Peters, T J

    1990-10-01

    A sample of 1000 members of the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland was circulated with a postal questionnaire relating to their occupational stressors, their type A coronary-prone behaviour and their mental health. Six hundred and seventy-two (67 per cent) useable forms were returned anonymously. The major individual stressors were: (1) the interference of the job with personal life, (2) general administration, and (3) the number of patients in clinics. Type A behaviour was similar to that of other professional groups. Surgeons showed mean scores significantly higher than the general population on two subscales of the mental health index (free-floating anxiety and hysterical anxiety). The findings for the few female surgeons (2 per cent) were similar to those in men but they did not exhibit raised free-floating anxiety levels.

  13. Addressing cultural orientations in fear appeals: promoting AIDS-protective behaviors among Mexican immigrant and African American adolescents and American and Taiwanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Johnson, L; Witte, K; Liu, W Y; Hubbell, A P; Sampson, J; Morrison, K

    2001-01-01

    Fear appeals threatening the individual have been shown to be powerful persuasive devices in the cultures where they have been studied. However, most fear appeal research has been conducted with members of individualist cultures. Individualist cultures place self-needs above group concerns, while collectivist cultures place group needs above self-concerns. Little is known about the effectiveness of fear appeals (or other persuasive strategies) in collectivist cultures. Two studies assessed the effectiveness of AIDS-prevention fear appeals threatening the self versus fear appeals threatening the group (i.e., family) on members of individualist and collectivist cultures. The first study focuses on African American and Mexican immigrant junior high school youth. The second study focuses on U.S. and Taiwanese college undergraduates. The results indicated that fear appeals should address cultural orientation (i.e., individualist versus collectivist orientation) to achieve maximum effectiveness. The results also indicate that one cannot assume cultural orientation based on ethnicity.

  14. Comparison of private versus academic practice for general surgeons: a guide for medical students and residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroen, Anneke T; Brownstein, Michelle R; Sheldon, George F

    2003-12-01

    Medical students and residents often make specialty and practice choices with limited exposure to aspects of professional and personal life in general surgery. The purpose of this study was to portray practice composition, career choices, professional experiences, job satisfaction, and personal life characteristics specific to practicing general surgeons in the United States. A 131-question survey was mailed to all female members (n = 1,076) and a random 2:1 sample of male members (n = 2,152) of the American College of Surgeons in three mailings between September 1998 and March 1999. Respondents who were not actively practicing general surgery in the United States and both trainees and surgeons who did not fit the definition of private or academic practice were excluded. Detailed questions regarding practice attributes, surgical training, professional choices, harassment, malpractice, career satisfaction, and personal life characteristics were included. Separate five-point Likert scales were designed to measure influences on career choices and satisfaction with professional and personal matters. Univariate analyses were used to analyze responses by surgeon age, gender, and practice type. A response rate of 57% resulted in 1,532 eligible responses. Significant differences between private and academic practice were noted in case composition, practice structure, and income potential; no major differences were seen in malpractice experience. Propensity for marriage and parenthood differed significantly between men and women surgeons. Overall career satisfaction was very high regardless of practice type. Some differences by surgeon gender in perceptions of equal career advancement opportunities and of professional isolation were noted. This study offers a comprehensive view of general surgery to enable more informed decisions among medical students and residents regarding specialty choice or practice opportunities.

  15. Surgeons' vision rewarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2010-08-01

    Surgeons and clinical staff, theatre circulation and scrub personnel, and anaesthetists, as well as the estates and facilities team at Kent's Maidstone Hospital, have worked with specialist supplier of integrated audio, video, and instrumentation systems for the operating room, Olympus Medical, to develop what is claimed is among the UK's most advanced operating theatres yet built for laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie discussed the project with Amir Nisar, the surgeon who championed efforts to get the facility built, and Olympus Medical national sales manager, systems integration, James Watts.

  16. Undergraduate, Nonprofessional Pharmacology: Status of Courses Taught by North American Colleges of Pharmacy and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Michael C.

    1989-01-01

    A study assessed and compared the current status of undergraduate, nonprofessional pharmacology courses as taught in the U. S. and Canadian colleges of pharmacy and medicine; courses offered by veterinary medicine are also noted. Pharmacy courses seek to increase general drug knowledge and promote rational drug use. (Author/MLW)

  17. Constructing Legitimacy in a Non-Selective, American College: Unpacking Symbolic Capital through Ethnographic Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posecznick, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Selecting, gaining access to and attending college (or university) in the United States involve markers of legitimacy and prestige as understood through symbolic capital. An entire complex of fine differentiations operate to distinguish such capital in both students and the institutions they attend. Drawing on works of Bourdieu, this article…

  18. A Note on Anxiety, Depression, and Religiousness in American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richek, Herbert G.

    This paper presents a study in which Welsh's A and R scale scores have been related to religiousness. The A factor has been defined as "anxiety proneness versus ego resiliency" while the R factor is defined as "impulsivity versus control." Subjects were 150 college students, 91 females and 59 males. The sole statistical…

  19. The Case for Implementing the Levels of Prevention Model: Opiate Abuse on American College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels-Witt, Quri; Thompson, Amy; Glassman, Tavis; Federman, Sara; Bott, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Opiate abuse in the United States is on the rise among the college student population. This public health crisis requires immediate action from professionals and stakeholders who are committed to addressing the needs of prospective, current, and recovering opiate users using comprehensive prevention methods. Such approaches have been used to…

  20. First-Generation College Students and Their Pursuit of the American Dream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks-Santilli, Linda

    2014-01-01

    First-generation college students, students whose parents have not earned a four-year degree, are not new to higher education, but their increasing presence at private, four-year institutions requires careful attention from administration and faculty. The rising costs of higher education combined with the nation's recent economic decline have made…

  1. The Effect of Normative and Behavioral Persuasion on Help Seeking in Thai and American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.; Kirkhart, Matthew W.; D'Souza, June B.

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of previous research on self-construals, the theory of reasoned action, and persuasive communication, the authors hypothesized that individual, behavioral-focused information would be more effective in increasing help-seeking intention among college students in the United States, whereas relational, normative-focused information would…

  2. Beyond the Model Minority Myth: Interrogating the Lived Experiences of Korean American Gay Men in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have examined the experiences of GLBT students in college and found that gay students often report encountering unwelcoming campus environments, physical or verbal assault, and homophobia. Rarely, however, have the experiences of Asian Pacific Islander (API) or more specifically South Korean gay men been accounted for in the literature. A…

  3. American Opportunity Credit: Key to Education for Lower and Middle Income College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Robin; Tiggeman, Theresa; Edmond, Tracie

    2011-01-01

    The Tax Relief Act of 1997 created an important tax provision which helped taxpayers offset the cost of higher education. This provision was in the form of education tax credits. Because a tax credit is a dollar for dollar reduction in tax liability, these education credits were designed to reduce the amount of tax due for college students or…

  4. Alcohol Practices, Policies, and Potentials of American Colleges and Universities. An OSAP White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigen, Lewis D.

    This white paper describes the extent of drinking on college campuses; the health, social, academic, and economic costs thereof; means of education and intervention available to schools; and the relationship of many university policies and practices to this problem. The paper is organized into two major sections. The first describes the nature of…

  5. Risk and Protective Factors Contributing to Depressive Symptoms in Vietnamese American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meekyung; Lee, Mary

    2011-01-01

    With the demographic shifts the United States faces, understanding the contributing factors to mental well-being among minority college students is crucial. This study examines the roles of parental and peer attachment, intergenerational conflict, and perceived racial discrimination on depressive symptoms while also analyzing the mediational role…

  6. Institutional Identity and Self-Esteem among African American Males in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dominique L.; Smith, Chauncey D.; Marks, Bryant T.; Crosby, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    Social identity theory maintains that one's self-concept is partially determined by the social groups to which the individual belongs. Using this as a theoretical framework, this study examined the relationship between multiple dimensions of institutional identity and self-esteem in 411 Black male college freshmen. It was hypothesized that…

  7. Does the Availability of Parental Health Insurance Affect the College Enrollment Decision of Young Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Juergen; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Rhoads, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether the college enrollment decision of young individuals (student full-time, student part-time, and non-student) depends on health insurance coverage via a parent's family health plan. Our findings indicate that the availability of parental health insurance can have significant effects on the probability that a young…

  8. American Community Colleges in Crisis--A Conversation with Robert H. McCabe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubocq, Tom

    1981-01-01

    Educational reform by Miami-Dade Community College is discussed by its president, Robert H. McCabe. In an action that is considered unusual for two-year schools, it has tightened controls on its curriculum, faculty, and students. A commitment to achieving higher levels of literacy is advocated. (MLW)

  9. African Politics at American Colleges and Universities: Topics, Approaches, and Readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLancey, Mark; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Traces new developments in the study of African comparative politics since 1978 by surveying a number of college teachers of African politics. Finds there is an escalation of interest in the politics of South Africa. The lack of student knowledge concerning Africa and the lack of an agreed-upon text are identified as problems. (KO)

  10. Immunohistochemistry practices of cytopathology laboratories: a survey of participants in the College of American Pathologists Nongynecologic Cytopathology Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrew H; Schwartz, Mary R; Moriarty, Ann T; Wilbur, David C; Souers, Rhona; Fatheree, Lisa; Booth, Christine N; Clayton, Amy C; Kurtyz, Daniel F I; Padmanabhan, Vijayalakshmi; Crothers, Barbara A

    2014-09-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is important for cytology but poses special challenges because preanalytic conditions may differ from the conditions of IHC-positive controls. To broadly survey cytology laboratories to quantify preanalytic platforms for cytology IHC and identify problems with particular platforms or antigens. To discover how validation guidelines for HER2 testing have affected cytology. A voluntary survey of cytology IHC practices was sent to 1899 cytology laboratories participating in the College of American Pathologists Nongynecologic Cytopathology Education Program in the fall of 2009. A total of 818 laboratories (43%) responded to the survey by April 2010. Three hundred fourty-five of 791 respondents (44%) performed IHC on cytology specimens. Seventeen different fixation and processing platforms prior to antibody reaction were reported. A total of 59.2% of laboratories reported differences between the platforms for cytology specimens and positive controls, but most (155 of 184; 84%) did not alter antibody dilutions or antigen retrieval for cytology IHC. When asked to name 2 antibodies for which staining conditions differed between cytology and surgical samples, there were 18 responses listing 14 antibodies. A total of 30.6% of laboratories performing IHC offered HER2 testing before publication of the 2007 College of American Pathologists/American Society of Clinical Oncologists guidelines, compared with 33.6% afterward, with increased performance of testing by reference laboratories. Three laboratories validated a nonformalin HER2 platform. The platforms for cytology IHC and positive controls differ for most laboratories, yet conditions are uncommonly adjusted for cytology specimens. Except for the unsuitability of air-dried smears for HER2 testing, the survey did not reveal evidence of systematic problems with any antibody or platform.

  11. The internalization of posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSCs) in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. II. The inter-relationship of optical quality and structure as a function of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuszak, J R; Al-Ghoul, K J; Novak, L A; Peterson, K L; Herbert, K L; Sivak, J G

    1999-05-06

    The Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat is an animal model for human retinal degenerative disease and posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSCs). The purpose of this study was to correlate the structure and optical quality of RCS lenses with PSCs as a function of their internalization, with normal, non-cataractous, age-matched control lenses. Correlative light (LM), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), three-dimensional computer assisted drawings (3D-CADs) and low power helium-neon laser scan analysis were used to examine the structure and function of lenses. The optical properties (average focal length variability; sharpness of focus) of RCS rat lenses are quantitatively compromised by PSCs. Correlative LM and SEM analysis of RCS lenses at various stages of PSC internalization (1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 months of age), revealed that the sutures formed by additional fiber growth were progressively more abnormal. During PSC internalization, two to nine small suture branches were formed and arranged in modified line to multiple y configurations rather than the normal three branch y sutures. These temporal changes were also chronicled in animated 3D-CAD videos derived from lens reconstructions based on LM and SEM micrographs from the selected time points stated above. However, laser scan analysis also revealed that as the PSCs of RCS rat lenses were progressively internalized, there was a steady improvement in total sharpness of focus that reached normal levels by 12 months of age. The correlation of laser scan and structural data from specific regions of lenses revealed the following: 1. The abnormal posterior sutures of RCS rats with internalized PSCs effect a greater reduction in optical quality than normal posterior sutures of age-matched controls; 2. However, the resulting abnormal suture plane area was cumulatively similar to that of age-matched controls; 3. Thus, total optical quality was similar between RCS lenses with internalized PSCs and age-matched controls by

  12. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT ON THYROID DYSFUNCTION CASE FINDING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, James V; Garber, Jeffrey R; Woeber, Kenneth A; Cobin, Rhoda; Klein, Irwin

    2016-02-01

    Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can be readily diagnosed and can be treated in a safe, cost-effective manner. Professional organizations have given guidance on how and when to employ thyroid-stimulating hormone testing for the detection of thyroid dysfunction. Most recently, the United States Preventive Services Task Force did not endorse screening for thyroid dysfunction based on a lack of proven benefit and potential harm of treating those with thyroid dysfunction, which is mostly subclinical disease. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) is concerned that this may discourage physicians from testing for thyroid dysfunction when clinically appropriate. Given the lack of specificity of thyroid-associated symptoms, the appropriate diagnosis of thyroid disease requires biochemical confirmation. The Thyroid Scientific Committee of the AACE has produced this White Paper to highlight the important difference between screening and case-based testing in the practice of clinical medicine. We recommend that thyroid dysfunction should be frequently considered as a potential etiology for many of the nonspecific complaints that physicians face daily. The application and success of safe and effective interventions are dependent on an accurate diagnosis. We, therefore, advocate for an aggressive case-finding approach, based on identifying those persons most likely to have thyroid disease that will benefit from its treatment.

  13. Business knowledge in surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satiani, Bhagwan

    2004-07-01

    Surgeons and residents in training receive little, if any, formal education in the economic side of clinical practice during medical school or residency. As medical professionals face shrinking reimbursement, loss of control over health care decisions, and limited resources, surgical specialties must reevaluate the need to teach their members business survival skills. Before designing business related-teaching modules, educators must know the exact gaps in knowledge that exist among surgeons. This article reports a survey of 133 surgeons in the Midwest who were asked to rate their knowledge base in 11 business topics relevant to the practice of medicine. The survey showed that the average surgeon perceives himself or herself to be poorly equipped to understand basic financial accounting principles, financial markets, economics of health care, tools for evaluating purchases, marketing, budgets, antitrust and fraud and abuse regulations, and risk and return on investments. Armed with this data, teaching faculty, health care systems, and medical specialty societies should design business education seminars to better position surgical specialists and trainees to communicate with insurers, hospital administrators, health care organizations, and their own personal financial advisors.

  14. Surgeon-performed ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todsen, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Surgeons are increasingly using ultrasonography (US) in their clinical management of patients. However, US is a very user-dependent imaging modality and proper skills of the US operator are needed to ensure quality in patient care. This thesis explores the validity evidence for assessment...

  15. Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Synopsis of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Hypertension Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Robert M; Whelton, Paul K

    2018-03-06

    In November 2017, the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) released a clinical practice guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure (BP) in adults. This article summarizes the major recommendations. In 2014, the ACC and the AHA appointed a multidisciplinary committee to update previous reports of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. The committee reviewed literature and commissioned systematic reviews and meta-analyses on out-of-office BP monitoring, the optimal target for BP lowering, the comparative benefits and harms of different classes of antihypertensive agents, and the comparative benefits and harms of initiating therapy with a single antihypertensive agent or a combination of 2 agents. This article summarizes key recommendations in the following areas: BP classification, BP measurement, screening for secondary hypertension, nonpharmacologic therapy, BP thresholds and cardiac risk estimation to guide drug treatment, treatment goals (general and for patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and advanced age), choice of initial drug therapy, resistant hypertension, and strategies to improve hypertension control.

  16. Diverse perspectives and training paths in cardiology: An analysis of authorship in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danek, Barbara A; Karatasakis, Aris; Karacsonyi, Judit; Rangan, Bavana V; Abdullah, Shuaib; Sorajja, Paul; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2018-03-15

    The role of women and foreign medical graduates (FMGs) in cardiology research published in the United States has received limited study. We examined the characteristics of the first and last authors of all original contributions and review articles published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology from October 1, 2015, to October 1, 2016. A total of 345 articles were identified, with 687 first and last authors originating from ≥50 different countries. Overall, 17% of authors were women (20% of the first and 14% of the last authors). Overall, 86% of authors held a medical degree (MD) or equivalent, and 25% of those also held another advanced degree (PhD, MPH, and/or MBA). The proportion of authors with an advanced degree in addition to an MD/equivalent was higher among foreign graduates and international contributors as compared with American graduates (31% vs. 30% vs. 17%, respectively, p < 0.0001). Of US-based authors with an MD/equivalent, 67% were American medical graduates (AMGs) and 33% were FMGs. Women authors represented 11% of FMGs, 16% of AMGs, and 12% of international physicians as contributors (p = 0.23). Foreign graduates and international researchers contribute substantially to cardiology research in the US, but women authors remain under-represented. Copyright © 2018 Hellenic Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Grade inflation at a north american college of veterinary medicine: 1985-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Bonnie R; Elmore, Ronnie G; Sanderson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    Grade inflation, an upward shift in student grade-point averages without a similar rise in achievement, is considered pervasive by most experts in post-secondary education in the United States. Grade-point averages (GPAs) at US universities have increased by roughly 0.15 points per decade since the 1960s, with a 0.6-point increase since 1967. In medical education, grade inflation has been documented and is particularly evident in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate grade inflation over a 22-year period in a college of veterinary medicine. Academic records from 2,060 students who graduated from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University between 1985 and 2006 were evaluated, including cumulative GPAs earned during pre-clinical professional coursework, during clinical rotations, and at graduation. Grade inflation was documented at a rate of approximately 0.2 points per decade at this college of veterinary medicine. The difference in mean final GPA between the minimum (1986) and maximum (2003) years of graduation was 0.47 points. Grade inflation was similar for didactic coursework (years 1-3) and clinical rotations (final year). Demographic shifts, student qualifications, and tuition do not appear to have contributed to grade inflation over time. A change in academic standards and student evaluation of teaching may have contributed to relaxed grading standards, and technology in the classroom may have led to higher (earned) grades as a result of improved student learning.

  18. CONSENSUS STATEMENT BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY ON THE QUALITY OF DXA SCANS AND REPORTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Angelo A; Binkley, Neil; Petak, Steven M; Camacho, Pauline M

    2018-02-01

    High-quality dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans are necessary for accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis and monitoring of therapy; however, DXA scan reports may contain errors that cause confusion about diagnosis and treatment. This American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology consensus statement was generated to draw attention to many common technical problems affecting DXA report conclusions and provide guidance on how to address them to ensure that patients receive appropriate osteoporosis care. The DXA Writing Committee developed a consensus based on discussion and evaluation of available literature related to osteoporosis and osteodensitometry. Technical errors may include errors in scan acquisition and/or analysis, leading to incorrect diagnosis and reporting of change over time. Although the International Society for Clinical Densitometry advocates training for technologists and medical interpreters to help eliminate these problems, many lack skill in this technology. Suspicion that reports are wrong arises when clinical history is not compatible with scan interpretation (e.g., dramatic increase/decrease in a short period of time; declines in previously stable bone density after years of treatment), when different scanners are used, or when inconsistent anatomic sites are used for monitoring the response to therapy. Understanding the concept of least significant change will minimize erroneous conclusions about changes in bone density. Clinicians must develop the skills to differentiate technical problems, which confound reports, from real biological changes. We recommend that clinicians review actual scan images and data, instead of relying solely on the impression of the report, to pinpoint errors and accurately interpret DXA scan images. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; BMC = bone mineral content; BMD = bone mineral density; DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; ISCD = International

  19. Utility of Nontraditional Risk Markers in Individuals Ineligible for Statin Therapy According to the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Joseph; Polonsky, Tamar S; Young, Rebekah; McClelland, Robyn L; Delaney, Joseph C; Dawood, Farah; Blaha, Michael J; Miedema, Michael D; Sibley, Christopher T; Carr, J Jeffrey; Burke, Gregory L; Goff, David C; Psaty, Bruce M; Greenland, Philip; Herrington, David M

    2015-09-08

    In the general population, the majority of cardiovascular events occur in people at the low to moderate end of population risk distribution. The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol recommends consideration of statin therapy for adults with an estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk ≥7.5% based on traditional risk factors. Whether use of nontraditional risk markers can improve risk assessment in those below this threshold for statin therapy is unclear. Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population sample free of clinical CVD at baseline, we calibrated the Pooled Cohort Equations (cPCE). ASCVD was defined as myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, or fatal or nonfatal stroke. Adults with an initial cPCE statin eligible: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥160 mg/dL; family history of ASCVD; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥2 mg/dL; coronary artery calcium score ≥300 Agatston units or ≥75th percentile for age, sex, and ethnicity; and ankle-brachial index statin eligible. Of 5185 participants not taking statins with complete data (age, 45-84 years), 4185 had a cPCE risk statin eligible) by at least 1 of the additional risk marker criteria. In this generally low-risk population sample, a large proportion of ASCVD events occurred among adults with a 10-year cPCE risk 7.5% who may warrant statin therapy considerations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. College Bound: Americans' Attitudes about Paying for College. A Survey of Families with College-Bound High School Students on the Value of a College Education and Its Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup & Robinson, Inc. Princeton, NJ.

    This study examined several aspects of family viewpoints regarding the financing of higher education. Data were collected via a telephone survey of 800 parents of college bound high school students and 300 college bound high school juniors and seniors. The survey examined attitudes in such areas as: the relative importance of financing college…

  1. Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E. Matthew Ritter, MD; and Thadeus L Keyword(s): 3D, AASLD, ABS flex endo curriculum, accreditation, Accutouch, ACG, ... fundoplication, general surgery, HH, hiatal closure, mesh complications, prosthetic reinforcement, redo SAGES 2016 Presidential Address: Out of ...

  2. American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Login About Find a Doctor Contact Us Newsroom AAHKS Shop Job Center Categories Pay Dues AAHKS ... Implant Recall Concerns But I Saw it on TV! Can Stem Cell Therapy Help My Joint Pain? ...

  3. Opportunities in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Worldwide Surgeons' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Michael; Newman, Jared M; Khlopas, Anton; Chughtai, Morad; Martinez, Nick; Bhowmik-Stoker, Manoshi; Mont, Michael A

    2017-07-25

    This study surveyed a group of US and international orthopaedic surgeons to prioritize areas of improvement in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Specifically, we assessed surgeon responses regarding the top five areas of TKA needing improvement; which were stratified by: a) US surgeons, b) international surgeons, c) US surgeons' implant-brand-loyalty, and d) surgeons' years of experience and case volume. Four hundred and eighteen surgeons who were board-certified, in practice for at least two years, spent 60% of their time in clinical practice, and performed a minimum of 25 lower extremity joint arthroplasties per year were surveyed. They chose the top five areas (among 17) needing improvement for TKA. Results were stratified by surgeons' location (US and international), implant-brand-loyalty, years of experience, and case volume. Functional outcomes was the top identified area for improvement (US 63% and international 71%), followed by brand loyalty (Company I 68%, other brand 59%, and multi-brand/no loyalty 66%), years of experience (early-career 64%, mid-career 63%, and late-career 75%) and case volume (low-volume 69%, mid-volume 60%, and high-volume 71%). Following this was costs for US surgeons (47%) and implant survivorship for international surgeons (57%). While costs were the next highest area for specific Company-loyal surgeons (57%), implant survivorship was the next highest area for the other two cohorts. Implant survivorship was the second most important area of improvement regardless of years of experience and for low- and mid-volume surgeons. Surgeons identified functional outcomes as the most important area needing improvement. Cost of implants was more important for American as compared to international surgeons.

  4. Contextualizing African American Collegians' Experiences of Racial Desegregation in Midwestern Private Colleges, 1945-1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Dafina-Lazarus

    2017-01-01

    A group of private liberal arts colleges in Ohio, Michigan, and Indiana, formed a voluntary association called the Great Lakes Colleges Association (GLCA) in 1962 based on their self-perceived shared interests and missions. These institutions included Albion College, Antioch College, Denison University, DePauw University, Earlham College, Hope…

  5. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY COMPREHENSIVE CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR MEDICAL CARE OF PATIENTS WITH OBESITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, W Timothy; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Brett, Elise M; Garber, Alan J; Hurley, Daniel L; Jastreboff, Ania M; Nadolsky, Karl; Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Plodkowski, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    Development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and the American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres to published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Recommendations are based on diligent review of clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors. There are 9 broad clinical questions with 123 recommendation numbers that include 160 specific statements (85 [53.1%] strong [Grade A]; 48 [30.0%] intermediate [Grade B], and 11 [6.9%] weak [Grade C], with 16 [10.0%] based on expert opinion [Grade D]) that build a comprehensive medical care plan for obesity. There were 133 (83.1%) statements based on strong (best evidence level [BEL] 1 = 79 [49.4%]) or intermediate (BEL 2 = 54 [33.7%]) levels of scientific substantiation. There were 34 (23.6%) evidence-based recommendation grades (Grades A-C = 144) that were adjusted based on subjective factors. Among the 1,790 reference citations used in this CPG, 524 (29.3%) were based on strong (evidence level [EL] 1), 605 (33.8%) were based on intermediate (EL 2), and 308 (17.2%) were based on weak (EL 3) scientific studies, with 353 (19.7%) based on reviews and opinions (EL 4). The final recommendations recognize that obesity is a complex, adiposity-based chronic disease, where management targets both weight-related complications and adiposity to improve overall health and quality of life. The detailed evidence-based recommendations allow for nuanced clinical decision-making that addresses real-world medical care of patients with obesity, including screening, diagnosis, evaluation, selection of therapy, treatment goals, and individualization of care. The goal is to facilitate high-quality care of patients with obesity and provide a rational, scientific approach to management that optimizes health outcomes and safety. A1C = hemoglobin A1c AACE = American

  6. Protecting Information: The Role of Community Colleges in Cybersecurity Education. A Report from a Workshop Sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the American Association of Community Colleges (Washington, DC, June 26-28, 2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Community Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The education and training of the cybersecurity workforce is an essential element in protecting the nation's computer and information systems. On June 26-28, 2002, the National Science Foundation supported a cybersecurity education workshop hosted by the American Association of Community Colleges. The goals of the workshop were to map out the role…

  7. Should Colleges Focus More on Personal and Social Responsibility? Initial Findings from Campus Surveys Conducted for the Association of American Colleges and Universities as Part of Its Initiative, Core Commitments: Educating Students for Personal and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonaros, Mary; Barnhardt, Cassie; Holsapple, Matthew; Moronski, Karen; Vergoth, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    On behalf of the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U), researchers at the University of Michigan's Center for the Study of Higher and Postsecondary Education surveyed 23,000 undergraduate students and 9,000 campus professionals (faculty, academic administrators, and student affairs staff) at 23 institutions participating in…

  8. Achieving Gender Equity in Physician Compensation and Career Advancement: A Position Paper of the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkus, Renee; Serchen, Joshua; Moyer, Darilyn V; Bornstein, Sue S; Hingle, Susan Thompson

    2018-05-15

    Women comprise more than one third of the active physician workforce, an estimated 46% of all physicians-in-training, and more than half of all medical students in the United States. Although progress has been made toward gender diversity in the physician workforce, disparities in compensation exist and inequities have contributed to a disproportionately low number of female physicians achieving academic advancement and serving in leadership positions. Women in medicine face other challenges, including a lack of mentors, discrimination, gender bias, cultural environment of the workplace, imposter syndrome, and the need for better work-life integration. In this position paper, the American College of Physicians summarizes the unique challenges female physicians face over the course of their careers and provides recommendations to improve gender equity and ensure that the full potential of female physicians is realized.

  9. Behavioral regulations and dispositional flow in exercise among American college students relative to stages of change and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöz, Gözde; Eklund, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine behavioral regulations and dispositional flow in exercise among university students in terms of gender and stage of change. Data were collected from American college students (N = 257; M age ± SD = 23.02 ± 4.05) in Spring 2013. Behavioral regulations and dispositional flow in exercise were assessed, along with stage of change. Exercisers in the maintenance stage of change displayed significantly more self-determined motivation to exercise and a greater tendency to experience flow than those in preparation and action stages. Significant correlations were observed among behavioral regulations and flow state. Nonsignificant differences were observed for gender on behavioral regulations and dispositional flow in exercise. The results suggest that promotion of self-determined motivation and dispositional flow in exercisers may improve the quality of their experiences, as well as to foster their exercise behavior.

  10. Asian American College Students: Making Racial Meaning in an Era of Color-Blind Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendakur, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Since the end of the Civil Rights era, a new paradigm has emerged for understanding race and racism in American society. This neoliberal hegemonic discourse argues that systemic racism ended with the abolishment of formal, juridical racism and that any continued investment in race is both unnecessary and deeply problematic. Critical race theorists…

  11. Why There Still Aren't Enough Asian-American College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigo, Roy H.

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 10 years ago, the author wrote an essay for "The Chronicle" on the underrepresentation of Asian-Americans in academic leadership, especially in institutions and disciplines that have a high percentage of students and faculty members of Asian or Pacific Island ancestry. There have been changes over the past 10 years, but not so much for…

  12. Raising African American Student Graduation Rates: A Best Practices Study of Predominantly White Liberal Arts Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore best practices at small, private liberal arts institutions that experienced large increases in African American graduation rates. Particular focus was on institutions that enrolled less than 17% minority students whose overall enrollment fell within the middle 50% of all SAT scores and the middle 50% of…

  13. Multiculturalism and the American Liberal Arts College: Faculty Perceptions of the Role of Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Ana M. Martinez; Salkever, Katya

    2004-01-01

    The incompatibility of American liberal education and multiculturalism ground this qualitative study. Given this assertion and that teaching and learning is central to the liberal educational mission, we explore faculty perceptions of the relationship between multiculturalism and liberal educational pedagogy. The findings of this study suggest…

  14. Issues of College Persistence between Asian and Asian Pacific American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Theresa Ling

    2004-01-01

    This article offers an exploration of the Asian Pacific American (APA) ethnic groups that show high rates of departure, and presents strategies and approaches to improving their persistence and graduation rates. A detailed examination of the APA population is presented to identify the subgroups that are underrepresented in higher education and who…

  15. Personality and Physical Correlates of Bulimic Symptomatology among Mexican American Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Regan; Petrie, Trent A.

    1995-01-01

    Examined the relationship of personality and physical variables to bulimic symptoms. Hierarchical regression analysis of a sample of Mexican American female students revealed that body mass and endorsement of United States societal values concerning attractiveness were related positively to bulimic symptomatology; age, body satisfaction, and…

  16. A Case Study of American and Chinese College Students' Motivation Differences in Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunjuan; Mei, Zongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Motivating students has been a key challenge facing instructors in non-face-to-face instructional contexts. Existing researches into motivation in online learning environment have revealed that there are learning motivation differences among students from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study is to identify whether American and…

  17. Overweight and Its Relationship to Middle Eastern American College Students' Sociodemographics and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David

    2007-01-01

    Overweight and obesity plague American society and their burden is shared disproportionately by minorities at all age levels. The ramifications of overweight are well documented and include chronic morbidities such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and certain forms of cancer. Immigrants, who comprise 11% of…

  18. Not Too "College-Like," Not Too Normal: American Muslim Undergraduate Women's Gendered Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Shabana

    2009-01-01

    Building on an ethnographic study of American Muslim undergraduate women at two universities in Washington, D.C., I examine undergraduate Muslim women's construction of gendered discourses. Stereotypes feed into both majority and minority constructions of Muslim women's gendered identities. I highlight Muslim women's resistance to and adoption of…

  19. Interpersonal Relationships: Exploring Race and Relationship Decisions among African American College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how race influenced African American men's interpersonal relationships with other men at a predominantly White institution. The use of both semi-structured and photo-elicitation interview formats provided participants an opportunity to reflect on their precollege experiences, identity, and relationships. Two categories emerged…

  20. Position on short-lived radionuclides of the American College of Nuclear Physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoop, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The more than 1100 nuclear medicine physicians who make up the bulk of the ACNP membership have as their goal the optimum practice of nuclear medicine; hence the purpose of the College as their professional association is to help them achieve this goal, acting primarily in areas where as individuals they cannot work effectively, gathering and disseminating information and other resources, assessing the impact of new technology on practice, combating interference with good practice, enhancing the quality of services offered their patients, and striving to maintain economic stability in the nuclear medicine minisystem